National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for gasoline fuel economy

  1. Assessment of California reformulated gasoline impact on vehicle fuel economy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aceves, S., LLNL

    1997-01-01

    Fuel economy data contained in the 1996 California Air Resources Board (CARB) report with respect to the introduction of California Reformulated Gasoline (CaRFG) has been examined and reanalyzed by two additional statistical methodologies. Additional data has also been analyzed by these two statistical approaches. Within the assumptions of the analysis, point estimates for the reduction in fuel economy using CaRFG as compared to conventional, non-reformulated gasoline were 2-4%, with a 95% upper confidence bound of 6%. Substantial variations in fuel economy are routine and inevitable due to additional factors which affect mileage, even if there is no change in fuel reformulation. This additional analysis confirms the conclusion reached by CARB with respect to the impact of CaRFG on fuel economy.

  2. Gasoline-fueled hybrid vs. conventional vehicle emissions and fuel economy.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, J.; Bharathan, D.; He, J.; Plotkin, S.; Santini, D.; Vyas, A.

    1999-06-18

    This paper addresses the relative fuel economy and emissions behavior, both measured and modeled, of technically comparable, contemporary hybrid and conventional vehicles fueled by gasoline, in terms of different driving cycles. Criteria pollutants (hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides) are discussed, and the potential emissions benefits of designing hybrids for grid connection are briefly considered. In 1997, Toyota estimated that their grid-independent hybrid vehicle would obtain twice the fuel economy of a comparable conventional vehicle on the Japan 10/15 mode driving cycle. This initial result, as well as the fuel economy level (66 mpg), made its way into the U.S. press. Criteria emissions amounting to one-tenth of Japanese standards were cited, and some have interpreted these results to suggest that the grid-independent hybrid can reduce criteria emissions in the U.S. more sharply than can a conventional gasoline vehicle. This paper shows that the potential of contemporary grid-independent hybrid vehicle technology for reducing emissions and fuel consumption under U.S. driving conditions is less than some have inferred. The importance (and difficulty) of doing test and model assessments with comparable driving cycles, comparable emissions control technology, and comparable performance capabilities is emphasized. Compared with comparable-technology conventional vehicles, grid-independent hybrids appear to have no clear criteria pollutant benefits (or disbenefits). (Such benefits are clearly possible with grid-connectable hybrids operating in zero emissions mode.) However, significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions (i.e., fuel consumption) are possible with hybrid vehicles when they are used to best advantage.

  3. Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle Program Update | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle Program Update Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle Program Update Discusses hardware and system development activities to achieve in-vehicle fuel economy and emissions performance improvements compared to a production baseline vehicle. deer12_confer.pdf (1.38 MB) More Documents & Publications Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle

  4. The Application of High Energy Ignition and Boosting/Mixing Technology to Increase Fuel Economy in Spark Ignition Gasoline Engines by Increasing EGR Dilution Capability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keating, Edward; Gough, Charles

    2015-07-07

    This report summarizes activities conducted in support of the project “The Application of High Energy Ignition and Boosting/Mixing Technology to Increase Fuel Economy in Spark Ignition Gasoline Engines by Increasing EGR Dilution Capability” under COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-EE0005654, as outlined in the STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated May 2012.

  5. The Performance of Gasoline Fuels and Surrogates in Gasoline HCCI

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion | Department of Energy The Performance of Gasoline Fuels and Surrogates in Gasoline HCCI Combustion The Performance of Gasoline Fuels and Surrogates in Gasoline HCCI Combustion Almost 2 dozen gasoline fuels, blending components, and surrogates were evaluated in a single-cylinder HCCI gasoline engine for combustion, emissions, and efficiency performance. p-05_bunting.pdf (495.39 KB) More Documents & Publications APBF Effects on Combustion Fuel-Borne Reductants for NOx

  6. 2009 Fuel Economy Guide and FuelEconomy.gov | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2009 Fuel Economy Guide and FuelEconomy.gov 2009 Fuel Economy Guide and FuelEconomy.gov October 24, 2008 - 4:00am Addthis Shannon Brescher Shea Communications Manager, Clean Cities Program With energy costs looming as winter approaches, saving money is on everyone's minds these days. Fortunately, improving your vehicle's fuel economy is both economically and environmentally smart. In the winter, one of the easiest ways to decrease gasoline consumption is to warm up your engine for no more than

  7. Fuel Economy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department is investing in groundbreaking research that will make cars weigh less, drive further and consume less fuel.

  8. Electric and Gasoline Vehicle Fuel Efficiency Analysis

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1995-05-24

    EAGLES1.1 is PC-based interactive software for analyzing performance (e.g., maximum range) of electric vehicles (EVs) or fuel economy (e.g., miles/gallon) of gasoline vehicles (GVs). The EV model provides a second by second simulation of battery voltage and current for any specified vehicle velocity/time or power/time profile. It takes into account the effects of battery depth-of-discharge (DOD) and regenerative braking. The GV fuel economy model which relates fuel economy, vehicle parameters, and driving cycle characteristics, canmore » be used to investigate the effects of changes in vehicle parameters and driving patterns on fuel economy. For both types of vehicles, effects of heating/cooling loads on vehicle performance can be studied. Alternatively, the software can be used to determine the size of battery needed to satisfy given vehicle mission requirements (e.g., maximum range and driving patterns). Options are available to estimate the time necessary for a vehicle to reach a certain speed with the application of a specified constant power and to compute the fraction of time and/or distance in a drivng cycle for speeds exceeding a given value.« less

  9. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    February 16, 2016 Reformulated Gasoline States in each PADD Region Procedures & Methodology Gasoline Data collection procedures Sampling methodology Coefficient of variation...

  10. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Detailed Price and CV Report Motor Gasoline Prices & Coefficients of Variation Spreadsheet

  11. Predicting Individual Fuel Economy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Zhenhong; Greene, David L

    2011-01-01

    To make informed decisions about travel and vehicle purchase, consumers need unbiased and accurate information of the fuel economy they will actually obtain. In the past, the EPA fuel economy estimates based on its 1984 rules have been widely criticized for overestimating on-road fuel economy. In 2008, EPA adopted a new estimation rule. This study compares the usefulness of the EPA's 1984 and 2008 estimates based on their prediction bias and accuracy and attempts to improve the prediction of on-road fuel economies based on consumer and vehicle attributes. We examine the usefulness of the EPA fuel economy estimates using a large sample of self-reported on-road fuel economy data and develop an Individualized Model for more accurately predicting an individual driver's on-road fuel economy based on easily determined vehicle and driver attributes. Accuracy rather than bias appears to have limited the usefulness of the EPA 1984 estimates in predicting on-road MPG. The EPA 2008 estimates appear to be equally inaccurate and substantially more biased relative to the self-reported data. Furthermore, the 2008 estimates exhibit an underestimation bias that increases with increasing fuel economy, suggesting that the new numbers will tend to underestimate the real-world benefits of fuel economy and emissions standards. By including several simple driver and vehicle attributes, the Individualized Model reduces the unexplained variance by over 55% and the standard error by 33% based on an independent test sample. The additional explanatory variables can be easily provided by the individuals.

  12. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update - Energy Information Administration

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    petroleum reports Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update Gasoline Release Date: August 8, 2016 | Next Release Date: August 15, 2016 Diesel Fuel Release Date: August 8, 2016 | Next ...

  13. Fact #818: April 21, 2014 The Effect of Winter Weather on Fuel Economy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Winter driving conditions and cold temperatures can have a significant effect on a vehicle’s fuel economy. For a conventional gasoline-powered vehicle, fuel economy at 20°F is about 12% lower than...

  14. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gasoline Sampling Methodology The sample for the Motor Gasoline Price Survey was drawn from a frame of approximately 115,000 retail gasoline outlets. The gasoline outlet frame was constructed by combining information purchased from a private commercial source with information contained on existing EIA petroleum product frames and surveys. Outlet names, and zip codes were obtained from the private commercial data source. Additional information was obtained directly from companies selling retail

  15. Light-Duty Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Drive Cycle Fuel Economy and Emissions Estimates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Vehicle systems simulations using experimental data demonstrate improved modeled fuel economy of 15% for passenger vehicles solely from powertrain efficiency relative to a 2009 PFI gasoline baseline.

  16. Turbocharged Spark Ignited Direct Injection - A Fuel Economy Solution for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The US | Department of Energy Turbocharged Spark Ignited Direct Injection - A Fuel Economy Solution for The US Turbocharged Spark Ignited Direct Injection - A Fuel Economy Solution for The US Turbocharged SIDI is the most promising advanced gasoline technology; combines existing & proven technologies in a synergistic manner, offers double digit fuel economy benefits, much lower cost than diesel or hybrid. deer09_whitaker.pdf (488.25 KB) More Documents & Publications E85 Optimized

  17. Volatility of Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blends for Supercritical Fuel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Injection | Department of Energy Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blends for Supercritical Fuel Injection Volatility of Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blends for Supercritical Fuel Injection Supercritical dieseline could be used in diesel engines having efficient fuel systems and combustion chamber designs that decrease fuel consumption and mitigate emissions. p-02_anitescu.pdf (339.45 KB) More Documents & Publications Preparation, Injection and Combustion of Supercritical Fluids Evaluation of

  18. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    from the gasoline outlet frame within those counties within each sampling cell1. Every county in the United States was assigned to the corresponding sampling cell as defined. ...

  19. Fuel Consumption and NOx Trade-offs on a Port-Fuel-Injected SI Gasoline

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engine Equipped with a Lean-NOx Trap | Department of Energy Consumption and NOx Trade-offs on a Port-Fuel-Injected SI Gasoline Engine Equipped with a Lean-NOx Trap Fuel Consumption and NOx Trade-offs on a Port-Fuel-Injected SI Gasoline Engine Equipped with a Lean-NOx Trap Lean-burn improves PFI fuel economy by ~3% relative to best stoichiometric VCT/EGR conditions, when used in combination with VCT & EGR. deer09_lymburner.pdf (522.69 KB) More Documents & Publications Vehicle

  20. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gasoline Price Data Collection Procedures Every Monday, retail prices for all three grades of gasoline are collected by telephone from a sample of approximately 800 retail gasoline outlets. The prices are published around 5:00 p.m. ET Monday, except on government holidays, when the data are released on Tuesday (but still represent Monday's price). The reported price includes all taxes and is the pump price paid by a consumer as of 8:00 A.M. Monday. This price represents the self-serve price

  1. Combustion and Emissions Performance of Dual-Fuel Gasoline and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion and Emissions Performance of Dual-Fuel Gasoline and Diesel HECC on a Multi-Cylinder Light Duty Diesel Engine Combustion and Emissions Performance of Dual-Fuel Gasoline ...

  2. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    On-Highway Diesel Fuel Prices & Coefficients of Variation Report

  3. Gasoline Ultra Efficient Fuel Vehicle with Advanced Low Temperature Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Confer, Keith

    2014-09-30

    The objective of this program was to develop, implement and demonstrate fuel consumption reduction technologies which are focused on reduction of friction and parasitic losses and on the improvement of thermal efficiency from in-cylinder combustion. The program was executed in two phases. The conclusion of each phase was marked by an on-vehicle technology demonstration. Phase I concentrated on short term goals to achieve technologies to reduce friction and parasitic losses. The duration of Phase I was approximately two years and the target fuel economy improvement over the baseline was 20% for the Phase I demonstration. Phase II was focused on the development and demonstration of a breakthrough low temperature combustion process called Gasoline Direct- Injection Compression Ignition (GDCI). The duration of Phase II was approximately four years and the targeted fuel economy improvement was 35% over the baseline for the Phase II demonstration vehicle. The targeted tailpipe emissions for this demonstration were Tier 2 Bin 2 emissions standards.

  4. Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  5. Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation

  6. Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  7. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gasoline Pump Components History WHAT WE PAY FOR IN A GALLON OF REGULAR GASOLINE Mon-yr Retail Price (Dollars per gallon) Refining (percentage) Distribution & Marketing (percentage) Taxes (percentage) Crude Oil (percentage) Jan-00 1.289 7.8 13.0 32.1 47.1 Feb-00 1.377 17.9 7.5 30.1 44.6 Mar-00 1.517 15.4 12.8 27.3 44.6 Apr-00 1.465 10.1 20.2 28.3 41.4 May-00 1.485 20.2 9.2 27.9 42.7 Jun-00 1.633 22.2 8.8 25.8 43.1 Jul-00 1.551 13.2 15.8 27.2 43.8 Aug-00 1.465 15.8 7.5 28.8 47.8 Sep-00 1.550

  8. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    These data are made available through EIA's hotline (202-586-6966), EIA's web page, and through EIA's email notification, regular and wireless. Previous Diesel Fuel Price Data ...

  9. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... to the states covered by each primary publication cell. The distribution of allocations was proportional to the annual state total volume of retail on-highway diesel fuel sales. ...

  10. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    As of December 1, 2010, any on-highway diesel fuel sold is ULSD. The prices reported in ... The price estimates each week are obtained using simple averages at the sampling cell ...

  11. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    for the previous year of weekly diesel fuel survey prices for each of the sampling cells. The sample size was determined for each cell by the formula: n' (et)2 n, where t was ...

  12. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Sampling Methodology The respondents reporting to the weekly diesel price survey represent a stratified probability proportional to size (PPS) sample selected from a frame list of retail outlets. The outlet sampling frame was constructed using commercially available lists from several sources in order to provide comprehensive coverage of truck stops and service stations that sell on-highway diesel fuel in the United States. The frame includes about 62,000 service stations and 4,000 truck stops.

  13. The Application of High Energy Ignition and Boosting/Mixing Technology to Increase Fuel Economy in Spark Ignition Gasoline Engines by Increasing EGR Dilution Capability

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  14. Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Cars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-08-30

    The General Motors and DOE cooperative agreement program DE-EE0003379 is completed. The program has integrated and demonstrated a lean-stratified gasoline engine, a lean aftertreatment system, a 12V Stop/Start system and an Active Thermal Management system along with the necessary controls that significantly improves fuel efficiency for small cars. The fuel economy objective of an increase of 25% over a 2010 Chevrolet Malibu and the emission objective of EPA T2B2 compliance have been accomplished. A brief review of the program, summarized from the narrative is: The program accelerates development and synergistic integration of four cost competitive technologies to improve fuel economy of a light-duty vehicle by at least 25% while meeting Tier 2 Bin 2 emissions standards. These technologies can be broadly implemented across the U.S. light-duty vehicle product line between 2015 and 2025 and are compatible with future and renewable biofuels. The technologies in this program are: lean combustion, innovative passive selective catalyst reduction lean aftertreatment, 12V stop/start and active thermal management. The technologies will be calibrated in a 2010 Chevrolet Malibu mid-size sedan for final fuel economy demonstration.

  15. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Diesel Fuel Pump Components History WHAT WE PAY FOR IN A GALLON OF DIESEL FUEL Mon-yr Retail Price (Dollars per gallon) Refining (percentage) Distribution & Marketing (percentage) Taxes (percentage) Crude Oil (percentage) May-02 1.305 5.1 11.3 36.9 46.6 Jun-02 1.286 6.6 11.2 37.5 44.7 Jul-02 1.299 5.3 12.1 37.1 45.5 Aug-02 1.328 8.6 7.8 36.3 47.4 Sep-02 1.411 12.0 7.5 34.2 46.3 Oct-02 1.462 11.4 10.9 33 44.8 Nov-02 1.420 12.0 12.8 33.9 41.2 Dec-02 1.429 12.7 9.3 33.7 44.3 Jan-03 1.488 10.7

  16. Fuel Economy Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Fuel Economy Ltd. Place: United Kingdom Product: Fuel Economy Ltd is perhaps better known by their core product 'Savastat', the highly...

  17. Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) ...

  18. Geographic Area Month Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    District and State (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) - Continued Geographic Area Month Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Sales to End Users Sales for Resale...

  19. Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Car...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon ace063smith2013o.pdf More Documents & Publications Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel ...

  20. Model Year 2012 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  1. Model Year 2013 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-12-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  2. Model Year 2011 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  3. Model Year 2015 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-12-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  4. Model Year 2014 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-12-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  5. Model Year 2016 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  6. Model Year 2007 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-10-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  7. Model Year 2010 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-10-14

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  8. Model Year 2009 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-10-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  9. Model Year 2005 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  10. Model Year 2008 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-10-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  11. Model Year 2006 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  12. Fuel Economy Valentines | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Valentines Fuel Economy Valentines February 14, 2012 - 10:05am Addthis Amanda McAlpin ... Anytime spent on the road can be a great time to track your vehicle's fuel economy, and ...

  13. CleanFleet. Final report: Volume 4, fuel economy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-01

    Fuel economy estimates are provided for the CleanFleet vans operated for two years by FedEx in Southern California. Between one and three vehicle manufacturers (Chevrolet, Dodge, and Ford) supplied vans powered by compressed natural gas (CNG), propane gas, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), methanol (M-85), and unleaded gasoline as a control. Two electric G-Vans, manufactured by Conceptor Corporation, were supplied by Southern California Edison. Vehicle and engine technologies are representative of those available in early 1992. A total of 111 vans were assigned to FedEx delivery routes at five demonstration sites. The driver and route assignments were periodically rotated within each site to ensure that each vehicle would experience a range of driving conditions. Regression analysis was used to estimate the relationships between vehicle fuel economy and factors such as the number of miles driven and the number of delivery stops made each day. The energy adjusted fuel economy (distance per energy consumed) of the alternative fuel vans operating on a typical FedEx duty cycle was between 13 percent lower and 4 percent higher than that of control vans from the same manufacturer. The driving range of vans operating on liquid and gaseous alternative fuels was 1 percent to 59 percent lower than for vans operating on unleaded gasoline. The driving range of the electric G-Vans was less than 50 miles. These comparisons are affected to varying degrees by differences in engine technology used in the alterative fuel and control vehicles. Relative fuel economy results from dynamometer emissions tests were generally consistent with those obtained from FedEx operations.

  14. The Performance of Gasoline Fuels and Surrogates in Gasoline...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon p-05bunting.pdf More Documents & Publications APBF Effects on Combustion Fuel-Borne Reductants for NOx Aftertreatment: Preliminary EtOH SCR Study Combustion, Efficiency, ...

  15. Effect of Intake Air Filter Condition on Vehicle Fuel Economy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norman, Kevin M; Huff, Shean P; West, Brian H

    2009-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) jointly maintain a fuel economy website (www.fueleconomy.gov), which helps fulfill their responsibility under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to provide accurate fuel economy information [in miles per gallon (mpg)] to consumers. The site provides information on EPA fuel economy ratings for passenger cars and light trucks from 1985 to the present and other relevant information related to energy use such as alternative fuels and driving and vehicle maintenance tips. In recent years, fluctuations in the price of crude oil and corresponding fluctuations in the price of gasoline and diesel fuels have renewed interest in vehicle fuel economy in the United States. (User sessions on the fuel economy website exceeded 20 million in 2008 compared to less than 5 million in 2004 and less than 1 million in 2001.) As a result of this renewed interest and the age of some of the references cited in the tips section of the website, DOE authorized the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center (FEERC) to initiate studies to validate and improve these tips. This report documents a study aimed specifically at the effect of engine air filter condition on fuel economy. The goal of this study was to explore the effects of a clogged air filter on the fuel economy of vehicles operating over prescribed test cycles. Three newer vehicles (a 2007 Buick Lucerne, a 2006 Dodge Charger, and a 2003 Toyota Camry) and an older carbureted vehicle were tested. Results show that clogging the air filter has no significant effect on the fuel economy of the newer vehicles (all fuel injected with closed-loop control and one equipped with MDS). The engine control systems were able to maintain the desired AFR regardless of intake restrictions, and therefore fuel consumption was not increased. The carbureted engine did show a decrease in

  16. Global Fuel Economy Initiative Auto Fuel Efficiency ToolSet ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Efficiency ToolSet Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Global Fuel Economy Initiative Auto Fuel Efficiency ToolSet AgencyCompany Organization: FIA...

  17. Prospects on fuel economy improvements for hydrogen powered vehicles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rousseau, A.; Wallner, T.; Pagerit, S.; Lohse-Bush, H.

    2008-01-01

    Fuel cell vehicles are the subject of extensive research and development because of their potential for high efficiency and low emissions. Because fuel cell vehicles remain expensive and the demand for hydrogen is therefore limited, very few fueling stations are being built. To try to accelerate the development of a hydrogen economy, some original equipment manufacturers (OEM) in the automotive industry have been working on a hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine (ICE) as an intermediate step. Despite its lower cost, the hydrogen-fueled ICE offers, for a similar amount of onboard hydrogen, a lower driving range because of its lower efficiency. This paper compares the fuel economy potential of hydrogen-fueled vehicles to their conventional gasoline counterparts. To take uncertainties into account, the current and future status of both technologies were considered. Although complete data related to port fuel injection were provided from engine testing, the map for the direct-injection engine was developed from single-cylinder data. The fuel cell system data represent the status of the current technology and the goals of FreedomCAR. For both port-injected and direct-injected hydrogen engine technologies, power split and series Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) configurations were considered. For the fuel cell system, only a series HEV configuration was simulated.

  18. Sipping fuel and saving lives: increasing fuel economy withoutsacrificing safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, Deborah; Greene, David L.; Ross, Marc H.; Wenzel, Tom P.

    2007-06-11

    The public, automakers, and policymakers have long worried about trade-offs between increased fuel economy in motor vehicles and reduced safety. The conclusion of a broad group of experts on safety and fuel economy in the auto sector is that no trade-off is required. There are a wide variety of technologies and approaches available to advance vehicle fuel economy that have no effect on vehicle safety. Conversely, there are many technologies and approaches available to advance vehicle safety that are not detrimental to vehicle fuel economy. Congress is considering new policies to increase the fuel economy of new automobiles in order to reduce oil dependence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The findings reported here offer reassurance on an important dimension of that work: It is possible to significantly increase the fuel economy of motor vehicles without compromising their safety. Automobiles on the road today demonstrate that higher fuel economy and greater safety can co-exist. Some of the safest vehicles have higher fuel economy, while some of the least safe vehicles driven today--heavy, large trucks and SUVs--have the lowest fuel economy. At an October 3, 2006 workshop, leading researchers from national laboratories, academia, auto manufacturers, insurance research industry, consumer and environmental groups, material supply industries, and the federal government agreed that vehicles could be designed to simultaneously improve safety and fuel economy. The real question is not whether we can realize this goal, but the best path to get there. The experts' studies reveal important new conclusions about fuel economy and safety, including: (1) Vehicle fuel economy can be increased without affecting safety, and vice versa; (2) Reducing the weight and height of the heaviest SUVs and pickup trucks will simultaneously increase both their fuel economy and overall safety; and (3) Advanced materials can decouple size from mass, creating important new possibilities for

  19. Turbocharged Spark Ignited Direct Injection - A Fuel Economy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Turbocharged Spark Ignited Direct Injection - A Fuel Economy Solution for The US Turbocharged Spark Ignited Direct Injection - A Fuel Economy Solution for The US Turbocharged SIDI ...

  20. EPA-Fuel Economy Guide | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EPA-Fuel Economy Guide Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Fuel Economy Guide AgencyCompany Organization: United States Environmental Protection Agency...

  1. Fact #589: September 21, 2009 Proposed Fuel Economy and Greenhouse...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    21, 2009 Proposed Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards Fact 589: September 21, 2009 Proposed Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards On September ...

  2. Technological trends for improving automobile fuel economy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katoh, K.

    1984-01-01

    Since the first oil embargo in 1973, energy conservation has been receiving greater attention. In the field of automobiles, the last decade has seen significant improvement in vehicle fuel economy attained by inter-industries comprehensive efforts. Today the theme of ''Age of Unlimited Fuel Economy Competition'' or ''Age of Unlimited MPG Competition'' is often heard and the development of super fuel economy vehicles is being pursued actively. For example, it should be noted that the VW experimental vehicle with a direct-injection diesel engine has already exceeded 80 mpg in the U.S. test cycle. This paper will discuss the recent technological approach, especially from the standpoint of engine design, to achieve further improvements in vehicle fuel economy and its impacts on the properties of fuel and lubricants.

  3. Fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts of tripled fuel economy vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mintz, M.M.; Wang, M.Q.; Vyas, A.D.

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents estimates of the full cycle energy and emissions impacts of light-duty vehicles with tripled fuel economy (3X vehicles) as currently being developed by the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV). Seven engine and fuel combinations were analyzed: reformulated gasoline, methanol, and ethanol in spark-ignition, direct-injection engines; low sulfur diesel and dimethyl ether in compression-ignition, direct-injection engines; and hydrogen and methanol in fuel-cell vehicles. The fuel efficiency gain by 3X vehicles translated directly into reductions in total energy demand, petroleum demand, and carbon dioxide emissions. The combination of fuel substitution and fuel efficiency resulted in substantial reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, sulfur oxide, and particulate matter smaller than 10 microns, particularly under the High Market Share Scenario.

  4. Technical comparison between Hythane, GNG and gasoline fueled vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    This interim report documents progress on this 2-year Alternative Fuel project, scheduled to end early 1993. Hythane is 85 vol% compressed natural gas (CNG) and 15 vol% hydrogen; it has the potential to meet or exceed the California Ultra-Low Emission Vehicle (ULEV) standard. Three USA trucks (3/4 ton pickup) were operated on single fuel (unleaded gasoline, CNG, Hythane) in Denver. The report includes emission testing, fueling facility, hazard and operability study, and a framework for a national hythane strategy.

  5. Hydraulic Hybrid and Conventional Parcel Delivery Vehicles' Measured Laboratory Fuel Economy on Targeted Drive Cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lammert, M. P.; Burton, J.; Sindler, P.; Duran, A.

    2014-10-01

    This research project compares laboratory-measured fuel economy of a medium-duty diesel powered hydraulic hybrid vehicle drivetrain to both a conventional diesel drivetrain and a conventional gasoline drivetrain in a typical commercial parcel delivery application. Vehicles in this study included a model year 2012 Freightliner P100H hybrid compared to a 2012 conventional gasoline P100 and a 2012 conventional diesel parcel delivery van of similar specifications. Drive cycle analysis of 484 days of hybrid parcel delivery van commercial operation from multiple vehicles was used to select three standard laboratory drive cycles as well as to create a custom representative cycle. These four cycles encompass and bracket the range of real world in-use data observed in Baltimore United Parcel Service operations. The NY Composite cycle, the City Suburban Heavy Vehicle Cycle cycle, and the California Air Resources Board Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT) cycle as well as a custom Baltimore parcel delivery cycle were tested at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Renewable Fuels and Lubricants Laboratory. Fuel consumption was measured and analyzed for all three vehicles. Vehicle laboratory results are compared on the basis of fuel economy. The hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery van demonstrated 19%-52% better fuel economy than the conventional diesel parcel delivery van and 30%-56% better fuel economy than the conventional gasoline parcel delivery van on cycles other than the highway-oriented HHDDT cycle.

  6. Fueling the Economy | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fueling the Economy Argonne helps make the United States a front-runner in the production of materials for advanced lithium-ion batteries used in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles...

  7. Global Fuel Economy Initiative: 50by50 Prospects and Progress...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    URI: cleanenergysolutions.orgcontentglobal-fuel-economy-initiative-50by50 Language: English Policies: Regulations Regulations: "Fuel Efficiency Standards,Mandates...

  8. Gasoline-Like Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion Regimes | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Gasoline-Like Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion Regimes Gasoline-Like Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion Regimes 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting ft008_szybist_2012_o.pdf (1.87 MB) More Documents & Publications Gasoline-like fuel effects on advanced combustion regimes High Efficiency Clean Combustion in Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty Engines Load Expansion of Stoichiometric HCCI Using Spark

  9. Fuel economy and emissions evaluation of BMW hydrogen 7 mono-fuel demonstration vehicles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallner, T.; Lohse-Busch, H.; Gurski, S.; Duoba, M.; Thiel, W.; Martin, D.; Korn, T.; Energy Systems; BMW Group Munich Germany; BMW Group Oxnard USA

    2008-12-01

    This article summarizes the testing of two BMW Hydrogen 7 Mono-Fuel demonstration vehicles at Argonne National Laboratory's Advanced Powertrain Research Facility (APRF). The BMW Hydrogen 7 Mono-Fuel demonstration vehicles are derived from the BMW Hydrogen 7 bi-fuel vehicles and based on a BMW 760iL. The mono-fuel as well as the bi-fuel vehicle(s) is equipped with cryogenic hydrogen on-board storage and a gaseous hydrogen port fuel injection system. The BMW Hydrogen 7 Mono-Fuel demonstration vehicles were tested for fuel economy as well as emissions on the Federal Test Procedure FTP-75 cold-start test as well as the highway test. The results show that these vehicles achieve emissions levels that are only a fraction of the Super Ultra Low Emissions Vehicle (SULEV) standard for nitric oxide (NO{sub x}) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions. For non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions the cycle-averaged emissions are actually 0 g/mile, which require the car to actively reduce emissions compared to the ambient concentration. The fuel economy numbers on the FTP-75 test were 3.7 kg of hydrogen per 100 km, which, on an energy basis, is equivalent to a gasoline fuel consumption of 17 miles per gallon (mpg). Fuel economy numbers for the highway cycle were determined to be 2.1 kg of hydrogen per 100 km or 30 miles per gallon of gasoline equivalent (GGE). In addition to cycle-averaged emissions and fuel economy numbers, time-resolved (modal) emissions as well as air/fuel ratio data is analyzed to further investigate the root causes of the remaining emissions traces. The BMW Hydrogen 7 vehicles employ a switching strategy with lean engine operation at low engine loads and stoichiometric operation at high engine loads that avoids the NO{sub x} emissions critical operating regime with relative air/fuel ratios between 1 < {lambda} < 2. The switching between these operating modes was found to be a major source of the remaining NO{sub x} emissions. The emissions results collected

  10. 2004 FUEL ECONOMY GUIDE BEST IN CLASS | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 FUEL ECONOMY GUIDE BEST IN CLASS 2004 FUEL ECONOMY GUIDE BEST IN CLASS A chart describing the 2004 fuel economy best in class vehicles. 2004 FUEL ECONOMY GUIDE BEST IN CLASS (65.53 KB) More Documents & Publications Microsoft Word - Document1 2010 Vehicle Technologies Market Report EPA Mobile Source Rule Update

  11. Fact #861 February 23, 2015 Idle Fuel Consumption for Selected Gasoline and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diesel Vehicles - Dataset | Department of Energy 1 February 23, 2015 Idle Fuel Consumption for Selected Gasoline and Diesel Vehicles - Dataset Fact #861 February 23, 2015 Idle Fuel Consumption for Selected Gasoline and Diesel Vehicles - Dataset Excel file and dataset for Idle Fuel Consumption for Selected Gasoline and Diesel Vehicles fotw#861_web.xlsx (17.63 KB) More Documents & Publications Fact #917: March 21, 2016 Work Truck Daily Idle Time by Industry - Dataset Fact #916: March 14,

  12. Methanol/ethanol/gasoline blend-fuels demonstration with stratified-charge-engine vehicles: Consultant report. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pefley, R.; Adelman, H.; Suga, T.

    1980-03-01

    Four 1978 Honda CVCC vehicles have been in regular use by California Energy Commission staff in Sacramento for 12 months. Three of the unmodified vehicles were fueled with alcohol/gasoline blends (5% methanol, 10% methanol, and 10% ethanol) with the fourth remaining on gasoline as a control. The operators did not know which fuels were in the vehicles. At 90-day intervals the cars were returned to the Univerity of Santa Clara for servicing and for emissions and fuel economy testing in accordance with the Federal Test Procedures. The demonstration and testing have established the following: (1) the tested blends cause no significant degradation in exhaust emissions, fuel economy, and driveability; (2) the tested blends cause significant increases in evaporative emissions; (3) analysis of periodic oil samples shows no evidence of accelerated metal wear; and (4) higher than 10% alcohols will require substantial modification to most existing California motor vehicles for acceptable emissions, performance, and fuel economy. Many aspects of using methanol and ethanol fuels, both straight and in blends, in various engine technologies are discussed.

  13. Fuel Economy and Emissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5 Biopower

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, Brian H; Lopez Vega, Alberto; Theiss, Timothy J; Graves, Ronald L; Storey, John Morse; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur

    2007-01-01

    Saab Automobile recently released the BioPower engines, advertised to use increased turbocharger boost and spark advance on ethanol fuel to enhance performance. Specifications for the 2.0 liter turbocharged engine in the Saab 9-5 Biopower 2.0t report 150 hp on gasoline and a 20% increase to 180 hp on E85 (nominally 85% ethanol, 15% gasoline). While FFVs sold in the U.S. must be emissions certified on Federal Certification Gasoline as well as on E85, the European regulations only require certification on gasoline. Owing to renewed and growing interest in increased ethanol utilization in the U.S., a European-specification 2007 Saab 9-5 Biopower 2.0t was acquired by the Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for benchmark evaluations. Results show that the BioPower vehicle's gasoline equivalent fuel economy on the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET) are on par with similar U.S.-legal flex-fuel vehicles. Regulated and unregulated emissions measurements on the FTP and the US06 aggressive driving test (part of the supplemental FTP) show that despite the lack of any certification testing requirement in Europe on E85 or on the U.S. cycles, the BioPower is within Tier 2, Bin 5 emissions levels (note that full useful life emissions have not been measured) on the FTP, and also within the 4000 mile US06 emissions limits. Emissions of hydrocarbon-based hazardous air pollutants are higher on Federal Certification Gasoline while ethanol and aldehyde emissions are higher on ethanol fuel. The advertised power increase on E85 was confirmed through acceleration tests on the chassis dyno as well as on-road.

  14. Fuel Economy.gov - Mobile | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Economy.gov - Mobile Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Fuel Economy.gov - Mobile AgencyCompany Organization: United States Department of Energy Sector:...

  15. Finished Motor Gasoline Net Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Data Series: Finished Motor Gasoline Finished Motor Gasoline (Excl. Adj.) Reformulated Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Blenede w/ Fuel Ethanol Reformulated Other Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Conventional Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 & < Conventional Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, > Ed55 Other Conventional Gasoline Finished Motor Gasoline Adjustment Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene-Type Jet, Commercial Kerosene-Type Jet,

  16. Fuel Economy and Emissions of a Vehicle Equipped with an Aftermarket Flexible-Fuel Conversion Kit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, John F; Huff, Shean P; West, Brian H

    2012-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) grants Certificates of Conformity for alternative fuel conversion systems and also offers other forms of premarket registration of conversion kits for use in vehicles more than two model years old. Use of alternative fuels such as ethanol, natural gas, and propane are encouraged by the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Several original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) produce emissions-certified vehicles capable of using alternative fuels, and several alternative fuel conversion system manufacturers produce EPA-approved conversion systems for a variety of alternative fuels and vehicle types. To date, only one manufacturer (Flex Fuel U.S.) has received EPA certifications for ethanol fuel (E85) conversion kits. This report details an independent evaluation of a vehicle with a legal installation of a Flex Fuel U.S. conversion kit. A 2006 Dodge Charger was baseline tested with ethanol-free certification gasoline (E0) and E20 (gasoline with 20 vol % ethanol), converted to flex-fuel operation via installation of a Flex Box Smart Kit from Flex Fuel U.S., and retested with E0, E20, E50, and E81. Test cycles included the Federal Test Procedure (FTP or city cycle), the highway fuel economy test (HFET), and the US06 test (aggressive driving test). Averaged test results show that the vehicle was emissions compliant on E0 in the OEM condition (before conversion) and compliant on all test fuels after conversion. Average nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions exceeded the Tier 2/Bin 5 intermediate life NO{sub X} standard with E20 fuel in the OEM condition due to two of three test results exceeding this standard [note that E20 is not a legal fuel for non-flexible-fuel vehicles (non-FFVs)]. In addition, one E0 test result before conversion and one E20 test result after conversion exceeded the NOX standard, although the average result in these two cases was below the standard. Emissions of ethanol and acetaldehyde increased with increasing ethanol

  17. Fact #645: October 18, 2010 Price of Diesel Fuel versus Gasoline in Europe

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy 5: October 18, 2010 Price of Diesel Fuel versus Gasoline in Europe Fact #645: October 18, 2010 Price of Diesel Fuel versus Gasoline in Europe A comparison between the average annual price of a gallon of gasoline and a gallon of highway diesel fuel in several European countries shows that a large change took place in 2008. In most of the selected countries, the price of gasoline was 30 to 95 cents higher than that of diesel from 2001 to 2007. In 2008, the price

  18. 2016 Fuel Economy Guide Highlights Fuel-Efficient Vehicles | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 2016 Fuel Economy Guide Highlights Fuel-Efficient Vehicles 2016 Fuel Economy Guide Highlights Fuel-Efficient Vehicles November 5, 2015 - 1:07am Addthis Photo by Kristy Keel-Blackmon of East Tennessee Clean Fuels Photo by Kristy Keel-Blackmon of East Tennessee Clean Fuels Shannon Brescher Shea Communications Manager, Clean Cities Program The 2016 Fuel Economy Guide is now available. It provides fuel economy, greenhouse gas emission, and projected fuel cost information on model year

  19. Reactivity-controlled compression ignition drive cycle emissions and fuel economy estimations using vehicle system simulations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Curran, Scott J.; Gao, Zhiming; Wagner, Robert M.

