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1

Gasohol: economic feasibility study. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report was prepared by Development Planning and Research Associates, Inc. under a contract with the Energy Research and Development Center of the University of Nebraska in cooperation with the Agricultural Products Industrial Utilization Committee and the State of Nebraska. Funding for this study was provided to the Energy Research and Development Center by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Old West Regional Commission. The primary objective of the study was to: determine the fiscal and market conditions under which the production of gasohol would be profitable for private producers. For purposes of this study, gasohol is a motor fuel consisting of 10 percent agriculturally-derived anhydrous ethanol and 90 percent unleaded gasoline. The study assumes that gasohol can be a fuel substitute for gasoline; indeed, the cost of gasoline will significantly influence that for gasohol. Gasoline prices are determined by factors external to ethanol; thus, the economic feasibility study of gasohol is in large part an economic feasibility study of fuel-grade ethanol production. More specifically, the study examined the following: the technical aspects of distributing, marketing, and using gasohol; the costs of the distribution and marketing of ethanol and gasohol; the energy balance of ethanol production; the cost of producing ethanol; the factors influencing ehtanol plant size and location; and the conditions that would make ethanol economicaly feasible for private producers.

David, M. L.; Hammaker, G. S.; Buzenberg, R. J.; Wagner, J. P.

1978-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Contra Costa County's one-year experience with gasohol  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Starting August 1, 1979, a one-year gasohol test was conducted by Contra Costa County. A total of 30 county pool cars were on test - 15 on gasohol and 15 similar cars on gasoline as a control group. Findings were as follows. There were no fuel-related maintenance problems in either the gasohol or gasoline groups of cars. Cool weather driveability for the gasohol cars was the same or better than gasoline cars. No vapor lock or other hot driveability problems were reported for either fuel. Fuel economy of the gasohol cars was about 5% poorer than that of the gasoline cars. Fuel system deposits with gasohol were increased and differed in character compared to gasoline. Also, the gasohol carburetors showed more inlet needle valve tip wear. However, to date, the observed deposits and wear with gasohol have not caused any apparent problems.

Gibbs, L.M.; Gilbert, B.J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #351: December 20, 2004 Gasohol Use Is Up  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1: December 20, 1: December 20, 2004 Gasohol Use Is Up to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #351: December 20, 2004 Gasohol Use Is Up on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #351: December 20, 2004 Gasohol Use Is Up on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #351: December 20, 2004 Gasohol Use Is Up on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #351: December 20, 2004 Gasohol Use Is Up on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #351: December 20, 2004 Gasohol Use Is Up on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #351: December 20, 2004 Gasohol Use Is Up on AddThis.com... Fact #351: December 20, 2004 Gasohol Use Is Up Gasohol, a blend of fuel containing gasoline and 5.7-10% ethanol, has a

4

The Federal Highway Administration Gasohol Consumption Estimation Model  

SciTech Connect

The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is responsible for estimating the portion of Federal highway funds attributable to each State. The process involves use of State-reported data (gallons) and a set of estimation models when accurate State data is unavailable. To ensure that the distribution of funds is equitable, FHWA periodically reviews the estimation models. Estimation of the use of gasohol is difficult because of State differences in the definition of gasohol, inability of many States to separate and report gasohol usage from other fuel types, changes in fuel composition in nonattainment areas to address concerns over the use of certain fuel additives, and the lack of a valid State-level surrogate data set for gasohol use. Under the sponsorship of FHWA, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) reviewed the regression-based gasohol estimation model that has been in use for several years. Based on an analytical assessment of that model and an extensive review of potential data sets, ORNL developed an improved rule-based model. The new model uses data from Internal Revenue Service, Energy Information Administration, Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Energy, ORNL, and FHWA sources. The model basically consists of three parts: (1) development of a controlled total of national gasohol usage, (2) determination of reliable State gasohol consumption data, and (3) estimation of gasohol usage for all other States. The new model will be employed for the 2004 attribution process. FHWA is currently soliciting comments and inputs from interested parties. Relevant data, as identified, will be pursued and refinements will be made by the research team if warranted.

Hwang, HL

2003-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

5

THE FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION GASOHOL CONSUMPTION ESTIMATION MODEL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

10 10 THE FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION GASOHOL CONSUMPTION ESTIMATION MODEL August 2003 Ho-Ling Hwang Lorena F. Truett Stacy C. Davis DOCUMENT AVAILABILITY Reports produced after January 1, 1996, are generally available free via the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Information Bridge. Web site http://www.osti.gov/bridge Reports produced before January 1, 1996, may be purchased by members of the public from the following source. National Technical Information Service 5285 Port Royal Road Springfield, VA 22161 Telephone 703-605-6000 (1-800-553-6847) TDD 703-487-4639 Fax 703-605-6900 E-mail info@ntis.fedworld.gov Web site http://www.ntis.gov/support/ordernowabout.htm Reports are available to DOE employees, DOE contractors, Energy Technology Data Exchange

6

Countries Diesel Prices Excluding Taxes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

excluding taxes) excluding taxes) Date Belgium France Germany Italy Netherlands UK US 01/13/14 3.56 3.46 3.55 3.80 3.63 3.57 3.40 01/06/14 3.70 3.49 3.62 3.82 3.63 3.55 3.43 12/30/13 NA NA NA NA NA NA 3.42 12/23/13 NA NA NA NA NA NA 3.39 12/16/13 3.63 3.50 3.71 3.85 3.71 3.56 3.38 12/9/13 3.83 3.53 3.77 3.86 3.72 3.57 3.39 12/2/13 3.70 3.46 3.75 3.80 3.67 3.53 3.40 11/25/13 3.60 3.38 3.74 3.75 3.61 3.48 3.36 11/18/13 3.74 3.36 3.67 3.70 3.55 3.45 3.33 11/11/13 3.57 3.34 3.57 3.66 3.51 3.42 3.34 11/4/13 3.60 3.36 3.65 3.69 3.58 3.43 3.37 10/28/13 3.60 3.48 3.71 3.84 3.67 3.53 3.38 10/21/13 3.64 3.50 3.75 3.84 3.70 3.54 3.40 10/14/13 3.70 3.45 3.74 3.82 3.70 3.51 3.40 10/7/13 3.63 3.46 3.75 3.83 3.70 3.52 3.41

7

BM: excluded-speakers = 3080 3094 3095 3105 3112 3113 ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

BM: excluded-speakers = 3080 3094 3095 3105 3112 3113 3114 3126 3147 3190 3205 3208 3212 3231 3237 3240 3242 3277 3314 3334 3352 ...

2007-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

8

Urine Test Strips to Exclude Cerebral Spinal Fluid Blood  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

two Pearson Chi-Square tests. The first compared samplesO riginal R esearch Urine Test Strips to Exclude CerebralBayer Multistix ® urine test strips are designed to test

Marshall, Robin A; Hejamanowski, Chris

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Oxygen analyzer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N.sub.2), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable oxygen obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135.degree. C., or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135.degree. C. as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N.sub.2, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

Benner, William H. (Danville, CA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Categorically Excluded Actions |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

NEPA » National NEPA » National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Categorically Excluded Actions National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Categorically Excluded Actions Categorical Exclusions (CX) - Categorical exclusions are categories of actions that DOE has determined, by regulation, do not individually or cumulatively have a significant effect on the human environment and for which neither an environmental assessment nor an environmental impact statement is typically required. Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 1021, National Environmental Policy Act Implementing Procedures, Appendices A and B to Subpart D, list DOE's categorical exclusions. Appendix A classes of actions are those actions considered to be general agency actions, such as awarding a contract or hiring personnel. Appendix B classes of actions

11

Oxygen analyzer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N/sub 2/), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135/sup 0/C, or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135/sup 0/C as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N/sub 2/, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

Benner, W.H.

1984-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

12

"ENDING STOCKS OF CRUDE OIL (excluding SPR)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

ENDING STOCKS OF CRUDE OIL (excluding SPR)" ENDING STOCKS OF CRUDE OIL (excluding SPR)" "Sourcekey","WCESTP11","WCESTP11","WCESTP21","WCESTP21","WCESTP31","WCESTP31","WCESTP41","WCESTP41","WCESTP51","WCESTP51","WCESTUS1","WCESTUS1" "Date","Weekly East Coast (PADD 1) Ending Stocks excluding SPR of Crude Oil (Thousand Barrels)","Weekly East Coast (PADD 1) Ending Stocks excluding SPR of Crude Oil (Thousand Barrels)","Weekly Midwest (PADD 2) Ending Stocks excluding SPR of Crude Oil (Thousand Barrels)","Weekly Midwest (PADD 2) Ending Stocks excluding SPR of Crude Oil (Thousand Barrels)","Weekly Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Ending Stocks excluding SPR of Crude Oil (Thousand Barrels)","Weekly Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Ending Stocks excluding SPR of Crude Oil (Thousand Barrels)","Weekly Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) Ending Stocks excluding SPR of Crude Oil (Thousand Barrels)","Weekly Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) Ending Stocks excluding SPR of Crude Oil (Thousand Barrels)","Weekly West Coast (PADD 5) Ending Stocks excluding SPR of Crude Oil (Thousand Barrels)","Weekly West Coast (PADD 5) Ending Stocks excluding SPR of Crude Oil (Thousand Barrels)","Weekly U.S. Ending Stocks excluding SPR of Crude Oil (Thousand Barrels)","Weekly U.S. Ending Stocks excluding SPR of Crude Oil (Thousand Barrels)"

13

Oxygen Isotopes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pages to Isotopes Data Modern Records of Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Carbon-13 in Methane 800,000 Deuterium Record and Shorter Records of...

14

Mainstreaming the e-excluded in Europe: strategies, good practices and some ethical issues  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

E-inclusion is getting a lot of attention in Europe these days. The European Commission and EU Member States have initiated e-inclusion strategies aimed at reaching out to the e-excluded and bringing them into the mainstream of society and the economy. ... Keywords: E-excluded, E-inclusion, E-inclusion strategies, Good practice, Strategies

David Wright; Kush Wadhwa

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Gasohol containing a minimum 5.7 percent ethanol by volume is included in oxygenated gasoline. ... Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) Districts:

16

GRR/Elements/18-CA-a.2 - Is the Waste Non-excluded Solid Waste...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

2 - Is the Waste Non-excluded Solid Waste < GRR | Elements Jump to: navigation, search GRR-logo.png GEOTHERMAL REGULATORY ROADMAP Roadmap Home Roadmap Help List of Sections...

17

GRR/Elements/18-CA-a.4 - Is the Waste a Non-excluded Hazardous...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

4 - Is the Waste a Non-excluded Hazardous Waste < GRR | Elements Jump to: navigation, search GRR-logo.png GEOTHERMAL REGULATORY ROADMAP Roadmap Home Roadmap Help List of...

18

Particle number fluctuations in nuclear collisions within excluded volume hadron gas model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The multiplicity fluctuations are studied in the van der Waals excluded volume hadron-resonance gas model. The calculations are done in the grand canonical ensemble within the Boltzmann statistics approximation. The scaled variances for positive, negative and all charged hadrons are calculated along the chemical freeze-out line of nucleus-nucleus collisions at different collision energies. The multiplicity fluctuations are found to be suppressed in the van der Waals gas. The numerical calculations are presented for two values of hard-core hadron radius, $r=0.3$ fm and 0.5 fm, as well as for the upper limit of the excluded volume suppression effects.

M. I. Gorenstein; M. Hauer; D. O. Nikolajenko

2007-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

19

Production of Strange, Non-strange particles and Hypernuclei in an Excluded-Volume Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a systematic study of production of strange and non-strange hadron yields and their ratios obtained in various experiments using our thermodynamically consistent excluded-volume model. We also analyze the production of light nuclei, hypernuclei and their antinuclei in terms of our excluded-volume model over a broad energy range starting from Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) to Large Hadron Collider (LHC) energies. Further, we extend our model for studying rapidity spectra of hadrons produced in heavy-ion collisions.

S. K. Tiwari; C. P. Singh

2013-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

20

Activated carbon: Utilization excluding industrial waste treatment. (Latest citations from the Compendex database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the commercial use and theoretical studies of activated carbon. Topics include performance evaluations in water treatment processes, preparation and regeneration techniques, materials recovery, and pore structure studies. Adsorption characteristics for specific materials are discussed. Studies pertaining specifically to industrial waste treatment are excluded. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasohol excludes oxygenates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Clean Water Act (excluding Section 404). Environmental guidance program reference book: Revision 6  

SciTech Connect

This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Water Act (excluding Section 404) and those regulations that implement the statutes and appear to be most relevant to US Department of Energy (DOE) activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Updates that include important new requirements will be provided periodically. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

Not Available

1993-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

22

Oxygen ion conducting materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

Vaughey, John (Elmhurst, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Wang, Xiaoping (Downers Grove, IL); Carter, J. David (Bolingbrook, IL)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Method for excluding salt and other soluble materials from produced water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for reducing the salinity, as well as the hydrocarbon concentration of produced water to levels sufficient to meet surface water discharge standards. Pressure vessel and coflow injection technology developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is used to mix produced water and a gas hydrate forming fluid to form a solid or semi-solid gas hydrate mixture. Salts and solids are excluded from the water that becomes a part of the hydrate cage. A three-step process of dissociation of the hydrate results in purified water suitable for irrigation.

Phelps, Tommy J. (Knoxville, TN); Tsouris, Costas (Oak Ridge, TN); Palumbo, Anthony V. (Oak Ridge, TN); Riestenberg, David E. (Knoxville, TN); McCallum, Scott D. (Knoxville, TN)

2009-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

24

Plants making oxygen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Plants making oxygen Plants making oxygen Name: Doug Status: N/A Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: Around 1993 Question: How many plants are needed to make enough oxygen for one person for one hour? We are experimenting with Anacharis plants. Replies: The problem can be solved when broken down into smaller questions: 1. How much oxygen does a person need in an hour? 2. How much oxygen does a plant produce in an hour? 3. Based on the above, how many plants will provide the oxygen needs of the person for the hour? Here is the solution to the first question: A resting, healthy adult on an average, cool day breathes in about 53 liters of oxygen per hour. An average, resting, health adult breathes in about 500 mL of air per breath. This is called the normal tidal volume. Now, 150 mL of this air will go to non- functioning areas of the lung, called the "dead space." The average breath rate for this average person is 12 breaths per minute. So, the amount of air breathed in by the person which is available for use is 12 x (500 mL -150 mL) = 4,200 mL/minute. Multiply by 60 to get 252,000 mL/hour. That is, every hour, the person will breathe in 252 L of air. Now, on an average, cool, clear day, only 21% of that air is oxygen. So, 21% of 252 L is 53 L. So, in an hour, the person breathes in about 53 L of oxygen.

25

Algae for Oxygen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Algae for Oxygen Algae for Oxygen Name: Pam Burkardt Status: N/A Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Hi, I am Pam Burkardt, a seventh grader at Fox Chapel School. I have a question on algae. I read somewhere that someday people might take bath tubs full of algae onto spaceships to provide oxygen for the crew. How much oxygen does algae give off, is this really possible? Replies: I think that most of the oxygen in the atmosphere comes in fact from one-celled plants in the oceans, like algae. They are likely to produce a lot of oxygen per unit weight because they don't have non-photosynthesizing bark, roots, branches, etc., nor (I think) a major dormant period like temperate-zone plants. The cost of space travel at present is dominated by the expense of heaving weight up into Earth orbit (it costs very little extra to send it to the Moon, for example, or Mars). For missions of short duration the weight of the compressed oxygen you need to carry is less than the weight of algae, water and extra plumbing you'd need to carry if you relied on algae to produce your oxygen. The important use of green plants would be in very long duration space flight (years) or permanent inhabitation of worlds like the Moon, where you need an unlimited supply of oxygen. Now if you want to fantasize, Venus' atmosphere is almost all carbon dioxide. Suppose you dropped a whole lot of specially gene-tailored one-celled plants into the atmosphere (not the surface, it's too hot). Why then they might eat up all the carbon dioxide and produce a breathable atmosphere. The "greenhouse effect" would go away, and Venus would become a nice habitable if tropical world only 50 million miles away.

26

High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Project Objective: The objectives of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the physical and chemical characteristics of a partner mill pre- and post-oxygen delignified pulp and compare them to lab generated oxygen delignified pulps; (2) Apply the chemical selectivity enhancement system to the partner pre-oxygen delignified pulps under mill conditions (with and without any predetermined amounts of carryover) to determine how efficiently viscosity is preserved, how well selectivity is enhanced, if strength is improved, measure any yield differences and/or bleachability differences; and (3) Initiate a mill scale oxygen delignification run using the selectivity enhancement agent, collect the mill data, analyze it, and propose any future plans for implementation.

Lucian A. Lucia

2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

27

Oxygen detection in biological systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

kinetics of flash induced oxygen evolution of algae through measuring ...... (1999) Fast response oxygen micro-optodes based on novel soluble ormosil glasses.

28

Optical oxygen concentration monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for measuring and monitoring the concentration of oxygen uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to one of oxygen`s A-band absorption lines. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split into sets of components of shorter and longer wavelengths by a magnetic field of approximately 2,000 Gauss that is parallel to the light propagation from the lamp. The longer wavelength components are centered on an absorption line of oxygen and thus readily absorbed, and the shorter wavelength components are moved away from that line and minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the set of the longer wavelength, or upshifted, components or the set of the shorter wavelength, or downshifted, components and passes the selected set to an environment of interest. After transmission over a path through that environment, the transmitted optical flux of the argon line varies as a result of the differential absorption. The system then determines the concentration of oxygen in the environment based on the changes in the transmitted optical flux between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments modulation is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to either the emitting plasma of the lamp or the environment of interest. 4 figs.

Kebabian, P.

1997-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

29

Oxygen in Underwater Cave  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxygen in Underwater Cave Oxygen in Underwater Cave Name: Natalie Status: student Grade: 9-12 Location: HI Country: USA Date: Spring 2011 Question: Is it possible for there to be free oxygen in an underwater cave? If it is, then how does it work? Replies: Yes it is possible as I have personally experienced. If the cave roof rises to a level above the water, air dissolved in the water will slowly out gas until the water is at the same level at all places. A pocket of breathable air will form. In many caves the roof dips below water level in one place but it above it on both sides. Think of a U shaped tube where the bottom of the U is blocked by water. This is called a siphon and I have passed through many of these to find breathable air on the other side. R. W. "Bob" Avakian Oklahoma State Univ. Inst. of Technology

30

The Simplest Models of Radiative Neutrino Mass: Excluding Simplified Zee Models and Beyond  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The complexity of radiative neutrino-mass models can be judged by: (i) whether they require the imposition of ad hoc symmetries, (ii) the number of new multiplets they introduce, and (iii) the number of arbitrary parameters that appear. Adopting the view that the imposition of arbitrary new symmetries is the least appealing approach, the simplest models have two new multiplets and a minimal number of new parameters. With this in mind, we search for the simplest models of radiative neutrino mass. We are lead to two new models, containing a real scalar triplet and a charged scalar doublet (respectively), in addition to the charged singlet scalar considered by Zee [h^+\\sim(1,1,2)]. The new models are essentially simplified versions of the Zee model and appear to be \\emph{the simplest} models of radiative neutrino mass. However, these models are only of pedagogical interest; despite successfully generating nonzero masses, present-day data is sufficient to rule them out. The lessons learned from these models also enable one to exclude a more general class of radiative models. Moving beyond the minimal cases, we find a new model of two-loop masses that employs the charged doublet \\Phi\\sim(1,2,3) and the doubly-charged scalar k^{++}\\sim(1,1,4).

Sandy S. C. Law; Kristian L. McDonald

2013-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

31

On The Importance of Organic Oxygen for Understanding Organic Aerosol  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

On The Importance of Organic Oxygen for Understanding Organic Aerosol On The Importance of Organic Oxygen for Understanding Organic Aerosol Particles Title On The Importance of Organic Oxygen for Understanding Organic Aerosol Particles Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2006 Authors Pang, Yanbo, B. J. Turpin, and Lara A. Gundel Journal Journal of Aerosol Science and Technology Volume 40 Start Page Chapter Pagination 128-133 Abstract This study shows how aerosol organic oxygen data could provide new and independent information about organic aerosol mass, aqueous solubility of organic aerosols, formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and the relative contributions of anthropogenic and biogenic sources. For more than two decades atmospheric aerosol organic mass concentration has usually been estimated by multiplying the measured carbon content by an assumed organic mass (OM)-to-organic carbon (OC ) factor of 1.4. However, this factor can vary from 1.0 to 2.5 depending on location. This great uncertainty about aerosol organic mass limits our understanding of the influence of organic aerosol on climate, visibility and health.New examination of organic aerosol speciation data shows that the oxygen content is the key factor responsible for the observed range in the OM-to-OC factor. When organic oxygen content is excluded, the ratio of non-oxygen organic mass to carbon mass varies very little across different environments (1.12 to 1.14). The non-oxygen-OM-to-non-oxygen OC factor for all studied sites (urban and non-urban) is 1.13± 0.02. The uncertainty becomes an order of magnitude smaller than the uncertainty in the best current estimates of organic mass to organic carbon ratios (1.6± 0.2 for urban and 2.1± 0.2 for non-urban areas). When aerosol organic oxygen data become available, organic aerosol mass can be quite accurately estimated using just OC and organic oxygen (OO) without the need to know whether the aerosol is fresh or aged. In addition, aerosol organic oxygen data will aid prediction of water solubility since compounds with OO-to-OC higher than 0.4 have water solubilities higher than 1g per 100 g water

32

Oxygen Transport Membranes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The focus of this research was to develop new membrane materials by synthesizing different compounds and determining their defect structures, crystallographic structures and electrical properties. In addition to measuring electrical conductivity, oxygen vacancy concentration was also evaluated using thermogravimetry, Neutron diffraction and Moessbauer Spectroscopy. The reducing conditions (CO{sub 2}/CO/H{sub 2} gas mixtures with steam) as encountered in a reactor environment can be expected to have significant influence on the mechanical properties of the oxides membranes. Various La based materials with and without Ti were selected as candidate membrane materials for OTM. The maximum electrical conductivity of LSF in air as a function of temperature was achieved at Oxygen occupancy in LSF was estimated using Neutron diffractometry and Moessbauer Spectroscopy by measuring magnetic moment changes depending on the Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 4+} ratio. After extensive studies of candidate materials, lanthanum ferrites (LSF and LSFT) were selected as the favored materials for the oxygen transport membrane (OTM). LSF is a very good material for an OTM because of its high electronic and oxygen ionic conductivity if long term stability and mechanical strength are improved. LSFT not only exhibits p-type behavior in the high oxygen activity regime, but also has n-type conduction in reducing atmospheres. Higher concentrations of oxygen vacancies in the low oxygen activity regime may improve the performance of LSFT as an OTM. The hole concentration is related to the difference in the acceptor and donor concentration by the relation p = [Sr'{sub La}]-[Ti{sm_bullet}{sub Fe}]. The chemical formulation predicts that the hole concentration is, p = 0.8-0.45 or 0.35. Experimental measurements indicated that p is about {approx} 0.35. The activation energy of conduction is 0.2 eV which implies that LSCF conducts via the small polaron conduction mechanism. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) were used to develop strategies to detect and characterize vacancy creation, dopant segregations and defect association in the oxygen conducting membrane material. The pO{sub 2} and temperature dependence of the conductivity, non-stoichiometry and thermal-expansion behavior of compositions with increasing complexity of substitution on the perovskite A and B sites were studied. Studies with the perovskite structure show anomalous behavior at low oxygen partial pressures (oxygen equilibration kinetics arises from two different mechanisms. In the first, a two phase region occurs between an oxygen vacancy ordered phase such as brownmillerite SrFeO{sub 2.5} and perovskite SrFeO{sub 3-x}. The slow kinetics is associated with crossing the two phase region. The width of the miscibility gap decreases with increasing temperature and consequently the effect is less pronounced at higher temperature. The preferred kinetic pathway to reduction of perovskite ferrites when the vacancy concentration corresponds to the formation of significant concentrations of Fe{sup 2+} is via the formation of a Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) phases as clearly observed in the case of La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}FeO{sub 3-x} where LaSrFeO{sub 4} is found together with Fe. In more complex compositions, such as LSFTO, iron or iron rich phases are observed locally with no evidence for the presence of discrete RP phase. Fracture strength of tubular perovskite membranes was determined in air and in reducing atmospheric conditions. The strength of the membrane decreased with temperature and severity of reducing conditions although the strength distribution (Weibull parameter, m) was relatively unaltered. Surface and volume dominated the fracture origins and the overall fracture was purely transgranular. The dual phas

S. Bandopadhyay

2008-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

33

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect

In the present quarter, the possibility of using a more complex interfacial engineering approach to the development of reliable and stable oxygen transport perovskite ceramic membranes/metal seals is discussed. Experiments are presented and ceramic/metal interactions are characterized. Crack growth and fracture toughness of the membrane in the reducing conditions are also discussed. Future work regarding this approach is proposed are evaluated for strength and fracture in oxygen gradient conditions. Oxygen gradients are created in tubular membranes by insulating the inner surface from the reducing environment by platinum foils. Fracture in these test conditions is observed to have a gradient in trans and inter-granular fracture as opposed to pure trans-granular fracture observed in homogeneous conditions. Fracture gradients are reasoned to be due to oxygen gradient set up in the membrane, variation in stoichiometry across the thickness and due to varying decomposition of the parent perovskite. The studies are useful in predicting fracture criterion in actual reactor conditions and in understanding the initial evolution of fracture processes.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Optical oxygen concentration monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for measuring and monitoring the concentration of oxygen uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to one of oxygen's A-band absorption lines. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split into sets of components of shorter and longer wavelengths by a magnetic field of approximately 2000 Gauss that is parallel to the light propagation from the lamp. The longer wavelength components are centered on an absorption line of oxygen and thus readily absorbed, and the shorter wavelength components are moved away from that line and minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the set of the longer wavelength, or upshifted, components or the set of the shorter wavelength, or downshifted, components and passes the selected set to an environment of interest. After transmission over a path through that environment, the transmitted optical flux of the argon line varies as a result of the differential absorption. The system then determines the concentration of oxygen in the environment based on the changes in the transmitted optical flux between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments modulation is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to either the emitting plasma of the lamp or the environment of interest.

Kebabian, Paul (Acton, MA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Activated carbon: Utilization excluding industrial waste treatment. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the commercial use and theoretical studies of activated carbon. Topics include performance evaluations in water treatment processes, preparation and regeneration techniques, materials recovery, and pore structure studies. Adsorption characteristics for specific materials are discussed. Studies pertaining specifically to industrial waste treatment are excluded. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

Morris, D.E.

1992-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

37

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. The in situ electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements were made on LSFT at 1000 and 1200 C over the oxygen activity range from air to 10{sup -15} atm. The electrical conductivity measurements exhibited a p to n type transition at an oxygen activity of 1 x 10{sup -10} at 1000 C and 1 x 10{sup -6} at 1200 C. Thermogravimetric studies were also carried out over the same oxygen activities and temperatures. Based on the results of these measurements, the chemical and mechanical stability range of LSFT were determined and defect structure was established. The studies on the fracture toughness of the LSFT and dual phase membranes exposed to air and N{sub 2} at 1000 C was done and the XRD and SEM analysis of the specimens were carried out to understand the structural and microstructural changes. The membranes that are exposed to high temperatures at an inert and a reactive atmosphere undergo many structural and chemical changes which affect the mechanical properties. A complete transformation of fracture behavior was observed in the N{sub 2} treated LSFT samples. Further results to investigate the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appear to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. Recent results on transient kinetic data are presented. The 2-D modeling of oxygen movement has been undertaken in order to fit isotope data. The model is used to study ''frozen'' profiles in patterned or composite membranes.

S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In the previous research, the reference point of oxygen occupancy was determined and verified. In the current research, the oxygen occupancy was investigated at 1200 C as a function of oxygen activity and compared with that at 1000 C. The cause of bumps at about 200 C was also investigated by using different heating and cooling rates during TGA. The fracture toughness of LSFT and dual phase membranes at room temperature is an important mechanical property. Vicker's indentation method was used to evaluate this toughness. Through this technique, a K{sub Ic} (Mode-I Fracture Toughness) value is attained by means of semi-empirical correlations between the indentation load and the length of the cracks emanating from the corresponding Vickers indentation impression. In the present investigation, crack propagation behavior was extensively analyzed in order to understand the strengthening mechanisms involved in the non-transforming La based ceramic composites. Cracks were generated using Vicker's indenter and used to identify and evaluate the toughening mechanisms involved. Preliminary results of an electron microscopy study of the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appear to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. Modeling of the isotopic transients on operating membranes (LSCrF-2828 at 900 C) and a ''frozen'' isotope profile have been analyzed in conjunction with a 1-D model to reveal the gradient in oxygen diffusivity through the membrane under conditions of high chemical gradients.

S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Fuel cell oxygen electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An oxygen electrode for a fuel cell utilizing an acid electrolyte has a substrate of an alkali metal tungsten bronze of the formula: A.sub.x WO.sub.3 where A is an alkali metal and x is at least 0.2, which is covered with a thin layer of platinum tungsten bronze of the formula: Pt.sub.y WO.sub.3 where y is at least 0.8.

Shanks, Howard R. (Ames, IA); Bevolo, Albert J. (Ames, IA); Danielson, Gordon C. (Ames, IA); Weber, Michael F. (Wichita, KS)

1980-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasohol excludes oxygenates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Motor Fuel Tax Reduction for Gasohol (Alaska) | Open Energy Informatio...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

PublicConsumer Eligible Technologies Ethanol Active Incentive No Implementing Sector StateTerritory Energy Category Renewable Energy Incentive Programs Amount .06gallon...

42

Oxygen Transport Membranes  

SciTech Connect

The focus of this research was to develop new membrane materials by synthesizing different compounds and determining their defect structures, crystallographic structures and electrical properties. In addition to measuring electrical conductivity, oxygen vacancy concentration was also evaluated using thermogravimetry, Neutron diffraction and Moessbauer Spectroscopy. The reducing conditions (CO{sub 2}/CO/H{sub 2} gas mixtures with steam) as encountered in a reactor environment can be expected to have significant influence on the mechanical properties of the oxides membranes. Various La based materials with and without Ti were selected as candidate membrane materials for OTM. The maximum electrical conductivity of LSF in air as a function of temperature was achieved at < 600 C and depends on the concentration of Sr (acceptor dopant). Oxygen occupancy in LSF was estimated using Neutron diffractometry and Moessbauer Spectroscopy by measuring magnetic moment changes depending on the Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 4+} ratio. After extensive studies of candidate materials, lanthanum ferrites (LSF and LSFT) were selected as the favored materials for the oxygen transport membrane (OTM). LSF is a very good material for an OTM because of its high electronic and oxygen ionic conductivity if long term stability and mechanical strength are improved. LSFT not only exhibits p-type behavior in the high oxygen activity regime, but also has n-type conduction in reducing atmospheres. Higher concentrations of oxygen vacancies in the low oxygen activity regime may improve the performance of LSFT as an OTM. The hole concentration is related to the difference in the acceptor and donor concentration by the relation p = [Sr'{sub La}]-[Ti{sm_bullet}{sub Fe}]. The chemical formulation predicts that the hole concentration is, p = 0.8-0.45 or 0.35. Experimental measurements indicated that p is about {approx} 0.35. The activation energy of conduction is 0.2 eV which implies that LSCF conducts via the small polaron conduction mechanism. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) were used to develop strategies to detect and characterize vacancy creation, dopant segregations and defect association in the oxygen conducting membrane material. The pO{sub 2} and temperature dependence of the conductivity, non-stoichiometry and thermal-expansion behavior of compositions with increasing complexity of substitution on the perovskite A and B sites were studied. Studies with the perovskite structure show anomalous behavior at low oxygen partial pressures (<10{sup -5} atm). The anomalies are due to non-equilibrium effects and can be avoided by using very strict criteria for the attainment of equilibrium. The slowness of the oxygen equilibration kinetics arises from two different mechanisms. In the first, a two phase region occurs between an oxygen vacancy ordered phase such as brownmillerite SrFeO{sub 2.5} and perovskite SrFeO{sub 3-x}. The slow kinetics is associated with crossing the two phase region. The width of the miscibility gap decreases with increasing temperature and consequently the effect is less pronounced at higher temperature. The preferred kinetic pathway to reduction of perovskite ferrites when the vacancy concentration corresponds to the formation of significant concentrations of Fe{sup 2+} is via the formation of a Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) phases as clearly observed in the case of La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}FeO{sub 3-x} where LaSrFeO{sub 4} is found together with Fe. In more complex compositions, such as LSFTO, iron or iron rich phases are observed locally with no evidence for the presence of discrete RP phase. Fracture strength of tubular perovskite membranes was determined in air and in reducing atmospheric conditions. The strength of the membrane decreased with temperature and severity of reducing conditions although the strength distribution (Weibull parameter, m) was relatively unaltered. Surface and volume dominated the fracture origins and the overall fracture was purely transgranular. The dual phas

S. Bandopadhyay

2008-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

43

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ti doping on La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}FeO{sub 3-{delta}} (LSF) tends to increase the oxygen equilibration kinetics of LSF in lower oxygen activity environment because of the high valence state of Ti. However, the addition of Ti decreases the total conductivity because the acceptor ([Sr{prime}{sub La}]) is compensated by the donor ([Ti{sub Fe}{sup {sm_bullet}}]) which decreases the carrier concentration. The properties of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 1-x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSFT, x = 0.45) have been experimentally and theoretically investigated to elucidate (1) the dependence of oxygen occupancy and electrochemical properties on temperature and oxygen activity by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and (2) the electrical conductivity and carrier concentration by Seebeck coefficient and electrical measurements. In the present study, dual phase (La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.6}Ti{sub 0.4}O{sub 3-{delta}}/Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 2-{delta}}) membranes have been evaluated for structural properties such as hardness, fracture toughness and flexural strength. The effect of high temperature and slightly reducing atmosphere on the structural properties of the membranes was studied. The flexural strength of the membrane decreases upon exposure to slightly reducing conditions at 1000 C. The as-received and post-fractured membranes were characterized using XRD, SEM and TG-DTA to understand the fracture mechanisms. Changes in structural properties of the composite were sought to be correlated with the physiochemical features of the two-phases. We have reviewed the electrical conductivity data and stoichiometry data for La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} some of which was reported previously. Electrical conductivity data for La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSCrF) were obtained in the temperature range, 752 {approx} 1055 C and in the pO{sub 2} range, 10{sup -18} {approx} 0.5 atm. The slope of the plot of log {sigma} vs. log pO{sub 2} is {approx} 1/5 in the p-type region, pO{sub 2} = 10{sup -5} {approx} 10{sup -1} atm. The pO{sub 2} at which the p-n transition is observed increases with increasing temperature. The activation energy for ionic conduction was estimated to be 0.86 eV from an Arrhenius plot of the minimum conductivity vs. reciprocal temperature. At temperatures below 940 C, a plateau in the conductivity isotherm suggests the presence of a two-phase region. Most likely, phase separation occurs to form a mixture of a perovskite phase and an oxygen vacancy ordered phase related to brownmillerite. Additional data for the oxygen non stoichiometry are presented.

S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham

2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

44

High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall objective of this program was to develop improved extended oxygen delignification (EOD) technologies for current U.S. pulp mill operations. This was accomplished by: (1) Identifying pulping conditions that optimize O and OO performance; (2) Identifying structural features of lignin that enhance reactivity towards EOD of high kappa pulps; (3) Identifying factors minimizing carbohydrate degradation and improve pulp strength of EOD high kappa pulps; (4) Developing a simple, reproducible method of quantifying yield gains from EOD; and (5) Developing process conditions that significantly reduce the capital requirements of EOD while optimizing the yield benefits. Key research outcomes included, demonstrating the use of a mini-O sequence such as (E+O)Dkf:0.05(E+O) or Dkf:0.05(E+O)(E+O) without interstage washing could capture approximately 60% of the delignification efficiency of a conventional O-stage without the major capital requirements associated with an O-stage for conventional SW kraft pulps. The rate of formation and loss of fiber charge during an O-stage stage can be employed to maximize net fiber charge. Optimal fiber charge development and delignification are two independent parameters and do not parallel each other. It is possible to utilize an O-stage to enhance overall cellulosic fiber charge of low and high kappa SW kraft pulps which is beneficial for physical strength properties. The application of NIR and multi-variant analysis was developed into a rapid and simple method of determining the yield of pulp from an oxygen delignification stage that has real-world mill applications. A focus point of this program was the demonstration that Kraft pulping conditions and oxygen delignification of high and low-kappa SW and HW pulps are intimately related. Improved physical pulp properties and yield can be delivered by controlling the H-factor and active alkali charge. Low AA softwood kraft pulp with a kappa number 30 has an average improvement of 2% in yield and 4 cP in viscosity in comparison to high AA pulp for the oxygen delignification. This difference is also seen for high-kappa SW kraft pulps with an average improvement of {approx}3% in yield and 3 cP in viscosity for low AA high kappa number 50 pulp. Low AA hardwood kappa number 20 pulp had an average improvement of {approx}4% in yield and 6-12 cP in viscosity as compared to high AA pulp. Lower kraft cooking temperature (160 vs. 170 C) in combination with the medium AA provides a practical approach for integrating high kappa pulping of hardwoods (i.e., low rejects) with an advanced extended oxygen delignification stage. ECF pulp bleaching of low and high kappa kraft SW and HW pulps exhibit comparable optical and physical strength properties when bleached D(EPO)D.

Arthur J. Ragauskas

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

45

Oxygen to the core  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1-01 1-01 For immediate release: 01/10/2013 | NR-13-01-01 Oxygen to the core Anne M Stark, LLNL, (925) 422-9799, stark8@llnl.gov Printer-friendly An artist's conception of Earth's inner and outer core. LIVERMORE, Calif. -- An international collaboration including researchers from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has discovered that the Earth's core formed under more oxidizing conditions than previously proposed. Through a series of laser-heated diamond anvil cell experiments at high pressure (350,000 to 700,000 atmospheres of pressure) and temperatures (5,120 to 7,460 degrees Fahrenheit), the team demonstrated that the depletion of siderophile (also known as "iron loving") elements can be produced by core formation under more oxidizing conditions than earlier

46

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect

This report covers the following tasks: Task 1--Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints; Task 2--Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability; Task 3--Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres; Task 4--Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures; Task 5--Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability; and Task 6--Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Oxygen-reducing catalyst layer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, and a method of making the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, where the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer includes a catalytic material film disposed on a substrate with the use of physical vapor deposition and thermal treatment. The catalytic material film includes a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

O' Brien, Dennis P. (Maplewood, MN); Schmoeckel, Alison K. (Stillwater, MN); Vernstrom, George D. (Cottage Grove, MN); Atanasoski, Radoslav (Edina, MN); Wood, Thomas E. (Stillwater, MN); Yang, Ruizhi (Halifax, CA); Easton, E. Bradley (Halifax, CA); Dahn, Jeffrey R. (Hubley, CA); O' Neill, David G. (Lake Elmo, MN)

2011-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

48

MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

MTBE, Oxygenates, and MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline Contents * Introduction * Federal gasoline product quality regulations * What are oxygenates? * Who gets gasoline with oxygenates? * Which areas get MTBE? * How much has been invested in MTBE production capacity? * What does new Ethanol capacity cost? * What would an MTBE ban cost? * On-line information resources * Endnotes * Summary of revisions to this analysis Introduction The blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into motor gasoline has increased dramatically since it was first produced 20 years ago. MTBE usage grew in the early 1980's in response to octane demand resulting initially from the phaseout of lead from gasoline and later from rising demand for premium gasoline. The oxygenated gasoline program stimulated an

49

Plants and Night Oxygen Production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Plants and Night Oxygen Production Plants and Night Oxygen Production Name: Ashar Status: other Grade: other Location: Outside U.S. Country: India Date: Winter 2011-2012 Question: I would like to know if there are any plants which produces oxygen at night (without photosynthesis). I was told by a friend that Holy Basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum) produces oxygen even at night and I'm not convinced. I would like to get confirmation from experts. Replies: Some plants (particularly those of dry regions, e.g., deserts) only open their stomates at night to avoid drying out to intake CO2 (and output O2) (CAM photosynthesis) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crassulacean_acid_metabolism Sincerely, Anthony R. Brach, PhD Missouri Botanical Garden Bringing oxygen producing plants into your home is a way to mimic the healthy lifestyle factors of longevity in humans from the longest lived cultures.

50

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Conversion of natural gas to liquid fuels and chemicals is a major goal for the Nation as it enters the 21st Century. Technically robust and economically viable processes are needed to capture the value of the vast reserves of natural gas on Alaska's North Slope, and wean the Nation from dependence on foreign petroleum sources. Technologies that are emerging to fulfill this need are all based syngas as an intermediate. Syngas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) is a fundamental building block from which chemicals and fuels can be derived. Lower cost syngas translates directly into more cost-competitive fuels and chemicals. The currently practiced commercial technology for making syngas is either steam methane reforming (SMR) or a two-step process involving cryogenic oxygen separation followed by natural gas partial oxidation (POX). These high-energy, capital-intensive processes do not always produce syngas at a cost that makes its derivatives competitive with current petroleum-based fuels and chemicals.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Oxygenates vs. synthesis gas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Methanol synthesis from H{sub 2}/CO has been carried out at 7.6 MPa over zirconia-supported copper catalysts. Catalysts with nominal compositions of 10/90 mol% and 30/70 mol% Cu/ZrO{sub 2} were used in this study. Additionally, a 3 mol% cesium-doped 10/90 catalyst was prepared to study the effect of doping with heavy alkali, and this promoter greatly increased the methanol productivity. The effects of CO{sub 2} addition, water injection, reaction temperature, and H{sub 2}/C0 ratio have been investigated. Both CO{sub 2} addition to the synthesis gas and cesium doping of the catalyst promoted methanol synthesis, while inhibiting the synthesis of dimethyl ether. Injection of water, however, was found to slightly suppress methanol and dimethyl ether formation while being converted to CO{sub 2} via the water gas shift reaction over these catalysts. There was no clear correlation between copper surface area and catalyst activity. Surface analysis of the tested samples revealed that copper tended to migrate and enrich the catalyst surface. The concept of employing a double-bed reactor with a pronounced temperature gradient to enhance higher alcohol synthesis was explored, and it was found that utilization of a Cs-promoted Cu/ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst as a first lower temperature bed and a Cs-promoted ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst as a second high-temperature bed significantly promoted the productivity of 2-methyl-1-propanol (isobutanol) from H{sub 2}/CO synthesis gas mixtures. While the conversion of CO to C{sub 2+} oxygenates over the double-bed configuration was comparable to that observed over the single Cu-based catalyst, major changes in the product distribution occurred by the coupling to the zinc chromite catalyst; that is, the productivity of the C{sub 1}-C{sub 3} alcohols decreased dramatically, and 2-methyl branched alcohols were selectively formed. The desirable methanol/2-methyl oxygenate molar ratios close to 1 were obtained in the present double-bed system that provides the feedstock for the synthesis of high octane and high cetane ethers, where the isobutanol productivity was as high as 139 g/kg cat/hr. Higher alcohol synthesis has been investigated over a Cs/Cu/ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst at temperatures higher (up to 703K) than those previously utilized, and no sintering of the catalyst was observed during the short-term testing. However, the higher reaction temperatures led to lower CO conversion levels and lower yield of alcohols, especially of methanol, because of equilibrium limitations. With the double catalyst bed configuration, the effect of pressure in the range of 7.6--12.4 MPa on catalyst activity and selectivity was studied. The upper bed was composed of the copper-based catalyst at 598K, and the lower bed consisted of a copper-free Cs-ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst at a high temperature of 678K. High pressure was found to increase CO conversion to oxygenated products, although the increase in isobutanol productivity did not keep pace with that of methanol. It was also shown that the Cs/Cu/ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst could be utilized to advantage as the second-bed catalyst at 613--643K instead of the previously used copper-free Cs-ZnO/ Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst at higher temperature, With double Cs/Cu/ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts, high space time yields of up to 202 g/kg cat/hr, with high selectivity to isobutanol, were achieved.

