Sample records for gasohol excludes oxygenates

  1. Gasohol - Where We Are Today

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCammon, W. L.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the advent of the crude oil price increases, associated with the Middle East crisis, many countries, particularly Brazil, began producing ethanol for the use as fuel in mixture with gasoline. In the United States, 'gasohol', a blend...

  2. Demand dries up for gasohol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mullen, T.

    1987-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Facing consumer skepticism, political controversy and aggressive antigasohol advertising campaigns, Louisiana's largest marketers of gasohol - Texaco, Tenneco Oil and Time Saver, a chain of convenience stores - have quit the market. Within a 10-day period, all three unexpectedly announced that they were dropping gasohol (90% gasoline, 10% ethanol) and going back to pumping regular and premium gasoline. Stung by that news, Louisiana's infant ethanol industry has battened down the hatches. Ethanol producers have formed a loosely knit organization called the Renewable Fuels Assn. of Louisiana and are now busy planning a Mar. 9 launch of a new drive to try to reverse negative attitudes about gasohol. Until then, producers are not saying anything, avers Pamela McGinity, an executive with Shepherd Oil (Jennings, La.) which owns a 35-million-gal/year ethanol plant. The program is financed by a state motor fuels tax on gasohol sales and is controlled by the Louisiana legislature on a year-by-year basis. The program barely survived a recent special session, and many observers predict the state legislature will not renew the subsidies.

  3. Draft regulatory analysis: Notice of proposed rulemaking for the allocation and pricing of gasohol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None,

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The three principal problem areas addressed are: how to price unleaded blend stock and gasohol; how blenders are to obtain unleaded blend stock to blend with ethanol to produce gasohol; and how gasohol suppliers may distribute gasohol to purchasers. The proposed pricing and allocation rules, if adopted as final rules, would be in effect for about a year, because the statutory authority for gasoline price and allocation controls has an expiration date of September 30, 1981. The principal issues addressed are: what volume of ethanol and gasohol production can be expected between now and the end of 1981; what prices these products are likely to reach, independent of the rule and its alternative; what effect the rule and its alternative may have on the price and distribution of ethanol and gasohol; and what effect the rule and its alternative may have on motor vehicle misfueling and competition in the motor gasoline industry. On supply issues, it is concluded that by December, 1981, ethanol and gasohol production should increase by a factor of 3 or 4 above present levels, enough to meet the President's goals, without requiring additional corn acreage or adversely affecting food production. Ethanol production should increase from its present level of about 92 million gallons per year (6062 B/D) to the 3, 4, and 7 hundred million gallons per year levels (20,000, 30,000, and 45,000 B/D) necessaryto produce gasohol at year-end rates of 200,000 B/D in 1980, 300,000 B/D in 1981 and 450,000 B/D in 1982. In 1980 gasohol will represent about 3.2 percent of the total gasoline market, and 7.9 percent of the total unleaded market. Gasohol should help extend, rather than adversely affect, unleaded supplies. 30 references, 8 tables.

  4. Environmental implications of accelerated gasohol production: preliminary assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report assesses the environmental impacts of increasing US production of fuel ethanol by 330 million gallons per year in the 1980 to 1981 time frame in order to substitute gasohol for 10% of the unleaded gasoline consumed in the United States. Alternate biomass feedstocks are examined and corn is selected as the most logical feedstock, based on its availability and cost. Three corn conversion processes that could be used to attain the desired 1980 to 1981 production are identified; fermentation plants that use a feedstock of starch and wastes from an adjacent corn refining plants are found to have environmental and economic advantages. No insurmountable environmental problems can be achieved using current technology; the capital and operating costs of this control are estimated. If ethanol production is increased substantially after 1981, the environmentally acceptable use or disposal of stillage, a liquid by-product of fermentation, could become a serious problem.

  5. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Categorically Excluded...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Environmental Management System NEPA National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Categorically Excluded Actions National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Categorically Excluded...

  6. Countries Diesel Prices Excluding Taxes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    excluding taxes) Date Belgium France Germany Italy Netherlands UK US 42715 2.45 2.23 2.40 2.41 2.44 2.40 2.37 42015 2.24 2.15 2.33 2.33 2.34 2.33 2.33 41315 2.21 2.03 2.21...

  7. COMPUTING EXCLUDED MINORS Isolde Adler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adler, Isolde

    , · linklessly/knotlessly embeddable graphs · C, D minor ideals C D, C D minor ideals · C minor ideal Capex minor ideal Capex := {G | v V(G) such that G \\ v C} ISOLDE ADLER COMPUTING EXCLUDED MINORS 5/18 #12 graphs · C, D minor ideals C D, C D minor ideals · C minor ideal Capex minor ideal Capex := {G | v

  8. Guidelines Establishing Criteria for Excluding Buildings from...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Establishing Criteria for Excluding Buildings from the Energy Performance Requirements of Section 543 of the National Energy Conservation Policy Act as Amended by the Energy Policy...

  9. Gasohol - Boon or Boondoggle?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hyland, M. J.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Producing alcohol from agricultural products is a very controversial topic in the U.S. today. This paper presents information on the overall energy balance and clears up the recent controversy on the actual efficiency to be expected in these plants...

  10. Clean Water Act (excluding Section 404)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Water Act (excluding Section 404) and those regulations that implement the statutes and appear to be most relevant to US Department of Energy (DOE) activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Updates that include important new requirements will be provided periodically. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  11. Table 10. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 10. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) Year Month...

  12. Table 10. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 10. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) - Continued...

  13. Urine Test Strips to Exclude Cerebral Spinal Fluid Blood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marshall, Robin A; Hejamanowski, Chris

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    two Pearson Chi-Square tests. The first compared samplesO riginal R esearch Urine Test Strips to Exclude CerebralBayer Multistix urine test strips are designed to test

  14. Gasohol - Where We Are Today

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCammon, W. L.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ,746 26,219 + 32.5 Rhode Island 340 1,680 79.8 South Carolina 13,477 10,450 + 29?9 South Dakota 6,577 9.782 32.8 Hashington 9,359 13,231 29.3 TOTAL 38 l ,,352 379,469 + --- l.~% During the five years from 1978 to 1932, economic conditions...

  15. Oxygen analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benner, William H. (Danville, CA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N.sub.2), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable oxygen obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135.degree. C., or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135.degree. C. as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N.sub.2, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

  16. Oxygen analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benner, W.H.

    1984-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N/sub 2/), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135/sup 0/C, or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135/sup 0/C as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N/sub 2/, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

  17. Scattering from Star Polymers including Excluded Volume Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xin [ORNL; Do, Changwoo [ORNL; Liu, Yun [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Sanchez-Diaz, Luis E [ORNL; Hong, Kunlun [ORNL; Smith, Greg [ORNL; Chen, Wei-Ren [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we present a new model for the form factor of a star polymer consisting of self-avoiding branches. This new model incorporates excluded volume effects and is derived from the two point correlation function for a star polymer.. We compare this model to small angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements from polystyrene (PS) stars immersed in a good solvent, tetrahydrofuran (THF). It is shown that this model provides a good description of the scattering signature originating from the excluded volume effect and it explicitly elucidates the connection between the global conformation of a star polymer and the local stiffness of its constituent branch.

  18. Scattering from Colloid-Polymer Conjugates with Excluded Volume Effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xin [ORNL; Sanchez-Diaz, Luis E [ORNL; Smith, Gregory Scott [ORNL; Chen, Wei-Ren [ORNL

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work presents scattering functions of conjugates consisting of a colloid particle and a self-avoiding polymer chain as a model for protein-polymer conjugates and nanoparticle-polymer conjugates in solution. The model is directly derived from the two-point correlation function with the inclusion of excluded volume effects. The dependence of the calculated scattering function on the geometric shape of the colloid and polymer stiffness is investigated. The model is able to describe the experimental scattering signature of the solutions of suspending hard particle-polymer conjugates and provide additional conformational information. This model explicitly elucidates the link between the global conformation of a conjugate and the microstructure of its constituent components.

  19. UC Davis Student Services Fee (excludes Mental Health funds) Student Services and Fees Administrative Advisory Committee

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasternack, Gregory B.

    UC Davis Student Services Fee (excludes Mental Health funds) Student Services and Fees Management Capital Projects 2 943,666.00$ (2,807.79)$ (946,473.79)$ -$ Child Care 45,325.16$ 144,957.08$ 99 and Institutional Analysis #12;UC Davis Student Services Fee (excludes Mental Health funds) Student Services

  20. Indian Gasohol Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup | OpenHunan Runhua NewSmallholder Systems (SAMPLES) |Indian BureauIndian

  1. Artificial oxygen transport protein

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dutton, P. Leslie

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention provides heme-containing peptides capable of binding molecular oxygen at room temperature. These compounds may be useful in the absorption of molecular oxygen from molecular oxygen-containing atmospheres. Also included in the invention are methods for treating an oxygen transport deficiency in a mammal.

  2. Covalency in Metal-Oxygen Multiple Bonds Evaluated Using Oxygen...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Multiple Bonds Evaluated Using Oxygen K-edge Spectroscopy and Electronic Structure Theory . Covalency in Metal-Oxygen Multiple Bonds Evaluated Using Oxygen K-edge Spectroscopy...

  3. oxygen-plasma | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    oxygen-plasma oxygen-plasma Leads No leads are available at this time. Conversion of 1,2-Propylene Glycol on Rutile TiO2(110). Abstract: We have studied the reactions of...

  4. Oxygen partial pressure sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, D.W.

    1994-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for detecting oxygen partial pressure and an oxygen partial pressure sensor are provided. The method for measuring oxygen partial pressure includes contacting oxygen to a solid oxide electrolyte and measuring the subsequent change in electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte. A solid oxide electrolyte is utilized that contacts both a porous electrode and a nonporous electrode. The electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte is affected when oxygen from an exhaust stream permeates through the porous electrode to establish an equilibrium of oxygen anions in the electrolyte, thereby displacing electrons throughout the electrolyte to form an electron gradient. By adapting the two electrodes to sense a voltage potential between them, the change in electrolyte conductivity due to oxygen presence can be measured. 1 fig.

  5. Integrated turbomachine oxygen plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; DePuy, Richard Anthony; Muthaiah, Veerappan

    2014-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    An integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes a turbomachine and an air separation unit. One or more compressor pathways flow compressed air from a compressor through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. An air separation unit is operably connected to the one or more compressor pathways and is configured to separate the compressed air into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air. A method of air separation in an integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes compressing a flow of air in a compressor of a turbomachine. The compressed flow of air is flowed through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander of the turbomachine to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. The compressed flow of air is directed to an air separation unit and is separated into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air.

  6. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carter, J. David; Wang, Xiaoping; Vaughey, John; Krumpelt, Michael

    2004-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  7. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughey, John; Krumpelt, Michael; Wang, Xiaoping; Carter, J. David

    2005-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  8. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughey, John (Elmhurst, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Wang, Xiaoping (Downers Grove, IL); Carter, J. David (Bolingbrook, IL)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  9. *Excludes capital investment for P&R facility EFFECTS OF MAP-21 ON SEAMLESS TRANSIT FROM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    *Excludes capital investment for P&R facility EFFECTS OF MAP-21 ON SEAMLESS TRANSIT FROM FORT BEND is not available for residents making the commute from FBC to Downtown Houston. Researchers estimate latent demand for 1,700+ P&R one-way passenger trips per day. SEAMLESS TRANSIT COST Federal funds may

  10. Clean Water Act (excluding Section 404). Environmental guidance program reference book: Revision 6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Water Act (excluding Section 404) and those regulations that implement the statutes and appear to be most relevant to US Department of Energy (DOE) activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Updates that include important new requirements will be provided periodically. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  11. Facts and Figures January 2007 INCOME AND EXPENDITURE (Excluding Press, CA & Trusts) 2005-06

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Travis, Adrian

    Facts and Figures January 2007 INCOME AND EXPENDITURE (Excluding Press, CA & Trusts) 2005-06 2004,928 Breakdown of Research Grant Income 2005-06 £'000 % £'000 Total staff 8602 8570 8,623 Research Councils 89,095 Total 203,886 188,711 Total respondents 2,890 100.0% 3,227 100.0 Breakdown of HEFCE/TDA Income 2005-06

  12. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucian A. Lucia

    2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Project Objective: The objectives of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the physical and chemical characteristics of a partner mill pre- and post-oxygen delignified pulp and compare them to lab generated oxygen delignified pulps; (2) Apply the chemical selectivity enhancement system to the partner pre-oxygen delignified pulps under mill conditions (with and without any predetermined amounts of carryover) to determine how efficiently viscosity is preserved, how well selectivity is enhanced, if strength is improved, measure any yield differences and/or bleachability differences; and (3) Initiate a mill scale oxygen delignification run using the selectivity enhancement agent, collect the mill data, analyze it, and propose any future plans for implementation.