    2014-12-22

    In-cylinder blending of gasoline and diesel to achieve reactivity-controlled compression ignition has been shown to reduce NOX and soot emissions while maintaining or improving brake thermal efficiency as compared with conventional diesel combustion. The reactivity-controlled compression ignition concept has an advantage over many advanced combustion strategies in that the fuel reactivity can be tailored to the engine speed and load, allowing stable low-temperature combustion to be extended over more of the light-duty drive cycle load range. In this paper, a multi-mode reactivity-controlled compression ignition strategy is employed where the engine switches from reactivity-controlled compression ignition to conventional diesel combustion whenmore » speed and load demand are outside of the experimentally determined reactivity-controlled compression ignition range. The potential for reactivity-controlled compression ignition to reduce drive cycle fuel economy and emissions is not clearly understood and is explored here by simulating the fuel economy and emissions for a multi-mode reactivity-controlled compression ignition–enabled vehicle operating over a variety of US drive cycles using experimental engine maps for multi-mode reactivity-controlled compression ignition, conventional diesel combustion, and a 2009 port-fuel injected gasoline engine. Drive cycle simulations are completed assuming a conventional mid-size passenger vehicle with an automatic transmission. Multi-mode reactivity-controlled compression ignition fuel economy simulation results are compared with the same vehicle powered by a representative 2009 port-fuel injected gasoline engine over multiple drive cycles. Finally, engine-out drive cycle emissions are compared with conventional diesel combustion, and observations regarding relative gasoline and diesel tank sizes needed for the various drive cycles are also summarized.« less

  20. Reactivity-controlled compression ignition drive cycle emissions and fuel economy estimations using vehicle system simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curran, Scott J.; Gao, Zhiming; Wagner, Robert M.

    2014-12-22

    In-cylinder blending of gasoline and diesel to achieve reactivity-controlled compression ignition has been shown to reduce NOX and soot emissions while maintaining or improving brake thermal efficiency as compared with conventional diesel combustion. The reactivity-controlled compression ignition concept has an advantage over many advanced combustion strategies in that the fuel reactivity can be tailored to the engine speed and load, allowing stable low-temperature combustion to be extended over more of the light-duty drive cycle load range. In this paper, a multi-mode reactivity-controlled compression ignition strategy is employed where the engine switches from reactivity-controlled compression ignition to conventional diesel combustion when speed and load demand are outside of the experimentally determined reactivity-controlled compression ignition range. The potential for reactivity-controlled compression ignition to reduce drive cycle fuel economy and emissions is not clearly understood and is explored here by simulating the fuel economy and emissions for a multi-mode reactivity-controlled compression ignition–enabled vehicle operating over a variety of US drive cycles using experimental engine maps for multi-mode reactivity-controlled compression ignition, conventional diesel combustion, and a 2009 port-fuel injected gasoline engine. Drive cycle simulations are completed assuming a conventional mid-size passenger vehicle with an automatic transmission. Multi-mode reactivity-controlled compression ignition fuel economy simulation results are compared with the same vehicle powered by a representative 2009 port-fuel injected gasoline engine over multiple drive cycles. Finally, engine-out drive cycle emissions are compared with conventional diesel combustion, and observations regarding relative gasoline and diesel tank sizes needed for the various drive cycles are also summarized.

  1. Fuel Economy Fact and Fiction | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    than ever, there's a lot of information-true and false-floating around about fuel economy. ... Just the facts... The best device for improving your fuel economy is a tire gauge. There ...

  2. SEP Success Story: Fueling South Carolina's Clean Energy Economy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fueling South Carolina's Clean Energy Economy SEP Success Story: Fueling South Carolina's Clean Energy Economy June 6, 2012 - 2:47pm Addthis Pure Power, LLC makes products that ...

  3. Improving Fuel Economy When the Weather's Cold | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Economy When the Weather's Cold Improving Fuel Economy When the Weather's Cold February 25, 2014 - 9:49am Addthis Make sure your car is ready for spring snowstorms. | Photo...

  4. Improving Fuel Economy When the Weather's Cold | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Improving Fuel Economy When the Weather's Cold Improving Fuel Economy When the Weather's Cold February 25, 2014 - 9:49am Addthis Make sure your car is ready for spring snowstorms....

  5. Fact #870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 - Dataset Fact 870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 - Dataset Excel file and ...

  6. Fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts of tripled fuel-economy vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mintz, M. M.; Vyas, A. D.; Wang, M. Q.

    1997-12-18

    This paper presents estimates of the fill fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts of light-duty vehicles with tripled fuel economy (3X vehicles) as currently being developed by the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV). Seven engine and fuel combinations were analyzed: reformulated gasoline, methanol, and ethanol in spark-ignition, direct-injection engines; low-sulfur diesel and dimethyl ether in compression-ignition, direct-injection engines; and hydrogen and methanol in fuel-cell vehicles. Results were obtained for three scenarios: a Reference Scenario without PNGVs, a High Market Share Scenario in which PNGVs account for 60% of new light-duty vehicle sales by 2030, and a Low Market Share Scenario in which PNGVs account for half as many sales by 2030. Under the higher of these two, the fuel-efficiency gain by 3X vehicles translated directly into a nearly 50% reduction in total energy demand, petroleum demand, and carbon dioxide emissions. The combination of fuel substitution and fuel efficiency resulted in substantial reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), sulfur oxide, (SO{sub x}), and particulate matter smaller than 10 microns (PM{sub 10}) for most of the engine-fuel combinations examined. The key exceptions were diesel- and ethanol-fueled vehicles for which PM{sub 10} emissions increased.

  7. The 2014 Fuel Economy Guide Can Help You Choose Your Next Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The 2014 Fuel Economy Guide Can Help You Choose Your Next Fuel-Efficient Vehicle The 2014 Fuel Economy Guide Can Help You Choose Your Next Fuel-Efficient Vehicle January 8, 2014 - ...

  8. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: The Application of High Energy Ignition and Boosting/Mixing Technology to Increase Fuel Economy in Spark Ignition Gasoline Engines by Increasing EGR Dilution Capability

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by General Motors LLC at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about the application of high...

  9. 2011 Fuel Economy Guide Now Available | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Agency (EPA) released the 2011 Fuel Economy Guide. This annual guide provides consumers with information about estimated mileage and fuel costs for model year 2011 vehicles. ...

  10. New Vehicle Fuel Economy Standards Will Continue to Inspire Innovation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Fuel Economy Standards Will Continue to Inspire Innovation New Vehicle Fuel ... President Obama announced a landmark agreement with automakers that sets aggressive new ...

  11. Natural Gas Pathways and Fuel Economy Guide Comparison

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    I presentation slides: Natural Gas pathways and Fuel economy Guide Comparison Bob Wimmer, Toyota Natural Gas Pathways Toyota estimation Vehicle Total Fuel efficiency Range ...

  12. NREL: Transportation Research - Emissions and Fuel Economy Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Emissions and Fuel Economy Analysis Photo of a man hooking up test instruments to an engine mounted on an engine dynamometer. An NREL engineer maintains an engine fuel economy and emissions test stand at the ReFUEL Laboratory. Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL NREL's emissions and fuel economy testing and analysis projects help address greenhouse gas and pollutant emissions by advancing the development of new fuels and engines that deliver both high efficiency and reduced emissions. Emissions that

  13. Fuel FX International Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    on development and distribution of proprietary products focused on improving fuel economy and reducing environmental emissions in diesel and gasoline engines. References: Fuel...

  14. Fact #596: November 9, 2009 Best and Worst Fuel to Replace Gasoline |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 6: November 9, 2009 Best and Worst Fuel to Replace Gasoline Fact #596: November 9, 2009 Best and Worst Fuel to Replace Gasoline Public opinion surveys from December 2000, August 2004, February 2007 and March 2009 posed this question: Consider a future date when gasoline is no longer available. Which of the following do you think would be the best fuel for use in personal vehicles: electricity, ethanol, or hydrogen? A comparison of the answers from the three different

  15. International Partnership for Hydrogen and Fuel Cells in the Economy |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Partnership for Hydrogen and Fuel Cells in the Economy International Partnership for Hydrogen and Fuel Cells in the Economy The United States is a founding member of the International Partnership for Hydrogen and Fuel Cells in the Economy (IPHE), which was created in 2003 to foster international cooperation on hydrogen and fuel cell R&D, common codes and standards, and information sharing on infrastructure development. The IPHE's 17 partners organize, evaluate, and

  16. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Gasoline-Like Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion Regimes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about gasoline-like...

  17. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Gasoline-Like Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion Regimes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about gasoline-like...

  18. Fact #861 February 23, 2015 Idle Fuel Consumption for Selected Gasoline and Diesel Vehicles

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Based on a worksheet developed by Argonne National Laboratory, the idle fuel consumption rate for selected gasoline and diesel vehicles with no load (no use of accessories such as air conditioners,...

  19. Fact #576: June 22, 2009 Carbon Dioxide from Gasoline and Diesel Fuel |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 6: June 22, 2009 Carbon Dioxide from Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Fact #576: June 22, 2009 Carbon Dioxide from Gasoline and Diesel Fuel The amount of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere by a vehicle is primarily determined by the carbon content of the fuel. However, there is a small portion of the fuel that is not oxidized into carbon dioxide when the fuel is burned. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has published information on carbon dioxide emissions from

  20. Fuel economy and range estimates for fuel cell powered automobiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinbugler, M.; Ogden, J.

    1996-12-31

    While a number of automotive fuel cell applications have been demonstrated, including a golf cart, buses, and a van, these systems and others that have been proposed have utilized differing configurations ranging from direct hydrogen fuel cell-only power plants to fuel cell/battery hybrids operating on reformed methanol. To date there is no clear consensus on which configuration, from among the possible combinations of fuel cell, peaking device, and fuel type, is the most likely to be successfully commercialized. System simplicity favors direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, but infrastructure is lacking. Infrastructure favors a system using a liquid fuel with a fuel processor, but system integration and performance issues remain. A number of studies have analyzed particular configurations on either a system or vehicle scale. The objective of this work is to estimate, within a consistent framework, fuel economies and ranges for a variety of configurations using flexible models with the goal of identifying the most promising configurations and the most important areas for further research and development.

  1. Study Reveals Fuel Injection Timing Impact on Particle Number...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Start of injection can improve environmental performance of fuel-efficient gasoline direct injection engines. In an ongoing quest to meet ever-more-rigorous fuel economy and ...

  2. National Labs Work to Settle PHEV Fuel Economy Conundrum - News...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Labs Work to Settle PHEV Fuel Economy Conundrum NREL-developed methodology shows ... joined forces with researchers from Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and Argonne ...

  3. DOE and EPA Release 2011 Annual Fuel Economy Guide | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EPA and DOE will provide additional fuel economy information online as more 2011 vehicles, including electric and plug-in hybrid cars, become available. In addition to being ...

  4. Fact #629: June 28, 2010 Top Ten Misconceptions about Fuel Economy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    about Fuel Economy The Fuel Economy Guide Web site, sponsored by the U. S. Department of ... fuel economy on the www.fueleconomy.gov Web site, Find a Car. 3. It takes more fuel to ...

  5. Intermediate Alcohol-Gasoline Blends, Fuels for Enabling Increased Engine Efficiency and Powertrain Possibilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Splitter, Derek A; Szybist, James P

    2014-01-01

    The present study experimentally investigates spark-ignited combustion with 87 AKI E0 gasoline in its neat form and in mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends with 24% vol./vol. iso-butanol-gasoline (IB24) and 30% vol./vol. ethanol-gasoline (E30). A single-cylinder research engine is used with a low and high compression ratio of 9.2:1 and 11.85:1 respectively. The engine is equipped with hydraulically actuated valves, laboratory intake air, and is capable of external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). All fuels are operated to full-load conditions with =1, using both 0% and 15% external cooled EGR. The results demonstrate that higher octane number bio-fuels better utilize higher compression ratios with high stoichiometric torque capability. Specifically, the unique properties of ethanol enabled a doubling of the stoichiometric torque capability with the 11.85:1 compression ratio using E30 as compared to 87 AKI, up to 20 bar IMEPg at =1 (with 15% EGR, 18.5 bar with 0% EGR). EGR was shown to provide thermodynamic advantages with all fuels. The results demonstrate that E30 may further the downsizing and downspeeding of engines by achieving increased low speed torque, even with high compression ratios. The results suggest that at mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends, engine and vehicle optimization can offset the reduced fuel energy content of alcohol-gasoline blends, and likely reduce vehicle fuel consumption and tailpipe CO2 emissions.

  6. EAGLES 1.1: A microcomputer software package for analyzing fuel efficiency of electric and gasoline vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marr, W.M.

    1994-05-15

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s electric/hybrid vehicle research program, Argonne National Laboratory has developed a computer software package called EAGLES. This paper describes the capability of the software and its many features and potential applications. EAGLES version 1.1 is an interactive microcomputer software package for the analysis of battery performance in electric-vehicle applications, or the estimation of fuel economy for a gasoline vehicle. The principal objective of the electric-vehicle analysis is to enable the prediction of electric-vehicle performance (e.g., vehicle range) on the basis of laboratory test data for batteries. The model provides a second-by-second simulation of battery voltage and current for any specified velocity/time or power/time profile, taking into consideration the effects of battery depth-of-discharge and regenerative braking. Alternatively, the software package can be used to determine the size of the battery needed to satisfy given vehicle mission requirements (e.g., range and driving patterns). For gasoline-vehicle analysis, an empirical model relating fuel economy, vehicle parameters, and driving-cycle characteristics is included in the software package. For both types of vehicles, effects of heating/cooling loads on vehicle performance can be simulated. The software package includes many default data sets for vehicles, driving cycles, and battery technologies. EAGLES 1.1 is written in the FORTRAN language for use on IBM-compatible microcomputers.

  7. Fact #594: October 26, 2009 Fuel Economy and Annual Fuel Cost Ranges for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Classes | Department of Energy 4: October 26, 2009 Fuel Economy and Annual Fuel Cost Ranges for Vehicle Classes Fact #594: October 26, 2009 Fuel Economy and Annual Fuel Cost Ranges for Vehicle Classes The graph below shows the range of the lowest and highest fuel economy for each vehicle class, along with the lowest and highest annual fuel cost (in parentheses). For example, the two-seater model with the lowest fuel economy gets 10 miles per gallon (MPG) with an estimated annual fuel

  8. Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Car...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation ace063smith2011o.pdf (1.81 MB) More Documents & Publications Lean Gasoline System Development for ...

  9. Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Car...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting ace063smith2012o.pdf (1.91 MB) More Documents & Publications Lean Gasoline System Development for ...

  10. Natural Gas Pathways and Fuel Economy Guide Comparison | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Pathways and Fuel Economy Guide Comparison Natural Gas Pathways and Fuel Economy Guide Comparison Presentation by Bob Wimmer, Toyota, at the Natural Gas and Hydrogen Infrastructure Opportunities Workshop held October 18-19, 2011, in Lemont, Illinois. oct11_infrastructure_wimmer.pdf (398.09 KB) More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office: Transitioning the Transportation Sector - Exploring the Intersection of H2 Fuel Cell and Natural Gas Vehicles Natural Gas and

  11. Vehicle Fuel Economy Improvement through Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Fuel Economy Improvement through Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Vehicle Fuel Economy Improvement through Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters 2005_deer_crane.pdf (549.96 KB) More Documents & Publications Potential of Thermoelectrics forOccupant Comfort and Fuel Efficiency Gains in Vehicle Applications Automotive Waste Heat Conversion to Electric Power using Skutterudites, TAGS,

  12. Fact #684: July 18, 2011 Fuel Economy versus Fuel Savings | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 4: July 18, 2011 Fuel Economy versus Fuel Savings Fact #684: July 18, 2011 Fuel Economy versus Fuel Savings An increase in fuel economy by 5 miles per gallon (mpg) does not translate to a constant fuel savings amount. Thus, trading a low-mpg car or truck for one with just slightly better mpg will save more fuel than trading a high-mpg car or truck for one that is even higher. For example, trading a truck that gets 15 mpg for a new one that gets 20 mpg will save 16.7 gallons of fuel

  13. Combustion and Emissions Performance of Dual-Fuel Gasoline and Diesel HECC

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on a Multi-Cylinder Light Duty Diesel Engine | Department of Energy Combustion and Emissions Performance of Dual-Fuel Gasoline and Diesel HECC on a Multi-Cylinder Light Duty Diesel Engine Combustion and Emissions Performance of Dual-Fuel Gasoline and Diesel HECC on a Multi-Cylinder Light Duty Diesel Engine Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010. p-06_curran.pdf (416.42 KB) More Documents

  14. Fact #870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1978-2014 - Dataset | Department of Energy 0: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 - Dataset Fact #870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 - Dataset Excel file and dataset for Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 fotw#870_web.xlsx (17.92 KB) More Documents & Publications Reactor Pressure Vessel Task of Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Milestone Report on Materials and Machining of Specimens for the ATR-2

  15. Fact #801: October 28, 2013 Gasoline Direct Injection Continues to Grow

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) is an engine technology that improves fuel economy and engine performance by injecting fuel directly into the combustion chamber, allowing for a more complete and...

  16. Biomass Fueling America’s Growing Clean Energy Economy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Biomass is the most abundant biological material on the planet. It is renewable; it grows almost everywhere; and it provides fuel, power, chemicals, and many other products. Find out how biomass is helping grow America's clean energy economy.

  17. Fuel Economy on the Fly | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    FuelEconomy.gov has a mobile version of its popular Find and Compare Cars tool that allows you to search anytime, anywhere. The mobile tool works just like the one on the ...

  18. "Table 11. Fuel Economy, Selected Survey Years (Miles Per Gallon...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Economy, Selected Survey Years (Miles Per Gallon)" ,"Survey Years" ,1983,1985,1988,1991,1994,2001 "Total",15.1,16.1,18.3,19.3,19.8,20.2 "Household Characteristics" "Census...

  19. 2012 Fuel Economy of New Vehicles Sets Record High: EPA

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reported that model year 2012 vehicles achieved an all-time high fuel economy average of 23.6 miles per gallon.

  20. DOE and EPA Release 2012 Annual Fuel Economy Guide

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    WASHINGTON, D.C. - The Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are releasing the 2012 Fuel Economy Guide, providing consumers with information that can help...

  1. Fuel economy and emissions reduction of HD hybrid truck over...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Compares simulated fuel economy and emissions fro conventional and hybrid Class 8 heavy trucks p-12gao.pdf (345.05 KB) More Documents & Publications Advanced HD Engine Systems and ...

  2. Fact #624: May 24, 2010 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The final rule for the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards was published in ... The CAFE levels that must be met by the fleet of each manufacturer will be determined by ...

  3. New Vehicle Fuel Economy Standards Will Continue to Inspire Innovation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    sets aggressive new fuel-economy standards for cars and light-duty trucks. A number of Energy Department projects and investments are unleashing innovation that will create jobs...

  4. 2010 Annual Fuel Economy Guide Now Available | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    "It's an easy, accessible resource for everyone, and helps us cut harmful pollution from the air, and save money for American drivers." "Fuel economy is about both saving energy ...

  5. Research Shows Ventilated Auto Seats Improve Fuel Economy, Comfort - News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Releases | NREL Research Shows Ventilated Auto Seats Improve Fuel Economy, Comfort March 2, 2006 Golden, Colo. - The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has demonstrated that ventilated automotive seats not only can improve passenger comfort but also a vehicle's fuel economy. That's because ventilated seats keep drivers and passengers cooler, so they need less air conditioning to be comfortable. NREL's Vehicle Ancillary Loads Reduction team has been

  6. Chapter 4. Fuel Economy, Consumption and Expenditures

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    national concerns about dependence on foreign oil and the deleterious effect on the environment of fossil fuel combustion, residential vehicle fleet fuel consumption was...

  7. The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimize Fuel Economy and Minimize Emission in Engines Operating on E85 Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2011-12-31

    This report summarizes activities conducted for the project “The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimized Fuel Economy and Minimize Emissions in Engines Operating on E85 Fuel” under COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-FC26-07NT43271, which are as outlined in the STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated March 2007 and in the supplemental SOPO dated October 2010. The project objective was to develop and demonstrate an internal combustion engine that is optimized for E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline) fuel operation to achieve substantially improved fuel economy while operating with E85 fuel and that is also production viable in the near- to medium-term. The key engine technology selected for research and development was turbocharging, which is known to improve fuel economy thru downsizing and is in particular capable of exploiting ethanol fuel’s characteristics of high octane number and high latent heat of vaporization. The engine further integrated synergistic efficiency improving technologies of cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), direct fuel injection and dual continuously variable intake and exhaust cam phasers. On the vehicle level, fuel economy was furthered thru powertrain system optimization by mating a state-of-the-art six-speed automatic transmission to the engine. In order to achieve the project’s objective of near- to medium-term production viability, it was essential to develop the engine to be flex-fuel capable of operating with fuels ranging from E0 (0% ethanol and 100% gasoline) to E85 and to use three-way type of catalyst technology for exhaust aftertreatment. Within these scopes, various technologies were developed through systems approach to focus on ways to help accelerate catalyst light-off. Significant amount of development took place during the course of the project within General Motors, LLC. Many prototype flex-fuel engines were designed, built and developed with various hardware configurations selected to achieve the project

  8. Experimental and Modeling Study of the Flammability of Fuel Tank Headspace Vapors from Ethanol/Gasoline Fuels; Phase 3: Effects of Winter Gasoline Volatility and Ethanol Content on Blend Flammability; Flammability Limits of Denatured Ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardiner, D. P.; Bardon, M. F.; Clark, W.

    2011-07-01

    This study assessed differences in headspace flammability for summertime gasolines and new high-ethanol content fuel blends. The results apply to vehicle fuel tanks and underground storage tanks. Ambient temperature and fuel formulation effects on headspace vapor flammability of ethanol/gasoline blends were evaluated. Depending on the degree of tank filling, fuel type, and ambient temperature, fuel vapors in a tank can be flammable or non-flammable. Pure gasoline vapors in tanks generally are too rich to be flammable unless ambient temperatures are extremely low. High percentages of ethanol blended with gasoline can be less volatile than pure gasoline and can produce flammable headspace vapors at common ambient temperatures. The study supports refinements of fuel ethanol volatility specifications and shows potential consequences of using noncompliant fuels. E85 is flammable at low temperatures; denatured ethanol is flammable at warmer temperatures. If both are stored at the same location, one or both of the tanks' headspace vapors will be flammable over a wide range of ambient temperatures. This is relevant to allowing consumers to splash -blend ethanol and gasoline at fueling stations. Fuels compliant with ASTM volatility specifications are relatively safe, but the E85 samples tested indicate that some ethanol fuels may produce flammable vapors.

  9. Fueling South Carolina's Clean Energy Economy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    South Carolina's Clean Energy Economy Fueling South Carolina's Clean Energy Economy June 6, 2012 - 4:15pm Addthis Pure Power, LLC makes products that allow truck engines to reduce emissions and improve fuel economy. The company has increased their energy efficiency and hired new employees. | Photo courtesy of <a href="http://www.flickr.com/photos/clatiek/47587765/">Flickr user ClatieK</a>. Pure Power, LLC makes products that allow truck engines to reduce emissions and

  10. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update - Energy Information Administration

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    U.S. On-Highway Diesel Fuel Prices* (dollars per gallon)full history Change from 032116 ... collected on a gallon of fuel that are paid to the federal, state, or local government. ...

  11. Gasoline-Like Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion Regimes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  12. Gasoline-like fuel effects on advanced combustion regimes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation

  13. Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Car

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  14. Real-World PHEV Fuel Economy Prediction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation

  15. Passive SCR for lean gasoline NOX control: Engine-based strategies to minimize fuel penalty associated with catalytic NH3 generation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y.; Parks, James E.; Pihl, Josh A.; Toops, Todd J.

    2016-02-18

    Lean gasoline engines offer greater fuel economy than common stoichiometric gasoline engines. However, excess oxygen prevents the use of the current three-way catalyst (TWC) to control nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions in lean exhaust. A passive SCR concept, introduced by General Motors Global R&D, makes use of a TWC that is already onboard to generate NH3 under slightly rich conditions, which is stored on the downstream SCR. The stored NH3 is then used to reduce NOX emissions when the engine switches to lean operation. In this work, the effect of engine parameters, such as air-fuel equivalence ratio and spark timing, onmore » NH3 generation over a commercial Pd-only TWC with no dedicated oxygen storage component was evaluated on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine. NOX reduction, NH3 formation, and reductant utilization processes were evaluated, and fuel efficiency was assessed and compared to the stoichiometric engine operation case. We found air-fuel equivalence ratio to be one of the most important parameters in controlling the NH3 production; however, the rich operation necessary for NH3 production results in a fuel consumption penalty. The fuel penalty can be minimized by adjusting spark timing to increase rich-phase engine out NOX emissions and, thereby, NH3 levels. Additionally, higher engine out NOX during engine load increase to simulate acceleration resulted in additional fuel savings. Ultimately, a 10% fuel consumption benefit was achieved with the passive SCR approach by optimizing rich air-fuel equivalence ratio and spark timing while also utilizing acceleration load conditions.« less

  16. California and Connecticut: National Fuel Cell Bus Programs Drive Fuel Economy Higher

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In an EERE-supported study with the Federal Transit Administration, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has found the fuel economy of fuel cell powered buses to be up to 2.4 times higher than conventional buses.

  17. EERE Success Story—California and Connecticut: National Fuel Cell Bus Programs Drive Fuel Economy Higher

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In an EERE-supported study with the Federal Transit Administration, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has found the fuel economy of fuel cell powered buses to be up to 2.4 times higher than conventional buses.

  18. Anti-air pollution & energy conservation system for automobiles using leaded or unleaded gasoline, diesel or alternate fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bose, Ranendra K.

    2002-06-04

    Exhaust gases from an internal combustion engine operating with leaded or unleaded gasoline or diesel or natural gas, are used for energizing a high-speed gas turbine. The convoluting gas discharge causes a first separation stage by stratifying of heavier and lighter exhaust gas components that exit from the turbine in opposite directions, the heavier components having a second stratifying separation in a vortex tube to separate combustible pollutants from non-combustible components. The non-combustible components exit a vortex tube open end to atmosphere. The lighter combustible, pollutants effected in the first separation are bubbled through a sodium hydroxide solution for dissolving the nitric oxide, formaldehyde impurities in this gas stream before being piped to the engine air intake for re-combustion, thereby reducing the engine's exhaust pollution and improving its fuel economy. The combustible, heavier pollutants from the second separation stage are piped to air filter assemblies. This gas stream convoluting at a high-speed through the top stator-vanes of the air filters, centrifugally separates the coalescent water, aldehydes, nitrogen dioxides, sulfates, sulfur, lead particles which collect at the bottom of the bowl, wherein it is periodically released to the roadway. Whereas, the heavier hydrocarbon, carbon particles are piped through the air filter's porous element to the engine air intake for re-combustion, further reducing the engine's exhaust pollution and improving its fuel economy.

  19. Drive cycle simulation of high efficiency combustions on fuel economy and exhaust properties in light-duty vehicles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gao, Zhiming; Curran, Scott J.; Parks, James E.; Smith, David E.; Wagner, Robert M.; Daw, C. Stuart; Edwards, K. Dean; Thomas, John F.

    2015-04-06

    We present fuel economy and engine-out emissions for light-duty (LD) conventional and hybrid vehicles powered by conventional and high-efficiency combustion engines. Engine technologies include port fuel-injected (PFI), direct gasoline injection (GDI), reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) and conventional diesel combustion (CDC). In the case of RCCI, the engine utilized CDC combustion at speed/load points not feasible with RCCI. The results, without emissions considered, show that the best fuel economies can be achieved with CDC/RCCI, with CDC/RCCI, CDC-only, and lean GDI all surpassing PFI fuel economy significantly. In all cases, hybridization significantly improved fuel economy. The engine-out hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxidemore » (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and particulate matter (PM) emissions varied remarkably with combustion mode. The simulated engine-out CO and HC emissions from RCCI are significantly higher than CDC, but RCCI makes less NOx and PM emissions. Hybridization can improve lean GDI and RCCI cases by increasing time percentage for these more fuel efficient modes. Moreover, hybridization can dramatically decreases the lean GDI and RCCI engine out emissions. Importantly, lean GDI and RCCI combustion modes decrease exhaust temperatures, especially for RCCI, which limits aftertreatment performance to control tailpipe emissions. Overall, the combination of engine and hybrid drivetrain selected greatly affects the emissions challenges required to meet emission regulations.« less

  20. Drive cycle simulation of high efficiency combustions on fuel economy and exhaust properties in light-duty vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Zhiming; Curran, Scott J.; Parks, James E.; Smith, David E.; Wagner, Robert M.; Daw, C. Stuart; Edwards, K. Dean; Thomas, John F.

    2015-04-06

    We present fuel economy and engine-out emissions for light-duty (LD) conventional and hybrid vehicles powered by conventional and high-efficiency combustion engines. Engine technologies include port fuel-injected (PFI), direct gasoline injection (GDI), reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) and conventional diesel combustion (CDC). In the case of RCCI, the engine utilized CDC combustion at speed/load points not feasible with RCCI. The results, without emissions considered, show that the best fuel economies can be achieved with CDC/RCCI, with CDC/RCCI, CDC-only, and lean GDI all surpassing PFI fuel economy significantly. In all cases, hybridization significantly improved fuel economy. The engine-out hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and particulate matter (PM) emissions varied remarkably with combustion mode. The simulated engine-out CO and HC emissions from RCCI are significantly higher than CDC, but RCCI makes less NOx and PM emissions. Hybridization can improve lean GDI and RCCI cases by increasing time percentage for these more fuel efficient modes. Moreover, hybridization can dramatically decreases the lean GDI and RCCI engine out emissions. Importantly, lean GDI and RCCI combustion modes decrease exhaust temperatures, especially for RCCI, which limits aftertreatment performance to control tailpipe emissions. Overall, the combination of engine and hybrid drivetrain selected greatly affects the emissions challenges required to meet emission regulations.

  1. Volatility of Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blends for Supercritical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Preparation, Injection and Combustion of Supercritical Fluids Evaluation of Biodiesel Fuels from Supercritical Fluid Processing with the Advanced ...

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan Fleet Reduces Gasoline...

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    ... GE Showcases Innovation in Alternative Fuel Vehicles July 15, 2015 Photo of a locomotive engine carrying passenger cars. New Hampshire Railway Makes Tracks With Biodiesel June 27, ...

  3. HCCI experiments with gasoline surrogate fuels modeled by a semidetailed chemical kinetic model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrae, J.C.G.; Head, R.A.

    2009-04-15

    Experiments in a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine have been conducted with four gasoline surrogate fuel blends. The pure components in the surrogate fuels consisted of n-heptane, isooctane, toluene, ethanol and diisobutylene and fuel sensitivities (RON-MON) in the fuel blends ranged from two to nine. The operating conditions for the engine were p{sub in}=0.1 and 0.2 MPa, T{sub in}=80 and 250 C, {phi}=0.25 in air and engine speed 1200 rpm. A semidetailed chemical kinetic model (142 species and 672 reactions) for gasoline surrogate fuels, validated against ignition data from experiments conducted in shock tubes for gasoline surrogate fuel blends at 1.0{<=} p{<=}5.0MPa, 700{<=} T{<=}1200 K and {phi}=1.0, was successfully used to qualitatively predict the HCCI experiments using a single zone modeling approach. The fuel blends that had higher fuel sensitivity were more resistant to autoignition for low intake temperature and high intake pressure and less resistant to autoignition for high intake temperature and low intake pressure. A sensitivity analysis shows that at high intake temperature the chemistry of the fuels ethanol, toluene and diisobutylene helps to advance ignition. This is consistent with the trend that fuels with the least Negative Temperature Coefficient (NTC) behavior show the highest octane sensitivity, and become less resistant to autoignition at high intake temperatures. For high intake pressure the sensitivity analysis shows that fuels in the fuel blend with no NTC behavior consume OH radicals and acts as a radical scavenger for the fuels with NTC behavior. This is consistent with the observed trend of an increase in RON and fuel sensitivity. With data from shock tube experiments in the literature and HCCI modeling in this work, a correlation between the reciprocal pressure exponent on the ignition delay to the fuel sensitivity and volume percentage of single-stage ignition fuel in the fuel blend was found. Higher fuel

  4. Comparing the Powertrain Energy Densities of Electric and Gasoline Vehicles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    | Argonne National Laboratory Comparing the Powertrain Energy Densities of Electric and Gasoline Vehicles Title Comparing the Powertrain Energy Densities of Electric and Gasoline Vehicles Publication Type Conference Paper Year of Publication 2016 Authors Vijayagopal, R, Gallagher, K, Lee, D, Rousseau, A Conference Name SAE 2016 World Congress and Exhibition Date Published 04052016 Other Numbers SAE Paper No. 2016-01-0903 Keywords batteries, electric vehicles, EVs, fuel economy, gasoline,

  5. Fuel Economy Sticker Revs Up Used Car Sales | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    FuelEconomy.govs newest tool -- the Used Car Fuel Economy Label -- makes it easier for consumers to compare used cars, select the most fuel-efficient model and save money at ...

  6. Motor vehicle fuel economy, the forgotten HC control stragegy?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deluchi, M.; Wang, Quanlu; Greene, D.L.

    1992-06-01

    Emissions of hydrocarbons from motor vehicles are recognized as major contributors to ozone pollution in urban areas. Petroleum-based motor fuels contain volatile organic compounds (VOC) which, together with oxides of nitrogen, promote the formation of ozone in the troposphere via complex photochemical reactions. VOC emissions from the tailpipe and evaporation from the fuel and engine systems of highway vehicles are believed to account for about 40% of total VOC emissions in any region. But motor fuels also generate emissions throughout the fuel cycle, from crude oil production to refining, storage, transportation, and handling, that can make significant contributions to the total inventory of VOC emissions. Many of these sources of emissions are directly related to the quantity of fuel produced and handled throughout the fuel cycle. It is, therefore, reasonable to expect that a reduction in total fuel throughput might result in a reduction of VOC emissions. In particular, reducing vehicle fuel consumption by increasing vehicle fuel economy should reduce total fuel throughput, thereby cutting total emissions of VOCS. In this report we identify the sources of VOC emissions throughout the motor fuel cycle, quantify them to the extent possible, and describe their dependence on automobile and light truck fuel economy.

  7. Global Fuel Economy Initiative | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    & North America, Europe, Latin America & Caribbean, Africa & Middle East Related Tools Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center - Fleet Experiences Turn Down the...

  8. User`s guide to EAGLES Version 1.1: An electric- and gasoline-vehicle fuel-efficiency software package

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marr, W.W.

    1995-01-01

    EAGLES is an interactive microcomputer software package for the analysis of fuel efficiency in electric-vehicle (EV) applications or the estimation of fuel economy for a gasoline vehicle. The principal objective of the EV analysis is to enable the prediction of EV performance on the basis of laboratory test data for batteries. The EV model included in the software package provides a second-by-second simulation of battery voltage and current for any specified vehicle velocity/time or power/time profile. The capability of the battery is modeled by an algorithm that relates the battery voltage to the withdrawn (or charged) current, taking into account the effect of battery depth-of-discharge. Alternatively, the software package can be used to determine the size of the battery needed to satisfy given vehicle mission requirements. For gasoline vehicles, a generic fuel-economy model based on data from EPA Test Car List 1991 is included in the software package. For both types of vehicles, effects of heating/cooling loads on vehicle performance, including range penalty for EVs, can be studied. Also available is an option to estimate the time needed by a specified vehicle to reach a certain speed with the application of a constant power and an option to compute the fraction of time and/or distance in a driving cycle at speeds exceeding a specified value. Certain parameters can be changed interactively prior to a run.

  9. Advanced Aerodynamic Technologies for Improving Fuel Economy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Such non-engine losses can account for about a 45% decrease in efficiency. The need for technologies to reduce these parasitic losses has gained significant attention as fuel costs ...

  10. U.S. average gasoline and diesel fuel prices expected to be slightly lower in 2013 than in 2012

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    average gasoline and diesel fuel prices expected to be slightly lower in 2013 than in 2012 Despite the recent run-up in gasoline prices, the U.S. Energy Information Administration expects falling crude oil prices will lead to a small decline in average motor fuel costs this year compared with last year. The price for regular gasoline is expected to average $3.55 a gallon in 2013 and $3.39 next year, according to EIA's new Short-Term Energy Outlook. That's down from $3.63 a gallon in 2012. For

  11. Detailed Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Surrogate Fuels for Gasoline and Application to an HCCI Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naik, C V; Pitz, W J; Sj?berg, M; Dec, J E; Orme, J; Curran, H J; Simmie, J M; Westbrook, C K

    2005-01-07

    Gasoline consists of many different classes of hydrocarbons, such as paraffins, olefins, aromatics, and cycloalkanes. In this study, a surrogate gasoline reaction mechanism is developed, and it has one representative fuel constituent from each of these classes. These selected constituents are iso-octane, n-heptane, 1-pentene, toluene, and methyl-cyclohexane. The mechanism was developed in a step-wise fashion, adding submechanisms to treat each fuel component. Reactions important for low temperature oxidation (<1000K) and cross-reactions among different fuels are incorporated into the mechanism. The mechanism consists of 1214 species and 5401 reactions. A single-zone engine model is used to evaluate how well the mechanism captures autoignition behavior for conditions corresponding to homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine operation. Experimental data are available for both how the combustion phasing changes with fueling at a constant intake temperature, and also how the intake temperature has to be changed with pressure in order to maintain combustion phasing for a fixed equivalence ratio. Three different surrogate fuel mixtures are used for the modeling. Predictions are in reasonably good agreement with the engine data. In addition, the heat release rate is calculated and compared to the data from experiments. The model predicts less low-temperature heat release than that measured. It is found that the low temperature heat-release rate depends strongly on engine speed, reactions of RO{sub 2}+HO{sub 2}, fuel composition, and pressure boost.