Kamil Klier; Richard G. Herman; Alessandra Beretta; Maria A. Burcham; Qun Sun; Yeping Cai; Biswanath Roy

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Oxygen vs. Liquid Nitrogen - Liquid Oxygen and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Previous Video (Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Paramagnetism) Paramagnetism Liquid Oxygen and Fire! What happens when nitrogen and oxygen are exposed to fire? [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: And this is a test tube of liquid nitrogen! Steve: And this is a test tube of liquid oxygen! Joanna: Let's see what happens when nitrogen and oxygen are exposed to fire. Steve: Fire?! Joanna: Yeah! Steve: Really?! Joanna: Why not! Steve: Okay! Joanna: As nitrogen boils, it changes into nitrogen gas. Because it's so cold, it's denser than the air in the room. The test tube fills up with

53

Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Oxygenate Supply/Demand Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances in the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting Model By Tancred C.M. Lidderdale This article first appeared in the Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement 1995, Energy Information Administration, DOE/EIA-0202(95) (Washington, DC, July 1995), pp. 33-42, 83-85. The regression results and historical data for production, inventories, and imports have been updated in this presentation. Contents * Introduction o Table 1. Oxygenate production capacity and demand * Oxygenate demand o Table 2. Estimated RFG demand share - mandated RFG areas, January 1998 * Fuel ethanol supply and demand balance o Table 3. Fuel ethanol annual statistics * MTBE supply and demand balance o Table 4. EIA MTBE annual statistics * Refinery balances

54

It's Elemental - The Element Oxygen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nitrogen Nitrogen Previous Element (Nitrogen) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Fluorine) Fluorine The Element Oxygen [Click for Isotope Data] 8 O Oxygen 15.9994 Atomic Number: 8 Atomic Weight: 15.9994 Melting Point: 54.36 K (-218.79°C or -361.82°F) Boiling Point: 90.20 K (-182.95°C or -297.31°F) Density: 0.001429 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Gas Element Classification: Non-metal Period Number: 2 Group Number: 16 Group Name: Chalcogen What's in a name? From the greek words oxys and genes, which together mean "acid forming." Say what? Oxygen is pronounced as OK-si-jen. History and Uses: Oxygen had been produced by several chemists prior to its discovery in 1774, but they failed to recognize it as a distinct element. Joseph

55

Oxygen sensitive, refractory oxide composition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Oxide compositions containing niobium pentoxide and an oxide selected from the group consisting of hafnia, titania, and zirconia have electrical conductivity characteristics which vary greatly depending on the oxygen content.

Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Smith, Douglas D. (Knoxville, TN)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Regional imaging with oxygen-14  

SciTech Connect

The metabolic significance of the distribution of labeled oxygen was studied in the dog by inhalation of gas mixtures labeled with oxygen-14 (T/sub /sup 1///sub 2// = 71 seconds) maintained at a constant level of activity. Under steady-state conditions, whole-body images were developed by detection of the positron annihilation emissions with a dual head rectilinear scanner in the coincidence mode. (auth)

Russ, G.A.; Bigler, R.E.; Dahl, J.R.; Kostick, J.; McDonald, J.M.; Tilbury, R.S.; Laughlin, J.S.

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Researchers Directly Observe Oxygen Signature in the Oxygen-evolving  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Researchers Directly Observe Oxygen Signature in the Researchers Directly Observe Oxygen Signature in the Oxygen-evolving Complex of Photosynthesis Arguably the most important chemical reaction on earth is the photosynthetic splitting of water to molecular oxygen by the Mn-containing oxygen-evolving complex (Mn-OEC) in the protein known as photosystem II (PSII). It is this reaction which has, over the course of some 3.8 billion years, gradually filled our atmosphere with O2 and consequently enabled and sustained the evolution of complex aerobic life. Coupled to the reduction of carbon dioxide, biological photosynthesis contributes foodstuffs for nutrition while recycling CO2 from the atmosphere and replacing it with O2. By utilizing sunlight to power these energy-requiring reactions, photosynthesis also serves as a model for addressing societal energy needs as we enter an era of diminishing fossil fuel resources and climate change. Understanding, at the molecular level, the dynamics and mechanisms behind photosynthesis is of fundamental importance and will prove critical to the future design of devices aimed at converting sunlight into electrochemical energy and transportable fuel.

58

EVALUATING AN INNOVATIVE OXYGEN SENSOR FOR REMOTE SUBSURFACE OXYGEN MEASUREMENTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oxygen is a primary indicator of whether anaerobic reductive dechlorination and similar redox based processes contribute to natural attenuation remedies at chlorinated solvent contaminated sites. Thus, oxygen is a viable indicator parameter for documenting that a system is being sustained in an anaerobic condition. A team of researchers investigated the adaptation of an optical sensor that was developed for oceanographic applications. The optical sensor, because of its design and operating principle, has potential for extended deployment and sensitivity at the low oxygen levels relevant to natural attenuation. The results of the research indicate this tool will be useful for in situ long-term monitoring applications, but that the traditional characterization tools continue to be appropriate for characterization activities.

Millings, M; Brian Riha, B; Warren Hyde, W; Karen Vangelas, K; Brian02 Looney, B

2006-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

59

On the Importance of Organic Oxygen for Understanding OrganicAerosol Particles  

SciTech Connect

This study shows how aerosol organic oxygen data could provide new information about organic aerosol mass, aqueous solubility of organic aerosols, formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and the relative contributions of anthropogenic and biogenic sources. For more than two decades atmospheric aerosol organic mass (OM) concentration has been estimated by multiplying the measured carbon content by an assumed (OM)-to-organic carbon (OC) factor, usually 1.4. However, this factor can vary from 1.0 to 2.5 depending on location. This large uncertainty about aerosol organic mass limits our understanding of the influence of organic aerosol on climate, visibility and health. New examination of organic aerosol speciation data shows that the oxygen content is responsible for the observed range in the OM-to-OC factor. When organic oxygen content is excluded, the ratio of non-oxygen organic mass to carbon mass varies very little across different environments (1.12 to 1.14). The non-oxygen-OM-to-OC factor for all studied sites (urban and non-urban) averaged 1.13. The uncertainty becomes an order of magnitude smaller than the uncertainty in the best current estimates of organic mass to organic carbon ratios (1.6 {+-} 0.2 for urban and 2.1 {+-} 0.2 for non-urban areas). This analysis suggests that, when aerosol organic oxygen data become available, organic aerosol mass can be quite accurately estimated using just OC and organic oxygen (OO) without the need to know whether the aerosol is fresh or aged. In addition, aerosol organic oxygen data will aid prediction of water solubility since compounds with OO-to-OC higher than 0.4 have water solubilities higher than 1 g per 100 g water.

Pang, Y.; Turpin, B.J.; Gundel, L.A.

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Catalyst containing oxygen transport membrane  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A composite oxygen transport membrane having a dense layer, a porous support layer and an intermediate porous layer located between the dense layer and the porous support layer. Both the dense layer and the intermediate porous layer are formed from an ionic conductive material to conduct oxygen ions and an electrically conductive material to conduct electrons. The porous support layer has a high permeability, high porosity, and a high average pore diameter and the intermediate porous layer has a lower permeability and lower pore diameter than the porous support layer. Catalyst particles selected to promote oxidation of a combustible substance are located in the intermediate porous layer and in the porous support adjacent to the intermediate porous layer. The catalyst particles can be formed by wicking a solution of catalyst precursors through the porous support toward the intermediate porous layer.

Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie Robyn; van Hassel, Bart Antonie

2012-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasohol excludes oxygenates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Microchemical systems for singlet oxygen generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Lasers (COIL) are a technology of interest for industrial and military audiences. COILs are flowing gas lasers where the gain medium of iodine atoms is collisionally pumped by singlet delta oxygen ...

Hill, Tyrone F. (Tyrone Frank), 1980-

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Microbial oceanography of anoxic oxygen minimum zones  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Vast expanses of oxygen-deficient and nitrite-rich water define the major oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) of the global ocean. They support diverse microbial communities that influence the nitrogen economy of the oceans, ...

Ulloa, Osvaldo

63

Oxygen Sensitivity of Krypton and Lyman-? Hygrometers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The oxygen sensitivity of krypton and Lyman-? hygrometers is studied. Using a dewpoint generator and a controlled nitrogen/oxygen flow the extinction coefficients of five hygrometers associated with the third-order Taylor expansion of the Lambert–...

Arjan van Dijk; Wim Kohsiek; Henk A. R. de Bruin

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Innovative oxygen separation membrane prototype  

SciTech Connect

Improvements are still needed to gas separation processes to gain industry acceptance of coal gasification systems. The Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) technology, being developed by the US Department of Energy and its partners, offers an opportunity to lower overall plant cost and improve efficiency compared to cryogenic distillation and pressure swing adsorption methods. The technology is based on a novel class of perovskite ceramic oxides which can selectively separate oxygen ions from a stream of air at high temperature and pressure. Those ions are transported across the ITM leaving non-permeate air which can be integrated with a fuel-fired gas system, enabling co-production of power and steam along with the concentrated, high-purity oxygen. The project is at the second phase, to scale up the ITM Oxygen ceramic devices to demonstrate the technology at the 1-5 tpd capability in the Subscale Engineering Prototype. A third phase to demonstrate commercial viability extends to the end of the decade. 2 figs.

NONE

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

65

Oxygen enriched combustion system performance study  

SciTech Connect

The current study was undertaken to evaluate the performance of a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) oxygen plant to provide oxygen for industrial combustion applications. PSA oxygen plants utilize a molecular sieve material to separate air into an oxygen rich product stream and a nitrogen rich exhaust stream. These plants typically produce 90-95% purity oxygen and are located in close proximity to the point of use. In contrast, high purity (99.999%) oxygen is produced by the distillation of liquid air at a remote plant and is usually transported to the point of use either as a cryogenic liquid in a tank trailer or as a high pressure gas via pipeline. In this study, experiments were performed to the test PSA system used in conjunction with an A'' burner and comparisons were made with the results of the previous study which utilized high purity liquid oxygen. 4 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

Delano, M.A. (Union Carbide Industrial Gases, Inc., Tarrytown, NY (USA)); Kwan, Y. (Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Irvine, CA (USA))

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

The Role of Oxygen in Coal Gasification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Air Products supplies oxygen to a number of coal gasification and partial oxidation facilities worldwide. At the high operating pressures of these processes, economics favor the use of 90% and higher oxygen purities. The effect of inerts in the oxidant on gasifier and downstream production units also favor the use of oxygen in place of air. Factors that must be considered in selecting the optimum oxygen purity include: end use of the gasifier products, oxygen delivery pressure and the cost of capital and energy. This paper examines the major factors in oxygen purity selection for typical coal gasifiers. Examples demonstrating the effect of oxygen purity on several processes are presented: production of synthetic natural gas (SNG), integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power generation and methanol synthesis. The potential impact of a non-cryogenic air separation process currently under development is examined based on integration with a high temperature processes.

Klosek, J.; Smith, A. R.; Solomon, J.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Jupiter Oxygen Corporation | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Corporation Place Schiller Park, Illinois Zip 60176 Product Illinois-based oxy-fuel combustion company involved in the capture of CO2. References Jupiter Oxygen Corporation1...

68

Insitu Oxygen Conduction Into Internal Combustion Chamber  

Insitu Oxygen Conduction Into Internal Combustion Chamber Note: The technology described above is an early stage opportunity. Licensing rights to this ...

69

Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Reduction with Reduced Platinum ...  

Platinum is the most efficient electrocatalyst for accelerating the oxygen reduction reaction in fuel cells. Under operating conditions, though, platinum catalysts ...

70

Areas Participating in the Oxygenated Gasoline Program  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Demand and Price Outlook ... is a colorless, odorless, and poisonous gas ... oxygen by weight is to be used in the wintertime in those areas of the county that ...

71

Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction on a  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction on a Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction on a Platinum Fuel Cell Cathode Friday, December 20, 2013 Fuel Cell Figure 1 Figure 1. In situ x-ray spectroscopy identification and DFT simulations of oxygenated intermediates on a platinum fuel-cell cathode. The study shows that two types of hydroxyl intermediates (non-hydrated OH and hydrated OH) with distinct activities coexist on a fuel-cell cathode. The performance of polymer-electrolyte-membrane (PEM) fuel cells is limited by the reduction at the cathode of various oxygenated intermediates in the four-electron pathway of the oxygen reduction reaction. A research team led by SLAC scientists performed x-ray spectroscopy identification and DFT simulations of oxygenated intermediates on a platinum fuel-cell cathode

72

Oxygen Control in PWR Makeup Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three fixed-bed processes can accelerate hydrazine-oxygen reactions in PWR makeup water and reduce oxygen levels to below 5 ppb. In this comparative-test project, activated carbon based systems offered the best combination of low cost, effectiveness, and commercial availability. A second process, employing palladium-coated anion resin, is also commercially available.

1988-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

73

Effects of Pressure on Oxygen Sensors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To measure the effects of pressure on the output of a membrane oxygen sensor and a nonmembrane oxygen sensor, the authors pressure cycled a CTD sensor package in a laboratory pressure facility. The CTD sensor package was cycled from 30 to 6800 db ...

M. J. Atkinson; F. I. M. Thomas; N. Larson

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Oxygen ion-conducting dense ceramic  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Preparation, structure, and properties of mixed metal oxide compositions containing at least strontium, cobalt, iron and oxygen are described. The crystalline mixed metal oxide compositions of this invention have, for example, structure represented by Sr.sub..alpha. (Fe.sub.1-x Co.sub.x).sub..alpha.+.beta. O.sub..delta. where x is a number in a range from 0.01 to about 1, .alpha. is a number in a range from about 1 to about 4, .beta. is a number in a range upward from 0 to about 20, and .delta. is a number which renders the compound charge neutral, and wherein the composition has a non-perovskite structure. Use of the mixed metal oxides in dense ceramic membranes which exhibit oxygen ionic conductivity and selective oxygen separation, are described as well as their use in separation of oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous mixture.

Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Kleefisch, Mark S. (Naperville, IL); Kobylinski, Thaddeus P. (Lisle, IL); Morissette, Sherry L. (Las Cruces, NM); Pei, Shiyou (Naperville, IL)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Oxygen ion-conducting dense ceramic  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Preparation, structure, and properties of mixed metal oxide compositions containing at least strontium, cobalt, iron and oxygen are described. The crystalline mixed metal oxide compositions of this invention have, for example, structure represented by Sr.sub..alpha. (Fe.sub.1-x Co.sub.x).sub..alpha.+.beta. O.sub..delta. where x is a number in a range from 0.01 to about 1, .alpha. is a number in a range from about 1 to about 4, .beta. is a number in a range upward from 0 to about 20, and .delta. is a number which renders the compound charge neutral, and wherein the composition has a non-perovskite structure. Use of the mixed metal oxides in dense ceramic membranes which exhibit oxygen ionic conductivity and selective oxygen separation, are described as well as their use in separation of oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous mixture.

Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Kleefisch, Mark S. (Naperville, IL); Kobylinski, Thaddeus P. (Lisle, IL); Morissette, Sherry L. (Las Cruces, NM); Pei, Shiyou (Naperville, IL)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Modelling Hydrogen Reduction and Hydrodeoxygenation of Oxygenates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) simulations, we have studied the reduction of nickel oxide and biomass derived oxygenates (catechol, guaiacol, etc.) in hydrogen. Both the kinetic barrier and thermodynamic favorability are calculated with respect to the modeled reaction pathways. In early-stage reduction of the NiO(100) surface by hydrogen, the pull-off of the surface oxygen atom and simultaneous activation of the nearby Ni atoms coordinately dissociate the hydrogen molecules so that a water molecule can be formed, leaving an oxygen vacancy on the surface. In hydrogen reaction with oxygenates catalyzed by transition metals, hydrogenation of the aromatic carbon ring normally dominates. However, selective deoxygenation is of particular interest for practical application such as biofuel conversion. Our modeling shows that doping of the transition metal catalysts can change the orientation of oxygenates adsorbed on metal surfaces. The correlation between the selectivity of reaction and the orientation of adsorption are discussed.

Zhao, Y.; Xu, Q.; Cheah, S.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Oxygen Absorption in Cooling Flows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The inhomogeneous cooling flow scenario predicts the existence of large quantities of gas in massive elliptical galaxies, groups, and clusters that have cooled and dropped out of the flow. Using spatially resolved, deprojected X-ray spectra from the ROSAT PSPC we have detected strong absorption over energies ~0.4-0.8 keV intrinsic to the central ~1 arcmin of the galaxy, NGC 1399, the group, NGC 5044, and the cluster, A1795. These systems have amongst the largest nearby cooling flows in their respective classes and low Galactic columns. Since no excess absorption is indicated for energies below ~0.4 keV the most reasonable model for the absorber is warm, collisionally ionized gas with T=10^{5-6} K where ionized states of oxygen provide most of the absorption. Attributing the absorption only to ionized gas reconciles the large columns of cold H and He inferred from Einstein and ASCA with the lack of such columns inferred from ROSAT, and also is consistent with the negligible atomic and molecular H inferred from HI, and CO observations of cooling flows. The prediction of warm ionized gas as the product of mass drop-out in these and other cooling flows can be verified by Chandra, XMM, and ASTRO-E.

David A. Buote

2000-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

78

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

Conventional wisdom says adding oxygen to a combustion system enhances product throughput, system efficiency, and, unless special care is taken, increases NOx emissions. This increase in NOx emissions is typically due to elevated flame temperatures associated with oxygen use leading to added thermal NOx formation. Innovative low flame temperature oxy-fuel burner designs have been developed and commercialized to minimize both thermal and fuel NOx formation for gas and oil fired industrial furnaces. To be effective these systems require close to 100% oxy-fuel combustion and the cost of oxygen is paid for by fuel savings and other benefits. For applications to coal-fired utility boilers at the current cost of oxygen, however, it is not economically feasible to use 100% oxygen for NOx control. In spite of this conventional wisdom, Praxair and its team members, in partnership with the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory, have developed a novel way to use oxygen to reduce NOx emissions without resorting to complete oxy-fuel conversion. In this concept oxygen is added to the combustion process to enhance operation of a low NOx combustion system. Only a small fraction of combustion air is replaced with oxygen in the process. By selectively adding oxygen to a low NOx combustion system it is possible to reduce NOx emissions from nitrogen-containing fuels, including pulverized coal, while improving combustion characteristics such as unburned carbon. A combination of experimental work and modeling was used to define how well oxygen enhanced combustion could reduce NOx emissions. The results of this work suggest that small amounts of oxygen replacement can reduce the NOx emissions as compared to the air-alone system. NOx emissions significantly below 0.15 lbs/MMBtu were measured. Oxygen addition was also shown to reduce carbon in ash. Comparison of the costs of using oxygen for NOx control against competing technologies, such as SCR, show that this concept offers substantial savings over SCR and is an economically attractive alternative to purchasing NOx credits or installing other conventional technologies. In conjunction with the development of oxygen based low NOx technology, Praxair also worked on developing the economically enhancing oxygen transport membrane (OTM) technology which is ideally suited for integration with combustion systems to achieve further significant cost reductions and efficiency improvements. This OTM oxygen production technology is based on ceramic mixed conductor membranes that operate at high temperatures and can be operated in a pressure driven mode to separate oxygen with infinite selectivity and high flux. An OTM material was selected and characterized. OTM elements were successfully fabricated. A single tube OTM reactor was designed and assembled. Testing of dense OTM elements was conducted with promising oxygen flux results of 100% of target flux. However, based on current natural gas prices and stand-alone air separation processes, ceramic membranes do not offer an economic advantage for this application. Under a different DOE-NETL Cooperative Agreement, Praxair is continuing to develop oxygen transport membranes for the Advanced Boiler where the economics appear more attractive.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Method of detecting oxygen partial pressure and oxygen partial pressure sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of a method for detecting oxygen partial pressure and an oxygen partial pressure sensor are provided. The method for measuring oxygen partial pressure includes contacting oxygen to a solid oxide electrolyte and measuring the subsequent change in electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte. A solid oxide electrolyte is utilized that contacts both a porous electrode and a nonporous electrode. The electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte is affected when oxygen from an exhaust stream permeates through the porous electrode to establish an equilibrium of oxygen anions in the electrolyte, thereby displacing electrons throughout the electrolyte to form an electron gradient. By adapting the two electrodes to sense a voltage potential between them, the change in electrolyte conductivity due to oxygen presence can be measured.

Dees, D.W.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

80

Selective photooxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A selective photooxidation process for the conversion of hydrocarbon molecules to partially oxygenated derivatives, which comprises the steps of adsorbing a hydrocarbon and oxygen onto a dehydrated zeolite support matrix to form a hydrocarbon-oxygen contact pair, and subsequently exposing the hydrocarbon-oxygen contact pair to visible light, thereby forming a partially oxygenated derivative.

Frei, Heinz (Berkeley, CA); Blatter, Fritz (Berkeley, CA); Sun, Hai (Berkeley, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasohol excludes oxygenates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process  

This patent-pending technology, “Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process,” provides a metal-oxide oxygen carrier for application in fuel combustion processes that use oxygen.

82

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Oxygenate Production Oxygenate Production Definitions Key Terms Definition Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Captive Refinery Oxygenate Plants Oxygenate production facilities located within or adjacent to a refinery complex. Fuel Ethanol An anhydrous denatured aliphatic alcohol intended for gasoline blending as described in Oxygenates definition. Gasohol A blend of finished motor gasoline containing alcohol (generally ethanol but sometimes methanol) at a concentration of 10 percent or less by volume. Data on gasohol that has at least 2.7 percent oxygen, by weight, and is intended for sale inside carbon monoxide nonattainment areas are included in data on oxygenated gasoline. Merchant Oxygenate Plants Oxygenate production facilities that are not associated with a petroleum refinery. Production from these facilities is sold under contract or on the spot market to refiners or other gasoline blenders.

83

Design optimization of oxygenated fluid pump  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In medical emergencies, an oxygen-starved brain quickly suffers irreparable damage. In many cases, patients who stop breathing can be resuscitated but suffer from brain damage. Dr. John Kheir from Boston Children's Hospital ...

Piazzarolo, Bruno Aiala

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

OXYGEN DIFFUSION IN HYPOSTOICHIOMETRIC URANIUM DIOXIDE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

IN HYPOSTOICHIOMETRIC URANIUM DIOXIDE Kee Chul Kim Ph.D.727-366; Figure 1. Oxygen-uranium phase-equilibrium _ystem [18]. uranium dioxide powders and 18 0 enriched carbon

Kim, Kee Chul

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

THE PATH OF OXYGEN IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An experiment is described in which an attempt is made to follow the path of oxygen in photosynthesis by the use of O{sup 18} as a tracer.

Dorough, G.D.; Calvin, M.

1950-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

86

Permanent magnet hydrogen oxygen generating cells  

SciTech Connect

A generating cell for hydrogen and oxygen utilizes permanent magnets and electromagnets. Means are provided for removing gases from the electrodes. Mixing chambers are provided for water and the electrolyte used in the cell.

Harris, M.

1976-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

87

Oxy-combustion: Oxygen Transport Membrane Development  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

combustion: Oxygen Transport combustion: Oxygen Transport Membrane Development Background The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Existing Plants, Emissions & Capture (EPEC) Research & Development (R&D) Program is to develop innovative environmental control technologies to enable full use of the nation's vast coal reserves, while at the same time allowing the current fleet of coal-fired power plants to comply with existing and emerging environmental regulations. The EPEC R&D

88

Oxygen ion-conducting dense ceramic  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Preparation, structure, and properties of mixed metal oxide compositions and their uses are described. Mixed metal oxide compositions of the invention have stratified crystalline structure identifiable by means of powder X-ray diffraction patterns. In the form of dense ceramic membranes, the present compositions demonstrate an ability to separate oxygen selectively from a gaseous mixture containing oxygen and one or more other volatile components by means of ionic conductivities.

Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Kleefisch, Mark S. (Plainfield, IL); Kobylinski, Thaddeus P. (Prospect, PA); Morissette, Sherry L. (Las Cruces, NM); Pei, Shiyou (Naperville, IL)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Oxygen Nonstoichiometry, Thermo-chemical Stability and Crystal ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... gas separation membranes and oxygen sensors, oxygen nonstoichiometry and crystal ... New Electric Current Effects on 8-Y Zirconia Ceramics: Pore/Bubble ...

90

Modern Records of Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes in Atmospheric Carbon...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Modern Records of Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Carbon-13 in Methane Modern Records of Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and...

91

Magnetism in Lithium–Oxygen Discharge Product  

SciTech Connect

Nonaqueous lithium–oxygen batteries have a much superior theoretical gravimetric energy density compared to conventional lithium-ion batteries, and thus could render long-range electric vehicles a reality. A molecular-level understanding of the reversible formation of lithium peroxide in these batteries, the properties of major/minor discharge products, and the stability of the nonaqueous electrolytes is required to achieve successful lithium–oxygen batteries. We demonstrate that the major discharge product formed in the lithium–oxygen cell, lithium peroxide, exhibits a magnetic moment. These results are based on dc-magnetization measurements and a lithium– oxygen cell containing an ether-based electrolyte. The results are unexpected because bulk lithium peroxide has a significant band gap. Density functional calculations predict that superoxide- type surface oxygen groups with unpaired electrons exist on stoichiometric lithium peroxide crystalline surfaces and on nanoparticle surfaces; these computational results are consistent with the magnetic measurement of the discharged lithium peroxide product as well as EPR measurements on commercial lithium peroxide. The presence of superoxide-type surface oxygen groups with spin can play a role in the reversible formation and decomposition of lithium peroxide as well as the reversible formation and decomposition of electrolyte molecules.

Lu, Jun; Jung, Hun-Ji; Lau, Kah Chun; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Schlueter, John A.; Du, Peng; Assary, Rajeev S.; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Ferguson, Glen A.; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Hassoun, Jusef; Iddir, Hakim; Zhou, Jigang; Zuin, Lucia; Hu, Yongfeng; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno; Curtiss, Larry A.; Amine, Khalil

2013-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

92

Underground coal gasification using oxygen and steam  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, through model experiment of the underground coal gasification, the effects of pure oxygen gasification, oxygen-steam gasification, and moving-point gasification methods on the underground gasification process and gas quality were studied. Experiments showed that H{sub 2} and CO volume fraction in product gas during the pure oxygen gasification was 23.63-30.24% and 35.22-46.32%, respectively, with the gas heating value exceeding 11.00 MJ/m{sup 3}; under the oxygen-steam gasification, when the steam/oxygen ratio stood at 2: 1, gas compositions remained virtually stable and CO + H{sub 2} was basically between 61.66 and 71.29%. Moving-point gasification could effectively improve the changes in the cavity in the coal seams or the effects of roof inbreak on gas quality; the ratio of gas flowing quantity to oxygen supplying quantity was between 3.1:1 and 3.5:1 and took on the linear changes; on the basis of the test data, the reasons for gas quality changes under different gasification conditions were analyzed.

Yang, L.H.; Zhang, X.; Liu, S. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Oxygen generator for medical applications (USIC)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The overall Project objective is to develop a portable, non-cryogenic oxygen generator capable of supplying medical grade oxygen at sufficient flow rates to allow the field application of the Topical Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (THOT{reg_sign}) developed by Numotech, Inc. This project was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Global Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (GIPP) and is managed by collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Numotech, Inc, and LLC SPE 'Spektr-Conversion.' The project had two phases, with the objective of Phase I being to develop, build and test a laboratory prototype of the membrane-pressure swing adsorber (PSA) system producing at 15 L/min of oxygen with a minimum of 98% oxygen purity. Phase II objectives were to further refine and identify the pre-requisites needed for a commercial product and to determine the feasibility of producing 15 L/min of oxygen with a minimum oxygen purity of 99%. In Phase I, Spektr built up the necessary infrastructure to perform experimental work and proceeded to build and demonstrate a membrane-PSA laboratory prototype capable of producing 98% purity oxygen at a flow rate of 5 L/min. Spektr offered a plausible path to scale up the process for 15 L/min. Based on the success and experimental results obtained in Phase I, Spektr performed work in three areas for Phase II: construction of a 15 L/min PSA; investigation of compressor requirements for the front end of the membrane/PSA system; and performing modeling and simulation of assess the feasibility of producing oxygen with a purity greater than 99%. Spektr successfully completed all of the tasks under Phase II. A prototype 15 L/min PSA was constructed and operated. Spektr determined that no 'off the shelf' air compressors met all of the specifications required for the membrane-PSA, so a custom compressor will likely need to be built. Modeling and simulation concluded that production of oxygen with purities greater than 99% was possible using a Membrane-PSA system.

Staiger, C. L.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Absorption process for producing oxygen and nitrogen and solution therefor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Process for the separation and purification of oxygen and nitrogen is disclosed which utilizes solutions of oxygen carriers to selectively absorb oxygen from a gaseous stream, leaving nitrogen as a byproduct. In the process, an oxygen carrier capable of reversibly binding molecular oxygen is dissolved in a solvent solution, which absorbs oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous feed stream such as atmospheric air and desorbs oxygen to a gaseous product stream. The feed stream is maintained at a sufficiently high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form during absorption, while the product stream is maintained at a sufficiently low oxygen pressure to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form during desorption. In an alternate mode of operation, the carrier solution is maintained at a sufficiently low temperature and high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form during absorption, and at a sufficiently high temperature to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form during desorption. Under such conditions, exceptionally high oxygen concentrations on the order of 95% to 99% are obtained, as well as a long carrier lifetime in excess of 3 months, making the process commercially feasible. 1 figure

Roman, I.C.; Baker, R.W.

1990-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

95

Oxygen scavengers - The chemistry of sulfite under hydrothermal conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Control of oxygen corrosion is critical to the reliability of steam generator systems. Mechanical deaeration and chemical oxygen scavenging effectively reduce oxygen levels in boiler feedwater systems. This paper reviews the use of sulfites to reduce oxygen and provide corrosion control throughout the boiler feedwater circuit as well as mechanical and operational oxygen reduction methods. The mechanism of oxygen pitting, electrochemical reactions, and the basis of operation of mechanical deaeration are discussed. Estimating techniques for the amount of steam required and a deaerator troubleshooting guide are included. The chemistry of sulfites is covered in detail. Also included are a functional definition of chemical oxygen scavengers and a general discussion of their various types.

Cotton, I.J.

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Direct Observation of Oxygen Superstructures in Manganites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report the observation of superstructures associated with the oxygen 2p states in two prototypical manganites using x-ray diffraction at the oxygen K edge. In the stripe order system Bi{sub 0.31}Ca{sub 0.69}MnO{sub 3}, hole-doped O states are orbitally ordered, at the same propagation vector as the Mn orbital ordering, but no oxygen charge stripes are found at this periodicity. In La{sub 7/8}Sr{sub 1/8}MnO{sub 3}, we observe a 2p charge ordering described by alternating hole-poor and hole-rich MnO planes that is consistent with some of the recent predictions.

Grenier, S.; Tonnerre, J. M. [Institut Neel, CNRS and Universite Joseph Fourier, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Thomas, K. J.; Hill, J. P. [Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Staub, U.; Bodenthin, Y.; Garcia-Fernandez, M. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Sherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Scagnoli, V. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Kiryukhin, V.; Cheong, S-W.; Kim, B. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)

2007-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

97

Effects of ethanol content on gasohol PFI engine wide-open-throttle operation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The NOx emission and knock characteristics of a PFI engine operating on ethanol/gasoline mixtures were assessed at 1500 and 2000 rpm with ? =1 under Wide-Open-Throttle condition. There was no significant charge cooling due ...

Cheng, Wai K.

98

Hydrocarbon emissions in a homogeneous direct-injection spark engine : gasoline and gasohol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In order to better understand the effects on hydrocarbon emissions of loading, engine temperature, fuel type, and injection timing, a series of experiments was performed. The effect of loading was observed by running the ...

Tharp, Ronald S

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Novel Membranes and Processes for Oxygen Enrichment  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of this project is to develop a membrane process that produces air containing 25-35% oxygen, at a cost of $25-40/ton of equivalent pure oxygen (EPO2). Oxygen-enriched air at such a low cost will allow existing air-fueled furnaces to be converted economically to oxygen-enriched furnaces, which in turn will improve the economic and energy efficiency of combustion processes significantly, and reduce the cost of CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration from flue gases throughout the U.S. manufacturing industries. During the 12-month Concept Definition project: We identified a series of perfluoropolymers (PFPs) with promising oxygen/nitrogen separation properties, which were successfully made into thin film composite membranes. The membranes showed oxygen permeance as high as 1,200 gpu and oxygen/nitrogen selectivity of 3.0, and the permeance and selectivity were stable over the time period tested (60 days). We successfully scaled up the production of high-flux PFP-based membranes, using MTR's commercial coaters. Two bench-scale spiral-wound modules with countercurrent designs were made and parametric tests were performed to understand the effect of feed flow rate and pressure, permeate pressure and sweep flow rate on the membrane module separation properties. At various operating conditions that modeled potential industrial operating conditions, the module separation properties were similar to the pure-gas separation properties in the membrane stamps. We also identified and synthesized new polymers [including polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs) and polyimides] with higher oxygen/nitrogen selectivity (3.5-5.0) than the PFPs, and made these polymers into thin film composite membranes. However, these membranes were susceptible to severe aging; pure-gas permeance decreased nearly six-fold within two weeks, making them impractical for industrial applications of oxygen enrichment. We tested the effect of oxygen-enriched air on NO{sub x} emissions using a Bloom baffle burner at GTI. The results are positive and confirm that oxygen-enriched combustion can be carried out without producing higher levels of NOx than normal air firing, if lancing of combustion air is used and the excess air levels are controlled. A simple economic study shows that the membrane processes can produce O{sub 2} at less than $40/ton EPO{sub 2} and an energy cost of 1.1-1.5 MMBtu/ton EPO{sub 2}, which are very favorable compared with conventional technologies such as cryogenics and vacuum pressure swing adsorption processes. The benefits of integrated membrane processes/combustion process trains have been evaluated, and show good savings in process costs and energy consumption, as well as reduced CO{sub 2} emissions. For example, if air containing 30% oxygen is used in natural gas furnaces, the net natural gas savings are an estimated 18% at a burner temperature of 2,500 F, and 32% at a burner temperature of 3,000 F. With a 20% market penetration of membrane-based oxygen-enriched combustion in all combustion processes by 2020, the energy savings would be 414-736 TBtu/y in the U.S. The comparable net cost savings are estimated at $1.2-2.1 billion per year by 2020, calculated as the value of fuel savings subtracted from the cost of oxygen production. The fuel savings of 18%-32% by the membrane/oxygen-enriched combustion corresponds to an 18%-32% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions, or 23-40 MM ton/y less CO{sub 2} from natural gas-fired furnaces by 2020. In summary, results from this project (Concept Definition phase) are highly promising and clearly demonstrate that membrane processes can produce oxygen-enriched air in a low cost manner that will lower operating costs and energy consumption in industrial combustion processes. Future work will focus on proof-of-concept bench-scale demonstration in the laboratory.

Lin, Haiqing

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

100

Electrolysis method for producing hydrogen and oxygen  

SciTech Connect

A novel electrolytic cell produces a mixture of highly ionized hydrogen and oxygen gases by a method combining electrolysis and radiolysis of an aqueous electrolyte. The electrolyte, which may be 25 percent of potassium hydroxide, is introduced into the cell and is simultaneously subjected to an electrolyting current and intense irradiation by electromagnetic radiation of frequency less than 10/sup -10/ meters.

Horvath, S.

1978-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasohol excludes oxygenates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Probing Oxygen Activation Sites in Two Flavoprotein Oxidases Using Chloride as an Oxygen Surrogate  

SciTech Connect

A single basic residue above the si-face of the flavin ring is the site of oxygen activation in glucose oxidase (GOX) (His516) and monomeric sarcosine oxidase (MSOX) (Lys265). Crystal structures of both flavoenzymes exhibit a small pocket at the oxygen activation site that might provide a preorganized binding site for superoxide anion, an obligatory intermediate in the two-electron reduction of oxygen. Chloride binds at these polar oxygen activation sites, as judged by solution and structural studies. First, chloride forms spectrally detectable complexes with GOX and MSOX. The protonated form of His516 is required for tight binding of chloride to oxidized GOX and for rapid reaction of reduced GOX with oxygen. Formation of a binary MSOX-chloride complex requires Lys265 and is not observed with Lys265Met. Binding of chloride to MSOX does not affect the binding of a sarcosine analogue (MTA, methylthioactetate) above the re-face of the flavin ring. Definitive evidence is provided by crystal structures determined for a binary MSOX-chloride complex and a ternary MSOX-chloride-MTA complex. Chloride binds in the small pocket at a position otherwise occupied by a water molecule and forms hydrogen bonds to four ligands that are arranged in approximate tetrahedral geometry: Lys265:NZ, Arg49:NH1, and two water molecules, one of which is hydrogen bonded to FAD:N5. The results show that chloride (i) acts as an oxygen surrogate, (ii) is an effective probe of polar oxygen activation sites, and (iii) provides a valuable complementary tool to the xenon gas method that is used to map nonpolar oxygen-binding cavities.

Kommoju, Phaneeswara-Rao; Chen, Zhi-wei; Bruckner, Robert C.; Mathews, F. Scott; Jorns, Marilyn Schuman (Drexel-MED); (St. Louis-MED); (WU-MED)

2011-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

102

Oxygen transport by oxygen potential gradient in dense ceramic oxide membranes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Numerous studies have been conducted in recent years on the partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas (syngas: CO + H{sub 2}) with air as the oxidant. In partial oxidation, a mixed-oxide ceramic membrane selectively transports oxygen from the air; this transport is driven by the oxygen potential gradient. Of the several ceramic materials the authors have tested, a mixed oxide based on the Sr-Fe-Co-O system has been found to be very attractive. Extensive oxygen permeability data have been obtained for this material in methane conversion experiments carried out in a reactor. The data have been analyzed by a transport equation based on the phenomenological theory of diffusion under oxygen potential gradients. Thermodynamic calculations were used to estimate the driving force for the transport of oxygen ions. The results show that the transport equation deduced from the literature describes the permeability data reasonably well and can be used to determine the diffusion coefficients and the associated activation energy of oxygen ions in the ceramic membrane material.

Maiya, P.S.; Balachandran, U.; Dusek, J.T.; Mieville, R.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.; Kleefisch, M.S.; Udovich, C.A. [Amoco Exploration/Production, Naperville, IL (United States)

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Oxygen electrode in molten carbonate fuel cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The oxygen reduction reaction on a gold electrode in lithium carbonate melt was investigated to determine the influence of partial pressure of carbon dioxide and temperature on electrode kinetics and oxygen solubility by using cyclic Voltammetry and impedance analysis techniques. During this quarter, the impedance data were analyzed by a Complex Nonlinear Least Square (CNLS) Parameter estimation program to determine the kinetic and the mass transfer related parameters such as charge transfer resistance, double layer capacitance, solution resistance, and Warburg coefficient. The estimated parameters were used to obtain the C0{sub 2} reaction orders and apparent activation energies for the exchange current density and the mass transfer parameter (D{sub o}{sup {1/2}}C{sub o}*).

Dave, B.B.; Srinivasan, S.; White, R.E.; Appleby, A.J.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Electrical insulator assembly with oxygen permeation barrier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high-voltage electrical insulator for electrically insulating a thermoelectric module in a spacecraft from a niobium-1% zirconium alloy wall of a heat exchanger filled with liquid lithium while providing good thermal conductivity between the heat exchanger and the thermoelectric module. The insulator has a single crystal alumina layer (SxAl[sub 2]O[sub 3], sapphire) with a niobium foil layer bonded thereto on the surface of the alumina crystal facing the heat exchanger wall, and a molybdenum layer bonded to the niobium layer to act as an oxygen permeation barrier to preclude the oxygen depleting effects of the lithium from causing undesirable niobium-aluminum intermetallic layers near the alumina-niobium interface. 3 figures.

Van Der Beck, R.R.; Bond, J.A.

1994-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

105

Electrical insulator assembly with oxygen permeation barrier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high-voltage electrical insulator (21) for electrically insulating a thermoelectric module (17) in a spacecraft from a niobium-1% zirconium alloy wall (11) of a heat exchanger (13) filled with liquid lithium (16) while providing good thermal conductivity between the heat exchanger and the thermoelectric module. The insulator (21) has a single crystal alumina layer (SxAl.sub.2 O.sub.3, sapphire) with a niobium foil layer (32) bonded thereto on the surface of the alumina crystal (26) facing the heat exchanger wall (11), and a molybdenum layer (31) bonded to the niobium layer (32) to act as an oxygen permeation barrier to preclude the oxygen depleting effects of the lithium from causing undesirable niobium-aluminum intermetallic layers near the alumina-niobium interface.

Van Der Beck, Roland R. (Lansdale, PA); Bond, James A. (Exton, PA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

On the reduction of oxygen from dispersed media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The reduction of oxygen from an organic phase dispersed in a concentrated electrolyte is investigated. Dispersed organic phases are used to enhance oxygen transport in fermenters and artificial blood substitutes. This work ...

Roushdy, Omar H., 1977-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Application of Oxygen Eddy Correlation in Aquatic Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The eddy correlation technique is rapidly becoming an established method for resolving dissolved oxygen fluxes in natural aquatic systems. This direct and noninvasive determination of oxygen fluxes close to the sediment by simultaneously ...

Claudia Lorrai; Daniel F. McGinnis; Peter Berg; Andreas Brand; Alfred Wüest

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Molecular oxygen in the rho Ophiuchi cloud  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Molecular oxygen, O2 has been expected historically to be an abundant component of the chemical species in molecular clouds and, as such, an important coolant of the dense interstellar medium. However, a number of attempts from both ground and from space have failed to detect O2 emission. The work described here uses heterodyne spectroscopy from space to search for molecular oxygen in the interstellar medium. The Odin satellite carries a 1.1 m sub-millimeter dish and a dedicated 119 GHz receiver for the ground state line of O2. Starting in 2002, the star forming molecular cloud core rho Oph A was observed with Odin for 34 days during several observing runs. We detect a spectral line at v(LSR) = 3.5 km/s with dv(FWHM) = 1.5 km/s, parameters which are also common to other species associated with rho Ohp A. This feature is identified as the O2 (N_J = 1_1 - 1_0) transition at 118 750.343 MHz. The abundance of molecular oxygen, relative to H2,, is 5E-8 averaged over the Odin beam. This abundance is consistently lower than previously reported upper limits.

B. Larsson; R. Liseau; L. Pagani; P. Bergman; P. Bernath; N. Biver; J. H. Black; R. S. Booth; V. Buat; J. Crovisier; C. L. Curry; M. Dahlgren; P. J. Encrenaz; E. Falgarone; P. A. Feldman; M. Fich; H. G. Flore'n; M. Fredrixon; U. Frisk; G. F. Gahm; M. Gerin; M. Hagstroem; J. Harju; T. Hasegawa; Aa. Hjalmarson; C. Horellou; L. E. B. Johansson; K. Justtanont; A. Klotz; E. Kyroelae; S. Kwok; A. Lecacheux; T. Liljestroem; E. J. Llewellyn; S. Lundin; G. Me'gie; G. F. Mitchell; D. Murtagh; L. H. Nordh; L. -Aa. Nyman; M. Olberg; A. O. H. Olofsson; G. Olofsson; H. Olofsson; G. Persson; R. Plume; H. Rickman; I. Ristorcelli; G. Rydbeck; Aa. Sandqvist; F. v. Sche'ele; G. Serra; S. Torchinsky; N. F. Tothill; K. Volk; T. Wiklind; C. D. Wilson; A. Winnberg; G. Witt

2007-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

109

Probing brain oxygenation with near infrared spectroscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The fundamentals of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) are reviewed. This technique allows to measure the oxygenation of the brain tissue. The particular problems involved in detecting regional brain oxygenation (rSO2) are discussed. The dominant chromophore (light absorber) in tissue is water. Only in the NIR light region of 650-1000 nm, the overall absorption is sufficiently low, and the NIR light can be detected across a thick layer of tissues, among them the skin, the scull and the brain. In this region, there are many absorbing light chromophores, but only three are important as far as the oxygenation is concerned. They are the hemoglobin (HbO2), the deoxy-hemoglobin (Hb) and cytochrome oxidase (CtOx). In the last 20 years there was an enormous growth in the instrumentation and applications of NIRS. . The devices that were used in our experiments were : Somanetics's INVOS Brain Oximeter (IBO) and Toomim's HEG spectrophotometer. The performances of both devices were compared including their merits and draw...

Gersten, Alexander; Raz, Amir; Fried, Robert

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

DD4, Oxygen Plasma Exposure Effects on Indium Oxide Nanowire ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, DD4, Oxygen Plasma Exposure Effects on Indium Oxide Nanowire ... Electronic Materials Science Challenges in Renewable Energy.

111

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

U.S. Weekly Products Supplied U.S. Weekly Products Supplied Definitions Key Terms Definition Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Distillate Fuel Oil A general classification for one of the petroleum fractions produced in conventional distillation operations. It includes diesel fuels and fuel oils. Products known as No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 diesel fuel are used in on-highway diesel engines, such as those in trucks and automobiles, as well as off-highway engines, such as those in railroad locomotives and agricultural machinery. Products known as No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 fuel oils are used primarily for space heating and electric power generation. Finished Motor Gasoline A complex mixture of relatively volatile hydrocarbons with or without small quantities of additives, blended to form a fuel suitable for use in spark-ignition engines. Motor gasoline, as defined in ASTM Specification D 4814 or Federal Specification VV-G-1690C, is characterized as having a boiling range of 122 to 158 degrees Fahrenheit at the 10 percent recovery point to 365 to 374 degrees Fahrenheit at the 90 percent recovery point. Motor Gasoline includes conventional gasoline; all types of oxygenated gasoline, including gasohol; and reformulated gasoline, but excludes aviation gasoline. Note: Volumetric data on blending components, such as oxygenates, are not counted in data on finished motor gasoline until the blending components are blended into the gasoline.