  13. EMSL - oxygen-plasma

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    oxygen-plasma en Conversion of 1,2-Propylene Glycol on Rutile TiO2(110). http:www.emsl.pnl.govemslwebpublicationsconversion-12-propylene-glycol-rutile-tio2110

  14. A calcium oxygen secondary battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pujare, N.U.; Semkow, K.W.; Sammells, A.F.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors report preliminary work performed in their laboratory on a high-temperature electrochemically reversible calcium-oxygen cell. Following an analogous strategy to that recently discussed for the lithium-oxygen secondary system, this calcium-oxygen cell utilizes stabilized zirconia oxygen vacancy conducting solid electrolytes to achieve effective separation between half-cell reactions.

  15. Method for excluding salt and other soluble materials from produced water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phelps, Tommy J. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Tsouris, Costas (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Palumbo, Anthony V. (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Riestenberg, David E. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; McCallum, Scott D. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN

    2009-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for reducing the salinity, as well as the hydrocarbon concentration of produced water to levels sufficient to meet surface water discharge standards. Pressure vessel and coflow injection technology developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is used to mix produced water and a gas hydrate forming fluid to form a solid or semi-solid gas hydrate mixture. Salts and solids are excluded from the water that becomes a part of the hydrate cage. A three-step process of dissociation of the hydrate results in purified water suitable for irrigation.

  16. How to confirm and exclude different models of material properties in the Casimir effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. M. Mostepanenko

    2014-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We formulate a method allowing to confirm or exclude the alternative models of material properties at some definite confidence level in experiments on measuring the Casimir force. The method is based on the consideration of differences between the theoretical and mean measured quantities and the confidence intervals for these differences found at sufficiently high or low confidence probabilities. The developed method is applied to the data of four recent experiments on measuring the gradient of the Casimir force by means of a dynamic atomic force microscope. It is shown that in experiments with Au-Au and Ni-Ni test bodies, where the Drude model approach is excluded at a 95% confidence level, the plasma model approach agrees with the data at higher than 90% confidence. In experiments using an Au sphere interacting with either a Ni plate or a graphene-coated substrate the measurement data agree with the common prediction of the Drude and plasma model approaches and theory using the polarization tensor at 90% and 80% confidence levels, respectively.

  17. OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present quarter, the possibility of using a more complex interfacial engineering approach to the development of reliable and stable oxygen transport perovskite ceramic membranes/metal seals is discussed. Experiments are presented and ceramic/metal interactions are characterized. Crack growth and fracture toughness of the membrane in the reducing conditions are also discussed. Future work regarding this approach is proposed are evaluated for strength and fracture in oxygen gradient conditions. Oxygen gradients are created in tubular membranes by insulating the inner surface from the reducing environment by platinum foils. Fracture in these test conditions is observed to have a gradient in trans and inter-granular fracture as opposed to pure trans-granular fracture observed in homogeneous conditions. Fracture gradients are reasoned to be due to oxygen gradient set up in the membrane, variation in stoichiometry across the thickness and due to varying decomposition of the parent perovskite. The studies are useful in predicting fracture criterion in actual reactor conditions and in understanding the initial evolution of fracture processes.

  18. Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction on a Platinum Fuel Cell Cathode Friday, December 20, 2013 Fuel Cell Figure 1 Figure 1. In situ x-ray...

  19. Unexpected Complication with the New C3 Excluder: Cause and Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katsargyris, Athanasios; Oikonomou, Kyriakos; Bracale, Umberto M.; Verhoeven, Eric L. G., E-mail: Eric.Verhoeven@klinikum-nuernberg.de [Klinikum Nuernberg Sued, Department of Vascular Surgery (Germany)] [Klinikum Nuernberg Sued, Department of Vascular Surgery (Germany)

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The new C3 Gore Excluder delivery system enables both up/downward and rotational repositioning of the device before complete deployment. This contributes to more precise proximal landing and permits facilitation of the contralateral gate cannulation. During separate deployment, the position of the ipsilateral limb can also be readjusted. We have used the modified C3 delivery system in more than 50 patients, and in most cases, we were able to utilize the repositioning options of the device to achieve optimal fixation and sealing. However, we present a case where our attempt to readjust the position of the ipsilateral limb led to upward migration of the main body with coverage of the left renal artery origin. The latter was secured with a bare stent implantation.

  20. Oxygen Concentration Microgradients for Cell Culture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Jaehyun

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Chemotactic Effect of Oxygen on Bacteria, J. Pathol.Measurement and Control of Oxygen Levels in MicrofluidicA Microfabricated Electrochemical Oxygen Generator for High-

  1. Oxygen abundances in the most oxygen-rich spiral galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. S. Pilyugin; T. X. Thuan; J. M. Vilchez

    2006-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxygen abundances in the spiral galaxies expected to be richest in oxygen are estimated. The new abundance determinations are based on the recently discovered ff-relation between auroral and nebular oxygen line fluxes in HII regions. We find that the maximum gas-phase oxygen abundance in the central regions of spiral galaxies is 12+log(O/H)~8.75. This value is significantly lower than the previously accepted value. The central oxygen abundance in the Milky Way is similar to that in other large spirals.

  2. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  3. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, D.E.

    1992-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

  4. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In the previous research, the reference point of oxygen occupancy was determined and verified. In the current research, the oxygen occupancy was investigated at 1200 C as a function of oxygen activity and compared with that at 1000 C. The cause of bumps at about 200 C was also investigated by using different heating and cooling rates during TGA. The fracture toughness of LSFT and dual phase membranes at room temperature is an important mechanical property. Vicker's indentation method was used to evaluate this toughness. Through this technique, a K{sub Ic} (Mode-I Fracture Toughness) value is attained by means of semi-empirical correlations between the indentation load and the length of the cracks emanating from the corresponding Vickers indentation impression. In the present investigation, crack propagation behavior was extensively analyzed in order to understand the strengthening mechanisms involved in the non-transforming La based ceramic composites. Cracks were generated using Vicker's indenter and used to identify and evaluate the toughening mechanisms involved. Preliminary results of an electron microscopy study of the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appear to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. Modeling of the isotopic transients on operating membranes (LSCrF-2828 at 900 C) and a ''frozen'' isotope profile have been analyzed in conjunction with a 1-D model to reveal the gradient in oxygen diffusivity through the membrane under conditions of high chemical gradients.

  5. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. The in situ electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements were made on LSFT at 1000 and 1200 C over the oxygen activity range from air to 10{sup -15} atm. The electrical conductivity measurements exhibited a p to n type transition at an oxygen activity of 1 x 10{sup -10} at 1000 C and 1 x 10{sup -6} at 1200 C. Thermogravimetric studies were also carried out over the same oxygen activities and temperatures. Based on the results of these measurements, the chemical and mechanical stability range of LSFT were determined and defect structure was established. The studies on the fracture toughness of the LSFT and dual phase membranes exposed to air and N{sub 2} at 1000 C was done and the XRD and SEM analysis of the specimens were carried out to understand the structural and microstructural changes. The membranes that are exposed to high temperatures at an inert and a reactive atmosphere undergo many structural and chemical changes which affect the mechanical properties. A complete transformation of fracture behavior was observed in the N{sub 2} treated LSFT samples. Further results to investigate the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appear to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. Recent results on transient kinetic data are presented. The 2-D modeling of oxygen movement has been undertaken in order to fit isotope data. The model is used to study ''frozen'' profiles in patterned or composite membranes.

  6. Oxygen Transport Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay

    2008-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The focus of this research was to develop new membrane materials by synthesizing different compounds and determining their defect structures, crystallographic structures and electrical properties. In addition to measuring electrical conductivity, oxygen vacancy concentration was also evaluated using thermogravimetry, Neutron diffraction and Moessbauer Spectroscopy. The reducing conditions (CO{sub 2}/CO/H{sub 2} gas mixtures with steam) as encountered in a reactor environment can be expected to have significant influence on the mechanical properties of the oxides membranes. Various La based materials with and without Ti were selected as candidate membrane materials for OTM. The maximum electrical conductivity of LSF in air as a function of temperature was achieved at < 600 C and depends on the concentration of Sr (acceptor dopant). Oxygen occupancy in LSF was estimated using Neutron diffractometry and Moessbauer Spectroscopy by measuring magnetic moment changes depending on the Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 4+} ratio. After extensive studies of candidate materials, lanthanum ferrites (LSF and LSFT) were selected as the favored materials for the oxygen transport membrane (OTM). LSF is a very good material for an OTM because of its high electronic and oxygen ionic conductivity if long term stability and mechanical strength are improved. LSFT not only exhibits p-type behavior in the high oxygen activity regime, but also has n-type conduction in reducing atmospheres. Higher concentrations of oxygen vacancies in the low oxygen activity regime may improve the performance of LSFT as an OTM. The hole concentration is related to the difference in the acceptor and donor concentration by the relation p = [Sr'{sub La}]-[Ti{sm_bullet}{sub Fe}]. The chemical formulation predicts that the hole concentration is, p = 0.8-0.45 or 0.35. Experimental measurements indicated that p is about {approx} 0.35. The activation energy of conduction is 0.2 eV which implies that LSCF conducts via the small polaron conduction mechanism. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) were used to develop strategies to detect and characterize vacancy creation, dopant segregations and defect association in the oxygen conducting membrane material. The pO{sub 2} and temperature dependence of the conductivity, non-stoichiometry and thermal-expansion behavior of compositions with increasing complexity of substitution on the perovskite A and B sites were studied. Studies with the perovskite structure show anomalous behavior at low oxygen partial pressures (<10{sup -5} atm). The anomalies are due to non-equilibrium effects and can be avoided by using very strict criteria for the attainment of equilibrium. The slowness of the oxygen equilibration kinetics arises from two different mechanisms. In the first, a two phase region occurs between an oxygen vacancy ordered phase such as brownmillerite SrFeO{sub 2.5} and perovskite SrFeO{sub 3-x}. The slow kinetics is associated with crossing the two phase region. The width of the miscibility gap decreases with increasing temperature and consequently the effect is less pronounced at higher temperature. The preferred kinetic pathway to reduction of perovskite ferrites when the vacancy concentration corresponds to the formation of significant concentrations of Fe{sup 2+} is via the formation of a Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) phases as clearly observed in the case of La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}FeO{sub 3-x} where LaSrFeO{sub 4} is found together with Fe. In more complex compositions, such as LSFTO, iron or iron rich phases are observed locally with no evidence for the presence of discrete RP phase. Fracture strength of tubular perovskite membranes was determined in air and in reducing atmospheric conditions. The strength of the membrane decreased with temperature and severity of reducing conditions although the strength distribution (Weibull parameter, m) was relatively unaltered. Surface and volume dominated the fracture origins and the overall fracture was purely transgranular. The dual phas

  7. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was carried out on La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} to investigate oxygen deficiency ({delta}) of the sample. The TGA was performed in a controlled atmosphere using oxygen, argon, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with adjustable gas flow rates. In this experiment, the weight loss and gain of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} was directly measured by TGA. The weight change of the sample was evaluated at between 600 and 1250 C in air or 1000 C as a function of oxygen partial pressure. The oxygen deficiencies calculated from TGA data as a function of oxygen activity and temperature will be estimated and compared with that from neutron diffraction measurement in air. The LSFT and LSFT/CGO membranes were fabricated from the powder obtained from Praxair Specialty Ceramics. The sintered membranes were subjected to microstructure analysis and hardness analysis. The LSFT membrane is composed of fine grains with two kinds of grain morphology. The grain size distribution was characterized using image analysis. In LSFT/CGO membrane a lot of grain pullout was observed from the less dense, porous phase. The hardness of the LSFT and dual phase membranes were studied at various loads. The hardness values obtained from the cross section of the membranes were also compared to that of the values obtained from the surface. An electrochemical cell has been designed and built for measurements of the Seebeck coefficient as a function of temperature and pressure. Measurements on La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} as a function of temperature an oxygen partial pressure are reported. Further analysis of the dilatometry data obtained previously is presented. A series of isotope transients under air separation mode (small gradient) were completed on the membrane of LSCrF-2828 at 900 C. Low pO{sub 2} atmospheres based on with CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have also been admitted to the delivery side of the LSCrF-2828 membrane to produce the gradients which exist under syngas generation conditions. The CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have normal isotopic {sup 18}O abundances. The evolution of {sup 18}O on the delivery side in these experiments after an {sup 18}O pulse on the air side reveals a wealth of information about the oxygen transport processes.