  12. Chapter 11. Fuel Economy: The Case for Market Failure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, David L; German, John; Delucchi, Mark A

    2009-01-01

    The efficiency of energy using durable goods, from automobiles to home air conditioners, is not only a key determinant of economy-wide energy use but also of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, climate change and energy insecurity. Energy analysts have long noted that consumers appear to have high implicit discount rates for future fuel savings when choosing among energy using durable goods (Howarth and Sanstad, 1995). In modeling consumers choices of appliances, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) has used discount rates of 30 percent for heating systems, 69 percent for choice of refrigerator and up to 111 percent for choice of water heater (U.S. DOE/EIA, 1996). Several explanations have been offered for this widespread phenomenon, including asymmetric information, bounded rationality and transaction costs. This chapter argues that uncertainty combined with loss aversion by consumers is sufficient to explain the failure to adopt cost effective energy efficiency improvements in the market for automotive fuel economy, although other market failures appear to be present as well. Understanding how markets for energy efficiency function is crucial to formulating effective energy policies (see Pizer, 2006). Fischer et al., (2004), for example, demonstrated that if consumers fully value the discounted present value of future fuel savings, fuel economy standards are largely redundant and produce small welfare losses. However, if consumers value only the first three years of fuel savings, then fuel economy standards can significantly increase consumer welfare. The nature of any market failure that might be present in the market for energy efficiency would also affect the relative efficacy of energy taxes versus regulatory standards (CBO, 2003). If markets function efficiently, energy taxes would generally be more efficient than regulatory standards in increasing energy efficiency and reducing energy use. If markets are decidedly inefficient, standards would likely be

  13. Fuel cycle evaluations of biomass-ethanol and reformulated gasoline. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyson, K.S.

    1993-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is using the total fuel cycle analysis (TFCA) methodology to evaluate energy choices. The National Energy Strategy (NES) identifies TFCA as a tool to describe and quantify the environmental, social, and economic costs and benefits associated with energy alternatives. A TFCA should quantify inputs and outputs, their impacts on society, and the value of those impacts that occur from each activity involved in producing and using fuels, cradle-to-grave. New fuels and energy technologies can be consistently evaluated and compared using TFCA, providing a sound basis for ranking policy options that expand the fuel choices available to consumers. This study is limited to creating an inventory of inputs and outputs for three transportation fuels: (1) reformulated gasoline (RFG) that meets the standards of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) using methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE); (2) gasohol (E10), a mixture of 10% ethanol made from municipal solid waste (MSW) and 90% gasoline; and (3) E95, a mixture of 5% gasoline and 95% ethanol made from energy crops such as grasses and trees. The ethanol referred to in this study is produced from lignocellulosic material-trees, grass, and organic wastes -- called biomass. The biomass is converted to ethanol using an experimental technology described in more detail later. Corn-ethanol is not discussed in this report. This study is limited to estimating an inventory of inputs and outputs for each fuel cycle, similar to a mass balance study, for several reasons: (1) to manage the size of the project; (2) to provide the data required for others to conduct site-specific impact analysis on a case-by-case basis; (3) to reduce data requirements associated with projecting future environmental baselines and other variables that require an internally consistent scenario.

  14. New Methodology for Estimating Fuel Economy by Vehicle Class

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chin, Shih-Miao; Dabbs, Kathryn; Hwang, Ho-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Office of Highway Policy Information to develop a new methodology to generate annual estimates of average fuel efficiency and number of motor vehicles registered by vehicle class for Table VM-1 of the Highway Statistics annual publication. This paper describes the new methodology developed under this effort and compares the results of the existing manual method and the new systematic approach. The methodology developed under this study takes a two-step approach. First, the preliminary fuel efficiency rates are estimated based on vehicle stock models for different classes of vehicles. Then, a reconciliation model is used to adjust the initial fuel consumption rates from the vehicle stock models and match the VMT information for each vehicle class and the reported total fuel consumption. This reconciliation model utilizes a systematic approach that produces documentable and reproducible results. The basic framework utilizes a mathematical programming formulation to minimize the deviations between the fuel economy estimates published in the previous year s Highway Statistics and the results from the vehicle stock models, subject to the constraint that fuel consumptions for different vehicle classes must sum to the total fuel consumption estimate published in Table MF-21 of the current year Highway Statistics. The results generated from this new approach provide a smoother time series for the fuel economies by vehicle class. It also utilizes the most up-to-date and best available data with sound econometric models to generate MPG estimates by vehicle class.

  15. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Motor Gasoline Consumption Model

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2011-01-01

    The motor gasoline consumption module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide forecasts of total U.S. consumption of motor gasolien based on estimates of vehicle miles traveled and average vehicle fuel economy.

  16. Experimental and Modeling Study of the Flammability of Fuel Tank Headspace Vapors from Ethanol/Gasoline Fuels, Phase 2: Evaluations of Field Samples and Laboratory Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardiner, D. P.; Bardon, M. F.; LaViolette, M.

    2010-04-01

    Study to measure the flammability of gasoline/ethanol fuel vapors at low ambient temperatures and develop a mathematical model to predict temperatures at which flammable vapors were likely to form.

  17. Fact #692: September 12, 2011 Fuel Economy Distribution for New Cars and Light Trucks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Nearly 64% of new cars sold in model year (MY) 1975 had combined highway/city fuel economy of 15 miles per gallon (mpg) or less [blue shading]. By 2010, 63% of cars had fuel economy of 25 mpg or...

  18. 54.5 MPG and Beyond: Materials Lighten the Load for Fuel Economy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    54.5 MPG and Beyond: Materials Lighten the Load for Fuel Economy 54.5 MPG and Beyond: Materials Lighten the Load for Fuel Economy December 4, 2012 - 12:06pm Addthis Lightweight...

  19. 2012 Fuel Economy of New Vehicles Sets Record High: EPA | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2012 Fuel Economy of New Vehicles Sets Record High: EPA 2012 Fuel Economy of New Vehicles Sets Record High: EPA December 18, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis The U.S. Environmental...

  20. Fact #680: June 20, 2011 Fuel Economy is "Most Important" When...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0: June 20, 2011 Fuel Economy is "Most Important" When Buying a Vehicle Fact 680: June 20, 2011 Fuel Economy is "Most Important" When Buying a Vehicle A June 2011 survey asked the ...

  1. How Does Your Fuel Economy Compare to the Test Ratings on Fueleconomy...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Does Your Fuel Economy Compare to the Test Ratings on Fueleconomy.gov? How Does Your Fuel Economy Compare to the Test Ratings on Fueleconomy.gov? November 12, 2009 - 8:36am Addthis ...

  2. Diesel NOx-PM Reduction with Fuel Economy Increase by IMET-OBC...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NOx-PM Reduction with Fuel Economy Increase by IMET-OBC-DPF + Hydrated-EGR System for Retrofit of In-Use Trucks Diesel NOx-PM Reduction with Fuel Economy Increase by ...

  3. Fuel Economy and Emmissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Economy and Emmissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5 Biopower Fuel Economy and Emmissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5 Biopower This page contains information on the ...

  4. Fact #925: May 16, 2016 Improvements in Fuel Economy for Low...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fact 925: May 16, 2016 Improvements in Fuel Economy for Low-MPG Vehicles Yield the Greatest Savings - Dataset Excel file and dataset for Improvements in Fuel Economy for Low-MPG ...

  5. Fact #870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) is the sales-weighted harmonic mean fuel economy of a manufacturer’s fleet of new cars or light trucks in a certain model year (MY). First enacted by...

  6. Multi-Mode RCCI Has Great Potential to Improve Fuel Economy in...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mode RCCI Has Great Potential to Improve Fuel Economy in Light-Duty Diesel Engines Multi-Mode RCCI Has Great Potential to Improve Fuel Economy in Light-Duty Diesel Engines February ...

  7. Fact #772: March 25, 2013 Fuel Economy by Speed: Slow Down to Save Fuel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A recent study by Oak Ridge National Laboratory shows that the fuel economy of cars and light trucks in the study decreases rapidly at speeds above 50 miles per hour (mph). The study of 74 light...

  8. Fact #587: September 7, 2009 Cash for Clunkers Program - Fuel Economy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Improvement | Department of Energy 7: September 7, 2009 Cash for Clunkers Program - Fuel Economy Improvement Fact #587: September 7, 2009 Cash for Clunkers Program - Fuel Economy Improvement The Car Allowance Rebate System (CARS), also known as the Cash for Clunkers Program, provided Federal rebate money for consumers who traded old vehicles with an EPA combined fuel economy of 18 miles per gallon or less for brand new vehicles with improved fuel economy. The program was active from July 1

  9. Fact #659: January 24, 2011 Fuel Economy Ratings for Vehicles Operating on

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electricity | Department of Energy 9: January 24, 2011 Fuel Economy Ratings for Vehicles Operating on Electricity Fact #659: January 24, 2011 Fuel Economy Ratings for Vehicles Operating on Electricity The Environmental Protection Agency has developed a new methodology for determining how fuel economy information will be displayed on the window sticker of a vehicle that operates on electricity. The fuel economy will be displayed in miles per gallon equivalent (MPGequivalent), so that

  10. DOE and EPA Release Annual Fuel Economy Guide with 2013 Models

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Energy release the 2013 Fuel Economy Guide.

  11. Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Operating with In-Cylinder Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blending

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Curran, Scott; Barone, Teresa L; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Storey, John Morse; Cho, Kukwon; Wagner, Robert M; Parks, II, James E

    2010-01-01

    Advanced combustion regimes such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) offer benefits of reduced nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions. However, these combustion strategies often generate higher carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. In addition, aldehydes and ketone emissions can increase in these modes. In this study, the engine-out emissions of a compression-ignition engine operating in a fuel reactivity- controlled PCCI combustion mode using in-cylinder blending of gasoline and diesel fuel have been characterized. The work was performed on a 1.9-liter, 4-cylinder diesel engine outfitted with a port fuel injection system to deliver gasoline to the engine. The engine was operated at 2300 rpm and 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) with the ratio of gasoline to diesel fuel that gave the highest engine efficiency and lowest emissions. Engine-out emissions for aldehydes, ketones and PM were compared with emissions from conventional diesel combustion. Sampling and analysis was carried out following micro-tunnel dilution of the exhaust. Particle geometric mean diameter, number-size distribution, and total number concentration were measured by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). For the particle mass measurements, samples were collected on Teflon-coated quartz-fiber filters and analyzed gravimetrically. Gaseous aldehydes and ketones were sampled using dinitrophenylhydrazine-coated solid phase extraction cartridges and the extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). In addition, emissions after a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) were also measured to investigate the destruction of CO, HC and formaldehydes by the catalyst.

  12. An experimental study of fuel injection strategies in CAI gasoline engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunicz, J.; Kordos, P.

    2011-01-15

    Combustion of gasoline in a direct injection controlled auto-ignition (CAI) single-cylinder research engine was studied. CAI operation was achieved with the use of the negative valve overlap (NVO) technique and internal exhaust gas re-circulation (EGR). Experiments were performed at single injection and split injection, where some amount of fuel was injected close to top dead centre (TDC) during NVO interval, and the second injection was applied with variable timing. Additionally, combustion at variable fuel-rail pressure was examined. Investigation showed that at fuel injection into recompressed exhaust fuel reforming took place. This process was identified via an analysis of the exhaust-fuel mixture composition after NVO interval. It was found that at single fuel injection in NVO phase, its advance determined the heat release rate and auto-ignition timing, and had a strong influence on NO{sub X} emission. However, a delay of single injection to intake stroke resulted in deterioration of cycle-to-cycle variability. Application of split injection showed benefits of this strategy versus single injection. Examinations of different fuel mass split ratios and variable second injection timing resulted in further optimisation of mixture formation. At equal share of the fuel mass injected in the first injection during NVO and in the second injection at the beginning of compression, the lowest emission level and cyclic variability improvement were observed. (author)

  13. Examining new fuel economy standards for the United States.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plotkin, S. E.; Energy Systems

    2007-01-01

    After decades of futile attempts to increase U.S. fuel economy standards for passenger cars, which have remained unchanged since enactment of the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards in Title V of the 1975 Energy Policy Conservation Act, it seems increasingly likely that new and tougher standards will be enacted in the near future - especially after the Senate's 21 June passage of energy efficiency bill H.R. 6. As this magazine went to press, the bill, which calls for a 40 percent increase in vehicle fuel economy by 2020 among other efficiency and alternative energy goals, was headed to the House of Representatives for more debate. Congress has seen proposals like this since the 1980s, but this is the first time that one of them has passed in the Senate. The Bush administration has also weighed in with a proposal to increase new vehicle fuel economy by 4 percent per year from 2011 to 2017, and the administrator of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has asked Congress to grant the Secretary of Transportation the authority to restructure and increase CAFE standards for cars, a power denied by the original CAFE legislation. A confluence of events has led to this change of political climate, including: the failure of world oil production and refining capacity to keep pace with rapidly growing demand, especially from China and other emerging economies, which has led to the highest oil prices since the 1980s and growing fears that world production of conventional oil may be close to its peak and rapid decline; the escalating influence of oil resources on geopolitics as China seeks to guarantee its future access to supplies, enhanced revenues from the higher prices, which prop up authoritarian regimes in Iran, Venezuela, Russia, and elsewhere and allow them increasing freedom of action; the enhancement of the role of climate change in political decision making by new reports from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), with

  14. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Fuel Economy Information Project- Research, Data Validation, and Technical Assistance Related to Collecting, Analyzing, and Disseminating Accurate Fuel Economy Information

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about fuel economy...

  15. Fact #588: September 14, 2009 Fuel Economy Changes Due to Ethanol Content

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The fuel economy of a vehicle is dependent on many things, one of which is the fuel used in the vehicle. Two National Laboratories recently studied the effects that ethanol blends have on the fuel...

  16. Fact #869: April 20, 2015 Gasoline Direct Injection Captures 38% Market Share in Just Seven Years from First Significant Use

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Gasoline direct injection (GDI) has seen rapid adoption since its first significant use. As automakers strive for improved fuel economy, many have turned to the combined benefits of GDI and turbo...

  17. Impacts of ethanol fuel level on emissions of regulated and unregulated pollutants from a fleet of gasoline light-duty vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karavalakis, Georgios; Durbin, Thomas; Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.; Zheng, Zhongqing; Villella, Phillip M.; Jung, Hee-Jung

    2012-03-30

    The study investigated the impact of ethanol blends on criteria emissions (THC, NMHC, CO, NOx), greenhouse gas (CO2), and a suite of unregulated pollutants in a fleet of gasoline-powered light-duty vehicles. The vehicles ranged in model year from 1984 to 2007 and included one Flexible Fuel Vehicle (FFV). Emission and fuel consumption measurements were performed in duplicate or triplicate over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) driving cycle using a chassis dynamometer for four fuels in each of seven vehicles. The test fuels included a CARB phase 2 certification fuel with 11% MTBE content, a CARB phase 3 certification fuel with a 5.7% ethanol content, and E10, E20, E50, and E85 fuels. In most cases, THC and NMHC emissions were lower with the ethanol blends, while the use of E85 resulted in increases of THC and NMHC for the FFV. CO emissions were lower with ethanol blends for all vehicles and significantly decreased for earlier model vehicles. Results for NOx emissions were mixed, with some older vehicles showing increases with increasing ethanol level, while other vehicles showed either no impact or a slight, but not statistically significant, decrease. CO2 emissions did not show any significant trends. Fuel economy showed decreasing trends with increasing ethanol content in later model vehicles. There was also a consistent trend of increasing acetaldehyde emissions with increasing ethanol level, but other carbonyls did not show strong trends. The use of E85 resulted in significantly higher formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emissions than the specification fuels or other ethanol blends. BTEX and 1,3-butadiene emissions were lower with ethanol blends compared to the CARB 2 fuel, and were almost undetectable from the E85 fuel. The largest contribution to total carbonyls and other toxics was during the cold-start phase of FTP.

  18. Fact #591: October 5, 2009 Consumer Reports Tests Vehicle Fuel Economy by

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Speed | Department of Energy 1: October 5, 2009 Consumer Reports Tests Vehicle Fuel Economy by Speed Fact #591: October 5, 2009 Consumer Reports Tests Vehicle Fuel Economy by Speed Seven vehicles were tested by Consumer Reports recently to determine the fuel economy of the vehicles at a given speed. For these vehicles, the decline in fuel economy from a speed of 55 miles per hour (mph) to 75 mph was between 20% and 30%. The Honda Insight, which is a hybrid vehicle, had the greatest fuel

  19. Fuel vaporization improves fuel economy of alcohol-burning Sl engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardenberg, H.O.; Metsch, H.I.; Schaefer, A.J.

    1982-10-01

    Fuel vaporization and combustion of the thereby achieved homogeneous mixtures improve the overall efficiency of SI engines in comparison to operation with liquid fuels. The improvements result from a recovery of waste heat and the thus achieved greater usable energy of the fuel, which is increased by the heat of vaporization over the lower calorific value of the liquid fuel, and from the fact that very lean mixtures can be burnt without misfiring. The favorable fuel economy of the air/fuel-vapor mixture-aspirating engine is explained with the aid of engine cycle computation which also enables comparison of different combustion processes. Consideration of common substances shows that methanol is the fuel best suited for this type of SI engine.

  20. NREL Shows Heavy Duty Hybrid Trucks Deliver on Fuel Economy - News Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    | NREL NREL Shows Heavy Duty Hybrid Trucks Deliver on Fuel Economy September 11, 2012 A performance evaluation of Class 8 hybrid electric tractor trailers compared with similar conventional vehicles by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) shows significant improvements in fuel economy. "During our 13-month study, the hybrid tractors demonstrated 13.7 percent higher fuel economy than the conventional tractors, resulting in a 12 percent

  1. NREL Study: Hybrid Delivery Vans Show Nearly 20 Percent Higher Fuel Economy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - News Releases | NREL Study: Hybrid Delivery Vans Show Nearly 20 Percent Higher Fuel Economy September 28, 2012 The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE)'s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently completed a performance evaluation report that showed significant fuel economy benefits of hybrid electric delivery vans compared to similar conventional vans. "During the on-road portion of our study, the hybrid vans demonstrated a 13 to 20 percent higher fuel economy than the

  2. The Road to Improved Heavy Duty Fuel Economy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Road to Improved Heavy Duty Fuel Economy The Road to Improved Heavy Duty Fuel Economy Heavy duty diesel engine fuel economy is improved by lowering the viscosity of engine lubricant, especially when engine speed is increased or load is decreased, as in long distance on-highway driving deer10_miller.pdf (2.25 MB) More Documents & Publications Development of High Performance Heavy Duty Engine Oils Technical Demonstration of 2010 Emissions Regulations over Transient Operation Lubricants -

  3. Fact #586: August 31, 2009 New Vehicle Fuel Economies by Vehicle Type |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 6: August 31, 2009 New Vehicle Fuel Economies by Vehicle Type Fact #586: August 31, 2009 New Vehicle Fuel Economies by Vehicle Type The average fuel economy for new cars climbed to over 30 miles per gallon (mpg) in 2008 while the average for new pickup trucks stayed around 20 mpg. For new vans and sport utility vehicles (SUVs) the average fuel economy has noticeably increased in the last few years. These data are weighted by the number of vehicles sold. New Vehicle

  4. Fact #624: May 24, 2010 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards, Model

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Years 2012-2016 | Department of Energy 4: May 24, 2010 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards, Model Years 2012-2016 Fact #624: May 24, 2010 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards, Model Years 2012-2016 The final rule for the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards was published in March 2010. Under this rule, each light vehicle model produced for sale in the United States will have a fuel economy target based on its footprint. A vehicle's footprint is defined as the wheelbase

  5. Fact #626: June 7, 2010 Fuel Economy for Light and Heavy Vehicles |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 6: June 7, 2010 Fuel Economy for Light and Heavy Vehicles Fact #626: June 7, 2010 Fuel Economy for Light and Heavy Vehicles In the next few years it is expected that fuel economy standards will be imposed on new medium and heavy trucks sold in the U.S. Currently, the estimates of the medium and heavy truck population range from a high of 15 miles per gallon (mpg) for class 2b trucks to a low of 2.5 mpg for class 8a trucks. The chart below shows the range of fuel economy

  6. Clean Cities Strategic Planning White Paper: Light Duty Vehicle Fuel Economy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saulsbury, Bo; Hopson, Dr Janet L; Greene, David; Gibson, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Increasing the energy efficiency of motor vehicles is critical to achieving national energy goals of reduced petroleum dependence, protecting the global climate, and promoting continued economic prosperity. Even with fuel economy and greenhouse gas emissions standards and various economic incentives for clean and efficient vehicles, providing reliable and accurate fuel economy information to the public is important to achieving these goals. This white paper reviews the current status of light-duty vehicle fuel economy in the United States and the role of the Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Cities Program in disseminating fuel economy information to the public.

  7. How Does Your Fuel Economy Compare to the Test Ratings on Fueleconomy.gov?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On Monday, you read about the resources on Fueleconomy.gov and how they can help you compare the fuel economy of vehicles.

  8. Measuring and Reporting Fuel Economy of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonder, J.; Simpson, A.

    2006-11-01

    This paper reviews techniques used to characterize plug-in hybrid electric vehicle fuel economy, discussing their merits, limitations, and best uses.

  9. Fact #850: December 8, 2014 Automatic Transmissions have closed the Fuel Economy Gap with Manual Transmissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Historically, manual transmissions have delivered better fuel economy than automatic transmissions. However, improvements in the efficiency of automatic transmissions have closed that gap in recent...

  10. Autoignition response of n-butanol and its blend with primary reference fuel constituents of gasoline.

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kumar, Kamal; Zhang, Yu; Sung, Chi -Jen; Pitz, William J.

    2015-04-13

    We study the influence of blending n-butanol on the ignition delay times of n-heptane and iso-octane, the primary reference fuels for gasoline. The ignition delay times are measured using a rapid compression machine, with an emphasis on the low-to-intermediate temperature conditions. The experiments are conducted at equivalence ratios of 0.4 and 1.0, for a compressed pressure of 20 bar, with the temperatures at the end of compression ranging from 613 K to 979 K. The effect of n-butanol addition on the development of the two-stage ignition characteristics for the two primary reference fuels is also examined. The experimental results aremore » compared to predictions obtained using a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism, which has been obtained by a systematic merger of previously reported base models for the combustion of the individual fuel constituents. In conclusion, a sensitivity analysis on the base, and the merged models, is also performed to understand the dependence of autoignition delay times on the model parameters.« less

  11. Fact #793: August 19, 2013 Improvements in Fuel Economy for Low-MPG Vehicles Yield the Greatest Fuel Savings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The relationship between gallons used over a given distance and miles per gallon (mpg) is not linear. Thus, an increase in fuel economy by 5 mpg does not translate to a constant fuel savings amount...

  12. Effect of Intake Air Filter Condition on Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, John F; Huff, Shean P; West, Brian H; Norman, Kevin M

    2012-01-01

    Proper maintenance can help vehicles perform as designed, positively affecting fuel economy, emissions, and the overall drivability. This effort investigates the effect of one maintenance factor, intake air filter replacement, with primary focus on vehicle fuel economy, but also examining emissions and performance. Older studies, dealing with carbureted gasoline vehicles, have indicated that replacing a clogged or dirty air filter can improve vehicle fuel economy and conversely that a dirty air filter can be significantly detrimental to fuel economy. The effect of clogged air filters on the fuel economy, acceleration and emissions of five gasoline fueled vehicles is examined. Four of these were modern vehicles, featuring closed-loop control and ranging in model year from 2003 to 2007. Three vehicles were powered by naturally aspirated, port fuel injection (PFI) engines of differing size and cylinder configuration: an inline 4, a V6 and a V8. A turbocharged inline 4-cylinder gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine powered vehicle was the fourth modern gasoline vehicle tested. A vintage 1972 vehicle equipped with a carburetor (open-loop control) was also examined. Results reveal insignificant fuel economy and emissions sensitivity of modern vehicles to air filter condition, but measureable effects on the 1972 vehicle. All vehicles experienced a measured acceleration performance penalty with clogged intake air filters.

  13. Lightweighting Impacts on Fuel Economy, Cost, and Component Losses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooker, A. D.; Ward, J.; Wang, L.

    2013-01-01

    The Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim) is the U.S. Department of Energy's high-level vehicle powertrain model developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. It uses a time versus speed drive cycle to estimate the powertrain forces required to meet the cycle. It simulates the major vehicle powertrain components and their losses. It includes a cost model based on component sizing and fuel prices. FASTSim simulated different levels of lightweighting for four different powertrains: a conventional gasoline engine vehicle, a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), and a battery electric vehicle (EV). Weight reductions impacted the conventional vehicle's efficiency more than the HEV, PHEV and EV. Although lightweighting impacted the advanced vehicles' efficiency less, it reduced component cost and overall costs more. The PHEV and EV are less cost effective than the conventional vehicle and HEV using current battery costs. Assuming the DOE's battery cost target of $100/kWh, however, the PHEV attained similar cost and lightweighting benefits. Generally, lightweighting was cost effective when it costs less than $6/kg of mass eliminated.

  14. Gasoline-like Fuel Effects on High-load, Boosted HCCI Combustion Employing Negative Valve Overlap Strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalaskar, Vickey B; Szybist, James P; Splitter, Derek A

    2014-01-01

    In recent years a number of studies have demonstrated that boosted operation combined with external EGR is a path forward for expanding the high load limit of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) operation with the negative valve overlap (NVO) valve strategy. However, the effects of fuel composition with this strategy have not been fully explored. In this study boosted HCCI combustion is investigated in a single-cylinder research engine equipped with direct injection (DI) fueling, cooled external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), laboratory pressurized intake air, and a fully-variable hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) valve train. Three fuels with significant compositional differences are investigated: regular grade gasoline (RON = 90.2), 30% ethanol-gasoline blend (E30, RON = 100.3), and 24% iso-butanol-gasoline blend (IB24, RON = 96.6). Results include engine loads from 350 to 800 kPa IMEPg for all fuels at three engine speeds 1600, 2000, and 2500 rpm. All operating conditions achieved thermal efficiency (gross indicated efficiency) between 38 and 47%, low NOX emissions ( 0.1 g/kWh), and high combustion efficiency ( 96.5%). Detailed sweeps of intake manifold pressure (atmospheric to 250 kPaa), EGR (0 25% EGR), and injection timing are conducted to identify fuel-specific effects. The major finding of this study is that while significant fuel compositional differences exist, in boosted HCCI operation only minor changes in operational conditions are required to achieve comparable operation for all fuels. In boosted HCCI operation all fuels were able to achieve matched load-speed operation, whereas in conventional SI operation the fuel-specific knock differences resulted in significant differences in the operable load-speed space. Although all fuels were operable in boosted HCCI, the respective air handling requirements are also discussed, including an analysis of the demanded turbocharger efficiency.

  15. Fact #813: January 20, 2014 New Light Vehicle Fuel Economy Continues to Rise

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The sales-weighted fuel economy average of all light vehicles sold in model year (MY) 2013 was 1.6 miles per gallon (mpg) higher than MY 2011. This increase brings the new light vehicle fuel...

  16. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Improve Fuel Economy through Formulation Design and Modeling

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Ashland Inc. at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and vehicle technologies office annual merit review and peer evaluation meeting about improve fuel economy through...

  17. Fuel Economy and Emmissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5 Biopower |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Fuel Economy and Emmissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5 Biopower Fuel Economy and Emmissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5 Biopower This page contains information on the recently released BioPower engines. analysis_saab2007.pdf (248.89 KB) More Documents & Publications Enabling High Efficiency Ethanol Engines Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice, Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP) (Fact Sheet) The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon

  18. Technical comparison between Hythane, GNG and gasoline fueled vehicles. [Hythane = 85 vol% natural gas, 15 vol% H[sub 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    This interim report documents progress on this 2-year Alternative Fuel project, scheduled to end early 1993. Hythane is 85 vol% compressed natural gas (CNG) and 15 vol% hydrogen; it has the potential to meet or exceed the California Ultra-Low Emission Vehicle (ULEV) standard. Three USA trucks (3/4 ton pickup) were operated on single fuel (unleaded gasoline, CNG, Hythane) in Denver. The report includes emission testing, fueling facility, hazard and operability study, and a framework for a national hythane strategy.

  19. Long Beach Transit: Two-Year Evaluation of Gasoline-Electric Hybrid Transit Buses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lammert, M.

    2008-06-01

    This report focuses on a gasoline-electric hybrid transit bus propulsion system. The propulsion system is an alternative to standard diesel buses and allows for reductions in emissions (usually focused on reductions of particulate matter and oxides of nitrogen) and petroleum use. Gasoline propulsion is an alternative to diesel fuel and hybrid propulsion allows for increased fuel economy, which ultimately results in reduced petroleum use.

  20. Analysis of In-Use Fuel Economy Shortfall Based on Voluntarily Reported MPG Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, David L; Goeltz, Rick; Hopson, Dr Janet L; Tworek, Elzbieta

    2007-01-01

    The usefulness of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) passenger car and light truck fuel economy estimates has been the subject of debate for the past three decades. For the labels on new vehicles and the fuel economy information given to the public, the EPA adjusts dynamometer test results downward by 10% for the city cycle and 22% for the highway cycle to better reflect real world driving conditions. These adjustment factors were developed in 1984 and their continued validity has repeatedly been questioned. In March of 2005 the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and EPA's fuel economy information website, www.fueleconomy.gov, began allowing users to voluntarily share fuel economy estimates. This paper presents an initial statistical analysis of more than 3,000 estimates submitted by website users. The analysis suggests two potentially important results: (1) adjusted, combined EPA fuel economy estimates appear to be approximately unbiased estimators of the average fuel economy consumers will experience in actual driving, and (2) the EPA estimates are highly imprecise predictors of any given individual's in-use fuel economy, an approximate 95% confidence interval being +/-7 MPG. These results imply that what is needed is not less biased adjustment factors for the EPA estimates but rather more precise methods of predicting the fuel economy individual consumers will achieve in their own driving.

  1. Examining the potential for voluntary fuel economy standards in the United States and Canada.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plotkin, S.; Greene, D.; Duleep, K.

    2003-03-19

    This report is designed to assist the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. government in general, and Natural Resources Canada with understanding the potential for voluntary fuel economy standards designed to increase the fuel economy of the North American fleet of light-duty vehicles (LDVs-passenger cars and light trucks) within a 10-15-year timeframe. The approach of this study has been: First, to examine and evaluate recent fuel economy initiatives taken in Japan and Europe; Second, to review the technologies available to improve fuel economy in the U.S. (and Canadian) fleets, focusing on their costs and fuel economy improvement potential; Third, to identify and broadly evaluate some alternatives to the current U.S. and Canadian Corporate Average Fuel Economy system of specifying uniform fuel economy targets (27.5 mpg for cars, 20.7 mpg for light trucks) for individual companies; and Fourth, to try to determine an approximate level of fuel economy increase and form of company agreements that would be conducive to a voluntary agreement, based on the assumption that an acceptable voluntary standard would impose an equitable burden on each manufacturer and would be approximately cost-effective from consumers' private perspectives.

  2. Fuel economy and emissions reduction of HD hybrid truck over transient

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    driving cycles and interstate roads | Department of Energy economy and emissions reduction of HD hybrid truck over transient driving cycles and interstate roads Fuel economy and emissions reduction of HD hybrid truck over transient driving cycles and interstate roads Compares simulated fuel economy and emissions fro conventional and hybrid Class 8 heavy trucks p-12_gao.pdf (345.05 KB) More Documents & Publications Advanced HD Engine Systems and Emissions Control Modeling and Analysis

  3. Simulated comparisons of emissions and fuel efficiency of diesel and gasoline hybrid electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Zhiming; Chakravarthy, Veerathu K; Daw, C Stuart

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents details and results of hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric passenger vehicle (HEV and PHEV) simulations that account for the interaction of thermal transients from drive cycle demands and engine start/stop events with aftertreatment devices and their associated fuel penalties. The simulations were conducted using the Powertrain Systems Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) software developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) combined with aftertreatment component models developed at Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL). A three-way catalyst model is used in simulations of gasoline powered vehicles while a lean NOx trap model in used to simulated NOx reduction in diesel powered vehicles. Both cases also use a previously reported methodology for simulating the temperature and species transients associated with the intermittent engine operation and typical drive cycle transients which are a significant departure from the usual experimental steady-state engine-map based approach adopted often in vehicle system simulations. Comparative simulations indicate a higher efficiency for diesel powered vehicles but the advantage is lowered by about a third (for both HEVs and PHEVs) when the fuel penalty associated with operating a lean NOx trap is included and may be reduced even more when fuel penalty associated with a particulate filter is included in diesel vehicle simulations. Through these preliminary studies, it is clearly demonstrated how accurate engine and exhaust systems models that can account for highly intermittent and transient engine operation in hybrid vehicles can be used to account for impact of emissions in comparative vehicle systems studies. Future plans with models for other devices such as particulate filters, diesel oxidation and selective reduction catalysts are also discussed.

  4. Hybrid Taxis Give Fuel Economy a Lift -Clean Cities Fleet Experiences -

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-04-01

    The hybrid taxis are able to achieve about twice the gas mileage of a conventional taxi while helping cut gasoline use and fuel costs. Tax credits and other incentives are helping both company owners and drivers make the switch to hybrids.

  5. Lower gasoline prices ahead

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lower gasoline prices ahead U.S. retail gasoline prices are expected to continue falling through the end of 2016, even though gasoline demand is projected to remain strong. In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said the average monthly price for regular-grade gasoline is expected to decline to $1.92 a gallon by December the lowest for the month in eight years. Lower motor fuel prices are expected in the coming months, despite gasoline demand this year that is on

  6. High Fuel Economy Heavy-Duty Truck Engine | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Economy Heavy-Duty Truck Engine High Fuel Economy Heavy-Duty Truck Engine 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation ace060_tai_2011_o.pdf (434.09 KB) More Documents & Publications Volvo SuperTruck - Powertrain Technologies for Efficiency Improvement Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Volvo SuperTruck - Powertrain Technologies for Efficiency Improvement SuperTruck Program: Engine Project Review

  7. Fact #925: May 16, 2016 Improvements in Fuel Economy for Low-MPG Vehicles Yield the Greatest Savings- Dataset

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file and dataset for Improvements in Fuel Economy for Low-MPG Vehicles Yield the Greatest Savings

  8. Fact #868: April 13, 2015 Automotive Technology Has Improved Performance and Fuel Economy of New Light Vehicles – Dataset

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file and dataset for Automotive Technology Has Improved Performance and Fuel Economy of New Light Vehicles

  9. Blender Net Production of Finished Motor Gasoline

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Total Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Reformulated Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Reformulated Other Conventional Gasoline Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 and Lower Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Greater than Ed55 Conventional Other Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm Sulfur and under Distillate F.O., Greater than 15 ppm to 500 ppm Sulfur Distillate F.O.,

  10. Fact #630: July 5, 2010 Fuel Economy vs. Weight and Performance |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 0: July 5, 2010 Fuel Economy vs. Weight and Performance Fact #630: July 5, 2010 Fuel Economy vs. Weight and Performance From 1980 to 2009, there have been significant gains made in automotive technology, but those advancements have been applied toward improved performance and safety rather than fuel economy. Horsepower has more than doubled, top speed has climbed from 107 miles per hour to 139 miles per hour, and "0-to-60" times have dropped from 14.3 seconds

  11. Fact #730: June 4, 2012 Fuel Economy of New Light Vehicles is Up 19% from

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1980 to 2011 | Department of Energy 0: June 4, 2012 Fuel Economy of New Light Vehicles is Up 19% from 1980 to 2011 Fact #730: June 4, 2012 Fuel Economy of New Light Vehicles is Up 19% from 1980 to 2011 In addition to a 120% increase in horsepower and 35% decrease in 0-60 time from 1980 to 2011, the fuel economy of vehicles improved nearly 19%. All of these data series are sales-weighted averages that have been indexed to 1980, showing the relative relationship among the years since 1980. In

  12. Fact #833: August 11, 2014 Fuel Economy Rated Second Most Important Vehicle

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Attribute | Department of Energy 3: August 11, 2014 Fuel Economy Rated Second Most Important Vehicle Attribute Fact #833: August 11, 2014 Fuel Economy Rated Second Most Important Vehicle Attribute A 2014 survey asked a sample of the U.S. population the question "Which one of the following attributes would be MOST important to you in your choice of your next vehicle?" The choices were fuel economy, dependability, low price, quality, and safety. This same question was asked in

  13. Fact #833: August 11, 2014 Fuel Economy Rated Second Most Important Vehicle

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Attribute - Dataset | Department of Energy 3: August 11, 2014 Fuel Economy Rated Second Most Important Vehicle Attribute - Dataset Fact #833: August 11, 2014 Fuel Economy Rated Second Most Important Vehicle Attribute - Dataset Excel file with dataset for Fact #833: Fuel Economy Rated Second Most Important Vehicle Attribute fotw#833_web.xlsx (16.8 KB) More Documents & Publications National Skills Assessment of the U.S. Wind Industry in 2012 Sub-scale Drum Test Memo Fact #833: August 11,

  14. EERE Success Story-FCA and Partners Achieve 25% Fuel Economy Improvement

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in Light-Duty Advanced Technology Powertrain | Department of Energy FCA and Partners Achieve 25% Fuel Economy Improvement in Light-Duty Advanced Technology Powertrain EERE Success Story-FCA and Partners Achieve 25% Fuel Economy Improvement in Light-Duty Advanced Technology Powertrain March 7, 2016 - 10:57am Addthis EERE Success Story—FCA and Partners Achieve 25% Fuel Economy Improvement in Light-Duty Advanced Technology Powertrain EERE Success Story—FCA and Partners Achieve 25%

  15. 54.5 MPG and Beyond: Materials Lighten the Load for Fuel Economy |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Materials Lighten the Load for Fuel Economy 54.5 MPG and Beyond: Materials Lighten the Load for Fuel Economy December 4, 2012 - 12:06pm Addthis Lightweight materials, such as high-strength steel, aluminum, magnesium and carbon fiber can help improve fuel economy in future vehicles. This is a carbon fiber from microwave-assisted plasma unit -- a unit that is part of the process to transform precursor fibers into carbon fibers that can be used in vehicles. | Photo courtesy

  16. Fact #794: August 26, 2013 How Much Does an Average Vehicle Owner Pay in Fuel Taxes Each Year?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    According to the Federal Highway Administration, the average fuel economy for all light vehicles on the road today is 21.4 miles per gallon (mpg). A person owning a gasoline vehicle with that fuel...