112

E.L. Grossman Chapter 10 Oxygen Isotope Stratigraphy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are the mineral and water respectively. Oxygen isotopic ratios are The Geologic Time Scale 2012. DOI: 10.1016/B978E.L. Grossman Chapter 10 Oxygen Isotope Stratigraphy Abstract:Variations in the 18 O/16 O ratios for global correlation. Relying on previous compilations and new data, this chapter presents oxygen isotope

Grossman, Ethan L.

113

Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase IV Final Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Novel furnace designs based on Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) technology were developed under subcontract by Techint Technologies, Coraopolis, PA, to fully exploit the energy and environmental capabilities of DOC technology and to provide a competitive offering for new furnace construction opportunities. Capital cost, fuel, oxygen and utility costs, NOx emissions, oxide scaling performance, and maintenance requirements were compared for five DOC-based designs and three conventional air5-fired designs using a 10-year net present value calculation. A furnace direct completely with DOC burners offers low capital cost, low fuel rate, and minimal NOx emissions. However, these benefits do not offset the cost of oxygen and a full DOC-fired furnace is projected to cost $1.30 per ton more to operate than a conventional air-fired furnace. The incremental cost of the improved NOx performance is roughly $6/lb NOx, compared with an estimated $3/lb. NOx for equ8pping a conventional furnace with selective catalytic reduction (SCCR) technology. A furnace fired with DOC burners in the heating zone and ambient temperature (cold) air-fired burners in the soak zone offers low capital cost with less oxygen consumption. However, the improvement in fuel rate is not as great as the full DOC-fired design, and the DOC-cold soak design is also projected to cost $1.30 per ton more to operate than a conventional air-fired furnace. The NOx improvement with the DOC-cold soak design is also not as great as the full DOC fired design, and the incremental cost of the improved NOx performance is nearly $9/lb NOx. These results indicate that a DOC-based furnace design will not be generally competitive with conventional technology for new furnace construction under current market conditions. Fuel prices of $7/MMBtu or oxygen prices of $23/ton are needed to make the DOC furnace economics favorable. Niche applications may exist, particularly where access to capital is limited or floor space limitations are critical. DOC technology will continue to have a highly competitive role in retrofit applications requiring increases in furnace productivity.

Riley, M.F.

2003-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

114

Field test of two high-pressure direct-contact downhole steam generators. Volume II. Oxygen/diesel system  

SciTech Connect

A field test of an oxygen/diesel fuel, direct contact steam generator has been completed. The field test, which was a part of Project DEEP STEAM and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, involved the thermal stimulation of a well pattern in the Tar Zone of the Wilmington Oil Field. The activity was carried out in cooperation with the City of Long Beach and the Long Beach Oil Development Company. The steam generator was operated at ground level, with the steam and combustion products delivered to the reservoir through 2022 feet of calcium-silicate insulated tubing. The objectives of the test included demonstrations of safety, operational ease, reliability and lifetime; investigations of reservoir response, environmental impact, and economics; and comparison of those points with a second generator that used air rather than oxygen. The test was extensively instrumented to provide the required data. Excluding interruptions not attributable to the oxygen/diesel system, steam was injected 78% of the time. System lifetime was limited by the combustor, which required some parts replacement every 2 to 3 weeks. For the conditions of this particular test, the use of trucked-in LOX resulted in liess expense than did the production of the equivalent amount of high pressure air using on site compressors. No statistically significant production change in the eight-acre oxygen system well pattern occurred during the test, nor were any adverse effects on the reservoir character detected. Gas analyses during the field test showed very low levels of SOX (less than or equal to 1 ppM) in the generator gaseous effluent. The SOX and NOX data did not permit any conclusion to be drawn regarding reservoir scrubbing. Appreciable levels of CO (less than or equal to 5%) were measured at the generator, and in this case produced-gas analyses showed evidence of significant gas scrubbing. 64 figures, 10 tables.

Moreno, J.B.

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

NETL: Gasification - Development of Ion-Transport Membrane Oxygen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Presentations, Papers, and Publications Presentations, Papers, and Publications ITM Oxygen Development for Advanced Oxygen Supply (Oct 2011) Ted Foster, Air Products & Chemicals, Inc. presented at the Gasification Technologies Conference, San Francisco, CA Oct 9-12, 2011. ASU/IGCC Integration Strategies (Oct 2009), David McCarthy, Air Products & Chemicals, Inc., 2009 Gasification Technologies Conference, Colorado Springs, CO. ITM Oxygen: Taking the Next Step (Oct 2009), VanEric Stein, Air Products & Chemicals, Inc., 2009 Gasification Technologies Conference, Colorado Springs, CO. ITM Oxygen: Scaling Up a Low-Cost Oxygen Supply Technology (Oct 2006) Philip Armstrong, Air Products & Chemicals, Inc., 2006 Gasification Technologies Conference, Washington, D.C. ITM Oxygen: The New Oxygen Supply for the New IGCC Market (Oct 2005)

116

(Selective carbon oxygen bond scission during reactions of oxygenates on single crystal catalysts)  

SciTech Connect

We have discovered that the carbon-oxygen bond in methanol can be selectively broken if the surface structure of the platinum catalyst is appropriately tailored. The objective of this project is to determine if variations in surface structure allow one to selectively break C-O and C-H bonds. The decomposition of a wide range of oxygenates on several carefully chosen faces of group VIII metals will be examined to see when C-O bond scission occurs and what new chemistry we can find on stepped surfaces.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

[Selective carbon oxygen bond scission during reactions of oxygenates on single crystal catalysts]. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

We have discovered that the carbon-oxygen bond in methanol can be selectively broken if the surface structure of the platinum catalyst is appropriately tailored. The objective of this project is to determine if variations in surface structure allow one to selectively break C-O and C-H bonds. The decomposition of a wide range of oxygenates on several carefully chosen faces of group VIII metals will be examined to see when C-O bond scission occurs and what new chemistry we can find on stepped surfaces.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Oxygen stabilized zirconium-vanadium-iron alloy  

SciTech Connect

An oxygen stabilized intermetallic compound having the formula (Zr.sub.1-x Ti.sub.x).sub.2-u (V.sub.1-y Fe.sub.y)O.sub.z where x=0.0 to 0.9, y=0.01 to 0.9, z=0.25 to 0.5 and u=0 to 1. The compound is capable of reversibly sorbing hydrogen at temperatures from -196.degree. C. to 200.degree. C. at pressures down to 10.sup.-6 torr. The compound is suitable for use as a hydrogen getter in low pressure, high temperature applications such as magnetic confinement fusion devices.

Mendelsohn, Marshall H. (Woodridge, IL); Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Electrochemical oxygen pumps. Final CRADA report.  

SciTech Connect

All tasks of the Work Plan of ISTC Project 2277p have been completed, thus: (1) techniques of chemical synthesis were developed for more than ten recipes of electrolyte based on cerium oxide doped with 20 mole% of gadolinium (CeGd)O{sub 2}, doped by more than 10 oxide systems including 6 recipes in addition to the Work Plan; (2) electric conductivity and mechanical strength of CeGd specimens with additions of oxide systems were performed, two candidate materials for the electrolyte of electrochemical oxygen pump (pure CeGd and CeGd doped by 0.2 wt% of a transition metal) were chosen; (3) extended studies of mechanical strength of candidate material specimens were performed at room temperature and at 400, 600, 800 C; (4) fixtures for determination of mechanical strength of tubes by external pressure above 40 atmospheres at temperature up to 700 C were developed and fabricated; and (5) technology of slip casting of tubes from pure (Ce,Gd)O{sub 2} and of (Ce,Gd)O{sub 2} doped by 0.2 wt% of a transition metal, withstanding external pressure of minimum 40 atmospheres at temperature up to 700 C was developed, a batch of tubes was sent for testing to Argonne National Laboratory; (6) technology of making nanopowder from pure (Ce,Gd)O{sub 2} was developed based on chemical synthesis and laser ablation techniques, a batch of nanopowder with the weight 1 kg was sent for testing to Argonne National Laboratory; (7) a business plan for establishing a company for making powders of materials for electrochemical oxygen pump was developed; and (8) major results obtained within the Project were reported at international conferences and published in the Russian journal Electrochemistry. In accordance with the Work Plan a business trip of the following project participants was scheduled for April 22-29, 2006, to Tonawanda, NY, USA: Manager Victor Borisov; Leader of technology development Gennady Studenikin; Leader of business planning Elena Zadorozhnaya; Leader of production Vasily Lepalovsky; and Translator Vladimir Litvinov. During this trip project participants were to discuss with the project Technical Monitor J.D. Carter and representative of Praxair Inc. J. Chen the results of project activities (prospects of transition metal-doped material application in oxygen pumps), as well as the prospects of cooperation with Praxair at the meeting with the company management in the following fields: (1) Deposition of thin films of oxide materials of complex composition on support by magnetron and ion sputtering, research of coatings properties; (2) Development of block-type structure technology (made of porous and dense ceramics) for oxygen pump. The block-type structure is promising because when the size of electrolyte block is 2 x 2 inches and assembly height is 10 inches (5 blocks connected together) the area of active surface is ca. 290 square inches (in case of 8 slots), that roughly corresponds to one tube with diameter 1 inch and height 100 inches. So performance of the system made of such blocks may be by a factor of two or three higher than that of tube-based system. However one month before the visit, J. Chen notified us of internal changes at Praxair and the cancellation of the visit to Tonawanda, NY. During consultations with the project Technical Monitor J.D. Carter and Senior Project Manager A. Taylor a decision was made to extend the project term by 2 quarters to prepare proposals for follow-on activities during this extension (development of block-type structures made of dense and porous oxide ceramics for electrochemical oxygen pumps) using the funds that were not used for the trip to the US.

Carter, J. D. Noble, J.

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase I Final Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NOx) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NOx through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NOx production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature (~1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O2 vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d+ scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d+ scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW (~0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NOx emissions increased with increasing furnace nitrogen content and furnace temperature, but remained relatively insensitive to variations in fuel injection velocity and firing rate. NOx emissions below 5-10-3 g/MJ (10 ppm-air equivalent at 3% O2 dry) were obtained for furnace temperatures below 1533 K (2300°F) and furnace nitrogen levels between 1 and 40%. CO emissions were typically low (DOC burner arrangements were ascertained through furnace pressure measurements, wit6h increased stability occurring as furnace temperature increased and as the separation distance between fuel and oxidant inputs decreased. Based on current market conditions, oxy-fuel conversion of batch steel reheat furnaces with a DOC burner is justified on the basis of lower utility costs alone. However, conversion of continuous steel reheat furnaces, which are responsible for most steel production, required additional economic incentives, such as further fuel savings, increased furnace productivity, or emission credits.

Ryan, H.M.; Riley, M.F.; Kobayashi, H.

1997-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasohol excludes oxygenates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase I Final Report  

SciTech Connect

A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NOx) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NOx through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NOx production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature (~1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O2 vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d+ scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d+ scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW (~0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NOx emissions increased with increasing furnace nitrogen content and furnace temperature, but remained relatively insensitive to variations in fuel injection velocity and firing rate. NOx emissions below 5-10-3 g/MJ (10 ppm-air equivalent at 3% O2 dry) were obtained for furnace temperatures below 1533 K (2300°F) and furnace nitrogen levels between 1 and 40%. CO emissions were typically low (<35 ppm). Detailed in-furnace species measurements revealed the importance of the interior furnace circulation patterns, as influenced by fuel and oxidant injection schemes, on pollutant emissions. The combustion stability traits of several DOC burner arrangements were ascertained through furnace pressure measurements, wit6h increased stability occurring as furnace temperature increased and as the separation distance between fuel and oxidant inputs decreased. Based on current market conditions, oxy-fuel conversion of batch steel reheat furnaces with a DOC burner is justified on the basis of lower utility costs alone. However, conversion of continuous steel reheat furnaces, which are responsible for most steel production, required additional economic incentives, such as further fuel savings, increased furnace productivity, or emission credits.

Ryan, H.M.; Riley, M.F.; Kobayashi, H.

1997-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

122

Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase 2 Final Report  

SciTech Connect

A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NOx) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NOx through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NOx production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature (~1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O2 vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d+ scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d+ scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW (~0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NOx emissions increased with increasing furnace nitrogen content and furnace temperature, but remained relatively insensitive to variations in fuel injection velocity and firing rate. NOx emissions below 5-10-3 g/MJ (10 ppm-air equivalent at 3% O2 dry) were obtained for furnace temperatures below 1533 K (2300?F) and furnace nitrogen levels between 1 and 40%. CO emissions were typically low (<35 ppm). Detailed in-furnace species measurements revealed the importance of the interior furnace circulation patterns, as influenced by fuel and oxidant injection schemes, on pollutant emissions. The combustion stability traits of several DOC burner arrangements were ascertained through furnace pressure measurements, wit6h increased stability occurring as furnace temperature increased and as the separation distance between fuel and oxidant inputs decreased. Based on current market conditions, oxy-fuel conversion of batch steel reheat furnaces with a DOC burner is justified on the basis of lower utility costs alone. However, conversion of continuous steel reheat furnaces, which are responsible for most steel production, required additional economic incentives, such as further fuel savings, increased furnace productivity, or emission credits.

Ryan, H.M.; Riley, M.F.; Kobayashi, H.

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

123

Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase 2 Final Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NOx) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NOx through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NOx production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature (~1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O2 vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d+ scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d+ scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW (~0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NOx emissions increased with increasing furnace nitrogen content and furnace temperature, but remained relatively insensitive to variations in fuel injection velocity and firing rate. NOx emissions below 5-10-3 g/MJ (10 ppm-air equivalent at 3% O2 dry) were obtained for furnace temperatures below 1533 K (2300?F) and furnace nitrogen levels between 1 and 40%. CO emissions were typically low (DOC burner arrangements were ascertained through furnace pressure measurements, wit6h increased stability occurring as furnace temperature increased and as the separation distance between fuel and oxidant inputs decreased. Based on current market conditions, oxy-fuel conversion of batch steel reheat furnaces with a DOC burner is justified on the basis of lower utility costs alone. However, conversion of continuous steel reheat furnaces, which are responsible for most steel production, required additional economic incentives, such as further fuel savings, increased furnace productivity, or emission credits.

Ryan, H.M.; Riley, M.F.; Kobayashi, H.

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

124

Oxygen Handling and Cooling Options in High Temperature Electrolysis Plants  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Idaho National Laboratory is working on a project to generate hydrogen by high temperature electrolysis (HTE). In such an HTE system, safety precautions need to be taken to handle high temperature oxygen at ~830°C. This report is aimed at addressing oxygen handling in a HTE plant.. Though oxygen itself is not flammable, most engineering material, including many gases and liquids, will burn in the presence of oxygen under some favorable physicochemical conditions. At present, an absolute set of rules does not exist that can cover all aspects of oxygen system design, material selection, and operating practices to avoid subtle hazards related to oxygen. Because most materials, including metals, will burn in an oxygen-enriched environment, hazards are always present when using oxygen. Most materials will ignite in an oxygen-enriched environment at a temperature lower than that in air, and once ignited, combustion rates are greater in the oxygen-enriched environment. Even many metals, if ignited, burn violently in an oxygen-enriched environment. However, these hazards do not preclude the operations and systems involving oxygen. Oxygen can be safely handled and used if all the materials in a system are not flammable in the end-use environment or if ignition sources are identified and controlled. In fact, the incidence of oxygen system fires is reported to be low with a probability of about one in a million. This report is a practical guideline and tutorial for the safe operation and handling of gaseous oxygen in high temperature electrolysis system. The intent is to provide safe, practical guidance that permits the accomplishment of experimental operations at INL, while being restrictive enough to prevent personnel endangerment and to provide reasonable facility protection. Adequate guidelines are provided to govern various aspects of oxygen handling associated with high temperature electrolysis system to generate hydrogen. The intent here is to present acceptable oxygen standards and practices for minimum safety requirements. A summary of operational hazards, along with oxygen safety and emergency procedures, are provided.

Manohar S. Sohal; J. Stephen Herring

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Efficiency evaluation of oxygen enrichment in energy conversion processes  

SciTech Connect

The extent to which energy conversion efficiencies can be increased by using oxygen or oxygen-enriched air for combustion was studied. Combustion of most fuels with oxygen instead of air was found to have five advantages: increases combustion temperature and efficiency, improves heat transfer at high temperatures, reduces nitrous oxide emissions, permits a high ration of exhaust gas recirculation and allows combustion of certain materials not combustible in air. The same advantages, although to a lesser degree, are apparent with oxygen-enriched air. The cost-effectiveness of the process must necessarily be improved by about 10% when using oxygen instead of air before such use could become justifiable on purely economic terms. Although such a modest increase appears to be attainable in real situations, this study ascertained that it is not possible to generally assess the economic gains. Rather, each case requires its own evaluation. For certain processes industry has already proven that the use of oxygen leads to more efficient plant operation. Several ideas for essentially new applications are described. Specifically, when oxygen is used with exhaust gas recirculation in external or internal combustion engines. It appears also that the advantages of pulse combustion can be amplified further if oxygen is used. When burning wet fuels with oxygen, direct steam generation becomes possible. Oxygen combustion could also improve processes for in situ gasification of coals, oil shales, peats, and other wet fuels. Enhanced oil recovery by fire flooding methods might also become more effective if oxygen is used. The cold energy contained in liquid oxygen can be substantially recovered in the low end of certain thermodynamic cycles. Further efforts to develop certain schemes for using oxygen for combustion appear to be justified from both the technical and economic viewpoints.

Bomelburg, H.J.

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Oxygen Atoms Display Novel Behavior on Common Catalyst  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

11, 2008 11, 2008 Oxygen Atoms Display Novel Behavior on Common Catalyst Like waltzing dancers, the two atoms of an oxygen molecule usually behave identically when they separate on the surface of a catalyst. However, new research from the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory reveals that on a particular catalyst, the oxygen atoms act like a couple dancing the tango: one oxygen atom plants itself while the other shimmies away, probably with energy partially stolen from the stationary one. Scientists from EMSL and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory discovered this unanticipated behavior while studying how oxygen interacts with reduced titanium oxide, a popular catalyst and a model oxide. Their research began with a slice of titanium oxide crystal, oriented so that titanium and oxygen

127

Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process Contact NETL Technology Transfer Group techtransfer@netl.doe.gov December 2012 This patent-pending technology, "Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process," provides a metal-oxide oxygen carrier for application in fuel combustion processes that use oxygen. This technology is available for licensing and/or further collaborative research with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. Overview Patent Details U.S. Non-Provisional Patent Application No. 13/159,553; titled "Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers for Solid

128

New Oxygen-Production Technology Proving Successful | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Oxygen-Production Technology Proving Successful Oxygen-Production Technology Proving Successful New Oxygen-Production Technology Proving Successful April 22, 2009 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC -- The Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has partnered with Air Products and Chemicals Inc. of Allentown, Penn. to develop the Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) Oxygen, a revolutionary new oxygen-production technology that requires less energy and offers lower capital costs than conventional technologies. ITM Oxygen will enhance the performance of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants, as well as other gasification-based processes. The technology will also enhance the economics of oxy-fired combustion technologies, making it an attractive option for the capture of carbon

129

Guidelines Establishing Criteria for Excluding Buildings from the Energy Performance Requirements of Section 543 of the National Energy Conservation Policy Act as Amended by the Energy Policy Act of 2005  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Guidelines Establishing Criteria for Excluding Buildings Guidelines Establishing Criteria for Excluding Buildings from the Energy Performance Requirements of Section 543 of the National Energy Conservation Policy Act as Amended by the Energy Policy Act of 2005 January 27, 2006 These guidelines and accompanying criteria fulfill the requirement under Section 543(c)(3) of the National Energy Conservation Policy Act (NECPA) as amended by the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPACT). Section 543(c)(3) states that the Secretary of Energy shall issue guidelines that establish criteria for exclusions from the energy performance requirement for a fiscal year, any Federal building or collection of Federal buildings, within the statutory framework provided by the law. The purpose of these guidelines is to clarify and explicate, as necessary, the statutory

130

Guidelines Establishing Criteria for Excluding Buildings from the Energy Performance Requirements of Section 543 of the National Energy Conservation Policy Act as Amended by the Energy Policy Act of 2005  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Guidelines Establishing Criteria for Excluding Buildings Guidelines Establishing Criteria for Excluding Buildings from the Energy Performance Requirements of Section 543 of the National Energy Conservation Policy Act as Amended by the Energy Policy Act of 2005 January 27, 2006 These guidelines and accompanying criteria fulfill the requirement under Section 543(c)(3) of the National Energy Conservation Policy Act (NECPA) as amended by the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPACT). Section 543(c)(3) states that the Secretary of Energy shall issue guidelines that establish criteria for exclusions from the energy performance requirement for a fiscal year, any Federal building or collection of Federal buildings, within the statutory framework provided by the law. The purpose of these guidelines is to clarify and explicate, as necessary, the statutory

131

It's Elemental - Isotopes of the Element Oxygen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nitrogen Nitrogen Previous Element (Nitrogen) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Fluorine) Fluorine Isotopes of the Element Oxygen [Click for Main Data] Most of the isotope data on this site has been obtained from the National Nuclear Data Center. Please visit their site for more information. Naturally Occurring Isotopes Mass Number Natural Abundance Half-life 16 99.757% STABLE 17 0.038% STABLE 18 0.205% STABLE Known Isotopes Mass Number Half-life Decay Mode Branching Percentage 12 1.139×10-21 seconds Proton Emission No Data Available 13 8.58 milliseconds Electron Capture 100.00% Electron Capture with delayed Proton Emission 100.00% 14 70.620 seconds Electron Capture 100.00% 15 122.24 seconds Electron Capture 100.00% 16 STABLE - - 17 STABLE - - 18 STABLE - - 19 26.88 seconds Beta-minus Decay 100.00%

132

METHOD OF COMBINING HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is given for the catalytic recombination of radiolytic hydrogen and/or deulerium and oxygen resulting from the subjection or an aqueous thorium oxide or thorium oxide-uranium oxide slurry to ionizing radiation. An improved catalyst is prepared by providing paliadium nitrate in an aqueous thorium oxide sol at a concentration of at least 0.05 grams per gram of thorium oxide and contacting the sol with gaseous hydrogen to form flocculated solids. The solids are then recovered and added to the slurry to provide a palladium concentration of 100 to 1000 parts per million. Recombination is effected by the calalyst at a rate sufficient to support high nuclear reactor power densities. (AEC)

McBride, J.P.

1962-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

133

Hydrogen (H2) Production by Oxygenic Phototrophs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Production by Oxygenic Phototrophs Eric L. Hegg Michigan State University Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center Bioresour. Technol. 2011, 102, 8589-8604 Major Challenges to H 2 Photoproduction Biological Challenges * Poor efficiency of H 2 production * Poor heterologous expression of H 2 -forming enzymes * Low quantum yields * Competition for reducing equivalents; poor electron coupling * Sensitivity of H 2 -forming enzymes to O 2 M. Ghirardi, Abstract #1751, Honolulu PRiME 2012 Technical Challenges * Mixture of H 2 and O 2 ; H 2 separation and storage * CO 2 addition and overall reactor design Overcoming Low Efficiency: Improving ET * Eliminate or down-regulate pathways competing for ele * Production of organic acids * Formation of NADPH/carbon fixation

134

NETL: Gasification - Development of Ion-Transport Membrane Oxygen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Feed Systems Feed Systems Recovery Act: Development of Ion-Transport Membrane Oxygen Technology for Integration in IGCC and Other Advanced Power Generation Systems Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. Project Number: FC26-98FT40343 Project Description Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. is developing, scaling-up, and demonstrating a novel air separation technology for large-scale production of oxygen (O2) at costs that are approximately one-third lower than conventional cryogenic plants. An Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) Oxygen plant co-produces power and oxygen. A phased technology RD&D effort is underway to demonstrate all necessary technical and economic requirements for scale-up and industrial commercialization. The ITM Oxygen production technology is a radically different approach to producing high-quality tonnage oxygen and to enhance the performance of integrated gasification combined cycle and other advanced power generation systems. Instead of cooling air to cryogenic temperatures, oxygen is extracted from air at temperatures synergistic with power production operations. Process engineering and economic evaluations of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants comparing ITM Oxygen with a state-of-the-art cryogenic air separation unit are aimed to show that the installed capital cost of the air separation unit and the installed capital of IGCC facility are significantly lower compared to conventional technologies, while improving power plant output and efficiency. The use of low-cost oxygen in combustion processes would provide cost-effective emission reduction and carbon management opportunities. ITM Oxygen is an enabling module for future plants for producing coal derived shifted synthesis gas (a mixture of hydrogen [H2] and carbon dioxide [CO2]) ultimately for producing clean energy and fuels. Oxygen-intensive industries such as steel, glass, non-ferrous metallurgy, refineries, and pulp and paper may also realize cost and productivity benefits as a result of employing ITM Oxygen.

135

Modeling the Oxygen - Hydrazine Reaction in PWR Secondary Feedwater  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The proper control of oxygen in primary water reactor (PWR) secondary feedwater, using hydrazine, has been an enduring issue. The requirements on the oxygen concentration are partly opposing. Fully deoxygenated conditions in the steam generators are essential to minimize corrosion. On the other hand, some oxygen in the feedwater counteracts corrosion of carbon steel surfaces and the transport of corrosion products to the steam generators. Optimization is, therefore, essential. This work applies the frame...

2008-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

136

Dense ceramic membranes for partial oxygenation of methane  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The most significant cost associated with partial oxidation of methane to syngas is that of the oxygen plant. In this paper, the authors offer a technology that is based on dense ceramic membranes and that uses air as the oxidant for methane-conversion reactions, thus eliminating the need for the oxygen plant. Certain ceramic materials exhibit both electronic and ionic conductivities (of particular interest is oxygen-ion conductivity). These materials transport not only oxygen ions (functioning as selective oxygen separators) but also electrons back from the reactor side to the oxygen/reduction interface. No external electrodes are required and if the driving potential of transport is sufficient, the partial oxidation reactions should be spontaneous. Such a system will operate without an externally applied potential. Oxygen is transported across the ceramic material in the form of oxygen anions, not oxygen molecules. In principle, the dense ceramic materials can be shaped into a hollow-tube reactor, with air passed over the outside of the membrane and methane through the inside. The membrane is permeable to oxygen at high temperatures, but not to nitrogen or any other gas. Long tubes of La-Sr-Fe-Co-O (SFC) membrane were fabricated by plastic extrusion, and thermal stability of the tubes was studied as a function of oxygen partial pressure by high-temperature XRD. Mechanical properties were measured and found to be acceptable for a reactor material. Fracture of certain SFC tubes was the consequence of an oxygen gradient that introduced a volumetric lattice difference between the inner and outer walls. However, tubes made with a particular stoichiometry (SFC-2) provided methane conversion efficiencies of >99% in a reactor. Some of the reactor tubes have operated for up to {approx} 1,000 h.

Balachandran, U.; Dusek, J.T.; Sweeney, S.M.; Mieville, R.L.; Maiya, P.S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.; Kleefisch, M.S.; Pei, S.; Kobylinski, T.P. [Amoco Research Center, Naperville, IL (United States); Bose, A.C. [USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Dilute Oxygen Combustion - Phase 3 Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) burners have been successfully installed and operated in the reheat furnace at Auburn Steel Co., Inc., Auburn, NY, under Phase 3 of the Dilute Oxygen Combustion project. Two new preheat zones were created employing a total of eight 6.5 MMBtu/hr capacity burners. The preheat zones provide a 30 percent increase in maximum furnace production rate, from 75 tph to 100 tph. The fuel rate is essentially unchanged, with the fuel savings expected from oxy-fuel combustion being offset by higher flue gas temperatures. When allowance is made for the high nitrogen level and high gas phase temperature in the furnace, measured NOx emissions are in line with laboratory data on DOC burners developed in Phase 1 of the project. Burner performance has been good, and there have been no operating or maintenance problems. The DOC system continues to be used as part of Auburn Steel's standard reheat furnace practice. High gas phase temperature is a result of the high firing density needed to achieve high production rates, and little opportunity exists for improvement in that area. However, fuel and NOx performance can be improved by further conversion on furnace zones to DOC burners, which will lower furnace nitrogen levels. Major obstacles are cost and concern about increased formation of oxide scale on the steel. Oxide scale formation may be enhanced by exposure of the steel to higher concentrations of oxidizing gas components (primarily products of combustion) in the higher temperature zones of the furnace. Phase 4 of the DOC project will examine the rate of oxide scale formation in these higher temperature zones and develop countermeasures that will allow DOC burners to be used successfully in these furnace zones.

Riley, Michael F.

2000-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

138

Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase 3 Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) burners have been successfully installed and operated in the reheat furnace at Auburn Steel Co., Inc., Auburn, NY, under Phase 3 of the Dilute Oxygen Combustion project. Two new preheat zones were created employing a total of eight 6.5 MMBtu/hr capacity burners. The preheat zones provide a 30 percent increase in maximum furnace production rate, from 75 tph to 100 tph. The fuel rate is essentially unchanged, with the fuel savings expected from oxy-fuel combustion being offset by higher flue gas temperatures. When allowance is made for the high nitrogen level and high gas phase temperature in the furnace, measured NOx emissions are in line with laboratory data on DOC burners developed in Phase 1 of the project. Burner performance has been good and there have been no operating or maintenance problems. The DOC system continues to be used as part of Auburn Steel?s standard reheat furnace practice. High gas phase temperature is a result of the high firing density needed to achieve high production rates, and little opportunity exists for improvement in that area. However, fuel and NOx performance can be improved by further conversion of furnace zones to DOC burners, which will lower furnace nitrogen levels. Major obstacles are cost and concern about increased formation of oxide scale on the steel. Oxide scale formation may be enhanced by exposure of the steel to higher concentrations of oxidizing gas components (primarily products of combustion) in the higher temperature zones of the furnace. Phase 4 of the DOC project will examine the rate of oxide scale formation in these higher temperature zones and develop countermeasures that will allow DOC burners to be used successfully in these furnace zones.

Riley, M.F.; Ryan, H.M.

2000-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

139

Oxygen Isotope Evidence For Past And Present Hydrothermal Regimes...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

oxygen isotope compositions of cores and cuttings from Long Valley exploration wells show that the Bishop Tuff has been an important reservoir for both fossil and active...

140

Causes for the Ferromagnetism in Oxygen-Deficient Perovskite ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Multifunctional Oxides. Presentation Title, Causes for the Ferromagnetism in Oxygen-Deficient Perovskite Sr3YCo4O10+d and the Ultrafast Redox ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasohol excludes oxygenates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Effect of Dopants on Interdiffusion of Aluminum and Oxygen through ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, the mutual GB transport of aluminum and oxygen in RE-doped polycrystalline ... Secondary Transport Phenomena in Ceramic Membranes under ...

142

First-Principles Study of the Oxygen Evolution Reaction and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this talk, we present our study of the mechanisms of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) ... Secondary Transport Phenomena in Ceramic Membranes under ...

143

Development of Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) Oxygen Technology...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) Oxygen Technology for Integration in IGCC and Other Advanced Power Generation Systems Background The Gasification Technologies Program at the National...

144

Calorimetric Investigation of the Lithium–Manganese–Oxygen ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Calorimetric Investigation of the Lithium–Manganese–Oxygen Cathode Material System for Lithium Ion Batteries. Author(s), Damian M. Cupid, ...

145

Optimization of Oxygen Purity for Coal Conversion Energy Reduction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The conversion of coal into gaseous and liquid fuels and chemical feedstock will require large quantities of oxygen. This oxygen will be produced in large multi-train air separation plants which will consume about 350 kilowatt hours of energy for each ton of coal processed. Thus, the oxygen plants in a commercial coal conversion facility may require 150 megawatts. Design of the oxygen plants will require close attention to energy consumption. Many coal conversion processes can accept oxygen at less than the historical 99.5% purity with significant savings in energy and cost. The air separation process is reviewed with emphasis on optimum oxygen purity. An energy reduction of 8.4% can be achieved when oxygen purity is reduced from 99.5% to 95%. Oxygen is a major tonnage chemical which is also highly energy intensive. The current United States capacity of about 80 thousand tons per day places it in the top five of basic chemicals, and its energy requirement of 350 to 450 kilowatt hours per ton makes it a major energy consumer. The growing synfuels industry -- conversion of coal into hydrocarbon fuels and chemical feed-stocks -- will greatly increase the production of oxygen and presents major opportunities for energy conservation.

Baker, C. R.; Pike, R. A.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen ...  

Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process Contact NETL Technology Transfer Group

147

Microbial metatranscriptomics in a permanent marine oxygen minimum zone  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Simultaneous characterization of taxonomic composition, metabolic gene content and gene expression in marine oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) has potential to broaden perspectives on the microbial and biogeochemical dynamics ...

Stewart, Frank J.

148

Oxygen Consumption Analysis for Life Prediction of Elastomers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Oxygen Consumption Analysis for Life Prediction of Elastomers. Author(s), Elizabeth Hoffman, T. Eric Skidmore, Donald L Fisher, William L ...

149

ORNL-grown oxygen 'sponge' presents path to better catalysts...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

presents path to better catalysts, energy materials This schematic depicts a new ORNL-developed material that can easily absorb or shed oxygen atoms. This schematic depicts...

150

Oxygen Exchange Kinetics on SOFC Cathode Materials: Importance ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Oxygen Exchange Kinetics on SOFC Cathode Materials: Importance of Ionic and Electronic Carriers. Author(s), Rotraut Merkle, Lei Wang,

151

Detailed chemical kinetic modeling of diesel combustion with oxygenated fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The influence of oxygenated hydrocarbons as additives to diesel fuels on ignition, NOx emissions and soot production has been examined using a detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanism. N-heptane was used as a representative diesel fuel, and methanol, ethanol, dimethyl ether and dimethoxymethane were used as oxygenated fuel additives. It was found that addition of oxygenated hydrocarbons reduced NOx levels and reduced the production of soot precursors. When the overall oxygen content in the fuel reached approximately 25% by mass, production of soot precursors fell effectively to zero, in agreement with experimental studies. The kinetic factors responsible for these observations are discussed.

Pitz, W J; Curran, H J; Fisher, E; Glaude, P A; Marinov, N M; Westbrook, C K

1999-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

152

NETL: Novel Oxygen Carriers for Coal-Fueled Chemical Looping...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemical Looping Combustion Project No.: DE-FE0001808 NETL has partnered with Western Kentucky University to develop a series of advanced oxygen carriers for coal-fueled...

153

Molecular oxygen sensors based on photoluminescent silica aerogels  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Molecular oxygen sensors based on photoluminescent silica aerogels Molecular oxygen sensors based on photoluminescent silica aerogels Title Molecular oxygen sensors based on photoluminescent silica aerogels Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 1998 Authors Ayers, Michael R., and Arlon J. Hunt Journal Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids Volume 225 Pagination 343-347 Keywords aerogel, air pressure, oxygen concentration, oxygen molecules, photoluminescence Abstract Photoluminescent silica aerogel acts as the active element of an optical sensor for molecular oxygen. The luminescent aerogel is prepared by the action of energized reducing gases on a standard silica aerogel. Intensity of aerogel photoluminescence decreases as the collision frequency between oxygen molecules and the luminescent carriers in the aerogel matrix increases. This behavior is a characteristic of many photoluminescent materials and arises from a transfer of energy from the aerogel to surrounding oxygen molecules. A sensor for oxygen concentration or air pressure can therefore be simply constructed utilizing an ultraviolet source for excitation and a suitable detector for the emitted visible signal. Stern-Volmer quenching constants for the aerogel sensing element are 1.55×10-2 Torr-1 for hydrophilic aerogel and 2.4×10-3 Torr-1 for hydrophobic aerogel.

154

Dissolution of oxygen reduction electrocatalysts in acidic environment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Platinum (Pt) alloy nanoparticles are used as catalysts in electrochemical cells to reduce oxygen to water and to oxidize hydrogen; the overall reaction converts chemical energy into electrical energy. These nanocatalysts are deposited on a carbon substrate and their catalytic function takes place in acid medium. This harsh environment causes an undesired reaction, which is the dissolution of the metal atoms into the acid medium; thus affecting the catalyst life. This dissertation aims to investigate the dissolution mechanism of fuel cell cathode catalysts at the atomic level starting from the oxygen reaction intermediates on the cathode catalyst surface and propose guidelines to improve cathode catalysts durability based on our proposed mechanism. Density functional theory is employed to study various possible scenarios with the goals of understanding the mechanism of the metal atom dissolution process and establishing some guidelines that permit a rational design of catalysts with better stability against dissolution. A thermodynamic analysis of potential metal dissolution reactions in acid medium is presented first, using density functional theory calculations to explore the relative stabilities of transition metals in relation to that of Pt. The study is performed by comparing the change in reaction Gibbs free energies for different metals in a given dissolution reaction. Then, a series of density functional theory studies, tending to investigate the adsorbed atomic oxygen absorption process from cathode catalyst surface into its subsurface, includes: 1) the oxygen adsorption on various catalyst surfaces and oxygen absorption in subsurface sites to figure out the minimum energy pathway and energy barrier of on-surface oxygen migration and absorption into subsurface; 2) the oxygen coverage, the other oxygen reduction reaction intermediates, and water effects on the oxygen absorption process according to reaction pathways, energy barriers, and thermodynamic analysis; 3) the oxygen absorption process on several Pt-based alloys with various compositions and components to find out the best alloy to inhibit atomic oxygen absorption including both kinetic and thermodynamic analyses, and the effects of such alloyed species on the inhibition process.

Gu, Zhihui

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

HERSCHEL MEASUREMENTS OF MOLECULAR OXYGEN IN ORION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report observations of three rotational transitions of molecular oxygen (O{sub 2}) in emission from the H{sub 2} Peak 1 position of vibrationally excited molecular hydrogen in Orion. We observed the 487 GHz, 774 GHz, and 1121 GHz lines using the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far Infrared on the Herschel Space Observatory, having velocities of 11 km s{sup -1} to 12 km s{sup -1} and widths of 3 km s{sup -1}. The beam-averaged column density is N(O{sub 2}) = 6.5 x 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2}, and assuming that the source has an equal beam-filling factor for all transitions (beam widths 44, 28, and 19''), the relative line intensities imply a kinetic temperature between 65 K and 120 K. The fractional abundance of O{sub 2} relative to H{sub 2} is (0.3-7.3) x 10{sup -6}. The unusual velocity suggests an association with a {approx}5'' diameter source, denoted Peak A, the Western Clump, or MF4. The mass of this source is {approx}10 M{sub sun} and the dust temperature is {>=}150 K. Our preferred explanation of the enhanced O{sub 2} abundance is that dust grains in this region are sufficiently warm (T {>=} 100 K) to desorb water ice and thus keep a significant fraction of elemental oxygen in the gas phase, with a significant fraction as O{sub 2}. For this small source, the line ratios require a temperature {>=}180 K. The inferred O{sub 2} column density {approx_equal}5 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -2} can be produced in Peak A, having N(H{sub 2}) {approx_equal} 4 x 10{sup 24} cm{sup -2}. An alternative mechanism is a low-velocity (10-15 km s{sup -1}) C-shock, which can produce N(O{sub 2}) up to 10{sup 17} cm{sup -2}.

Goldsmith, Paul F.; Chen, Jo-Hsin; Li Di [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Liseau, Rene; Black, John H. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, SE-439 92 Onsala (Sweden); Bell, Tom A. [Centro de Astrobiologia, CSIC-INTA, 28850 Madrid (Spain); Hollenbach, David [SETI Institute, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Kaufman, Michael J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Jose State University, San Jose, CA 95192 (United States); Lis, Dariusz C. [California Institute of Technology, Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics 301-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Melnick, Gary [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS 66, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Neufeld, David [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Pagani, Laurent; Encrenaz, Pierre [LERMA and UMR8112 du CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, 61 Av. de l'Observatoire, 75014 Paris (France); Snell, Ronald [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Benz, Arnold O.; Bruderer, Simon [Institute of Astronomy, ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Bergin, Edwin [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Caselli, Paola [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Caux, Emmanuel [Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); Falgarone, Edith, E-mail: Paul.F.Goldsmith@jpl.nasa.gov [LRA/LERMA, CNRS, UMR8112, Observatoire de Paris and Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

2011-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

156

Palladium-cobalt particles as oxygen-reduction electrocatalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to palladium-cobalt particles useful as oxygen-reducing electrocatalysts. The invention also relates to oxygen-reducing cathodes and fuel cells containing these palladium-cobalt particles. The invention additionally relates to methods for the production of electrical energy by using the palladium-cobalt particles of the invention.

Adzic, Radoslav (East Setauket, NY); Huang, Tao (Manorville, NY)

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

157

Device for measuring the total concentration of oxygen in gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention provides a CO equilibrium in a device for measuring the total concentration of oxygen impurities in a fluid stream. To this end, the CO equilibrium is produced in an electrochemical measuring cell by the interaction of a carbon element in the cell with the chemically combined and uncombined oxygen in the fluid stream at an elevated temperature.

Isaacs, Hugh S. (Shoreham, NY); Romano, Anthony J. (Kings Park, NY)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Maintaining and Monitoring Dissolved Oxygen at Hydroelectric Projects: Status Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is an update of EPRI's 1990 report, "Assessment and Guide for Meeting Dissolved Oxygen Water Quality Standards for Hydroelectric Plant Discharges" (GS-7001). The report provides an updated review of technologies and techniques for enhancing dissolved oxygen (DO) levels in reservoirs and releases from hydroelectric projects and state-of-the-art methods, equipment, and techniques for monitoring DO.

2002-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

159

Effect of Feedwater Oxygen Control at the Vermont Yankee BWR  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tests in an operating BWR show that routine injection of oxygen into the feedwater to control radiation buildup is not warranted under normal operating conditions. However, since oxygen injection reduces the nickel release rate, it might be considered on a plant-by-plant basis for BWRs experiencing high nickel corrosion levels.

1985-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

160

Photolithographic patterning of polymer-encapsulated optical oxygen sensors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we show a novel fabrication process capable of yielding arbitrarily-shaped optical oxygen sensor patterns at micron resolution. The wafer-level process uses a thin-film sacrificial metal layer as intermediate mask, protecting the sensor ... Keywords: Optical oxygen sensor, Photolithography, PtOEPK/PS, Sensor patterning

Volker Nock; Maan Alkaisi; Richard J. Blaikie

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasohol excludes oxygenates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

NETL: News Release - New Oxygen-Production Technology Proving Successful  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

22, 2009 22, 2009 New Oxygen-Production Technology Proving Successful Ceramic Membrane Enables Efficient, Cost-Effective Co-Production of Power and Oxygen Washington, D.C. -The Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has partnered with Air Products and Chemicals Inc. of Allentown, Penn. to develop the Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) Oxygen, a revolutionary new oxygen-production technology that requires less energy and offers lower capital costs than conventional technologies. ITM Oxygen will enhance the performance of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants, as well as other gasification-based processes. The technology will also enhance the economics of oxy-fired combustion technologies, making it an attractive option for the capture of carbon dioxide from existing coal-fired power plants.

162

Oxygen and organic matter thresholds for benthic faunal activity on the Pakistan margin oxygen minimum zone (7001100 m)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oxygen and organic matter thresholds for benthic faunal activity on the Pakistan margin oxygen) on the bathyal Pakistan margin, where sediments grade from fully laminated sediment at 700 m (0.12 mL LÃ?1 O2 [5 m matter to generate abrupt faunal transitions on the Pakistan margin. & 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

Levin, Lisa

163

Interactions of Oxygen and Hydrogen on Pd(111) surface  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The coadsorption and interactions of oxygen and hydrogen on Pd(1 1 1) was studied by scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory calculations. In the absence of hydrogen oxygen forms a (2 x 2) ordered structure. Coadsorption of hydrogen leads to a structural transformation from (2 x 2) to a ({radical}3 x {radical}3)R30 degree structure. In addition to this transformation, hydrogen enhances the mobility of oxygen. To explain these observations, the interaction of oxygen and hydrogen on Pd(1 1 1) was studied within the density functional theory. In agreement with the experiment the calculations find a total energy minimum for the oxygen (2 x 2) structure. The interaction between H and O atoms was found to be repulsive and short ranged, leading to a compression of the O islands from (2 x 2) to ({radical}3 x {radical}3)R30 degree ordered structure at high H coverage. The computed energy barriers for the oxygen diffusion were found to be reduced due to the coadsorption of hydrogen, in agreement with the experimentally observed enhancement of oxygen mobility. The calculations also support the finding that at low temperatures the water formation reaction does not occur on Pd(1 1 1).

Demchenko, D.O.; Sacha, G.M.; Salmeron, M.; Wang, L.-W.

2008-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

164

Hydrogen Production Using Hydrogenase-Containing Oxygenic Photosynthetic Organisms  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A reversible physiological process provides for the temporal separation of oxygen evolution and hydrogen production in a microorganism, which includes the steps of growing a culture of the microorganism in medium under illuminated conditions to accumulate an endogenous substrate, depleting from the medium a nutrient selected from the group consisting of sulfur, iron, and/or manganese, sealing the culture from atmospheric oxygen, incubating the culture in light whereby a rate of light-induced oxygen production is equal to or less than a rate of respiration, and collecting an evolved gas. The process is particularly useful to accomplish a sustained photobiological hydrogen gas production in cultures of microorganisms, such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

Melis, A.; Zhang, L.; Benemann, J. R.; Forestier, M.; Ghirardi, M.; Seibert, M.