  8. Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts on High-Stability-Low-Cost Supports Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts on...

  9. Stabilization of Platinum Nanoparticle Electrocatalysts for Oxygen...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Platinum Nanoparticle Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Using Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride). Stabilization of Platinum Nanoparticle Electrocatalysts for Oxygen...

  10. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham

    2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Ti doping on La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}FeO{sub 3-{delta}} (LSF) tends to increase the oxygen equilibration kinetics of LSF in lower oxygen activity environment because of the high valence state of Ti. However, the addition of Ti decreases the total conductivity because the acceptor ([Sr{prime}{sub La}]) is compensated by the donor ([Ti{sub Fe}{sup {sm_bullet}}]) which decreases the carrier concentration. The properties of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 1-x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSFT, x = 0.45) have been experimentally and theoretically investigated to elucidate (1) the dependence of oxygen occupancy and electrochemical properties on temperature and oxygen activity by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and (2) the electrical conductivity and carrier concentration by Seebeck coefficient and electrical measurements. In the present study, dual phase (La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.6}Ti{sub 0.4}O{sub 3-{delta}}/Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 2-{delta}}) membranes have been evaluated for structural properties such as hardness, fracture toughness and flexural strength. The effect of high temperature and slightly reducing atmosphere on the structural properties of the membranes was studied. The flexural strength of the membrane decreases upon exposure to slightly reducing conditions at 1000 C. The as-received and post-fractured membranes were characterized using XRD, SEM and TG-DTA to understand the fracture mechanisms. Changes in structural properties of the composite were sought to be correlated with the physiochemical features of the two-phases. We have reviewed the electrical conductivity data and stoichiometry data for La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} some of which was reported previously. Electrical conductivity data for La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSCrF) were obtained in the temperature range, 752 {approx} 1055 C and in the pO{sub 2} range, 10{sup -18} {approx} 0.5 atm. The slope of the plot of log {sigma} vs. log pO{sub 2} is {approx} 1/5 in the p-type region, pO{sub 2} = 10{sup -5} {approx} 10{sup -1} atm. The pO{sub 2} at which the p-n transition is observed increases with increasing temperature. The activation energy for ionic conduction was estimated to be 0.86 eV from an Arrhenius plot of the minimum conductivity vs. reciprocal temperature. At temperatures below 940 C, a plateau in the conductivity isotherm suggests the presence of a two-phase region. Most likely, phase separation occurs to form a mixture of a perovskite phase and an oxygen vacancy ordered phase related to brownmillerite. Additional data for the oxygen non stoichiometry are presented.

  11. Composite oxygen transport membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Lane, Jonathan A.

    2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing a composite oxygen ion membrane and a composite oxygen ion membrane in which a porous fuel oxidation layer and a dense separation layer and optionally, a porous surface exchange layer are formed on a porous support from mixtures of (Ln.sub.1-xA.sub.x).sub.wCr.sub.1-yB.sub.yO.sub.3-.delta. and a doped zirconia. In the porous fuel oxidation layer and the optional porous surface exchange layer, A is Calcium and in the dense separation layer A is not Calcium and, preferably is Strontium. Preferred materials are (La.sub.0.8Ca.sub.0.2).sub.0.95Cr.sub.0.5Mn.sub.0.5O.sub.3-.delta. for the porous fuel oxidation and optional porous surface exchange layers and (La.sub.0.8Sr.sub.0.2).sub.0.95Cr.sub.0.5Fe.sub.0.5O.sub.3-.delta. for the dense separation layer. The use of such materials allows the membrane to sintered in air and without the use of pore formers to reduce membrane manufacturing costs. The use of materials, as described herein, for forming the porous layers have application for forming any type of porous structure, such as a catalyst support.

  12. Excluded Volume Effects in Polymer Solutions: II. Comparison of Experimental Results with Numerical Simulation Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graessley, W.W.; Grest, G.S.; Hayward, R.C.

    1999-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of excluded volume on the coil size of dilute linear polymers was investigated by off-lattice Monte Carlo simulations. The radius of gyration R{sub g} was evaluated for a wide range of chain lengths at several temperatures and at the athermal condition. The theta temperature and the corresponding theta chain dimensions were established for the system, and the dependence of the size expansion factor, a{sub s} = R{sub g} /(R{sub g}){sub {theta}}, on chain length N and temperature T was examined. For long chains and at high temperatures, a{sub s} is a function of N/N{sub s}{sup 2} alone, where the length scale N{sub s}{sup 2} depends only on T. The form of this simulations-based master function compares favorably with {alpha}{sub s}(M/M{sub s}{sup 2}), an experimental master curve for linear polymers in good solvents, where M{sub s}{sup 2} depends only on polymer-solvent system. Comparisons when N{sub s}{sup 2}(T) and M{sub s}{sup 2}(system) are reduced to common units, numbers of Kuhn steps, strongly indicate that coil expansion in even the best of good solvents is small relative to that expected for truly athermal solutions. An explanation for this behavior is proposed, based on what would appear to be an inherent difference in the equation of state properties for polymeric and monomeric liquids.

  13. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this program was to develop improved extended oxygen delignification (EOD) technologies for current U.S. pulp mill operations. This was accomplished by: (1) Identifying pulping conditions that optimize O and OO performance; (2) Identifying structural features of lignin that enhance reactivity towards EOD of high kappa pulps; (3) Identifying factors minimizing carbohydrate degradation and improve pulp strength of EOD high kappa pulps; (4) Developing a simple, reproducible method of quantifying yield gains from EOD; and (5) Developing process conditions that significantly reduce the capital requirements of EOD while optimizing the yield benefits. Key research outcomes included, demonstrating the use of a mini-O sequence such as (E+O)Dkf:0.05(E+O) or Dkf:0.05(E+O)(E+O) without interstage washing could capture approximately 60% of the delignification efficiency of a conventional O-stage without the major capital requirements associated with an O-stage for conventional SW kraft pulps. The rate of formation and loss of fiber charge during an O-stage stage can be employed to maximize net fiber charge. Optimal fiber charge development and delignification are two independent parameters and do not parallel each other. It is possible to utilize an O-stage to enhance overall cellulosic fiber charge of low and high kappa SW kraft pulps which is beneficial for physical strength properties. The application of NIR and multi-variant analysis was developed into a rapid and simple method of determining the yield of pulp from an oxygen delignification stage that has real-world mill applications. A focus point of this program was the demonstration that Kraft pulping conditions and oxygen delignification of high and low-kappa SW and HW pulps are intimately related. Improved physical pulp properties and yield can be delivered by controlling the H-factor and active alkali charge. Low AA softwood kraft pulp with a kappa number 30 has an average improvement of 2% in yield and 4 cP in viscosity in comparison to high AA pulp for the oxygen delignification. This difference is also seen for high-kappa SW kraft pulps with an average improvement of {approx}3% in yield and 3 cP in viscosity for low AA high kappa number 50 pulp. Low AA hardwood kappa number 20 pulp had an average improvement of {approx}4% in yield and 6-12 cP in viscosity as compared to high AA pulp. Lower kraft cooking temperature (160 vs. 170 C) in combination with the medium AA provides a practical approach for integrating high kappa pulping of hardwoods (i.e., low rejects) with an advanced extended oxygen delignification stage. ECF pulp bleaching of low and high kappa kraft SW and HW pulps exhibit comparable optical and physical strength properties when bleached D(EPO)D.

  14. Oxygen-reducing catalyst layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Brien, Dennis P. (Maplewood, MN); Schmoeckel, Alison K. (Stillwater, MN); Vernstrom, George D. (Cottage Grove, MN); Atanasoski, Radoslav (Edina, MN); Wood, Thomas E. (Stillwater, MN); Yang, Ruizhi (Halifax, CA); Easton, E. Bradley (Halifax, CA); Dahn, Jeffrey R. (Hubley, CA); O'Neill, David G. (Lake Elmo, MN)

    2011-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    An oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, and a method of making the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, where the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer includes a catalytic material film disposed on a substrate with the use of physical vapor deposition and thermal treatment. The catalytic material film includes a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

  15. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; Q. Cai; J. Yang; W.B. Yelon; W.J. James; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In this report, in situ neutron diffraction was used to characterize the chemical and structural properties of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} (here after as L2SF55T) specimen, which was subject to measurements of neutron diffraction from room temperature to 900 C. It was found that space group of R3c yielded a better refinement than a cubic structure of Pm3m. Oxygen occupancy was nearly 3 in the region from room temperature to 700 C, above which the occupancy decreased due to oxygen loss. Dense OTM bars provided by Praxair were loaded to fracture at varying stress rates. Studies were done at room temperature in air and at 1000 C in a specified environment to evaluate slow crack growth behavior. The X-Ray data and fracture mechanisms points to non-equilibrium decomposition of the LSFCO OTM membrane. The non-equilibrium conditions could probably be due to the nature of the applied stress field (stressing rates) and leads to transition in crystal structures and increased kinetics of decomposition. The formations of a Brownmillerite or Sr2Fe2O5 type structures, which are orthorhombic are attributed to the ordering of oxygen vacancies. The cubic to orthorhombic transitions leads to 2.6% increase in strains and thus residual stresses generated could influence the fracture behavior of the OTM membrane. Continued investigations on the thermodynamic properties (stability and phase-separation behavior) and total conductivity of prototype membrane materials were carried out. The data are needed together with the kinetic information to develop a complete model for the membrane transport. Previously characterization, stoichiometry and conductivity measurements for samples of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} were reported. In this report, measurements of the chemical and thermal expansion as a function of temperature and p{sub O2} are described.

  16. Electrochemical studies of quinone oxygen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deanhardt, M.L. (Lander College, Greenwood, SC (US)); Mushrush, G.W.; Stalick, W.M. (Chemistry Dept., George mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (US)); Watkins, J.M. Jr. (Naval Research Lab., Fuels Section, Code 6180, Washington, DC (US))

    1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Asphaltenes are a chemically complex mixture of aromatic and heteroaromatic compounds. This material contains oxygen in various functional groups. The distribution includes esters, carboxylic acids, phenolic and most probably quinone type oxygen functionalities. The present work details the complete electrochemical behaviour of quinone type oxygen. The method is quinone specific. A condensed aromatic quinone, 9,10-anthraquinone, was selected as representative of complex quinones. By this method quinones can be determined in the presence of other oxygen functional groups, alcohols, carboxylic acids, ethers, and other carbonyls.

  17. administration gasohol consumption: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chris Wells; Young Mie Kim; Hernando Rojas 2012-01-01 3 Overview of the Electrical Energy Segment of the Energy Information Administration Manufacturing Consumption Report...