  17. New Find-a-Car App Brings Fuel Economy Right to Your Phone

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With more car buyers than ever using the Internet to research their future vehicles, accessing information on fuel economy needs to be simple and convenient. To make searching easier on mobile...

  18. Fact #696: October 10, 2011 Top Ten "Real World" Fuel Economy Leaders

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) fuel economy ratings on the window stickers of new cars are based on strict test cycles conducted in a controlled laboratory setting. These official EPA...

  19. Energy Department and Environmental Protection Agency Release Fuel Economy Tool for Used Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Energy Department and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released a new label that features EPA fuel economy estimates and CO2 estimates for used vehicles sold in the United States since 1984.

  20. Fact #804: November 18, 2013 Tool Available to Print Used Vehicle Fuel Economy Window Stickers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Because used vehicle sales outnumber new vehicle sales by about three to one, a new tool has been developed that allows those selling used vehicles to produce a fuel economy label for the vehicle....

  1. Fact #826: June 23, 2014 The Effect of Tire Pressure on Fuel Economy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory recently conducted a study that measured the effect of tire pressure on fuel economy at speeds ranging from 40 to 80 miles per hour. The figure below...

  2. Fact #724: April 23, 2012 Gas Guzzler Tax Levied on New Cars with Low Fuel Economy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The "Gas Guzzler Tax" is collected from the public for each new car purchased with fuel economy less than 22.5 miles per gallon (mpg). The Gas Guzzler Tax does not apply to light trucks, only cars....

  3. We Can’t Wait: Driving Forward with New Fuel Economy Standards

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    An overview of the new fuel economy program, designed to save American families money at the pump, reduce our country’s dependence on oil, and boost domestic manufacturing.

  4. EERE Success Story- Novel Engine Lubrication Anti-Wear Additives Demonstrate Improved Fuel Economy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been working with General Motors, Lubrizol, and Shell to develop new additives for lubricants that could boost fuel economy by 2% compared to commercially...

  5. Fact #833: August 11, 2014 Fuel Economy Rated Second Most Important...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fact 833: August 11, 2014 Fuel Economy Rated Second Most Important Vehicle Attribute A 2014 survey asked a sample of the U.S. population the question "Which one of the following ...

  6. Fuel Economy Standards for New Light Trucks (released in AEO2007)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01

    In March 2006, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) finalized Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards requiring higher fuel economy performance for light-duty trucks in model year (MY) 2008 through 2011. Unlike the proposed CAFE standards discussed in Annual Energy Outlook 2006, which would have established minimum fuel economy requirements by six footprint size classes, the final reformed CAFE standards specify a continuous mathematical function that determines minimum fuel economy requirements by vehicle footprint, defined as the wheelbase (the distance from the front axle to the center of the rear axle) times the average track width (the distance between the center lines of the tires) of the vehicle in square feet.

  7. Fact #773: April 1, 2013 Fuel Economy Penalty at Higher Speeds

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Each vehicle reaches an optimal fuel economy at a different speed or range of speeds. A recent study by Oak Ridge National Laboratory illustrates that point with a wide range of data collected on...

  8. Fact #680: June 20, 2011 Fuel Economy is "Most Important" When Buying a Vehicle

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A June 2011 survey asked the question "Which one of the following attributes would be MOST important to you in your choice of your next vehicle?" The choices were fuel economy, dependability, low...

  9. Policy Discussion - Heavy-Duty Truck Fuel Economy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Policy Discussion - Heavy-Duty Truck Fuel Economy Policy Discussion - Heavy-Duty Truck Fuel Economy 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presesntation: National Commission on Energy Policy 2004_deer_kodjak.pdf (168.97 KB) More Documents & Publications 21st Century Truck Partnership Roadmap Roadmap and Technical White Papers - 21CTP-0003, December 2006 The Energy Efficiency Potential of Global Transport to 2050 Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: DOE's Effort to

  10. DOE Announces Webinars on H-Prize Safety Guidelines, Fuel Economy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Resources, and More | Department of Energy H-Prize Safety Guidelines, Fuel Economy Resources, and More DOE Announces Webinars on H-Prize Safety Guidelines, Fuel Economy Resources, and More August 6, 2015 - 8:30am Addthis EERE offers webinars to the public on a range of subjects, from adopting the latest energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies, to training for the clean energy workforce. Webinars are free; however, advanced registration is typically required. You can also watch

  11. Feebates and Fuel Economy Standards: Impacts on Fuel Use in Light-Duty Vehicles and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, David L

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates the potential impacts of a national feebate system, a market-based policy that consists of graduated fees on low-fuel-economy (or high-emitting) vehicles and rebates for high-fuel-economy (or lowemitting) vehicles. In their simplest form, feebate systems operate under three conditions: a benchmark divides all vehicles into two categories-those charged fees and those eligible for rebates; the sizes of the fees and rebates are a function of a vehicle's deviation from its benchmark; and placement of the benchmark ensures revenue neutrality or a desired level of subsidy or revenue. A model developed by the University of California for the California Air Resources Board was revised and used to estimate the effects of six feebate structures on fuel economy and sales of new light-duty vehicles, given existing and anticipated future fuel economy and emission standards. These estimates for new vehicles were then entered into a vehicle stock model that simulated the evolution of the entire vehicle stock. The results indicate that feebates could produce large, additional reductions in emissions and fuel consumption, in large part by encouraging market acceptance of technologies with advanced fuel economy, such as hybrid electric vehicles.

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Advanced Vehicle Acquisition and Biodiesel Fuel Use Requirement All gasoline-powered vehicles purchased with state funds must be flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) or fuel-efficient hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Fuel-efficient HEVs are defined as automobiles or light trucks that use a gasoline or diesel engine and an electric motor to provide power and that gain at least a 20% increase in combined U.S. Environmental Protection Agency city-highway fuel economy over the equivalent or most-similar

  13. Hybrid Taxis Give Fuel Economy a Lift, Clean Cities, Fleet Experiences, April 2009 (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-04-01

    Clean Cities helped Boston, San Antonio, and Cambridge create hybrid taxi programs. The hybrid taxis are able to achieve about twice the gas mileage of a conventional taxi while helping cut gasoline use and fuel costs. Tax credits and other incentives are helping both company owners and drivers make the switch to hybrids. Program leaders have learned some important lessons other cities can benefit from including learning a city's taxi structure, relaying benefits to drivers, and understanding the needs of owners.

  14. European Lean Gasoline Direct Injection Vehicle Benchmark

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chambon, Paul H; Huff, Shean P; Edwards, Kevin Dean; Norman, Kevin M; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Thomas, John F

    2011-01-01

    Lean Gasoline Direct Injection (LGDI) combustion is a promising technical path for achieving significant improvements in fuel efficiency while meeting future emissions requirements. Though Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct Injection (SGDI) technology is commercially available in a few vehicles on the American market, LGDI vehicles are not, but can be found in Europe. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) obtained a European BMW 1-series fitted with a 2.0l LGDI engine. The vehicle was instrumented and commissioned on a chassis dynamometer. The engine and after-treatment performance and emissions were characterized over US drive cycles (Federal Test Procedure (FTP), the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET), and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06)) and steady state mappings. The vehicle micro hybrid features (engine stop-start and intelligent alternator) were benchmarked as well during the course of that study. The data was analyzed to quantify the benefits and drawbacks of the lean gasoline direct injection and micro hybrid technologies from a fuel economy and emissions perspectives with respect to the US market. Additionally that data will be formatted to develop, substantiate, and exercise vehicle simulations with conventional and advanced powertrains.

  15. Costs and benefits of automotive fuel economy improvement: A partial analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.; Duleep, K.G.

    1992-03-01

    This paper is an exercise in estimating the costs and benefits of technology-based fuel economy improvements for automobiles and light trucks. Benefits quantified include vehicle cots, fuel savings, consumer`s surplus effects, the effect of reduced weight on vehicle safety, impacts on emissions of CO{sub 2} and criteria pollutants, world oil market and energy security benefits, and the transfer of wealth from US consumes to oil producers. A vehicle stock model is used to capture sales, scrappage, and vehicle use effects under three fuel price scenarios. Three alternative fuel economy levels for 2001 are considered, ranging from 32.9 to 36.5 MPG for cars and 24.2 to 27.5 MPG for light trucks. Fuel economy improvements of this size are probably cost-effective. The size of the benefit, and whether there is a benefit, strongly depends on the financial costs of fuel economy improvement and judgments about the values of energy security, emissions, safety, etc. Three sets of values for eight parameters are used to define the sensitivity of costs and benefits to key assumptions. The net present social value (1989$) of costs and benefits ranges from a cost of $11 billion to a benefit of $286 billion. The critical parameters being the discount rate (10% vs. 3%) and the values attached to externalities. The two largest components are always the direct vehicle costs and fuel savings, but these tend to counterbalance each other for the fuel economy levels examined here. Other components are the wealth transfer, oil cost savings, CO{sub 2} emissions reductions, and energy security benefits. Safety impacts, emissions of criteria pollutants, and consumer`s surplus effects are relatively minor components. The critical issues for automotive fuel economy are therefore: (1) the value of present versus future costs and benefits, (2) the values of external costs and benefits, and (3) the financially cost-effective level of MPG achievable by available technology. 53 refs.

  16. Costs and benefits of automotive fuel economy improvement: A partial analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L. ); Duleep, K.G. )

    1992-03-01

    This paper is an exercise in estimating the costs and benefits of technology-based fuel economy improvements for automobiles and light trucks. Benefits quantified include vehicle cots, fuel savings, consumer's surplus effects, the effect of reduced weight on vehicle safety, impacts on emissions of CO{sub 2} and criteria pollutants, world oil market and energy security benefits, and the transfer of wealth from US consumes to oil producers. A vehicle stock model is used to capture sales, scrappage, and vehicle use effects under three fuel price scenarios. Three alternative fuel economy levels for 2001 are considered, ranging from 32.9 to 36.5 MPG for cars and 24.2 to 27.5 MPG for light trucks. Fuel economy improvements of this size are probably cost-effective. The size of the benefit, and whether there is a benefit, strongly depends on the financial costs of fuel economy improvement and judgments about the values of energy security, emissions, safety, etc. Three sets of values for eight parameters are used to define the sensitivity of costs and benefits to key assumptions. The net present social value (1989$) of costs and benefits ranges from a cost of $11 billion to a benefit of $286 billion. The critical parameters being the discount rate (10% vs. 3%) and the values attached to externalities. The two largest components are always the direct vehicle costs and fuel savings, but these tend to counterbalance each other for the fuel economy levels examined here. Other components are the wealth transfer, oil cost savings, CO{sub 2} emissions reductions, and energy security benefits. Safety impacts, emissions of criteria pollutants, and consumer's surplus effects are relatively minor components. The critical issues for automotive fuel economy are therefore: (1) the value of present versus future costs and benefits, (2) the values of external costs and benefits, and (3) the financially cost-effective level of MPG achievable by available technology. 53 refs.

  17. Vehicle Mass Impact on Vehicle Losses and Fuel Economy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  18. Vehicle Mass Impact on Vehicle Losses and Fuel Economy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  19. Fact #925: May 16, 2016 Improvements in Fuel Economy for Low-MPG Vehicles

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Yield the Greatest Savings | Department of Energy 5: May 16, 2016 Improvements in Fuel Economy for Low-MPG Vehicles Yield the Greatest Savings Fact #925: May 16, 2016 Improvements in Fuel Economy for Low-MPG Vehicles Yield the Greatest Savings SUBSCRIBE to the Fact of the Week The relationship between gallons used over a given distance and miles per gallon (mpg) is not linear. Trading a low-mpg car or truck for one with just slightly better mpg will save more fuel than trading a high-mpg car

  20. Predicting Light-Duty Vehicle Fuel Economy as a Function of Highway Speed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, John F; Hwang, Ho-Ling; West, Brian H; Huff, Shean P

    2013-01-01

    The www.fueleconomy.gov website offers information such as window label fuel economy for city, highway, and combined driving for all U.S.-legal light-duty vehicles from 1984 to the present. The site is jointly maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and also offers a considerable amount of consumer information and advice pertaining to vehicle fuel economy and energy related issues. Included with advice pertaining to driving styles and habits is information concerning the trend that as highway cruising speed is increased, fuel economy will degrade. An effort was undertaken to quantify this conventional wisdom through analysis of dynamometer testing results for 74 vehicles at steady state speeds from 50 to 80 mph. Using this experimental data, several simple models were developed to predict individual vehicle fuel economy and its rate of change over the 50-80 mph speed range interval. The models presented require a minimal number of vehicle attributes. The simplest model requires only the EPA window label highway mpg value (based on the EPA specified estimation method for 2008 and beyond). The most complex of these simple model uses vehicle coast-down test coefficients (from testing prescribed by SAE Standard J2263) known as the vehicle Target Coefficients, and the raw fuel economy result from the federal highway test. Statistical comparisons of these models and discussions of their expected usefulness and limitations are offered.

  1. Motor vehicle fuel economy, the forgotten HC control stragegy. [Hydrocarbon (HC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deluchi, M.; Wang, Quanlu; Greene, D.L.

    1992-06-01

    Emissions of hydrocarbons from motor vehicles are recognized as major contributors to ozone pollution in urban areas. Petroleum-based motor fuels contain volatile organic compounds (VOC) which, together with oxides of nitrogen, promote the formation of ozone in the troposphere via complex photochemical reactions. VOC emissions from the tailpipe and evaporation from the fuel and engine systems of highway vehicles are believed to account for about 40% of total VOC emissions in any region. But motor fuels also generate emissions throughout the fuel cycle, from crude oil production to refining, storage, transportation, and handling, that can make significant contributions to the total inventory of VOC emissions. Many of these sources of emissions are directly related to the quantity of fuel produced and handled throughout the fuel cycle. It is, therefore, reasonable to expect that a reduction in total fuel throughput might result in a reduction of VOC emissions. In particular, reducing vehicle fuel consumption by increasing vehicle fuel economy should reduce total fuel throughput, thereby cutting total emissions of VOCS. In this report we identify the sources of VOC emissions throughout the motor fuel cycle, quantify them to the extent possible, and describe their dependence on automobile and light truck fuel economy.

  2. Gasoline Hybrid Electric Delivery Vehicles Reduce Tailpipe Emissions While

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Weekly Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area 07/22/16 07/29/16 08/05/16 08/12/16 08/19/16 08/26/16 View History U.S. 24.8 24.4 24.1 23.8 23.9 24.0 1991 Maintaining Fuel Economy - News Releases | NREL

    Gasoline Hybrid Electric Delivery Vehicles Reduce Tailpipe Emissions While Maintaining Fuel Economy February 23, 2011 The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy

  3. EERE Success Story- Chrysler and Partners Achieve 25% Fuel Economy Improvement in Light-Duty Advanced Technology Powertrain

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Internal combustion engines have the potential to become substantially more efficient, with laboratory tests indicating that new technologies could increase passenger vehicle fuel economy by more...

  4. Draft Funding Opportunity Announcement for Research and Development of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells for the Hydrogen Economy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Proposed statement of work for the upcoming solicitation for Research and Development of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells for the Hydrogen Economy.

  5. Fact #850: December 8, 2014 Automatic Transmissions have closed the Fuel Economy Gap with Manual Transmissions- Dataset

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file with dataset for Fact #850: December 8, 2014 Automatic Transmissions have closed the Fuel Economy Gap with Manual Transmissions

  6. Review of alternate automotive engine fuel economy. Final report January-October 78

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, D.; Bolt, J.A.; Huber, P.; Taylor, T. Jr.

    1980-11-01

    This study assessed the potential of alternate automotive engines to meet the fuel economy goals and emission levels of the 1980-1990 period. As part of NHTSA's continuing research in support of the Department of Transportation fuel economy activities, this study reviewed those developments offering viable substitutes for the current spark ignition engine systems. Categories assessed included stratified charge, diesels, turbo charging, rotary/Wankel engines, and the developmental gas turbine and Stirling cycle engines. Results of past and on-going research through 1978 were reviewed along with the development and production status of various alternate engine technologies proposed for automobiles and light trucks through the 1980s. Assessment was then made of the potential fuel economy improvement as a percentage of 1978 baseline data.

  7. Fuel Economy of the Light-Duty Vehicle Fleet (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. fleet of light-duty vehicles consists of cars and light trucks, including minivans, sport utility vehicles (SUVs) and trucks with gross vehicle weight less than 8,500 pounds. The fuel economy of light-duty vehicles is regulated by the (Corporate Average Fuel Economy) CAFE standards set by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Currently, the CAFE standard is 27.5 miles per gallon (mpg) for cars and 20.7 mpg for light trucks. The most recent increase in the CAFE standard for cars was in 1990, and the most recent increase in the CAFE standard for light trucks was in 1996.

  8. What Steps Do You Take to Improve Your Fuel Economy? | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Shannon told you some facts about fuel economy and how you can use less gas and save money at the pump. What steps do you take to improve your fuel economy? Each Thursday, you have the chance to share your thoughts on a question about energy efficiency or renewable energy for consumers. Please e-mail your responses to the Energy Saver team at consumer.webmaster@nrel.gov. Addthis Related Articles How Do You Save Energy at Home While on Vacation? How Do You Make Greener Transportation Choices?

  9. Fuel Economy on the Fly | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    It displays an annual fuel cost, allowing you to figure out the real cost of that sports car. Because the database reaches all the way back to 1984, you can even compare used and ...

  10. Annual Fuel Economy Guide with 2014 Models Released | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Energy ... including an estimated annual fuel cost for each vehicle. ... like air conditioning usage and a variety of speed and ...

  11. Optimally Controlled Flexible Fuel Powertrain System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duncan Sheppard; Bruce Woodrow; Paul Kilmurray; Simon Thwaite

    2011-06-30

    A multi phase program was undertaken with the stated goal of using advanced design and development tools to create a unique combination of existing technologies to create a powertrain system specification that allowed minimal increase of volumetric fuel consumption when operating on E85 relative to gasoline. Although on an energy basis gasoline / ethanol blends typically return similar fuel economy to straight gasoline, because of its lower energy density (gasoline ~ 31.8MJ/l and ethanol ~ 21.1MJ/l) the volume based fuel economy of gasoline / ethanol blends are typically considerably worse. This project was able to define an initial engine specification envelope, develop specific hardware for the application, and test that hardware in both single and multi-cylinder test engines to verify the ability of the specified powertrain to deliver reduced E85 fuel consumption. Finally, the results from the engine testing were used in a vehicle drive cycle analysis tool to define a final vehicle level fuel economy result. During the course of the project, it was identified that the technologies utilized to improve fuel economy on E85 also enabled improved fuel economy when operating on gasoline. However, the E85 fueled powertrain provided improved vehicle performance when compared to the gasoline fueled powertrain due to the improved high load performance of the E85 fuel. Relative to the baseline comparator engine and considering current market fuels, the volumetric fuel consumption penalty when running on E85 with the fully optimized project powertrain specification was reduced significantly. This result shows that alternative fuels can be utilized in high percentages while maintaining or improving vehicle performance and with minimal or positive impact on total cost of ownership to the end consumer. The justification for this project was two-fold. In order to reduce the US dependence on crude oil, much of which is imported, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA

  12. Method to improve lubricity of low-sulfur diesel and gasoline fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erdemir, Ali

    2004-08-31

    A method for providing lubricity in fuels and lubricants includes adding a boron compound to a fuel or lubricant to provide a boron-containing fuel or lubricant. The fuel or lubricant may contain a boron compound at a concentration between about 30 ppm and about 3,000 ppm and a sulfur concentration of less than about 500 ppm. A method of powering an engine to minimize wear, by burning a fuel containing boron compounds. The boron compounds include compound that provide boric acid and/or BO.sub.3 ions or monomers to the fuel or lubricant.

  13. Motor gasolines, summer 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shelton, E.M.

    1980-02-01

    Analytical data for 2401 samples of motor gasoline, from service stations throughout the country, were collected and analyzed under agreement between the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center and the American Petroleum Institute. The samples represent the products of 48 companies, large and small, which manufacture and supply gasoline. These data are tabulated by groups according to brands (unlabeled) and grades for 17 marketing areas and districts into which the country is divided. A map included in this report, shows marketing areas, districts and sampling locations. The report also includes charts indicating the trends of selected properties of motor fuels since 1949. Twelve octane distribution percent charts for areas 1, 2, 3, and 4 for unleaded, regular, and premium grades of gasoline are presented in this report. The antiknock (octane) index ((R + M)/2) averages of gasoline sold in this country were 88.6, 89.3, and 93.7 unleaded, regular, and premium grades of gasolines, respectively.

  14. Fuel Economy Improvement Potential of a Heavy Duty Truck using V2x Communication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaClair, Tim J; Verma, Rajeev; Norris, Sarah; Cochran, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce an intelligent driver assistance system to reduce fuel consumption in heavy duty vehicles irrespective of the driving style of the driver. We specifically study the potential of V2I and V2V communications to reduce fuel consumption in heavy duty trucks. Most ITS communications today are oriented towards vehicle safety, with communications strategies and hardware that tend to focus on low latency. This has resulted in technologies emerging with a relatively limited range for the communications. For fuel economy, it is expected that most benefits will be derived with greater communications distances, at the scale of many hundred meters or several kilometers, due to the large inertia of heavy duty vehicles. It may therefore be necessary to employ different communications strategies for ITS applications aimed at fuel economy and other environmental benefits than what is used for safety applications in order to achieve the greatest benefits.

  15. Combustion, Efficiency, and Fuel Effects in a Spark-Assisted HCCI Gasoline Engine

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Fuel, Engines, and Emissions Research Center

  16. Compatibility Study for Plastic, Elastomeric, and Metallic Fueling Infrastructure Materials Exposed to Aggressive Formulations of Ethanol-blended Gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kass, Michael D; Pawel, Steven J; Theiss, Timothy J; Janke, Christopher James

    2012-07-01

    In 2008 Oak Ridge National Laboratory began a series of experiments to evaluate the compatibility of fueling infrastructure materials with intermediate levels of ethanol-blended gasoline. Initially, the focus was elastomers, metals, and sealants, and the test fuels were Fuel C, CE10a, CE17a and CE25a. The results of these studies were published in 2010. Follow-on studies were performed with an emphasis on plastic (thermoplastic and thermoset) materials used in underground storage and dispenser systems. These materials were exposed to test fuels of Fuel C and CE25a. Upon completion of this effort, it was felt that additional compatibility data with higher ethanol blends was needed and another round of experimentation was performed on elastomers, metals, and plastics with CE50a and CE85a test fuels. Compatibility of polymers typically relates to the solubility of the solid polymer with a solvent. It can also mean susceptibility to chemical attack, but the polymers and test fuels evaluated in this study are not considered to be chemically reactive with each other. Solubility in polymers is typically assessed by measuring the volume swell of the polymer exposed to the solvent of interest. Elastomers are a class of polymers that are predominantly used as seals, and most o-ring and seal manufacturers provide compatibility tables of their products with various solvents including ethanol, toluene, and isooctane, which are components of aggressive oxygenated gasoline as described by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) J1681. These tables include a ranking based on the level of volume swell in the elastomer associated with exposure to a particular solvent. Swell is usually accompanied by a decrease in hardness (softening) that also affects performance. For seal applications, shrinkage of the elastomer upon drying is also a critical parameter since a contraction of volume can conceivably enable leakage to occur. Shrinkage is also indicative of the removal of one or more

  17. Fact #813: January 20, 2014 New Light Vehicle Fuel Economy Continues...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    New Light Vehicle Fuel Economy, 1975-2013 Model Year Miles per Gallon 1975 13.1 1976 14.2 1977 15.1 1978 15.8 1979 15.9 1980 19.2 1981 20.5 1982 21.1 1983 21.0 1984 21.0 1985 21.3 ...

  18. Leveraging Intelligent Vehicle Technologies to Maximize Fuel Economy (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonder, J.

    2011-11-01

    Advancements in vehicle electronics, along with communication and sensing technologies, have led to a growing number of intelligent vehicle applications. Example systems include those for advanced driver information, route planning and prediction, driver assistance, and crash avoidance. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory is exploring ways to leverage intelligent vehicle systems to achieve fuel savings. This presentation discusses several potential applications, such as providing intelligent feedback to drivers on specific ways to improve their driving efficiency, and using information about upcoming driving to optimize electrified vehicle control strategies for maximum energy efficiency and battery life. The talk also covers the potential of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and related technologies to deliver significant fuel savings in addition to providing safety and convenience benefits.

  19. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: GEFORCE: Gasoline Engine and Fuels Offering Reduced Fuel Consumption and Emissions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Fuel...

  20. A perspective on the range of gasoline compression ignition combustion strategies for high engine efficiency and low NOx and soot emissions: Effects of in-cylinder fuel stratification

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dempsey, Adam B.; Curran, Scott J.; Wagner, Robert M.

    2016-01-14

    Many research studies have shown that low temperature combustion in compression ignition engines has the ability to yield ultra-low NOx and soot emissions while maintaining high thermal efficiency. To achieve low temperature combustion, sufficient mixing time between the fuel and air in a globally dilute environment is required, thereby avoiding fuel-rich regions and reducing peak combustion temperatures, which significantly reduces soot and NOx formation, respectively. It has been demonstrated that achieving low temperature combustion with diesel fuel over a wide range of conditions is difficult because of its properties, namely, low volatility and high chemical reactivity. On the contrary, gasolinemore » has a high volatility and low chemical reactivity, meaning it is easier to achieve the amount of premixing time required prior to autoignition to achieve low temperature combustion. In order to achieve low temperature combustion while meeting other constraints, such as low pressure rise rates and maintaining control over the timing of combustion, in-cylinder fuel stratification has been widely investigated for gasoline low temperature combustion engines. The level of fuel stratification is, in reality, a continuum ranging from fully premixed (i.e. homogeneous charge of fuel and air) to heavily stratified, heterogeneous operation, such as diesel combustion. However, to illustrate the impact of fuel stratification on gasoline compression ignition, the authors have identified three representative operating strategies: partial, moderate, and heavy fuel stratification. Thus, this article provides an overview and perspective of the current research efforts to develop engine operating strategies for achieving gasoline low temperature combustion in a compression ignition engine via fuel stratification. In this paper, computational fluid dynamics modeling of the in-cylinder processes during the closed valve portion of the cycle was used to illustrate the opportunities

  1. Simulations of the Fuel Economy and Emissions of Hybrid Transit Buses over Planned Local Routes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Zhiming; LaClair, Tim J; Daw, C Stuart; Smith, David E; Franzese, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    We present simulated fuel economy and emissions city transit buses powered by conventional diesel engines and diesel-hybrid electric powertrains of varying size. Six representative city drive cycles were included in the study. In addition, we included previously published aftertreatment device models for control of CO, HC, NOx, and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Our results reveal that bus hybridization can significantly enhance fuel economy by reducing engine idling time, reducing demands for accessory loads, exploiting regenerative braking, and shifting engine operation to speeds and loads with higher fuel efficiency. Increased hybridization also tends to monotonically reduce engine-out emissions, but trends in the tailpipe (post-aftertreatment) emissions involve more complex interactions that significantly depend on motor size and drive cycle details.

  2. Fuel Economy Improvements from a Hybrid-Electric/Diesel Powertrain in a

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Class 4 Parcel Delivery Vehicle | Department of Energy Economy Improvements from a Hybrid-Electric/Diesel Powertrain in a Class 4 Parcel Delivery Vehicle Fuel Economy Improvements from a Hybrid-Electric/Diesel Powertrain in a Class 4 Parcel Delivery Vehicle The goal of this project is to provide data to help bridge the gap between R&D and the commercial availability of advanced vehicle technologies that reduce petroleum use in the U.S. and improve air quality. p-13_thornton.pdf (476.67

  3. Emissions and fuel economy of a Comprex pressure wave supercharged diesel. Report EPA-AA-TEB-81-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barth, E.A.; Burgenson, R.N.

    1980-10-01

    In order to increase public interest in vehicles equipped with diesel engines, methods of improving diesel-fueled engine performance, as compared to current gasoline-fueled counterparts, are being investigated. One method to increase performance is to supercharge or turbocharge the engine. This report details an EPA assessment of a supercharging technique previously evaluated, however, since that evaluation, specific areas of operation have been refined.

  4. Deriving In-Use PHEV Fuel Economy Predictions from Standardized Test Cycle Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Smart; Richard "Barney" Carlson; Jeff Gonder; Aaron Brooker

    2009-09-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have potential to reduce or eliminate the U.S. dependence on foreign oil. Quantifying the amount of petroleum each uses, however, is challenging. To estimate in-use fuel economy for conventional vehicles the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducts chassis dynamometer tests on standard historic drive cycles and then adjusts the resulting “raw” fuel economy measurements downward. Various publications, such as the forthcoming update to the SAE J1711 recommended practice for PHEV fuel economy testing, address the challenges of applying standard test procedures to PHEVs. This paper explores the issue of how to apply an adjustment method to such “raw” PHEV dynamometer test results in order to more closely estimate the in-use fuel and electricity consumption characteristics of these vehicles. The paper discusses two possible adjustment methods, and evaluates one method by applying it to dynamometer data and comparing the result to in-use fleet data (on an aftermarket conversion PHEV). The paper will also present the methodologies used to collect the data needed for this comparison.

  5. Survey Evidence on the Willingness of U.S. Consumers to Pay for Automotive Fuel Economy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, David L; Evans, David H; Hiestand, John

    2013-01-01

    Prospect theory, which was awarded the Nobel Prize in Economics in 2002, holds that human beings faced with a risky bet will tend to value potential losses about twice as much as potential gains. Previous research has demonstrated that prospect theory could be sufficient to explain an energy paradox in the market for automotive fuel economy. This paper analyzes data from four random sample surveys of 1,000 U.S. households each in 2004, 2011, 2012 and 2013. Households were asked about willingness to pay for future fuel savings as well as the annual fuel savings necessary to justify a given upfront payment. Payback periods inferred from household responses are consistent over time and across different formulations of questions. Mean calculated payback periods are short, about 3 years, but there is substantial dispersion among individual responses. Calculated payback periods do not appear to be correlated with the attributes of respondents. Respondents were able to quantitatively describe their uncertainty about both vehicle fuel economy and future fuel prices. Simulation of loss averse behavior based on this stated uncertainty illustrate how loss aversion could lead consumers to substantially undervalue future fuel savings relative to their expected value.

  6. Laminar burning velocities at high pressure for primary reference fuels and gasoline: Experimental and numerical investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerzembeck, S.; Peters, N. [RWTH, Aachen (Germany); Pepiot-Desjardins, P.; Pitsch, H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, CA (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Spherical flames of n-heptane, iso-octane, PRF 87 and gasoline/air mixtures are experimentally investigated to determine laminar burning velocities and Markstein lengths under engine-relevant conditions by using the constant volume bomb method. Data are obtained for an initial temperature of 373 K, equivalence ratios varying from {phi}=0.7 to {phi}=1.2, and initial pressures from 10 to 25 bar. To track the flame front in the vessel a dark field He-Ne laser Schlieren measurement technique and digital image processing were used. The propagating speed with respect to the burned gases and the stretch rate are determined from the rate of change of the flame radius. The laminar burning velocities are obtained through a linear extrapolation to zero stretch. The experimentally determined Markstein numbers are compared to theoretical predictions. A reduced chemical kinetic mechanism for n-heptane and iso-octane was derived from the Lawrence Livermore comprehensive mechanisms. This mechanism was validated for ignition delay times and flame propagation at low and high pressures. In summary an overall good agreement with the various experimental data sets used in the validation was obtained. (author)

  7. SULFUR REDUCTION IN GASOLINE AND DIESEL FUELS BY EXTRACTION/ADSORPTION OF REFRACTORY DIBENZOTHIOPHENES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott G. McKinley; Celedonio M. Alvarez

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to remove thiophene, benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene from a simulated gasoline feedstock. We found that Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 5}(H{sub 2}O){sup 2+} reacts with a variety of thiophenes (Th*), affording Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 5}(Th*){sup 2+}. We used this reactivity to design a biphasic extraction process that removes more than 50% of the dibenzothiophene in the simulated feedstock. This extraction system consists of a hydrocarbon phase (simulated petroleum feedstock) and extractant Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 5}(H{sub 2}O){sup 2+} in an aqueous phase (70% dimethylformamide, 30% H{sub 2}O). The DBT is removed in situ from the newly formed Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 5}(DBT){sup 2+} by either an oxidation process or addition of H{sub 2}O, to regenerate Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 5}(H{sub 2}O){sup 2+}.

  8. U.S. summer gasoline prices dive this year

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cheaper gasoline along with a stronger economy will encourage more driving. As a result, gasoline demand is forecast to reach a record high of nearly 9.5 million barrels per day ...

  9. Proposed Revisions to Light Truck Fuel Economy Standard (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    In August 2005, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) published proposed reforms to the structure of CAFE standards for light trucks and increases in light truck Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards for model years 2008 through 201. Under the proposed new structure, NHTSA would establish minimum fuel economy levels for six size categories defined by the vehicle footprint (wheelbase multiplied by track width), as summarized in Table 3. For model years 2008 through 2010, the new CAFE standards would provide manufacturers the option of complying with either the standards defined for each individual footprint category or a proposed average light truck fleet standard of 22.5 miles per gallon in 2008, 23.1 miles per gallon in 2009, and 23.5 miles per gallon in 2010. All light truck manufacturers would be required to meet an overall standard based on sales within each individual footprint category after model year 2010.

  10. Motor gasolines, summer 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickson, C.L.; Woodward, P.W.

    1986-06-01

    Samples for this report were collected from service stations throughout the country and were analyzed in laboratories of various refiners, motor manufacturers, chemical companies, and research institutes. Analytical data for the 1571 motor gasoline and 206 motor gasoline/alcohol blend samples were submitted to the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (NIPER), Bartlesville, Oklahoma, for reporting. This work is jointly funded by the American Petroleum Institute (API) and the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Bartlesville Project Office (DOE cooperative agreement No. FC22-83FE60149). The data are representative of the products of 62 marketers, large and small, which manufacture and supply gasoline. They are tabulated by groups according to brands (unlabeled) and grades for 17 marketing districts into which the country is divided. A map shows the marketing areas, districts, and sampling locations. The report includes trend charts of selected properties of motor fuels over the last twenty-five years. Twelve octane distribution graphs for leaded and unleaded grades of gasoline are presented for areas 1, 2, 3, and 4. The average antiknock (octane) index (R + M)/2 of gasoline sold in the United States during June, July, and August 1985 was 87.4 for unleaded below 90.0, 91.7 for unleaded 90.0 and above, and 88.8 for leaded below 93.0 grades of gasoline. Analyses of motor gasoline containing various alcohols are reported in separate tables beginning with this report. The average antiknock (octane) index (R + M)/2 of gasoline containing alcohols was 88.6 for unleaded below 90.0, 91.4 for unleaded 90.0 and above, and 90.2 for leaded below 93.0 grades of gasoline. 16 figs., 8 tabs.