2006-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

165

Magnetic resonance imaging of the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO?)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oxygen consumption is an essential process of the functioning brain. The rate at which the brain consumes oxygen is known as the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO?). CMRO? is intimately related to brain health and ...

Bolar, Divya Sanam

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Oxygen enriched combustion system performance study. Phase 2: 100 percent oxygen enriched combustion in regenerative glass melters, Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The field test project described in this report was conducted to evaluate the energy and environmental performance of 100% oxygen enriched combustion (100% OEC) in regenerative glass melters. Additional objectives were to determine other impacts of 100% OEC on melter operation and glass quality, and to verify on a commercial scale that an on-site Pressure Swing Adsorption oxygen plant can reliably supply oxygen for glass melting with low electrical power consumption. The tests constituted Phase 2 of a cooperative project between the United States Department of Energy, and Praxair, Inc. Phase 1 of the project involved market and technical feasibility assessments of oxygen enriched combustion for a range of high temperature industrial heating applications. An assessment of oxygen supply options for these applications was also performed during Phase 1, which included performance evaluation of a pilot scale 1 ton per day PSA oxygen plant. Two regenerative container glass melters were converted to 100% OEC operation and served as host sites for Phase 2. A 75 ton per day end-fired melter at Carr-Lowrey Glass Company in Baltimore, Maryland, was temporarily converted to 100% OEC in mid- 1990. A 350 tpd cross-fired melter at Gallo Glass Company in Modesto, California was rebuilt for permanent commercial operation with 100% OEC in mid-1991. Initially, both of these melters were supplied with oxygen from liquid storage. Subsequently, in late 1992, a Pressure Swing Adsorption oxygen plant was installed at Gallo to supply oxygen for 100% OEC glass melting. The particular PSA plant design used at Gallo achieves maximum efficiency by cycling the adsorbent beds between pressurized and evacuated states, and is therefore referred to as a Vacuum/Pressure Swing Adsorption (VPSA) plant.

Tuson, G.B.; Kobayashi, H.; Campbell, M.J.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Geothermal reservoir temperatures estimated from the oxygen isotope  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

reservoir temperatures estimated from the oxygen isotope reservoir temperatures estimated from the oxygen isotope compositions of dissolved sulfate and water from hot springs and shallow drillholes Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Geothermal reservoir temperatures estimated from the oxygen isotope compositions of dissolved sulfate and water from hot springs and shallow drillholes Details Activities (3) Areas (3) Regions (0) Abstract: The oxygen isotope compositions of dissolved sulfate and water from hot springs and shallow drillholes have been tested as a geothermometer in three areas of the western United States. Limited analyses of spring and borehole fluids and existing experimental rate studies suggest that dissolved sulfate and water are probably in isotopic equilibrium in all reservoirs of significant size with temperatures above

168

Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From Yellowstone  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From Yellowstone Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From Yellowstone Drill Cores Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From Yellowstone Drill Cores Details Activities (3) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Oxygen and carbon isotope ratios were measured for hydrothermal minerals (silica, clay and calcite) from fractures and vugs in altered rhyolite, located between 28 and 129 m below surface (in situ temperatures ranging from 81 to 199°C) in Yellowstone drill holes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of formation of these minerals. The Δ18O values of the thirty-two analyzed silica samples (quartz, chalcedony, α-cristobalite, and β-cristobalite) range from -7.5 to +2.8‰. About one

169

Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione Scientists and an international research team have announced discovery of molecular oxygen ions in the upper-most atmosphere of Dione. March 3, 2012 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and new materials. Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and new materials.

170

Calibration and Stability of Oxygen Sensors on Autonomous Floats  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The calibration accuracy and stability of three Aanderaa 3835 optodes and three Seabird SBE-43 oxygen sensors were evaluated over four years using in situ and laboratory calibrations. The sensors were mostly in storage, being in the ocean for ...

Eric A. D’Asaro; Craig McNeil

171

Phosphorescent semiconductor nanocrystals and proteins for biological oxygen sensing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oxygen is required for cellular respiration by all complex life making it a key metabolic profiling factor in biological systems. Tumors are defined by hypoxia (low pO2), which has been shown to influence response to ...

McLaurin, Emily J. (Emily Jane)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Modeling Terrestrial Biogenic Sources of Oxygenated Organic Emissions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In recent years, oxygenated volatile organic chemicals (OVOCs) likeacetone have been recognized as important atmospheric constituents due to their ability to sequester reactive nitrogen in the form peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and to be a source ...

Christopher Potter; Steven Klooster; David Bubenheim; Hanwant B. Singh; Ranga Myneni

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Hybrid membrane--PSA system for separating oxygen from air  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A portable, non-cryogenic, oxygen generation system capable of delivering oxygen gas at purities greater than 98% and flow rates of 15 L/min or more is described. The system consists of two major components. The first component is a high efficiency membrane capable of separating argon and a portion of the nitrogen content from air, yielding an oxygen-enriched permeate flow. This is then fed to the second component, a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) unit utilizing a commercially available, but specifically formulated zeolite compound to remove the remainder of the nitrogen from the flow. The system is a unique gas separation system that can operate at ambient temperatures, for producing high purity oxygen for various applications (medical, refining, chemical production, enhanced combustion, fuel cells, etc . . . ) and represents a significant advance compared to current technologies.

Staiger, Chad L. (Albuquerque, NM); Vaughn, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM); Miller, A. Keith (Albuquerque, NM); Cornelius, Christopher J. (Blackburg, VA)

2011-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

174

Effect of Oxygen Potential on Crack Growth in Alloy 617  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Static crack growth rate increases from 4 x 10-9 m/sec to 4 x 10-8 m/sec when the oxygen concentration decreases from .001 to .0000001 atm. Proceedings ...

175

Calibration and Stability of Oxygen Sensors on Autonomous Floats  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The calibration accuracy and stability of three Aanderaa 3835 optodes and three Sea-Bird Electronics SBE-43 oxygen sensors were evaluated over four years using in situ and laboratory calibrations. The sensors were mostly in storage, being in the ...

Eric A. D'Asaro; Craig McNeil

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Nano- sized strontium titanate metal oxide semiconductor oxygen gas sensors.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The project focuses on strontium titanate (SrTiO3> material, a very important material for oxygen sensors. The advantages of the material are low cost and stability… (more)

Hu, Ying.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

IMPACT OF OXYGEN CONCENTRATION ON ZEBRA MUSSEL MORTALITY  

SciTech Connect

These tests have indicated that the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL0145A is effective at killing zebra mussels in environments having dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations ranging from very low to very high. The results suggest that the highest mussel kill can be achieved in moderately to highly aerated environments, while kill may be 0-20% lower under conditions of very low oxygen. For example, under highly oxygenated conditions 97% kill was achieved while conditions having low DO produced 79% mussel kill. Service water measured in a local power plant indicated that DO concentrations were in the range of 8-9 ppm (e.g., highly aerated) within their pipes. Therefore, we will not expect to see decreases in the efficacy of CL0145A treatments due to oxygen levels within such power plant pipes.

Daniel P. Molloy

2003-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

178

CO/sub 2/ recovery from oxygen firefloods  

SciTech Connect

An additional benefit from the oxygen in-situ combustion process or fireflooding is the generation of produced gases containing a high concentration of CO/sub 2/ (>90 mole %). This CO/sub 2/ could be recovered and utilized for miscible and immiscible CO/sub 2/ flooding for EOR. This paper investigates the feasibility of recovering and marketing CO/sub 2/ from oxygen firefloods for this purpose. The expected compositions and volumes of associated gas produced from commercial oxygen in-situ combustion projects based on literature data and actual field tests are presented. In addition, the market prospects based on the transportation requirements and the costs associated with the recovery of CO/sub 2/ from an oxygen in-situ combustion project are discussed. 12 references, 2 figures, 4 tables. (JMT)

Persico, P.J.; Wetherington, J.B.; Hvizdos, L.J.

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

CO/sub 2/ recovery from oxygen firefloods  

SciTech Connect

The use of high purity oxygen in a fireflood project prevents the introduction of nonreactive nitrogen into the oil reservoir, and thus will significantly increase the CO/sub 2/ concentration in the produced gas. The increased CO/sub 2/ concentration would greatly simplify the recovery and processing required to utilize this CO/sub 2/ in a CO/sub 2/ flooding EOR project. The basic products produced by the reaction of oxygen with hydrocarbon fuel in the in situ combustion process are CO/sub 2/, carbon monoxide, and water. Oxygen fireflooding has technical and economic advantages over conventional fireflooding for EOR. Gas produced in an oxygen fireflood represents a major new source of high concentration CO/sub 2/ for EOR. 12 references.

Persico, P.J.; Wetherington, J.B.; Hvizdos, L.J.

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Oxygen-permeable ceramic membranes for gas separation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Mixed-conducting oxides have a wide range of applications, including fuel cells, gas separation systems, sensors, and electrocatalytic equipment. Dense ceramic membranes made of mixed-conducting oxides are particularly attractive for gas separation and methane conversion processes. Membranes made of Sr-Fe-Co oxide, which exhibits high combined electronic and oxygen ionic conductivities, can be used to selectively transport oxygen during the partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas (syngas, i.e., CO + H{sub 2}). The authors have fabricated tubular Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}CoO{sub 6+{delta}} membranes and tested them (some for more than 1,000 h) in a methane conversion reactor that was operating at 850--950 C. An oxygen permeation flux of {approx} 10 scc/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} min was obtained at 900 C in a tubular membrane with a wall thickness of 0.75 mm. Using a gas-tight electrochemical cell, the authors have also measured the steady-state oxygen permeability of flat Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}CoO{sub 6+{delta}} membranes as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure(pO{sub 2}). Steady-state oxygen permeability increases with increasing temperature and with the difference in pO{sub 2} on the two sides of the membrane. At 900 C, an oxygen permeability of {approx} 2.5 scc/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} min was obtained in a 2.9-mm-thick membrane. This value agrees with that obtained in methane conversion reactor experiments. Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics determined in the gas-tight cell indicate that bulk effect, rather than surface exchange effect, is the main limiting factor for oxygen permeation of {approx} 1-mm-thick Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}CoO{sub 6+{delta}} membranes at elevated temperatures (> 650 C).

Balachandran, U.; Ma, B.; Maiya, P.S.; Dusek, J.T.; Mieville, R.L.; Picciolo, J.J.

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasohol excludes oxygenates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Reactive Air Brazing of Nicrofer-6025HT to BSCF for Oxygen ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Oxygen separation membranes can be used to provide oxygen for ... with an oxide component that promotes wetting of ceramic materials.

182

Explanatory Notes - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table EN1. Federal and State Motor Fuels Taxes1 (Cents per Gallon) Motor Gasoline Diesel Fuel Gasohol Motor Gasoline Diesel Fuel Gasohol

183

Explanatory Notes  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table EN1. Federal and State Motor Fuels Taxes1 (Cents per Gallon) Motor Gasoline Diesel Fuel Gasohol Motor Gasoline Diesel Fuel Gasohol

184

Evaluation Ratings Definitions (Excluding Utilization of Small...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

(WOSB), HUBZone small business, veteran-owned small business (VOSB) and service disabled veteran owned small business (SDVOSB). Complied with FAR 52.219-8, Utilization of...

185

working lunch menus prices excludes VAT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cheese and biscuits with dried apricot and a fresh grape garnish » stuffed organic peppers with cream

186

National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Categorically Excluded...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Used to Access Groundwater Monitoring Wells South of the Tuba City, Arizona, Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) Title I Ste 05282013 B1.3 LM-01-13 Current and Future...

187

Oxygen electrode reaction in molten carbonate fuel cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Molten carbonate fuel cell system is a leading candidate for the utility power generation because of its high efficiency for fuel to AC power conversion, capability for an internal reforming, and a very low environmental impact. However, the performance of the molten carbonate fuel cell is limited by the oxygen reduction reaction and the cell life time is limited by the stability of the cathode material. An elucidation of oxygen reduction reaction in molten alkali carbonate is essential because overpotential losses in the molten carbonate fuel cell are considerably greater at the oxygen cathode than at the fuel anode. Oxygen reduction on a fully-immersed gold electrode in a lithium carbonate melt was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry to determine electrode kinetic and mass transfer parameters. The dependences of electrode kinetic and mass transfer parameters on gas composition and temperature were examined to determine the reaction orders and the activation energies. The results showed that oxygen reduction in a pure lithium carbonate melt occurs via the peroxide mechanism. A mass transfer parameter, D{sub O}{sup 1/2}C{sub O}, estimated by the cyclic voltammetry concurred with that calculated by the EIS technique. The temperature dependence of the exchange current density and the product D{sub O}{sup 1/2}C{sub O} were examined and the apparent activation energies were determined to be about 122 and 175 kJ/ mol, respectively.

Appleby, A.J.; White, R.E.

1992-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

188

Method and apparatus for producing oxygenates from hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A chemical reactor for oxygenating hydrocarbons includes: a) a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell, the plasma cell comprising a pair of electrodes having a dielectric material and void therebetween, the plasma cell comprising a hydrocarbon gas inlet feeding to the void; b) a solid oxide electrochemical cell, the electrochemical cell comprising a solid oxide electrolyte positioned between a porous cathode and a porous anode, an oxygen containing gas inlet stream feeding to the porous cathode side of the electrochemical cell; c) a first gas passageway feeding from the void to the anode side of the electrochemical cell; and d) a gas outlet feeding from the anode side of the electrochemical cell to expel reaction products from the chemical reactor. A method of oxygenating hydrocarbons is also disclosed.

Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lessing, Paul A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Fuel and oxygen addition for metal smelting or refining process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A furnace for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance, through which a center stream of particulate coal is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace. 7 figs.

Schlichting, M.R.

1994-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

190

Evolution of Photosynthesis and Biospheric Oxygenation Contingent Upon Nitrogen Fixation?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

How photosynthesis by Precambrian cyanobacteria oxygenated Earth's biosphere remains incompletely understood. Here it is argued that the oxic transition, which took place between approximately 2.3 and 0.5 Gyr ago, required a great proliferation of cyanobacteria, and this in turn depended on their ability to fix nitrogen via the nitrogenase enzyme system. However, the ability to fix nitrogen was not a panacea, and the rate of biospheric oxygenation may still have been affected by nitrogen constraints on cyanobacterial expansion. Evidence is presented for why cyanobacteria probably have a great need for fixed nitrogen than other prokaryotes, underscoring the importance of their ability to fix nitrogen. The connection between nitrogen fixation and the evolution of photosynthesis is demonstrated by the similarities between nitrogenase and enzymes critical for the biosynthesis of (bacterio)chlorophyll. It is hypothesized that biospheric oxygenation would not have occurred if the emergence of cyanobacteria had not ...

Grula, J W

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Evaluation of oxygen-enrichment system for alternative fuel vehicles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents results on the reduction in exhaust emissions achieved by using oxygen-enriched intake air on a flexible fuel vehicle (FFV) that used Indolene and M85 as test fuels. The standard federal test procedure (FTP) and the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) off-cycle (REP05) test were followed. The report also provides a review of literature on the oxygen membrane device and design considerations. It presents information on the sources and contributions of cold-phase emissions to the overall exhaust emissions from light-duty vehicles (LDVs) and on the various emission standards and present-day control technologies under consideration. The effects of oxygen-enriched intake air on FTP and off-cycle emissions are discussed on the basis of test results. Conclusions are drawn from the results and discussion, and different approaches for the practical application of this technology in LDVs are recommended.

Poola, R.B.; Sekar, R.R.; Ng, H.K.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Epitaxial oxygen sponges as low temperature catalysts | ornl.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Functional Materials for Energy Functional Materials for Energy Epitaxial oxygen sponges as low temperature catalysts September 10, 2013 Crystal structure of SrCoO2.5 superimposed on a scanning transmission electron microscopy image of an epitaxially stabilized oxygen sponge. Fast and reversible redox reactions at considerably reduced temperatures are achieved by epitaxial stabilization of multivalent transition metal oxides. This illustrates the unprecedented potential of complex oxides for oxide-ionics, where oxidation state changes are used for energy generation, storage and electrochemical sensing. Thermomechanical degradation reduces the overall performance and lifetime of many perovskite oxides undergoing reversible redox reactions, such as those found in solid oxide fuel cells, rechargeable batteries,

193

Homogeneously catalyzed synthesis gas transformations to oxygenate fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

At Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), the ongoing oxygenates synthesis program is addressing the catalytic synthesis gas conversion to liquid fuels and fuel additives. The major thrust of this effort is to enhance carbon conversion, reaction rates, product selectivity and overall process efficiency. To this effect, a series of liquid phase homogeneous catalysts have been developed and successfully utilized in the synthesis of methanol and other oxygenates. This paper identifies advantages and uncertainties associated with these newly developed catalysts. The effect of system parameters on the overall process scheme is discussed.

Mahajan, D.; Mattas, L.; Sanchez, J.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Homogeneously catalyzed synthesis gas transformations to oxygenate fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

At Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), the ongoing oxygenates synthesis program is addressing the catalytic synthesis gas conversion to liquid fuels and fuel additives. The major thrust of this effort is to enhance carbon conversion, reaction rates, product selectivity and overall process efficiency. To this effect, a series of liquid phase homogeneous catalysts have been developed and successfully utilized in the synthesis of methanol and other oxygenates. This paper identifies advantages and uncertainties associated with these newly developed catalysts. The effect of system parameters on the overall process scheme is discussed.

Mahajan, D.; Mattas, L.; Sanchez, J.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Process for conversion of lignin to reformulated, partially oxygenated gasoline  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high-yield process for converting lignin into reformulated, partially oxygenated gasoline compositions of high quality is provided. The process is a two-stage catalytic reaction process that produces a reformulated, partially oxygenated gasoline product with a controlled amount of aromatics. In the first stage of the process, a lignin feed material is subjected to a base-catalyzed depolymerization reaction, followed by a selective hydrocracking reaction which utilizes a superacid catalyst to produce a high oxygen-content depolymerized lignin product mainly composed of alkylated phenols, alkylated alkoxyphenols, and alkylbenzenes. In the second stage of the process, the depolymerized lignin product is subjected to an exhaustive etherification reaction, optionally followed by a partial ring hydrogenation reaction, to produce a reformulated, partially oxygenated/etherified gasoline product, which includes a mixture of substituted phenyl/methyl ethers, cycloalkyl methyl ethers, C.sub.7 -C.sub.10 alkylbenzenes, C.sub.6 -C.sub.10 branched and multibranched paraffins, and alkylated and polyalkylated cycloalkanes.

Shabtai, Joseph S. (Salt Lake City, UT); Zmierczak, Wlodzimierz W. (Salt Lake City, UT); Chornet, Esteban (Golden, CO)

2001-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

196

Utilization of Renewable Oxygenates as Gasoline Blending Components  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews the use of higher alcohols and several cellulose-derived oxygenates as blend components in gasoline. Material compatibility issues are expected to be less severe for neat higher alcohols than for fuel-grade ethanol. Very little data exist on how blending higher alcohols or other oxygenates with gasoline affects ASTM Standard D4814 properties. Under the Clean Air Act, fuels used in the United States must be 'substantially similar' to fuels used in certification of cars for emission compliance. Waivers for the addition of higher alcohols at concentrations up to 3.7 wt% oxygen have been granted. Limited emission testing on pre-Tier 1 vehicles and research engines suggests that higher alcohols will reduce emissions of CO and organics, while NOx emissions will stay the same or increase. Most oxygenates can be used as octane improvers for standard gasoline stocks. The properties of 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, dimethylfuran, 2-methylfuran, methyl pentanoate and ethyl pentanoate suggest that they may function well as low-concentration blends with gasoline in standard vehicles and in higher concentrations in flex fuel vehicles.

Yanowitz, J.; Christensen, E.; McCormick, R. L.

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Photosynthetic hydrogen and oxygen production by green algae  

SciTech Connect

An overview of photosynthetic hydrogen and oxygen production by green algae in the context of its potential as a renewable chemical feed stock and energy carrier is presented. Beginning with its discovery by Gaffron and Rubin in 1942, motivated by curiosity-driven laboratory research, studies were initiated in the early 1970s that focused on photosynthetic hydrogen production from an applied perspective. From a scientific and technical point of view, current research is focused on optimizing net thermodynamic conversion efficiencies represented by the Gibbs Free Energy of molecular hydrogen. The key research questions of maximizing hydrogen and oxygen production by light-activated water splitting in green algae are (1) removing the oxygen sensitivity of algal hydrogenases; (2) linearizing the light saturation curves of photosynthesis throughout the entire range of terrestrial solar irradiance--including the role of bicarbonate and carbon dioxide in optimization of photosynthetic electron transport and (3) the minimum number of light reactions that are required to split water to elemental hydrogen and oxygen. Each of these research topics is being actively addressed by the photobiological hydrogen research community.

Greenbaum, E.; Lee, J.W.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

198

Photosynthetic Hydrogen and Oxygen Production by Green Algae  

SciTech Connect

Photosynthesis research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is focused on hydrogen and oxygen production by green algae in the context of its potential as a renewable fuel and chemical feed stock. Beginning with its discovery by Gaffron and Rubin in 1942, motivated by curiosity-driven laboratory research, studies were initiated in the early 1970s that focused on photosynthetic hydrogen production from an applied perspective. From a scientific and technical point of view, current research is focused on optimizing net thermodynamic conversion efficiencies represented by the Gibbs Free Energy of molecular hydrogen. The key research questions of maximizing hydrogen and oxygen production by light-activated water splitting in green algae are: (1) removing the oxygen sensitivity of algal hydrogenases; (2) linearizing the light saturation curves of hotosynthesis throughout the entire range of terrestrial solar irradiance-including the role of bicarbonate and carbon dioxide in optimization of photosynthetic electron transpor;t and (3) constructing real-world bioreactors, including the generation of hydrogen and oxygen against workable back pressures of the photoproduced gases.

Greenbaum, E.; Lee, J.W.

1999-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

199

Blood storage device and method for oxygen removal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a storage device and method for the long-term storage of blood and, more particularly, to a blood storage device and method capable of removing oxygen from the stored blood and thereby prolonging the storage life of the deoxygenated blood.

Bitensky, Mark W. (Waban, MA); Yoshida, Tatsuro (Newton, MA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

High-temperature potentiometric oxygen sensor with internal reference  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compact oxygen sensor is provided, comprising a mixture of metal and metal oxide an enclosure containing said mixture, said enclosure capable of isolating said mixture from an environment external of said enclosure, and a first wire having a first end residing within the enclosure and having a second end exposed to the environment. Also provided is a method for the fabrication of an oxygen sensor, the method comprising confining a metal-metal oxide solid mixture to a container which consists of a single material permeable to oxygen ions, supplying an electrical conductor having a first end and a second end, whereby the first end resides inside the container as a reference (PO.sub.2).sup.ref, and the second end resides outside the container in the atmosphere where oxygen partial pressure (PO.sub.2).sup.ext is to be measured, and sealing the container with additional single material such that grain boundary sliding occurs between grains of the single material and grains of the additional single material.

Routbort, Jules L. (Hinsdale, IL); Singh, Dileep (Naperville, IL); Dutta, Prabir K. (Worthington, OH); Ramasamy, Ramamoorthy (North Royalton, OH); Spirig, John V. (Columbus, OH); Akbar, Sheikh (Hilliard, OH)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasohol excludes oxygenates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Characteristics of Knock in Hydrogen-Oxygen-Argon SI Engine  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A promising approach for improving the efficiency of internal combustion engines is to employ a working fluid with a high specific heat ratio such as the noble gas argon. Moreover, all harmful emissions are eliminated when the intake charge is composed of oxygen, nonreactive argon, and hydrogen fuel. Previous research demonstrated indicated thermal efficiencies greater than 45% at 5.5 compression ratio in engines operating with hydrogen, oxygen, and argon. However, knock limits spark advance and increasing the efficiency further. Conditions under which knock occurs in such engines differs from typical gasoline fueled engines. In-cylinder temperatures using hydrogen-oxygen-argon are higher due to the high specific heat ratio and pressures are lower because of the low compression ratio. Better understanding of knock under these conditions can lead to operating strategies that inhibit knock and allow operation closer to the knock limit. In this work we compare knock with a hydrogen, oxygen, and argon mixture to that of air-gasoline mixtures in a variable compression ratio cooperative fuels research (CFR) engine. The focus is on stability of knocking phenomena, as well as, amplitude and frequency of the resulting pressure waves.

Killingsworth, N; Rapp, V; Flowers, D; Aceves, S; Chen, J; Dibble, R

2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

202

Migration Mechanisms of Oxygen Interstitial Clusters in UO2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Understanding the migration kinetics of radiation-induced point defects and defect clusters is a key to predicting the microstructural evolution and mass transport in nuclear fuels. Although the diffusion kinetics of point defects in UO2 is well explored both experimentally and theoretically, the kinetics of defect clusters is not well understood. In this work the migration mechanisms of oxygen interstitial clusters of size one to five atoms (1Oi – 5Oi) in UO2 are investigated by temperature-accelerated dynamics simulations without any a priori assumptions of migration mechanisms. It is found that the migration paths of oxygen interstitial clusters are complex and non-intuitive and that multiple migration paths and barriers exist for some clusters. It is also found that the cluster migration barrier does not increase with increasing cluster size and its magnitude has the following order: 2Oi < 3Oi < 1Oi < 5Oi < 4Oi. Possible finite-size effects are checked with three different sized systems. The results show good agreement with other available experimental and theoretical data. In particular, the relatively large migration barriers of cuboctahedral clusters (4Oi and 5Oi) are in good agreement with the experimentally measured oxygen diffusion activation energy in U4O9, which is thought to contain many such clusters. The cluster migration sequence may explain the interesting relationship between the oxygen diffusivity and stoichiometry in UO2+x.

Xian-Ming Bai; Anter El-Azab; Jianguo Yu; Todd R. Allen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Supercritical Burning of Liquid Oxygen (LOX) Droplet with Detailed Chemistry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Supercritical Burning of Liquid Oxygen (LOX) Droplet with Detailed Chemistry J. DAOU,* P with diameter less than I pm vaporize before burning. A quasi-steady-like diffusion flame is then established is considered; temperature and pressure in the combustion chamber have a weak influence on the burning time

Heil, Matthias

204

Direct observation of oxygen superstructures in manganites S. Grenier,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Direct observation of oxygen superstructures in manganites S. Grenier,1 K. J. Thomas,2 J. P. Hill,2). [9] D. Volja, et al., cond-mat:0704.1834v1 (2007). [10] S. Grenier, et al., Phys. Rev. B 75, 085101 (Materlik, Sparks and Fisher, 1994). [14] H. L. Ju, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3230 (1997). [15] J. Garc

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

205

Electrocatalysis of anodic and cathodic oxygen-transfer reactions  

SciTech Connect

The electrocatalysis of oxygen-transfer reactions is discussed in two parts. In Part I, the reduction of iodate (IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}) is examined as an example of cathodic oxygen transfer. On oxide-covered Pt electrodes (PtO), a large cathodic current is observed in the presence of IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} to coincide with the reduction of PtO. The total cathodic charge exceeds the amount required for reduction of PtO and IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} to produce an adsorbed product. An electrocatalytic link between reduction of IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} and reduction of PtO is indicated. In addition, on oxide-free Pt electrodes, the reduction of IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} is determined to be sensitive to surface treatment. The electrocatalytic oxidation of CN{sup {minus}} is presented as an example of anodic oxygen transfer in Part II. The voltametric response of CN{sup {minus}} is virtually nonexistent at PbO{sub 2} electrodes. The response is significantly improved by doping PbO{sub 2} with Cu. Cyanide is also oxidized effectively at CuO-film electrodes. Copper is concluded to serve as an adsorption site for CN{sup {minus}}. It is proposed that an oxygen tunneling mechanism comparable to electron tunneling does not occur at the electrode-solution interface. The adsorption of CN{sup {minus}} is therefore considered to be a necessary prerequisite for oxygen transfer. 201 refs., 23 figs., 2 tabs.

Wels, B.R.

1990-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

206

Controlled temperature expansion in oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts  

SciTech Connect

A continuous process is set forth for the production of oxygen from an oxygen containing gas stream, such as air, by contacting a feed gas stream with a molten solution of an oxygen acceptor to oxidize the acceptor and cyclically regenerating the oxidized acceptor by releasing oxygen from the acceptor wherein the oxygen-depleted gas stream from the contact zone is treated sequentially to temperature reduction by heat exchange against the feed stream so as to condense out entrained oxygen acceptor for recycle to the process, combustion of the gas stream with fuel to elevate its temperature and expansion of the combusted high temperature gas stream in a turbine to recover power.

Erickson, Donald C. (Annapolis)

1985-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

207

IMPACT OF OXYGENATED FUEL ON DIESEL ENGINE PERFORMANCE AND EMISSIONS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As evidenced by recent lawsuits brought against operators of large diesel truck fleets [1] and by the Consent Decree brought against the heavy-duty diesel manufacturers [2], the environmental and health effects of diesel engine emissions continue to be a significant concern. Reduction of diesel engine emissions has traditionally been achieved through a combination of fuel system, combustion chamber, and engine control modifications [3]. Catalytic aftertreatment has become common on modern diesel vehicles, with the predominant device being the diesel oxidation catalytic converter [3]. To enable advanced after-treatment devices and to directly reduce emissions, significant recent interest has focused on reformulation of diesel fuel, particularly the reduction of sulfur content. The EPA has man-dated that diesel fuel will have only 15 ppm sulfur content by 2007, with current diesel specifications requiring around 300 ppm [4]. Reduction of sulfur will permit sulfur-sensitive aftertreatment devices, continuously regenerating particulate traps, NOx control catalysts, and plasma assisted catalysts to be implemented on diesel vehicles [4]. Another method of reformulating diesel fuel to reduce emissions is to incorporate oxygen in the fuel, as was done in the reformulation of gasoline. The use of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in reformulated gasoline has resulted in contamination of water resources across the country [5]. Nonetheless, by relying on the lessons learned from MTBE, oxygenation of diesel fuel may be accomplished without compromising water quality. Oxygenation of diesel fuel offers the possibility of reducing particulate matter emissions significantly, even for the current fleet of diesel vehicles. The mechanism by which oxygen content leads to particulate matter reductions is still under debate, but recent evidence shows clearly that ''smokeless'' engine operation is possible when the oxygen content of diesel fuel reaches roughly 38% by weight [6]. The potential improvements in energy efficiency within the transportation section, particularly in sport utility vehicles and light-duty trucks, that can be provided by deployment of diesel engines in passenger cars and trucks is a strong incentive to develop cleaner burning diesel engines and cleaner burning fuels for diesel engines. Thus, serious consideration of oxygenated diesel fuels is of significant practical interest and value to society. In the present work, a diesel fuel reformulating agent, CETANERTM, has been examined in a popular light-medium duty turbodiesel engine over a range of blending ratios. This additive is a mixture of glycol ethers and can be produced from dimethyl ether, which itself can be manufactured from synthesis gas using Air Products' Liquid Phase Dimethyl Ether (LPDME TM) technology. CETANERTM is a liquid, has an oxygen content of 36 wt.%, has a cetane number over 100 and is highly miscible in diesel fuel. This combination of physical and chemical properties makes CETANERTM an attractive agent for oxygenating diesel fuel. The present study considered CETANERTM ratios from 0 to 40 wt.% in a California Air Resources Board (CARB) specification diesel fuel. Particulate matter emissions, gaseous emissions and in-cylinder pressure traces were monitored over the AVL 8-Mode engine test protocol [7]. This paper presents the results from these measurements and discusses the implications of using high cetane number oxygenates in diesel fuel reformulation.

Boehman, Andre L.

2000-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

208

Weird Oxygen Bonding under Pressure | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Breakthrough in Improving Osteoporosis Drug Design A Breakthrough in Improving Osteoporosis Drug Design Allaying Structural-Alloy Corrosion Putting the Pressure on MOFs Newly Described "Dragon" Protein Could Be Key to Bird Flu Cure Hearing the Highest Pitches Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed Weird Oxygen Bonding under Pressure AUGUST 8, 2008 Bookmark and Share Schematic shows the topology of π* orbital interactions in the (O2)4 cluster. (Image copyright National Academy of Sciences, PNAS.) Oxygen, the third most abundant element in the cosmos and essential to life on Earth, changes its forms dramatically under pressure, transforming to a solid with spectacular colors. Eventually it becomes metallic and a

209

Selectivity of the reactions of oxygenates on transition metal surfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The goal of this research has been to understand, by means of surface science studies, the elementary processes involved in the synthesis of higher oxygenates on transition metals, and the dependence of these processes upon the nature of the surface. We have completed a considerable body of work (Ph.D. thesis of J. Lynn Davis, 1988) on the reactions of alcohols, aldehydes, and carboxylic acids on clean and oxygen-containing Pd(111) surfaces. Work during the past year has focused on the surface chemistry of rhodium. We find both interesting similarities and differences between rhodium and palladium. Comparison of the two sheds light on common reaction networks among the transition metals, and on the differences between them which permit control of selectivities in catalytic reactions.

Barteau, M.A.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

U.S. Oxygenate Plant Production of Fuel Ethanol (Thousand Barrels)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Oxygenate Plant Production of Fuel Ethanol (Thousand Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 ... Fuel Ethanol Oxygenate Production;

211

Calibration, Response, and Hysteresis in Deep-Sea Dissolved Oxygen Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurately measuring the dissolved oxygen concentration in the ocean has been the subject of considerable research. Traditionally, the calibration and correction of profiling oxygen measurements has centered on static, steady-state errors, ...

Bradley Edwards; David Murphy; Carol Janzen; Nordeen Larson

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Fundamental studies of heterostructured oxide thin film electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction at high temperatures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Searching for active and cost-effective catalysts for oxygen electrocatalysis is essential for the development of efficient clean electrochemical energy technologies. Perovskite oxides are active for surface oxygen exchange ...

Crumlin, Ethan J

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

In Situ Ambient Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Studies of Lithium-Oxygen Redox Reactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The lack of fundamental understanding of the oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution in nonaqueous electrolytes significantly hinders the development of rechargeable lithium-air batteries. Here we employ a solid-state ...

Lu, Yi-chun

214

Computational Studies on Oxygen-ionic Conduction in Rare-earth ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Development of oxygen-ionic conductors which have low activation energies in ... for reducing the lower limit of operating temperatures of solid oxide fuel cells. ... electronic densities of states, oxygen migration paths and activation energies in ...

215

A Tracer Study with Oxygen-18 in Photosynthesis by Activation Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

r e e n algae. t e r m photosynthesis products containing 0WITH OXYGEN - I8 IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS BY ACTIVATION ANALYSISWITH OXYGEN-18 IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS BY ACTIVATION ANALYSIS I n

Fogelstrom-Fineman, Ingrid; Holm-Hansen, Osmund; Tolbert, Bert M.; Calvin, Melvin

1957-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

A DCS supervisory control of a centrifugal compessor for oxygen consumption optimization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, a supervisory control system for oxygen consumption optimization on a Syngas Manufacturing Process Plant is proposed. A grey-box multivariable parametric identification of the oxygen compressor system is first performed. Consequently, ...

Silvia Maria Zanoli; Luca Barboni

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Practical aspects of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is quite sensitive to the details of the three phase interface at which the reaction occurs. We describe here studies of the ORR at a well-defined recast Nafion/Pt microelectrode interface, emphasizing the effects of temperature and humidification on the reaction rate. We compare our results to those obtained in thin film composite electrodes used in polymer electrolyte fuel cells.

Uribe, F.A.; Springer, T.E.; Wilson, M.S.; Zawodzinski, T.A. Jr.; Gottesfeld, S.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

218

Mixed-conducting ceramic membranes for partial oxygenation of methane  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The most significant cost associated with the conventional partial oxidation of methane is that of an oxygen plant. Our new technology offers a way to lower this cost, and in this paper we explore the technology that is based on dense ceramic membranes and that uses air as the oxidant for methane-conversion reactions. Mixed-conducting ceramic materials have been produced from mixed-oxide systems of the La-Sr-Fe-Co-O (SFC) type, in the form of tubes and bars. Thermodynamic stability of the tubes was studied as a function of oxygen partial pressure by high-temperature XRD. Mechanical properties were measured and found to be adequate for a reactor in the case of SFC-2: Electronic and ionic conductivities were measured; SFC-2 is unique in the sense that the ratio of ionic to electronic conductance is close to unity. Performance of the membrane tubes was good only with SFC-2. Fracture of other SFC tubes was the consequence of an oxygen gradient that introduced a volumetric lattice difference between the inner and outer walls. SFC-2 tubes provided methane conversion efficiencies of >99% in a reactor. These tubes have operated for >1000 h.

Balachandran, U.; Dusek, J.T.; Maiya, P.S.; Mieville, R.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Kleefisch, M.S.; Udovich, C.A. [Amoco Corp., Naperville, IL (United States); Bose, A.C. [USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Oxygen scavenger/metal passivator reduces corrosion, toxicity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Haverhill Paper board, a Haverhill, MA manufacturer of recycled paperboard, generates about 120,000 lb/hr of 650 psi, 650/sup 0/F (superheated) steam. Boiler deposition and condensate return corrosion problems were always high on the list of things to avoid. A water treatment firm provided the solution with a recently developed oxygen scavenger. The new scavenger, a Chemical Processing Vaaler Award winner (Mid-November, 1986, p. 130), is a patented formulation containing methyl ethyl ketoxime (MEKO). The formulation is designed to provide protection comparable to hydrazine but without the toxicity concerns. Used in conjunction with the mechanical deaerator, MEKO scavenges the remaining 5-7 ppb of oxygen from the feed water, producing methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), N/sub 2/O, and water. High volatility gives it the ability to leave the boiler with the steam, protecting the entire generating system. MEKO also acts as a metal surface passivator, protecting iron surfaces from corrosion by forming passivated oxide films. In use since December, 1985, the MEKO-based oxygen scavenger has coupled with the other chemical and mechanical water treatment methods to maintain the boiler in operating condition. The MEKO is performing as well or better than the hydrazine at about the same cost - while avoiding the toxicity problem.

Barry, J.; Toy, D.A.

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Evolution of Photosynthesis and Biospheric Oxygenation Contingent Upon Nitrogen Fixation?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

How photosynthesis by Precambrian cyanobacteria oxygenated Earth's biosphere remains incompletely understood. Here it is argued that the oxic transition, which took place between approximately 2.3 and 0.5 Gyr ago, required a great proliferation of cyanobacteria, and this in turn depended on their ability to fix nitrogen via the nitrogenase enzyme system. However, the ability to fix nitrogen was not a panacea, and the rate of biospheric oxygenation may still have been affected by nitrogen constraints on cyanobacterial expansion. Evidence is presented for why cyanobacteria probably have a great need for fixed nitrogen than other prokaryotes, underscoring the importance of their ability to fix nitrogen. The connection between nitrogen fixation and the evolution of photosynthesis is demonstrated by the similarities between nitrogenase and enzymes critical for the biosynthesis of (bacterio)chlorophyll. It is hypothesized that biospheric oxygenation would not have occurred if the emergence of cyanobacteria had not been preceded by the evolution of nitrogen fixation, and if these organisms had not also acquired the ability to fix nitrogen at the beginning of or very early in their history. The evolution of nitrogen fixation also appears to have been a precondition for the evolution of (bacterio)chlorophyll-based photosynthesis. Given that some form of chlorophyll is obligatory for true photosynthesis, and its light absorption and chemical properties make it a "universal pigment," it may be predicted that the evolution of nitrogen fixation and photosynthesis are also closely linked on other Earth- like planets.

John W. Grula

2006-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasohol excludes oxygenates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Formation of molecular oxygen in ultracold O + OH reaction  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the formation of molecular oxygen in ultracold collisions between hydroxyl radicals and atomic oxygen. A time-independent quantum formalism based on hyperspherical coordinates is employed for the calculations. Elastic, inelastic and reactive cross sections as well as the vibrational and rotational populations of the product O{sub 2} molecules are reported. A J-shifting approximation is used to compute the rate coefficients. At temperatures T = 10--100 mK for which the OH molecules have been cooled and trapped experimentally, the elastic and reactive rate coefficients are of comparable magnitude, while at colder temperatures, T < 1 mK, the formation of molecular oxygen becomes the dominant pathway. The validity of a classical capture model to describe cold collisions of OH and O is also discussed. While very good agreement is found between classical and quantum results at T = 0.3 K, at higher temperatures, the quantum calculations predict a higher rate coefficient than the classical model, in agreement with experimental data for the O + OH reaction. The zero-temperature limiting value of the rate coefficient is predicted to be about 6 x 10{sup -12} cm{sup 3} s{sup 01}, a value comparable to that of barrierless alkali metal atom-dimer systems and about a factor of five larger than that of the tunneling dominated F + H{sub 2} reaction.

Kendrick, Brian Kent [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Quemener, Goulven [UNLV; Balakrishman, Naduvalath [UNLV

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Reduction with Reduced Platinum Oxidation and Dissolution Rates  

Platinum is the most efficient electrocatalyst for accelerating the oxygen reduction reaction in fuel cells. Under operating conditions, though, ...

223

U.S. Product Supplied of Other Hydrocarbons/Oxygenates (Thousand ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Product Supplied for Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons ; U.S. Product Supplied for Crude Oil and Petroleum Products ...

224

U.S. Exports of Other Hydrocarbons/Oxygenates (Thousand Barrels ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Supply and Disposition; U.S. Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products ...

225

Ambiguities of the Rate of Oxygen Formation During Stellar Helium Burning in the 12C(a,g) Reaction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The rate of oxygen formation determines the C/O ratio during stellar helium burning. It is the single most important nuclear input of stellar evolution theory including the evolution of Type II and Type Ia supernova. Yet the low energy cross section of the fusion of 4He + 12C denoted as the 12C(a,g)16O reaction still remains uncertain after forty years of extensive work. We analyze and critically review the most recent measurements of complete angular distributions of the outgoing gamma-rays at very low energies (Ecm > 1.0 MeV). Our analysis of the angular distribution measured with the EUROGAM/GANDI arrays lead us to conclude considerably larger error bars than published hence they are excluded from the current sample of "world data". We show that the current sample of "world data" of the measured E2 cross section factors below 1.7 MeV cluster to two distinct groups that lead to two distinct extrapolations of SE2(300) ~ 60 or ~ 154 keVb. We point to a much neglected discrepancy between the measured E1-E2 phase difference (phi_12) and unitarity as required by the Watson theorem, suggesting systematic problem(s) of some of the measured gamma-ray angular distributions. The ambiguity of the extrapolated SE2(300) together with a previously observed ambiguity of SE1(300) represent the current state of the art of the field and they must be resolved by future measurements of complete and detailed angular distributions of the 12C(a,g) reaction at very low energies (Ecm < 1.0 MeV).

Moshe Gai

2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

226

Oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts using multiple absorption-desorption cycles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A continuous chemical air separation is performed wherein oxygen is recovered with a molten alkali metal salt oxygen acceptor in a series of absorption zones which are connected to a plurality of desorption zones operated in separate parallel cycles with the absorption zones. A greater recovery of high pressure oxygen is achieved at reduced power requirements and capital costs.

Cassano, Anthony A. (Allentown, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts using multiple absorption-desorption cycles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A continuous chemical air separation is performed wherein oxygen is recovered with a molten alkali metal salt oxygen acceptor in a series of absorption zones which are connected to a plurality of desorption zones operated in separate parallel cycles with the absorption zones. A greater recovery of high pressure oxygen is achieved at reduced power requirements and capital costs. 3 figs.

Cassano, A.A.

1985-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

228

An efficient deconvolution algorithm for estimating oxygen consumption during muscle activities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The reconstruction of an unknown input function from noisy measurements in a biological system is an ill-posed inverse problem. Any computational algorithm for its solution must use some kind of regularization technique to neutralize the disastrous effects ... Keywords: Bayesian inversion, Deconvolution, Mitochondrial oxygen consumption, Monte Carlo simulation, Muscle oxygen uptake, Oxygen transport and metabolism

Ranjan K. Dash; Erkki Somersalo; Marco E. Cabrera; Daniela Calvetti

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Faunal responses to oxygen gradients on the Pakistan margin: A comparison of foraminiferans, macrofauna and megafauna  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Faunal responses to oxygen gradients on the Pakistan margin: A comparison of foraminiferans Oxygen minimum zone Benthos Arabian Sea Biodiversity Deep sea a b s t r a c t The Pakistan Margin where oxygen levels were lowest. The rarity of larger animals between 300 and 700 m on the Pakistan

Levin, Lisa

230

Oxygen-Consuming Chlor-Alkali Cell Configured To Minimize Peroxide  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxygen-Consuming Chlor-Alkali Cell Oxygen-Consuming Chlor-Alkali Cell Oxygen-Consuming Chlor-Alkali Cell Configured To Minimize Peroxide Formation Oxygen-consuming zero gap chlor-alkali cell was configured to minimize peroxide formation. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Oxygen-Consuming Chlor-Alkali Cell Configured To Minimize Peroxide Formation Oxygen-consuming zero gap chlor-alkali cell was configured to minimize peroxide formation. The cell included an ion-exchange membrane that divided the cell into an anode chamber including an anode and a cathode chamber including an oxygen gas diffusion cathode. The cathode included a single-piece of electrically conducting graphitized carbon cloth. Catalyst and polytetrafluoroethylene were attached to only one side of the cloth.