  18. Oxygen detection using evanescent fields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duan, Yixiang (Los Alamos, NM); Cao, Weenqing (Los Alamos, NM)

    2007-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for the detection of oxygen using optical fiber based evanescent light absorption. Methylene blue was immobilized using a sol-gel process on a portion of the exterior surface of an optical fiber for which the cladding has been removed, thereby forming an optical oxygen sensor. When light is directed through the optical fiber, transmitted light intensity varies as a result of changes in the absorption of evanescent light by the methylene blue in response to the oxygen concentration to which the sensor is exposed. The sensor was found to have a linear response to oxygen concentration on a semi-logarithmic scale within the oxygen concentration range between 0.6% and 20.9%, a response time and a recovery time of about 3 s, ant to exhibit good reversibility and repeatability. An increase in temperature from 21.degree. C. to 35.degree. C. does not affect the net absorption of the sensor.

  19. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; Q. Cai; J. Yang; W.B. Yelon; W.J. James; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In this report, Moessbauer spectroscopy was used to study the local environmentals of LSFT with various level of oxygen deficiency. Ionic valence state, magnetic interaction and influence of Ti on superexchange are discussed Stable crack growth studies on Dense OTM bars provided by Praxair were done at elevated temperature, pressure and elevated conditions. Post-fracture X-ray data of the OTM fractured at 1000 C in environment were refined by FullProf code and results indicate a distortion of the parent cubic perovskite to orthorhombic structure with reduced symmetry. TGA-DTA studies on the post-fracture samples also indicated residual effect arising from the thermal and stress history of the samples. An electrochemical cell has been designed and built for measurements of the Seebeck coefficient as a function of temperature and pressure. The initial measurements on La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} are reported. Neutron diffraction measurements of the same composition are in agreement with both the stoichiometry and the kinetic behavior observed in coulometric titration measurements. A series of isotope transients under air separation mode (small gradient) were completed on the membrane of LSCrF-2828 at 900 C. Low pO{sub 2} atmospheres based on with CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have also been admitted to the delivery side of the LSCrF-2828 membrane to produce the gradients which exist under syngas generation conditions. The COCO{sub 2} mixtures have normal isotopic {sup 18}O abundances. The evolution of {sup 18}O on the delivery side in these experiments after an {sup 18}O pulse on the air side reveals a wealth of information about the oxygen transport processes.

  20. Low Oxygen Environments in Chesapeake Bay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boynton, Walter R.

    Low Oxygen Environments in Chesapeake Bay Jeremy Testa Chesapeake Biological Laboratory University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science Why we care about low oxygen? What causes low oxygen? Where and When does Chesapeake Bay lose oxygen? #12;#12;Hypoxia and Chesapeake Animals Low dissolved oxygen

  1. Mixed oxygen ion/electron-conducting ceramics for oxygen separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevenson, J.W.; Armstrong, B.L.; Armstrong, T.R.; Bates, J.L.; Pederson, L.R.; Weber, W.J.

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid mixed-conducting electrolytes in the series La{sub l-x}A{sub x}Co{sub l-y}Fe{sub y}O{sub 3-{delta}} (A = Sr,Ca,Ba) are potentially useful as passive membranes to separate high purity oxygen from air and as cathodes in fuel cells. All of the compositions studied exhibited very high electrical conductivities. At lower temperatures, conductivities increased with increasing temperature, characterized by activation energies of 0.05 to 0.16 eV that are consistent with a small polaron (localized electronic carrier) conduction mechanism. At higher temperatures, electronic conductivities tended to decrease with increasing temperature, which is attributed to decreased electronic carrier populations associated with lattice oxygen loss. Oxygen ion conductivities were higher than that of yttria stabilized zirconia and increased with the cobalt content and also increased with the extent of divalent A-site substitution. Thermogravimetric studies were conducted to establish the extent of oxygen vacancy formation as a function of temperature, oxygen partial pressure, and composition. These vacancy populations strongly depend on the extent of A-site substitution. Passive oxygen permeation rates were established for each of the compositions as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure gradient. For 2.5 mm thick membranes in an oxygen vs nitrogen partial pressure gradient, oxygen fluxes at 900 C ranged from approximately 0.3 sccm/cm{sup 2} for compositions high in iron and with low amounts of strontium A-site substitution to approximately 0.8 sccm/cm{sup 2} for compositions high in cobalt and strontium. A-site substitution with calcium instead of strontium resulted in substantially lower fluxes.

  2. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; W.B. Yelon; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and initial studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. Dense OTM bars provided by Praxair were loaded to fracture at varying stress rates. Studies were done at room temperature in air and at 1000 C in a specified environment to evaluate slow crack growth behavior. In addition, studies were also begun to obtain reliable estimates of fracture toughness and stable crack growth in specific environments. Newer composition of Ti doped LSF membranes were characterized by neutron diffraction analysis. Quench studies indicated an apparent correlation between the unit cell volume and oxygen occupancy. The studies however, indicated an anomaly of increasing Fe/Ti ratio with change in heat treatment. Ti doped LSF was also characterized for stoichiometry as a function of temp and pO{sub 2}. The non stoichiometry parameter {delta} was observed to increase almost linearly on lowering pO{sub 2} until a ideal stoichiometric composition of {delta} = 0.175 was approached.

  3. OXYGEN DIFFUSION IN UO2-x

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, K.C.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ~ K.C. K:i.m, "Oxygen Diffusion in Hypostoichiometricsystem for enriching uo 2 in oxygen-18 or for stoichiometry+nal of Nuclear Materials OXYGEN DIFFUSION IN U0 2 _:x K.C.

  4. Oxygen transfer in the implant environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goor, Jared Braden

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Temperature dependence of oxygen diffusion and consumptionRN. Influence of temperature on oxygen diffusion in hamster341-347, 1988. Cox ME. Oxygen Diffusion in Poly(dimethyl

  5. PRIMARY RESEARCH PAPER Water column oxygen demand and sediment oxygen flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mallin, Michael

    PRIMARY RESEARCH PAPER Water column oxygen demand and sediment oxygen flux: patterns of oxygen dissolved oxygen (DO) levels often occur during summer in tidal creeks along the southeastern coast of the USA. We analyzed rates of oxygen loss as water-column biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and sediment

  6. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana

    2003-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present quarter, experiments are presented on ceramic/metal interactions of Zirconia/ Ni-B-Si system and with a thin Ti coating deposited on zirconia surface. Existing facilities were modified for evaluation of environmental assisted slow crack growth and creep in flexural mode. Processing of perovskites of LSC, LSF and LSCF composition were continued for evaluation of mechanical properties as a function of environment. These studies in parallel to those on the LSFCO composition is expect to yield important information on questions such as the role of cation segregation and the stability of the perovskite structure on crack initiation vs. crack growth. Studies have been continued on the La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}FeO{sub 3-d} composition using neutron diffraction and TGA studies. A transition from p-type to n-type of conductor was observed at relative low pO{sub 2}, at which the majority carriers changed from the holes to electrons because of the valence state decreases in Fe due to the further loss of oxygen. Investigation on the thermodynamic properties of the membrane materials are continued to develop a complete model for the membrane transport. Data obtained at 850 C show that the stoichiometry in La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-x} vary from {approx}2.85 to 2.6 over the pressure range studied. From the stoichiometry a lower limit of 2.6 corresponding to the reduction of all Fe{sup 4+} to Fe{sup 3+} and no reduction of Cr{sup 3+} is expected.

  7. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In the current research, the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient were measured as a function of temperature in air. Based on these measurements, the charge carrier concentration, net acceptor dopant concentration, activation energy of conduction and mobility were estimated. The studies on the fracture toughness of the LSFT and dual phase membranes at room temperature have been completed and reported previously. The membranes that are exposed to high temperatures at an inert and a reactive atmosphere undergo many structural and chemical changes which affects the mechanical properties. To study the effect of temperature on the membranes when exposed to an inert environment, the membranes (LAFT and Dual phase) were heat treated at 1000 C in air and N{sub 2} atmosphere and hardness and fracture toughness of the membranes were studied after the treatment. The indentation method was used to find the fracture toughness and the effect of the heat treatment on the mechanical properties of the membranes. Further results on the investigation of the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appears to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. 2-D modeling of oxygen movement has been undertaken in order to fit isotope data. The model will serve to study ''frozen'' profiles in patterned or composite membranes.

  8. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation promotes long chain fatty...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    membrane oxygenation promotes long chain fatty acid oxidation in the immature swine heart in vivo. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation promotes long chain fatty acid oxidation...

  9. Electrocatalytic Reactivity for Oxygen Reduction of Palladium...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reactivity for Oxygen Reduction of Palladium-Modified Carbon Nanotubes Synthesized in Supercritical Fluid. Electrocatalytic Reactivity for Oxygen Reduction of Palladium-Modified...

  10. OXYGEN DIFFUSION IN HYPOSTOICHIOMETRIC URANIUM DIOXIDE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Kee Chul

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research Division OXYGEN DIFFUSION IN HYPOSTOICHIOMETRIC11905 -DISCLAIMER - OXYGEN DIFFUSION IN HYPOSTOICHIOMETRICc o n e e n i g woroxygen self-diffusion coefficient

  11. Formation, characterization and reactivity of adsorbed oxygen...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Formation, characterization and reactivity of adsorbed oxygen on BaOPt(111). Formation, characterization and reactivity of adsorbed oxygen on BaOPt(111). Abstract: The formation...

  12. Angling chromium to let oxygen through | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Angling chromium to let oxygen through Angling chromium to let oxygen through Released: September 10, 2014 New semiconducting material works at lower temperatures Scanning...

  13. Polycyclic Aromatic Triptycenes: Oxygen Substitution Cyclization Strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    VanVeller, Brett

    The cyclization and planarization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with concomitant oxygen substitution was achieved through acid catalyzed transetherification and oxygen-radical reactions. The triptycene scaffold ...

  14. A lithium oxygen secondary battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Semkow, K.W.; Sammells, A.F.

    1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In principle the lithium-oxygen couple should provide one of the highest energy densities yet investigated for advanced battery systems. The problem to this time has been one of identifying strategies for achieving high electrochemical reversibilities at each electrode under conditions where one might anticipate to also achieve long materials lifetimes. This has been addressed in recent work by us via the application of stabilized zirconia oxygen vacancy conducting solid electrolytes, for the effective separation of respective half-cell reactions.

  15. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; Thomas W. Eagar; Harold R. Larson; Raymundo Arroyave; X.-D Zhou; Y.-W. Shin; H.U. Anderson; Nigel Browning; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present quarterly report describes some of the initial studies on newer compositions and also includes newer approaches to address various materials issues such as in metal-ceramic sealing. The current quarter's research has also focused on developing a comprehensive reliability model for predicting the structural behavior of the membranes in realistic conditions. In parallel to industry provided compositions, models membranes have been evaluated in varying environment. Of importance is the behavior of flaws and generation of new flaws aiding in fracture. Fracture mechanics parameters such as crack tip stresses are generated to characterize the influence of environment. Room temperature slow crack growth studies have also been initiated in industry provided compositions. The electrical conductivity and defect chemistry of an A site deficient compound (La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}) was studied. A higher conductivity was observed for La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3} than that of La{sub 0.60}Sr{sub 0.40}FeO{sub 3} and La{sub 0.80}Sr{sub 0.20}FeO{sub 3}. Defect chemistry analysis showed that it was primarily contributed by a higher carrier concentration in La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}. Moreover, the ability for oxygen vacancy generation is much higher in La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3} as well, which indicates a lower bonding strength between Fe-O and a possible higher catalytic activity for La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}. The program continued to investigate the thermodynamic properties (stability and phase separation behavior) and total conductivity of prototype membrane materials. The data are needed together with the kinetic information to develop a complete model for the membrane transport. Previous report listed initial measurements on a sample of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-x} prepared in-house by Praxair. Subsequently, a second sample of powder from a larger batch of sample were characterized and compared with the results from the previous batch.