  11. Fuel Economy and Emmissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5 Biopower

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    07-01-3994 Fuel Economy and Emissions of the Ethanol- Optimized Saab 9-5 Biopower Brian H. West, Alberto J. López, Timothy J. Theiss, Ronald L. Graves, John M. Storey and Samuel A. Lewis Oak Ridge National Laboratory ABSTRACT Saab Automobile recently released the BioPower engines, advertised to use increased turbocharger boost and spark advance on ethanol fuel to enhance performance. Specifications for the 2.0 liter turbocharged engine in the Saab 9-5 Biopower 2.0t report 150 hp (112 kW) on

  12. US Department of Energy Hybrid Vehicle Battery and Fuel Economy Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald Karner; J.E. Francfort

    2005-09-01

    The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program, has conducted testing of advanced technology vehicles since August, 1995 in support of the AVTA goal to provide benchmark data for technology modeling, and research and development programs. The AVTA has tested over 200 advanced technology vehicles including full size electric vehicles, urban electric vehicles, neighborhood electric vehicles, and hydrogen internal combustion engine powered vehicles. Currently, the AVTA is conducting significant tests of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). This testing has included all HEVs produced by major automotive manufacturers and spans over 1.3 million miles. The results of all testing are posted on the AVTA web page maintained by the Idaho National Laboratory. Through the course of this testing, the fuel economy of HEV fleets has been monitored and analyzed to determine the "real world" performance of their hybrid energy systems, particularly the battery. While the initial "real world" fuel economy of these vehicles has typically been less than that evaluated by the manufacturer and varies significantly with environmental conditions, the fuel economy and, therefore, battery performance, has remained stable over vehicle life (160,000 miles).

  13. Vehicle Efficiency and Tractive Work: Rate of Change for the Past Decade and Accelerated Progress Required for U.S. Fuel Economy and CO2 Regulations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Thomas, John

    2016-04-05

    A major driving force for change in light-duty vehicle design and technology is the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) joint final rules concerning Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for model years (MY) 2016 through 2025 passenger cars and light trucks. The chief goal of this current study is to compare the already rapid pace of fuel economy improvement and technological change over the previous decade to the needed rate of change to meet regulations over the next decade. EPA and NHTSA comparisons of the MY 2004 USmore » light-duty vehicle fleet to the MY 2014 fleet shows improved fuel economy (FE) of approximately 28% using the same FE estimating method mandated for CAFE regulations. Future predictions by EPA and NHTSA concerning ensemble fleet fuel economy are examined as an indicator of needed vehicle rate-of-change. A set of 40 same-model vehicle pairs for MY 2005 and MY 2015 is compared to examine changes in energy use and related technological change over the 10 year period. Powertrain improvements measured as increased vehicle efficiency, and vehicle mass-glider improvements measured as decreased tractive work requirements are quantified. The focus is first on conventional gasoline powertrain vehicles which currently dominate the market, with hybrids also examined due to their high potential importance for CAFE compliance. Most hybrid vehicles with significant sales in 2014 were represented in the study. Results show 10 years of progress for the studied vehicle set includes lowered tractive effort of about 5.6% and improved powertrain efficiency of about 16.5%. Further analysis shows that this high rate of past progress must increase by about 50% in order to meet the 2025 CAFE standards. Examination of where certain MY 2015 vehicle compare to CAFE regulations is offered as well as some simple conjecture on what is needed to meet regulations under

  14. Multi-Mode RCCI Has Great Potential to Improve Fuel Economy in Light-Duty Diesel Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Multi-mode RCCI (Reactivity-Controlled Compression Ignition), a promising advanced combustion process, has the potential to improve fuel economy of passenger cars by at least 15%, according to a...

  15. Fact #868: April 13, 2015 Automotive Technology Has Improved Performance and Fuel Economy of New Light Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Despite a 124% increase in horsepower and 47% decrease in 0-60 time from 1980 to 2014, the fuel economy of vehicles improved 27%. All of these data series are sales-weighted averages. The weight of...

  16. Hazard analysis of compressed natural gas fueling systems and fueling procedures used at retail gasoline service stations. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-04-28

    An evaluation of the hazards associated with operations of a typical compressed natural gas (CNG) fueling station is presented. The evaluation includes identification of a typical CNG fueling system; a comparison of the typical system with ANSI/NFPA (American National Standards Institute/National Fire Protection Association) Standard 52, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Vehicular Fuel System, requirements; a review of CNG industry safety experience as identified in current literature; hazard identification of potential internal (CNG system-specific causes) and external (interface of co-located causes) events leading to potential accidents; and an analysis of potential accident scenarios as determined from the hazard evaluation. The study considers CNG dispensing equipment and associated equipment, including the compressor station, storate vessels, and fill pressure sensing system.

  17. FedEx Gasoline Hybrid Electric Delivery Truck Evaluation: 6-Month Interim Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnitt, R.

    2010-05-01

    This interim report presents partial (six months) results for a technology evaluation of gasoline hybrid electric parcel delivery trucks operated by FedEx in and around Los Angeles, CA. A 12 month in-use technology evaluation comparing in-use fuel economy and maintenance costs of GHEVs and comparative diesel parcel delivery trucks was started in April 2009. Comparison data was collected and analyzed for in-use fuel economy and fuel costs, maintenance costs, total operating costs, and vehicle uptime. In addition, this interim report presents results of parcel delivery drive cycle collection and analysis activities as well as emissions and fuel economy results of chassis dynamometer testing of a gHEV and a comparative diesel truck at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) ReFUEL laboratory. A final report will be issued when 12 months of in-use data have been collected and analyzed.

  18. Diesel vs Gasoline Production | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    "swing" between diesel and gasoline production deer08leister.pdf (217.54 KB) More Documents & Publications Marathon Sees Diesel Fuel in Future ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy ...

  19. In-Cylinder Fuel Blending of Gasoline/Diesel for Improved Efficiency and Lowest Possible Emissions on a Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curran, Scott; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Wagner, Robert M; Parks, II, James E; Cho, Kukwon; Sluder, Scott; Kokjohn, Sage; Reitz, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    In-cylinder fuel blending of gasoline/diesel fuel is investigated on a multi-cylinder light-duty diesel engine as a potential strategy to control in-cylinder fuel reactivity for improved efficiency and lowest possible emissions. This approach was developed and demonstrated at the University of Wisconsin through modeling and single-cylinder engine experiments. The objective of this study is to better understand the potential and challenges of this method on a multi-cylinder engine. More specifically, the effect of cylinder-to-cylinder imbalances, heat rejection, and in-cylinder charge motion as well as the potential limitations imposed by real-world turbo-machinery were investigated on a 1.9-liter four-cylinder engine. This investigation focused on one engine condition, 2300 rpm, 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). Gasoline was introduced with a port-fuel-injection system. Parameter sweeps included gasoline-to-diesel fuel ratio, intake air mixture temperature, in-cylinder swirl number, and diesel start-of-injection phasing. In addition, engine parameters were trimmed for each cylinder to balance the combustion process for maximum efficiency and lowest emissions. An important observation was the strong influence of intake charge temperature on cylinder pressure rise rate. Experiments were able to show increased thermal efficiency along with dramatic decreases in oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and particulate matter (PM). However, indicated thermal efficiency for the multi-cylinder experiments were less than expected based on modeling and single-cylinder results. The lower indicated thermal efficiency is believed to be due increased heat transfer as compared to the model predictions and suggest a need for improved cylinder-to-cylinder control and increased heat transfer control.

  20. Novel Characterization of GDI Engine Exhaust for Gasoline and Mid-Level Gasoline-Alcohol Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storey, John Morse; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Szybist, James P; Thomas, John F; Barone, Teresa L; Eibl, Mary A; Nafziger, Eric J; Kaul, Brian C

    2014-01-01

    Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines can offer improved fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected (PFI) counterparts, and are now appearing in increasingly more U.S. and European vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged GDI engines are replacing large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, in order for manufacturers to meet more stringent fuel economy standards. GDI engines typically emit the most particulate matter (PM) during periods of rich operation such as start-up and acceleration, and emissions of air toxics are also more likely during this condition. A 2.0 L GDI engine was operated at lambda of 0.91 at typical loads for acceleration (2600 rpm, 8 bar BMEP) on three different fuels; an 87 anti-knock index (AKI) gasoline (E0), 30% ethanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel (E30), and 48% isobutanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel. E30 was chosen to maximize octane enhancement while minimizing ethanol-blend level and iBu48 was chosen to match the same fuel oxygen level as E30. Particle size and number, organic carbon and elemental carbon (OC/EC), soot HC speciation, and aldehydes and ketones were all analyzed during the experiment. A new method for soot HC speciation is introduced using a direct, thermal desorption/pyrolysis inlet for the gas chromatograph (GC). Results showed high levels of aromatic compounds were present in the PM, including downstream of the catalyst, and the aldehydes were dominated by the alcohol blending.

  1. Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direction Injection (GTDI) Engine Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, Terrance

    2015-12-31

    This program was undertaken in response to US Department of Energy Solicitation DE-FOA-0000079, resulting in a cooperative agreement with Ford and MTU to demonstrate improvement of fuel efficiency in a vehicle equipped with an advanced GTDI engine. Ford Motor Company has invested significantly in GTDI engine technology as a cost effective, high volume, fuel economy solution, marketed globally as EcoBoost technology. Ford envisions additional fuel economy improvement in the medium and long term by further advancing EcoBoost technology. The approach for the project was to engineer a comprehensive suite of gasoline engine systems technologies to achieve the project objectives, and to progressively demonstrate the objectives via concept analysis / computer modeling, single-cylinder and multi-cylinder engine testing on engine dynamometer, and vehicle level testing on chassis rolls.

  2. Effect of Premixed Fuel Preparation for Partially Premixed Combustion with a Low Octane Gasoline on a Light-Duty Multi-Cylinder Compression Ignition Engine

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dempsey, Adam B.; Curran, Scott; Wagner, Robert M.; Cannella, William C.

    2015-05-12

    Gasoline compression ignition concepts with the majority of the fuel being introduced early in the cycle are known as partially premixed combustion (PPC). Previous research on single- and multi-cylinder engines has shown that PPC has the potential for high thermal efficiency with low NOx and soot emissions. A variety of fuel injection strategies has been proposed in the literature. These injection strategies aim to create a partially stratified charge to simultaneously reduce NOx and soot emissions while maintaining some level of control over the combustion process through the fuel delivery system. The impact of the direct injection strategy to createmore » a premixed charge of fuel and air has not previously been explored, and its impact on engine efficiency and emissions is not well understood. This paper explores the effect of sweeping the direct injected pilot timing from -91° to -324° ATDC, which is just after the exhaust valve closes for the engine used in this study. During the sweep, the pilot injection consistently contained 65% of the total fuel (based on command duration ratio), and the main injection timing was adjusted slightly to maintain combustion phasing near top dead center. A modern four cylinder, 1.9 L diesel engine with a variable geometry turbocharger, high pressure common rail injection system, wide included angle injectors, and variable swirl actuation was used in this study. The pistons were modified to an open bowl configuration suitable for highly premixed combustion modes. The stock diesel injection system was unmodified, and the gasoline fuel was doped with a lubricity additive to protect the high pressure fuel pump and the injectors. The study was conducted at a fixed speed/load condition of 2000 rpm and 4.0 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). The pilot injection timing sweep was conducted at different intake manifold pressures, swirl levels, and fuel injection GTP-15-1067, Dempsey 2 pressures. The gasoline used in this study

  3. Effect of Premixed Fuel Preparation for Partially Premixed Combustion with a Low Octane Gasoline on a Light-Duty Multi-Cylinder Compression Ignition Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dempsey, Adam B.; Curran, Scott; Wagner, Robert M.; Cannella, William C.

    2015-05-12

    Gasoline compression ignition concepts with the majority of the fuel being introduced early in the cycle are known as partially premixed combustion (PPC). Previous research on single- and multi-cylinder engines has shown that PPC has the potential for high thermal efficiency with low NOx and soot emissions. A variety of fuel injection strategies has been proposed in the literature. These injection strategies aim to create a partially stratified charge to simultaneously reduce NOx and soot emissions while maintaining some level of control over the combustion process through the fuel delivery system. The impact of the direct injection strategy to create a premixed charge of fuel and air has not previously been explored, and its impact on engine efficiency and emissions is not well understood. This paper explores the effect of sweeping the direct injected pilot timing from -91° to -324° ATDC, which is just after the exhaust valve closes for the engine used in this study. During the sweep, the pilot injection consistently contained 65% of the total fuel (based on command duration ratio), and the main injection timing was adjusted slightly to maintain combustion phasing near top dead center. A modern four cylinder, 1.9 L diesel engine with a variable geometry turbocharger, high pressure common rail injection system, wide included angle injectors, and variable swirl actuation was used in this study. The pistons were modified to an open bowl configuration suitable for highly premixed combustion modes. The stock diesel injection system was unmodified, and the gasoline fuel was doped with a lubricity additive to protect the high pressure fuel pump and the injectors. The study was conducted at a fixed speed/load condition of 2000 rpm and 4.0 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). The pilot injection timing sweep was conducted at different intake manifold pressures, swirl levels, and fuel injection GTP-15-1067, Dempsey 2 pressures. The gasoline used in this study has

  4. Investigation of Knock limited Compression Ratio of Ethanol Gasoline Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szybist, James P; Youngquist, Adam D; Wagner, Robert M; Moore, Wayne; Foster, Matthew; Confer, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Ethanol offers significant potential for increasing the compression ratio of SI engines resulting from its high octane number and high latent heat of vaporization. A study was conducted to determine the knock limited compression ratio of ethanol gasoline blends to identify the potential for improved operating efficiency. To operate an SI engine in a flex fuel vehicle requires operating strategies that allow operation on a broad range of fuels from gasoline to E85. Since gasoline or low ethanol blend operation is inherently limited by knock at high loads, strategies must be identified which allow operation on these fuels with minimal fuel economy or power density tradeoffs. A single cylinder direct injection spark ignited engine with fully variable hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) is operated at WOT conditions to determine the knock limited compression ratio (CR) of ethanol fuel blends. The geometric compression ratio is varied by changing pistons, producing CR from 9.2 to 13.66. The effective CR is varied using an electro-hydraulic valvetrain that changed the effective trapped displacement using both Early Intake Valve Closing (EIVC) and Late Intake Valve Closing (LIVC). The EIVC and LIVC strategies result in effective CR being reduced while maintaining the geometric expansion ratio. It was found that at substantially similar engine conditions, increasing the ethanol content of the fuel results in higher engine efficiency and higher engine power. These can be partially attributed to a charge cooling effect and a higher heating valve of a stoichiometric mixture for ethanol blends (per unit mass of air). Additional thermodynamic effects on and a mole multiplier are also explored. It was also found that high CR can increase the efficiency of ethanol fuel blends, and as a result, the fuel economy penalty associated with the lower energy content of E85 can be reduced by about a third. Such operation necessitates that the engine be operated in a de-rated manner for

  5. Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles: Resources for Fleet Managers (Clean Cities) (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brennan, A.

    2011-04-01

    A discussion of the tools and resources on the Clean Cities, Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center, and the FuelEconomy.gov Web sites that can help vehicle fleet managers make informed decisions about implementing strategies to reduce gasoline and diesel fuel use.

  6. The Evaluation of Developing Vehicle Technologies on the Fuel Economy of Long-Haul Trucks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Zhiming; Smith, David E.; Daw, C. Stuart; Edwards, Kevin Dean; Kaul, Brian C.; Domingo, Norberto; Parks, II, James E.; Jones, Perry T.

    2015-12-01

    We present fuel savings estimates resulting from the combined implementation of multiple advanced energy management technologies in both conventional and parallel hybrid class 8 diesel trucks. The energy management technologies considered here have been specifically targeted by the 21st Century Truck Partnership (21 CTP) between the U.S. Department of Energy and U.S. industry and include advanced combustion engines, waste heat recovery, and reductions in auxiliary loads, rolling resistance, aerodynamic drag, and gross vehicle weight. Furthermore, we estimated that combined use of all these technologies in hybrid trucks has the potential to improve fuel economy by more than 60% compared to current conventional trucks, but this requires careful system integration to avoid non-optimal interactions. Major factors to be considered in system integration are discussed.

  7. The Evaluation of Developing Vehicle Technologies on the Fuel Economy of Long-Haul Trucks

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gao, Zhiming; Smith, David E.; Daw, C. Stuart; Edwards, Kevin Dean; Kaul, Brian C.; Domingo, Norberto; Parks, II, James E.; Jones, Perry T.

    2015-12-01

    We present fuel savings estimates resulting from the combined implementation of multiple advanced energy management technologies in both conventional and parallel hybrid class 8 diesel trucks. The energy management technologies considered here have been specifically targeted by the 21st Century Truck Partnership (21 CTP) between the U.S. Department of Energy and U.S. industry and include advanced combustion engines, waste heat recovery, and reductions in auxiliary loads, rolling resistance, aerodynamic drag, and gross vehicle weight. Furthermore, we estimated that combined use of all these technologies in hybrid trucks has the potential to improve fuel economy by more than 60% compared tomore » current conventional trucks, but this requires careful system integration to avoid non-optimal interactions. Major factors to be considered in system integration are discussed.« less

  8. Improving Ethanol-Gasoline Blends by Addition of Higher Alcohols |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Ethanol-Gasoline Blends by Addition of Higher Alcohols Improving Ethanol-Gasoline Blends by Addition of Higher Alcohols Mixtures of ethanol, gasoline, and higher alcohols were evaluated to determine if they offer superior performance to ethanol/gasoline blends in meeting the Renewal Fuels Standard II. deer12_ickes.pdf (1.45 MB) More Documents & Publications Vehicle Certification Test Fuel and Ethanol Flex Fuel Quality Impact of ethanol and butanol as oxygenates on

  9. Motor gasolines, summer 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shelton, E.M.

    1984-02-01

    The samples were collected from service stations throughout the country and were analyzed in the laboratories of various refiners, motor manufacturers, chemical companies, and research institutes. The analytical data for 1583 samples of motor gasoline, were submitted to the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, Oklahoma for study, necessary calculations, and compilation under a cooperative agreement between the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (NIPER) and the American Petroleum Institute (API). They represent the products of 48 companies, large and small, which manufacture and supply gasoline. These data are tabulated by groups according to brands (unlabeled) and grades for 17 marketing districts into which the country is divided. A map included in this report, shows marketing areas, districts and sampling locations. The report also includes charts indicating the trends of selected properties of motor fuels since 1959. Sixteen octane distribution percent charts for areas 1, 2, 3, and 4 for unleaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 below 90.0, unleaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 90.0 and above, and leaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 below 93.0 grades of gasoline are presented in this report. The antiknock (octane) index (R+M)/2 averages of gasoline sold in this country were 87.5 for unleaded below 90.0, 91.4 for unleaded 90.0 and above, and 89.0 for leaded below 93.0 grades of gasoline. 16 figures, 5 tables.

  10. Motor gasolines, summer 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shelton, E.M.

    1981-02-01

    Analytical data for 2062 samples of motor gasoline were collected from service stations throughout the country and were analyzed in the laboratories of various refiners, motor manufacturers, and chemical companies. The data were submitted to the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center for study, necessary calculations, and compilation under a cooperative agreement between the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC) and the American Petroleum Institute (API). The samples represent the products of 48 companies, large and small, which manufacture and supply gasoline. These data are tabulated by groups according to brands (unlabeled) and grades for 17 marketing districts into which the country is divided. A map included in this report, shows marketing areas, districts and sampling locations. The report also includes charts indicating the trends of selected properties of motor fuels since 1949. Twelve octane distribution percent charts for areas 1, 2, 3, and 4 for unleaded, regular, and premium grades of gasoline are presented in this report. The anitknock (octane) index ((R + M)/2) averages of gasolines sold in this country were 87.8 for the unleaded below 90.0, 91.6 for the unleaded 90.0 and above, 88.9 for the regular, and 92.8 for the premium grades of gasoline.

  11. Motor gasolines, Summer 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shelton, E.M.

    1983-03-01

    The samples were collected from service stations throughout the country and were analyzed in the laboratories of various refiners, motor manufacturers, and chemical companies. The analytical data for 796 samples of motor gasoline, were submitted to the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center for study, necessary calculations, and compilation under a cooperative agreement between the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC) and the American Petroleum Institute (API). They represent the products of 22 companies, large and small, which manufacture and supply gasoline. These data are tabulated by groups according to brands (unlabeled) and grades for 17 marketing districts into which the country is divided. A map included in this report, shows marketing areas, districts and sampling locations. The report also includes charts indicating the trends of selected properties of motor fuels since 1959. Sixteen octane distribution percent charts for areas 1, 2, 3, and 4 for unleaded antiknock index (R + M)/2 below 90.0, unleaded antiknock index (R + M)/2 90.0 and above, leaded antiknock index (R + M)/2 below 93.0, and leaded antiknock index (R + M)/2 93.0 and above grades of gasoline are presented in this report. The antiknock (octane) index (R + M)/2 averages of gasoline sold in this country were 87.3 for unleaded below 90.0, 91.7 for unleaded 90.0 and above, 89.0 for leaded below 93.0, and no data in this report for 93.0 and above grades of leaded gasoline.

  12. Selective Catalytic Reduction of Oxides of Nitrogen with Ethanol/Gasoline Blends over a Silver/Alumina Catalyst on Lean Gasoline Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Pihl, Josh A; Toops, Todd J; Thomas, John F; Parks, II, James E; West, Brian H

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a very effective reductant of nitrogen oxides (NOX) over silver/alumina (Ag/Al2O3) catalysts in lean exhaust environment. With the widespread availability of ethanol/gasoline-blended fuel in the USA, lean gasoline engines equipped with an Ag/Al2O3 catalyst have the potential to deliver higher fuel economy than stoichiometric gasoline engines and to increase biofuel utilization while meeting exhaust emissions regulations. In this work a pre-commercial 2 wt% Ag/Al2O3 catalyst was evaluated on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOX with ethanol/gasoline blends. The ethanol/gasoline blends were delivered via in-pipe injection upstream of the Ag/Al2O3 catalyst with the engine operating under lean conditions. A number of engine conditions were chosen to provide a range of temperatures and space velocities for the catalyst performance evaluations. High NOX conversions were achieved with ethanol/gasoline blends containing at least 50% ethanol; however, higher C1/N ratio was needed to achieve greater than 90% NOX conversion, which also resulted in significant HC slip. Temperature and HC dosing were important in controlling selectivity to NH3 and N2O. At high temperatures, NH3 and N2O yields increased with increased HC dosing. At low temperatures, NH3 yield was very low, however, N2O levels became significant. The ability to generate NH3 under lean conditions has potential for application of a dual SCR approach (HC SCR + NH3 SCR) to reduce fuel consumption needed for NOX reduction and/or increased NOX conversion, which is discussed in this work.

  13. Fact #848: November 24, 2014 Nearly Three-Fourths of New Cars have Fuel Economy above 25 Miles per Gallon- Dataset

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file with dataset for Fact #848: November 24, 2014 Nearly Three-Fourths of New Cars have Fuel Economy above 25 Miles per Gallon

  14. Fact #849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51% Better Fuel Economy than Midsize Non-Hybrid Cars in 2014- Dataset

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file with dataset for Fact #849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51% Better Fuel Economy than Midsize Non-Hybrid Cars in 2014

  15. Fact #941: September 5, 2016 Mid-term Evaluation of the Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards May Impact Future Standards for Model Years 2022 to 2025- Dataset

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file and dataset for Mid-term Evaluation of the Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards May Impact Future Standards for Model Years 2022 to 2025

  16. Path to High Efficiency Gasoline Engine | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Path to High Efficiency Gasoline Engine Path to High Efficiency Gasoline Engine Path to High Efficiency Gasoline Engine deer10_johansson.pdf (4.97 MB) More Documents & Publications Partially Premixed Combustion High-Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Engine via Fuel Reactivity Control Advanced Lean-Burn DI Spark Ignition Fuels Research

  17. Voluntary Truck and Bus Fuel-Economy-Program marketing plan. Final technical report, September 29, 1980-January 29, 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1982-01-01

    The aim of the program is to improve the utilization of fuel by commercial trucks and buses by updating and implementing specific approaches for educating and monitoring the trucking industry on methods and means of conserving fuels. The following outlines the marketing plan projects: increase use of program logo by voluntary program members and others; solicit trade publication membership and support; brief Congressional delegations on fuel conservation efforts; increase voluntary program presence before trade groups; increase voluntary program presence at truck and trade shows; create a voluntary program display for use at trade shows and in other areas; review voluntary program graphics; increase voluntary program membership; and produce placemats carrying fuel conservation messages; produce a special edition of Fuel Economy News, emphasizing the driver's involvement in fuel conservation; produce posters carrying voluntary program fuel conservation message. Project objectives, activities, and results for each project are summarized.

  18. Engineering-economic analyses of automotive fuel economy potential in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.; DeCicco, J.

    2000-02-01

    Over the past 25 years more than 20 major studies have examined the technological potential to improve the fuel economy of passenger cars and light trucks in the US. The majority has used technology/cost analysis, a combination of analytical methods from the disciplines of economics and automotive engineering. In this paper the authors describe the key elements of this methodology, discuss critical issues responsible for the often widely divergent estimates produced by different studies, review the history of its use, and present results from six recent assessments. Whereas early studies tended to confine their scope to the potential of proven technology over a 10-year time period, more recent studies have focused on advanced technologies, raising questions about how best to include the likelihood of technological change. The paper concludes with recommendations for further research.

  19. Microsoft Word - Gasoline_2008 Supplement.doc

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8 1 April 2008 Short-Term Energy Outlook Supplement: Motor Gasoline Consumption 2008 A Historical Perspective and Short-Term Projections 1 Highlights * Income growth rates have less of an impact on recent trends in gasoline consumption than in the past, but short-run effects are still significant. * High gasoline prices are once again motivating drivers to conserve by driving less and purchasing more fuel-efficient transportation. * The increasing share of lower-Btu-content ethanol has

  20. Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice, Vehicle...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    than one type of fuel. FFVs can be fueled with unleaded gasoline, E85, or any combination of the two. Like conventional gasoline vehicles, FFVs have a single fuel tank, fuel ...

  1. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Efficiency-Optimized Duel Fuel Engine with In-Cylinder Gasoline/CNG Blending

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Fuel ...

  2. Exhaust particle characterization for lean and stoichiometric DI vehicles operating on ethanol-gasoline blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storey, John Morse; Barone, Teresa L; Thomas, John F; Huff, Shean P

    2012-01-01

    Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines can offer better fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected (PFI) counterparts, and are now appearing in increasingly more U.S. and European vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged GDI engines are replacing large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, in order for manufacturers to meet the U.S. fuel economy standards for 2016. Furthermore, lean-burn GDI engines can offer even higher fuel economy than stoichiometric GDI engines and have overcome challenges associated with cost-effective aftertreatment for NOx control. Along with changes in gasoline engine technology, fuel composition may increase in ethanol content beyond the current 10% due to the recent EPA waiver allowing 15% ethanol. In addition, the Renewable Fuels Standard passed as part of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) mandates the use of biofuels in upcoming years. GDI engines are of environmental concern due to their high particulate matter (PM) emissions relative to port-fuel injected (PFI) gasoline vehicles; widespread market penetration of GDI vehicles may result in additional PM from mobile sources at a time when the diesel contribution is declining. In this study, we characterized particulate emissions from a European certified lean-burn GDI vehicle operating on ethanol-gasoline blends. Particle mass and particle number concentration emissions were measured for the Federal Test Procedure urban driving cycle (FTP 75) and the more aggressive US06 driving cycle. Particle number-size distributions and organic to elemental carbon ratios (OC/EC) were measured for 30 MPH and 80 MPH steady-state operation. In addition, particle number concentration was measured during wide open throttle accelerations (WOTs) and gradual accelerations representative of the FTP 75. Fuels included certification gasoline and 10% (E10) and 20% (E20) ethanol blends from the same supplier. The particle

  3. The Effect of Driving Intensity and Incomplete Charging on the Fuel Economy of a Hymotion Prius PHEV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Barney Carlson

    2009-10-01

    On-road testing was conducted on a Hymotion Prius plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) at the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation in Phoenix, Arizona. The tests were comprised of on-road urban and highway driving during charge-depleting and charge-sustaining operation. Determining real-world effectiveness of PHEVs at reducing petroleum consumption in real world driving was the main focus of the study. Throughout testing, several factors that affect fuel consumption of PHEVs were identified. This report discusses two of these factors: driving intensity (i.e., driving aggressiveness) and battery charging completeness. These two factors are unrelated, yet both significantly impact the vehicles fuel economy. Driving intensity was shown to decrease fuel economy by up to half. Charging completeness, which was affected by human factors and ambient temperature conditions, also showed to have great impact on fuel economy for the Hymotion Prius. These tests were performed for the U.S. Department of Energys Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, part of the U.S. Department of Energys Vehicle Technology Program, is conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation.

  4. Energy Department Announces First Regional Gasoline Reserve to Strengthen

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Resiliency | Department of Energy First Regional Gasoline Reserve to Strengthen Fuel Resiliency Energy Department Announces First Regional Gasoline Reserve to Strengthen Fuel Resiliency May 2, 2014 - 10:29am Addthis News Media Contact 202-586-4940 WASHINGTON - As part of the Obama Administration's response to Superstorm Sandy, Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz today announced the creation of the first federal regional refined petroleum product reserve containing gasoline. Based on the

  5. 3-Cylinder Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection: A High Value Solution

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Euro VI Emissions | Department of Energy Cylinder Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection: A High Value Solution for Euro VI Emissions 3-Cylinder Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection: A High Value Solution for Euro VI Emissions 3-cylindery gasoline direct injection engines offer similar value in CO2 reduction capability (Euros/% CO2 reduction) at a significantly lower on-cost. deer09_kirwan.pdf (1.32 MB) More Documents & Publications Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle Reducing

  6. Evaluating the Impact of Road Grade on Simulated Commercial Vehicle Fuel Economy Using Real-World Drive Cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopp, Sean; Wood, Eric; Duran, Adam

    2015-10-13

    Commercial vehicle fuel economy is known to vary significantly with both positive and negative road grade. Medium- and heavy-duty vehicles operating at highway speeds require incrementally larger amounts of energy to pull heavy payloads up inclines as road grade increases. Non-hybrid vehicles are then unable to recapture energy on descent and lose energy through friction braking. While the on-road effects of road grade are well understood, the majority of standard commercial vehicle drive cycles feature no climb or descent requirements. Additionally, existing literature offers a limited number of sources that attempt to estimate the on-road energy implications of road grade in the medium- and heavy-duty space. This study uses real-world commercial vehicle drive cycles from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Fleet DNA database to simulate the effects of road grade on fuel economy across a range of vocations, operating conditions, and locations. Drive-cycles are matched with vocation-specific vehicle models and simulated with and without grade. Fuel use due to grade is presented, and variation in fuel consumption due to drive cycle and vehicle characteristics is explored through graphical and statistical comparison. The results of this study suggest that road grade accounts for 1%-9% of fuel use in commercial vehicles on average and up to 40% on select routes.

  7. The Effect of Diesel Fuel Properties on Emissions-Restrained Fuel Economy at Mid-Load Conditions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Statistical models developed from designed esperiments (varying fuel properties and engine control parameters) were used to optimize fuel consumption subject to emissions and engine performance constraints.

  8. U.S. Motor Gasoline Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Formulation Grade: Gasoline, Average Regular Gasoline Midgrade Gasoline Premium Gasoline Conventional, Average Conventional Regular Conventional Midgrade Conventional Premium ...

  9. Fact #777: April 29, 2013 For the Second Year in a Row, Survey Respondents Consider Fuel Economy Most Important When Purchasing a Vehicle

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A 2012 survey asked the question "Which one of the following attributes would be MOST important to you in your choice of your next vehicle?" The choices were fuel economy, dependability, low price,...

  10. Measured Laboratory and In-Use Fuel Economy Observed over Targeted Drive Cycles for Comparable Hybrid and Conventional Package Delivery Vehicles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2-01-2049 Measured Laboratory and In-Use Fuel Economy Published Observed over Targeted Drive Cycles for 09/24/2012 Comparable Hybrid and Conventional Package Delivery Vehicles Michael P. Lammert, Kevin Walkowicz, Adam Duran and Petr Sindler National Renewable Energy Laboratory ABSTRACT This research project compares the in-use and laboratory- derived fuel economy of a medium-duty hybrid electric drivetrain with "engine off at idle" capability to a conventional drivetrain in a typical

  11. Simulated fuel economy and emissions performance during city and interstate driving for a heavy-duty hybrid truck

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daw, C Stuart; Gao, Zhiming; Smith, David E; LaClair, Tim J; Pihl, Josh A; Edwards, Kevin Dean

    2013-01-01

    We compare simulated fuel economy and emissions for both conventional and hybrid class 8 heavy-duty diesel trucks operating over multiple urban and highway driving cycles. Both light and heavy freight loads were considered, and all simulations included full aftertreatment for NOx and particulate emissions controls. The aftertreatment components included a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), urea-selective catalytic NOx reduction (SCR), and a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF). Our simulated hybrid powertrain was configured with a pre-transmission parallel drive, with a single electric motor between the clutch and gearbox. A conventional HD truck with equivalent diesel engine and aftertreatment was also simulated for comparison. Our results indicate that hybridization can significantly increase HD fuel economy and improve emissions control in city driving. However, there is less potential hybridization benefit for HD highway driving. A major factor behind the reduced hybridization benefit for highway driving is that there are fewer opportunities to utilize regenerative breaking. Our aftertreatment simulations indicate that opportunities for passive DPF regeneration are much greater for both hybrid and conventional trucks during highway driving due to higher sustained exhaust temperatures. When passive DPF regeneration is extensively utilized, the fuel penalty for particulate control is virtually eliminated, except for the 0.4%-0.9% fuel penalty associated with the slightly higher exhaust backpressure.

  12. Quantifying the Effects of Idle-Stop Systems on Fuel Economy in Light-Duty Passenger Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeff Wishart; Matthew Shirk

    2012-12-01

    Vehicles equipped with idle-stop (IS) systems are capable of engine shut down when the vehicle is stopped and rapid engine re-start for the vehicle launch. This capability reduces fuel consumption and emissions during periods when the engine is not being utilized to provide propulsion or to power accessories. IS systems are a low-cost and fast-growing technology in the industry-wide pursuit of increased vehicle efficiency, possibly becoming standard features in European vehicles in the near future. In contrast, currently there are only three non-hybrid vehicle models for sale in North America with IS systems and these models are distinctly low-volume models. As part of the United States Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, ECOtality North America has tested the real-world effect of IS systems on fuel consumption in three vehicle models imported from Europe. These vehicles were chosen to represent three types of systems: (1) spark ignition with 12-V belt alternator starter; (2) compression ignition with 12-V belt alternator starter; and (3) direct-injection spark ignition, with 12-V belt alternator starter/combustion restart. The vehicles have undergone both dynamometer and on-road testing; the test results show somewhat conflicting data. The laboratory data and the portion of the on-road data in which driving is conducted on a prescribed route with trained drivers produced significant fuel economy improvement. However, the fleet data do not corroborate improvement, even though the data show significant engine-off time. It is possible that the effects of the varying driving styles and routes in the fleet testing overshadowed the fuel economy improvements. More testing with the same driver over routes that are similar with the IS system-enabled and disabled is recommended. There is anecdotal evidence that current Environmental Protection Agency fuel economy test procedures do not capture the fuel economy gains that IS systems produce in real

  13. Combustion, Efficiency, and Fuel Effects in a Spark-Assisted...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion, Efficiency, and Fuel Effects in a Spark-Assisted HCCI Gasoline Engine Combustion, Efficiency, and Fuel Effects in a Spark-Assisted HCCI Gasoline Engine 2004 Diesel ...

  14. Fact #861 February 23, 2015 Idle Fuel Consumption for Selected...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 February 23, 2015 Idle Fuel Consumption for Selected Gasoline and Diesel Vehicles Fact 861 February 23, 2015 Idle Fuel Consumption for Selected Gasoline and Diesel Vehicles ...

  15. Fact #861 February 23, 2015 Idle Fuel Consumption for Selected...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 February 23, 2015 Idle Fuel Consumption for Selected Gasoline and Diesel Vehicles - Dataset Fact 861 February 23, 2015 Idle Fuel Consumption for Selected Gasoline and Diesel ...

  16. SwRI's HEDGE Technology for High Efficiency, Low Emissions Gasoline...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency Engine Technologies and an Introduction to SwRI's Dedicated EGR Concept Development of Dual-Fuel Engine for Class 8 Applications Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle...

  17. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Fuel Economy Guide and fueleconomy.gov Website

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about the fuel...

  18. Fact #925: May 16, 2016 Improvements in Fuel Economy for Low...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Trading a low-mpg car or truck for one with just slightly better mpg will save more fuel than trading a high-mpg car or truck for one that is even higher. An improvement in fuel ...