231

Method for providing oxygen ion vacancies in lanthanide oxides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for desulfurization of fuel gases resulting from the incomplete combustion of sulfur containing hydrocarbons whereby the gases are treated with lanthanide oxides containing large numbers of oxygen-ion vacancies providing ionic porosity which enhances the ability of the lanthanide oxides to react more rapidly and completely with the sulfur in the fuel gases whereby the sulfur in such gases is reduced to low levels suitable for fuels for firing into boilers of power plants generating electricity with steam turbine driven generators, gas turbines, fuel cells and precursors for liquid fuels such as methanol and the like.

Kay, D. Alan R. (4305 Lakeshore Rd., Burlington, CA); Wilson, William G. (820 Harden Dr., Pittsburgh, PA 15229)

1989-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

232

Hydrogen and oxygen concentrations in IXCs: A compilation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper contains four reports and two internal letters that address the estimation of hydrogen and oxygen concentrations in ion exchange columns that treat the water of the K-East and K-West Basins at Hanford. The concern is the flammability of this mixture of gases and planning for safe transport during decommissioning. A transient will occur when the hydrogen filter is temporarily blocked by a sandbag. Analyses are provided for steady-state, transients, and for both wet and dry resins.

Liljegren, L.M.; Terrones, G.T.; Melethil, P.K.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Recent advances in the kinetics of oxygen reduction  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Oxygen reduction is considered an important electrocatalytic reaction; the most notable need remains improvement of the catalytic activity of existing metal electrocatalysts and development of new ones. A review is given of new advances in the understanding of reaction kinetics and improvements of the electrocatalytic properties of some surfaces, with focus on recent studies of relationship of the surface properties to its activity and reaction kinetics. The urgent need is to improve catalytic activity of Pt and synthesize new, possibly non- noble metal catalysts. New experimental techniques for obtaining new level of information include various {ital in situ} spectroscopies and scanning probes, some involving synchrotron radiation. 138 refs, 18 figs, 2 tabs.

Adzic, R.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Methanol tolerant oxygen reduction catalysts based on transition metal sulfides  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The oxygen reduction activity and methanol tolerance of a range of transition metal sulfide electrocatalysts have been evaluated in half-cell experiments and in a liquid-feed solid polymer electrolyte direct methanol fuel cell. These catalysts were prepared in high surface area form by direct synthesis onto various surface-functionalized carbon blacks. Of the materials tested, mixed-metal catalysts based on ReRuS and MoRuS were observed to give the best oxygen reduction activities. In addition, significant increases in performance were observed when employing sulfur-functionalized carbon black, which were attributed to the preferential deposition of active Ru sites in the catalyst-preparation process. Although the intrinsic activity of the best material tested, namely, Mo{sub 2}Ru{sub 5}S{sub 5} on sulfur-treated XC-72, was lower than Pt (by ca. 1545 mV throughout the entire polarization curve), its activity relative to Pt increased significantly in methanol-contaminated electrolytes. This was due to methanol oxidation side reactions reducing the net activity of the Pt, especially at low overpotentials.

Reeve, R.W.; Christensen, P.A.; Hamnett, A.; Haydock, S.A.; Roy, S.C. [Univ. of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Nickel-hydrogen battery with oxygen and electrolyte management features  

SciTech Connect

A nickel-hydrogen battery or cell having one or more pressure vessels containing hydrogen gas and a plurality of cell-modules therein. Each cell-module includes a configuration of cooperatively associated oxygen and electrolyte mangement and component alignment features. A cell-module having electrolyte includes a negative electrode, a positive electrode adapted to facilitate oxygen diffusion, a separator disposed between the positive and negative electrodes for separating them and holding electrolyte for ionic conductivity, an absorber engaging the surface of the positive electrode facing away from the separator for providing electrolyte to the positive electrode, and a pair of surface-channeled diffusion screens for enclosing the positive and negative electrodes, absorber, and separator and for maintaining proper alignment of these components. The screens, formed in the shape of a pocket by intermittently sealing the edges together along as many as three sides, permit hydrogen gas to diffuse therethrough to the negative electrodes, and prevent the edges of the separator from swelling. Electrolyte is contained in the cell-module, absorbhed by the electrodes, the separator and the absorber.

Sindorf, John F. (Pewaukee, WI)

1991-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

236

Radiation chemistry of alternative fuel oxygenates -- Substituted ethers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The electron beam process, an advanced oxidation and reduction technology, is based in the field of radiation chemistry. Fundamental to the development of treatment processes is an understanding of the underlying chemistry. The authors have previously evaluated the bimolecular rate constants for the reactions of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and with this study have extended their studies to include ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), di-isopropyl ether (DIPE) and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) with the hydroxyl radical, hydrogen atom and solvated electron using pulse radiolysis. For all of the oxygenates the reaction with the hydroxyl radical appears to be of primary interest in the destruction of the compounds in water. The rates with the solvated electron are limiting values as the rates appear to be relatively low. The hydrogen atom rate constants are relatively low, coupled with the low yield in radiolysis, they concluded that these are of little significance in the destruction of the alternative fuel oxygenates (and MTBE).

Mezyk, S. P.; Cooper, W. J.; Bartels, D. M.; Tobien, T.; O'Shea, K. E.

1999-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

237

Commercialization Development of Oxygen Fired CFB for Greenhouse Gas Control  

SciTech Connect

Given that fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic (i.e., man-made) CO{sub 2} emissions. In 2001, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) began a two-phase program to investigate the feasibility of various carbon capture technologies. This program was sponsored under a Cooperative Agreement from the US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE). The first phase entailed a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants. Thirteen cases, representing various levels of technology development, were evaluated. Seven cases represented coal combustion in CFB type equipment. Four cases represented Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. Two cases represented advanced Chemical Looping Combined Cycle systems. Marion, et al. reported the details of this work in 2003. One of the thirteen cases studied utilized an oxygen-fired circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. In this concept, the fuel is fired with a mixture of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (mainly CO{sub 2}). This combustion process yields a flue gas containing over 80 percent (by volume) CO{sub 2}. This flue gas can be processed relatively easily to enrich the CO{sub 2} content to over 96 percent for use in enhanced oil or gas recovery (EOR or EGR) or simply dried for sequestration. The Phase I study identified the O{sub 2}-fired CFB as having a near term development potential, because it uses conventional commercial CFB technology and commercially available CO{sub 2} capture enabling technologies such as cryogenic air separation and simple rectification or distillation gas processing systems. In the long term, air separation technology advancements offer significant reductions in power requirements, which would improve plant efficiency and economics for the oxygen-fired technology. The second phase consisted of pilot-scale testing followed by a refined performance and economic evaluation of the O{sub 2} fired CFB concept. As a part of this workscope, ALSTOM modified its 3 MW{sub th} (9.9 MMBtu/hr) Multiuse Test Facility (MTF) pilot plant to operate with O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} mixtures of up to 70 percent O{sub 2} by volume. Tests were conducted with coal and petroleum coke. The test objectives were to determine the impacts of oxygen firing on heat transfer, bed dynamics, potential agglomeration, and gaseous and particulate emissions. The test data results were used to refine the design, performance, costs, and economic models developed in Phase-I for the O{sub 2}-fired CFB with CO{sub 2} capture. Nsakala, Liljedahl, and Turek reported results from this study in 2004. ALSTOM identified several items needing further investigation in preparation for large scale demonstration of the oxygen-fired CFB concept, namely: (1) Operation and performance of the moving bed heat exchanger (MBHE) to avoid recarbonation and also for cost savings compared to the standard bubbling fluid bed heat exchanger (FBHE); (2) Performance of the back-end flash dryer absorber (FDA) for sulfur capture under high CO{sub 2}/high moisture flue gas environment using calcined limestone in the fly ash and using fresh commercial lime directly in the FDA; (3) Determination of the effect of recarbonation on fouling in the convective pass; (4) Assessment of the impact of oxygen firing on the mercury, other trace elements, and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions; and (5) Develop a proposal-level oxygen-fired retrofit design for a relatively small existing CFB steam power plant in preparation for a large-scale demonstration of the O{sub 2} fired CFB concept. Hence, ALSTOM responded to a DOE Solicitation to address all these issues with further O{sub 2} fired MTF pilot testing and a subsequent retrofit design study of oxygen firing and CO{s

Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; David G. Turek

2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

238

Oxygen-Diffused Titanium as a Candidate Brake Rotor Material  

SciTech Connect

Titanium alloys are one of several candidate materials for the next generation of truck disk brake rotors. Despite their advantages of lightweight relative to cast iron and good strength and corrosion resistance, titanium alloys are unlikely to be satisfactory brake rotor materials unless their friction and wear behavior can be significantly improved. In this study, a surface engineering process oxygen diffusion was applied to titanium rotors and has shown very encouraging results. The oxygen diffused Ti-6Al-4V (OD-Ti) was tested on a sub-scale brake tester against a flat block of commercial brake lining material and benchmarked against several other Ti-based materials, including untreated Ti-6Al-4V, ceramic particle-reinforced Ti composites (MMCs), and a thermal-spray-coated Ti alloy. With respect to friction, the OD-Ti outperformed all other candidate materials under the imposed test conditions with the friction coefficient remaining within a desirable range of 0.35-0.50, even under the harshest conditions when the disk surface temperature reached nearly 600 ?C. In addition, the OD-Ti showed significantly improved wear-resistance over the non-treated one and was even better than the Ti-based composite materials.

Qu, Jun [ORNL; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Jolly, Brian C [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Hydrogen and Oxygen Gas Monitoring System Design and Operation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper describes pertinent design practices of selecting types of monitors, monitor unit placement, setpoint selection, and maintenance considerations for gas monitors. While hydrogen gas monitors and enriched oxygen atmosphere monitors as they would be needed for hydrogen production experiments are the primary focus of this paper, monitors for carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide are also discussed. The experiences of designing, installing, and calibrating gas monitors for a laboratory where experiments in support of the DOE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI) are described along with codes, standards, and regulations for these monitors. Information from the literature about best operating practices is also presented. The NHI program has two types of activities. The first, near-term activity is laboratory and pilot-plant experimentation with different processes in the kilogram per day scale to select the most promising types of processes for future applications of hydrogen production. Prudent design calls for indoor gas monitors to sense any hydrogen leaks within these laboratory rooms. The second, longer-term activity is the prototype, or large-scale plants to produce tons of hydrogen per day. These large, outdoor production plants will require area (or “fencepost”) monitoring of hydrogen gas leaks. Some processes will have oxygen production with hydrogen production, and any oxygen releases are also safety concerns since oxygen gas is the strongest oxidizer. Monitoring of these gases is important for personnel safety of both indoor and outdoor experiments. There is some guidance available about proper placement of monitors. The fixed point, stationary monitor can only function if the intruding gas contacts the monitor. Therefore, monitor placement is vital to proper monitoring of the room or area. Factors in sensor location selection include: indoor or outdoor site, the location and nature of potential vapor/gas sources, chemical and physical data of the gases or vapors, liquids with volatility need sensors near the potential sources of release, nature and concentration of gas releases, natural and mechanical ventilation, detector installation locations not vulnerable to mechanical or water damage from normal operations, and locations that lend themselves to convenient maintenance and calibration. The guidance also states that sensors should be located in all areas where hazardous accumulations of gas may occur. Such areas might not be close to release points but might be areas with restricted air movement. Heavier than air gases are likely to accumulate in pits, trenches, drains, and other low areas. Lighter than air gases are more likely to accumulate in overhead spaces, above drop ceilings, etc. In general, sensors should be located close to any potential sources of major release of gas. The paper gives data on monitor sensitivity and expected lifetimes to support the monitor selection process. Proper selection of indoor and outdoor locations for monitors is described, accounting for the vapor densities of hydrogen and oxygen. The latest information on monitor alarm setpoint selection is presented. Typically, monitors require recalibration at least every six months, or more frequently for inhospitable locations, so ready access to the monitors is an important issue to consider in monitor siting. Gas monitors, depending on their type, can be susceptible to blockages of the detector element (i.e., dus

Lee C. Cadwallader; Kevin G. DeWall; J. Stephen Herring

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Modern Records of Atmospheric Oxygen (O2) from Scripps Institution of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Trace Gases » Oxygen » Modern Records of Atmospheric Oxygen Atmospheric Trace Gases » Oxygen » Modern Records of Atmospheric Oxygen (O2) from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Modern Records of Atmospheric Oxygen (O2) from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Introduction This page provides an introduction and links to records of atmospheric oxygen (O2) concentrations at nine currently active stations. Records since 1989 are available from Scripps Pier and Alert, Alaska, although these are not continuous. Continuous records from seven stations extend back to 1993, and data for the other two stations (Cold Bay, Alaska and Palmer Station, Antarctica) are available back to the mid 1990s. These data are from remote locations or other locations situated so that they represent averages over large portions of the globe rather than local background sources.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasohol excludes oxygenates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Controlled temperature expansion in oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A continuous process is set forth for the production of oxygen from an oxygen containing gas stream, such as air, by contacting a feed gas stream with a molten solution of an oxygen acceptor to oxidize the acceptor and cyclically regenerating the oxidized acceptor by releasing oxygen from the acceptor wherein the oxygen-depleted gas stream from the contact zone is treated sequentially to temperature reduction by heat exchange against the feed stream so as to condense out entrained oxygen acceptor for recycle to the process, combustion of the gas stream with fuel to elevate its temperature and expansion of the combusted high temperature gas stream in a turbine to recover power. 1 fig.

Erickson, D.C.

1985-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

242

In situ global method for measurement of oxygen demand and mass transfer  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two aerobic microorganisms, Saccharomycopsis lipolytica and Brevibacterium lactofermentum, have been used in a study of mass transfer and oxygen uptake from a global perspective using a closed gas system. Oxygen concentrations in the gas and liquid were followed using oxygen electrodes, and the results allowed for easy calculation of in situ oxygen transport. The cell yields on oxygen for S. lipolytica and B. lactofermentum were 1.01 and 1.53 g/g respectively. The mass transfer coefficient was estimated as 10 h{sup {minus}1} at 500 rpm for both fermentations. The advantages with this method are noticeable since the use of model systems may be avoided, and the in situ measurements of oxygen demand assure reliable data for scale-up.

Klasson, K.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical Technology Div.; Lundbaeck, K.M.O.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L. [Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Neutron knockout in neutral-current neutrino-oxygen interactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The ongoing and future searches for diffuse supernova neutrinos and sterile neutrinos carried out with large water-Cherenkov detectors require a precise determination of the backgrounds, especially those involving gamma rays. Of great importance, in this context, is the process of neutron knockout through neutral-current (NC) scattering of atmospheric neutrinos on oxygen. Nuclear reinteractions of the produced neutron may in fact lead to the production of gamma rays of energies high enough to mimic the processes of interest. In this Letter, we focus on the kinematical range suitable for simulations of atmospheric-neutrino interactions and provide the neutron-knockout cross sections computed using the formalism based on realistic nuclear spectral function. The role of the strange-quark contribution to the NC axial form factor is also analyzed. Based on the available experimental information, we give an estimate of the associated uncertainty.

Artur M. Ankowski; Omar Benhar

2013-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

244

Cryptic photosynthesis, Extrasolar planetary oxygen without a surface biological signature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

On the Earth, photosynthetic organisms are responsible for the production of nearly all of the oxygen in the atmosphere. On the land, vegetation reflects in the visible, leading to a red edge which has been proposed as a biosignature for life on extrasolar planets. However, in many regions of the Earth, and particularly where surface conditions are extreme, for example in hot and cold deserts, photosynthetic organisms can be driven into and under substrates where light is still sufficient for photosynthesis. These communities exhibit no detectable surface spectral signature. The same is true of the assemblages of photosynthetic organisms at more than a few meters depth in water bodies. These communities are widespread and dominate local photosynthetic productivity. We review known cryptic photosynthetic communities and their productivity. We use a radiative transfer model to link geomicrobiology with observational astronomy and calculate the disk-averaged spectra and identify detectable features that would re...

Cockell, C S; Raven, J A

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

PRELIMINARY ESTIMATE OF THE COST OF PRODUCING ENRICHED OXYGEN-18 WATER BY DISTILLATION  

SciTech Connect

An order of magnitude estimate was made a determine the cost of producing oxygen-18 enriched water by the equilibrium distillation of water. Three isotopic purities and two production rates were considered. Costs varied from per gram for 3% oxygen-18 enriched water produced at a rate of 100 grams per day to 5 per gram for 99% oxygen-18 water produced at a rate of one gram per day. (auth)

Drury, J.S.; Klima, B.B.

1958-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

246

Nanostructured Cobalt Oxide Clusters in Mesoporous Silica as Efficient Oxygen-Evolving Catalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as Efficient Oxygen- Evolving Catalysts Feng Jiao and Heinzof efficient and robust catalysts for the chemicaltransformations. Catalysts need to exhibit turnover

Jiao, Feng

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Total organic carbon (TOC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) - Monitoring of organic pollutants in wastewater.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Total organic carbon (TOC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) are two methods used for measuring organic pollutants in wastewater. Both methods are widely used… (more)

Hodzic, Elvisa

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Task Technical Plan for Studies of Oxygen Consumption in the Catalyzed Hydrolysis of Tetraphenylborate Ion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document presents the plan for studies of how dissolved oxygen affects the catalytic decomposition of the tetraphenylborate ion in alkaline aqueous solution.

Fink, S.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

1996-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

249

Meiofaunal distributions on the Peru margin: relationship to oxygen and organic matter availability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

oxygen and organic matter availability Carlos Neira a,e, *,and decreasing organic matter availability downslope wereleading to high food availability and quality. Food input

Neira, Carlos; Sellanes, Javier; Levin, Lisa A; Arntz, Wolf A

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Cold-Start and Warm-Up Driveability Performance of Hybrid Electric Vehicles Using Oxygenated Fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Provides analysis and results of the driveability performance testing from four hybrid electric vehicles--Honda Civic, Toyota Prius, and two Honda Insights--that used oxygenated fuels.

Thornton, M.; Jorgensen, S.; Evans, B.; Wright, K.

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oils and methods for producing the same  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oils and methods for producing them from carbonaceous biomass feedstock are provided. The carbonaceous biomass feedstock is pyrolyzed in the presence of a catalyst comprising base metal-based catalysts, noble metal-based catalysts, treated zeolitic catalysts, or combinations thereof to produce pyrolysis gases. During pyrolysis, the catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction whereby at least a portion of the oxygenated hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis gases are converted into hydrocarbons. The oxygen is removed as carbon oxides and water. A condensable portion (the vapors) of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

Marinangeli, Richard; Brandvold, Timothy A; Kocal, Joseph A

2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

252

Distribution of Oxygen in mc-Silicon Ingots for Solar Cell Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

May 1, 2007 ... Distribution of Oxygen in mc-Silicon Ingots for Solar Cell Applications by Marisa Di Sabatino, Eivind J. Øvrelid, Espen Olsen, Thorvald A. Engh ...

253

A Cost-Effective Oxygen Separation System Based on Open Gradient...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Feed Systems A Cost-Effective Oxygen Separation System Based on Open Gradient Magnetic Field by Polymer Beads ITN Energy Systems, Inc. Project Number: SC0010151 Project Description...

254

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Nitrogen-Oxygen Battery for Large Scale...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2012 Frank Delnick, David Ingersoll, Karen Waldrip, Peter Feibelman NitrogenOxygen Battery A Transformational Architecture for Large Scale Energy Storage Power Sources...

255

Oxygen-resistant hydrogenases and methods for designing and making same  

SciTech Connect

The invention provides oxygen- resistant iron-hydrogenases ([Fe]-hydrogenases) for use in the production of H2. Methods used in the design and engineering of the oxygen-resistant [Fe]-hydrogenases are disclosed, as are the methods of transforming and culturing appropriate host cells with the oxygen-resistant [Fe]-hydrogenases. Finally, the invention provides methods for utilizing the transformed, oxygen insensitive, host cells in the bulk production of H.sub.2 in a light catalyzed reaction having water as the reactant.

King, Paul (Golden, CO); Ghirardi, Maria L (Lakewood, CO); Seibert, Michael (Lakewood, CO)

2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

256

X-ray absorption spectroscopy on the calcium cofactor to the manganese cluster in photosynthetic oxygen evolution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Along with Mn, calcium and chloride ions are necessary cofactors for oxygen evolution in Photosystem II (PS II). To further test and verify whether Ca is close to the Mn cluster, the authors substituted strontium for Ca and probed from the Sr point of view for any nearby Mn. The extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) of Sr-reactivated PS II indicates major differences between the intact and NH{sub 2}OH-treated samples. In intact samples, the Fourier transform of the Sr EXAFS shows a Fourier peak that is missing in inactive samples. This peak II is best simulated by two Mn neighbors at a distance of 3.5 Angstrom, confirming the proximity of Ca (Sr) cofactor to the Mn cluster. In addition, polarized Sr EXAFS on oriented Sr-reactivated samples shows this peak II is dichroic: large magnitude at 10 degrees (angle between the PS II membrane normal and the x-ray electric field vector) and small at 80 degrees. Analysis of the dichroism yields the relative angle between the Sr-Mn vector and membrane normal (23 degrees {+-} 4 degrees), and the isotropic coordination number for these layered samples. X-ray absorption spectroscopy has also been employed to assess the degree of similarity between the manganese cluster in PS II and a family of synthetic manganese complexes containing the distorted cubane [Mn{sub 4}O{sub 3}X] core (X = benzoate, acetate, methoxide, hydroxide, azide, fluoride, chloride or bromide). In addition, Mn{sub 4}O{sub 3}Cl complexes containing three or six terminal Cl ligands at three of the Mn were included in this study. The EXAFS method detects the small changes in the core structures as X is varied in this series, and serves to exclude these distorted cubanes of C3v symmetry as a topological model for the Mn catalytic cluster. The sulfur K-edge x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra for the amino acids cysteine, methionine, their corresponding oxidized forms cystine and methionine sulfoxide, and glutathione show distinct differences between the thiol and disulfide forms. Sulfur XANES is also used to detect changes (within 5%) of the thiol-to-disulfide ratio in whole human blood, plasma, and erythrocytes.

Cinco, Roehl M.

1999-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

257

Low energy consumption method for separating gaseous mixtures and in particular for medium purity oxygen production  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for the separation of gaseous mixtures such as air and for producing medium purity oxygen, comprising compressing the gaseous mixture in a first compressor to about 3.9-4.1 atmospheres pressure, passing said compressed gaseous mixture in heat exchange relationship with sub-ambient temperature gaseous nitrogen, dividing the cooled, pressurized gaseous mixture into first and second streams, introducing the first stream into the high pressure chamber of a double rectification column, separating the gaseous mixture in the rectification column into a liquid oxygen-enriched stream and a gaseous nitrogen stream and supplying the gaseous nitrogen stream for cooling the compressed gaseous mixture, removing the liquid oxygen-enriched stream from the low pressure chamber of the rectification column and pumping the liquid, oxygen-enriched steam to a predetermined pressure, cooling the second stream, condensing the cooled second stream and evaporating the oxygen-enriched stream in an evaporator-condenser, delivering the condensed second stream to the high pressure chamber of the rectification column, and heating the oxygen-enriched stream and blending the oxygen-enriched stream with a compressed blend-air stream to the desired oxygen concentration.

Jujasz, Albert J. (North Olmsted, OH); Burkhart, James A. (Olmsted Falls, OH); Greenberg, Ralph (New York, NY)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

A new fibre optic pulse oximeter probe for monitoring splanchnic organ arterial blood oxygen saturation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new, continuous method of monitoring splanchnic organ oxygen saturation (SpO"2) would make the early detection of inadequate tissue oxygenation feasible, reducing the risk of hypoperfusion, severe ischaemia, and, ultimately, death. In an attempt to ... Keywords: Fibre optics, Perfusion, Photoplethysmography, Pulse oximetry, Splanchnic organs

M. Hickey; N. Samuels; N. Randive; R. Langford; P. A. Kyriacou

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Communications: Elementary oxygen electrode reactions in the aprotic Li-air battery  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Communications: Elementary oxygen electrode reactions in the aprotic Li-air battery J. S February 2010 We discuss the electrochemical reactions at the oxygen electrode of an aprotic Li-air battery and charge of the battery, we introduce a reaction free energy diagram and identify possible origins

Thygesen, Kristian

260

071 An LTCC Clark-Type Oxygen Sensor - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Clark-type oxygen sensors are electrochemical devices consisting an oxygen- permeable ... 030 Tricalcium Phosphate System in Drug Delivery and Bone Graft ... 039 Effect of % Boron on the Tribological Performance of Alumina Matrix ... 094 Isotopic Enrichment Studies to Determine Elemental Diffusion Profiles Through an ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasohol excludes oxygenates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Development of alternative oxygen production source using a zirconia solid electrolyte membrane  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this multiyear effort was the development, fabrication and testing of a zirconia oxygen production module capable of delivering approximately 100 liters/minute (LPM) of oxygen. The work discussed in this report consists of development and improvement of the zirconia cell along with manufacture of cell components, preliminary design of the final plant, additional economic analysis and industrial participation. (VC)

Suitor, J.W.; Clark, D.J.; Losey, R.W.

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Development of alternative oxygen production source using a zirconia solid electrolyte membrane. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this multiyear effort was the development, fabrication and testing of a zirconia oxygen production module capable of delivering approximately 100 liters/minute (LPM) of oxygen. The work discussed in this report consists of development and improvement of the zirconia cell along with manufacture of cell components, preliminary design of the final plant, additional economic analysis and industrial participation. (VC)

Suitor, J.W.; Clark, D.J.; Losey, R.W.

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Pore water evolution in oilfield sandstones: constraints from oxygen isotope microanalyses of quartz cement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pore water evolution in oilfield sandstones: constraints from oxygen isotope microanalyses a Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JW, Scotland, UK b Shell Oxygen isotope microanalyses of authigenic quartz, in combination with temperatures of quartz

Haszeldine, Stuart

264

The effect of plutonium dioxide water surface coverage on the generation of hydrogen and oxygen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The conditions for the production of oxygen during radiolysis of water adsorbed onto plutonium dioxide powder are discussed. Studies in the literature investigating the radiolysis of water show that both oxygen and hydrogen can be generated from water adsorbed on high-purity plutonium dioxide powder. These studies indicate that there is a threshold in the amount of water below which oxygen is not generated. The threshold is associated with the number of monolayers of adsorbed water and is shown to occur at approximately two monolayers of molecularly adsorbed water. Material in equilibrium with 50% relative humidity (RH) will be at the threshold for oxygen generation. Using two monolayers of molecularly adsorbed water as the threshold for oxygen production, the total pressure under various conditions is calculated assuming stoichiometric production of hydrogen and oxygen. The specific surface area of the oxide has a strong effect on the final partial pressure. The specific surface areas resulting in the highest pressures within a 3013 container are evaluated. The potential for oxygen generation is mitigated by reduced relative humidity, and hence moisture adsorption, at the oxide surface which occurs if the oxide is warmer than the ambient air. The potential for oxygen generation approaches zero as the temperature difference between the ambient air and the material approaches 6 C.

Veirs, Douglas K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Berg, John M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Crowder, Mark L. [Savannah River National Laboratory

2012-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

265

Flames in Type Ia Supernova: Deflagration-Detonation Transition in the Oxygen Burning Flame  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Flames in Type Ia Supernova: Deflagration-Detonation Transition in the Oxygen Burning Flame S. E structure which, de- pending on density, may involve separate regions of carbon, oxygen and silicon burning, all propagating in a self-similar, subsonic front. The separation between these three burning regions

266

Krypton for Multi-Pane Windows: Selective Absorption of Krypton from Oxygen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Krypton for Multi-Pane Windows: Selective Absorption of Krypton from Oxygen Krypton for Multi-Pane Windows: Selective Absorption of Krypton from Oxygen in an Ionic Liquid Speaker(s): John Prausnitz Waheed Afzal Date: September 18, 2012 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Robert Hart Because of its low thermal conductivity, krypton is a useful gas for the vapor space of double- (or triple-) pane windows. However krypton is more expensive than argon, currently used for most of multi-pane windows. The high price of krypton is due to the energy-intensive cryogenic process for its recovery from oxygen that is obtained from air. Ionic liquids may provide a cost-effective absorption process for separation of krypton from the oxygen stream of a liquid-air plant. The polarizability of krypton is higher than that of oxygen; therefore, krypton solubility may be

267

NETL: IEP – Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - Oxygen-Based PC Boiler  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

– Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control – Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control Oxygen-Based PC Boiler Project No.: FC26-04NT42207 & FC26-03NT41736 Spatial Comparison of an Air-Fired Furnace versus an Oxygen-Fired Furnace. Spatial Comparison of an Air-Fired Furnace versus an Oxygen-Fired Furnace. Foster Wheeler North America Corporation will conduct to two projects to improve carbon dioxide (CO2) capture technology by developing a conceptual pulverized coal-fired boiler system design using oxygen as the combustion medium. Using oxygen instead of air produces a flue gas with a high CO2 concentration, which will facilitate CO2 capture for subsequent sequestration. The first project will develop modeling simulations that will lead to a conceptual design that addresses costs, performance, and emissions, and

268

THE OXYGEN PERMEATION PROPERTIES OF NANO CRYSTALLINE CEO2 THIN FILMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The measurement of oxygen flux across nanocrystalline CeO{sub 2} cerium oxide thin films at intermediate temperature (650 to 800 C) is presented. Porous ceria support substrates were fabricated by sintering with carbon additions. The final dense film was deposited from an optimized sol-gel solution resulting in a mean grain size of 50 nm which displayed oxygen flux values of up to 0.014 {micro}mol/cm{sup 2}s over the oxygen partial pressure range from air to helium gas used in the measurement at 800 C. The oxygen flux characteristics confirm mixed ionic and electronic conductivity in nanocrystalline ceria films and demonstrate the role of size dependent materials properties as a design parameter in functional membranes for oxygen separation.

Brinkman, K.

2010-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

269

Vapor Phase Catalytic Upgrading of Model Biomass-Derived Oxygenate Compounds  

SciTech Connect

When biomass is converted to a liquid bio-oil through pyrolysis, it has a significantly higher oxygen content compared to petroleum fractions. In order to convert the pyrolysis products into infrastructure-compatible fuels, oxygen removal is required. Oxygen removal can be achieved by both hydrotreating (which requires the addition of hydrogen) and decarboxylation or decarbonylation, whereby oxygen is rejected as CO2 and CO, respectively. In the present contribution, a number of catalysts were tested for their activity and selectivity in deoxygenation of model biomass-derived oxygenated compounds (e.g., acetic acid, phenol). Comparison of catalytic activity of materials for different compounds, as well as material characterization results will be discussed. Materials tested will include modified zeolites and supported transition metal catalysts.

Yung, M. M.; Gomez, E.; Kuhn, J. N.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Prolonged cold storage of red blood cells by oxygen removal and additive usage  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Prolonged cold storage of red blood cells by oxygen removal and additive usage. A cost-effective, 4.degree. C. storage procedure that preserves red cell quality and prolongs post-transfusion in vivo survival is described. The improved in vivo survival and the preservation of adenosine triphosphate levels, along with reduction in hemolysis and membrane vesicle production of red blood cells stored at 4.degree. C. for prolonged periods of time, is achieved by reducing the oxygen level therein at the time of storage; in particular, by flushing the cells with an inert gas, and storing them in an aqueous solution which includes adenine, dextrose, mannitol, citrate ion, and dihydrogen phosphate ion, but no sodium chloride, in an oxygen-permeable container which is located in an oxygen-free environment containing oxygen-scavenging materials.

Bitensky, Mark W. (Boston, MA); Yoshida, Tatsuro (Newton, MA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Prolonged cold storage of red blood cells by oxygen removal and additive usage  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Prolonged cold storage of red blood cells by oxygen removal and additive usage. A cost-effective, 4 C storage procedure that preserves red cell quality and prolongs post-transfusion in vivo survival is described. The improved in vivo survival and the preservation of adenosine triphosphate levels, along with reduction in hemolysis and membrane vesicle production of red blood cells stored at 4 C for prolonged periods of time, is achieved by reducing the oxygen level therein at the time of storage; in particular, by flushing the cells with an inert gas, and storing them in an aqueous solution which includes adenine, dextrose, mannitol, citrate ion, and dihydrogen phosphate ion, but no sodium chloride, in an oxygen-permeable container which is located in an oxygen-free environment containing oxygen-scavenging materials. 8 figs.

Bitensky, M.W.; Yoshida, Tatsuro

1998-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

272

Oxygen suppression in boiling water reactors. Quarterly report 2, January 1--March 31, 1978  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Boiling water reactors (BWR's) generally use high purity, no-additive feedwater. Primary recirculating coolant is neutral pH, and contains 100 to 300 ppB oxygen and stoichiometrically related dissolved hydrogen. However, oxygenated water increases austenitic stainless steel susceptibility to intergranular stress-corrosion cracking (IGSCC) when other requisite factors such as stress and sensitization are present. Thus, reduction or elimination of the oxygen in BWR water may preclude cracking incidents. One approach to reduction of the BWR coolant oxygen concentration is to adopt alternate water chemistry (AWC) conditions using an additive(s) to suppress or reverse radiolytic oxygen formation. Several additives are available to do this but they have seen only limited and specialized application in BWR's. The objective of this program is to perform an in-depth engineering evaluation of the potential suppression additives supported by critical experiments where required to resolve substantive uncertainties.

Burley, E.L.

1978-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

MHK Technologies/Oxygen Releasing and Carbon Absorbing Ocean Based  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Releasing and Carbon Absorbing Ocean Based Releasing and Carbon Absorbing Ocean Based Renewable Energy System < MHK Technologies Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Oxygen Releasing and Carbon Absorbing Ocean Based Renewable Energy System.jpg Technology Profile Technology Description The benefits of the system developed and patented by AEEA are 1 exploitation of the greater wave energy density in the more remote off shore locations 2 usage of existing industrial fuel storage and distribution infrastructure 3 provision for a gradual transition to widespread electric vehicle use 4 avoidance of environmental destruction and visual impairment with minimal impact on commercial fishing and recreation uses 5 fostering the development of a new maritime and energy industry 6 avoidance of the high capital investment in mooring and anchoring seabed electrical cable installation and seabed restoration 7 development of flexibility by deployment of fleets of these vessels to supply widely separated market locations using coastal and national waterways and 8 provision for the addition of fleets without depletion of primary feed stocks as in nuclear energy systems 2 Fig 1 In summary the system converts wave energy from the nearly unlimited world wide

274

Oxygen sensor for monitoring gas mixtures containing hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas sensor measures O.sub.2 content of a reformable monitored gas containing hydrocarbons H.sub.2 O and/or CO.sub.2, preferably in association with an electrochemical power generation system. The gas sensor has a housing communicating with the monitored gas environment and carries the monitored gas through an integral catalytic hydrocarbon reforming chamber containing a reforming catalyst, and over a solid electrolyte electrochemical cell used for sensing purposes. The electrochemical cell includes a solid electrolyte between a sensor electrode that is exposed to the monitored gas, and a reference electrode that is isolated in the housing from the monitored gas and is exposed to a reference gas environment. A heating element is also provided in heat transfer communication with the gas sensor. A circuit that can include controls operable to adjust operations via valves or the like is connected between the sensor electrode and the reference electrode to process the electrical signal developed by the electrochemical cell. The electrical signal varies as a measure of the equilibrium oxygen partial pressure of the monitored gas. Signal noise is effectively reduced by maintaining a constant temperature in the area of the electrochemical cell and providing a monitored gas at chemical equilibria when contacting the electrochemical cell. The output gas from the electrochemical cell of the sensor is fed back into the conduits of the power generating system.

Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Basel, Richard A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Conceptual Design of Oxygen-Based PC Boiler  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coal is presently the world's primary fuel for generating electrical power and, being more abundant and less expensive than oil or natural gas, is expected to continue its dominance into the future. Coal, however, is more carbon intensive than natural gas and oil and consequently coal-fired power plants are large point source emitters of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Since CO{sub 2} is a greenhouse gas, which may have an adverse impact on the world's climate/weather patterns, studies have been conducted to determine the feasibility and economic impact of capturing power plant CO{sub 2} emissions for pipeline transport to a sequestration/storage site. The stack gas that exhausts from a modern coal-fired power plant typically contains about 15% CO{sub 2} on a dry volume basis. Although there are numerous processes available for removing CO{sub 2} from gas streams, gas scrubbing with amine solvent is best suited for this application because of the large gas volumes and low CO{sub 2} concentrations involved. Unfortunately the energy required to regenerate the solvent for continued use as a capturing agent is large and imposes a severe energy penalty on the plant. In addition this ''back end'' or post combustion cleanup requires the addition of large vessels, which, in retrofit applications, are difficult to accommodate. As an alternative to post combustion scrubbing, Foster Wheeler (FW) has proposed that the combustion process be accomplished with oxygen rather than air. With all air nitrogen eliminated, a CO{sub 2}-water vapor rich flue gas will be generated. After condensation of the water vapor, a portion of the flue gas will be recirculated back to the boiler to control the combustion temperature and the balance of the CO{sub 2} will be processed for pipeline transport. This proposed oxygen-carbon dioxide (O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2}) combustion process eliminates the need for CO{sub 2} removal/separation and reduces the cost of supplying a CO{sub 2} rich stream for sequestration. FW has developed a conceptual design of an O{sub 2} fired boiler to determine overall plant performance and economics. Five subtasks were conducted: (1) a literature review, (2) a system design and analysis, (3) a low NOx burner design and analysis, (4) a furnace and heat recovery area design analysis, and (5) an economic analysis. The objective of the literature search is to locate any data/information relevant to the Oxygen-Based PC Boiler conceptual design. The objective of the system design and analysis task is to optimize the PC boiler plant by maximizing system efficiency within practical considerations. Simulations of the oxygen-fired plant with CO{sub 2} sequestration were conducted using Aspen Plus and were compared to a reference air-fired 460 MW plant. Flue gas recycle is used in the O{sub 2}-fired PC to control the flame temperature. Parametric runs were made to determine the effect of flame temperature on system efficiency and required waterwall material and thickness. The degree of improvement on system efficiency of various modifications including hot gas recycle, purge gas recycle, flue gas feedwater recuperation, and recycle purge gas expansion were investigated. The selected O{sub 2}-fired design case has a system efficiency of 30.6% compared to the air-fired system efficiency of 36.7%. The design O{sub 2}-fired case requires T91 waterwall material and has a waterwall surface area of only 65% of the air-fired reference case. The objective of the low NOx burner design and analysis task is to optimize the burner design to ensure stable ignition, to provide safe operation, and to minimize pollutant formation. The burners were designed and analyzed using the Fluent CFD computer program. Four burner designs were developed: (1) with no OFG and 65% flue gas recycle, (2) with 20% OFG and 65% flue gas recycle, (3) with no OFG and 56% flue gas recycle and (4) with 20% OFG and 56% flue gas recycle. A 3-D Fluent simulation was made of a single wall-fired burner and horizontal portion of the furnace from the wall to the center. Without primary gas sw

Andrew Seltzer; Zhen Fan

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Cryptic photosynthesis, Extrasolar planetary oxygen without a surface biological signature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

On the Earth, photosynthetic organisms are responsible for the production of virtually all of the oxygen in the atmosphere. On the land, vegetation reflects in the visible, leading to a red edge that developed about 450 Myr ago and has been proposed as a biosignature for life on extrasolar planets. However, in many regions of the Earth, and particularly where surface conditions are extreme, for example in hot and cold deserts, photosynthetic organisms can be driven into and under substrates where light is still sufficient for photosynthesis. These communities exhibit no detectable surface spectral signature to indicate life. The same is true of the assemblages of photosynthetic organisms at more than a few metres depth in water bodies. These communities are widespread and dominate local photosynthetic productivity. We review known cryptic photosynthetic communities and their productivity. We link geomicrobiology with observational astronomy by calculating the disk-averaged spectra of cryptic habitats and identifying detectable features on an exoplanet dominated by such a biota. The hypothetical cryptic photosynthesis worlds discussed here are Earth-analogs that show detectable atmospheric biomarkers like our own planet, but do not exhibit a discernable biological surface feature in the disc-averaged spectrum.

C. S. Cockell; L. Kaltenegger; J. A. Raven

2008-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

277

A ROLE FOR MANGANESE IN OXYGEN EVOLUTION IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The prospects are shrinking rapidly for a future for society based on liquid hydrocarbons as a major source of energy. Among the wide array of alternative sources that are currently undergoing scrutiny, much attention is attracted to the photolysis of water to produce hydrogen and oxygen gases. Water, the starting material, does not suffer from lack of abundance, and there is every likelihood that the environmental consequences of water splitting will be negligible. Solar radiation is the obvious candiate for the ultimate energy source, but of course water cannot be photolyzed directly by the relatively low-energy wave-lengths, greater than 300 nm, that penetrate the earth's atmosphere. Nevertheless, the photolysis of water to produce O{sub 2} and reduced substances, with reduction potentials equivalent to that of H{sub 2}, is accomplished efficiently using sunlight by higher plant photosynthesis. There are even organisms that, under special conditions, will evolve H{sub 2} gas photosynthetically, but not efficiently when coupled with O{sub 2} production. To produce a molecule of O{sub 2} from water requires the removal of four electrons from two H{sub 2}O molecules.

Sauer, Kenneth

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Oxygen sensor for monitoring gas mixtures containing hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas sensor measures O{sub 2} content of a reformable monitored gas containing hydrocarbons, H{sub 2}O and/or CO{sub 2}, preferably in association with an electrochemical power generation system. The gas sensor has a housing communicating with the monitored gas environment and carries the monitored gas through an integral catalytic hydrocarbon reforming chamber containing a reforming catalyst, and over a solid electrolyte electrochemical cell used for sensing purposes. The electrochemical cell includes a solid electrolyte between a sensor electrode that is exposed to the monitored gas, and a reference electrode that is isolated in the housing from the monitored gas and is exposed to a reference gas environment. A heating element is also provided in heat transfer communication with the gas sensor. A circuit that can include controls operable to adjust operations via valves or the like is connected between the sensor electrode and the reference electrode to process the electrical signal developed by the electrochemical cell. The electrical signal varies as a measure of the equilibrium oxygen partial pressure of the monitored gas. Signal noise is effectively reduced by maintaining a constant temperature in the area of the electrochemical cell and providing a monitored gas at chemical equilibria when contacting the electrochemical cell. The output gas from the electrochemical cell of the sensor is fed back into the conduits of the power generating system. 4 figs.

Ruka, R.J.; Basel, R.A.

1996-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

279

ON THE OXYGEN ISOTOPIC COMPOSITION OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The {sup 18}O/{sup 17}O ratio of the solar system is 5.2 while that of the interstellar medium (ISM) and young stellar objects is approx4. This difference cannot be explained by pollution of the Sun's natal molecular cloud by {sup 18}O-rich supernova ejecta because (1) the necessary B-star progenitors live longer than the duration of star formation in molecular clouds, (2) the delivery of ejecta gas is too inefficient and the amount of dust in supernova ejecta is too small compared to the required pollution (2% of total mass or approx20% of oxygen), and (3) the predicted amounts of concomitant short-lived radionuclides (SLRs) conflicts with the abundances of {sup 26}Al and {sup 41}Ca in the early solar system. Proposals for the introduction of {sup 18}O-rich material must also be consistent with any explanation for the origin of the observed slope-one relationship between {sup 17}O/{sup 16}O and {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O in the high-temperature components of primitive meteorites. The difference in {sup 18}O/{sup 17}O ratios can be explained by enrichment of the ISM by the {sup 17}O-rich winds of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, the sequestration of comparatively {sup 18}O-rich gas from star-forming regions into long-lived, low-mass stars, and a monotonic decrease in the {sup 18}O/{sup 17}O ratio of interstellar gas. At plausible rates of star formation and gas infall, Galactic chemical evolution does not follow a slope-one line in a three-isotope plot, but instead moves along a steeper trajectory toward an {sup 17}O-rich state. Evolution of the ISM and star-forming gas by AGB winds also explains the difference in the carbon isotope ratios of the solar system and ISM.