  16. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; Q. Cai; J. Yang; W.B. Yelon; W.J. James; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In this report, in situ neutron diffraction was used to characterize the chemical and structural properties of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} (here after as L2SF55T) specimen, which was subject to measurements of neutron diffraction from room temperature to 900 C in N{sub 2}. Space group of R3c was found to result in a better refinement and is used in this study. The difference for crystal structure, lattice parameters and local crystal chemistry for LSFT nearly unchanged when gas environment switched from air to N{sub 2}. Stable crack growth studies on Dense OTM bars provided by Praxair were done at room temperature in air. A bridge-compression fixture was fabricated to achieve stable pre-cracks from Vickers indents. Post fracture evaluation indicated stable crack growth from the indent and a regime of fast fracture. Post-fracture X-ray data of the OTM fractured at 1000 C in environment were refined by FullProf code and results indicate a distortion of the parent cubic perovskite to orthorhombic structure with reduced symmetry. TGA-DTA studies on the post-fracture samples also indicated residual effect arising from the thermal and stress history of the samples. The thermal and chemical expansion of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} were studied at 800 {le} T {le} 1000 C and at {approx} 1 x 10{sup -15} {le} pO{sub 2} {le} 0.21 atm. The thermal expansion coefficient of the sample was calculated from the dilatometric analysis in the temperature range between room temperature and 1200 C in air. A series of isotope transients under air separation mode (small gradient) were completed on the membrane of LSCrF-2828 at 900 C. Low pO{sub 2} atmospheres based on with CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have also been admitted to the delivery side of the LSCrF-2828 membrane to produce the gradients which exist under syngas generation conditions. The CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have normal isotopic {sup 18}O abundances. The evolution of {sup 18}O on the delivery side in these experiments after an {sup 18}O pulse on the air side reveals a wealth of information about the oxygen transport processes.

  17. OXYGEN ADSORPTION ON NITROGEN CONTAINING CARBON SURFACES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Truong, Thanh N.

    OXYGEN ADSORPTION ON NITROGEN CONTAINING CARBON SURFACES Alejandro Montoya, Jorge O. Gil, Fanor-rich site of the carbon basal plane of graphite and then, it dissociates into oxygen atoms.1,2 Oxygen atoms at the edge of the carbon surface can form covalent bonds with oxygen. These sites can chemisorb

  18. Oxygen isotopic exchange: A useful tool for characterizing oxygen conducting oxides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    Oxygen isotopic exchange: A useful tool for characterizing oxygen conducting oxides Bassat J we obtain in both cases data concerning the oxygen diffusion in the bulk and the oxygen exchange with regards to the oxygen reduction reaction. Detailed experimental and analytical processes are given

  19. Oxygen uptake of benthic systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Priebe, William Franklin

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    mg/hr/sq m between standard and maximum mixing. Hanes and Irvine (23) made a determination of the effects of temperature on quiescent oxygen uptake rates by covering sludge with aerated water and allowing the supernatant to be totally de- pleted.... ECTROLTSIS STSTDI FOA MEMURIRC BOO. FIGURE 2. SWITCH ELECTROQE IN CONTACT WITH ELECTROIYTE. OXYGEN GENERATOR OFF. FIGURE 3. SWIICH ELECI'RODE NOT IN CONTACT' WITH -' ECTROLYTE. 0 0 0 a 0 0 0 ~ O0 0 o 0 0 o o 0 0 0 0 PIERRE A. HIGH SPEED NIXINC...

  20. Oxygen uptake of benthic systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Priebe, William Franklin

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    mg/hr/sq m between standard and maximum mixing. Hanes and Irvine (23) made a determination of the effects of temperature on quiescent oxygen uptake rates by covering sludge with aerated water and allowing the supernatant to be totally de- pleted.... ECTROLTSIS STSTDI FOA MEMURIRC BOO. FIGURE 2. SWITCH ELECTROQE IN CONTACT WITH ELECTROIYTE. OXYGEN GENERATOR OFF. FIGURE 3. SWIICH ELECI'RODE NOT IN CONTACT' WITH -' ECTROLYTE. 0 0 0 a 0 0 0 ~ O0 0 o 0 0 o o 0 0 0 0 PIERRE A. HIGH SPEED NIXINC...

  1. Methods for separating oxygen from oxygen-containing gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mackay, Richard (Lafayette, CO); Schwartz, Michael (Boulder, CO); Sammells, Anthony F. (Boulder, CO)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention provides mixed conducting metal oxides particularly useful for the manufacture of catalytic membranes for gas-phase oxygen separation processes. The materials of this invention have the general formula: A.sub.x A'.sub.x A".sub.2-(x+x') B.sub.y B'.sub.y B".sub.2-(y+y') O.sub.5+z ; where x and x' are greater than 0; y and y' are greater than 0; x+x' is less than or equal to 2; y+y' is less than or equal to 2; z is a number that makes the metal oxide charge neutral; A is an element selected from the f block lanthanide elements; A' is an element selected from Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra; A" is an element selected from the f block lanthanides or Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra; B is an element selected from the group consisting of Al, Ga, In or mixtures thereof; and B' and B" are different elements and are independently selected from the group of elements Mg or the d-block transition elements. The invention also provides methods for oxygen separation and oxygen enrichment of oxygen deficient gases which employ mixed conducting metal oxides of the above formula. Examples of the materials used for the preparation of the membrane include A.sub.x Sr.sub.x' B.sub.y Fe.sub.y' Co.sub.2-(y+y') O.sub.5+z, where x is about 0.3 to about 0.5, x' is about 1.5 to about 1.7, y is 0.6, y' is between about 1.0 and 1.4 and B is Ga or Al.

  2. The Role of Oxygen in Coal Gasification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klosek, J.; Smith, A. R.; Solomon, J.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air Products supplies oxygen to a number of coal gasification and partial oxidation facilities worldwide. At the high operating pressures of these processes, economics favor the use of 90% and higher oxygen purities. The effect of inerts...

  3. Oxygen reduction on platinum : an EIS study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golfinopoulos, Theodore

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on platinum over yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is examined via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) for oxygen partial pressures between 10-4 and 1 atm and at temperatures ...

  4. Microbial oceanography of anoxic oxygen minimum zones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulloa, Osvaldo

    Vast expanses of oxygen-deficient and nitrite-rich water define the major oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) of the global ocean. They support diverse microbial communities that influence the nitrogen economy of the oceans, ...

  5. Microchemical systems for singlet oxygen generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Tyrone F. (Tyrone Frank), 1980-

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Lasers (COIL) are a technology of interest for industrial and military audiences. COILs are flowing gas lasers where the gain medium of iodine atoms is collisionally pumped by singlet delta oxygen ...

  6. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chandel, Navdeep S

    Mitochondria produce reactive oxygen species (mROS) as a natural by-product of electron transport chain activity. While initial studies focused on the damaging effects of reactive oxygen species, a recent paradigm shift ...

  7. Imaging Oxygen Molecules Up Close | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Imaging Oxygen Molecules Up Close Imaging Oxygen Molecules Up Close Released: March 20, 2011 ARRA-enabled upgrades enhance research capabilities STM images of the same TiO2(110)...

  8. The Mechanisms of Oxygen Reduction and Evolution Reactions in...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Mechanisms of Oxygen Reduction and Evolution Reactions in Nonaqueous Lithium-Oxygen Batteries. The Mechanisms of Oxygen Reduction and Evolution Reactions in Nonaqueous...

  9. Composite oxygen ion transport element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Jack C. (Getzville, NY); Besecker, Charles J. (Batavia, IL); Chen, Hancun (Williamsville, NY); Robinson, Earil T. (Mentor, OH)

    2007-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A composite oxygen ion transport element that has a layered structure formed by a dense layer to transport oxygen ions and electrons and a porous support layer to provide mechanical support. The dense layer can be formed of a mixture of a mixed conductor, an ionic conductor, and a metal. The porous support layer can be fabricated from an oxide dispersion strengthened metal, a metal-reinforced intermetallic alloy, a boron-doped Mo.sub.5Si.sub.3-based intermetallic alloy or combinations thereof. The support layer can be provided with a network of non-interconnected pores and each of said pores communicates between opposite surfaces of said support layer. Such a support layer can be advantageously employed to reduce diffusion resistance in any type of element, including those using a different material makeup than that outlined above.

  10. Catalyst containing oxygen transport membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie Robyn; van Hassel, Bart Antonie

    2012-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A composite oxygen transport membrane having a dense layer, a porous support layer and an intermediate porous layer located between the dense layer and the porous support layer. Both the dense layer and the intermediate porous layer are formed from an ionic conductive material to conduct oxygen ions and an electrically conductive material to conduct electrons. The porous support layer has a high permeability, high porosity, and a high average pore diameter and the intermediate porous layer has a lower permeability and lower pore diameter than the porous support layer. Catalyst particles selected to promote oxidation of a combustible substance are located in the intermediate porous layer and in the porous support adjacent to the intermediate porous layer. The catalyst particles can be formed by wicking a solution of catalyst precursors through the porous support toward the intermediate porous layer.

  11. Effects of oxygen on fracturing fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, M.L.; Shuchart, C.E.; Yaritz, J.G.; Norman, L.R.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The stability of polysaccharide gels at high temperature is limited by such factors as pH, mechanical degradation, and oxidants. Oxygen is unavoidably placed in fracturing fluids through dissolution of air. To prevent premature degradation of the fracturing fluid by this oxidant, oxygen scavengers are commonly used. In this paper, the effects of oxygen and various oxygen scavengers on gel stability will be presented. Mechanical removal of oxygen resulted in surprisingly stable fracturing gels at 275 F. However, chemical removal of oxygen gave mixed results. Test data from sodium thiosulfate, sodium sulfite, and sodium erythorbate used as oxygen scavengers/gel stabilizers showed that the efficiency of oxygen removal from gels did not directly coincide with the viscosity retention of the gel, and large excesses of additives were necessary to provide optimum gel stabilization. The inability of some oxygen scavengers to stabilize the gel was the result of products created from the interaction of oxygen with the oxygen scavenger, which in turn, produced species that degraded the gel. The ideal oxygen scavenger should provide superior gel stabilization without creating detrimental side reaction products. Of the materials tested, sodium thiosulfate appeared to be the most beneficial.

  12. Oxygen Detection via Nanoscale Optical Indicators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghosh, Ruby N.

    Oxygen Detection via Nanoscale Optical Indicators Ruby N. Ghosh Dept. of Physics Michigan State University East Lansing, MI, USA weekschr@msu.edu Abstract--Oxygen plays a ubiquitous role in terrestrial developed an optical technique for monitoring oxygen in both gas and liquid phases utilizing nanoscale metal

  13. 8, 22252248, 2008 Detection of oxygen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    ACPD 8, 22252248, 2008 Detection of oxygen emission related to spring bloom H. Yamagishi et al Chemistry and Physics Discussions Detection of regional scale sea-to-air oxygen emission related to spring bloom near Japan by using in-situ measurements of atmospheric oxygen/nitrogen ratio H. Yamagishi 1 , Y

  14. Oxygen permeation in bismuth-based materials part I: Sintering and oxygen permeation fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    1 Oxygen permeation in bismuth-based materials part I: Sintering and oxygen permeation fluxes E;2 Abstract Oxygen permeation measurements were performed on two layered bismuth based oxide ceramics. Oxygen permeability for these systems was compared to permeability of the cubic fluorite type structure

  15. Singlet Oxygen Singlet oxygen generation and detection are growing fields with applications in such areas as

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wells, Mathew G. - Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto

    Singlet Oxygen Singlet oxygen generation and detection are growing fields with applications in such areas as cancer treatment, photosensitized oxidations, and biomolecular degradation. Ground state oxygen state of an oxygen molecule is a singlet state, which can readily react with other singlet molecules

  16. Lycopene cyclase paralog CruP protects against reactive oxygen species in oxygenic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wurtzel, Eleanore

    , quenching singlet oxygen generated during the water-splitting process of photo- synthesis (10, 11). VariousLycopene cyclase paralog CruP protects against reactive oxygen species in oxygenic photosynthetic cyclase. Instead, we show that CruP aids in preventing accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS

  17. Experimental Effects of Atomic Oxygen on the Development of an Electric Discharge Oxygen Iodine Laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carroll, David L.

    state I. Conventionally, a two-phase (gas-liquid) chemistry singlet oxygen generator (SOG) producesExperimental Effects of Atomic Oxygen on the Development of an Electric Discharge Oxygen Iodine of the electric discharge iodine laser continues, the role of oxygen atoms downstream of the discharge region