  19. U.S. gasoline consumption highest in 8 years

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. gasoline consumption highest in 8 years U.S. gasoline consumption this year is expected to be at the highest level since the record fuel demand seen back in 2007 as lower gasoline prices and more people finding jobs means more sales at the gasoline pump. In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said gasoline consumption increased by 2.7% during the first eight months of 2015 and should rise by an average of 190,000 barrels per day this year to 9.1 million

  20. Evaluation and Adaptation of 5-Cycle Fuel Economy Testing and Calculations for HEVs and PHEVs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  1. U.S. Aviation Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Product: Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Propane (Consumer Grade) Kerosene No. 1 Distillate No. 2 Distillate No. 2 Diesel Fuel No. 2 Diesel, Ultra Low-Sulfur No. 2 Diesel, ...

  2. Reformulated gasoline quality issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez, R.G.; Felch, D.E.; Edgar, M.D.

    1995-11-01

    One year ago, a panel of industry experts were interviewed in the November/December 1994 issue of Fuel Reformulation (Vol. 4, No. 6). With the focus then and now on refinery investments, the panelists were asked to forecast which refining processes would grow in importance. It is apparent from their response, and from other articles and discussions throughout the year, that hydroprocessing and catalytic conversion processes are synergistic in the overall refinery design, with flexibility and process objectives varying on a unit-by-unit case. To an extent, future refinery investments in downstream petrochemicals, such as for paraxylene production, are based on available catalytic reforming feedstock. Just a importantly, hydroprocessing units (hydrotreating, hydrocracking) needed for clean fuel production (gasoline, diesel, aviation fuel), are heavily dependent on hydrogen production from the catalytic reformer. Catalytic reforming`s significant influence in the refinery hydrogen balance, as well as its status as a significant naphtha conversion route to higher-quality fuels, make this unit a high-priority issue for engineers and planners striving for flexibility.

  3. The potential for low petroleum gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.; Webb, G.M.; Clauson, M.

    1996-06-01

    The Energy Policy Act requires the Secretary of Energy to determine the feasibility of producing sufficient replacement fuels to replace at least 30 percent of the projected consumption of motor fuels by light duty vehicles in the year 2010. The Act also requires the Secretary to determine the greenhouse gas implications of the use of replacement fuels. A replacement fuel is a non-petroleum portion of gasoline, including certain alcohols, ethers, and other components. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model has been used to study the cost and refinery impacts for production of {open_quotes}low petroleum{close_quotes} gasolines, which contain replacement fuels. The analysis suggests that high oxygenation is the key to meeting the replacement fuel target, and a major contributor to cost increase is investment in processes to produce and etherify light olefins. High oxygenation can also increase the costs of control of vapor pressure, distillation properties, and pollutant emissions of gasolines. Year-round low petroleum gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum components might be produced with cost increases of 23 to 37 cents per gallon of gasoline, and with greenhouse gas emissions changes between a 3 percent increase and a 16 percent decrease. Crude oil reduction, with decreased dependence on foreign sources, is a major objective of the low petroleum gasoline program. For year-round gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum components, crude oil use is reduced by 10 to 12 percent, at a cost $48 to $89 per barrel. Depending upon resolution of uncertainties about extrapolation of the Environmental Protection Agency Complex Model for pollutant emissions, availability of raw materials and other issues, costs could be lower or higher.

  4. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Integrated Boosting and Hybridization for Extreme Fuel Economy and Downsizing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Eaton at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Vehicle Systems

  5. EPA and DOE Release Annual Fuel Economy Guide with 2014 Models...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the most fuel efficient and low greenhouse gas-emitting vehicles that meet their needs. ... Also, for the second consecutive year, the guide includes a 110 greenhouse ...

  6. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Integrated Boosting and Hybridization for Extreme Fuel Economy and Downsizing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Eaton at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about integrated boosting and hybridization...

  7. Gasoline Biodesulfurization Fact Sheet

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This petroleum industry fact sheet describes how biodesulfurization can yield lower sulfur gasoline at lower production costs.

  8. High Ethanol Fuel Endurance: A Study of the Effects of Running Gasoline with 15% Ethanol Concentration in Current Production Outboard Four-Stroke Engines and Conventional Two-Stroke Outboard Marine Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hilbert, D.

    2011-10-01

    Three Mercury Marine outboard marine engines were evaluated for durability using E15 fuel -- gasoline blended with 15% ethanol. Direct comparison was made to operation on E0 (ethanol-free gasoline) to determine the effects of increased ethanol on engine durability. Testing was conducted using a 300-hour wide-open throttle (WOT) test protocol, a typical durability cycle used by the outboard marine industry. Use of E15 resulted in reduced CO emissions, as expected for open-loop, non-feedback control engines. HC emissions effects were variable. Exhaust gas and engine operating temperatures increased as a consequence of leaner operation. Each E15 test engine exhibited some deterioration that may have been related to the test fuel. The 9.9 HP, four-stroke E15 engine exhibited variable hydrocarbon emissions at 300 hours -- an indication of lean misfire. The 300HP, four-stroke, supercharged Verado engine and the 200HP, two-stroke legacy engine tested with E15 fuel failed to complete the durability test. The Verado engine failed three exhaust valves at 285 endurance hours while the 200HP legacy engine failed a main crank bearing at 256 endurance hours. All E0-dedicated engines completed the durability cycle without incident. Additional testing is necessary to link the observed engine failures to ethanol in the test fuel.

  9. Fact #824: June 9, 2014 EPA Sulfur Standards for Gasoline | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 4: June 9, 2014 EPA Sulfur Standards for Gasoline Fact #824: June 9, 2014 EPA Sulfur Standards for Gasoline Sulfur naturally occurs in gasoline and diesel fuel, contributing to pollution when the fuel is burned. Beginning in 2004, standards were set on the amount of sulfur in gasoline (Tier 2 standards). Separate standards were set for different entities, such as large refiners, small refiners, importers, downstream wholesalers, etc. In March 2014, Tier 3 standards were finalized by

  10. Automotive Fuel Processor Development and Demonstration with Fuel Cell Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nuvera Fuel Cells

    2005-04-15

    The potential for fuel cell systems to improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions over conventional power systems has generated significant interest in fuel cell technologies. While fuel cells are being investigated for use in many applications such as stationary power generation and small portable devices, transportation applications present some unique challenges for fuel cell technology. Due to their lower operating temperature and non-brittle materials, most transportation work is focusing on fuel cells using proton exchange membrane (PEM) technology. Since PEM fuel cells are fueled by hydrogen, major obstacles to their widespread use are the lack of an available hydrogen fueling infrastructure and hydrogen's relatively low energy storage density, which leads to a much lower driving range than conventional vehicles. One potential solution to the hydrogen infrastructure and storage density issues is to convert a conventional fuel such as gasoline into hydrogen onboard the vehicle using a fuel processor. Figure 2 shows that gasoline stores roughly 7 times more energy per volume than pressurized hydrogen gas at 700 bar and 4 times more than liquid hydrogen. If integrated properly, the fuel processor/fuel cell system would also be more efficient than traditional engines and would give a fuel economy benefit while hydrogen storage and distribution issues are being investigated. Widespread implementation of fuel processor/fuel cell systems requires improvements in several aspects of the technology, including size, startup time, transient response time, and cost. In addition, the ability to operate on a number of hydrocarbon fuels that are available through the existing infrastructure is a key enabler for commercializing these systems. In this program, Nuvera Fuel Cells collaborated with the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop efficient, low-emission, multi-fuel processors for transportation applications. Nuvera's focus was on (1) developing fuel processor

  11. EPA, DOE Release 2015 Fuel Economy Guide for Car Buyers | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the most fuel-efficient and low greenhouse gas emitting vehicles that meet their needs. ... The guide includes a greenhouse gas rating (from one to 10) for each model, giving ...

  12. Fact #793: August 19, 2013 Improvements in Fuel Economy for Low...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Trading a low-mpg car or truck for one with just slightly better mpg will save more fuel than trading a high-mpg car or truck for one that is even higher. For example, trading a truck ...

  13. Deriving In-Use PHEV Fuel Economy Predictions from Standardized Test Cycle Results: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonder, J.; Brooker, A.; Carlson, R.; Smart, J.

    2009-08-01

    Explores the issue of how to apply an adjustment method to raw plug-in hybrid vehicle dynamometer test results to better estimate PHEVs' in-use fuel and electricity consumption.

  14. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Low-Temperature Gasoline

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion (LTGC) Engine Research | Department of Energy Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC) Engine Research Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC) Engine Research Presentation given by Sandia National Laboratories at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about low-temperature gasoline combustion engine research. ace004_dec_2014_o.pdf (1.5 MB) More

  15. Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine Development |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy 1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation ace065_rinkevich_2011_o.pdf (512.16 KB) More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine Development Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine Development Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged

  16. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Low-Temperature Gasoline

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion (LTGC) Engine Research | Department of Energy Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC) Engine Research Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC) Engine Research Presentation given by Sandia National Laboratories at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about low-temperature gasoline combustion engine research. ace004_dec_2015_o.pdf (1.46 MB) More

  17. Measured Laboratory and In-Use Fuel Economy Observed over Targeted Drive Cycles for Comparable Hybrid and Conventional Package Delivery Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lammert, M. P.; Walkowicz, K.; Duran, A.; Sindler, P.

    2012-10-01

    In-use and laboratory-derived fuel economies were analyzed for a medium-duty hybrid electric drivetrain with 'engine off at idle' capability and a conventional drivetrain in a typical commercial package delivery application. Vehicles studied included eleven 2010 Freightliner P100H hybrids in service at a United Parcel Service facility in Minneapolis during the first half of 2010. The hybrids were evaluated for 18 months against eleven 2010 Freightliner P100D diesels at the same facility. Both vehicle groups use the same 2009 Cummins ISB 200-HP engine. In-use fuel economy was evaluated using UPS's fueling and mileage records, periodic ECM image downloads, and J1939 CAN bus recordings during the periods of duty cycle study. Analysis of the in-use fuel economy showed 13%-29% hybrid advantage depending on measurement method, and a delivery route assignment analysis showed 13%-26% hybrid advantage on the less kinetically intense original diesel route assignments and 20%-33% hybrid advantage on the more kinetically intense original hybrid route assignments. Three standardized laboratory drive cycles were selected that encompassed the range of real-world in-use data. The hybrid vehicle demonstrated improvements in ton-mi./gal fuel economy of 39%, 45%, and 21% on the NYC Comp, HTUF Class 4, and CARB HHDDT test cycles, respectively.

  18. Effect of Weight and Roadway Grade on the Fuel Economy of Class-8 Frieght Trucks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franzese, Oscar; Davidson, Diane

    2011-11-01

    In 2006-08, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, in collaboration with several industry partners, collected real-world performance and situational data for long-haul operations of Class-8 trucks from a fleet engaged in normal freight operations. Such data and information are useful to support Class-8 modeling of combination truck performance, technology evaluation efforts for energy efficiency, and to provide a means of accounting for real-world driving performance within combination truck research and analyses. The present study used the real-world information collected in that project to analyze the effects that vehicle speed and vehicle weight have on the fuel efficiency of Class-8 trucks. The analysis focused on two type of terrains, flat (roadway grades ranging from -1% to 1%) and mild uphill terrains (roadway grades ranging from 1% to 3%), which together covered more than 70% of the miles logged in the 2006-08 project (note: almost 2/3 of the distance traveled on mild uphill terrains was on terrains with 1% to 2% grades). In the flat-terrain case, the results of the study showed that for light and medium loads, fuel efficiency decreases considerably as speed increases. For medium-heavy and heavy loads (total vehicle weight larger than 65,000 lb), fuel efficiency tends to increase as the vehicle speed increases from 55 mph up to about 58-60 mph. For speeds higher than 60 mph, fuel efficiency decreases at an almost constant rate with increasing speed. At any given speed, fuel efficiency decreases and vehicle weight increases, although the relationship between fuel efficiency and vehicle weight is not linear, especially for vehicle weights above 65,000 lb. The analysis of the information collected while the vehicles were traveling on mild upslope terrains showed that the fuel efficiency of Class-8 trucks decreases abruptly with vehicle weight ranging from light loads up to medium-heavy loads. After that, increases in the vehicle weight only decrease fuel

  19. President's Hydrogen Fuel Initiative

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen Fuel Initiative Workshop on Manufacturing R&D for the Hydrogen Economy Washington, DC July 13, 2005 JoAnn Milliken DOE Hydrogen Program Planning U.S. Energy Dependence is Driven By Transportation * The U.S. imports 55% of its oil; expected to grow to 68% by 2025 under the status quo. * Transportation accounts for 2/3 of the 20 million barrels of oil our nation uses each day. * Gasoline hybrid electric vehicles will help in the near -mid term; a replacement for petroleum is needed

  20. Fuel Consumption and NOx Trade-offs on a Port-Fuel-Injected SI...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Consumption and NOx Trade-offs on a Port-Fuel-Injected SI Gasoline Engine Equipped with a Lean-NOx Trap Fuel Consumption and NOx Trade-offs on a Port-Fuel-Injected SI Gasoline ...

  1. Fuel Tables.indd

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... Where shown, (s) Btu value less than 0.05. Notes: Motor gasoline estimates include fuel ethanol blended into motor gasoline. * Totals may not equal sum of components due to ...

  2. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    263 2.244 2.210 2.221 2.270 2.314 1993-2016 All Grades - Conventional Areas 2.240 2.227 2.193 2.215 2.266 2.318 1994-2016 All Grades - Reformulated Areas 2.301 2.271 2.238 2.230 2.276 2.308 1994-2016 Regular 2.120 2.100 2.066 2.075 2.126 2.172 1992-2016 Conventional Areas 2.095 2.081 2.048 2.069 2.118 2.173 1992-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.162 2.130 2.097 2.086 2.138 2.171 1994-2016 Midgrade 2.395 2.378 2.345 2.364 2.407 2.451 1994-2016 Conventional Areas 2.358 2.346 2.313 2.344 2.395 2.442

  3. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Holiday Release Schedule The prices are published around 5:00 p.m. Monday (Eastern time), except on government holidays, when the data are released on Tuesday (but still represent Monday's price). Data for: Alternate Release Date Release Day Holiday October 12, 2015 October 13, 2015 Tuesday Columbus January 18, 2016 January 19, 2016 Tuesday Martin Luther King Jr. February 15, 2016 February 16, 2016 Tuesday President's May 30, 2016 May 31, 2016 Tuesday Memorial July 4, 2016 July 5, 2016 Tuesday

  4. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    County, NH Merrimack County, NH Middlesex County, MA Nantucket County, MA Norfolk ... NY Litchfield County (partial), CT Middlesex County, NJ Monmouth County, NJ Morris ...

  5. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Counties included in New York City metro area The list below includes the counties in the EIA-878 definition for New York City Metro Area. Bergen County, NJ Bronx County, NY Essex County, NJ Fairfield County, CT Hudson County, NJ Hunterdon County, NJ Kings County, NY Litchfield County (partial), CT Middlesex County, NJ Monmouth County, NJ Morris County, NJ Nassau County, NY New Haven County (partial), CT New York County, NY Ocean County, NJ Orange County, NY Passaic County, NJ Putnam, NY Queens

  6. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    the underlying costs and profits (or losses) of producing and delivering the product to customers. The price of diesel at the pump reflects the costs and profits of the ...

  7. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Refining Costs & Profits - the difference between the monthly average of the spot price of ... Distribution & Marketing Costs & Profits - the difference between the average retail price ...

  8. New Analysis Methods Estimate a Critical Property of Ethanol Fuel Blends (Fact Sheet), Highlights in Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Methods developed at NREL disclose the impact of ethanol on gasoline blend heat of vaporization with potential for improved efficiency of spark-ignition engines. More stringent standards for fuel economy, regulation of greenhouse gas emissions, and the mandated increase in the use of renew- able fuel are driving research to improve the efficiency of spark ignition engines. When fuel properties such as octane number and evaporative cooling (heat of vaporization or HOV) are insufficient, they

  9. Simulating Study of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition on Light-Duty Diesel Fuel Economy and Emissions Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Zhiming; Daw, C Stuart; Wagner, Robert M

    2012-01-01

    We utilize the Powertrain Systems Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) combined with transient engine and aftertreatment component models to simulate the impact of premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) on the fuel economy and emissions of light-duty (LD) diesel-powered conventional and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Our simulated aftertreatment train consists of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), lean NOx trap (LNT), and catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF). The results indicate that utilizing PCCI combustion significantly reduces fuel consumption and tailpipe emissions for the conventional diesel-powered vehicle with NOx and particulate emissions controls. These benefits result from a favorable engine speed-load distribution over the cycle combined with a corresponding reduction in the need to regenerate the LNT and DPF. However, the current PCCI technology appears to offer less potential benefit for diesel HEVs equipped with similar emissions controls. This is because PCCI can only be activated over a relatively small part of the drive cycle. Thus we conclude that future utilization of PCCI in diesel HEVs will require significant extension of the available speed-load range for PCCI and revision of current HEV engine management strategies before significant benefits can be realized.

  10. Hydraulic Hybrid and Conventional Parcel Delivery Vehicles' Measured Laboratory Fuel Economy on Targeted Drive Cycles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hybrid drivetrains have shown signifcant promise as part of an overall petroleum reduction feet strategy [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]. Hybrid drivetrains consist of an energy storage device and a motor integrated into a traditional powertrain and offer the potential fuel savings by capturing energy normally lost during deceleration through the application of regenerative braking. Because hybrid technologies, especially hydraulic hybrids, have low adoption rates in the medium-duty vehicle segment and

  11. Fact #720: March 26, 2012 Eleven Percent of New Light Trucks Sold have Gasoline Direct Injection

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Gasoline direct fuel injection (GDI) allows fuel to be injected directly into the cylinder so the timing and shape of the fuel mist can be controlled more precisely. The improved combustion and...

  12. 2010 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report, June 2011, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Shannon Brescher Shea Senior Writer/Editor, Office of Science With energy costs looming as winter approaches, saving money is on everyone's minds these days. Fortunately, improving your vehicle's fuel economy is both economically and environmentally smart. In the winter, one of the easiest ways to decrease gasoline consumption is to warm up your engine for no more than 30 seconds, as Elizabeth pointed out last week. Driving conservatively and buying a fuel efficient car can make even more of an

  13. 5-Carbon Alcohols for Drop-in Gasoline Replacement - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuels Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Find More Like This Return to Search 5-Carbon Alcohols for Drop-in Gasoline Replacement Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory...

  14. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Cummins at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about advanced gasoline turbocharged direct...

  15. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine Development

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Ford Motor Companyh at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about advanced gasoline...

  16. U.S. summer gasoline price to average 6 cents lower than last...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    price. Gasoline demand this summer is expected to be slightly below last year's level, as more fuel efficient vehicles more than offset the projected increase in highway travel

  17. 3-Cylinder Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection: A High Value...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ...% CO2 reduction) at a significantly lower on-cost. PDF icon deer09kirwan.pdf More Documents & Publications Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle Reducing the Particulate Emission ...

  18. Simulation: Gasoline Compression Ignition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-04-13

    The Mira supercomputer at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility helped Argonne researchers model what happens inside an engine when you use gasoline in a diesel engine. Engineers are exploring this type of combustion as a sustainable transportation option because it may be more efficient than traditional gasoline combustion engines but produce less soot than diesel.

  19. Reducing the Particulate Emission Numbers in DI Gasoline Engines |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy the Particulate Emission Numbers in DI Gasoline Engines Reducing the Particulate Emission Numbers in DI Gasoline Engines Formation of droplets was minimized through optimization of fuel vaporization and distribution avoiding air/fuel zones richer than stoichiometric and temperatures that promote particle formation deer10_klindt.pdf (866.03 KB) More Documents & Publications Bosch Powertrain Technologies Vehicle Emissions Review - 2012 Ethanol Effects on Lean-Burn and

  20. Ethanol Blend Effects On Direct Injection Spark-Ignition Gasoline Vehicle Particulate Matter Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storey, John Morse; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Barone, Teresa L

    2010-01-01

    Direct injection spark-ignition (DISI) gasoline engines can offer better fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected counterparts, and are now appearing increasingly in more U.S. vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged DISI engines are likely to be used in lieu of large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, to meet fuel economy standards for 2016. In addition to changes in gasoline engine technology, fuel composition may increase in ethanol content beyond the 10% allowed by current law due to the Renewable Fuels Standard passed as part of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA). In this study, we present the results of an emissions analysis of a U.S.-legal stoichiometric, turbocharged DISI vehicle, operating on ethanol blends, with an emphasis on detailed particulate matter (PM) characterization. Gaseous species, particle mass, and particle number concentration emissions were measured for the Federal Test Procedure urban driving cycle (FTP 75) and the more aggressive US06 cycle. Particle number-size distributions and organic to elemental carbon ratios (OC/EC) were measured for 30 MPH and 80 MPH steady-state operation. In addition, particle number concentration was measured during wide open throttle accelerations (WOTs) and gradual accelerations representative of the FTP 75. For the gaseous species and particle mass measurements, dilution was carried out using a full flow constant volume sampling system (CVS). For the particle number concentration and size distribution measurements, a micro-tunnel dilution system was employed. The vehicles were fueled by a standard test gasoline and 10% (E10) and 20% (E20) ethanol blends from the same supplier. The particle mass emissions were approximately 3 and 7 mg/mile for the FTP75 and US06, respectively, with lower emissions for the ethanol blends. During steady-state operation, the geometric mean diameter of the particle-number size

  1. Hige Compression Ratio Turbo Gasoline Engine Operation Using Alcohol Enhancement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heywood, John; Jo, Young Suk; Lewis, Raymond; Bromberg, Leslie; Heywood, John

    2015-10-31

    The overall objective of this project was to quantify the potential for improving the performance and efficiency of gasoline engine technology by use of alcohols to suppress knock. Knock-free operation is obtained by direct injection of a second “anti-knock” fuel such as ethanol, which suppresses knock when, with gasoline fuel, knock would occur. Suppressing knock enables increased turbocharging, engine downsizing, and use of higher compression ratios throughout the engine’s operating map. This project combined engine testing and simulation to define knock onset conditions, with different mixtures of gasoline and alcohol, and with this information quantify the potential for improving the efficiency of turbocharged gasoline spark-ignition engines, and the on-vehicle fuel consumption reductions that could then be realized. The more focused objectives of this project were therefore to: Determine engine efficiency with aggressive turbocharging and downsizing and high compression ratio (up to a compression ratio of 13.5:1) over the engine’s operating range; Determine the knock limits of a turbocharged and downsized engine as a function of engine speed and load; Determine the amount of the knock-suppressing alcohol fuel consumed, through the use of various alcohol-gasoline and alcohol-water gasoline blends, for different driving cycles, relative to the gasoline consumed; Determine implications of using alcohol-boosted engines, with their higher efficiency operation, in both light-duty and medium-duty vehicle sectors.

  2. Fact #817: February 17, 2014 Conventional and Alternative Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    from 2000 to 2013. Gasoline, diesel, propane, E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline), and ... 2000 to 2013) for the following fuels: propane, B20, diesel, electricity, E85, gasoline, ...

  3. Fuel Economy and Emissions Effects of Low Tire Pressure, Open Windows, Roof Top and Hitch-Mounted Cargo, and Trailer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, John F; Huff, Shean P; West, Brian H

    2014-01-01

    To quantify the fuel economy (FE) effect of some common vehicle accessories or alterations, a compact passenger sedan and a sport utility vehicle (SUV) were subjected to SAE J2263 coastdown procedures. Coastdowns were conducted with low tire pressure, all windows open, with a roof top or hitch-mounted cargo carrier, and with the SUV pulling an enclosed cargo trailer. From these coastdowns, vehicle dynamometer coefficients were developed which enabled the execution of vehicle dynamometer experiments to determine the effect of these changes on vehicle FE and emissions over standard drive cycles and at steady highway speeds. The FE penalty associated with the rooftop cargo box mounted on the compact sedan was as high as 25-27% at higher speeds, where the aerodynamic drag is most pronounced. For both vehicles, use of a hitch mounted cargo tray carrying a similar load resulted in very small FE penalties, unlike the rooftop cargo box. The results for the SUV pulling a 3500 pound enclosed cargo trailer were rather dramatic, resulting in FE penalties ranging from 30%, for the city cycle, to 50% at 80 mph, at which point significant CO generation indicated protective enrichment due to high load. Low tire pressure cases resulted in negligible to 10% FE penalty depending on the specific case and test point. Driving with all four windows open decreased FE by 4-8.5% for the compact sedan, and 1-4% for the SUV.

  4. Study Reveals Fuel Injection Timing Impact on Particle Number Emissions (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-12-01

    Start of injection can improve environmental performance of fuel-efficient gasoline direct injection engines.

  5. Ammonia Generation over TWC for Passive SCR NOX Control for Lean Gasoline Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Parks, II, James E; Pihl, Josh A; Toops, Todd J

    2014-01-01

    A commercial three-way catalyst (TWC) was evaluated for ammonia (NH3) generation on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine as a component in a passive ammonia selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system. The passive NH3 SCR system is a potential low cost approach for controlling nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions from lean burn gasoline engines. In this system, NH3 is generated over a close-coupled TWC during periodic slightly rich engine operation and subsequently stored on an underfloor SCR catalyst. Upon switching to lean, NOX passes through the TWC and is reduced by the stored NH3 on the SCR catalyst. NH3 generation was evaluated at different air-fuel equivalence ratios at multiple engine speed and load conditions. Near complete conversion of NOX to NH3 was achieved at =0.96 for nearly all conditions studied. At the =0.96 condition, HC emissions were relatively minimal, but CO emissions were significant. Operation at AFRs richer than =0.96 did not provide more NH3 yield and led to higher HC and CO emissions. Results of the reductant conversion and consumption processes were used to calculate a representative fuel consumption of the engine operating with an ideal passive SCR system. The results show a 1-7% fuel economy benefit at various steady-state engine speed and load points relative to a stoichiometric engine operation.

  6. The low-temperature partial-oxidation reforming of fuels for transportation fuel cell systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.

    1996-12-31

    Passenger cars powered by fuel cell propulsion systems with high efficiency offer superior fuel economy, very low to zero pollutant emissions, and the option to operate on alternative and/or renewable fuels. Although the fuel cell operates on hydrogen, a liquid fuel such as methanol or gasoline is more attractive for automotive use because of the convenience in handling and vehicle refueling. Such a liquid fuel must be dynamically converted (reformed) to hydrogen on board the vehicle in real time to meet fluctuating power demands. This paper describes the low-temperature Argonne partial-oxidation reformer (APOR) developed for this application. The APOR is a rapid-start, compact, lightweight, catalytic device that is efficient and dynamically responsive. The reformer is easily controlled by varying the feed rates of the fuel, water, and air to satisfy the rapidly changing system power demands during the vehicle`s driving cycle.

  7. Motor gasolines, winter 1981-1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shelton, E M

    1982-07-01

    Analytical data for 905 samples of motor gasoline, were collected from service stations throughout the country and were analyzed in the laboratories of various refiners, motor manufacturers, and chemical companies. The data were submitted to the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center for study, necessary calculations, and compilation under a cooperative agreement between the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC) and the American Petroleum Institute (API). The samples represent the products of 30 companies, large and small, which manufacture and supply gasoline. These data are tabulated by groups according to brands (unlabeled) and grades for 17 marketing districts into which the country is divided. A map included in this report, shows marketing areas, districts and sampling locations. The report also includes charts indicating the trends of selected properties of motor fuels since winter 1959-1960 survey for the leaded gasolines, and since winter 1979-1980 survey for the unleaded gasolines. Sixteen octane distribution percent charts for areas 1, 2, 3, and 4 for unleaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 below 90.0, unleaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 90.0 and above, leaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 below 93.0, and leaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 93.0 and above grades of gasoline are presented in this report. The antiknock (octane) index (R+M)/2 averages of gasoline sold in this country were 87.4 for unleaded below 90.0, 91.7 for unleaded 90.0 and above, and 88.9 for leaded below 93.0. Only one sample was reported as 93.0 for leaded gasolines with an antiknock index (R+M)/2 93.0 and above.

  8. Diesel Fuel Price Pass-through

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1000 Independence Avenue, SW Washington, DC 20585 Home | Petroleum | Gasoline | Diesel | Propane | Natural Gas | Electricity | Coal | Nuclear Renewables | Alternative Fuels |...

  9. Detailed Kinetic Modeling of Gasoline Surrogate Mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehl, M; Curran, H J; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2009-03-09

    Real fuels are complex mixtures of thousands of hydrocarbon compounds including linear and branched paraffins, naphthenes, olefins and aromatics. It is generally agreed that their behavior can be effectively reproduced by simpler fuel surrogates containing a limited number of components. In this work, a recently revised version of the kinetic model by the authors is used to analyze the combustion behavior of several components relevant to gasoline surrogate formulation. Particular attention is devoted to linear and branched saturated hydrocarbons (PRF mixtures), olefins (1-hexene) and aromatics (toluene). Model predictions for pure components, binary mixtures and multi-component gasoline surrogates are compared with recent experimental information collected in rapid compression machine, shock tube and jet stirred reactors covering a wide range of conditions pertinent to internal combustion engines. Simulation results are discussed focusing attention on the mixing effects of the fuel components.

  10. Optimally Controlled Flexible Fuel Powertrain System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hakan Yilmaz; Mark Christie; Anna Stefanopoulou

    2010-12-31

    The primary objective of this project was to develop a true Flex Fuel Vehicle capable of running on any blend of ethanol from 0 to 85% with reduced penalty in usable vehicle range. A research and development program, targeting 10% improvement in fuel economy using a direct injection (DI) turbocharged spark ignition engine was conducted. In this project a gasoline-optimized high-technology engine was considered and the hardware and configuration modifications were defined for the engine, fueling system, and air path. Combined with a novel engine control strategy, control software, and calibration this resulted in a highly efficient and clean FFV concept. It was also intended to develop robust detection schemes of the ethanol content in the fuel integrated with adaptive control algorithms for optimized turbocharged direct injection engine combustion. The approach relies heavily on software-based adaptation and optimization striving for minimal modifications to the gasoline-optimized engine hardware system. Our ultimate objective was to develop a compact control methodology that takes advantage of any ethanol-based fuel mixture and not compromise the engine performance under gasoline operation.

  11. Northeast Gasoline Supply Reserve

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Northeast region of the U.S. is particularly vulnerable to gasoline disruptions as a result of hurricanes and other natural events. Hurricane Sandy in 2012 caused widespread issues related to...

  12. Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clean Cities

    2010-03-01

    Flexible fuel vehicles can operate on either gasoline or E85, a mixture of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline. The fact sheet discusses the costs, benefits, and vehicle performance of using E85.

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Ethanol Blend Requirement Suppliers that import gasoline for sale in North Carolina must offer fuel that is not pre-blended with fuel alcohol but that is suitable for future blending. Future contract provisions that restrict distributors or retailers from blending gasoline with fuel alcohol are void. (Reference North Carolina General Statutes 75-90, 105-449.60

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    fuel or additive registered or verified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (other than standard gasoline or diesel) that provides particulate matter emission reductions. ...

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    which assigns a RIN to each gallon of renewable fuel. Entities regulated by RFS include oil refiners, blenders, and gasoline and diesel importers. The volumes required of each...

  16. Price of Motor Gasoline Through Retail Outlets

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    & Stocks by State (Dollars per Gallon Excluding Taxes) Data Series: Retail Price - Motor Gasoline Retail Price - Regular Gasoline Retail Price - Midgrade Gasoline Retail Price...

  17. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Integrated Friction Reduction Technology to Improve Fuel Economy without Sacrificing Durability

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by George Washington University at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Fuel &...

  18. Chemistry Impacts in Gasoline HCCI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szybist, James P; Bunting, Bruce G

    2006-09-01

    The use of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion in internal combustion engines is of interest because it has the potential to produce low oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions while providing diesel-like efficiency. In HCCI combustion, a premixed charge of fuel and air auto-ignites at multiple points in the cylinder near top dead center (TDC), resulting in rapid combustion with very little flame propagation. In order to prevent excessive knocking during HCCI combustion, it must take place in a dilute environment, resulting from either operating fuel lean or providing high levels of either internal or external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Operating the engine in a dilute environment can substantially reduce the pumping losses, thus providing the main efficiency advantage compared to spark-ignition (SI) engines. Low NOx and PM emissions have been reported by virtually all researchers for operation under HCCI conditions. The precise emissions can vary depending on how well mixed the intake charge is, the fuel used, and the phasing of the HCCI combustion event; but it is common for there to be no measurable PM emissions and NOx emissions <10 ppm. Much of the early HCCI work was done on 2-stroke engines, and in these studies the CO and hydrocarbon emissions were reported to decrease [1]. However, in modern 4-stroke engines, the CO and hydrocarbon emissions from HCCI usually represent a marked increase compared with conventional SI combustion. This literature review does not report on HCCI emissions because the trends mentioned above are well established in the literature. The main focus of this literature review is the auto-ignition performance of gasoline-type fuels. It follows that this discussion relies heavily on the extensive information available about gasoline auto-ignition from studying knock in SI engines. Section 2 discusses hydrocarbon auto-ignition, the octane number scale, the chemistry behind it, its

  19. Diesel engines vs. spark ignition gasoline engines -- Which is ``greener``?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fairbanks, J.W.

    1997-12-31

    Criteria emissions, i.e., NO{sub x}, PM, CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}, from recently manufactured automobiles, compared on the basis of what actually comes out of the engines, the diesel engine is greener than spark ignition gasoline engines and this advantage for the diesel engine increases with time. SI gasoline engines tend to get out of tune more than diesel engines and 3-way catalytic converters and oxygen sensors degrade with use. Highway measurements of NO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and CO revealed that for each model year, 10% of the vehicles produce 50% of the emissions and older model years emit more than recent model year vehicles. Since 1974, cars with SI gasoline engines have uncontrolled emission until the 3-way catalytic converter reaches operating temperature, which occurs after roughly 7 miles of driving. Honda reports a system to be introduced in 1998 that will alleviate this cold start problem by storing the emissions then sending them through the catalytic converter after it reaches operating temperature. Acceleration enrichment, wherein considerable excess fuel is introduced to keep temperatures down of SI gasoline engine in-cylinder components and catalytic converters so these parts meet warranty, results in 2,500 times more CO and 40 times more H{sub 2} being emitted. One cannot kill oneself, accidentally or otherwise, with CO from a diesel engine vehicle in a confined space. There are 2,850 deaths per year attributable to CO from SI gasoline engine cars. Diesel fuel has advantages compared with gasoline. Refinery emissions are lower as catalytic cracking isn`t necessary. The low volatility of diesel fuel results in a much lower probability of fires. Emissions could be improved by further reducing sulfur and aromatics and/or fuel additives. Reformulated fuel has become the term covering reducing the fuels contribution to emissions. Further PM reduction should be anticipated with reformulated diesel and gasoline fuels.

  20. Fact #860 February 16, 2015 Relationship of Vehicle Miles of Travel and the Price of Gasoline

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The prices of gasoline and diesel fuel affect the transportation sector in many ways. For example, fuel prices can impact the number of miles driven and affect the choices consumers make when...

  1. Hydrogen as a fuel for fuel cell vehicles: A technical and economic comparison

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogden, J.; Steinbugler, M.; Kreutz, T.

    1997-12-31

    All fuel cells currently being developed for near term use in vehicles require hydrogen as a fuel. Hydrogen can be stored directly or produced onboard the vehicle by reforming methanol, ethanol or hydrocarbon fuels derived from crude oil (e.g., Diesel, gasoline or middle distillates). The vehicle design is simpler with direct hydrogen storage, but requires developing a more complex refueling infrastructure. In this paper, the authors compare three leading options for fuel storage onboard fuel cell vehicles: compressed gas hydrogen storage; onboard steam reforming of methanol; onboard partial oxidation (POX) of hydrocarbon fuels derived from crude oil. Equilibrium, kinetic and heat integrated system (ASPEN) models have been developed to estimate the performance of onboard steam reforming and POX fuel processors. These results have been incorporated into a fuel cell vehicle model, allowing us to compare the vehicle performance, fuel economy, weight, and cost for various fuel storage choices and driving cycles. A range of technical and economic parameters were considered. The infrastructure requirements are also compared for gaseous hydrogen, methanol and hydrocarbon fuels from crude oil, including the added costs of fuel production, storage, distribution and refueling stations. Considering both vehicle and infrastructure issues, the authors compare hydrogen to other fuel cell vehicle fuels. Technical and economic goals for fuel cell vehicle and hydrogen technologies are discussed. Potential roles for hydrogen in the commercialization of fuel cell vehicles are sketched.

  2. High Thermal Efficiency and Low Emissions with Supercritical Gasoline

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Injection-Ignition in a Light Duty Engine | Department of Energy High Thermal Efficiency and Low Emissions with Supercritical Gasoline Injection-Ignition in a Light Duty Engine High Thermal Efficiency and Low Emissions with Supercritical Gasoline Injection-Ignition in a Light Duty Engine A novel fuel injector has been developed and tested that addresses the technical challenges of LTC, HCCI, gasoline PPC, and RCCI by reducing complexity and cost. p-16_zoldak.pdf (698.09 KB) More Documents

  3. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Low-Temperature Gasoline

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion (LTGC) Engine Research | Department of Energy Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC) Engine Research Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC) Engine Research Presentation given by Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Combustion Engines ace004_dec_2016_o_web.pdf (1.4 MB) More Documents &

  4. Characterization of Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Using Premixed Gasoline and Direct-Injected Gasoline with a Cetane Improver on a Multi-Cylinder Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dempsey, Adam B.; Curran, Scott; Reitz, Rolf D.