Gaidos, Eric [Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, 96822 (United States); Krot, Alexander N.; Huss, Gary R., E-mail: gaidos@hawaii.ed, E-mail: sasha@higp.hawaii.ed, E-mail: huss@higp.hawaii.ed [Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, 96822 (United States)

2009-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

280

Catalytic Synthesis of Oxygenates: Mechanisms, Catalysts and Controlling Characteristics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This research focused on catalytic synthesis of unsymmetrical ethers as a part of a larger program involving oxygenated products in general, including alcohols, ethers, esters, carboxylic acids and their derivatives that link together environmentally compliant fuels, monomers, and high-value chemicals. The catalysts studied here were solid acids possessing strong Br�������¸nsted acid functionalities. The design of these catalysts involved anchoring the acid groups onto inorganic oxides, e.g. surface-grafted acid groups on zirconia, and a new class of mesoporous solid acids, i.e. propylsulfonic acid-derivatized SBA-15. The former catalysts consisted of a high surface concentration of sulfate groups on stable zirconia catalysts. The latter catalyst consists of high surface area, large pore propylsulfonic acid-derivatized silicas, specifically SBA-15. In both cases, the catalyst design and synthesis yielded high concentrations of acid sites in close proximity to one another. These materials have been well-characterization in terms of physical and chemical properties, as well as in regard to surface and bulk characteristics. Both types of catalysts were shown to exhibit high catalytic performance with respect to both activity and selectivity for the bifunctional coupling of alcohols to form ethers, which proceeds via an efficient SN2 reaction mechanism on the proximal acid sites. This commonality of the dual-site SN2 reaction mechanism over acid catalysts provides for maximum reaction rates and control of selectivity by reaction conditions, i.e. pressure, temperature, and reactant concentrations. This research provides the scientific groundwork for synthesis of ethers for energy applications. The synthesized environmentally acceptable ethers, in part derived from natural gas via alcohol intermediates, exhibit high cetane properties, e.g. methylisobutylether with cetane No. of 53 and dimethylether with cetane No. of 55-60, or high octane properties, e.g. diisopropylether with blending octane No. of 105, and can replace aromatics in liquid fuels.

Kamil Klier; Richard G. Herman

2005-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasohol excludes oxygenates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Oxygen Electrocatalysts for Water Electrolyzers and Reversible Fuel Cells: Status and Perspective  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen production by electrochemical water electrolysis has received great attention as an alternative technology for energy conversion and storage. The oxygen electrode has a substantial effect on the performance and durability in water electrolyzers and reversible fuel cells because of its intrinsically slow kinetics for oxygen evolution/reduction and poor durability under harsh operating environments. To improve oxygen kinetics and durability of the electrode, extensive studies for highly active and stable oxygen electrocatalyst have been performed. However, due to the thermodynamic instability of transition metals in acidic media, noble metal compounds have been primarily utilized as electrocatalysts in water electrolyzers and reversible fuel cells. For water electrolyzer applications, single noble metal oxides such as ruthenium oxide and iridium oxide have been studied, and binary or ternary metal oxides have been developed to take synergestic effects of each component. On the other hand, a variety of bifunctional electrocatalysts with a combination of monofunctional electrocatalysts such as platinum for oxygen reduction and iridium oxide for oxygen evolution for reversible fuel cell applications have been mainly proposed. Practically, supported iridium oxide-on-platinum, its reverse type, and non-precious metal-supported platinum and iridium bifunctional electrocatalysts have been developed. Recent theoretical calculations and experimental studies in terms of water electrolysis and fuel cell technology suggest effective ways to cope with current major challenges of cost and durability of oxygen electrocatalysts for technical applications.

Park, Seh Kyu; Shao, Yuyan; Liu, Jun; Wang, Yong

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts on High-Stability-Low-Cost Supports  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts on High-Stability-Low-Cost Supports Co-PIs: Jia Wang, Miomir Vukmirovic, Kotaro Sasaki, Brookhaven National Laboratory Yang Shao-Horn Massachusetts Institute of Technology Rachel O'Malley, David Thompsett, Sarah Ball, Graham Hard Johnson Matthey Fuel Cells Radoslav Adzic Brookhaven National Laboratory DOE Projects Kickoff Meeting September 30 , 2009 2 Project Overview Project Overview 1. Objectives: Objectives: Developing high performance fuel cell electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) comprising contiguous Pt monolayer Pt monolayer on stable, inexpensive metal or alloy nanorods, nanowires, nanobars and

283

Removing oxygen from a solvent extractant in an uranium recovery process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improvement in effecting uranium recovery from phosphoric acid solutions is provided by sparging dissolved oxygen contained in solutions and solvents used in a reductive stripping stage with an effective volume of a nonoxidizing gas before the introduction of the solutions and solvents into the stage. Effective volumes of nonoxidizing gases, selected from the group consisting of argon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, helium, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, and mixtures thereof, displace oxygen from the solutions and solvents thereby reduce deleterious effects of oxygen such as excessive consumption of elemental or ferrous and accumulation of complex iron phosphates or cruds.

Hurst, Fred J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Brown, Gilbert M. (Knoxville, TN); Posey, Franz A. (Concord, TN)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Method for oxygen reduction in a uranium-recovery process. [US DOE patent application  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improvement in effecting uranium recovery from phosphoric acid solutions is provided by sparging dissolved oxygen contained in solutions and solvents used in a reductive stripping stage with an effective volume of a nonoxidizing gas before the introduction of the solutions and solvents into the stage. Effective volumes of nonoxidizing gases, selected from the group consisting of argon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, helium, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, and mixtures thereof, displace oxygen from the solutions and solvents thereby reduce deleterious effects of oxygen such as excessive consumption of elemental or ferrous iron and accumulation of complex iron phosphates or cruds.

Hurst, F.J.; Brown, G.M.; Posey, F.A.

1981-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

285

Appendix B: CArBon dioxide CApture teChnology SheetS Oxygen PrOductiOn  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxygen PrOductiOn B-500 Oxygen PrOductiOn u.S. dePartment Of energy advanced carbOn diOxide caPture r&d PrOgram: technOlOgy uPdate, may 2013 itm Oxygen technOlOgy fOr integratiOn...

286

Simulation of the dissolved oxygen concentration and the pH value at the O2-FET  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The O2-FET is a pH ion sensitive field effect transistor (ISFET) modified to measure dissolved oxygen via the acidification from an amperometric dissolved oxygen microsensor. A diffusion based finite elements model which describes the transactions at ... Keywords: ISFET, diffusion, dissolved oxygen, finite elements simulation

J. Wiest; S. Blank; M. Brischwein; H. Grothe; B. Wolf

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Size Influence on the Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity and Instability of Supported Pt Nanoparticles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Size-dependent oxygen reduction reaction activity (ORR) and instability of Pt nanoparticles is of great importance in proton exchange membrane fuel cell applications. In this study, the size-dependence of ORR activity on ...

Sheng, Wenchao

288

Ion implantation method for preparing polymers having oxygen erosion resistant surfaces  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hard surfaced polymers and the method for making them are generally described. Polymers are subjected to simultaneous multiple ion beam bombardment, that results in a hardening of the surface, improved wear resistance, and improved oxygen erosion resistance.

Lee, Eal H. (Oak Ridge, TN); Mansur, Louis K. (Clinton, TN); Heatherly, Jr., Lee (Jacksboro, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

The effect of oxygenate molecular structure on soot production in direct-injection diesel engines.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A combined experimental and kinetic modeling study of soot formation in diesel engine combustion has been used to study the addition of oxygenated species to diesel fuel to reduce soot emissions. This work indicates that the primary role of oxygen atoms in the fuel mixture is to reduce the levels of carbon atoms available for soot formation by fixing them in the form of CO or COz. When the structure of the oxygenate leads to prompt and direct formation of CO2, the oxygenate is less effective in reducing soot production than in cases when all fuel-bound 0 atoms produce only CO. The kinetic and molecular structure principles leading to this conclusion are described.

Westbrook, Charles K. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA); Pitz, William J. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA); Mueller, Charles J.; Martin, Glen M.; Pickett, Lyle M.

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Behavior of alloy 617 at 650°C in low oxygen pressure environments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The behavior of alloy 617 at 650°C in low oxygen partial pressure environments has been studied under static loading. Of particular interest was the crack growth rate in these conditions. For that, tests were conducted at ...

Mas, Fanny (Fanny P.)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Fiber Optical Micro-detectors for Oxygen Sensing in Power Plants  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

coating fiber bundles 13 Figure 5. Photograph of Fiber 121 as fabricated and after all thermal testing 14 Figure 6. Oxygen sensitivity of Fiber 121 at 42 C over several cycles of...

292

Land Surface Pressure Estimate from Measurements in the Oxygen A Absorption Band  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The POLDER (polarization and directionality of the earth reflectances) instrument to be launched in 1996 carries two channels that cover the oxygen A absorption band (near IR). The authors investigate the possibility of using these measurements ...

François-Marie Bréon; Sophie Bouffiés

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

E10: First-Principles Calculations of Oxygen Diffusion Coefficients in ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

B7: Synthesis and Electrical Properties of K2NiF4-Type (Ca2-xLnx)MnO4 (Ln=Nd and Sm) · B8: Monitoring Oxygen Diffusion in Gd-Doped Ceria by Null ...

294

Fundamental understanding and materials design approaches for lithium-oxygen electrochemical energy storage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

New strategies and materials are needed to increase the energy and power capabilities of lithium storage devices for electric vehicle and grid-scale applications. Systems based on oxygen electrochemistry are promising due ...

Gallant, Betar M. (Betar Maurkah)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Enhanced electrocatalysis of the oxygen reduction reaction based on patterning of platinum surfaces with cyanide  

SciTech Connect

The slow rate of the oxygen reduction reaction in the phosphoric acid fuel cell is the main factor limiting its wide application. Here, we present an approach that can be used for the rational design of cathode catalysts with potential use in phosphoric acid fuel cells, or in any environments containing strongly adsorbing tetrahedral anions. This approach is based on molecular patterning of platinum surfaces with cyanide adsorbates that can efficiently block the sites for adsorption of spectator anions while the oxygen reduction reaction proceeds unhindered. We also demonstrate that, depending on the supporting electrolyte anions and cations, on the same CN-covered Pt(111) surface, the oxygen reduction reaction activities can range from a 25-fold increase to a 50-fold decrease. This behaviour is discussed in the light of the role of covalent and non-covalent interactions in controlling the ensemble of platinum active sites required for high turn over rates of the oxygen reduction reaction.

Strmcnik, D.; Escudero, M.; Kodama, K.; Stamenkovic, V. R.; Cuesta, A.; Markovic, N. M. (Materials Science Division); (Inst. de Quimica Fisica); (Toyota Central R& D Labs.)

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Enhanced electrocatalysis of the oxygen reduction reaction based on pattering of platinum surfaces with cyanide.  

SciTech Connect

The slow rate of the oxygen reduction reaction in the phosphoric acid fuel cell is the main factor limiting its wide application. Here, we present an approach that can be used for the rational design of cathode catalysts with potential use in phosphoric acid fuel cells, or in any environments containing strongly adsorbing tetrahedral anions. This approach is based on molecular patterning of platinum surfaces with cyanide adsorbates that can efficiently block the sites for adsorption of spectator anions while the oxygen reduction reaction proceeds unhindered. We also demonstrate that, depending on the supporting electrolyte anions and cations, on the same CN-covered Pt(111) surface, the oxygen reduction reaction activities can range from a 25-fold increase to a 50-fold decrease. This behaviour is discussed in the light of the role of covalent and non-covalent interactions in controlling the ensemble of platinum active sites required for high turn over rates of the oxygen reduction reaction.

Strmcnik, D.; Escudero-Escribano, M.; Kodama, K.; Stamenkovic, V. R.; Cuesta, A.; Markovic, N. M.; Materials Science Division; Inst. de Quimica Fisica; Toyota Central R& D Labs., Inc.

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

297

From Fjords to Open Seas: Ecological Genomics of Expanding Oxygen Minimum Zones (2010 JGI User Meeting)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Steven Hallam of the University of British Columbia talks "From Fjords to Open Seas: Ecological Genomics of Expanding Oxygen Minimum Zones" on March 24, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

Hallam, Steven

2010-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

298

Method of controlled reduction of nitroaromatics by enzymatic reaction with oxygen sensitive nitroreductase enzymes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for the controlled reduction of nitroaromatic compounds such as nitrobenzene and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by enzymatic reaction with oxygen sensitive nitroreductase enzymes, such as ferredoxin NADP oxidoreductase. 6 figs.

Shah, M.M.; Campbell, J.A.

1998-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

299

Phototriggered production of reactive oxygen species by TIO2 nanospheres and rods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present the study of reactive oxygen species production under the light irradiation of two different types of TiO2 nanocrystals. Both TiO2 spheric NPs and anisotropic nanorods were investigated using activation of the horseradish ...

Bianca Geiseler, Marko Miljevic, Philipp Müller, Ljiljana Fruk

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Computational mass transfer moduling of flow through a photocatalytic oxygen generator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A self-contained, portable oxygen generator would be extraordinarily useful across a broad spectrum of industries. Both safety and energy-efficiency could be enhanced tremendously in fields such as coal mining, commercial ...

Köksal, Erin (Erin Sevim)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasohol excludes oxygenates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

The Temperature, Oxygen, and Fuel Chemistry Dependence of UO2 Dissolution Under Repository Conditions  

SciTech Connect

Description of results from single pass flowthrough tests showing the effect of dissolved oxygen and temperature on the dissolution of pure UO2 and UO2 with 8 wt% Gd2O3 doping.

Casella, Amanda J.; Hanson, Brady D.; Miller, William H.

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Effects of low oxygen culture on pluripotent stem cell differentiation and teratoma formation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pluripotent stem cells (PSC) hold promise for the study of embryonic development and the treatment of many diseases. Most pluripotent cell research is performed in incubators with a gas-phase oxygen partial pressure (p02) ...

Millman, Jeffrey Robert

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Culturing Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria and Mammalian Cells with a Microfluidic Differential Oxygenator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this manuscript, we report on the culture of anaerobic and aerobic species within a disposable multilayer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic device with an integrated differential oxygenator. A gas-filled microchannel ...

Lam, Raymond H. W.

304

Method of controlled reduction of nitroaromatics by enzymatic reaction with oxygen sensitive nitroreductase enzymes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for the controlled reduction of nitroaromatic compounds such as nitrobenzene and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by enzymatic reaction with oxygen sensitive nitroreductase enzymes, such as ferredoxin NADP oxidoreductase.

Shah, Manish M. (Richland, WA); Campbell, James A. (Pasco, WA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

The Formation of Labrador Sea Water. Part III: The Evolution of Oxygen and Nutrient Concentration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oxygen, nutrient, and tritium concentrations observed in the western Labrador Sea in March 1976 during deep convective renewal of Labrador Sea water are analyzed to show how a newly formed water mass obtains its characteristics. Common to other ...

R. Allyn Clarke; A. R. Coote

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Production of Oxygen Gas and Liquid Metal by Electrochemical Decomposition of Molten Iron Oxide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Molten oxide electrolysis (MOE) is the electrolytic decomposition of a metal oxide, most preferably into liquid metal and oxygen gas. The successful deployment of MOE hinges upon the existence of an inert anode capable of ...

Wang, Dihua

307

Synthesis and oxygen content dependent properties of hexagonal DyMnO{sub 3 + sub delta}.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oxygen deficient polycrystalline samples of hexagonal P6{sub 3}cm (space group No.185) DyMnO{sub 3+{delta}} ({delta} stoichiometric in oxygen content ({delta} = 0). Chemical expansion of the crystal lattice corresponding to these large changes of oxygen was found to be 3.48 x 10{sup -2} mol{sup -1}. Thermal expansion of stoichiometric phases were determined to be 11.6 x 10{sup -6} and 2.1 x 10{sup -6} K{sup -1} for the P6{sub 3}cm and Hex{sub 2} phases, respectively. Our measurements also indicate that the oxygen non-stoichiometry of hexagonal RMnO{sub 3+{delta}} materials may have important influence on their multiferroic properties.

Remsen, S.; Dabrowski, B.; Chmaissem, O.; Mais, J.; Szewczyk, A. (Materials Science Division); (Northern Illinois Univ.); (Polish Acad. Sci.)

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction with reduced platinum oxidation and dissolution rates  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to platinum-metal oxide composite particles and their use as electrocatalysts in oxygen-reducing cathodes and fuel cells. The invention particularly relates to methods for preventing the oxidation of the platinum electrocatalyst in the cathodes of fuel cells by use of these platinum-metal oxide composite particles. The invention additionally relates to methods for producing electrical energy by supplying such a fuel cell with an oxidant, such as oxygen, and a fuel source, such as hydrogen.

Adzic, Radoslav (East Setauket, NY); Zhang, Junliang (Stony Brook, NY); Vukmirovic, Miomir (Port Jefferson Station, NY)

2011-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

309

Electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction with reduced platinum oxidation and dissolution rates  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to platinum-metal oxide composite particles and their use as electrocatalysts in oxygen-reducing cathodes and fuel cells. The invention particularly relates to methods for preventing the oxidation of the platinum electrocatalyst in the cathodes of fuel cells by use of these platinum-metal oxide composite particles. The invention additionally relates to methods for producing electrical energy by supplying such a fuel cell with an oxidant, such as oxygen, and a fuel source, such as hydrogen.

Adzic, Radoslav; Zhang, Junliang; Vukmirovic, Miomir

2012-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

310

The oxygen abundance gradient in M101: the reliability of the P method  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the oxygen abundance determination for 90 HII regions in the inner parts of the grand design galaxy M101. The abundances were derived employing the P method (Pilyugin 2001a). A comparison is made with previous determinations using another calibration and direct measurements of electron temperature to derive the oxygen abundance. The results show agreement with the abundances derived from the electron temperature method and also show that the older calibration is not as accurate as the P method.

B. Cedres; M. A. Urbaneja; J. Cepa

2004-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

311

The oxygen abundance gradient in M101: the reliability of the P method  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the oxygen abundance determination for 90 HII regions in the inner parts of the grand design galaxy M101. The abundances were derived employing the P method (Pilyugin 2001a). A comparison is made with previous determinations using another calibration and direct measurements of electron temperature to derive the oxygen abundance. The results show agreement with the abundances derived from the electron temperature method and also show that the older calibration is not as accurate as the P method.

Cedres, B; Cepa, J

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Utilizing intake-air oxygen-enrichment technology to reduce cold- phase emissions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Oxygen-enriched combustion is a proven, serious considered technique to reduce exhaust hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from automotive gasoline engines. This paper presents the cold-phase emissions reduction results of using oxygen-enriched intake air containing about 23% and 25% oxygen (by volume) in a vehicle powered by a spark-ignition (SI) engine. Both engineout and converter-out emissions data were collected by following the standard federal test procedure (FTP). Converter-out emissions data were also obtained employing the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) ``Off-Cycle`` test. Test results indicate that the engine-out CO emissions during the cold phase (bag 1) were reduced by about 46 and 50%, and HC by about 33 and 43%, using nominal 23 and 25% oxygen-enriched air compared to ambient air (21% oxygen by volume), respectively. However, the corresponding oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) emissions were increased by about 56 and 79%, respectively. Time-resolved emissions data indicate that both HC and CO emissions were reduced considerably during the initial 127 s of the cold-phase FTP, without any increase in NO, emissions in the first 25 s. Hydrocarbon speciation results indicate that all major toxic pollutants, including ozone-forming specific reactivity factors, such as maximum incremental reactivity (NUR) and maximum ozone incremental reactivity (MOIR), were reduced considerably with oxygen-enrichment. Based on these results, it seems that using oxygen-enriched intake air during the cold-phase FTP could potentially reduce HC and CO emissions sufficiently to meet future emissions standards. Off-cycle, converter-out, weighted-average emissions results show that both HC and CO emissions were reduced by about 60 to 75% with 23 or 25% oxygen-enrichment, but the accompanying NO{sub x}, emissions were much higher than those with the ambient air.

Poola, R.B.; Ng, H.K.; Sekar, R.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Baudino, J.H. [Autoresearch Labs., Inc., Chicago, IL (United States); Colucci, C.P. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

313

Device and method for determining oxygen concentration and pressure in gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are oxygen concentration and/or pressure sensing devices and methods which incorporate photoluminescent silica aerogels. Disclosed sensors include a light proof housing for holding the photoluminescent aerogel, a source of excitation radiation (e.g., a UV source), a detector for detecting radiation emitted by the aerogel, a system for delivering a sample gas to the aerogel, and a thermocouple. Also disclosed are water resistant oxygen sensors having a photoluminescent aerogel coated with a hydrophobic material. 6 figs.

Ayers, M.R.; Hunt, A.J.

1999-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

314

Device and method for determining oxygen concentration and pressure in gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are oxygen concentration and/or pressure sensing devices and methods which incorporate photoluminescent silica aerogels. Disclosed sensors include a light proof housing for holding the photoluminescent aerogel, a source of excitation radiation (e.g., a UV source), a detector for detecting radiation emitted by the aerogel, a system for delivering a sample gas to the aerogel, and a thermocouple. Also disclosed are water resistant oxygen sensors having a photoluminescent aerogel coated with a hydrophobic material.

Ayers, Michael R. (El Cerrito, CA); Hunt, Arlon J. (Kensington, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Application of oxygen-enriched combustion for locomotive diesel engines. Phase 1  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A thermodynamic simulation is used to study the effects of oxygen-enriched intake air on the performance and nitrogen oxide (NO) emissions of a locomotive diesel engine. The parasitic power of the air separation membrane required to supply the oxygen-enriched air is also estimated. For a given constraint on peak cylinder pressure, the gross and net power outputs of an engine operating under different levels of oxygen enrichment are compared with those obtained when a high-boost turbocharged engine is used. A 4% increase in peak cylinder pressure can result in an increase in net engine power of approximately 13% when intake air with an oxygen content of 28% by volume is used and fuel injection timing is retarded by 4 degrees. When the engine is turbocharged to a higher inlet boost, the same increase in peak cylinder pressure improves power by only 4%. If part of the significantly higher exhaust enthalpies available as a result of oxygen enrichment are recovered, the power requirements of the air separator membrane can be met, resulting in substantial net power improvements. Oxygen enrichment reduces particulate and visible smoke emissions but increases NO emissions. However, a combination of retarded fuel injection timing and post-treatment of exhaust gases may be adequate to meet the locomotive diesel engine NO{sub x} standards. Exhaust gas after-treatment and heat recovery would be required to realize the full potential of oxygen enrichment. Economic analysis shows that oxygen-enrichment technology is economically feasible and provides high returns on investment. The study also indicates the strong influence of membrane parasitic requirements and exhaust energy recovery on economic benefits. To obtain an economic advantage while using a membrane with higher parasitic power requirements, it is necessary to recover a part of the exhaust energy.

Poola, R.B.; Sekar, R.R.; Assanis, D.N.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Oxygen-hydrogen meter assembly for use in remote sodium sampling systems  

SciTech Connect

An assembly of an electrolytic oxygen meter and a diffusion type hydrogen meter was designed to fit into the Multipurpose Sampler hardware already installed and operating on the four FFTF sodium systems. One of the key elements in this assembly is a ceramic-metal sealed oxygen sensor which allows use of a metal tube to extend the 51 cm (20 in.) between the sampler top and the flowing sodium region.

Barton, G.B.; Bohringer, A.P.; Yount, J.A.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Role of oxygen in the film growth and giant magnetoresistance of Co/Cu multilayers  

SciTech Connect

In order to clarify the effect of oxygen in the sputtering atmosphere on the microstructure and giant magnetoresistance, Co/Cu multilayers were fabricated under a sputtering atmosphere into which regulated impurity oxygen gas was introduced. After being pumped down the sputtering chamber to the ultimate pressure (less than 1{times}10{sup {minus}10} Torr), oxygen was introduced into the chamber until its content in processing Ar gas was about 0.1 ppm to 0.1%. The magnetoresistance (MR) ratio drastically increased from less than 20% to 54% when the content of impurity oxygen was slightly increased from 20 to 80 ppm, then nearly vanished when the content became more than 200 ppm. In the former region where the MR ratio steeply increased, the root mean square roughness of the multilayers decreased from 6.5 to 4.5 Aa accompanied by a reduction in grain size as the oxygen content was increased. The partial oxidation of the multilayers is the most probable mechanism by which the flattening of the interfaces in the multilayer can be explained. We conclude that the impurity oxygen in the sputtering atmosphere serves as an obstruction of grain growth in the multilayer, not as a surfactant for the film growth. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

Miura, Satoshi; Tsunoda, Masakiyo; Takahashi, Migaku

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Water Induced Surface Reconstruction of the Oxygen (2x1) covered Ru(0001)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and density functional theory (DFT) were used to study the adsorption of water on a Ru(0001) surface covered with half monolayer of oxygen. The oxygen atoms occupy hcp sites in an ordered structure with (2x1) periodicity. DFT predicts that water is weakly bound to the unmodified surface, 86 meV compared to the ~;;200 meV water-water H-bond. Instead, we found that water adsorption causes a shift of half of the oxygen atoms from hcp sites to fcc sites, creating a honeycomb structure where water molecules bind strongly to the exposed Ru atoms. The energy cost of reconstructing the oxygen overlayer, around 230 meV per displaced oxygen atom, is more than compensated by the larger adsorption energy of water on the newly exposed Ru atoms. Water forms hydrogen bonds with the fcc O atoms in a (4x2) superstructure due to alternating orientations of the molecules. Heating to 185 K results in the complete desorption of the water layer, leaving behind the oxygen honeycomb structure, which is metastable relative to the original (2x1). This stable structure is not recovered until after heating to temperatures close to 260K.

Maier, Sabine; Cabrera-Sanfelix, Pepa; Stass, Ingeborg; Sanchez-Portal, Daniel; Arnau, Andres; Salmeron, Miquel

2010-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

319

Evaluation of oxygen utilization as an indicator of municipal solid-waste compost stability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This research evaluated oxygen utilization parameters as indicators of MSW compost stability. Parameters evaluated were the oxygen utilization rate (OUR), specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR), five-day biochemical oxygen demand, and chemical oxygen demand. In addition, other suggested indicators of stability were investigated including percent volatile solids, volatile solids reduction, nitrogen content, carbon: nitrogen ratio, and reheating potential (RP). OUR is a measure of the rate of oxygen utilization by the microorganisms in the decomposition of organic matter in compost. OUR was observed to be sensitive to the degree of stabilization and decreased with increasing compost age and stability. OUR values near zero indicate that the compost microorganisms are in a state of endogenous respiration, which is characteristic of a stable compost. Therefore, OUR is an excellent indicator of stability. A number of disadvantages are associated with OUR for practical application. Therefore, other parameters were evaluated as indicators of stability based on their statistical correlation to OUR. RP exhibited the strongest correlation to OUR. In combination, RP and SOUR were the two parameters which exhibited the strongest correlation to OUR. OUR, RP, and SOUR are all measures of microbial activity which reflect the degree of organic decomposition, and therefore, stability. Based on the results of this research; OUR, RP, and SOUR are useful parameters in assessing compost stability.

Zimmerman, R.A.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Ethanol Plant Production Ethanol Plant Production Definitions Key Terms Definition Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Fuel Ethanol An anhydrous alcohol (ethanol with less than 1% water) intended for gasoline blending as described in the Oxygenates definition. Oxygenates Substances which, when added to gasoline, increase the amount of oxygen in that gasoline blend. Ethanol, Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE), Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE), and methanol are common oxygenates. Fuel Ethanol: Blends of up to 10 percent by volume anhydrous ethanol (200 proof) (commonly referred to as the "gasohol waiver"). Methanol: Blends of methanol and gasoline-grade tertiary butyl alcohol (GTBA) such that the total oxygen content does not exceed 3.5 percent by weight and the ratio of methanol to GTBA is less than or equal to 1. It is also specified that this blended fuel must meet ASTM volatility specifications (commonly referred to as the "ARCO" waiver).

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasohol excludes oxygenates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Transportation in the Balance: A Comparative Analysis of Costs, User Revenues, and Subsidies for Highway, Air, and High Speed Rail Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

gallon) ($ millions) MOTOR FUEL TAX Gasoline tax Diesel fuelExcise taxes Gasoline Gasohol Diesel Special Motor fuelsand tax credits) Diesel powered vehicle rebate Diesel fuel used in buses Diesel fuel-other Special motor fuel Gasohol Gasoline

Chan, Evelyn; Kanafani, Adib; Canetti, Thomas

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Conversion of Mixed Oxygenates Generated from Synthesis Gas to Fuel Range Hydrocarbon  

SciTech Connect

The growing dependence in the U.S. on foreign crude oil supplies and increased concerns regarding greenhouse gas emission has generated considerable interest in research to develop renewable and environmentally friendly liquid hydrocarbon transportation fuels. One of the strategies for achieving this is to produce intermediate compounds such as alcohols and other simple oxygenates from biomass generated synthesis gas (mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen) and further convert them into liquid hydrocarbons. The focus of this research is to investigate the effects of mixed oxygenates intermediate product compositions on the conversion step to produce hydrocarbon liquids. A typical mixed oxygenate stream is expected to contain water (around 50%), alcohols, such as methanol and ethanol (around 35%), and smaller quantities of oxygenates such as acetaldehyde, acetic acid and ethyl acetate. However the ratio and the composition of the mixed oxygenate stream generated from synthesis gas vary significantly depending on the catalyst used and the process conditions. Zeolite catalyzed deoxygenation of methanol accompanied by chain growth is well understood under Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG) like reaction conditions using an H-ZSM-5 zeolite as the catalyst6-8. Research has also been conducted to a limited extent in the past with higher alcohols, but not with other oxygenates present9-11. Also there has been little experimental investigation into mixtures containing substantial amounts of water. The latter is of particular interest because water separation from the hydrocarbon product would be less energy intensive than first removing it from the oxygenate intermediate stream prior to hydrocarbon synthesis, potentially reducing overall processing costs.

Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Gerber, Mark A.; Lilga, Michael A.; Flake, Matthew D.

2012-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

323

Effects of Headspace and Oxygen Level on Off-gas Emissions from Wood Pellets in Storage  

SciTech Connect

Few papers have been published in the open literature on the emissions from biomass fuels, including wood pellets, during the storage and transportation and their potential health impacts. The purpose of this study is to provide data on the concentrations, emission factors, and emission rate factors of CO2, CO, and CH4 from wood pellets stored with different headspace to container volume ratios with different initial oxygen levels, in order to develop methods to reduce the toxic off-gas emissions and accumulation in storage spaces. Metal containers (45 l, 305 mm diameter by 610 mm long) were used to study the effect of headspace and oxygen levels on the off-gas emissions from wood pellets. Concentrations of CO2, CO, and CH4 in the headspace were measured using a gas chromatograph as a function of storage time. The results showed that the ratio of the headspace ratios and initial oxygen levels in the storage space significantly affected the off-gas emissions from wood pellets stored in a sealed container. Higher peak emission factors and higher emission rates are associated with higher headspace ratios. Lower emissions of CO2 and CO were generated at room temperature under lower oxygen levels, whereas CH4 emission is insensitive to the oxygen level. Replacing oxygen with inert gases in the storage space is thus a potentially effective method to reduce the biomass degradation and toxic off-gas emissions. The proper ventilation of the storage space can also be used to maintain a high oxygen level and low concentrations of toxic off-gassing compounds in the storage space, which is especially useful during the loading and unloading operations to control the hazards associated with the storage and transportation of wood pellets.

Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Kuang, Xingya [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Shankar, T.S. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Lim, C. Jim [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Bi, X.T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Melin, Staffan [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Synthesis and oxygen content dependent properties of hexagonal DyMnO[subscript 3+delta  

SciTech Connect

Oxygen deficient polycrystalline samples of hexagonal P6{sub 3}cm (space group No.185) DyMnO{sub 3+{delta}} ({delta} < 0) were synthesized in Ar by intentional decomposition of its perovskite phase obtained in air. The relative stability of these phases is in accord with our previous studies of the temperature and oxygen vacancy dependent tolerance factor. Thermogravimetric measurements have shown that hexagonal samples of DyMnO{sub 3+{delta}} (0 {le} {delta} {le} 0.4) exhibit unusually large excess oxygen content, which readily incorporates on heating near 300 C in various partial-pressures of oxygen atmospheres. Neutron and synchrotron diffraction data show the presence of two new structural phases at {delta} {approx} 0.25 (Hex{sub 2}) and {delta} {approx} 0.40 (Hex{sub 3}). Rietveld refinements of the Hex{sub 2} phase strongly suggest it is well modeled by the R3 space group (No.146). These phases were observed to transform back to P6{sub 3}cm above {approx} 350 C when material becomes stoichiometric in oxygen content ({delta} = 0). Chemical expansion of the crystal lattice corresponding to these large changes of oxygen was found to be 3.48 x 10{sup -2} mol{sup -1}. Thermal expansion of stoichiometric phases were determined to be 11.6 x 10{sup -6} and 2.1 x 10{sup -6} K{sup -1} for the P6{sub 3}cm and Hex{sub 2} phases, respectively. Our measurements also indicate that the oxygen non-stoichiometry of hexagonal RMnO{sub 3+{delta}} materials may have important influence on their multiferroic properties.

Remsen, S.; Dabrowski, B.; Chmaissem, O.; Mais, J.; Szewczyk, A. (NIU); (Polish)

2011-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

325

Oxygen electrode reaction in molten carbonate fuel cells. Final report, September 15, 1987--September 14, 1990  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Molten carbonate fuel cell system is a leading candidate for the utility power generation because of its high efficiency for fuel to AC power conversion, capability for an internal reforming, and a very low environmental impact. However, the performance of the molten carbonate fuel cell is limited by the oxygen reduction reaction and the cell life time is limited by the stability of the cathode material. An elucidation of oxygen reduction reaction in molten alkali carbonate is essential because overpotential losses in the molten carbonate fuel cell are considerably greater at the oxygen cathode than at the fuel anode. Oxygen reduction on a fully-immersed gold electrode in a lithium carbonate melt was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry to determine electrode kinetic and mass transfer parameters. The dependences of electrode kinetic and mass transfer parameters on gas composition and temperature were examined to determine the reaction orders and the activation energies. The results showed that oxygen reduction in a pure lithium carbonate melt occurs via the peroxide mechanism. A mass transfer parameter, D{sub O}{sup 1/2}C{sub O}, estimated by the cyclic voltammetry concurred with that calculated by the EIS technique. The temperature dependence of the exchange current density and the product D{sub O}{sup 1/2}C{sub O} were examined and the apparent activation energies were determined to be about 122 and 175 kJ/ mol, respectively.

Appleby, A.J.; White, R.E.

1992-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

326

Oxygen spectral line synthesis: 3D non-LTE with CO5BOLD hydrodynamical model atmospheres  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work we present first results of our current project aimed at combining the 3D hydrodynamical stellar atmosphere approach with non-LTE (NLTE) spectral line synthesis for a number of key chemical species. We carried out a full 3D-NLTE spectrum synthesis of the oxygen IR 777 nm triplet, using a modified and improved version of our NLTE3D package to calculate departure coefficients for the atomic levels of oxygen in a CO5BOLD 3D hydrodynamical solar model atmosphere. Spectral line synthesis was subsequently performed with the Linfor 3D code. In agreement with previous studies, we find that the lines of the oxygen triplet produce deeper cores under NLTE conditions, due to the diminished line source function in the line forming region. This means that the solar oxygen IR 777 nm lines should be stronger in NLTE, leading to negative 3D NLTE-LTE abundance corrections. Qualitatively this result would support previous claims for a relatively low solar oxygen abundance. Finally, we outline several further steps ...

Prakapavicius, D; Kucinskas, A; Ludwig, H -G; Freytag, B; Caffau, E; Cayrel, R

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Aerobic composting of waste activated sludge: Kinetic analysis for microbiological reaction and oxygen consumption  

SciTech Connect

In order to examine the optimal design and operating parameters, kinetics for microbiological reaction and oxygen consumption in composting of waste activated sludge were quantitatively examined. A series of experiments was conducted to discuss the optimal operating parameters for aerobic composting of waste activated sludge obtained from Kawagoe City Wastewater Treatment Plant (Saitama, Japan) using 4 and 20 L laboratory scale bioreactors. Aeration rate, compositions of compost mixture and height of compost pile were investigated as main design and operating parameters. The optimal aerobic composting of waste activated sludge was found at the aeration rate of 2.0 L/min/kg (initial composting mixture dry weight). A compost pile up to 0.5 m could be operated effectively. A simple model for composting of waste activated sludge in a composting reactor was developed by assuming that a solid phase of compost mixture is well mixed and the kinetics for microbiological reaction is represented by a Monod-type equation. The model predictions could fit the experimental data for decomposition of waste activated sludge with an average deviation of 2.14%. Oxygen consumption during composting was also examined using a simplified model in which the oxygen consumption was represented by a Monod-type equation and the axial distribution of oxygen concentration in the composting pile was described by a plug-flow model. The predictions could satisfactorily simulate the experiment results for the average maximum oxygen consumption rate during aerobic composting with an average deviation of 7.4%.

Yamada, Y. [Research Center for Biochemical and Environmental Engineering, Department of Applied Chemistry, Toyo University, Kawagoe, Saitama, 350-8585 (Japan); Kawase, Y. [Research Center for Biochemical and Environmental Engineering, Department of Applied Chemistry, Toyo University, Kawagoe, Saitama, 350-8585 (Japan)]. E-mail: bckawase@mail.eng.toyo.ac.jp

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Assessment of thermal swing absorption alternatives for producing oxygen enriched combustion air  

SciTech Connect

It has been established that oxygen enriched combustion (OEC) can substantially improve the thermal efficiency and productivity of a furnace. An OEC performance study by the Union Carbide Corporation found that in furnaces with flue gas temperatures above 2,000{degree}F, a high level of oxygen (O{sub 2}) enrichment (50% to 100% O{sub 2}) will result in a 40% to 60% fuel savings. The US DOE's (Department of Energy) Office of Industrial Programs (OIP) has sponsored several research development projects and engineering assessments relevant to the production of oxygen enriched air (OEA) and its use in combustion systems. In an OIP-sponsored assessment of research and development opportunities for combustion technologies, Taratec Corporation indicated that thermal swing absorption (TSA) offers a potentially viable option for producing low-cost oxygen enriched combustion air (OECA). In fact, an integrated, TSA-based oxygen enriched air production system driven by waste heat from furnace exhaust may be more energy- and cost-efficient than the alternative technologies. The study presented in this document further investigates and assesses TSA alternatives for producing low-cost OECA. 7 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

Not Available

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Test Operation of Oxygen-Enriched Incinerator for Wastes From Nuclear Fuel Fabrication Facility  

SciTech Connect

The oxygen-enriched combustion concept, which can minimize off-gas production, has been applied to the incineration of combustible uranium-containing wastes from a nuclear fuel fabrication facility. A simulation for oxygen combustion shows the off-gas production can be reduced by a factor of 6.7 theoretically, compared with conventional air combustion. The laboratory-scale oxygen enriched incineration (OEI) process with a thermal capacity of 350 MJ/h is composed of an oxygen feeding and control system, a combustion chamber, a quencher, a ceramic filter, an induced draft fan, a condenser, a stack, an off-gas recycle path, and a measurement and control system. Test burning with cleaning paper and office paper in this OEI process shows that the thermal capacity is about 320 MJ/h, 90 % of design value and the off-gas reduces by a factor of 3.5, compared with air combustion. The CO concentration for oxygen combustion is lower than that of air combustion, while the O2 concentration in off-gas is kept above 25 vol % for a simple incineration process without any grate. The NOx concentration in an off-gas stream does not reduce significantly due to air incoming by leakage, and the volume and weight reduction factors are not changed significantly, which suggests a need for an improvement in sealing.

Kim, J.-G.; Yang, H.cC.; Park, G.-I.; Kim, I.-T.; Kim, J.-K.

2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

330

Oxygen-enriched diesel engine performance: A comparison of analytical and experimental results  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Use of oxygen-enriched combustion air in diesel engines can lead to significant improvements in power density, as well as reductions in particulate emissions, but at the expense of higher NO{sub x} emissions. Oxygen enrichment would also lead to lower ignition delays and the opportunity to burn lower grade fuels. Analytical and experimental studies are being conducted in parallel to establish the optimal combination of oxygen level and diesel fuel properties. In this paper, cylinder pressure data acquired on a single-cylinder engine are used to generate heat release rates for operation under various oxygen contents. These derived heat release rates are in turn used to improve the combustion correlation -- and thus the prediction capability -- of the simulation code. It is shown that simulated and measured cylinder pressures and other performance parameters are in good agreement. The improved simulation can provide sufficiently accurate predictions of trends and magnitudes to be useful in parametric studies assessing the effects of oxygen enrichment and water injection on diesel engine performance. Measured ignition delays, NO{sub x} emissions, and particulate emissions are also compared with previously published data. The measured ignition delays are slightly lower than previously reported. Particulate emissions measured in this series of tests are significantly lower than previously reported. 14 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

Sekar, R.R.; Marr, W.W.; Cole, R.L.; Marciniak, T.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Assanis, D.N. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (USA)); Schaus, J.E. (Autoresearch Labs., Inc., Chicago, IL (USA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Impact of hydrogen and oxygen defects on the lattice parameter of chemical vapor deposited zinc sulfide  

SciTech Connect

The lattice parameter of cubic chemical vapor deposited (CVD) ZnS with measured oxygen concentrations < 0.6 at.% and hydrogen impurities of < 0.015 at.% have been measured and found to vary between -0.10% and +0.09% relative to the reference lattice parameter (5.4093 Å) of oxygen-free cubic ZnS as reported in the literature. Defects other than substitutional O must be invoked to explain these observed volume changes. The structure and thermodynamic stability of a wide range of native and impurity induced defects in ZnS have been determined by Ab initio calculations. Lattice contraction is caused by S-vacancies, substitutional O on S sites, Zn vacancies, H in S vacancies, peroxy defects, and dissociated water in S-vacancies. The lattice is expanded by interstitial H, H in Zn vacancies, dihydroxy defects, interstitial oxygen, Zn and [ZnHn] complexes (n=1,…,4), interstitial Zn, and S2 dumbbells. Oxygen, though present, likely forms substitutional defects for sulfur resulting in lattice contraction rather than as interstitial oxygen resulting in lattice expansion. It is concluded based on measurement and calculations that excess zinc atoms either at anti-sites (i.e. Zn atoms on S-sites) or possibly as interstitial Zn are responsible for the relative increase of the lattice parameter of commercially produced CVD ZnS.

McCloy, John S.; Wolf, Walter; Wimmer, Erich; Zelinski, Brian

2013-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

332

Sustainable Design Standards in India: The Excluded Issues  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Due to the recent emphasis on “Green Building” in different countries around the world, LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) certification has emerged as one of the major recognized standards for measuring building sustainability. In 2005, the Indian Green Building Council (IGBC) adopted the original US rating system without substantive modifications in response to the significant contextual differences between the United States and India. In 2007, the IGBC published the LEED INDIA NC Version 1.0 with changes to better respond to the Indian context. This version did not address climatic variations, which demand focused attention on particular sections, such as natural ventilation and daylighting. This paper highlights the essential significance of these critical issues in latest LEED Indian Guidelines in the current LEED standards with respect to comparison between performance of green buildings with and without the LEED certification.

Gupta, K.; Haider, J.

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Discovery of oxygen in atmosphere could mean life for Saturn's moon Dione  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Discovery of oxygen in atmosphere could mean life for Saturn's Discovery of oxygen in atmosphere could mean life for Saturn's moon Dione Discovery of oxygen in atmosphere could mean life for Saturn's moon Dione Discovery could mean ingredients for life are abundant on icy space bodies. March 5, 2012 Curiosity rover bears three LANL technologies Inside Titan: This artist's concept shows a possible scenario for the internal structure of Titan, as suggested by data from NASA's Cassini spacecraft. Scientists have been trying to determine what is under Titan's organic-rich atmosphere and icy crust. Data from the radio science experiment make the strongest case yet for a global subsurface ocean, sitting above a subsurface layer of high-pressure ice and a water-infused silicate core. Image credit: A. Tavani Get Expertise

334

Oxygen Isotope Evidence For Past And Present Hydrothermal Regimes Of Long  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Oxygen Isotope Evidence For Past And Present Hydrothermal Regimes Of Long Valley Caldera, California Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Oxygen Isotope Evidence For Past And Present Hydrothermal Regimes Of Long Valley Caldera, California Details Activities (3) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Whole-rock oxygen isotope compositions of cores and cuttings from Long Valley exploration wells show that the Bishop Tuff has been an important reservoir for both fossil and active geothermal systems within the caldera. The deep Clay Pit-1 and Mammoth-1 wells on the resurgent dome

335

An Oxygen Isotope Study Of Silicates In The Larderello Geothermal Field,  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Oxygen Isotope Study Of Silicates In The Larderello Geothermal Field, Oxygen Isotope Study Of Silicates In The Larderello Geothermal Field, Italy Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: An Oxygen Isotope Study Of Silicates In The Larderello Geothermal Field, Italy Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) Abstract: Stable-isotope analyses were carried out on hydrothermal minerals sampled from the deep metamorphic units at Larderello, Italy. The D18O values obtained for the most retentive minerals, quartz and tourmaline, are from + 12.0‰ to + 14.7‰ and 9.9‰, respectively, and indicate deposition from an 18O-rich fluid. Calculated D18O values for these fluids range from + 5.3‰ to + 13.4‰. These values, combined with available fluid inclusion and petrographic data, are consistent with the proposed

336

Correlation of Secondary Organic Aerosol with Odd Oxygen in Mexico City  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Data collected from a mountain location within the Mexico City limits are used to demonstrate a correlation between secondary organic aerosol and odd-oxygen (O3 + NO2). Positive matrix factorization techniques are employed to separate organic aerosol components: hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol; oxidized-organic aerosol; and biomass burning organic aerosol. The measured hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol is correlated with urban CO (8±1) µg m-3 ppmv-1. The measured oxidized-organic aerosol is associated with photochemical oxidation products and correlates with odd-oxygen with an apparent slope of (70-120) µg m-3 ppmv-1. The dependence of the oxidized-organic aerosol to odd-oxygen correlation on the nature of the gas-phase hydrocarbon profile is discussed.