  18. OXYGEN 18 EXCHANGE REACTIONS OF ALDEHYDES AND KETONES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Byrn, Marianne; Calvin, Melvin

    1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OXYGEN 18 EXCHANGE REACTIONS OF ALDEHYDES AND KETONES TWO-eng-48 OXYGEN 18 EXCHANGE REACTIONS OF ALDEHYDES AND KETONES

  19. Developments in ITM oxygen technology for IGCC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, V.E.E.; Richards, R.E.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), an Air Products-led team (with Ceramatec, Eltron Research, McDermott Technology, NREC, Texaco, the Pennsylvania State University, and the University of Pennsylvania) is developing a new technology for air separation - Ion Transport Membrane Oxygen - based on the use of mixed-conducting ceramic membranes that have both electronic and oxygen ionic conductivity when operated at high temperature, typically 800 to 900 C. Under the influence of an oxygen partial-pressure driving force, the ITM Oxygen process achieves a high-purity, high-flux separation of oxygen from a compressed-air stream. By integrating the energy-rich, oxygen-depleted, non-permeate stream with a gas turbine system, the ITM Oxygen process becomes a co-producer of high-purity oxygen, power, and steam. Under a recent CRADA entitled ``Ion Transport Membranes (ITM) for Oxygen-Blown IGCC Systems and Indirect Coal Liquefaction,'' Air Products and DOE completed an initial quantification of the benefits of an ITM Oxygen-integrated IGCC facility. Compared to the cryogenic oxygen base case, the ITM Oxygen technology can potentially: reduce total installed costs by 7%; improve thermal efficiency for the integrated IGCC system by about 3%, leading to further decreases in carbon dioxide and sulfur emissions; and reduce the cost of generated electric power by more than 6%. The ITM Oxygen development project will proceed in three phases. Phase 1, which commenced under a DOE Cooperative Agreement in October 1998, is a 3-year effort focusing on construction of a technology development unit (TDU) for process concept validation tests at a capacity of 0.1 ton-per-day (TPD) oxygen. To accomplish this objective, the Air Products team will address relevant technical challenges in ITM Oxygen materials, engineering, membrane module development, and performance testing. During Phase 1 the team will also verify the economic prospects for integrating ITM Oxygen technology with IGCC and other advanced power generation systems. After at least one intermediate scaleup, Phase 2 and 3 activities will culminate with scaleup to a 25- to 50-TPD pre-commercial demonstration unit, fully integrated with a gas turbine. Meeting these challenges of developing cost-effective fabrication techniques for ITM Oxygen devices, and successfully integrating them with commercially available gas turbine engines, is key to bringing ITM Oxygen technology to the marketplace.

  20. Myocardial Reloading after Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protein Synthesis. Abstract: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) unloads the heart providing a bridge to recovery in children after myocardial stunning. Mortality after...

  1. The Role of Oxygen in Coal Gasification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klosek, J.; Smith, A. R.; Solomon, J.

    in downst eam absorbs oxygen from air at low pressure by units. Selection of the optimum oxygen urHy contact with a circulating molten salt. High must be performed by optimizing the capit land purity (>99.5%) oxygen is regenerated from the operating... are evaluated, the use of oxygen is often preferred over air regardless of the pressure requirement. GOX GAN WASTE AIR FROM MOL SIEVE MAIN EXCHANGERS EXPANDER Figure 4 - Low Pressure Cryogenic Cycle Below about 95% purity, the specific power (k...

  2. Faculty of Law Number of students who has finished (with a degree) and early leavers (excluding transferred students) by AY (As of May 1, 2012)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banbara, Mutsunori

    Holdover H OthersI) Total + early admission Total GraduatesC) over-term within designated term Rate outside school Reasons to leaveF) Leaving RateG) Holdover H within designated term over-term GraduatesCFaculty of Law Number of students who has finished (with a degree) and early leavers (excluding

  3. (Data in thousand metric tons of silicon content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Estimated value of silicon alloys and metal (excluding semiconductor-and solar-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Production and Use: Estimated value of silicon alloys and metal (excluding semiconductor- and solar- grade silicon) produced in the United States in 2009 was $470 million. Four companies produced silicon materials in six plants. Of those companies, three produced ferrosilicon in four plants. Metallurgical

  4. rule'' to reduce the monetary penalty by 50 to 75 percent right off the top. Citizens are often excluded from EPA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peterson, M. Nils

    environmental projects (SEPs), begun in the late 1990s, so that convicted polluters can mitigate the damage excluded from EPA decision making, even when it affects them. For example, in a federal environmental-impact statement, citizens are not given notice of a preliminary environmental assessment of their neighborhood

  5. Oxygen ion-beam microlithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsuo, Y. Simon (Lakewood, CO)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of providing and developing a resist on a substrate for constructing integrated circuit (IC) chips includes the following steps: of depositing a thin film of amorphous silicon or hydrogenated amorphous silicon on the substrate and exposing portions of the amorphous silicon to low-energy oxygen ion beams to oxidize the amorphous silicon at those selected portions. The nonoxidized portions are then removed by etching with RF-excited hydrogen plasma. Components of the IC chip can then be constructed through the removed portions of the resist. The entire process can be performed in an in-line vacuum production system having several vacuum chambers. Nitrogen or carbon ion beams can also be used.

  6. Oxygen ion-beam microlithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsuo, Y.S.

    1991-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of providing and developing a resist on a substrate for constructing integrated circuit (IC) chips includes the following steps: of depositing a thin film of amorphous silicon or hydrogenated amorphous silicon on the substrate and exposing portions of the amorphous silicon to low-energy oxygen ion beams to oxidize the amorphous silicon at those selected portions. The nonoxidized portions are then removed by etching with RF-excited hydrogen plasma. Components of the IC chip can then be constructed through the removed portions of the resist. The entire process can be performed in an in-line vacuum production system having several vacuum chambers. Nitrogen or carbon ion beams can also be used. 5 figures.

  7. Transient oxygen consumption rate measurements with the BDT?M? oxygen biosensor system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low, Clarke Alan

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxygen consumption rate (OCR) is a reliable indicator of tissue health. Recently, the OCR of isolated human islets has been shown to predict transplant outcome in diabetic mice. The Oxygen Biosensor System (OBS) is a ...

  8. High density adsorbed oxygen on Rh,,111... and enhanced routes to metallic oxidation using atomic oxygen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sibener, Steven

    High density adsorbed oxygen on Rh,,111... and enhanced routes to metallic oxidation using atomic oxygen K. D. Gibson, Mark Viste, Errol C. Sanchez, and S. J. Sibener The James Franck Institute; accepted 30 November 1998 Exposure of Rh 111 to atomic oxygen leads to the facile formation of a full

  9. Oxygen and Nitrogen Contamination During Arc Welding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eagar, Thomas W.

    ) ) : ,- Oxygen and Nitrogen Contamination During Arc Welding T. W. Eagar Department of }faterials, shielded metal arc, self-shielded metal arc, and submerged arc welding are reviewed. Calcu- lations upon heating is also discussed. Introduction Oxygen and nitrogen ~ontamination of weld metal

  10. New Oxygen-Production Technology Proving Successful

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory has partnered with Air Products and Chemicals Inc. of Allentown, Penn. to develop the Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) Oxygen, a revolutionary new oxygen-production technology that requires less energy and offers lower capital costs than conventional technologies.

  11. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

    2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the fourth quarter January-March 2001 in the following task areas: Task 1 - Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2 - Oxygen Transport Membranes and Task 4 - Program Management. This report will also recap the results of the past year. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the first year. OTM material characterization was completed. 100% of commercial target flux was demonstrated with OTM disks. The design and assembly of Praxair's single tube high-pressure test facility was completed. The production of oxygen with a purity of better than 99.5% was demonstrated. Coal combustion testing was conducted at the University of Arizona. Modest oxygen enhancement resulted in NOx emissions reduction. The injector for oxygen enhanced coal based reburning was conducted at Praxair. Combustion modeling with Keystone boiler was completed. Pilot-scale combustion test furnace simulations continued this quarter.

  12. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

    2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conventional wisdom says adding oxygen to a combustion system enhances product throughput, system efficiency, and, unless special care is taken, increases NOx emissions. This increase in NOx emissions is typically due to elevated flame temperatures associated with oxygen use leading to added thermal NOx formation. Innovative low flame temperature oxy-fuel burner designs have been developed and commercialized to minimize both thermal and fuel NOx formation for gas and oil fired industrial furnaces. To be effective these systems require close to 100% oxy-fuel combustion and the cost of oxygen is paid for by fuel savings and other benefits. For applications to coal-fired utility boilers at the current cost of oxygen, however, it is not economically feasible to use 100% oxygen for NOx control. In spite of this conventional wisdom, Praxair and its team members, in partnership with the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory, have developed a novel way to use oxygen to reduce NOx emissions without resorting to complete oxy-fuel conversion. In this concept oxygen is added to the combustion process to enhance operation of a low NOx combustion system. Only a small fraction of combustion air is replaced with oxygen in the process. By selectively adding oxygen to a low NOx combustion system it is possible to reduce NOx emissions from nitrogen-containing fuels, including pulverized coal, while improving combustion characteristics such as unburned carbon. A combination of experimental work and modeling was used to define how well oxygen enhanced combustion could reduce NOx emissions. The results of this work suggest that small amounts of oxygen replacement can reduce the NOx emissions as compared to the air-alone system. NOx emissions significantly below 0.15 lbs/MMBtu were measured. Oxygen addition was also shown to reduce carbon in ash. Comparison of the costs of using oxygen for NOx control against competing technologies, such as SCR, show that this concept offers substantial savings over SCR and is an economically attractive alternative to purchasing NOx credits or installing other conventional technologies. In conjunction with the development of oxygen based low NOx technology, Praxair also worked on developing the economically enhancing oxygen transport membrane (OTM) technology which is ideally suited for integration with combustion systems to achieve further significant cost reductions and efficiency improvements. This OTM oxygen production technology is based on ceramic mixed conductor membranes that operate at high temperatures and can be operated in a pressure driven mode to separate oxygen with infinite selectivity and high flux. An OTM material was selected and characterized. OTM elements were successfully fabricated. A single tube OTM reactor was designed and assembled. Testing of dense OTM elements was conducted with promising oxygen flux results of 100% of target flux. However, based on current natural gas prices and stand-alone air separation processes, ceramic membranes do not offer an economic advantage for this application. Under a different DOE-NETL Cooperative Agreement, Praxair is continuing to develop oxygen transport membranes for the Advanced Boiler where the economics appear more attractive.

  13. Oxygen and organic matter thresholds for benthic faunal activity on the Pakistan margin oxygen minimum zone (7001100 m)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levin, Lisa

    Oxygen and organic matter thresholds for benthic faunal activity on the Pakistan margin oxygen increased animal activity associated with increasing bottom-water oxygen concentration. We examined faunal community responses to oxygen and organic matter gradients across the lower oxygen minimum zone (OMZ

  14. Oxygen Discharge and Post-Discharge Kinetics Experiments and Modeling for the Electric Oxygen-Iodine Laser System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carroll, David L.