    2015-04-14

    The focus of the present paper was to characterize Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) using a single-fuel approach of gasoline and gasoline mixed with a commercially available cetane improver on a multi-cylinder engine. RCCI was achieved by port-injecting a certification grade 96 research octane gasoline and direct-injecting the same gasoline mixed with various levels of a cetane improver, 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN). The EHN volume percentages investigated in the direct-injected fuel were 10, 5, and 2.5%. The combustion phasing controllability and emissions of the different fueling combinations were characterized at 2300 rpm and 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure over a variety of parametric investigations including direct injection timing, premixed gasoline percentage, and intake temperature. Comparisons were made to gasoline/diesel RCCI operation on the same engine platform at nominally the same operating condition. The experiments were conducted on a modern four cylinder light-duty diesel engine that was modified with a port-fuel injection system while maintaining the stock direct injection fuel system. The pistons were modified for highly premixed operation and feature an open shallow bowl design. The results indicate that the authority to control the combustion phasing through the fuel delivery strategy (e.g., direct injection timing or premixed gasoline percentage) is not a strong function of the EHN concentration in the direct-injected fuel. It was also observed that NOx emissions are a strong function of the global EHN concentration in-cylinder and the combustion phasing. Finally, in general, NOx emissions are significantly elevated for gasoline/gasoline+EHN operation compared with gasoline/diesel RCCI operation at a given operating condition.

  5. Characterization of Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Using Premixed Gasoline and Direct-Injected Gasoline with a Cetane Improver on a Multi-Cylinder Engine

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dempsey, Adam B.; Curran, Scott; Reitz, Rolf D.

    2015-04-14

    The focus of the present paper was to characterize Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) using a single-fuel approach of gasoline and gasoline mixed with a commercially available cetane improver on a multi-cylinder engine. RCCI was achieved by port-injecting a certification grade 96 research octane gasoline and direct-injecting the same gasoline mixed with various levels of a cetane improver, 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN). The EHN volume percentages investigated in the direct-injected fuel were 10, 5, and 2.5%. The combustion phasing controllability and emissions of the different fueling combinations were characterized at 2300 rpm and 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure over amore » variety of parametric investigations including direct injection timing, premixed gasoline percentage, and intake temperature. Comparisons were made to gasoline/diesel RCCI operation on the same engine platform at nominally the same operating condition. The experiments were conducted on a modern four cylinder light-duty diesel engine that was modified with a port-fuel injection system while maintaining the stock direct injection fuel system. The pistons were modified for highly premixed operation and feature an open shallow bowl design. The results indicate that the authority to control the combustion phasing through the fuel delivery strategy (e.g., direct injection timing or premixed gasoline percentage) is not a strong function of the EHN concentration in the direct-injected fuel. It was also observed that NOx emissions are a strong function of the global EHN concentration in-cylinder and the combustion phasing. Finally, in general, NOx emissions are significantly elevated for gasoline/gasoline+EHN operation compared with gasoline/diesel RCCI operation at a given operating condition.« less

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel and Vehicle Tax Alternative fuels used to operate on-road vehicles are taxed at a rate of $0.162 per gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE). Alternative fuels are taxed at the same rate as gasoline and gasohol (5.1% of the statewide average wholesale price of a gallon of self-serve unleaded regular gasoline). Refer to the Virginia Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV) Fuels Tax Rates and Alternative Fuels Conversion website for fuel-specific GGE calculations. All-electric vehicles (EVs)

  7. CREATING THE NORTHEAST GASOLINE SUPPLY RESERVE

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2012, Superstorm Sandy made landfall in the northeastern United States and caused heavy damage to two refineries and left more than 40 terminals in New York Harbor closed due to water damage and loss of power. This left some New York gas stations without fuel for as long as 30 days. As part of the Obama Administration’s ongoing response to the storm, the Department of Energy created the first federal regional refined product reserve, the Northeast Gasoline Supply Reserve.

  8. Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine Development Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) ...

  9. Effects of High Octane Ethanol Blends on Four Legacy Flex-Fuel Vehicles, and a Turbocharged GDI Vehicle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, John F; West, Brian H; Huff, Shean P

    2015-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting engine and vehicle research to investigate the potential of high-octane fuels to improve fuel economy. Ethanol has very high research octane number (RON) and heat of vaporization (HoV), properties that make it an excellent spark ignition engine fuel. The prospects of increasing both the ethanol content and the octane number of the gasoline pool has the potential to enable improved fuel economy in future vehicles with downsized, downsped engines. This report describes a small study to explore the potential performance benefits of high octane ethanol blends in the legacy fleet. There are over 17 million flex-fuel vehicles (FFVs) on the road today in the United States, vehicles capable of using any fuel from E0 to E85. If a future high-octane blend for dedicated vehicles is on the horizon, the nation is faced with the classic chicken-and-egg dilemma. If today’s FFVs can see a performance advantage with a high octane ethanol blend such as E25 or E30, then perhaps consumer demand for this fuel can serve as a bridge to future dedicated vehicles. Experiments were performed with four FFVs using a 10% ethanol fuel (E10) with 88 pump octane, and a market gasoline blended with ethanol to make a 30% by volume ethanol fuel (E30) with 94 pump octane. The research octane numbers were 92.4 for the E10 fuel and 100.7 for the E30 fuel. Two vehicles had gasoline direct injected (GDI) engines, and two featured port fuel injection (PFI). Significant wide open throttle (WOT) performance improvements were measured for three of the four FFVs, with one vehicle showing no change. Additionally, a conventional (non-FFV) vehicle with a small turbocharged direct-injected engine was tested with a regular grade of gasoline with no ethanol (E0) and a splash blend of this same fuel with 15% ethanol by volume (E15). RON was increased from 90.7 for the E0 to 97.8 for the E15 blend. Significant wide open throttle and thermal efficiency performance

  10. MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline Contents * Introduction * Federal gasoline product quality regulations * What are oxygenates? * Who gets gasoline with oxygenates? * Which areas get MTBE? * How much has been invested in MTBE production capacity? * What does new Ethanol capacity cost? * What would an MTBE ban cost? * On-line information resources * Endnotes * Summary of revisions to this analysis Introduction The blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into motor gasoline has increased

  11. fuels | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Liquid Fuels Gasoline & Diesel Volatile fuel costs and a desire for energy independence have revived interest in another market for coal gasification technology: the production of liquid transportation fuels, chiefly gasoline and diesel fuel. For the United States, routes to synthesis of liquid fuels from coal add substantial diversity in fuel supply capability, a large capacity for fuels production considering the great extent of domestic coal reserves, and increased energy security that

  12. Evaluation of the Fuel Economy Impacts of Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) using Engine-in-the-Loop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  13. Reformulated Gasoline Foreign Refinery Rules

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Reformulated Gasoline Foreign Refinery Rules Contents * Introduction o Table 1. History of Foreign Refiner Regulations * Foreign Refinery Baseline * Monitoring Imported Conventional Gasoline * Endnotes Related EIA Short-Term Forecast Analysis Products * Areas Participating in the Reformulated Gasoline Program * Environmental Regulations and Changes in Petroleum Refining Operations * Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances in the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting Model * Refiners Switch to Reformulated

  14. Alternative Fuels Used in Transportation (5 Activities)

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    Gasoline is the most commonly used fuel for transportation; however, there are multiple alternative fuels that are making their way to the market. These alternative fuels include propane, natural gas, electric hybrids, hydrogen fuel cells, and bio-diesel. Students will probably have heard of some of these alternative fuels, but they may not understand how and why they are better then ordinary gasoline.

  15. Fact #682: July 4, 2011 Federal Alternative Fuel Use

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Government used nearly 9 million gasoline-gallon equivalents of alternative fuel in 2010. The majority of the fuel used (92%) was E-85, a combination of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline....

  16. Environmental implications of alternative-fueled automobiles: Air quality and greenhouse gas tradeoffs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MaClean, H.L.; Lave, L.B.

    2000-01-15

    The authors analyze alternative fuel-powerstrain options for internal combustion engine automobiles. Fuel/engine efficiency, energy use, pollutant discharges, and greenhouse gas emissions are estimated for spark and compression ignited, direct injected (DI), and indirect injected (II) engines fueled by conventional and reformulated gasoline, reformulated diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), and alcohols. Since comparisons of fuels and technologies in dissimilar vehicles are misleading, the authors hold emissions level, range, vehicle size class, and style constant. At present, CNG vehicles have the best exhaust emissions performance while DI diesels have the worst. Compared to a conventional gasoline fueled II automobile, greenhouse gases could be reduced by 40% by a DI CNG automobile and by 25% by a DI diesel. Gasoline- and diesel-fueled automobiles are able to attain long ranges with little weight or fuel economy penalty. CNG vehicles have the highest penalty for increasing range, due to their heavy fuel storage systems, but are the most attractive for a 160-km range. DI engines, particularly diesels, may not be able to meet strict emissions standards, at least not without lowering efficiency.

  17. Filter-based control of particulate matter from a lean gasoline direct injection engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parks, II, James E; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; DeBusk, Melanie Moses; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Storey, John Morse

    2016-01-01

    New regulations requiring increases in vehicle fuel economy are challenging automotive manufacturers to identify fuel-efficient engines for future vehicles. Lean gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines offer significant increases in fuel efficiency over the more common stoichiometric GDI engines already in the marketplace. However, particulate matter (PM) emissions from lean GDI engines, particularly during stratified combustion modes, are problematic for lean GDI technology to meet U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Tier 3 and other future emission regulations. As such, the control of lean GDI PM with wall-flow filters, referred to as gasoline particulate filter (GPF) technology, is of interest. Since lean GDI PM chemistry and morphology differ from diesel PM (where more filtration experience exists), the functionality of GPFs needs to be studied to determine the operating conditions suitable for efficient PM removal. In addition, lean GDI engine exhaust temperatures are generally higher than diesel engines which results in more continuous regeneration of the GPF and less presence of the soot cake layer common to diesel particulate filters. Since the soot layer improves filtration efficiency, this distinction is important to consider. Research on the emission control of PM from a lean GDI engine with a GPF was conducted on an engine dynamometer. PM, after dilution, was characterized with membrane filters, organic vs. elemental carbon characterization, and size distribution techniques at various steady state engine speed and load points. The engine was operated in three primary combustion modes: stoichiometric, lean homogeneous, and lean stratified. In addition, rich combustion was utilized to simulate PM from engine operation during active regeneration of lean NOx control technologies. High (>95%) PM filtration efficiencies were observed over a wide range of conditions; however, some PM was observed to slip through the GPF at high speed and load conditions. The

  18. Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel Commercial Lawn Equipment (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    Guide explains the different types of alternative fuel commercial mowers and lists the makes and models of the ones available on the market. Turf grass is a fixture of the American landscape and the American economy. It is the nation's largest irrigated crop, covering more than 40 million acres. Legions of lawnmowers care for this expanse during the growing season-up to year-round in the warmest climates. The annual economic impact of the U.S. turf grass industry has been estimated at more than $62 billion. Lawn mowing also contributes to the nation's petroleum consumption and pollutant emissions. Mowers consume 1.2 billion gallons of gasoline annually, about 1% of U.S. motor gasoline consumption. Commercial mowing accounts for about 35% of this total and is the highest-intensity use. Large property owners and mowing companies cut lawns, sports fields, golf courses, parks, roadsides, and other grassy areas for 7 hours per day and consume 900 to 2,000 gallons of fuel annually depending on climate and length of the growing season. In addition to gasoline, commercial mowing consumes more than 100 million gallons of diesel annually. Alternative fuel mowers are one way to reduce the energy and environmental impacts of commercial lawn mowing. They can reduce petroleum use and emissions compared with gasoline- and diesel-fueled mowers. They may also save on fuel and maintenance costs, extend mower life, reduce fuel spillage and fuel theft, and promote a 'green' image. And on ozone alert days, alternative fuel mowers may not be subject to the operational restrictions that gasoline mowers must abide by. To help inform the commercial mowing industry about product options and potential benefits, Clean Cities produced this guide to alternative fuel commercial lawn equipment. Although the guide's focus is on original equipment manufacturer (OEM) mowers, some mowers can be converted to run on alternative fuels. For more information about propane conversions. This guide may be

  19. Ammonia Generation and Utilization in a Passive SCR (TWC+SCR) System on Lean Gasoline Engine

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y.; James E. Parks, II; Pihl, Josh A.; Toops, Todd J.

    2016-04-05

    Lean gasoline engines offer greater fuel economy than the common stoichiometric gasoline engine, but the current three way catalyst (TWC) on stoichiometric engines is unable to control nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions in oxidizing exhaust. For these lean gasoline engines, lean NOX emission control is required to meet existing Tier 2 and upcoming Tier 3 emission regulations set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). While urea-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) has proven effective in controlling NOX from diesel engines, the urea storage and delivery components can add significant size and cost. As such, onboard NH3 production via a passive SCRmore » approach is of interest. In a passive SCR system, NH3 is generated over a close-coupled TWC during periodic slightly rich engine operation and subsequently stored on an underfloor SCR catalyst. Upon switching to lean operation, NOX passes through the TWC and is reduced by the stored NH3 on the SCR catalyst. In this work, a passive SCR system was evaluated on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine to assess NH3 generation over a Pd-only TWC and utilization over a Cu-based SCR catalyst. System NOX reduction efficiency and fuel efficiency improvement compared to stoichiometric engine operation were measured. A feedback control strategy based on cumulative NH3 produced by the TWC during rich operation and NOX emissions during lean operation was implemented on the engine to control lean/rich cycle timing. At an SCR average inlet temperature of 350 °C, an NH3:NOX ratio of 1.15:1 (achieved through longer rich cycle timing) resulted in 99.7 % NOX conversion. Increasing NH3 generation further resulted in even higher NOX conversion; however, tailpipe NH3 emissions resulted. At higher underfloor temperatures, NH3 oxidation over the SCR limited NH3 availability for NOX reduction. At the engine conditions studied, greater than 99 % NOX conversion was achieved with passive SCR while delivering

  20. Motor gasoline assessment, Spring 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-07-01

    The springs of 1996 and 1997 provide an excellent example of contrasting gasoline market dynamics. In spring 1996, tightening crude oil markets pushed up gasoline prices sharply, adding to the normal seasonal gasoline price increases; however, in spring 1997, crude oil markets loosened and crude oil prices fell, bringing gasoline prices down. This pattern was followed throughout the country except in California. As a result of its unique reformulated gasoline, California prices began to vary significantly from the rest of the country in 1996 and continued to exhibit distinct variations in 1997. In addition to the price contrasts between 1996 and 1997, changes occurred in the way in which gasoline markets were supplied. Low stocks, high refinery utilizations, and high imports persisted through 1996 into summer 1997, but these factors seem to have had little impact on gasoline price spreads relative to average spread.

  1. The motor gasoline industry: Past, present, and future. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Motor gasoline constitutes the largest single component of US demand for petroleum products and is the Nation's most widely used transportation fuel. Because of its importance as a transportation fuel, motor gasoline has been the focus of several regulatory and tax policy initiatives in recent years. Much of the US refining capacity is specifically geared toward maximizing motor gasoline production, and future investments by the petroleum industry in refining infrastructure are likely to be made largely to produce larger volumes of clean motor gasoline. This report addresses major events and developments that have had an impact on motor gasoline supply, distribution, prices, and demand. The report provides historical perspective as well as analyses of important events from the 1970's and 1980's. Long-term forecasts are provided for the period from 1990 to 2010 in an effort to present and analyze possible future motor gasoline trends. Other forecasts examine the near-term impact of the invasion of Kuwait. 18 figs., 10 tabs.

  2. Supporting a Hawaii Hydrogen Economy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Supporting a Hawaii Hydrogen Economy Supporting a Hawaii Hydrogen Economy Download presentation slides from the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar "Supporting a Hawaii...

  3. Prices of Refiner Motor Gasoline Sales to End Users

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product/ Sales Type: Gasoline, All Grades - Sales to End Users (U.S. only) Gasoline, All Grades - Through Retail Outlets Gasoline, All Grades - Other End Users Gasoline, All Grades - Sales for Resale Gasoline, All Grades - DTW (U.S. only) Gasoline, All Grades - Rack (U.S. only) Gasoline, All Grades - Bulk (U.S. only) Regular Gasoline - Sales to End Users (U.S. only) Regular Gasoline - Through Retail Outlets Regular Gasoline - Other End Users Regular Gasoline - Sales for Resale Regular Gasoline -

  4. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Methods to Measure, Predict, and Relate Friction, Wear, and Fuel Economy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Ricardo at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Vehicle Systems

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuels Tax Alternative fuels are subject to an excise tax at a rate of 0.205 per gasoline gallon equivalent, with a variable component equal to at least 5% of the average wholesale...

  6. Fuels Performance: Navigating the Intersection of Fuels and Combustion...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    And how can better engine design most effectively leverage ... Study Reveals Key to Low-Temperature Biodiesel Performance ... to improve the performance of gasoline and diesel fuels. ...

  7. An Experimental Investigation of Low Octane Gasoline in Diesel Engines |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Low Octane Gasoline in Diesel Engines An Experimental Investigation of Low Octane Gasoline in Diesel Engines Presentation given at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010. deer10_ciatti.pdf (1.34 MB) More Documents & Publications Use of Low Cetane Fuel to Enable Low Temperature Combustion High-Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Engine via Fuel Reactivity Control

  8. EIS-0039: Motor Gasoline Deregulation and the Gasoline Tilt

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Economic Regulatory Administration developed this EIS to evaluate the environmental impacts, including social and economic impacts, that may result from either of two proposed regulatory changes: (1) the exemption of motor gasoline from the Department of Energy's Mandatory Petroleum Price and Allocation Regulations, and (2) the adoption of the gasoline tilt, a proposed regulation that would allow refiners to recover an additional amount of their total increased costs on gasoline.

  9. GREET 1.5 - transportation fuel-cycle model - Vol. 1 : methodology...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... SYSTEMS; FUEL CONSUMPTION; ETHERS; GREENHOUSE GASES; LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS; AIR POLLUTION; FLY ASH; DIESEL FUELS; GASOLINE; LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GASES; METHANOL; FUEL ...

  10. Checklist for transition to new highway fuel(s).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Risch, C.; Santini, D.J.

    2011-12-15

    Transportation is vital to the U.S. economy and society. As such, U.S. Presidents have repeatedly stated that the nation needs to reduce dependence on petroleum, especially for the highway transportation sector. Throughout history, highway transportation fuel transitions have been completed successfully both in United States and abroad. Other attempts have failed, as described in Appendix A: Historical Highway Fuel Transitions. Planning for a transition is critical because the changes can affect our nation's ability to compete in the world market. A transition will take many years to complete. While it is tempting to make quick decisions about the new fuel(s) of choice, it is preferable and necessary to analyze all the pertinent criteria to ensure that correct decisions are made. Doing so will reduce the number of changes in highway fuel(s). Obviously, changes may become necessary because of occurrences such as significant technology breakthroughs or major world events. With any and all of the possible transitions to new fuel(s), the total replacement of gasoline and diesel fuels is not expected. These conventional fuels are envisioned to coexist with the new fuel(s) for decades, while the revised fuel and vehicle infrastructures are implemented. The transition process must analyze the needs of the primary 'players,' which consist of the customers, the government, the fuel industry, and the automotive industry. To maximize the probability of future successes, the prime considerations of these groups must be addressed. Section 2 presents a succinct outline of the Checklist. Section 3 provides a brief discussion about the groupings on the Checklist.

  11. Emissions and fuel economy of a vehicle with a spark-ignition, direct-injection engine : Mitsubishi Legnum GDI{trademark}.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, R. L.; Poola, R. B.; Sekar, R.

    1999-04-08

    A 1997 Mitsubishi Legnum station wagon with a 150-hp, 1.8-L, spark-ignition, direct-injection (SIDI) engine was tested for emissions by using the FTP-75, HWFET, SC03, and US06 test cycles and four different fuels. The purpose of the tests was to obtain fuel-economy and emissions data on SIDI vehicles and to compare the measurements obtained with those of a port-fuel-injection (PFI) vehicle. The PFI vehicle chosen for the comparison was a 1995 Dodge Neon, which meets the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) emissions goals of nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC) less than 0.125 g/mi, carbon monoxide (CO) less than 1.7 g/mi, nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x} ) less than 0.2 g/mi, and particulate matter (PM) less than 0.01 g/mi. The Mitsubishi was manufactured for sale in Japan and was not certified to meet current US emissions regulations. Results show that the SIDI vehicle can provide up to 24% better fuel economy than the PFI vehicle does, with correspondingly lower greenhouse gas emissions. The SIDI vehicle as designed does not meet the PNGV goals for NMHC or NO{sub x} emissions, but it does meet the goal for CO emissions. Meeting the goal for PM emissions appears to be contingent upon using low-sulfur fuel and an oxidation catalyst. One reason for the difficulty in meeting the NMHC and NO{sub x} goals is the slow (200 s) warm-up of the catalyst. Catalyst warm-up time is primarily a matter of design. The SIDI engine produces more NMHC and NO{sub x} than the PFI engine does, which puts a greater burden on the catalyst to meet the emissions goals than is the case with the PFI engine. Oxidation of NMHC is aided by unconsumed oxygen in the exhaust when the SIDI engine operates in stratified-charge mode, but the same unconsumed oxygen inhibits chemical reduction of NO{sub x} . Thus, meeting the NO{sub x} emissions goal is likely to be the greatest challenge for the SIDI engine.

  12. As the world economy continues to expand the demand for petroleum based fuel increases and the price of these fuels rises

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    November 2004 Structural Studies of Catalytically Stabilized Industrial Hydrotreating Catalysts Myriam Perez De la Rosa 1 , Gilles Berhault 2 , Apurva Mehta 3 , Russell R. Chianelli 1 1 University of Texas at El Paso, Materials Research Technology Institute, El Paso, TX 2 Institut de Recherches sur la Catalyse, CNRS, Villeurbanne cedex, France 3 Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA Figure 1: MoS 2 layered structure. As the world economy continues to expand the demand for

  13. Linear air-fuel sensor development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garzon, F.; Miller, C.

    1996-12-14

    The electrochemical zirconia solid electrolyte oxygen sensor, is extensively used for monitoring oxygen concentrations in various fields. They are currently utilized in automobiles to monitor the exhaust gas composition and control the air-to-fuel ratio, thus reducing harmful emission components and improving fuel economy. Zirconia oxygen sensors, are divided into two classes of devices: (1) potentiometric or logarithmic air/fuel sensors; and (2) amperometric or linear air/fuel sensors. The potentiometric sensors are ideally suited to monitor the air-to-fuel ratio close to the complete combustion stoichiometry; a value of about 14.8 to 1 parts by volume. This occurs because the oxygen concentration changes by many orders of magnitude as the air/fuel ratio is varied through the stoichiometric value. However, the potentiometric sensor is not very sensitive to changes in oxygen partial pressure away from the stoichiometric point due to the logarithmic dependence of the output voltage signal on the oxygen partial pressure. It is often advantageous to operate gasoline power piston engines with excess combustion air; this improves fuel economy and reduces hydrocarbon emissions. To maintain stable combustion away from stoichiometry, and enable engines to operate in the excess oxygen (lean burn) region several limiting-current amperometric sensors have been reported. These sensors are based on the electrochemical oxygen ion pumping of a zirconia electrolyte. They typically show reproducible limiting current plateaus with an applied voltage caused by the gas diffusion overpotential at the cathode.

  14. Motor Gasoline Assessment, Spring 1997

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes the factors causing the run up of motor gasoline prices during spring 1996 and the different market conditions during spring 1997 that caused prices to decline.

  15. California Gasoline Price Study, 2003

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2003-01-01

    This is the final report to Congressman Ose describing the factors driving California's spring 2003 gasoline price spike and the subsequent price increases in June and August.

  16. Effects of gasoline reactivity and ethanol content on boosted premixed and partially stratified low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dec, John E.; Yang, Yi; Ji, Chunsheng; Dernotte, Jeremie

    2015-04-14

    Low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC), based on the compression ignition of a premixed or partially premixed dilute charge, can provide thermal efficiencies (TE) and maximum loads comparable to those of turbo-charged diesel engines, and ultra-low NOx and particulate emissions. Intake boosting is key to achieving high loads with dilute combustion, and it also enhances the fuel's autoignition reactivity, reducing the required intake heating or hot residuals. These effects have the advantages of increasing TE and charge density, allowing greater timing retard with good stability, and making the fuel ?- sensitive so that partial fuel stratification (PFS) can be applied for higher loads and further TE improvements. However, at high boost the autoignition reactivity enhancement can become excessive, and substantial amounts of EGR are required to prevent overly advanced combustion. Accordingly, an experimental investigation has been conducted to determine how the tradeoff between the effects of intake boost varies with fuel-type and its impact on load range and TE. Five fuels are investigated: a conventional AKI=87 petroleum-based gasoline (E0), and blends of 10 and 20% ethanol with this gasoline to reduce its reactivity enhancement with boost (E10 and E20). Furthermore, a second zero-ethanol gasoline with AKI=93 (matching that of E20) was also investigated (CF-E0), and some neat ethanol data are also reported.

  17. Effects of gasoline reactivity and ethanol content on boosted premixed and partially stratified low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dec, John E.; Yang, Yi; Ji, Chunsheng; Dernotte, Jeremie

    2015-04-14

    Low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC), based on the compression ignition of a premixed or partially premixed dilute charge, can provide thermal efficiencies (TE) and maximum loads comparable to those of turbo-charged diesel engines, and ultra-low NOx and particulate emissions. Intake boosting is key to achieving high loads with dilute combustion, and it also enhances the fuel's autoignition reactivity, reducing the required intake heating or hot residuals. These effects have the advantages of increasing TE and charge density, allowing greater timing retard with good stability, and making the fuel Φ- sensitive so that partial fuel stratification (PFS) can be applied for higher loads and further TE improvements. However, at high boost the autoignition reactivity enhancement can become excessive, and substantial amounts of EGR are required to prevent overly advanced combustion. Accordingly, an experimental investigation has been conducted to determine how the tradeoff between the effects of intake boost varies with fuel-type and its impact on load range and TE. Five fuels are investigated: a conventional AKI=87 petroleum-based gasoline (E0), and blends of 10 and 20% ethanol with this gasoline to reduce its reactivity enhancement with boost (E10 and E20). Furthermore, a second zero-ethanol gasoline with AKI=93 (matching that of E20) was also investigated (CF-E0), and some neat ethanol data are also reported.

  18. Effects of gasoline reactivity and ethanol content on boosted premixed and partially stratified low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dec, John E.; Yang, Yi; Ji, Chunsheng; Dernotte, Jeremie

    2015-04-14

    Low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC), based on the compression ignition of a premixed or partially premixed dilute charge, can provide thermal efficiencies (TE) and maximum loads comparable to those of turbo-charged diesel engines, and ultra-low NOx and particulate emissions. Intake boosting is key to achieving high loads with dilute combustion, and it also enhances the fuel's autoignition reactivity, reducing the required intake heating or hot residuals. These effects have the advantages of increasing TE and charge density, allowing greater timing retard with good stability, and making the fuel Φ- sensitive so that partial fuel stratification (PFS) can be applied for highermore » loads and further TE improvements. However, at high boost the autoignition reactivity enhancement can become excessive, and substantial amounts of EGR are required to prevent overly advanced combustion. Accordingly, an experimental investigation has been conducted to determine how the tradeoff between the effects of intake boost varies with fuel-type and its impact on load range and TE. Five fuels are investigated: a conventional AKI=87 petroleum-based gasoline (E0), and blends of 10 and 20% ethanol with this gasoline to reduce its reactivity enhancement with boost (E10 and E20). Furthermore, a second zero-ethanol gasoline with AKI=93 (matching that of E20) was also investigated (CF-E0), and some neat ethanol data are also reported.« less

  19. Two-Stage Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) System to Increase Efficiency in Gasoline Powertrains

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presents two-stage variable compression ratio mechanism realized by varying the connecting rod length, description of the system layout, working principle and expected fuel savings benefits when used in current and future gasoline engine concepts

  20. Emissions Control for Lean Gasoline Engines | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation ace033_toops_2011_o.pdf (1.28 MB) More Documents & Publications Pre-Competitive Catalysis Research: Fundamental Sulfation/Desulfation Studies of Lean NOx Traps CLEERS Coordination & Development of Catalyst Process Kinetic Data Emissions Control for Lean Gasoline Engines

  1. Utilization of Renewable Oxygenates as Gasoline Blending Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yanowitz, J.; Christensen, E.; McCormick, R. L.

    2011-08-01

    This report reviews the use of higher alcohols and several cellulose-derived oxygenates as blend components in gasoline. Material compatibility issues are expected to be less severe for neat higher alcohols than for fuel-grade ethanol. Very little data exist on how blending higher alcohols or other oxygenates with gasoline affects ASTM Standard D4814 properties. Under the Clean Air Act, fuels used in the United States must be 'substantially similar' to fuels used in certification of cars for emission compliance. Waivers for the addition of higher alcohols at concentrations up to 3.7 wt% oxygen have been granted. Limited emission testing on pre-Tier 1 vehicles and research engines suggests that higher alcohols will reduce emissions of CO and organics, while NOx emissions will stay the same or increase. Most oxygenates can be used as octane improvers for standard gasoline stocks. The properties of 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, dimethylfuran, 2-methylfuran, methyl pentanoate and ethyl pentanoate suggest that they may function well as low-concentration blends with gasoline in standard vehicles and in higher concentrations in flex fuel vehicles.

  2. Gasoline prices decrease (short version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gasoline prices decrease (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.68 a gallon on Monday. That's down 2.9 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  3. Gasoline prices decrease (short version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gasoline prices decrease (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.67 a gallon on Monday. That's down 3-tenths of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  4. Gasoline prices increase (short version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    gasoline prices increase (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.69 a gallon on Monday. That's up 1.2 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  5. Topsoe integrated gasoline synthesis (TIGAS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, H.K.; Joensen, F.

    1987-01-01

    Integration of Haldor Topsoe's oxygenate (MeOH, DME) synthesis and the MTG process into one single synthesis loop provides a new low investment route to gasoline from natural gas. The integrated process has been demonstrated in an industrial pilot with a capacity of 1 MTPD gasoline since 1984. The pilot has operated successfully for more than 10,000 hours.

  6. Supporting a Hawaii Hydrogen Economy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Supporting a Hawaii Hydrogen Economy Pete Devlin U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Office 2 Question and Answer * Please type your question into the question box hydrogenandfuelcells.energy.gov Supporting a Hawaii Hydrogen Economy Mitch Ewan Hawaii Natural Energy Institute University of Hawaii at Manoa 29 July 2014 CHALLENGES Hawaii is Most Petroleum-Dependent State in US Highest/Most Volatile Electricity Rates in US Import 90% of Energy $11Billion leaves Hawaii economy* * Based

  7. Fact #906: January 4, 2016 VMT and the Price of Gasoline Typically Move in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Opposition | Department of Energy 6: January 4, 2016 VMT and the Price of Gasoline Typically Move in Opposition Fact #906: January 4, 2016 VMT and the Price of Gasoline Typically Move in Opposition SUBSCRIBE to the Fact of the Week The prices of gasoline and diesel fuel affect the transportation sector in many ways. For example, fuel prices can impact the number of miles driven and affect the choices consumers make when purchasing vehicles. The graph below shows a three-month moving average

  8. Simulating the Impact of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition on Light-Duty Diesel Fuel Economy and Emissions of Particulates and NOx

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Zhiming; Daw, C Stuart; Wagner, Robert M; Edwards, Kevin Dean; Smith, David E

    2013-01-01

    We utilize the Powertrain Systems Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) combined with transient engine and aftertreatment component models implemented in Matlab/Simulink to simulate the effect of premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) on the fuel economy and emissions of light-duty diesel-powered conventional and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Our simulated engine is capable of both conventional diesel combustion (CDC) and premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) over real transient driving cycles. Our simulated aftertreatment train consists of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), lean NOx trap (LNT), and catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF). The results demonstrate that, in the simulated conventional vehicle, PCCI can significantly reduce fuel consumption and emissions by reducing the need for LNT and DPF regeneration. However, the opportunity for PCCI operation in the simulated HEV is limited because the engine typically experiences higher loads and multiple stop-start transients that are outside the allowable PCCI operating range. Thus developing ways of extending the PCCI operating range combined with improved control strategies for engine and emissions control management will be especially important for realizing the potential benefits of PCCI in HEVs.

  9. Ammonia Generation and Utilization in a Passive SCR (TWC+SCR) System on Lean Gasoline Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Parks, II, James E; Pihl, Josh A; Toops, Todd J

    2016-01-01

    Lean gasoline engines offer greater fuel economy than the common stoichiometric gasoline engine, but the current three-way catalyst (TWC) on stoichiometric engines is unable to control nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions in the oxygen-rich exhaust. Thus, lean NOX emission control is required to meet existing Tier 2 and upcoming Tier 3 emission regulations set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). While urea-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) has proven effective in controlling NOX from diesel engines, the urea storage and delivery components can add significant size and cost. As such, onboard NH3 production via a passive SCR approach is of interest. In a passive SCR system, NH3 is generated over a close-coupled TWC during periodic slightly rich engine operation and subsequently stored on an underfloor SCR catalyst. Upon switching to lean operation, NOX passes through the TWC and is reduced by the stored NH3 on the SCR catalyst. In this work, a passive SCR system was evaluated on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine to assess NH3 generation over a Pd-only TWC and utilization over a Cu-based SCR catalyst. System NOX reduction efficiency and fuel efficiency improvement compared to stoichiometric engine operation were measured. A feedback control strategy based on cumulative NH3 produced by the TWC during rich operation and NOX emissions during lean operation was implemented on the engine to control lean/rich cycle timing. 15% excess NH3 production over a 1:1 NH3:NOX ratio was required (via longer rich cycle timing) to achieve 99.7% NOX conversion at an SCR average inlet temperature of 350 C. Increasing NH3 generation further resulted in even higher NOX conversion; however, tailpipe NH3 emissions resulted. At higher temperatures, NH3 oxidation becomes important and limits NH3 availability for NOX reduction. At the engine conditions studied here, greater than 99% NOX conversion was achieved with passive SCR while delivering fuel

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel Definition The following fuels are defined as alternative fuels by the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 1992: pure methanol, ethanol, and other alcohols; blends of 85% or more of alcohol with gasoline; natural gas and liquid fuels domestically produced from natural gas; liquefied petroleum gas (propane); coal-derived liquid fuels; hydrogen; electricity; pure biodiesel (B100); fuels, other than alcohol, derived from biological materials; and P-Series fuels. In addition, the U.S.

  11. Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice, Vehicle...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    FFVs can be fueled with unleaded gasoline, E85, or any combination of the two. Today more ... 9-5 Biopower Transportation Fuels: The Future is Today (6 Activities) Current State of ...

  12. Comparing Scales of Environmental Effects from Gasoline and Ethanol Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parish, Esther S; Kline, Keith L; Dale, Virginia H; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann; McBride, Allen; Johnson, Timothy L; Hilliard, Michael R; Bielicki, Dr Jeffrey M

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the environmental effects of alternative fuel production is critical to characterizing the sustainability of energy resources to inform policy and regulatory decisions. The magnitudes of these environmental effects vary according to the intensity and scale of fuel production along each step of the supply chain. We compare the scales (i.e., spatial extent and temporal duration) of ethanol and gasoline production processes and environmental effects based on a literature review, and then synthesize the scale differences on space-time diagrams. Comprehensive assessment of any fuel-production system is a moving target, and our analysis shows that decisions regarding the selection of spatial and temporal boundaries of analysis have tremendous influences on the comparisons. Effects that strongly differentiate gasoline and ethanol supply chains in terms of scale are associated with when and where energy resources are formed and how they are extracted. Although both gasoline and ethanol production may result in negative environmental effects, this study indicates that ethanol production traced through a supply chain may impact less area and result in more easily reversed effects of a shorter duration than gasoline production.

  13. Pollutant emissions and environmental assessment of ethyl 3-ethoxybutyrate, a potential renewable fuel

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Storey, John M. E.; Bunce, Michael P.; Clarke, Edwina M.; Edmonds, Jennifer W.; Findlay, Robert H.; Ritchie, Stephen M. C.; Eyers, Laurent; McMurry, Zackery A.; Smoot, James C.