Herndon, Scott C.; Onasch, Timothy B.; Wood, Ezra C.; Kroll, Jesse H.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Jayne, John T.; Zavala, Miguel A.; Knighton, W. Berk; Mazzoleni, Claudio; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Ulbrich, Ingrid M.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Seila, Robert; de Gouw, Joost A.; de Foy, B.; Fast, Jerome D.; Molina, Luisa T.; Kolb, C. E.; Worsnop, Douglas R.

2008-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

337

High Rate Oxygen Reduction in Non-aqueous Electrolytes with the Addition of Perfluorinated Additives  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The discharge rate capability of Li-air batteries is substantially increased by using perfluorinated compounds as oxygen carriers. The solubility of oxygen in a non-aqueous electrolyte can be significantly increased by the introduction of such compounds, which leads to the increase in the diffusion-limited current of oxygen reduction on the gas diffusion electrode in a Li-air battery. The perfluorinated compound is found to be stable within the electrochemical window of the electrolyte. A powder microelectrode and a rotating disk electrode were used to study the gas diffusion-limited current together with a rotating disk electrode. A 5 mA cm{sup -2} discharge rate is demonstrated in a lab Li-O{sub 2} cell.

Wang, Y.; Yang, X.; Zheng, D.; Qu, D.

2011-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

338

Oxygen transfer in Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based solid electrolytes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Materials with high oxygen conductivity are found in the system Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2}. The values of conductivity are higher than those of the majority of bismuth oxide-based solid electrolytes that are thermo-dynamically stable at low temperatures. Doping of bismuth oxide-based solid electrolytes with calcium fluoride results in an increase of the rate of response of electrochemical oxygen sensors. No direct correlation between dynamic and electrochemical characteristics of the sensor has been observed. Utilization of intermediate layers made of materials with mixed oxygen and electronic conductivity between the electrode and the solid electrolyte does not lead to a substantial decrease in the polarization resistance, but increases the rate of response of potentiometric sensors. Electrochemical properties of several rare earth and strontium cobalties as electrodes for bismuth oxide-based solid electrolytes have been studied.

Kharton, V.V.; Naumovich, E.N. [Belarussian State Univ., Minsk (Belarus)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Lance for fuel and oxygen injection into smelting or refining furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A furnace for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance, through which a center stream of particulate coal is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace. 7 figures.

Schlichting, M.R.

1994-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

340

Theoretical Study of the Structure, Stability and Oxygen Reduction Activity of Ultrathin Platinum Nanowires  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We use density functional theory to study the difference in the structure, stability and catalytic reactivity between ultrathin, 0.5- 1.0 nm diameter, platinum nanotubes and nanowires. Model nanowires were formed by inserting an inner chain of platinum atoms in small diameter nanotubes. In this way more stable, nonhollow structures were formed. The difference in the electronic structure of platinum nanotubes and nanowires was examined by inspecting the density of surface states and band structure. Furthermore, reactivity towards the oxygen reduction reaction of platinum nanowires was addressed by studying the change in the chemisorption energies of oxygen and hydroxyl groups, induced by inserting the inner chain of platinum atoms into the hollow nanotubes. Both ultrathin platinum nanotubes and nanowires show distinct properties compared to bulk platinum. Nanotubes with diameters larger than 1 nm show promise for use as oxygen reduction catalysts.

Matanovic, Ivana; Kent, Paul; Garzon, Fernando; Henson, Neil J.

2012-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasohol excludes oxygenates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

The Effect Of Low Earth Orbit Atomic Oxygen Exposure On Phenylphosphine Oxide-Containing Polymers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thin films of phenylphosphine oxide-containing polymers were exposed to low Earth orbit aboard a space shuttle flight (STS-85) as part of flight experiment designated Evaluation of Space Environment and Effects on Materials (ESEM). This flight experiment was a cooperative effort between the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA). The thin film samples described herein were part of an atomic oxygen exposure experiment (AOE) and were exposed to primarily atomic oxygen (~1 X 10 19 atoms/cm 2 ). The thin film samples consisted of three phosphine oxide containing polymers (arylene ether, benzimidazole and imide). Based on post-flight analyses using atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and weight loss data, it was found that atomic oxygen exposure of these materials efficiently produces a phosphate layer at the surface of the samples. This layer provides a barrier towards further attack by AO. Consequently, th...

John Connell National; John W. Connell

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

SNFP detonation phenomena of hydrogen/oxygen in spent fuel containers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Movement of spent nuclear fuels from the Hanford K Basins near the Columbia River to dry interim storage facility on the Hanford plateau will require repackaging the fuel in the basin into multi-canister overpacks (MCOs), drying of the fuel, transporting the contained fuel, hot conditioning, and finally interim storage. Each of these functions will be accomplished while the fuel is contained in the MCOs. Hydrogen and oxygen can be generated within the MCOs by several mechanisms. The principal source of hydrogen and oxygen within the MCOs is residual water from the vacuum drying and hot conditioning operations. This document assesses the detonation phenomena of hydrogen and oxygen in the spent fuel containers. Several process scenarios have been identified that could generate detonation pressures that exceed the nominal 10 atmosphere design limit of the MCOs. Only 42 grams of radiolized water are required to establish this condition.

Cooper, T.D.

1996-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

343

In situ Carbon 13 and Oxygen 18 Ratios of Atmospheric CO2 from Cape Grim,  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxygen Isotopes and Ratios » 13C and 18O Oxygen Isotopes and Ratios » 13C and 18O Ratios, Atmospheric CO2, Cape Grim In situ Carbon 13 and Oxygen 18 Ratios of Atmospheric CO2 from Cape Grim, Tasmania, Australia: 1982-1993 DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/atg.db1014 data Data Investigators Francey R. J. and C. E. Allison Description Since 1982, a continuous program of sampling atmospheric CO2 to determine stable isotope ratios has been maintained at the Australian Baseline Air Pollution Station, Cape Grim, Tasmania (40°, 40'56"S, 144°, 41'18"E). The process of in situ extraction of CO2 from air, the preponderance of samples collected in conditions of strong wind from the marine boundary layer of the Southern Ocean, and the determination of all isotope ratios relative to a common high purity CO2 reference gas with isotopic δ13C close to

344

Effect of oxygen on the stability of Ag islands on Si(111)-7 × 7  

SciTech Connect

We have used scanning tunneling microscopy to probe the effect of oxygen exposure on an ensemble of Ag islands separated by a Ag wetting layer on Si(111)-7 × 7. Starting from a distribution dominated by islands that are 1 layer high (measured with respect to the wetting layer), coarsening in ultrahigh vacuum at room temperature leads to growth of 2-layer islands at the expense of 1-layer islands, which is expected. If the sample is exposed to oxygen, 3-layer islands are favored, which is unexpected. There is no evidence for oxygen adsorption on top of Ag islands, but there is clear evidence for adsorption in the wetting layer. Several possible explanations are considered.

Shao, Dahai; Liu; Xiaojie; Lu, Ning; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Ho, Kai-Ming; Tringides, Michael C.; Thiel, Patricia A.

2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

345

The role of oxygen-related defects and hydrogen impurities in HfO2 and ZrO2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We investigate the properties of oxygen-related defects and hydrogen impurities in monoclinic HfO"2 and ZrO"2 using first-principles calculations based on a hybrid functional. We examine how the formation energy of these defects depend on the Fermi level ... Keywords: Defects in semiconductors, First-principles calculations, HfO2, High-k dielectrics, Hydrogen impurities, Oxygen interstitial, Oxygen vacancy, Sources of fixed charge, ZrO2

J. L. Lyons; A. Janotti; C. G. Van de Walle

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline (Released in the STEO October 1999)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into motor gasoline has increased dramatically since it was first produced 20 years ago. MTBE usage grew in the early 1980's in response to octane demand resulting initially from the phaseout of lead from gasoline and later from rising demand for premium gasoline. The oxygenated gasoline program stimulated an increase in MTBE production between 1990 and 1994. MTBE demand increased from 83,000 in 1990 to 161,000 barrels per day in 1994. The reformulated gasoline (RFG) program provided a further boost to oxygenate blending. The MTBE contained in motor gasoline increased to 269,000 barrels per day by 1997.

Information Center

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Similarity criteria in calculations of the energy characteristics of a cw oxygen - iodine laser  

SciTech Connect

The calculated and experimental data on the energy efficiency of a cw oxygen - iodine laser (OIL) are analysed based on two similarity criteria, namely, on the ratio of the residence time of the gas mixture in the resonator to the characteristic time of extraction of the energy stored in singlet oxygen td and on the gain-to-loss ratio {Pi}. It is shown that the simplified two-level laser model satisfactorily predicts the output characteristics of OILs with a stable resonator at {tau}{sub d} {<=} 7. Efficient energy extraction from the OIL active medium is achieved in the case of {tau}{sub d} = 5 - 7, {Pi} = 4 - 8. (lasers)

Mezhenin, A V; Azyazov, V N

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

348

Analysis of Oxygenated Compounds in Hydrotreated Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oil Distillate Fractions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three hydrotreated bio-oils with different oxygen contents (8.2, 4.9, and 0.4 w/w) were distilled to produce Light, Naphtha, Jet, Diesel, and Gasoil boiling range fractions that were characterized for oxygen containing species by a variety of analytical methods. The bio-oils were originally generated from lignocellulosic biomass in an entrained-flow fast pyrolysis reactor. Analyses included elemental composition, carbon type distribution by {sup 13}C NMR, acid number, GC-MS, volatile organic acids by LC, and carbonyl compounds by DNPH derivatization and LC. Acid number titrations employed an improved titrant-electrode combination with faster response that allowed detection of multiple endpoints in many samples and for acid values attributable to carboxylic acids and to phenols to be distinguished. Results of these analyses showed that the highest oxygen content bio-oil fractions contained oxygen as carboxylic acids, carbonyls, aryl ethers, phenols, and alcohols. Carboxylic acids and carbonyl compounds detected in this sample were concentrated in the Light, Naphtha, and Jet fractions (oil or refinery intermediate streams may exist for the Diesel and Gasoil fractions. The 4.9 % oxygen sample contained almost exclusively phenolic compounds found to be present throughout the boiling range of this sample, but imparting measurable acidity primarily in the Light, Naphtha and Jet fractions. Additional study is required to understand what levels of the weakly acidic phenols could be tolerated in a refinery feedstock. The Diesel and Gasoil fractions from this upgraded oil had low acidity but still contained 3 to 4 wt% oxygen present as phenols that could not be specifically identified. These materials appear to have excellent potential as refinery feedstocks and some potential for blending into finished fuels. Fractions from the lowest oxygen content oil exhibited some phenolic acidity, but generally contained very low levels of oxygen functional groups. These materials would likely be suitable as refinery feedstocks and potentially as fuel blend components. PIONA analysis of the Light and Naphtha fractions shows benzene content of 0.5 and 0.4 vol%, and predicted (RON + MON)/2 of 63 and 70, respectively.

Christensen, Earl D.; Chupka, Gina; Luecke, Jon; Smurthwaite, Tricia D.; Alleman, Teresa L.; Iisa, Kristiina; Franz, James A.; Elliott, Douglas C.; McCormick, Robert L.

2011-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

349

Test bench for studying the outlook for industrial applications of an oxygen-iodine laser  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report the development and tests of a chemical oxygen-iodine laser test bench based on a twisted-aerosol-flow singlet-oxygen generator and a supersonic laser model for studying the outlook for industrial applications of this laser. The maximal output power of the laser is {approx}65 kW (the average power is {approx}50 kW), corresponding to a specific output power of {approx}110 W cm{sup -2}. The maximal chemical efficiency is {approx}34%. (letters)

Adamenkov, A A; Bakshin, V V; Bogachev, A V; Buryak, E V; Vdovkin, L A; Velikanov, S D; Vyskubenko, B A; Garanin, Sergey G; Gorbacheva, E V; Grigorovich, Sergei V; Il'in, S P; Il'kaev, R I; Ilyushin, Yurii N; Kalashnik, A M; Kolobyanin, Yu V; Leonov, M L; Svischev, V V; Troshkin, M V [Russian Federal Nuclear Center 'All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics', Sarov, Nizhnii Novgorod Region (Russian Federation)

2007-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

350

In Situ CO, Oxygen, and Opacity Measurement for Optimizing Combustion Control System Performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The performance of a combustion control system is limited by the accuracy and reliability of the feedback provided by the stack emission flue gas monitoring system which is utilized to analyze the composition of the products of combustion. A detailed review of the latest state-of-the-art In Situ measurement techniques is provided, including: gas filter correlation spectroscopy (CO), zirconium oxide fuel cell (oxygen), and glass fiber optics based transmissometers (opacity). Recent advancements in the design and application of microprocessor-based In Situ CO, oxygen, and opacity stack emission monitoring systems are outlined, including a review of the performance capability of the latest microprocessor-based combust ion control systems.

Molloy, R. C.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances in the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting Model (Released in the STEO March 1998)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The blending of oxygenates, such as fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), into motor gasoline has increased dramatically in the last few years because of the oxygenated and reformulated gasoline programs. Because of the significant role oxygenates now have in petroleum product markets, the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) was revised to include supply and demand balances for fuel ethanol and MTBE. The STIFS model is used for producing forecasts in the Short-Term Energy Outlook. A review of the historical data sources and forecasting methodology for oxygenate production, imports, inventories, and demand is presented in this report.

Information Center

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

X-ray and vibrational spectroscopy of manganese complexes relevant to the oxygen-evolving complex of photosynthesis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

V. P. ; Nechushtai, R. Photosynthesis Research Ort, D. R. ;F. ; Editors Oxygenic Photosynthesis; The Light Reactions. [Yachandra, V. K. In Photosynthesis: Mechanisms and Effects;

Visser, Hendrik

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Oxygen Surface Exchange Kinetics on Sr-Substituted Lanthanum Manganite and Ferrite Thin-Film Microelectrodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The surface oxygen exchange kinetics occurring on dense La0.8Sr0.2MnO3 (65nm thick) and La0.8Sr0.2FeO3 (110nm thick) thin films were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Rutherford backscattering ...

la O', Gerardo Jose

354

Oxygen Reduction Activity of PtxNi1-x Alloy Nanoparticles on Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PtxNi1 - x nanoparticles (Pt:Ni; 1:0, 4:1, 3:1 and 0.7:1) of ~5 nm, were synthesized on carboxylic acid-functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes (PtxNi1 - x NPs/MWNT). The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity measurements ...

Kim, Junhyung

355

Surface structural changes of perovskite oxides during oxygen evolution in alkaline electrolyte  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Perovskite oxides such Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.8O3-6 (BSCF82) are among the most active catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in alkaline solution reported to date. In this work it is shown via high resolution ...

May, Kevin J. (Kevin Joseph)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Wireless Harsh-Environment Oxygen Sensors D.W. Greve,1,2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wireless Harsh-Environment Oxygen Sensors D.W. Greve,1,2 Peng Zheng,1,3 and T.-L. Chin1,2 1). [2] P. Zheng, T.-L. Chin, D.W. Greve, I.J. Oppenheim, and L. Cao, "Pulse- mode temperature sensing

Greve, David.W.

357

Mixed-Conducting Oxygen Permeable Ceramic Membrane and its Application in the Production of Synthesis Gas.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This study detailedly investigated the effects of the preparation parameters on the performance of Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2Ox (BSCF) membranes. In addition, the dominant step of the oxygen… (more)

Jiang, Qiying

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

High Quality Oxygen Measurements from Profiling Floats: A Promising New Technique  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two state-of-the-art profiling floats were equipped with novel optode-based oceanographic oxygen sensors. Both floats were simultaneously deployed in the central Labrador Sea gyre on 7 September 2003. They drift at a depth of 800 db and perform ...

Arne Körtzinger; Jens Schimanski; Uwe Send

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Applications of oxygen activation for injection and production profiling in the Kuparuk River field  

SciTech Connect

A new time-dependent method of oxygen-activation logging, now being used in the Kuparuk River field on the North Slope of Alaska, provides critical data for waterflood performance evaluation, assessment of ultimate recovery, and evaluation of potential for infill drilling and EOR projects without the use of radioactive tracer materials.

Pearson, C.M.; Renke, S.M. (Arco Alaska Inc., Anchorage, AK (United States)); McKeon, D.C.; Meisenhelder, J.P. (Schlumberger, Houston, TX (United States)); Scott, H.D.

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Oxygen Pathways and Carbon Dioxide Utilization in Methane Partial Oxidation in Ambient Temperature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- ronmental impact. Present technology uses steam reforming to produce synthesis gas which is converted into enhance- ment of the carbon balance of methane conversion by reforming with CO2 in order to "recycleOxygen Pathways and Carbon Dioxide Utilization in Methane Partial Oxidation in Ambient Temperature

Mallinson, Richard

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasohol excludes oxygenates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Production of Organic Oxygenates in the Partial Oxidation of Methane in a Silent Electric Discharge Reactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Significant amounts of these reserves are located in remote areas. Steam reforming to synthesis gasProduction of Organic Oxygenates in the Partial Oxidation of Methane in a Silent Electric Discharge, Room T 335, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 This study on the partial oxidation of methane in a silent electric

Mallinson, Richard

362

Ice-Tethered Profiler Measurements of Dissolved Oxygen under Permanent Ice Cover in the Arctic Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Four ice-tethered profilers (ITPs), deployed between 2006 and 2009, have provided year-round dissolved oxygen (DO) measurements from the surface mixed layer to 760-m depth under the permanent sea ice cover in the Arctic Ocean. These ITPs drifted ...

M.-L. Timmermans; R. Krishfield; S. Laney; J. Toole

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Carbon dioxide remediation via oxygen-enriched combustion using dense ceramic membranes  

SciTech Connect

A method of combusting pulverized coal by mixing the pulverized coal and an oxidant gas to provide a pulverized coal-oxidant gas mixture and contacting the pulverized coal-oxidant gas mixture with a flame sufficiently hot to combust the mixture. An oxygen-containing gas is passed in contact with a dense ceramic membrane of metal oxide material having electron conductivity and oxygen ion conductivity that is gas-impervious until the oxygen concentration on one side of the membrane is not less than about 30% by volume. An oxidant gas with an oxygen concentration of not less than about 30% by volume and a CO.sub.2 concentration of not less than about 30% by volume and pulverized coal is contacted with a flame sufficiently hot to combust the mixture to produce heat and a flue gas. One dense ceramic membrane disclosed is selected from the group consisting of materials having formulae SrCo.sub.0.8 Fe.sub.0.2 O.sub.x, SrCo.sub.0.5 FeO.sub.x and La.sub.0.2 Sr.sub.0.8 Co.sub.0.4 Fe.sub.0.6 O.sub.x.

Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Bose, Arun C. (Pittsburgh, PA); McIlvried, Howard G. (Pittsburgh, PA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

OXYGEN-ISOTOPIC EVOLUTION OF THE SOLAR NEBULA John T. Wasson  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

OXYGEN-ISOTOPIC EVOLUTION OF THE SOLAR NEBULA John T. Wasson Institute of Geophysics and Planetary that diverse O reservoirs (characterized by their 17 O values) were present in the solar nebula. The discovery-dependent fractionation of an initially well mixed reservoir has important implications for the history of the solar

Jellinek, Mark

365

Oxygen Effects on Thermophilic Microbial Populations in Biofilters Treating Nitric Oxide Containing Off-Gas Streams  

SciTech Connect

Electricity generation from coal has increased by an average of 51 billion kWh per year over the past 3 years. For this reason cost-effective strategies to control nitrogen oxides (NOx) from coal-fired power plant combustion gases must be developed. Compost biofilters operated at 55°C at an empty bed contact time (EBCT) of 13 seconds were shown to be feasible for removal of nitric oxide (NO) from synthetic flue gas. Denitrifying microbial populations in these biofilters were shown to reduce influent NO feeds by 90 to 95% at inlet NO concentrations of 500 ppmv. Oxygen was shown to have a significant effect on the NO removal efficiency demonstrated by these biofilters. Two biofilters were set up under identical conditions for the purpose of monitoring NO removal as well as changes in the microbial population in the bed medium under anaerobic and aerobic conditions. Changes in the microbial population were monitored to determine the maximum oxygen tolerance of a denitrifying biofilter as well as methods of optimizing microbial populations capable of denitrification in the presence of low oxygen concentrations. Nitric oxide removal dropped to between 10 and 20% when oxygen was present in the influent stream. The inactive compost used to pack the biofilters may have also caused the decreased NO removal efficiency compared to previous biofiltration experiments. Analysis of the bed medium microbial population using environmental scanning electron microscopy indicated significant increases in biomass populating the surface of the compost when compared to unacclimated compost.

Lee, Brady Douglas; Apel, William Arnold; Smith, William Aaron

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Tailoring Selectivity for Electrocatalytic Oxygen Evolution on Ruthenium Oxides by Zn Substitution  

SciTech Connect

Controlling gas emissions: Versatile control of the selectivity of an oxide electrocatalyst in the oxygen- and chlorine-evolution reactions was demonstrated by Zn substitution in RuO{sub 2}. The incorporation of Zn into the rutile structure alters the cation sequence along the [001] direction and modifies the structure of the active sites for both gas-evolution processes.

Petrykin, V.; Macounova, K; Shlyakhtin, O; Krtil, P

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

OXYGEN GAS-PHASE ABUNDANCE REVISITED M. K. Andre,1,2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Explorer (FUSE) observations of molecular hydrogen. The molecular hydrogen content of these sight lines along these sight lines, which probe a wide range of Galactic environments in the distant interstellar grains are resilient against destruction by shocks, the distant interstellar total oxygen abundance can

Howk, Jay Christopher

368

Preparation of oxygen-containing organic products from bed-oxidized brown coal by ozonation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The possibility of modifying the functional composition of humic acids by gas-phase ozonation of bed-oxidized brown coal was examined. About 90% of the organic matter of brown coal was converted to low-molecular weight soluble oxygen-containing products by stepwise liquid-phase ozonation (in chloroform and acetic acid).

Semenova, S.A.; Patrakov, Y.F.; Batina, M.V. [National Academy of Science Belarus, Minsk (Byelarus)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

369

Structural determination of fluorite-type oxygen excess uranium oxides using EXAFS spectroscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy has been carried out at 77 K at the uranium L/sub III/ edge for UO/sub 2/, ..beta..-U/sub 3/O/sub 7/, and U/sub 4/O/sub 9/ with the aim of determining the structure of these highly defective (oxygen excess) uranium oxide phases, which are of industrial importance. Use has been made of a difference Fourier technique for U/sub 3/O/sub 7/, in which the EXAFS of a perfect lattice model is subtracted. U--O bond lengths calculated from the remaining EXAFS signal, assumed to result only from interstitial oxygens, have been used to determine the atomic coordinates of these interstitials. The analysis of EXAFS data in terms of coordination number has allowed an insight into the defect aggregate arrangement of oxygens in U/sub 3/O/sub 7/ and U/sub 4/O/sub 9/. Furthermore, EXAFS data indicate that the uranium sublattice is perturbed by the incorporation of additional oxygen atoms.

Jones, D.J.; Roziere, J.; Allen, G.C.; Tempest, P.A.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Holocene precipitation seasonality captured by a dual hydrogen and oxygen isotope approach at Steel Lake, Minnesota  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Holocene precipitation seasonality captured by a dual hydrogen and oxygen isotope approach at Steel. Shuman e , John W. Williams f a Limnological Research Center, Department of Geology, University, Appalachian Laboratory, Frostburg, MD, 21532, United States c Departments of Plant Biology and Geology

Hu, Feng Sheng

371

Hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios in human hair are related to geography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios in human hair are related to geography James R. Ehleringer, Salt Lake City, UT 84112; Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT the geographic region-of- origin of humans based on the stable isotope composition of their scalp hair

Ehleringer, Jim

372

Transient responses of nitrogenase to acetylene and oxygen in actinorhizal nodules and cultured Frania  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nitrogenase activity in root nodules of four species of actinorhizal plants showed varying declines in response to exposure to acetylene (10% v/v). Gymnostoma papuanum (S.Moore) L. Johnson. and Casuarina equisetifolia L. nodules showed a small decline (5-15%) with little or no recovery over 15 minutes. Myrica gale L. nodules showed a sharp decline followed by a rapid return to peak activity. Alnus incana ssp. rugosa (Du Roi) Clausen. nodules usually showed varying degrees of decline followed by a slower return to peak or near-peak activity. We call these effects acetylene-induced transients. Rapid increases in oxygen tension also caused dramatic transient decreases in nitrogenase activity in all species. The magnitude of the transient decrease was related to the size of the O{sub 2} partial pressure (pO{sub 2}) rise, to the proximity of the starting and ending oxygen tensions to the pO{sub 2} optimum, and to the time for which the plant was exposed to the lower pO{sub 2}. Oxygen-induced transients, induced both by step jumps in pO{sub 2} and by O{sub 2} pulses, were also observed in cultures of Frankia. The effects seen in nodules are purely a response by the bacterium and not a nodule effect per se. Oxygen-induced nitrogenase transients in actinorhizal nodules from the plant genera tested here do not appear to be a result of changes in nodule diffusion resistance.

Silvester, W.B.; Winship, L.J. (Harvard Univ., Petersham, MA (USA))

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Thickness Dependency of Thin Film Samaria Doped Ceria for Oxygen Sensing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

High temperature oxygen sensors are widely used for exhaust gas monitoring in automobiles. This particular study explores the use of thin film single crystalline samaria doped ceria as the oxygen sensing material. Desired signal to noise ratio can be achieved in a material system with high conductivity. From previous studies it is established that 6 atomic percent samarium doping is the optimum concentration for thin film samaria doped ceria to achieve high ionic conductivity. In this study, the conductivity of the 6 atomic percent samaria doped ceria thin film is measured as a function of the sensing film thickness. Hysteresis and dynamic response of this sensing platform is tested for a range of oxygen pressures from 0.001 Torr to 100 Torr for temperatures above 673 K. An attempt has been made to understand the physics behind the thickness dependent conductivity behavior of this sensing platform by developing a hypothetical operating model and through COMSOL simulations. This study can be used to identify the parameters required to construct a fast, reliable and compact high temperature oxygen sensor.

Sanghavi, Rahul P.; Nandasiri, Manjula I.; Kuchibhatla, Satyanarayana V N T; Jiang, Weilin; Varga, Tamas; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Engelhard, Mark H.; Shutthanandan, V.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Kayani, Asghar N.; Prasad, Shalini

2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

374

IAEA specialists' meeting on carbon and oxygen collision data for fusion plasma research  

SciTech Connect

A brief overview is given of the status of the carbon and oxygen atomic data base for electron-impact excitation, ionization and recombination, and for spectroscopic data. Deficiencies for fusion plasma research applications are identified. Additional data are most critically needed for dielectronic and radiative recombination. 10 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Phaneuf, R.A.; Defrance, P.; Griffin, D.C.; Hahn, Y.; Pindzola, M.S.; Roszman, L.; Wiese, W.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

FLAMES IN TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA: DEFLAGRATION-DETONATION TRANSITION IN THE OXYGEN-BURNING FLAME  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The flame in a Type Ia supernova is a conglomerate structure that, depending on density, may involve separate regions of carbon, oxygen, and silicon burning, all propagating in a self-similar, subsonic front. The separation between these three burning regions increases as the density declines until eventually, below about 2 x 10{sup 7} g cm{sup -3}, only carbon burning remains active, the other two burning phases having 'frozen out' on stellar scales. Between 2 and 3 x 10{sup 7} g cm{sup -3}, however, there remains an energetic oxygen-burning region that trails the carbon burning by an amount that is sensitive to the turbulence intensity. As the carbon flame makes a transition to the distributed regime (Karlovitz number {approx}> 10), the characteristic separation between the carbon- and oxygen-burning regions increases dramatically, from a fraction of a meter to many kilometers. The oxygen-rich mixture between the two flames is created at a nearly constant temperature, and turbulence helps to maintain islands of well-mixed isothermal fuel as the temperature increases. The delayed burning of these regions can be supersonic and could initiate a detonation.

Woosley, S. E. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Kerstein, A. R. [Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Aspden, A. J., E-mail: woosley@ucolick.org, E-mail: arkerst@sandia.gov, E-mail: ajaspden@lbl.gov [Center for Computational Sciences and Engineering, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, CA 94720 (United States)

2011-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

376

Interaction of the burning spherical droplets in oxygen-enriched turbulent environment  

SciTech Connect

Three-dimensional numerical studies on the interaction of vaporizing and burning droplets were conducted to understand the burning characteristics of multiple droplets in a turbulent environment. The burning droplets characteristics, such as lifetime, surface temperature, vaporization, reaction, and burning rate were examined for various oxygen mole-fractions and geometrical arrangements of droplets. Results from a single droplet combustion test were first verified and validated against existing experimental data. Results indicate that turbulent intensity has a moderate effect on droplet burning rate, but not as prominent an effect as the oxygen mole-fraction. At high oxygen mole-fractions, droplet lifetime was short due to enhanced burning. It is shown that evaporation processes of multiple droplets are notably affected by the inter-space distance between droplets both in streamwise and spanwise directions. The burning rate as a function of oxygen mole-fraction and inter-space distance is determined and can be used as a guideline for future studies on spray combustion. (author)

Cho, Chong Pyo [Automobile Energy and Environment Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, 71-2 Jangdong, Yuseonggu, Daejeon, 305-343 (Korea); Kim, Ho Young; Yoon, Sam S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, Anamdong, 5-Ga, Sungbukgu, Seoul, 136-701 (Korea)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

377

Time Series Measurements from a Moored Fluorescence-Based Dissolved Oxygen Sensor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present an analysis of time-series measurements from a prototype fluorescence-quenching dissolved oxygen sensor moored for a six-day period in late March 1987 at 100 m depth in Saanich Inlet, British Columbia. Temporal variations in dissolved ...

Richard E. Thomson; Terrence A. Curran; M. Coreen Hamilton; Ronald McFarlane

1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

2 Oxygen Uptake by Resin (mmol/g) 1 F Experimental Methods ...  

L I N D S A Y R O G E R S O N , K A T H R Y N S H P I K , A N D P . A . T A Y L O R Hydraulic Testing of Spherical RF Resin–Effect of Radiation and Oxygen ...

379

Oxygen diffusion in UO2+x and (U,Pu)O2+-x  

SciTech Connect

In the first part of this report we revisit an earlier study of oxygen diffusion in UO{sub 2+x}, in which we used density functional theory (DFT) calculations to parameterize a kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) model. The results from these earlier kMC simulations are reproduced in Fig. 1 and they indicate fairly good agreement with available experiments. This work was later expanded to include a larger temperature range. However, since the publication of this study there have been a number of advancements in DFT methodology for UO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2+x} providing increased accuracy. We have also gained better understanding of the oxygen clustering phenomena occurring in UO{sub 2+x}. For these two reasons, the DFT calculations of the migration barriers of single oxygen interstitials and di-interstitial clusters have been repeated using the LDA+U and GGA+U methodologies. The earlier study used regular GGA and, even though this method captures similar trends as the more advanced LDA+U and GGA+U techniques, it does not fulfill the quantitative requirements set by some applications. Additionally, we have identified a mechanism for the most stable quad-interstitial clusters to migrate and here we calculate the corresponding barriers within both the LDA+U and GGA+U methodologies. The new LDA+U and GGA+U data sets are analyzed in terms of available experiments. In the second part of this report we present initial results for the impact of Pu on oxygen diffusion in UO{sub 2}. The first step in understanding this process is to calculate the binding energies of oxygen vacancies and interstitials to a Pu ion in the UO{sub 2} matrix. Possible diffusion mechanisms are discussed for (U,Pu)O{sub 2-x}, (U,Pu)O{sub 2} and (U,Pu)O{sub 2+x}.

Andersson, Anders D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Liu, Xiang-Yang [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

380

Modeling the effects of late cycle oxygen enrichment on diesel engine combustion and emissions.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A multidimensional simulation of Auxiliary Gas Injection (AGI) for late cycle oxygen enrichment was exercised to assess the merits of AGI for reducing the emissions of soot from heavy duty diesel engines while not adversely affecting the NO{sub x} emissions of the engine. Here, AGI is the controlled enhancement of mixing within the diesel engine combustion chamber by high speed jets of air or another gas. The engine simulated was a Caterpillar 3401 engine. For a particular operating condition of this engine, the simulated soot emissions of the engine were reduced by 80% while not significantly affecting the engine-out NO{sub x} emissions compared to the engine operating without AGI. The effects of AGI duration, timing, and orientation are studied to confirm the window of opportunity for realizing lower engine-out soot while not increasing engine out NO{sub x} through controlled enhancement of in-cylinder mixing. These studies have shown that this window occurs during the late combustion cycle, from 20 to 60 crank angle degrees after top-dead-center. During this time, the combustion chamber temperatures are sufficiently high that soot oxidation increases in response in increased mixing, but the temperature is low enough that NO{sub x} reactions are quenched. The effect of the oxygen composition of the injected air is studied for the range of compositions between 21% and 30% oxygen by volume. This is the range of oxygen enrichment that is practical to produce from an air separation membrane. Simulations showed that this level of oxygen enrichment is insufficient to provide an additional benefit by either increasing the level of soot oxidation or prolonging the window of opportunity for increasing soot oxidation through enhanced mixing.

Mather, D. K.; Foster, D. E.; Poola, R. B.; Longman, D. E.; Chanda, A.; Vachon, T. J.

2002-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasohol excludes oxygenates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

GeoChip-based analysis of functional microbial communities in a bioreduced uranium-contaminated aquifer during reoxidation by oxygen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CCA were used for the VPA. COD, chemical oxygen demand; T,during partial CCA. p=0.016 COD p=0.006 Geochem p=0.056 Tempchemical oxygen demand (COD) at 120-150 mg L -1 to provide

Van Nostrand, J.D.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Fnr Is required for NifL-dependent oxygen control of nif gene expression in Klebsiella pneumoniae  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In Klebsiella pneumoniae, NifA-dependent transcription of nitrogen fixation (nif) genes is inhibited by NifL in response to molecular oxygen and combined nitrogen. We recently showed that K. pneumoniae NifL is a flavoprotein, which apparently senses oxygen through a redox-sensitive, conformational change. We have now studied the oxygen regulation of NifL activity in Escherichia coli and K. pneumoniae strains by monitoring its inhibition of NifA-mediated expression of K. pneumoniae ø(nifH?-?lacZ) fusions in different genetic backgrounds. Strains of both organisms carrying fnr null mutations failed to release NifL inhibition of NifA transcriptional activity under oxygen limitation: nif induction was similar to the induction under aerobic conditions. When the transcriptional regulator Fnr was synthesized from a plasmid, it was able to complement, i.e., to relieve NifL inhibition in the fnr mutant backgrounds. Hence, Fnr appears to be involved, directly or indirectly, in NifL-dependent oxygen regulation of nif gene expression in K. pneumoniae. The data indicate that in the absence of Fnr, NifL apparently does not receive the signal for anaerobiosis. We therefore hypothesize that in the absence of oxygen, Fnr, as the primary oxygen sensor, activates transcription of a gene or genes whose product or products function to relieve NifL inhibition by reducing the flavin adenine dinucleotide cofactor under oxygen-limiting conditions. In diazotrophic proteobacteria, transcription of the nitrogen

Roman Grabbe; Kai Klopprogge; Ruth; A. Schmitz

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

T. E. Lowe R. W. Brill K. L. Cousins Blood oxygen-binding characteristics of bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus),  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

T. E. Lowe á R. W. Brill á K. L. Cousins Blood oxygen-binding characteristics of bigeye tuna 1999 / Accepted: 18 December 1999 Abstract We found blood from bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) to have a signi®cantly higher O2 anity than blood from other tunas. Its P50 (partial pressure of oxygen, PO2

Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

384

Consistent predictable patterns in the hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope ratios of animal proteins consumed by modern  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Consistent predictable patterns in the hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope ratios of animal proteins, IN 47907, USA 4 University of Utah, Department of Geology & Geophysics, 115 S 1460 E, Salt Lake City, UT acid hydrogen (d2 H) and oxygen (d18 O) isotope ratios is a common feature in systems where isotopic

Ehleringer, Jim

385

PII S0016-7037(02)00873-6 Antiphase hydrogen and oxygen isotope periodicity in chert nodules  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PII S0016-7037(02)00873-6 Antiphase hydrogen and oxygen isotope periodicity in chert nodules Geology, Polish Geological Institute, 00-975 Warsaw, Poland 5 Geochemistry and the Environment Division, 2002) Abstract--Oxygen and hydrogen isotope analyses were made of Jurassic-age chert nodules from

386

The adsorption of molecular oxygen on Au/Ni(111) alloys and its oxidation of CO at 85 K  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Molecular oxygen is observed to adsorb on 0.2 - 0.6 ML Au/Ni(111) surface alloys. Molecular oxygen adsorbates are characterized by their 0-0 stretching frequencies of 740 cm', 851 cm' and 962 cm', as measured by high ...

Fischer, Jonathan David

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Appendix B: CArBon dioxide CApture teChnology SheetS Oxygen PrOductiOn  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxygen PrOductiOn Oxygen PrOductiOn B-500 Oxygen PrOductiOn u.S. dePartment Of energy advanced carbOn diOxide caPture r&d PrOgram: technOlOgy uPdate, may 2013 itm Oxygen technOlOgy fOr integratiOn in igcc and Other advanced POwer generatiOn SyStemS primary project goals Air Products and Chemicals set out to design and develop an ion transport membrane (ITM) based on ceramics that selectively transport oxygen (O 2 ) ions when operated at high temperature. This high-temperature process may be integrated with advanced power genera- tion processes that require O 2 as a feedstock, such as integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and other clean energy and industrial applications. technical goals * Design, construct, and operate a 0.1-ton/day (TPD) technology development unit

388

Oxygen enriched combustion system performance study: Phase 1, Interim/final report: Volume 1, Technical and economic analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Technical and economic feasibility of using oxygen enriched combustion (OEC) and preheated oxygen enriched combustion (POEC) for industrial furnace applications was evaluated. The potential for fuel savings and productivity improvements with OEC/POEC systems was parametrically analyzed for a broad range of furnace conditions including those for steel heating, glass melting and aluminum melting. The changes in combustion characteristics with OEC were reviewed and their effects on furnace applications discussed. Relative advantages of different enrichment techniques, safety considerations and the effects of OEC on combustion-generated pollutants were also evaluated. The characteristics and economics of the state-of-the-art oxygen generation methods including PSA, membrane and cryogenic systems were evaluated to identify cost effective methods of supplying oxygen enriched air. The potential synergistic effects of combining preheating and oxygen enrichment were investigated by analyzing fuel savings and the capital and operating costs. The overall process economics of conventional heat recovery systems, and various OEC/POEC systems were compared.

Kobayashi, Hisashi

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Furnace and Heat Recovery Area Design and Analysis for Conceptual Design of Oxygen-Based PC Boiler  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of the furnace and heat recovery area design and analysis task of the Conceptual Design of Oxygen-Based PC Boiler study is to optimize the location and design of the furnace, burners, over-fire gas ports, and internal radiant surfaces. The furnace and heat recovery area were designed and analyzed using the FW-FIRE and HEATEX computer programs. The furnace is designed with opposed wall-firing burners and over-fire air ports. Water is circulated in the furnace by natural circulation to the waterwalls and divisional wall panels. Compared to the air-fired furnace, the oxygen-fired furnace requires only 65% of the surface area and 45% of the volume. Two oxygen-fired designs were simulated: (1) without over-fire air and (2) with 20% over-fire air. The maximum wall heat flux in the oxygen-fired furnace is more than double that of the air-fired furnace due to the higher flame temperature and higher H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} concentrations. The coal burnout for the oxygen-fired case is 100% due to a 500 F higher furnace temperature and higher concentration of O{sub 2}. Because of the higher furnace wall temperature of the oxygen-fired case compared to the air-fired case, furnace water wall material was upgraded from carbon steel to T91. The total heat transfer surface required in the oxygen-fired heat recovery area (HRA) is 25% less than the air-fired HRA due to more heat being absorbed in the oxygen-fired furnace and the greater molecular weight of the oxygen-fired flue gas. The HRA tube materials and wall thickness are practically the same for the air-fired and oxygen-fired design since the flue gas and water/steam temperature profiles encountered by the heat transfer banks are very similar.

Andrew Seltzer

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique Date: Tuesday, March 12, 2013 Innovation for Our Energy Future Shyam S. Kocha: NREL Yannick Garsany: EXCET/NRL Deborah Myers: ANL https://www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/webinars.html Outline 1) Background 2) Experimental Aspects of RDE Testing 3) Basic Measurement Technique & Analysis 4) Parameters Affecting RDE Activity Measurements 1) Impact of Film Deposition & Drying Techniques 2) Impact of Ink Formulation 3) Impact of Nafion Incorporation 4) Impact of particle size effects 5) Correlation with MEA data 5) Electrocatalyst Durability using RDE Measurements 6) Summary 2 Background PEMFC MEA Thin-film RDE Trends of activity and durability in Rotating Disc Electrode (RDE)

391

Distributed Reforming of Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting using Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) (Presentation)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reforming of Renewable Reforming of Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting using Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) * U. (Balu) Balachandran, T. H. Lee, C. Y. Park, and S. E. Dorris Energy Systems Division E-mail: balu@anl.gov * Work supported by the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program of DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Presented at the Bio-derived Liquids Working Group (BILIWG) Meeting, Nov. 6, 2007. BILIWG Meeting, Nov. 6, 2007 2 Objective & Rationale Objective: Develop compact dense ceramic membrane reactors that enable the efficient and cost-effective production of hydrogen by reforming renewable liquid fuels using pure oxygen produced by water splitting and transported by an OTM. Rationale: Membrane technology provides the means to attack barriers to the

392

Questions and Answers - If you jumped into a pool of liquid oxygen, would  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Is there anything colderthan liquid nitrogen? Is there anything colder<br>than liquid nitrogen? Previous Question (Is there anything colder than liquid nitrogen?) Questions and Answers Main Index Next Question (What's the melting point of steel?) What's the melting point of steel? If you jumped into a pool of liquid oxygen, would your body instantly crystallize? Nothing happens instantly. The first thing would be frostbite to the skin followed by the onset of hypothermia to the internal organs. No doubt everything would "freeze up" with time. What this really brings up though is safety issues with cryogenic fluids, that is, those substances that are normally gases (like oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, or helium) at room temperature but can be changed to liquid form through the use of

393

Real-Time Molecular Monitoring of Chemical Environment in ObligateAnaerobes during Oxygen Adaptive Response  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Determining the transient chemical properties of the intracellular environment canelucidate the paths through which a biological system adapts to changes in its environment, for example, the mechanisms which enable some obligate anaerobic bacteria to survive a sudden exposure to oxygen. Here we used high-resolution Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectromicroscopy to continuously follow cellular chemistry within living obligate anaerobes by monitoring hydrogen bonding in their cellular water. We observed a sequence of wellorchestrated molecular events that correspond to changes in cellular processes in those cells that survive, but only accumulation of radicals in those that do not. We thereby can interpret the adaptive response in terms of transient intracellular chemistry and link it to oxygen stress and survival. This ability to monitor chemical changes at the molecular level can yield important insights into a wide range of adaptive responses.

Holman, Hoi-Ying N.; Wozei, Eleanor; Lin, Zhang; Comolli, Luis R.; Ball, David. A.; Borglin, Sharon; Fields, Matthew W.; Hazen, Terry C.; Downing, Kenneth H.

2009-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

394

Method for melting glass by measurement of non-bridging oxygen  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for making better quality molten glass in a glass melter, the glass having the desired viscosity and, preferably, also the desired resistivity so that the glass melt can be established effectively and the product of the glass melter will have the desired level of quality. The method includes the adjustment of the composition of the glass constituents that are fed into the melter in accordance with certain correlations that reliably predict the viscosity and resistivity from the melter temperature and the melt composition, then heating the ingredients to the melter's operating temperature until they melt and homogenize. The equations include the calculation of a non-bridging oxygen' term from the numbers of moles of the various ingredients, and then the determination of the viscosity and resistivity from the operating temperature of the melter and the non-bridging oxygen term. 4 figs.

Jantzen, C.M.

1992-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

395

EFFECT OF PRETREATMENT ON PT-CO/C CATHODE CATALYSTS FOR THE OXYGEN-REDUCTION REACTION  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Carbon supported Pt and Pt-Co electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction in low temperature fuel cells were prepared by the reduction of the metal salts with sodium borohydride and sodium formate. The effect of surface treatment with nitric acid on the carbon surface and Co on the surface of carbon prior to the deposition of Pt was studied. The catalysts where Pt was deposited on treated carbon the ORR reaction preceded more through the two electron pathway and favored peroxide production, while the fresh carbon catalysts proceeded more through the four electron pathway to complete the oxygen reduction reaction. NaCOOH reduced Pt/C catalysts showed higher activity that NaBH{sub 4} reduced Pt/C catalysts. It was determined that the Co addition has a higher impact on catalyst activity and active surface area when used with NaBH{sub 4} as reducing agent as compared to NaCOOH.