    Oxygen Discharge and Post-Discharge Kinetics Experiments and Modeling for the Electric Oxygen a low-pressure oxygen/helium/nitric oxide discharge. In the electric discharge oxygen-iodine laser (ElectricOIL) the discharge production of atomic oxygen, ozone, and other excited species adds levels

  15. Long-term oxygen sensor implantation in the porcine subcutaneous environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumosa, Lucas Stefan

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Membrane-?Covered Oxygen Electrode. Analytical Microvascular and tissue oxygen distribution. vitro stability of an oxygen sensor. Anal Chem,

  16. Oxygen Tension Modulates Neurite Outgrowth in PC12 Cells Through A Mechanism Involving HIF and VEGF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Genetos, Damian C.; Cheung, Whitney K.; Decaris, Martin L.; Leach, J. Kent

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    neural repair. Keywords Oxygen tension . Neurite extension .respective physiological oxygen microenvironments (Chen etet al. 2008). For example, oxygen tension differentially

  17. On the oxygen abundance in our Galaxy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. S. Pilyugin; F. Ferrini; R. V. Shkvarun

    2003-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The compilation of published spectra of Galactic HII regions with available diagnostic [OIII]4363 line has been carried out. Our list contains 71 individual measurements of 13 HII regions in the range of galactocentric distances from 6.6 to 14.8 kpc. The oxygen abundances in all the HII regions were recomputed in the same way, using the classic Te - method. The oxygen abundance at the solar galactocentric distance traced by those HII regions is in agreement with the oxygen abundance in the interstellar medium in the solar vicinity derived with high precision from the interstellar absorption lines towards stars. The derived radial oxygen abundance distribution was compared with that for HII regions from the Shaver et al. (1983) sample which is the basis of many models for the chemical evolution of our Galaxy. It was found that the original Shaver et al.'s oxygen abundances are overestimated by 0.2-0.3 dex. Oxygen abundances in HII regions from the Shaver et al. sample have been redetermined with the recently suggested P - method. The radial distribution of oxygen abundances from the Shaver et al. sample redetermined with the P - method is in agreement with our radial distribution of (O/H)_Te abundances.

  18. Oxygen isotope constraints on the origin of impact glasses from the cretaceous-tertiary boundary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blum, J.D.; Chamberlain, C.P. (Dartmouth Coll, Hanover, NH (United States))

    1992-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser-extraction oxygen isotope and major element analyses of individual glass spherules from Haitian Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary sediments demonstrate that the glasses fall on a mixing line between an isotopically heavy ({delta}{sup 18}O = 14 per mil) high-calcium composition and an isotopically light ({delta}{sup 18}O = 6 per mil) high-silicon composition. This trend can be explained by melting of heterogeneous source rocks during the impact of an asteroid (or comet) {approximately}65 million years ago. The data indicate that the glasses are a mixture of carbonate and silicate rocks and exclude derivation of the glasses either by volcanic processes or as mixtures of sulfate-high evaporate and silicate rocks.

  19. Characterization of an oxygen suspension used for intravenous infusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pea, Kristen Helen

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxygenated fluid mixture can be used to treat critically ill patients suffering from asphyxia, lung injury, and cardiac arrest. This oxygenated fluid delivered intravenously re-oxygenates the bloodstream, allowing for more ...

  20. Blood oxygen transport and depletion : the key of consummate divers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meir, Jessica Ulrika

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Dill, D. B. (1935). Oxygen dissociation curves of birdE. (1964). A venous blood oxygen reservoir in the divingand Torrance, J. D. (1977). Oxygen-Affinity of Avian Blood.

  1. Imaging Intrinsic Diffusion of Bridge-Bonded Oxygen Vacancies...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Intrinsic Diffusion of Bridge-Bonded Oxygen Vacancies on TiO2(110). Imaging Intrinsic Diffusion of Bridge-Bonded Oxygen Vacancies on TiO2(110). Abstract: Since oxygen atom...

  2. Oxygen Coverage Dependence of NO Oxidation on Pt(111). | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oxygen Coverage Dependence of NO Oxidation on Pt(111). Oxygen Coverage Dependence of NO Oxidation on Pt(111). Abstract: The interaction of NO with adsorbed atomic oxygen on Pt(111)...

  3. Reactive oxygen species: a breath of life or death?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fruehauf, John P; Meyskens, Frank L Jr

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AP1, activator protein-1; ODD, oxygen-dependent degradationSignaling response when oxygen levels decrease (Fig. 1C;3. Halliwell B. Reactive oxygen species in living sys- tems:

  4. Faculty of Law Number of students who has finished (with a degree) and early leavers (excluding transferred students) by AY (As of May 1, 2011)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banbara, Mutsunori

    Faculty of Law Number of students who has finished (with a degree) and early leavers (excluding or less more than 1 year Law 180 227 227 155 65 220 68% 29% 97% 5 2% 0 2 Total 180 227 227 155 65 220 68% 29% 97% 5 2% 0 2 Law 180 184 184 139 37 176 76% 20% 96% 6 3% 2 0 Total 180 184 184 139 37 176 76% 20

  5. Tetraoxygen on Reduced Ti02(110): Oxygen Adsorption and Reactions...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tetraoxygen on Reduced Ti02(110): Oxygen Adsorption and Reactions with Oxygen Vacancies. Tetraoxygen on Reduced Ti02(110): Oxygen Adsorption and Reactions with Oxygen Vacancies....

  6. On the maximum value of the cosmic abundance of oxygen and the oxygen yield

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. S. Pilyugin; T. X. Thuan; J. M. Vilchez

    2007-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We search for the maximum oxygen abundance in spiral galaxies. Because this maximum value is expected to occur in the centers of the most luminous galaxies, we have constructed the luminosity - central metallicity diagram for spiral galaxies, based on a large compilation of existing data on oxygen abundances of HII regions in spiral galaxies. We found that this diagram shows a plateau at high luminosities (-22.3 oxygen abundance 12+log(O/H) ~ 8.87. This provides strong evidence that the oxygen abundance in the centers of the most luminous metal-rich galaxies reaches the maximum attainable value of oxygen abundance. Since some fraction of the oxygen (about 0.08 dex) is expected to be locked into dust grains, the maximum value of the true gas+dust oxygen abundance in spiral galaxies is 12+log(O/H) ~ 8.95. This value is a factor of ~ 2 higher than the recently estimated solar value. Based on the derived maximum oxygen abundance in galaxies, we found the oxygen yield to be about 0.0035, depending on the fraction of oxygen incorporated into dust grains.

  7. Oxygen-Enriched Combustion for Military Diesel Engine Generators...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oxygen-Enriched Combustion for Military Diesel Engine Generators Oxygen-Enriched Combustion for Military Diesel Engine Generators Substantial increases in brake power and...

  8. Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines...

  9. avec oxygenation modelisation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Experimental calibration of oxygen isotope fractionation between quartz and zircon Dustin Trail a the results of an experimental calibration of oxygen isotope fractionation...

  10. Electron-Stimulated Production of Molecular Oxygen in Amorphous...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water. Electron-Stimulated Production of Molecular Oxygen in Amorphous Solid Water. Abstract: The low-energy, electron-stimulated production of molecular oxygen from pure amorphous...

  11. Oxygen Diffusion (OD) Dramatically Improves Wear-Resistance of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oxygen Diffusion (OD) Dramatically Improves Wear-Resistance of Titanium Oxygen Diffusion (OD) Dramatically Improves Wear-Resistance of Titanium 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency &...

  12. Isolation, Characterization of an Intermediate in an Oxygen Atom...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Characterization of an Intermediate in an Oxygen Atom-Transfer Reaction, and the Determination of the Bond Isolation, Characterization of an Intermediate in an Oxygen Atom-Transfer...

  13. Theoretical Study of the Structure, Stability and Oxygen Reduction...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Study of the Structure, Stability and Oxygen Reduction Activity ofUltrathin Platinum Nanowires. Theoretical Study of the Structure, Stability and Oxygen Reduction Activity...

  14. Density Functional Study of the Structure, Stability and Oxygen...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Study of the Structure, Stability and Oxygen Reduction Activity of Ultrathin Platinum Nanowires. Density Functional Study of the Structure, Stability and Oxygen Reduction Activity...

  15. Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique...

  16. Fractionation of Oxygen Isotopes in Phosphate during its Interactions...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fractionation of Oxygen Isotopes in Phosphate during its Interactions with Iron Oxides. Fractionation of Oxygen Isotopes in Phosphate during its Interactions with Iron Oxides....

  17. Effects of Oxygen-Containing Functional Groups on Supercapacitor...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Effects of Oxygen-Containing Functional Groups on Supercapacitor Performance. Effects of Oxygen-Containing Functional Groups on Supercapacitor Performance. Abstract: Molecular...

  18. Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione Scientists and an international research team have announced discovery of...

  19. Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control Technologies Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control Technologies A virtual O2 sensor for...

  20. Bimetallic and Ternary Alloys for Improved Oxygen Reduction Catalysis...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bimetallic and Ternary Alloys for Improved Oxygen Reduction Catalysis . Bimetallic and Ternary Alloys for Improved Oxygen Reduction Catalysis . Abstract: The research described in...

  1. Direct Measurement of Oxygen Incorporation into Thin Film Oxides...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measurement of Oxygen Incorporation into Thin Film Oxides at Room Temperature Upon Ultraviolet Phton Irradiation. Direct Measurement of Oxygen Incorporation into Thin Film Oxides...

  2. Oxygen Transport Studies in Nanocrystalline Ceria Films. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transport Studies in Nanocrystalline Ceria Films. Oxygen Transport Studies in Nanocrystalline Ceria Films. Abstract: Oxygen uptake and conductivity were measured by nuclear...

  3. Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From Yellowstone Drill Cores Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Oxygen...

  4. Density Functional Theory Study of Oxygen Reduction Activity...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Density Functional Theory Study of Oxygen Reduction Activity on Ultrathin Platinum Nanotubes. Density Functional Theory Study of Oxygen Reduction Activity on Ultrathin Platinum...

  5. Design optimization of oxygenated fluid pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piazzarolo, Bruno Aiala

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In medical emergencies, an oxygen-starved brain quickly suffers irreparable damage. In many cases, patients who stop breathing can be resuscitated but suffer from brain damage. Dr. John Kheir from Boston Children's Hospital ...

  6. Reactive Gliosis Reactive Oxygen Species: Superoxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . By sensing the electric signals generated by other 3368 Reactive Gliosis #12;individuals, mormyrids are alsoReactive Gliosis Glial Scar Reactive Oxygen Species: Superoxide Anions Neuroinflammation motor output. Reafferent Control in Electric Communication Reafferent Control in Electric Communication

  7. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

    2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the thirteenth quarter, April-June 2003, in the following task areas: Task 1--Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 3--Economic Evaluation and Task 4--Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with project objectives. REI's model was modified to evaluate mixing issues in the upper furnace of a staged unit. Analysis of the results, and their potential application to this unit is ongoing. Economic evaluation continues to confirm the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. A contract for a commercial demonstration has been signed with the Northeast Generation Services Company to supply oxygen and license the oxygen enhanced low NOx combustor technology for use at the 147-megawatt coal fired Mt. Tom Station in Holyoke, MA. Commercial proposals have been submitted. Economic analysis of a beta site test performance was conducted.

  8. Electron-impact excitation of neutral oxygen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. S. Barklem

    2006-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Aims: To calculate transition rates from ground and excited states in neutral oxygen atoms due to electron collisions for non-LTE modelling of oxygen in late-type stellar atmospheres, thus enabling reliable interpretation of oxygen lines in stellar spectra. Methods: A 38-state R-matrix calculation in LS-coupling has been performed. Basis orbitals from the literature (Thomas et al.) are adopted, and a large set of configurations are included to obtain good representations of the target wavefunctions. Rate coefficients are calculated by averaging over a Maxwellian velocity distribution. Results: Estimates for the cross sections and rate coefficients are presented for transitions between the seven lowest LS states of neutral oxygen. The cross sections for excitation from the ground state compare well with existing experimental and recent theoretical results.

  9. Dynamic Nuclear Polarization of Oxygen-17

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michaelis, Vladimir K.

    Oxygen-17-detected DNP NMR of a water/glycerol glass enabled an 80-fold enhancement of signal intensity at 82 K, using the biradical TOTAPOL. The >6000-fold savings in acquisition time enable [superscript 17]O[superscript ...