    2016-06-14

    Renewable and bio-based transportation fuel sources can lower the life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions from vehicles. Here, we present an initial assessment of ethyl 3-ethoxybutyrate (EEB) as a biofuel in terms of its performance as a fuel oxygenate and its persistence in the environment. EEB can be produced from ethanol and poly-3-hydroxybutyrate, a bacterial storage polymer that can be produced from non-food biomass and other organic feedstocks. The physicochemical properties of EEB and fuel-relevant properties of EEB-gasoline blends were measured, emissions of criteria pollutants from EEB as a gasoline additive in a production vehicle were evaluated, and fate and persistence ofmore » EEB in the environment were estimated. EEB solubility in water was 25.8 g/L, its Kow was 1.8, and its Henry's Law constant was 1.04 x 10-5 atm-m3/mole. The anti-knock index values for 5% and 20% v/v EEB-gasoline blends were 91.6 and 91.9, respectively. Reductions in fuel economy were consistent with the level of oxygenation, and criteria emissions were met by the vehicle operated over the urban dynamometer driving cycle (FTP 75). Predicted environmental persistence ranged from 15 d to 30 d which indicates that EEB is not likely to be a persistent organic pollutant. Combined, these results suggest a high potential for the use of EEB as a renewable fuel source.« less

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Vehicle Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards Vehicle manufacturers must meet fuel economy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions standards for vehicles sold in the United States. The U.S. Department of Transportation's (DOT) National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) regulates fuel economy standards, while the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates GHG emissions. NHTSA's Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) program and EPA's light-duty vehicle GHG emissions

  15. Biomass to Gasoline and DIesel Using Integrated Hydropyrolysis and Hydroconversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marker, Terry; Roberts, Michael; Linck, Martin; Felix, Larry; Ortiz-Toral, Pedro; Wangerow, Jim; Tan, Eric; Gephart, John; Shonnard, David

    2013-01-02

    Cellulosic and woody biomass can be directly converted to hydrocarbon gasoline and diesel blending components through the use of integrated hydropyrolysis plus hydroconversion (IH2). The IH2 gasoline and diesel blending components are fully compatible with petroleum based gasoline and diesel, contain less than 1% oxygen and have less than 1 total acid number (TAN). The IH2 gasoline is high quality and very close to a drop in fuel. The DOE funding enabled rapid development of the IH2 technology from initial proof-of-principle experiments through continuous testing in a 50 kg/day pilot plant. As part of this project, engineering work on IH2 has also been completed to design a 1 ton/day demonstration unit and a commercial-scale 2000 ton/day IH2 unit. These studies show when using IH2 technology, biomass can be converted directly to transportation quality fuel blending components for the same capital cost required for pyrolysis alone, and a fraction of the cost of pyrolysis plus upgrading of pyrolysis oil. Technoeconomic work for IH2 and lifecycle analysis (LCA) work has also been completed as part of this DOE study and shows IH2 technology can convert biomass to gasoline and diesel blending components for less than $2.00/gallon with greater than 90% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. As a result of the work completed in this DOE project, a joint development agreement was reached with CRI Catalyst Company to license the IH2 technology. Further larger-scale, continuous testing of IH2 will be required to fully demonstrate the technology, and funding for this is recommended. The IH2 biomass conversion technology would reduce U.S. dependence on foreign oil, reduce the price of transportation fuels, and significantly lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It is a breakthrough for the widespread conversion of biomass to transportation fuels.

  16. Chemical kinetic modeling of component mixtures relevant to gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehl, M; Curran, H J; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2009-02-13

    Real fuels are complex mixtures of thousands of hydrocarbon compounds including linear and branched paraffins, naphthenes, olefins and aromatics. It is generally agreed that their behavior can be effectively reproduced by simpler fuel surrogates containing a limited number of components. In this work, a recently revised version of the kinetic model by the authors is used to analyze the combustion behavior of several components relevant to gasoline surrogate formulation. Particular attention is devoted to linear and branched saturated hydrocarbons (PRF mixtures), olefins (1-hexene) and aromatics (toluene). Model predictions for pure components, binary mixtures and multi-component gasoline surrogates are compared with recent experimental information collected in rapid compression machine, shock tube and jet stirred reactors covering a wide range of conditions pertinent to internal combustion engines. Simulation results are discussed focusing attention on the mixing effects of the fuel components.

  17. Water Emissions from Fuel Cell Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) emit approximately the same amount of water per mile as vehicles using gasoline-powered internal combustion engines (ICEs).

  18. Crude Oil and Gasoline Price Monitoring

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Petroleum Product Price Formation September 7, 2016 | Washington, DC An analysis of the factors that influence product prices, with chart data updated monthly, quarterly and annually Gasoline spot prices 2 Sources: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Bloomberg L.P. September 7, 2016 dollars per gallon Chicago CBOB New York Harbor Conventional gasoline Gulf Coast Conventional gasoline Los Angeles CARBOB Northwest Europe gasoline Singapore gasoline 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

  19. Gasoline Price Pass-through

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    differences, whereas stationary series can be estimated in level form. The unit root test could not reject the hypothesis that the retail and spot gasoline price series have a...

  20. Trends of petroleum fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shelton, E.M.; Woodward, P.W.

    1985-02-01

    Trends in properties of motor gasolines for the years 1942 through 1984; diesel fuels for the years 1950 through 1983; aviation fuels for the years 1947 through 1983; and heating oils for the years 1955 through 1984, have been evaluated based upon data contained in surveys prepared and published by the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (NIPER) formerly the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC). The surveys for motor gasolines were conducted under a cooperative agreement with the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) and the Bureau of Mines from 1935 through 1948 and in cooperation with the American Petroleum Institute (API) since 1948 for all surveys. The motor gasoline surveys have been published twice annually since 1935 describing the properties of motor gasolines throughout the country. Other surveys prepared in cooperation with API and the Bureau of Mines, the Energy Research and Development Administration, the Department of Energy, and currently NIPER were aviation gasolines beginning in 1947, diesel fuels in 1950, aviation turbine fuels in 1951, and heating oils, formerly burner fuel oils, in 1955. Various companies throughout the country obtain samples of motor gasolines from retail outlets and refinery samples for the other surveys, and analyze the samples using American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) procedures. The analytical data are sent to the Bartlesville Center for survey preparation and distribution. A summary report has been assembled from data in 83 semiannual surveys for motor gasolines that shows trends throughout the entire era from winter 19

  1. Direct determination of PB in gasoline emulsions using Ar and Ar-oxygen ICPs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brenner, I.B.; Zander, A.; Shkolnik, J.; Kim, S.

    1995-12-31

    Lead in gasoline emulsions was determined by argon and argon-oxygen ICP-AES. Intensity variations of inorganic and organic lead species in aqueous solution and in gasoline and decalin emulsions were studied. In an aqueous solution Pb II intensities were higher than those observed in gasoline and decalin emulsions and were higher in the argon ICP than in an argon-oxygen plasma. Pb intensities were influenced by aerosol flow rate, oxygen doping and emulsion composition, which were all compensated by Y II the internal standard. Pb LODs in the emulsions were not significantly degraded relative to an aqueous solution, and were adequate for the direct determination of lead in gasoline at the mg/kg concentration. The accuracy of Pb determination in spiked gasoline emulsions and in NIST reference fuels was satisfactory. Mg II/Mg I ratios indicate that emulsion plasmas are similar to ICPs containing water only.

  2. Stocks of Conventional Gasoline

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Nuclear & Uranium Glossary › FAQS › Overview Data Status of U.S. nuclear outages (interactive) Nuclear power plants Uranium & nuclear fuel Spent nuclear fuel All nuclear data reports Analysis & Projections Major Topics Most popular Nuclear plants and reactors Projections Recurring Uranium All reports Browse by Tag Alphabetical Frequency Tag Cloud ‹ See all Nuclear Reports State Nuclear Profiles Data for 2010 (See also State Electricity Profiles) | Release Date: April 26, 2012 |

  3. Texas Bi-Fuel Liquefied Petroleum Gas Pickup Study: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Y.; Matthews, R. D.; Popova, E. T.

    1999-05-24

    Alternative fuels may be an effective means for decreasing America's dependence on imported oil; creating new jobs; and reducing emissions of greenhouse gases, exhaust toxics, and ozone-forming hydrocarbons. However, data regarding in-use fuel economy and maintenance characteristics of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) have been limited in availability. This study was undertaken to compare the operating and maintenance characteristics of bi-fuel vehicles (which use liquefied petroleum gas, or propane, as the primary fuel) to those of nominally identical gasoline vehicles. In Texas, liquefied petroleum gas is one of the most widely used alternative fuels. The largest fleet in Texas, operated by the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT), has hundred of bi-fuel (LPG and gasoline) vehicles operating in normal daily service. The project was conducted over a 2-year period, including 18 months (April 1997-September 1998) of data collection on operations, maintenance, and fuel consumption of the vehicles under study. This report summarizes the project and its results.

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Entities regulated by RFS include oil refiners and gasoline and diesel importers. The ... This may include sugarcane or sugar beet-based fuels; biodiesel made from vegetable oil or ...

  5. Fuel Tables.indd

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... 3,709.1 863,909.0 Where shown, (s) Expenditure value less than 0.05. Notes: Total petroleum includes fuel ethanol blended into motor gasoline. * Totals may not equal sum

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ethanol Fuel Blend Standard At least 85% of gasoline supplied to a retailer or sold in Hawaii must contain a minimum of 10% ethanol (E10), unless the Director determines that...

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Biofuel Specifications Ethanol-blended gasoline must conform to ASTM D4814, E85 must conform to ASTM D4806, and biodiesel-blended fuel containing at least 6%, but no more than 20%, ...

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Renewable Fuel Retailer Tax Incentive A licensed retail motor fuel dealer may receive a quarterly incentive for selling and dispensing renewable fuels, including biodiesel. A qualified motor fuel dealer is eligible for up to $0.065 for every gallon of renewable fuel sold and up to $0.03 for every gallon of biodiesel sold, if the required threshold percentage is met. The threshold is determined by calculating the percent of total gasoline sales that is renewable fuel or biodiesel. For renewable

  9. Assessment of PNGV fuels infrastructure. Phase 1 report: Additional capital needs and fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.; Stork, K.; Vyas, A.; Mintz, M.; Singh, M.; Johnson, L.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the methodologies and results of Argonne`s assessment of additional capital needs and the fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts of using six different fuels in the vehicles with tripled fuel economy (3X vehicles) that the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles is currently investigating. The six fuels included in this study are reformulated gasoline, low-sulfur diesel, methanol, ethanol, dimethyl ether, and hydrogen. Reformulated gasoline, methanol, and ethanol are assumed to be burned in spark-ignition, direct-injection engines. Diesel and dimethyl ether are assumed to be burned in compression-ignition, direct-injection engines. Hydrogen and methanol are assumed to be used in fuel-cell vehicles. The authors have analyzed fuels infrastructure impacts under a 3X vehicle low market share scenario and a high market share scenario. The assessment shows that if 3X vehicles are mass-introduced, a considerable amount of capital investment will be needed to build new fuel production plants and to establish distribution infrastructure for methanol, ethanol, dimethyl ether, and hydrogen. Capital needs for production facilities will far exceed those for distribution infrastructure. Among the four fuels, hydrogen will bear the largest capital needs. The fuel efficiency gain by 3X vehicles translates directly into reductions in total energy demand, fossil energy demand, and CO{sub 2} emissions. The combination of fuel substitution and fuel efficiency results in substantial petroleum displacement and large reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, sulfur oxide, and particulate matter of size smaller than 10 microns.

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel Tax An excise tax rate of 9% of the average wholesale price on a per gallon basis applies to all special fuels, including diesel, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas (propane), ethanol, biodiesel, hydrogen, and any other combustible gases and liquids, excluding gasoline, used to propel motor vehicles. For taxation purposes, one gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE) of compressed natural gas (CNG) is equal to 5.66 pounds (lbs.) or 126.67 cubic feet. One GGE of liquefied natural gas

  11. Gasoline Days of Supply

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    All Petrolem Reports Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales With Data for 2014 | Release Date: December 22, 2015 | Next Release Date: November 2016 Previous Issues Year: 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 Go EIA is considering changes to the survey Form EIA-821, "Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report," such as deleting kerosene and adding propane. If you would like to participate in a discussion on these proposed changes contact

  12. This Week In Petroleum Gasoline Section

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Regular gasoline retail prices (dollars per gallon) U.S. Average Conventional Reformulated U.S. retail regular gasoline prices graph Retail average regular gasoline prices graph Retail conventional regular gasoline prices graph Retail reformulated regular gasoline prices graph Retail average regular gasoline prices (dollars per gallon) more price data › Year ago Most recent 08/31/15 08/29/16 08/22/16 08/15/16 08/08/16 08/01/16 07/25/16 07/18/16 U.S. 2.510 2.237 2.193 2.149 2.150 2.159 2.182

  13. Fact #591: October 5, 2009 Consumer Reports Tests Vehicle Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5, 2009 Consumer Reports Tests Vehicle Fuel Economy by Speed Fact 591: October 5, 2009 Consumer Reports Tests Vehicle Fuel Economy by Speed Seven vehicles were tested by ...

  14. Fact #587: September 7, 2009 Cash for Clunkers Program - Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    7, 2009 Cash for Clunkers Program - Fuel Economy Improvement Fact 587: September 7, 2009 Cash for Clunkers Program - Fuel Economy Improvement The Car Allowance Rebate System ...

  15. U.S. gasoline price expected to drop further below $3 per gallon

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Declining fuel prices to push U.S. gasoline demand to an 8-year high In its new forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said domestic gasoline consumption this year should be about 60,000 barrels per day higher than in 2014 rising to an average 9 million barrels per day the highest since 2007. The average pump price is forecast to fall to $2.16 per gallon in the first quarter of 2015 with gasoline already selling for less than $2 a gallon in several states

  16. Hydrogen and Gaseous Fuel Safety and Toxicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee C. Cadwallader; J. Sephen Herring

    2007-06-01

    Non-traditional motor fuels are receiving increased attention and use. This paper examines the safety of three alternative gaseous fuels plus gasoline and the advantages and disadvantages of each. The gaseous fuels are hydrogen, methane (natural gas), and propane. Qualitatively, the overall risks of the four fuels should be close. Gasoline is the most toxic. For small leaks, hydrogen has the highest ignition probability and the gaseous fuels have the highest risk of a burning jet or cloud.

  17. The Methanol Economy Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olah, George; Prakash, G. K.

    2014-02-01

    The Methanol Economy Project is based on the concept of replacing fossil fuels with methanol generated either from renewable resources or abundant natural (shale) gas. The full methanol cycle was investigated in this project, from production of methanol through bromination of methane, bireforming of methane to syngas, CO2 capture using supported amines, co-electrolysis of CO2 and water to formate and syngas, decomposition of formate to CO2 and H2, and use of formic acid in a direct formic acid fuel cell. Each of these projects achieved milestones and provided new insights into their respective fields.

  18. Conversion of Low-Rank Wyoming Coals into Gasoline by Direct Liquefaction

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Conversion of Low-Rank Wyoming Coals into Gasoline by Direct Liquefaction Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Conversion of Low-Rank Wyoming Coals into Gasoline by Direct Liquefaction Under the cooperative agreement program of DOE and funding from Wyoming State's Clean Coal Task Force, Western Research Institute and Thermosolv LLC studied the direct conversion of Wyoming coals and coal-lignin mixed feeds into liquid fuels in conditions highly

  19. EERE Success Story-California and Connecticut: National Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    California and Connecticut: National Fuel Cell Bus Programs Drive Fuel Economy Higher EERE Success Story-California and Connecticut: National Fuel Cell Bus Programs Drive Fuel ...

  20. Assessment of capital requirements for alternative fuels infrastructure under the PNGV program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stork, K.; Singh, M.; Wang, M.; Vyas, A.

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents an assessment of the capital requirements of using six different fuels in the vehicles with tripled fuel economy (3X vehicles) that the Partnership for a new Generation of Vehicles is currently investigating. The six fuels include two petroleum-based fuels (reformulated gasoline and low-sulfur diesel) and four alternative fuels (methanol, ethanol, dimethyl ether, and hydrogen). This study develops estimates of cumulative capital needs for establishing fuels production and distribution infrastructure to accommodate 3X vehicle fuel needs. Two levels of fuel volume-70,000 barrels per day and 1.6 million barrels per day-were established for meeting 3X-vehicle fuel demand. As expected, infrastructure capital needs for the high fuel demand level are much higher than for the low fuel demand level. Between fuel production infrastructure and distribution infrastructure, capital needs for the former far exceed those for the latter. Among the four alternative fuels, hydrogen bears the largest capital needs for production and distribution infrastructure.

  1. ,"U.S. Motor Gasoline Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Motor Gasoline Prices",6,"Monthly","42016","1... AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: U.S. Motor Gasoline Prices" "Sourcekey","EMAEPM0PTA...

  2. ,"New York Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Gasoline and Diesel Retail ... 4:27:01 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: New York Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices" ...

  3. EIA lowers forecast for summer gasoline prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    EIA lowers forecast for summer gasoline prices U.S. gasoline prices are expected to be ... according to the new monthly forecast from the U.S. Energy Information Administration. ...

  4. The potential for alcohols and related ethers to displace conventional gasoline components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.; McNutt, B.D.

    1996-02-01

    The United States Department of Energy is required by law to determine the feasibility of producing sufficient replacement fuels to replace 30 percent of the projected United States consumption of motor fuels by light duty vehicles in the year 2010. A replacement fuel is a non-petroleum portion of gasoline, including alcohols, natural gas and certain other components. A linear program has been used to study refinery impacts for production of ``low petroleum`` gasolines, which contain replacement fuels. The analysis suggests that high oxygenation is the key to meeting the replacement fuel target, and major contributors to cost increase can include investment in processes to produce olefins for etherification with alcohols. High oxygenation can increase the costs of control of vapor pressure, distillation properties, and pollutant emissions of gasolines. Year-round low petroleum gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum might be produced with cost increases of 23 to 37 cents per gallon, with substantial decreases in greenhouse gas emissions in some cases. Cost estimates are sensitive to assumptions about extrapolation of a national model for pollutant emissions, availability of raw materials and other issues. Reduction in crude oil use, a major objective of the low petroleum gasoline program, is 10 to 17 percent in the analysis.

  5. Alternative Fuel Vehicle Resources | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Find alternative fuel vehicle resources. Alternative Fuels Data Center FuelEconomy.gov-Gas Mileage, Emissions, Air Pollution Ratings, and Safety Data National Renewable Energy ...

  6. Price Changes in the Gasoline Market - Are Midwestern Gasoline Prices Downward Sticky?

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1999-01-01

    The report concentrates on regional gasoline prices in the Midwest from October 1992 through June 1998.

  7. Gasoline prices decrease (long version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gasoline prices decrease (long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.70 a gallon on Monday. That's down 1.4 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Pump prices were highest in the West Coast region at 4.01 a gallon, down 4.2 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Rocky Mountain States at 3.47 a gallon, remaining unchanged from last week

  8. Gasoline prices decrease (long version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5, 2014 Gasoline prices decrease (long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.68 a gallon on Monday. That's down 2.9 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Pump prices were highest in the West Coast states at 4.06 a gallon, down 1.8 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast region at 3.47 a gallon, down 2.6 cents.This is Amerine Woodyard, with EIA, in Washington.

  9. Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine Development Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine ...

  10. GASOLINE VEHICLE EXHAUST PARTICLE SAMPLING STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kittelson, D; Watts, W; Johnson, J; Zarling, D Schauer,J Kasper, K; Baltensperger, U; Burtscher, H

    2003-08-24

    The University of Minnesota collaborated with the Paul Scherrer Institute, the University of Wisconsin (UWI) and Ricardo, Inc to physically and chemically characterize the exhaust plume from recruited gasoline spark ignition (SI) vehicles. The project objectives were: (1) Measure representative particle size distributions from a set of on-road SI vehicles and compare these data to similar data collected on a small subset of light-duty gasoline vehicles tested on a chassis dynamometer with a dilution tunnel using the Unified Drive Cycle, at both room temperature (cold start) and 0 C (cold-cold start). (2) Compare data collected from SI vehicles to similar data collected from Diesel engines during the Coordinating Research Council E-43 project. (3) Characterize on-road aerosol during mixed midweek traffic and Sunday midday periods and determine fleet-specific emission rates. (4) Characterize bulk- and size-segregated chemical composition of the particulate matter (PM) emitted in the exhaust from the gasoline vehicles. Particle number concentrations and size distributions are strongly influenced by dilution and sampling conditions. Laboratory methods were evaluated to dilute SI exhaust in a way that would produce size distributions that were similar to those measured during laboratory experiments. Size fractionated samples were collected for chemical analysis using a nano-microorifice uniform deposit impactor (nano-MOUDI). In addition, bulk samples were collected and analyzed. A mixture of low, mid and high mileage vehicles were recruited for testing during the study. Under steady highway cruise conditions a significant particle signature above background was not measured, but during hard accelerations number size distributions for the test fleet were similar to modern heavy-duty Diesel vehicles. Number emissions were much higher at high speed and during cold-cold starts. Fuel specific number emissions range from 1012 to 3 x 1016 particles/kg fuel. A simple

  11. Techno-economic Analysis for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Gasoline via the Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG) Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2009-05-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications. As a widely available biomass form, lignocellulosic biomass can have a major impact on domestic transportation fuel supplies and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). With gasification technology, biomass can be converted to gasoline via methanol synthesis and methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) technologies. Producing a gasoline product that is infrastructure ready has much potential. Although the MTG technology has been commercially demonstrated with natural gas conversion, combining MTG with biomass gasification has not been shown. Therefore, a techno-economic evaluation for a biomass MTG process based on currently available technology was developed to provide information about benefits and risks of this technology. The economic assumptions used in this report are consistent with previous U.S. Department of Energy Office of Biomass Programs techno-economic assessments. The feedstock is assumed to be wood chips at 2000 metric ton/day (dry basis). Two kinds of gasification technologies were evaluated: an indirectly-heated gasifier and a directly-heated oxygen-blown gasifier. The gasoline selling prices (2008 USD) excluding taxes were estimated to be $3.20/gallon and $3.68/gallon for indirectly-heated gasified and directly-heated. This suggests that a process based on existing technology is economic only when crude prices are above $100/bbl. However, improvements in syngas cleanup combined with consolidated gasoline synthesis can potentially reduce the capital cost. In addition, improved synthesis catalysts and reactor design may allow increased yield.

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Low Carbon Fuel Standard California's Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) Program requires a reduction in the carbon intensity of transportation fuels that are sold, supplied, or offered for sale in the state by a minimum of 10% by 2020. The California Air Resources Board (ARB) regulations require transportation fuel producers and importers to meet specified average carbon intensity requirements for fuel. In the regulations, carbon intensity reductions are based on reformulated gasoline mixed with

  13. Ethanol Demand in United States Production of Oxygenate-limited Gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.

    2000-08-16

    Ethanol competes with methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to satisfy oxygen, octane, and volume requirements of certain gasolines. However, MTBE has water quality problems that may create significant market opportunities for ethanol. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has used its Refinery Yield Model to estimate ethanol demand in gasolines with restricted use of MTBE. Reduction of the use of MTBE would increase the costs of gasoline production and possibly reduce the gasoline output of U.S. refineries. The potential gasoline supply problems of an MTBE ban could be mitigated by allowing a modest 3 vol percent MTBE in all gasoline. In the U.S. East and Gulf Coast gasoline producing regions, the 3 vol percent MTBE option results in costs that are 40 percent less than an MTBE ban. In the U.S. Midwest gasoline producing region, with already high use of ethanol, an MTBE ban has minimal effect on ethanol demand unless gasoline producers in other regions bid away the local supply of ethanol. The ethanol/MTBE issue gained momentum in March 2000 when the Clinton Administration announced that it would ask Congress to amend the Clean Air Act to provide the authority to significantly reduce or eliminate the use of MTBE; to ensure that air quality gains are not diminished as MTBE use is reduced; and to replace the existing oxygenate requirement in the Clean Air Act with a renewable fuel standard for all gasoline. Premises for the ORNL study are consistent with the Administration announcement, and the ethanol demand curve estimates of this study can be used to evaluate the impact of the Administration principles and related policy initiatives.

  14. Motor Gasoline Outlook and State MTBE Bans

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. is beginning the summer 2003 driving season with lower gasoline inventories and higher prices than last year. Recovery from this tight gasoline market could be made more difficult by impending state bans on the blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into gasoline that are scheduled to begin later this year.

  15. Evaluation of processes for producing gasoline from wood. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-05-01

    Three processes for producing gasoline from wood by pyrolysis have been investigated. Technical and economic comparisons among the processes have been made, based on a hypothetical common plant size of 2000 tons per day green wood chip feedstock. In order to consider the entire fuel production process, the energy and cost inputs for producing and delivering the feedstock were included in the analysis. In addition, perspective has been provided by comparisons of the wood-to-gasoline technologies with other similar systems, including coal-to-methanol and various biomass-to-alcohol systems. Based on several assumptions that were required because of the candidate processes' information gaps, comparisons of energy efficiency were made. Several descriptors of energy efficiency were used, but all showed that methanol production from wood, with or without subsequent processing by the Mobil route to gasoline, appears most promising. It must be emphasized, however, that the critical wood-to-methanol system remains conceptual. Another observation was that the ethanol production systems appear inferior to the wood-to-gasoline processes. Each of the processes investigated requires further research and development to answer the questions about their potential contributions confidently. The processes each have so many unknowns that it appears unwise to pursue any one while abandoning the others.

  16. Gasoline prices - January 7, 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline showed little movement from last week. Prices remained flat at $3.30 a gallon on Monday, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. This is Amerine Woodyard, with EIA, in Washington. For more information, contact Amerine Woodyard on

  17. Gasoline prices decrease (Short version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.65 a gallon on Monday. That's down 2.8 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration

  18. Gasoline prices decrease (short version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.63 a gallon on Monday. That's down 2.9 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration

  19. Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for Light-Duty Natural-Gas-Fueled Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staunton, R.H.; Thomas, J.F.

    1998-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate and make recommendations concerning technologies that promise to improve the efilciency of compressed natural gas (CNG) light-duty vehicles. Technical targets for CNG automotive technology given in the March 1998 OffIce of Advanced Automotive Technologies research and development plan were used as guidance for this effort. The technical target that necessitates this current study is to validate technologies that enable CNG light vehicles to have at least 10% greater - fuel economy (on a miles per gallon equivalent basis) than equivalent gasoline vehicles by 2006. Other tar- gets important to natural gas (NG) automotive technology and this study are to: (1) increase CNG vehicle range to 380 miles, (2) reduce the incremental vehicle cost (CNG vs gasoline) to $1500, and (3) meet the California ultra low-emission vehicle (ULEV) and Federal Tier 2 emission standards expected to be in effect in 2004.

  20. Renewable Fuels and Vehicles Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Product Recovery Products By-products Enzyme Production ... waste CO 2 resource (e.g. coal power plant) * Potential ... ReFUEL * Emissions * Fuel Economy * Combustion * Durability ...

  1. Fuel Cell Technologies Office FY 2015 Budget At-A-Glance

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    hydrogen to be cost-competitive with gasoline (at less than 4 per gallon gasoline equivalent (gge), delivered and dispensed). What We Do To achieve its goals, the Fuel Cell ...

  2. Northeast States' Hydrogen Economy Webinar | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Northeast States' Hydrogen Economy Webinar Northeast States' Hydrogen Economy Webinar Access the recording and download the presentation slides from the Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar "Northeast States' Hydrogen Economy" held on December 1, 2015. Northeast States' Hydrogen Economy Webinar Slides (4.34 MB) More Documents & Publications Connecticut Fuel Cell Activities: Markets, Programs, and Models 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program Review Presentation Transportation and Stationary

  3. Supporting a Hawaii Hydrogen Economy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Supporting a Hawaii Hydrogen Economy Supporting a Hawaii Hydrogen Economy Download presentation slides from the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar "Supporting a Hawaii Hydrogen Economy" held on July 29, 2014. Supporting a Hawaii Hydrogen Economy Webinar Slides (2.12 MB) More Documents & Publications 2010 Smart Grid Peer Review Day One Morning Presentations 2010 Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Global Commercialization & Development Update Hawaii Hydrogen Energy Park

  4. Fuel Modification t Facilitate Future Combustion Regimes? | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Modification t Facilitate Future Combustion Regimes? Fuel Modification t Facilitate Future ... Merit Review 2015: RCM Studies to Enable Gasoline-Relevant Low Temperature Combustion

  5. EERE and Auto Manufacturers Demonstrate and Evaluate Fuel Cell Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Auto manufacturers demonstrate that switching from a gasoline to a hydrogen fuel cell engine could reduce emissions by more than 90%.

  6. fuel

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    4%2A en Cheaper catalyst may lower fuel costs for hydrogen-powered cars http:www.nnsa.energy.govblogcheaper-catalyst-may-lower-fuel-costs-hydrogen-powered-cars

  7. fuel

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    4%2A en Cheaper catalyst may lower fuel costs for hydrogen-powered cars http:nnsa.energy.govblogcheaper-catalyst-may-lower-fuel-costs-hydrogen-powered-cars

  8. Fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing ... Heavy Duty Fuels DISI Combustion HCCISCCI Fundamentals Spray Combustion Modeling ...

  9. Microsoft Word - Summer 2004 Motor Gasoline Outlook.doc

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    April 2004 Summer 2004 Motor Gasoline Outlook Summary * Gasoline markets are tight as the 2004 driving season begins and conditions are likely to remain volatile through the summer. High crude oil costs, strong gasoline demand growth, low gasoline inventories, uncertainty about the availability of gasoline imports, high transportation costs, and changes in gasoline specifications have added to current and expected gasoline costs and pump prices. * For the upcoming summer driving season (April to

  10. Technoeconomic Comparison of Biofuels: Ethanol, Methanol, and Gasoline from Gasification of Woody Residues (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarud, J.; Phillips, S.

    2011-08-01

    This presentation provides a technoeconomic comparison of three biofuels - ethanol, methanol, and gasoline - produced by gasification of woody biomass residues. The presentation includes a brief discussion of the three fuels evaluated; discussion of equivalent feedstock and front end processes; discussion of back end processes for each fuel; process comparisons of efficiencies, yields, and water usage; and economic assumptions and results, including a plant gate price (PGP) for each fuel.

  11. Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice, Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP) (Fact Sheet)

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    What is an FFV? An FFV, as its name implies, has the flex- ibility of running on more than one type of fuel. FFVs can be fueled with unleaded gasoline, E85, or any combination of the two. Like conventional gasoline vehicles, FFVs have a single fuel tank, fuel system, and engine. And they are available in a wide range of models such as sedans, pickups, and minivans. Light-duty FFVs are designed to operate with at least 15% gasoline in the fuel, mainly to ensure they start in cold weather. FFVs

  12. Energy Economy

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Adam Sieminski (202) 662-1624 April 2010 Energy and the Economy US EIA & JHU SAIS 2010 Energy Conference April 6, 2010 All prices are those current at the end of the previous trading session unless otherwise indicated. Prices are sourced from local exchanges via Reuters, Bloomberg and other vendors. Data is sourced from Deutsche Bank and subject companies. DISCLOSURES AND ANALYST CERTIFICATIONS ARE LOCATED IN APPENDIX 1. Adam Sieminski, CFA Chief Energy Economist adam.sieminski@db.com +1 202

  13. Comparative urban drive cycle simulations of light-duty hybrid vehicles with gasoline or diesel engines and emissions controls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Zhiming; Daw, C Stuart; Smith, David E

    2013-01-01

    Electric hybridization is a very effective approach for reducing fuel consumption in light-duty vehicles. Lean combustion engines (including diesels) have also been shown to be significantly more fuel efficient than stoichiometric gasoline engines. Ideally, the combination of these two technologies would result in even more fuel efficient vehicles. However, one major barrier to achieving this goal is the implementation of lean-exhaust aftertreatment that can meet increasingly stringent emissions regulations without heavily penalizing fuel efficiency. We summarize results from comparative simulations of hybrid electric vehicles with either stoichiometric gasoline or diesel engines that include state-of-the-art aftertreatment emissions controls for both stoichiometric and lean exhaust. Fuel consumption and emissions for comparable gasoline and diesel light-duty hybrid electric vehicles were compared over a standard urban drive cycle and potential benefits for utilizing diesel hybrids were identified. Technical barriers and opportunities for improving the efficiency of diesel hybrids were identified.

  14. Chemical kinetic modeling of component mixtures relevant to gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehl, M; Curran, H J; Pitz, W J; Dooley, S; Westbrook, C K

    2008-05-29

    Detailed kinetic models of pyrolysis and combustion of hydrocarbon fuels are nowadays widely used in the design of internal combustion engines and these models are effectively applied to help meet the increasingly stringent environmental and energetic standards. In previous studies by the combustion community, such models not only contributed to the understanding of pure component combustion, but also provided a deeper insight into the combustion behavior of complex mixtures. One of the major challenges in this field is now the definition and the development of appropriate surrogate models able to mimic the actual features of real fuels. Real fuels are complex mixtures of thousands of hydrocarbon compounds including linear and branched paraffins, naphthenes, olefins and aromatics. Their behavior can be effectively reproduced by simpler fuel surrogates containing a limited number of components. Aside the most commonly used surrogates containing iso-octane and n-heptane only, the so called Primary Reference Fuels (PRF), new mixtures have recently been suggested to extend the reference components in surrogate mixtures to also include alkenes and aromatics. It is generally agreed that, including representative species for all the main classes of hydrocarbons which can be found in real fuels, it is possible to reproduce very effectively in a wide range of operating conditions not just the auto-ignition propensity of gasoline or Diesel fuels, but also their physical properties and their combustion residuals [1]. In this work, the combustion behavior of several components relevant to gasoline surrogate formulation is computationally examined. The attention is focused on the autoignition of iso-octane, hexene and their mixtures. Some important issues relevant to the experimental and modeling investigation of such fuels are discussed with the help of rapid compression machine data and calculations. Following the model validation, the behavior of mixtures is discussed on the

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Weight Limit Exemption Gross vehicle weight rating limits for AFVs are 1,000 pounds greater than those for comparable conventional vehicles, as long as the AFVs operate using an alternative fuel or both alternative and conventional fuel, when operating on a highway that is not part of the interstate system. For the purpose of this exemption, alternative fuel is defined as compressed natural gas, propane, ethanol, or any mixture containing 85% or more ethanol (E85) with gasoline or other fuels,

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fueling Infrastructure Tax Credit for Residents Through the Residential Energy Tax Credit program, qualified residents may receive a tax credit for 25% of alternative fuel infrastructure project costs, up to $750. Qualified residents may receive a tax credit for 50% of project costs, up to $750. Qualified alternative fuels include electricity, natural gas, gasoline blended with at least 85% ethanol (E85), propane, and other fuels that the Oregon Department of Energy approves. A

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    and Infrastructure Tax Credit for Businesses Business owners and others may be eligible for a tax credit of 35% of eligible costs for qualified alternative fuel infrastructure projects, or the incremental or conversion cost of two or more AFVs. Qualified infrastructure includes facilities for mixing, storing, compressing, or dispensing fuels for vehicles operating on alternative fuels. Qualified alternative fuels include electricity, natural gas, gasoline blended with at least 85% ethanol (E85),

  18. An experimental investigation of low octane gasoline in diesel engines.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ciatti, S. A.; Subramanian, S.

    2011-09-01

    Conventional combustion techniques struggle to meet the current emissions norms. In particular, oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) and particulate matter (PM) emissions have limited the utilization of diesel fuel in compression ignition engines. Advance combustion concepts have proved the potential to combine fuel efficiency and improved emission performance. Low-temperature combustion (LTC) offers reduced NO{sub x} and PM emissions with comparable modern diesel engine efficiencies. The ability of premixed, low-temperature compression ignition to deliver low PM and NO{sub x} emissions is dependent on achieving optimal combustion phasing. Diesel operated LTC is limited by early knocking combustion, whereas conventional gasoline operated LTC is limited by misfiring. So the concept of using an unconventional fuel with the properties in between those two boundary fuels has been experimented in this paper. Low-octane (84 RON) gasoline has shown comparable diesel efficiencies with the lowest NO{sub x} emissions at reasonable high power densities (NO{sub x} emission was 1 g/kW h at 12 bar BMEP and 2750 rpm).

  19. Dispensing Equipment Testing with Mid-Level Ethanol/Gasoline Test Fluid: Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyce, K.; Chapin, J. T.

    2010-11-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Nonpetroleum-Based Fuel Task addresses the hurdles to commercialization of biomass-derived fuels and fuel blends. One such hurdle is the unknown compatibility of new fuels with current infrastructure, such as the equipment used at service stations to dispense fuel into automobiles. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Vehicle Technology Program and the Biomass Program have engaged in a joint project to evaluate the potential for blending ethanol into gasoline at levels higher than nominal 10 volume percent. This project was established to help DOE and NREL better understand any potentially adverse impacts caused by a lack of knowledge about the compatibility of the dispensing equipment with ethanol blends higher than what the equipment was designed to dispense. This report provides data about the impact of introducing a gasoline with a higher volumetric ethanol content into service station dispensing equipment from a safety and a performance perspective.

  20. Northeast States Hydrogen Economy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Northeast States' Hydrogen Economy U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Office December 1 st , 2015 Presenter: Joel Rinebold - Connecticut Center for Advanced Technology, Inc. DOE Host: Peter Devlin- DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Question and Answer * Please type your questions into the question box 2 Northeast States' Hydrogen Economy Economic Development, Environmental Performance, Energy Reliability Joel M. Rinebold Connecticut Center for Advanced Technology, Inc. December 1,