Fox, E.; Colon-Mercado, H.

2010-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

396

THE REACTIONS OF ENERGETIC CARBON ATOMS IN METHANE OXYGEN AND PHASE DEPENDENCE RADIATION DAMAGE EFFECTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Studies were made on the reactions of C/sup 11/ in methane containing oxygen. The nuclear reactions C/sup 12/(n,2n) and C/sup 12/(p,pn) were used to produce C/sup 11/. Concomitant radiolysis of the methane during C/sup 11/ production clearly affected product distribution. C/sup 11/-labeled ethane and propane decreased while methane, ethylene, and acetylene decreased. It was assumed that reduction by hydrogen atoms was probably occurring in the unscavenged system. The effects of oxygen and of phase are discussed. In all cases, in duplicate systems, the product distributions resulting from inducing the C/sup 12/(p,pn) reaction were the same within experimental error as those resulting from the C/sup 12/(n,2n) reaction. (P.C.H.)

Stoecklin, G.; Stangl, H.; Christman, D.R.; Cumming, J.B.; Wolf, A.P.

1963-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Possible evidence for fluid-rock oxygen isotope disequilibrium in hydrothermal systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

There is ample evidence from geothermal systems that isotope temperatures estimated from the oxygen isotope fractionation between alteration phases and coexisting aquifer fluids agree closely with measured bore-hole temperatures. Similar, but limited evidence is found in epithermal vein deposits where isotopes temperature agree well with fluid inclusion homogenization temperature. Conversely, many hydrothermal systems exhibit varying degrees of fluid-rock oxygen isotope equilibration. There appears to be a crude relationship between increasing degree of equilibrium and increasing temperature and salinity. The observed variations in the degree of exchange may have resulted from local, self-sealing of the fracture network prior to equilibration. The ability for fracture to remain open or to propogate allowing continued fluid flow may be the deciding factor in the attainment of isotopic equilibration.

Cole, D.R.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Oxygen-isotope geochemistry of quaternary rhyolite from the Mineral Mountains, Utah, USA  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Oxygen isotope analyses were made of phenocryst and glass separates from four Quaternary rhyolite flows and domes in the Mineral Mountains, southwest Utah. With the exception of biotite in all samples and alkali feldspar in the rhyolite domes, all minerals appear to be in close oxygen isotope exchange equilibrium. The geothermometry equations proposed by Bottinga and Javoy (1973) and Javoy (1977) for quartz, alkali feldspar and magnetite produce the best agreement with temperature results fom two-feldspar and iron-titanium oxide geothermometry for these rhyolites. If the rhyolites were generated by partial melting in the crust, their whole-rock (glass) delta/sup 18/O values (6.3 to 6.9 permil) are consistent with generation from I-type (Chappell and White, 1974, O'Neil and Chappell, 1977; O'Neil et. al., 1977) sources.

Bowman, J.R.; Evans, S.H. Jr.; Nash, W.P.

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Possible evidence for fluid-rock oxygen isotope disequilibrium in hydrothermal systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

There is ample evidence from geothermal systems that isotope temperatures estimated from the oxygen isotope fractionation between alteration phases and coexisting aquifer fluids agree closely with measured bore-hole temperatures. Similar, but limited evidence is found in epithermal vein deposits where isotopes temperature agree well with fluid inclusion homogenization temperature. Conversely, many hydrothermal systems exhibit varying degrees of fluid-rock oxygen isotope equilibration. There appears to be a crude relationship between increasing degree of equilibrium and increasing temperature and salinity. The observed variations in the degree of exchange may have resulted from local, self-sealing of the fracture network prior to equilibration. The ability for fracture to remain open or to propogate allowing continued fluid flow may be the deciding factor in the attainment of isotopic equilibration.

Cole, D.R.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Method for melting glass by measurement of non-bridging oxygen  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for making better quality molten glass in a glass melter, the glass having the desired viscosity and, preferably, also the desired resistivity so that the glass melt can be established effectively and the product of the glass melter will have the desired level of quality. The method includes the adjustment of the composition of the glass constituents that are fed into the melter in accordance with certain correlations that reliably predict the viscosity and resistivity from the melter temperature and the melt composition, then heating the ingredients to the melter's operating temperature until they melt and homogenize. The equations include the calculation of a "non-bridging oxygen" term from the numbers of moles of the various ingredients, and then the determination of the viscosity and resistivity from the operating temperature of the melter and the non-bridging oxygen term.

Jantzen, Carol M. (3922 Wood Valley Dr., Aiken, SC 29801)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasohol excludes oxygenates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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401

Spent nuclear fuel project detonation phenomena of hydrogen/oxygen in spent fuel containers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Movement of Spent N Reactor fuels from the Hanford K Basins near the Columbia River to Dry interim storage facility on the Hanford plateau will require repackaging the fuel in the basins into multi-canister overpacks (MCOs), drying of the fuel, transporting the contained fuel, hot conditioning, and finally interim storage. Each of these functions will be accomplished while the fuel is contained in the MCOs by several mechanisms. The principal source of hydrogenand oxygen within the MCOs is residual water from the vacuum drying and hot conditioning operations. This document assesses the detonation phenomena of hydrogen and oxygen in the spent fuel containers. Several process scenarios have been identified that could generate detonation pressures that exceed the nominal 10 atmosphere design limit ofthe MCOS. Only 42 grams of radiolized water are required to establish this condition.

Cooper, T.D.

1996-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

402

Oxygen and hydrogen evolution reaction on oriented single crystals of ruthenium dioxide  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A novel design for water electrolysis using a solid polymer electrolyte is being developed by General Electric. Ruthenium is one of the best electrocatalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction. There are problems connected with the significant loss in electrocatalytic activity with time. This performance degradation is presumably due to the gradual formation of an RuO/sub 2/ film. We have performed electrochemical measurements on (100), (110) and (111) oriented single crystals of RuO/sub 2/ in order to elucidate the mechanism of the electrocatalytic process. Large single crystals were grown by the vapor transport method. Our investigation has revealed several interesting differences for the various orientations. This study indicates that RuO/sub 3/ may be an important intermediate species prior to oxygen evolution and that the formation of the RuO/sub 3/ is the rate limiting process. Similar results were previously obtained for IrO/sub 2/.

Berger, L I; Pollak, F H; Canivez, Y; O'Grady, W

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

Given that fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated several coal fired power plant configurations designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for use or sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB units results in significant Boiler Island cost savings. Additionally, ALSTOM has identified several advanced/novel plant configurations, which improve the efficiency and cost of the CO{sub 2} product cleanup and compression process. These advanced/novel concepts require long development efforts. An economic analysis indicates that the proposed oxygen-firing technology in circulating fluidized boilers could be developed and deployed economically in the near future in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) applications or enhanced gas recovery (EGR), such as coal bed methane recovery. ALSTOM received a Cooperative Agreement from the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) in 2001 to carry out a project entitled ''Greenhouse Gas Emissions Control by Oxygen Firing in Circulating Fluidized Bed Boilers.'' This two-phased project is in effect from September 28, 2001, to October 27, 2004. (U.S. DOE NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41146). Phase I consisted of an evaluation of the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants, and supporting bench-scale testing. And Phase II consists of pilot-scale testing, supporting a refined performance and economic evaluation of the oxygen-fired AFC concept. Phase I, detailed in this report, entails a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants. Thirteen separate but related cases (listed below), representing various levels of technology development, were evaluated as described herein. The first seven cases represent coal combustion cases in CFB type equipment. The next four cases represent Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The last two cases represent advanced Chemical Looping systems, which were completely paid for by ALSTOM and included herein for completeness.

Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl

2003-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

404

CONTINUOUS PROCESS FOR PREPARING URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE FROM URANIUM TETRAFLUORIDE AND OXYGEN  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for preparing UF/sub 6/ by reacting UF/sub 4/ and oxygen is described. The UF/sub 4/ and oxygen are continuously introduced into a fluidized bed of UO/sub 2/F/sub 2/ at a temperature of 600 to 900 deg C. The concentration of UF/sub 4/ in the bed is maintained below 25 weight per cent in order to avoid sintering and intermediate compound formation. By-product U0/sub 2/F/sub 2/ is continuously removed from the top of the bed recycled. In an alternative embodiment heat is supplied to the reaction bed by burning carbon monoxide in the bed. The product UF/sub 6/ is filtered to remove entrained particles and is recovered in cold traps and chemical traps. (AEC)

Adams, J.B.; Bresee, J.C.; Ferris, L.M.

1961-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

405

Method of and apparatus for producing hydrogen and oxygen by photoelectrically-induced electrolysis  

SciTech Connect

A method of producing hydrogen and oxygen from an electrolytic solution in an electrolytic cell is described comprising the step S of: forming a relatively thin layer of the electrolytic solution on an anode; passing light through the relatively thin layer to ionize the electrolytic solution in the relatively thin layer to form oxygen adjacent the anode and to heat the solution in the layer; circulating the fluid in the electrolytic cell due to heating of the relatively thin layer to move the solution past a cathode electrically connected to the anode, preventing current from flowing from between the cathode and anode until the potential reaches a predetermined threshold thereby generating hydrogen gas at the cathdoe, and collecting the hydrogen gas as the gas froms at the cathode.

Fowler, H.

1980-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

406

Method of producing metallized chloroplasts and use thereof in the photochemical production of hydrogen and oxygen  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is primarily a metallized chloroplast composition for use in a photosynthetic reaction. A catalytic metal is precipitated on a chloroplast membrane at the location where a catalyzed reduction reaction occurs. This metallized chloroplast is stabilized by depositing it on a support medium such as fiber so that it can be easily handled. A possible application of this invention is the splitting of water to form hydrogen and oxygen that can be used as a renewable energy source.

Greenbaum, Elias (Oak Ridge, TN)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Oxygen enriched combustion system performance study: Volume 2, Market assessment: Phase 1, Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The technical and economic feasibility of oxygen enriched combustion (OEC) was assessed for twenty-one different types of high temperature industrial furnaces in nine industries. Based on the relative energy savings with OEC, economics and overall consumption of energy, steel heating, glass and aluminum melting furnaces were shown to offer the greatest potential to achieve energy savings by implementing OEC. Detailed analyses for energy savings and economics were conducted for these furnaces. 21 refs., 22 tabs.

Kobayashi, H.

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Program on Technology Innovation: Ion Transport Membrane Oxygen Technology for Advanced Power Generation Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents an Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Technology Innovation (TI) project that provides background information and increased understanding to EPRI members of the potential benefits of integrating ion transport membrane (ITM) technology for oxygen production with integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and oxyfuel combustion pulverized coal power plants. This TI project also generated new learning by conducting literature reviews of existing and new air separation technolo...

2009-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

409

Indium oxide atomic layer deposition facilitated by the synergy between oxygen and water.  

SciTech Connect

This paper explores the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of indium oxide (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}) films using cyclopentadienyl indium (InCp) and combinations of both molecular oxygen and water as the co-reactants. When either O{sub 2} or H{sub 2}O were used individually as the oxygen source the In{sub 2}O{sub 3} growth was negligible over the temperature range 100-250 C. However, when oxygen and water were used in combination either as a simultaneous exposure or supplied sequentially, In{sub 2}O{sub 3} films were deposited at growth rates of 1.0-1.6 {angstrom}/cycle over the full range of deposition temperatures. In situ quadrupole mass spectrometry and quartz crystal microbalance measurements revealed that water serves the function of releasing ligands from the surface while oxygen performs the role of oxidizing the indium. Since both processes are necessary for sustained growth, both O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O are required for the In{sub 2}O{sub 3} ALD. The electrical resistivity, mobility, and carrier concentration of the In{sub 2}O{sub 3} films varied dramatically with both the deposition temperature and co-reactant sequence and correlated to a crystallization occurring at {approx}140 C observed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Using this new process we successfully deposited ALD In{sub 2}O{sub 3} films over large area substrates (12 in. x 18 in.) with very high uniformity in thickness and resistivity.

Libera, J. A.; Hryn, J. N.; Elam, J. W. (Energy Systems)

2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

410

First principles calculations of oxygen adsorption on the UN (001) surface  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fabrication, handling and disposal of nuclear fuel materials require comprehensive knowledge of their surface morphology and reactivity. Due to unavoidable contact with air components (even at low partial pressures), UN samples contain considerable amount of oxygen impurities affecting fuel properties. The basic properties of O atoms adsorbed on the UN(001) surface are simulated here combining the two first principles calculation methods based on the plane wave basis set and that of the localized atomic orbitals.

Zhukovskii, Yuri F; Kotomin, Eugene; Evarestov, Robert; Bandura, Andrey V; 10.1016/j.susc.2008.10.019

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Increased Efficiency in SI Engine with Air Replaced by Oxygen in Argon Mixture  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Basic engine thermodynamics predicts that spark ignited engine efficiency is a function of both the compression ratio of the engine and the specific heat ratio of the working fluid. In practice the compression ratio of the engine is often limited due to knock. Both higher specific heat ratio and higher compression ratio lead to higher end gas temperatures and increase the likelihood of knock. In actual engine cycles, heat transfer losses increase at higher compression ratios and limit efficiency even when the knock limit is not reached. In this paper we investigate the role of both the compression ratio and the specific heat ratio on engine efficiency by conducting experiments comparing operation of a single-cylinder variable-compression-ratio engine with both hydrogen-air and hydrogen-oxygen-argon mixtures. For low load operation it is found that the hydrogen-oxygen-argon mixtures result in higher indicated thermal efficiencies. Peak efficiency for the hydrogen-oxygen-argon mixtures is found at compression ratio 5.5 whereas for the hydrogen-air mixture with an equivalence ratio of 0.24 the peak efficiency is found at compression ratio 13. We apply a three-zone model to help explain the effects of specific heat ratio and compression ratio on efficiency. Operation with hydrogen-oxygen-argon mixtures at low loads is more efficient because the lower compression ratio results in a substantially larger portion of the gas to reside in the adiabatic core rather than in the boundary layer and in the crevices, leading to less heat transfer and more complete combustion.

Killingsworth, N J; Rapp, V H; Flowers, D L; Aceves, S M; Chen, J; Dibble, R

2010-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

412

Effect of Oxygen Concentration on Corrosion Product Transport at South Texas Project Unit 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Transport of corrosion products to PWR steam generators leads to sludge buildup on the tubesheet and fouling of tube-to-tube support crevices. In these regions, chemical impurities can concentrate and accelerate tubing corrosion, which can lead to significant losses in plant availability and steam generator replacement at more than $100 million per unit. This study investigated corrosion transport processes, with emphasis on the impact of oxygen concentration. The results will help utilities determine ap...

2000-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

413

Integrated safety assessment of an oxygen reduction project at Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power's Haddam Neck plant  

SciTech Connect

Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company (CYAPCo) has implemented an Integrated Safety Assessment Program (ISAP) for the integrated evaluation and prioritization of plant-specific licensing issues, regulatory policy issues, and plant improvement projects. As part of the ISAP process, probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is utilized to evaluate the net safety impact of plant modification projects. On a few occasions, implementation of this approach has resulted in the identification of projects with negative safety impacts that could not be quantified via the normal design review and 10CFR50.59 safety evaluation process. An example is a plant modification that was proposed to reduce the oxygen in the Haddam Neck plant's demineralized water storage tank (DWST). The project involved the design and installation of a nitrogen blanketing system on the DWST. The purpose of the project was to reduce the oxygen content on the secondary side, consistent with recommendations from the Electric Power Research Institute Steam Generator Owners Group. Oxygen is one of the contributors to the corrosion process in systems in contact with the feedwater and can cause damage to associated components if not controlled.

Aubrey, J.E.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Process for selection of oxygen-tolerant algal mutants that produce H{sub 2}  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for selection of oxygen-tolerant, H{sub 2}-producing algal mutant cells comprises: (a) growing algal cells photoautotrophically under fluorescent light to mid log phase; (b) inducing algal cells grown photoautotrophically under fluorescent light to mid log phase in step (a) anaerobically by (1) resuspending the cells in a buffer solution and making said suspension anaerobic with an inert gas and (2) incubating the suspension in the absence of light at ambient temperature; (c) treating the cells from step (b) with metronidazole, sodium azide, and added oxygen to controlled concentrations in the presence of white light; (d) washing off metronidazole and sodium azide to obtain final cell suspension; (e) plating said final cell suspension on a minimal medium and incubating in light at a temperature sufficient to enable colonies to appear; (f) counting the number of colonies to determine the percent of mutant survivors; and (g) testing survivors to identify oxygen-tolerant H{sub 2}-producing mutants. 5 figs.

Ghirardi, M.L.; Seibert, M.

1999-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

415

Nanocomposite oxygen carriers for chemical-looping combustion of sulfur-contaminated synthesis gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is an emerging technology for clean combustion. We have previously demonstrated that the embedding of metal nanoparticles into a nanostructured ceramic matrix can result in unusually active and sinter-resistant nanocomposite oxygen carrier materials for CLC, which combine the high reactivity of metals with the high-temperature stability of ceramics. In the present study, we investigate the effect of H{sub 2}S in a typical coal-derived syngas on the stability and redox kinetics of Ni- and Cu-based nanostructured oxygen carriers. Both carriers show excellent structural stability and only mildly changed redox kinetics upon exposure to H{sub 2}S, despite a significant degree of sulfide formation. Surprisingly, partial sulfidation of the support results in a strong increase in oxygen carrier capacity in both cases because of the addition of a sulfide-sulfate cycle. Overall, the carriers show great potential for use in CLC of high-sulfur fuels. 21 refs., 13 figs. 1 tab.

Rahul D. Solunke; Goetz Veser [United States Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). National Energy Technology Laboratory

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

416

Fundamentals, development and scaleup of the air=oxygen stratified downdraft gasifier  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In 1979 the US Department of Energy, Office of Alcohol Fuels, asked the Solar Energy Research Institute to develop a process for manufacturing methanol from biomass. This can be achieved by gasification of the biomass to a ''synthesis gas'' (syn-gas) (composed of primarily hydrogen and carbon monoxide) followed by catalytic conversion of the gas to methanol. The catalytic conversion of syn-gas is a well developed commercial process. There are a number of gasifiers for wood, but most of them make either a producer gas, high on nitrogen or a pyrolysis gas high in hydrocarbons. None were developed to make syn-gas. Thus the principal technical problem was to develop a gasifier to make synthesis gas from biomass. Work was performed at SERI from 1980--1985 which resulted in the development of a prototype 1 ton/day oxygen-biomass gasifier. In 1985 a program was undertaken for Congress by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to build a commercial scale (50--200 tons/day) medium energy gasifier, based on DOE or other research. A new company, Syn-Gas Inc. (SGI), research. A contract was awarded to SGI to modify the air gasifier for oxygen operation for this project. This modification allowed extended tests of the gasifier with oxygen to determine the possibility of scaling up the SERI-SGI gasifier to 50--200 tons/day.

Reed, T.B.; Levie, B.; Graboski, M.S.

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

An Auger Sputter Profiling Study of Nitrogen and Oxygen Ion Implantations in Two Titiaium Alloys  

SciTech Connect

Samples of two titanium alloys, Ti-6A1-4V and Ti-15V-3Cr-3Sn-3A1, were ion implanted with a combination of nitrogen (N+) and oxygen (O+). For each alloy, implantation parameters were chosen to give implanted nitrogen concentrations of approximately 10 or 50 atomic percent, from a depth of 100 nanometers to a depth of 400 nanometers. In all but one case, dual energy (200 keV and 90 keV) implantations of nitrogen were used to give a relatively uniform nitrogen concentration to a depth of 300 nanometers. In each case, oxygen was implanted at 35 keV, following the nitrogen implantation, to give an oxygen-enriched region near the surface. The implanted samples were then examined by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) combined with argon ion sputtering. In order to determine the stoichiometry of the nitrogen implanted regions, it was necessary to determine the N (KVV) contribution to the overlapping N (KVV) and Ti (LMM) Auger transitions. It was also necessary to correct for the ion-bombardment-induced compositional changes which have been described in an earlier study of titanium nitride thin films. The corrected AES depth profiles were in good agreement with theoretical predictions.

Barton, B. D., Pope, L. E., Wittberg, T. N.

1989-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

418

Formation of Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Hydrogen Peroxide in Electron Irradiated Crystalline Water Ice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water ice is abundant both astrophysically, for example in molecular clouds, and in planetary systems. The Kuiper belt objects, many satellites of the outer solar system, the nuclei of comets and some planetary rings are all known to be water-rich. Processing of water ice by energetic particles and ultraviolet photons plays an important role in astrochemistry. To explore the detailed nature of this processing, we have conducted a systematic laboratory study of the irradiation of crystalline water ice in an ultrahigh vacuum setup by energetic electrons holding a linear energy transfer of 4.3 +/- 0.1 keV mm-1. The irradiated samples were monitored during the experiment both on line and in situ via mass spectrometry (gas phase) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (solid state). We observed the production of hydrogen and oxygen, both molecular and atomic, and of hydrogen peroxide. The likely reaction mechanisms responsible for these species are discussed. Additional formation routes were derived from the sublimation profiles of molecular hydrogen (90-140 K), molecular oxygen (147 -151 K) and hydrogen peroxide (170 K). We also present evidence on the involvement of hydroxyl radicals and possibly oxygen atoms as building blocks to yield hydrogen peroxide at low temperatures (12 K) and via a diffusion-controlled mechanism in the warming up phase of the irradiated sample.

Weijun Zheng; David Jewitt; Ralf I. Kaiser

2005-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

419

Atomic-Scale Mechanisms of Oxygen Electrode Delamination in Solid Oxide Electrolyzer Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Materials used for different components (electrodes, electrolyte, steel interconnects, etc.) of solid oxide electrolyzer cell (SOEC) devices for hydrogen production have to function in aggressive, corrosive environments and in the presence of electric fields. This results in a number of degradation processes at interfaces between components. In this study, we used a combination of first-principles, density-functional-theory (DFT) calculations and thermodynamic modeling to elucidate the main processes that contribute into the oxygen delamination in typical SOEC device consisting of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte and Sr-doped LaMnO3 (LSM) oxygen electrode. We found that high temperature inter-diffusion of different atoms across the LSM/YSZ interface significantly affects structural stability of the materials and their interface. In particular, we found that La and Sr substitutional defects positioned in ZrO2 oxide and near LSM/YSZ interface significantly change oxygen transport which may develop pressure buildup in the interfacial region and eventually develop delamination process. Simple models for estimating these effects are proposed, and different possibilities for inhibiting and/or mitigating undesirable delamination processes are discussed.

Sergey N. Rashkeev; Michael V. Glazoff

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Hydrogen production from simulated hot coke oven gas by using oxygen-permeable ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen production from simulated hot coke oven gas (HCOG) was investigated in a BaCo{sub 0.7}Fe{sub 0.2}Nb{sub 0.1}O{sub 3-{delta}} (BCFNO) membrane reactor combined with a Ni/Mg(Al)O catalyst by the partial oxidation with toluene as a model tar compound under atmospheric pressure. The reaction results indicated that toluene was completely converted to H{sub 2} and CO in the catalytic reforming of the simulated HCOG in the temperature range from 825 to 875{sup o}C. Both thermodynamically predicated values and experimental data showed that the selective oxidation of toluene took precedence over that of CH{sub 4} in the reforming reaction. At optimized reaction conditions, the dense oxygen-permeable membrane has an oxygen permeation flux around 12.3 mL cm{sup -2} min{sup -1}, and a CH{sub 4} conversion of 86%, a CO{sub 2} conversion of 99%, a H{sub 2} yield of 88%, and a CO yield of 87% have been achieved. When the toluene and methane were reformed, the amount of H{sub 2} in the reaction effluent gas was about 2 times more than that of original H{sub 2} in simulated HCOG. The results reveal that it is feasible for hydrogen production from HCOG by reforming hydrocarbon compounds in a ceramic oxygen-permeable membrane reactor. 27 refs., 10 figs., 3 abs.

Hongwei Cheng; Yuwen Zhang; Xionggang Lu; Weizhong Ding; Qian Li [Shanghai University, Shanghai (China). Shanghai Key Laboratory of Modern Metallurgy and Materials Processing

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasohol excludes oxygenates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Liquid-liquid reaction of hydrogen peroxide and sodium hypochlorite for the production of singlet oxygen in a centrifugal flow singlet oxygen generator  

SciTech Connect

An attempt is made to produce gas-phase singlet oxygen O{sub 2}(a{sup 1{Delta}}{sub g}) in a liquid-liquid reaction between acidic hydrogen peroxide (AHP) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). The attempt arises from the fact that basic hydrogen peroxide (BHP) has long been the prime source for producing singlet delta oxygen through its reaction with chlorine. However, BHP suffers from the defect of being unstable during storage. Exploratory experiments were performed in a centrifugal flow singlet oxygen generator (CF-SOG) with two streams of solutions, AHP and NaOCl, mixed in a slit nozzle and then injected into the arc-shaped concavity in the CF-SOG to form a rotating liquid flow with a remarkable centrifugal force. With the help of this centrifugal force, the product of the O{sub 2}({sup 1{Delta}}) reaction was quickly separated from the liquid phase. The gas-phase O{sub 2}({sup 1{Delta}}) was detected via the spectrum of O{sub 2}({sup 1{Delta}}) cooperative dimolecular emission with a CCD spectrograph. Experimental results show that it is feasible to produce gas-phase O{sub 2}({sup 1{Delta}}) from the AHP + NaOCl reaction, and the stronger the acidity, the more efficient the O{sub 2}({sup 1{Delta}}) production. However, since in the AHP + NaOCl reaction, Cl{sub 2} unavoidably appears as a byproduct, its catalytic action on the decomposition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} into ground-state O{sub 2} remains a major obstacle to utilising the AHP + NaOCl reaction in producing gas-phase O{sub 2}({sup 1{Delta}}). Qualitative interpretation shows that the AHP + NaOCl reaction is virtually the reaction of interaction of molecular H{sub 2}O{sub 2} with molecular HOCl, its mechanism being analogous to that of reaction of BHP with Cl{sub 2}, where HOOCl is the key intermediate. It is difficult to form the intermediate HOOCl via the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} + NaOCl reaction in a basic medium, thus gas-phase O{sub 2}({sup 1{Delta}}) cannot be obtained in appreciable quantities. (active media)

Cui Rongrong; Deng Liezheng; Shi Wenbo; Yang Heping; Sha Guohe; Zhang Cunhao [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China)

2011-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

422

Effects of oxygen cover gas and NaOH dilution on gas generation in tank 241-SY-101 waste  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Laboratory studies are reported of gas generation in heated waste from tank 241-SY-101. The rates of gas generation and the compositions of product gas were measured. Three types of tests are compared. The tests use: undiluted waste, waste diluted by a 54% addition of 2.5 M NaOH, and undiluted waste with a reactive cover gas of 30% Oxygen in He. The gas generation rate is reduced by dilution, increased by higher temperatures (which determines activation energies), and increased by reactions of Oxygen (these primarily produce H{sub 2}). Gases are generated as reduction products oxidation of organic carbon species by nitrite and oxygen.

Person, J.C.

1996-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

423

Oxygen Reduction Reaction on Dispersed and Core-Shell Metal Alloy Catalysts: Density Functional Theory Studies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pt-based alloy surfaces are used to catalyze the electrochemical oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), where molecular oxygen is converted into water on fuel cell electrodes. In this work, we address challenges due to the cost of high Pt loadings in the cathode electrocatalyst, as well as those arising from catalyst durability. We aim to develop an increased understanding of the factors that determine ORR activity together with stability against surface segregation and dissolution of Pt-based alloys. We firstly focus on the problem of determining surface atomic distribution resulting from surface segregation phenomena. We use first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations on PtCo and Pt3Co overall compositions, as well as adsorption of water and atomic oxygen on PtCo(111) and Pt-skin structures. The bonding between water and surfaces of PtCo and Pt-skin monolayers are investigated in terms of orbital population. Also, on both surfaces, the surface reconstruction effect due to high oxygen coverage and water co-adsorption is investigated. Although the PtCo structures show good activity, a large dissolution of Co atoms tends to occur in acid medium. To tackle this problem, we examine core-shell structures which showed improved stability and activity compared to Pt(111), in particular, one consisting of a surface Pt-skin monolayer over an IrCo or Ir3Co core, with or without a Pd interlayer between the Pt surface and the Ir-Co core. DFT analysis of surface segregation, surface stability against dissolution, surface Pourbaix diagrams, and reaction mechanisms provide useful predictions on catalyst durability, onset potential for water oxidation, surface atomic distribution, coverage of oxygenated species, and activity. The roles of the Pd interlayer in the core-shell structures that influence higher ORR activity are clarified. Furthermore, the stability and activity enhancement of new shell-anchor-core structures of Pt/Fe-C/core, Pt/Co-C/core and Pt/Ni-C/core are demonstrated with core materials of Ir, Pd3Co, Ir3Co, IrCo and IrNi. Based on the analysis, Pt/Fe-C/Ir, Pt/Co-C/Ir, Pt/Ni-C/Ir, Pt/Co-C/Pd3Co, Pt/Fe-C/Pd3Co, Pt/Co- C/Ir3Co, Pt/Fe-C/Ir3Co, Pt/Co-C/IrCo, Pt/Co-C/IrNi, and Pt/Fe-C/IrNi structures show promise in terms of both improved durability and relatively high ORR activity.

Hirunsit, Pussana

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Effects of Time, Heat, and Oxygen on K Basin Sludge Agglomeration, Strength, and Solids Volume  

SciTech Connect

Sludge disposition will be managed in two phases under the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project. The first phase is to retrieve the sludge that currently resides in engineered containers in the K West (KW) Basin pool at ~10 to 18°C. The second phase is to retrieve the sludge from interim storage in the sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs) and treat and package it in preparation for eventual shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The work described in this report was conducted to gain insight into how sludge may change during long-term containerized storage in the STSCs. To accelerate potential physical and chemical changes, the tests were performed at temperatures and oxygen partial pressures significantly greater than those expected in the T Plant canyon cells where the STSCs will be stored. Tests were conducted to determine the effects of 50°C oxygenated water exposure on settled quiescent uraninite (UO2) slurry and a full simulant of KW containerized sludge to determine the effects of oxygen and heat on the composition and mechanical properties of sludge. Shear-strength measurements by vane rheometry also were conducted for UO2 slurry, mixtures of UO2 and metaschoepite (UO3•2H2O), and for simulated KW containerized sludge. The results from these tests and related previous tests are compared to determine whether the settled solids in the K Basin sludge materials change in volume because of oxidation of UO2 by dissolved atmospheric oxygen to form metaschoepite. The test results also are compared to determine if heating or other factors alter sludge volumes and to determine the effects of sludge composition and settling times on sludge shear strength. It has been estimated that the sludge volume will increase with time because of a uranium metal ? uraninite ? metaschoepite oxidation sequence. This increase could increase the number of containers required for storage and increase overall costs of sludge management activities. However, the volume might decrease because of decreases in the water-volume fraction caused by sludge solid reactions, compaction, or intergrowth and recrystallization of metaschoepite. In that case, fewer STSCs may be needed, but the shear strength would increase, and this could challenge recovery by water jet erosion and require more aggressive retrieval methods. Overall, the tests described herein indicate that the settled solids volume remains the same or decreases with time. The only case for which the sludge solids volumes increase with time is for the expansion factor attendant upon the anoxic corrosion of uranium metal to produce UO2 and subsequent reaction with oxygen to form equimolar UO2.25 and UO3•2H2O.

Delegard, Calvin H.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Daniel, Richard C.; Burns, Carolyn A.

2011-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

425

Detection of Cloud-Top Height from Backscattered Radiances within the Oxygen A Band. Part 1: Theoretical Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A series of radiative transfer calculations were performed to study the possibility of determining cloud-top pressure (height) from backscattered solar radiances within the oxygen A-band absorption. For the development of a cloud-top pressure ...

J. Fischer; H. Grassl

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Error Estimates for Passive Satellite Measurement of Surface Pressure Using Absorption in the A Band of Oxygen  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper investigates the feasibility of satellite remote sensing of surface pressure using radiometric measurements in the oxygen A band. It is shown out the primary sources of error are the uncertainties in the temperature profile, the ...

R. M. Mitchell; D. M. O'Brien

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Reduced leakage in epitaxial BiFeO{sub 3} films following oxygen radio frequency plasma treatment  

SciTech Connect

Epitaxial BiFeO{sub 3} (BFO) films were deposited using pulsed laser deposition method. The prepared films were characterized using x-ray diffraction, x-ray reflectivity, ferroelectric loop tracer, and leakage current measurements before and after oxygen plasma treatment. The leakage current of the films, a crucial parameter in device applications, is observed to be reduced by two orders of magnitude with oxygen plasma treatment at room temperature. P-E hysteresis loops were observed in oxygen plasma treated BFO films. The observed results indicate the usefulness of oxygen radio frequency plasma treatment (RF 13.56 MHz), which is an effective and low temperature processing technique, in such lossy ferroelectric thin films.

Kothari, Deepti [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India) [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452 017 (India); Upadhyay, Sanjay K.; Raghavendra Reddy, V. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452 017 (India)] [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452 017 (India); Jariwala, C.; Raole, P. M. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)] [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

2013-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

428

Detection of Cloud-Top Height from Backscattered Radiances within the Oxygen A Band. Part 2: Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cloud-top heights were successfully derived from reflected solar radiation measurements within the oxygen A-band absorption. The accuracy of the estimated cloud-top heights was to within 40 meters over stratus clouds when compared with ...

J. Fischer; W. Cordes; A. Schmitz-Peiffer; W. Renger; P. Mörl

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Optical and electrochemical properties of surface films formed on platinum and iridium in the oxygen evolution region  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The results presented indicate the special role which a highly hydrated form of a surface oxide plays during the oxygen evolution reaction which occurs at its interface with the electrolyte. (LK)

Gottesfeld, S; Srinivasan, S

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Lipid Oxidation Pathways, Volume 2Chapter 1 Chemistry and Reactions of Singlet and Triplet Oxygen in Lipid Oxidation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lipid Oxidation Pathways, Volume 2 Chapter 1 Chemistry and Reactions of Singlet and Triplet Oxygen in Lipid Oxidation Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Downloadable pdf ...

431

Defect processes involving oxygen-compensated sites in CaF/sub 2/ precipitates doped with lanthanides and actinides  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oxygen incorporation into calcium fluoride precipitates doped with lanthanides and actinides is investigated by use of the technique of site-selective spectroscopy. Fluorescence from erbium in specific fluoride- and oxygen-compensated sites is monitored as a function of the ignition temperature of the precipitate to study the conversion from fluoride to oxygen compensation. Another process, thermal annealing of a disordered precipitate to give a well-defined lattice, is also followed. Changes in both oxygen compensation formation and lattice annealing are found to occur upon the addition of other trivalent and monovalent ions. The results provide a better understanding of the solid-state chemistry involved in new methods of chemical analysis using rare-earth doped CaF/sub 2/ precipitates, and how certain interference effects can arise. Also included is a study of the temperature dependence of fluorescent sites in CaF/sub 2/:U/sup 6 +/.

Johnston, M.V.; Wright, J.C.

1981-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

432

Method Development to Evaluate the Oxygen Reduction Activity of High-Surface-Area Catalysts for Li-Air Batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study presents a new method to quantitatively determine the electrocatalytic activity of Vulcan carbon and Vulcan-supported Au nanoparticles, dispersed as catalyst thin films on glass carbon, for oxygen reduction in ...

Lu, Yi-Chun

433

Potential benefits of oxygen-enriched intake air in a vehicle powered by a spark-ignition engine  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A production vehicle powered by a spark-ignition engine (3.1-L Chevrolet Lumina, model year 1990) was tested. The test used oxygen-enriched intake air containing 25 and 28% oxygen by volume to determine (1) if the vehicle would run without difficulties and (2) if emissions benefits would result. Standard Federal Test Procedure (FTP) emissions test cycles were run satisfactorily. Test results of catalytic converter-out emissions (emissions out of the converter) showed that both carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons were reduced significantly in all three phases of the emissions test cycle. Test results of engine-out emissions (emissions straight out of the engine, with the converter removed) showed that carbon monoxide was significantly reduced in the cold phase. All emission test results were compared with those for normal air (21% oxygen). The catalytic converter also had an improved carbon monoxide conversion efficiency under the oxygen-enriched-air conditions. Detailed results of hydrocarbon speciation indicated large reductions in 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and benzene from the engine with the oxygen-enriched air. Catalytic converter-out ozone was reduced by 60% with 25%-oxygen-content air. Although NO{sub x} emissions increased significantly, both for engine-out and catalytic converter-out emissions, we anticipate that they can be ameliorated in the near future with new control technologies. The automotive industry currently is developing exhaust-gas control technologies for an oxidizing environment; these technologies should reduce NO{sub x} emissions more efficiently in vehicles that use oxygen-enriched intake air. On the basis of estimates made from current data, several production vehicles that had low NO{sub x} emissions could meet the 2004 Tier II emissions standards with 25%-oxygen-content air.

Ng, H.K.; Sekar, R.R.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Characterization of a dissolved oxygen sensor made of plastic optical fiber coated with ruthenium-incorporated solgel  

SciTech Connect

A dissolved oxygen sensor made of plastic optical fiber as the substrate and dichlorotris (1, 10-phenanthroline) ruthenium as a fluorescence indicator is studied. Oxygen quenching characteristics of both intensity and phase were measured; the obtained characteristics showed deviation from the linear relation described by the Stern-Volmer equation. A two-layer model is proposed to explain the deviation, and main parameters can be deduced with the model.

Chu Fenghong; Yang Junjie; Cai Haiwen; Qu Ronghui; Fang Zujie

2009-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

435

Oxygen enriched combustion system performance study: Volume 3, Burner tests and combustion modeling: Final report, Phase 1  

SciTech Connect

Oxygen enriched combustion (OEC) has been shown to have significant energy savings potential in industrial furnace applications. High temperature industrial furnaces, such as glass melting furnaces, appear to be the most promising applications for oxygen enriched combustion. In these applications, the principal energy savings result from minimizing the fuel energy required to heat the diluent nitrogen in air. The results of technical and economic assessment of OEC and market assessment were reported in Volume 1 and 2 of the current study. This report describes the results of burner evaluation tests over a range of oxygen enrichment and a numerical simulation study. The first part refers to the experimental results of both conventional air-fired burners and specially designed oxygen-fuel burners, evaluated at two scales. Part 2 of this report is concerned with the application of a computer code to extrapolate the results from small scale combustion tests to industrial furnaces. The experiments were designed as a comparative evaluation to: determine the operating range of different burner designs with oxygen enrichment; measure detailed flame characteristics for both air and enriched oxygen conditions; and estimate expected performance from research furnace results to actual industrial applications. 14 refs., 76 figs., 20 tabs.

Kwan, Y.; Abele, A.R.; Richter, W.; Chen, S.L.; Payne, R.; Kobayashi, H.; Silver, S.L.

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

A CENSUS OF OXYGEN IN STAR-FORMING GALAXIES: AN EMPIRICAL MODEL LINKING METALLICITIES, STAR FORMATION RATES, AND OUTFLOWS  

SciTech Connect

In this contribution, we present the first census of oxygen in star-forming galaxies in the local universe. We examine three samples of galaxies with metallicities and star formation rates (SFRs) at z = 0.07, 0.8, and 2.26, including the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and DEEP2 survey. We infer the total mass of oxygen produced and mass of oxygen found in the gas-phase from our local SDSS sample. The star formation history is determined by requiring that galaxies evolve along the relation between stellar mass and SFR observed in our three samples. We show that the observed relation between stellar mass and SFR for our three samples is consistent with other samples in the literature. The mass-metallicity relation is well established for our three samples, and from this we empirically determine the chemical evolution of star-forming galaxies. Thus, we are able to simultaneously constrain the SFRs and metallicities of galaxies over cosmic time, allowing us to estimate the mass of oxygen locked up in stars. Combining this work with independent measurements reported in the literature, we conclude that the loss of oxygen from the interstellar medium of local star-forming galaxies is likely to be a ubiquitous process with the oxygen mass loss scaling (almost) linearly with stellar mass. We estimate the total baryonic mass loss and argue that only a small fraction of the baryons inferred from cosmological observations accrete onto galaxies.

Zahid, H. J.; Dima, G. I.; Kewley, L. J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Erb, D. K. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 1900 E. Kenwood Boulevard, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, WI 53211 (United States); Dave, R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Rm. N204 Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

2012-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

437

Reactivity and stability of platinum and platinum alloy catalysts toward the oxygen reduction reaction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Density functional theory (DFT) is used to study the reactivity of Pt and Pt-M (M: Pd, Co, Ni, V, and Rh) alloy catalysts towards the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) as a function of the alloy overall composition and surface atomic distribution and compared to that on pure Pt surfaces. Reactivity is evaluated on the basis of the adsorption strength of oxygenated compounds which are intermediate species of the four-electron oxygen reduction reaction, separating the effect of the first electron-proton transfer from that of the three last electron-proton transfer steps. It is found that most homogeneous distribution PtxM catalysts thermodynamically favor the dissociation of adsorbed OOH in comparison with pure Platinum and adsorb strongly O and OH due to the strong oxyphilicity of the M elements. On the other hand, in all cases skin Platinum surfaces catalysts do not favor the dissociation of adsorbed OOH and do favor the reduction of M-O and M-OH with respect to Platinum. Considering the overall pathway of the reactions to catalyze the ORR most of the skin Platinum monolayer catalysts provide more negative free energy changes and should behave at least in a similar way than Platinum in following order: Pt3V (skin Pt) > Pt3Co (skin Pt) > Pt3Ni (skin Pt) > Pt > PtPd (skin) > Pt4Rh (skin Pt) > PtPd3 (skin ). In all cases, the reactivity is shown to be not only sensitive to the overall composition of the catalyst, but most importantly to the surface atomic distribution. Proposed electrochemical dissolution reactions of the catalyst atoms are also analyzed for the ORR catalysts, by computing the free energy changes of Platinum and bimetallic Pt-X (X: Co, Pd, Ni, and Rh) catalysts. It is found that Platinum is thermodynamically more stable than Pt-alloys in Pt3Co, Pt3Pd, Pt3Ni and Pt4Rh.

Calvo, Sergio Rafael

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

KRW oxygen-blown gasification combined cycle: Carbon dioxide recovery, transport, and disposal  

SciTech Connect

This project emphasizes CO{sub 2}-capture technologies combined with integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. Complementary evaluations address CO{sub 2} transportation, CO{sub 2} use, and options for the long-term sequestration of unused CO{sub 2}. The intent is to provide the CO{sub 2} budget, or an equivalent CO{sub 2} budget, associated with each of the individual energy-cycle steps, in addition to process design capital and operating costs. The base case is a 458-MW (gross generation) IGCC system that uses an oxygen-blown Kellogg-Rust-Westinghouse agglomerating fluidized-bed gasifier, Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal feed, and low-pressure glycol sulfur removal followed by Claus/SCOT treatment to produce a saleable product. Mining, feed preparation, and conversion result in a net electric power production for the entire energy cycle of 411 MW, with a CO{sub 2} release rate of 0.801 kg/k Whe. For comparison, in two cases, the gasifier output was taken through water-gas shift and then to low-pressure glycol H{sub 2}S recovery, followed by either low-pressure glycol or membrane CO{sub 2} recovery and then by a combustion turbine being fed a high-hydrogen-content fuel. Two additional cases employed chilled methanol for H{sub 2}S recovery and a fuel cell as the topping cycle with no shift stages. From the IGCC plant, a 500-km pipeline took the CO{sub 2} to geological sequestering. In a comparison of air-blown and oxygen-blown CO{sub 2}-release base cases, the cost of electricity for the air-blown IGCC was 56.86 mills/kWh, and the cost of oxygen-blown IGCC was 58.29 mills/kWh.

Doctor, R.D.; Molburg, J.C.; Thimmapuram, P.R.

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Ethanol Demand in United States Regional Production of Oxygenate-limited Gasoline  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5 5 Ethanol Demand in United States Regional Production of Oxygenate-limited Gasoline G. R. Hadder Center for Transportation Analysis Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee August 2000 Prepared for Office of Fuels Development Office of Transportation Technologies U.S. Department of Energy Prepared by the OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 managed by UT-BATTELLE, LLC for the U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 iii TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

440

Performance improvement of a PEMFC using fuels with CO by addition of oxygen-evolving compounds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new method is described to improve the performance of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) using reformed methanol or H{sub 2}/CO as fuels. The addition of liquid hydrogen peroxide to the humidification water for the fuel gas leads to a heterogeneous decomposition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and formation of active oxygen. In this way adsorbed CO is oxidized nonelectrochemically to CO{sub 2} and the blocking of the hydrogen oxidation reaction at the anode can be avoided. It is demonstrated that a complete recovery of the CO-free performance is achieved for H{sub 2}/100 ppm CO.

Schmidt, V.M.; Oetjen, H.F.; Divisek, J. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Inst. fuer Energieverfahrenstechnik

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasohol excludes oxygenates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.