  10. Magnetism in LithiumOxygen Discharge Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Jun; Jung, Hun-Ji; Lau, Kah Chun; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Schlueter, John A.; Du, Peng; Assary, Rajeev S.; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Ferguson, Glen A.; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Hassoun, Jusef; Iddir, Hakim; Zhou, Jigang; Zuin, Lucia; Hu, Yongfeng; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno; Curtiss, Larry A.; Amine, Khalil

    2013-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Nonaqueous lithiumoxygen batteries have a much superior theoretical gravimetric energy density compared to conventional lithium-ion batteries, and thus could render long-range electric vehicles a reality. A molecular-level understanding of the reversible formation of lithium peroxide in these batteries, the properties of major/minor discharge products, and the stability of the nonaqueous electrolytes is required to achieve successful lithiumoxygen batteries. We demonstrate that the major discharge product formed in the lithiumoxygen cell, lithium peroxide, exhibits a magnetic moment. These results are based on dc-magnetization measurements and a lithium oxygen cell containing an ether-based electrolyte. The results are unexpected because bulk lithium peroxide has a significant band gap. Density functional calculations predict that superoxide- type surface oxygen groups with unpaired electrons exist on stoichiometric lithium peroxide crystalline surfaces and on nanoparticle surfaces; these computational results are consistent with the magnetic measurement of the discharged lithium peroxide product as well as EPR measurements on commercial lithium peroxide. The presence of superoxide-type surface oxygen groups with spin can play a role in the reversible formation and decomposition of lithium peroxide as well as the reversible formation and decomposition of electrolyte molecules.

  11. Atomic Oxygen in the Comae of Comets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anita L. Cochran

    2008-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the detection of atomic oxygen lines in the spectra of 8 comets. These forbidden lines are a result of the photodissociation of the parent oxygen-bearing species directly into an excited state. We used high resolution spectra obtained at the McDonald Observatory 2.7m telescope to resolve the cometary oxygen lines from the telluric oxygen lines and from other cometary emissions. We find that the relative intensities of the two red lines (6300.304 and 6363.776A) are consistent with theory. The green line (5577.339A) has an intensity which is about 10% of the sum of the intensities of the two red lines. We show that collisional quenching may be important in the inner coma. If we assume the relative excitation rates of potential parents which have appeared in the literature, then H2O would be the parent of the cometary green oxygen line. However, those rates have been questioned. We measured the width of the three oxygen lines and find that the green line is wider than either of the two red lines. The finding of a wider line could imply a different parent for the green and red lines. However, the constancy of the green to red line flux ratio suggests the parent is the same for these lines but that the exciting photons have different energies.

  12. Underground coal gasification using oxygen and steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, L.H.; Zhang, X.; Liu, S. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China)

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, through model experiment of the underground coal gasification, the effects of pure oxygen gasification, oxygen-steam gasification, and moving-point gasification methods on the underground gasification process and gas quality were studied. Experiments showed that H{sub 2} and CO volume fraction in product gas during the pure oxygen gasification was 23.63-30.24% and 35.22-46.32%, respectively, with the gas heating value exceeding 11.00 MJ/m{sup 3}; under the oxygen-steam gasification, when the steam/oxygen ratio stood at 2: 1, gas compositions remained virtually stable and CO + H{sub 2} was basically between 61.66 and 71.29%. Moving-point gasification could effectively improve the changes in the cavity in the coal seams or the effects of roof inbreak on gas quality; the ratio of gas flowing quantity to oxygen supplying quantity was between 3.1:1 and 3.5:1 and took on the linear changes; on the basis of the test data, the reasons for gas quality changes under different gasification conditions were analyzed.

  13. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen; David R. Thompson

    2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Increased environmental regulations will require utility boilers to reduce NO{sub x} emissions to less than 0.15lb/MMBtu in the near term. Conventional technologies such as Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) and Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) are unable to achieve these lowered emission levels without substantially higher costs and major operating problems. Oxygen enhanced combustion is a novel technology that allows utilities to meet the NO{sub x} emission requirements without the operational problems that occur with SCR and SNCR. Furthermore, oxygen enhanced combustion can achieve these NO{sub x} limits at costs lower than conventional technologies. The objective of this program is to demonstrate the use of oxygen enhanced combustion as a technical and economical method of meeting the EPA State Implementation Plan for NO{sub x} reduction to less than 0.15lb/MMBtu for a wide range of boilers and coal. The oxygen enhanced coal combustion program (Task 1) focused this quarter on the specific objective of exploration of the impact of oxygen enrichment on NO{sub x} formation utilizing small-scale combustors for parametric testing. Research efforts toward understanding any limitations to the applicability of the technology to different burners and fuels such as different types of coal are underway. The objective of the oxygen transport membrane (OTM) materials development program (Task 2.1) is to ascertain a suitable material composition that can be fabricated into dense tubes capable of producing the target oxygen flux under the operating conditions. This requires that the material have sufficient oxygen permeation resulting from high oxygen ion conductivity, high electronic conductivity and high oxygen surface exchange rate. The OTM element development program (Task 2.2) objective is to develop, fabricate and characterize OTM elements for laboratory and pilot reactors utilizing quality control parameters to ensure reproducibility and superior performance. A specific goal is to achieve a material that will sinter to desired density without compromising other variables such as reaction to binder systems or phase purity. Oxygen-enhanced combustion requires a facility which is capable of supplying high purity oxygen (>99.5%) at low costs. This goal can be achieved through the thermal integration of high temperature air separation with ceramic OTM. The objective of the OTM process development program (Task 2.3) is to demonstrate successfully the program objectives on a lab-scale single OTM tube reactor under process conditions comparable to those of an optimum large-scale oxygen facility. This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the first quarter April--June 2000 in the following task areas: Task 1 Oxygen Enhanced Coal Combustion; Task 2 Oxygen Transport Membranes; and Task 4 Program Management.

  14. Oxygen generator for medical applications (USIC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staiger, C. L.

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall Project objective is to develop a portable, non-cryogenic oxygen generator capable of supplying medical grade oxygen at sufficient flow rates to allow the field application of the Topical Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (THOT{reg_sign}) developed by Numotech, Inc. This project was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Global Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (GIPP) and is managed by collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Numotech, Inc, and LLC SPE 'Spektr-Conversion.' The project had two phases, with the objective of Phase I being to develop, build and test a laboratory prototype of the membrane-pressure swing adsorber (PSA) system producing at 15 L/min of oxygen with a minimum of 98% oxygen purity. Phase II objectives were to further refine and identify the pre-requisites needed for a commercial product and to determine the feasibility of producing 15 L/min of oxygen with a minimum oxygen purity of 99%. In Phase I, Spektr built up the necessary infrastructure to perform experimental work and proceeded to build and demonstrate a membrane-PSA laboratory prototype capable of producing 98% purity oxygen at a flow rate of 5 L/min. Spektr offered a plausible path to scale up the process for 15 L/min. Based on the success and experimental results obtained in Phase I, Spektr performed work in three areas for Phase II: construction of a 15 L/min PSA; investigation of compressor requirements for the front end of the membrane/PSA system; and performing modeling and simulation of assess the feasibility of producing oxygen with a purity greater than 99%. Spektr successfully completed all of the tasks under Phase II. A prototype 15 L/min PSA was constructed and operated. Spektr determined that no 'off the shelf' air compressors met all of the specifications required for the membrane-PSA, so a custom compressor will likely need to be built. Modeling and simulation concluded that production of oxygen with purities greater than 99% was possible using a Membrane-PSA system.

  15. High energy density lithium-oxygen secondary battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sammells, A.F.

    1989-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A high energy density lithium-oxygen secondary cell is described comprising a lithium-containing negative electrode; a lithium ion conducting molten salt electrolyte contacting the negative electrode; an oxygen ion conducting solid electrolyte contacting and containing the molten salt electrolyte; and an oxygen redox positive electrode contacting the oxygen ion conducting solid electrolyte.

  16. Energetic neutral atoms at Mars 4. Imaging of planetary oxygen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lukyanov, Alex

    Energetic neutral atoms at Mars 4. Imaging of planetary oxygen S. Barabash and M. Holmstro of the Martian oxygen exosphere/corona results in the production of planetary oxygen ions. The newborn ions start. The oxygen ions can then charge exchange with the neutral gases (H, H2, and O) of the Martian exosphere

  17. Oxygen Toxicity Calculations by Erik C. Baker, P.E.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Read, Charles

    1 Oxygen Toxicity Calculations by Erik C. Baker, P.E. Management of exposure to oxygen toxicity myself using the good ole' FORTRAN programming language, I found that incorporating oxygen toxicity for others. Background Two oxygen toxicity parameters are typically "tracked" in technical diving

  18. Oxygen-Reducing Biocathodes Operating with Passive Oxygen Transfer in Microbial Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oxygen-Reducing Biocathodes Operating with Passive Oxygen Transfer in Microbial Fuel Cells Xue Xia, Justin C. Tokash, Fang Zhang, Peng Liang, Xia Huang,*, and Bruce E. Logan*,, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, P

  19. Oxygenates du`jour...MTBE? Ethanol? ETBE?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfe, R.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    There are many different liquids that contain oxygen which could be blended into gasoline. The ones that have been tried and make the most sense are in the alcohol (R-OH) and ether (R-O-R) chemical family. The alcohols considered are: methanol (MeOH), ethanol (EtOH), tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA). The ethers are: methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE), tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME), tertiary amyl ethyl ether (TAEE), di-isopropyl ether (DIPE). Of the eight oxygenates listed above, the author describes the five that are still waiting for widespread marketing acceptance (methanol, TBA, TAME, TAEE, and DIPE). He then discusses the two most widely used oxygenates in the US, MTBE and ethanol, along with the up-and-coming ethanol ether, ETBE. Selected physical properties for all of these oxygenates can be found in Table 2 at the end of this paper. A figure shows a simplified alcohol/ether production flow chart for the oxygenates listed above and how they are interrelated.

  20. On the solar nickel and oxygen abundances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pat Scott; Martin Asplund; Nicolas Grevesse; A. Jacques Sauval

    2009-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Determinations of the solar oxygen content relying on the neutral forbidden transition at 630 nm depend upon the nickel abundance, due to a Ni I blend. Here we rederive the solar nickel abundance, using the same ab initio 3D hydrodynamic model of the solar photosphere employed in the recent revision of the abundances of C, N, O and other elements. Using 17 weak, unblended lines of Ni I together with the most accurate atomic and observational data available we find log epsilon_Ni = 6.17 +/- 0.02 (statistical) +/- 0.05 (systematic), a downwards shift of 0.06 to 0.08 dex relative to previous 1D-based abundances. We investigate the implications of the new nickel abundance for studies of the solar oxygen abundance based on the [O I] 630 nm line in the quiet Sun. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the oxygen abundance implied by the recent sunspot spectropolarimetric study of Centeno & Socas-Navarro needs to be revised downwards from log epsilon_O = 8.86 +/- 0.07 to 8.71 +/- 0.10. This revision is based on the new nickel abundance, application of the best available gf-value for the 630 nm forbidden oxygen line, and a more transparent treatment of CO formation. Determinations of the solar oxygen content relying on forbidden lines now appear to converge around log epsilon_O = 8.7.

  1. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

    2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the twelfth quarter, January-March 2003, in the following task areas: Task 1--Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2--Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3--Economic Evaluation and Task 4--Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the third year. Pilot scale experiments conducted at the University of Utah explored both the effectiveness of oxygen addition and the best way to add oxygen with a scaled version of Riley Power's newest low NOx burner design. CFD modeling was done to compare the REI's modeling results for James River Unit 3 with the NOx and LOI results obtained during the demonstration program at that facility. Investigation of an alternative method of fabrication of PSO1d elements was conducted. OTM process development work has concluded with the completion of a long-term test of a PSO1d element Economic evaluation has confirmed the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. Proposals have been submitted for two additional beta test sites. Commercial proposals have been submitted. Economic analysis of a beta site test performance was conducted.

  2. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

    2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the eleventh quarter, October-December 2002, in the following task areas: Task 1 - Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2 - Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3 - Economic Evaluation and Task 4 - Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the third year. Pilot scale experiments conducted at the University of Utah were aimed at confirming the importance of oxygen injection strategy for different types of burners. CFD modeling at REI was used to better understand the potential for increased corrosion under oxygen enhanced combustion conditions. Data from a full-scale demonstration test in Springfield, MO were analyzed. OTM element development continued with preliminary investigation of an alternative method of fabrication of PSO1d elements. OTM process development continued with long-term testing of a PSO1d element. Economic evaluation has confirmed the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. Proposals have been submitted for two additional beta test sites. A first commercial proposal has been submitted. Economic analysis of a beta site test performance was conducted.

  3. Oxygen abundance of open cluster dwarfs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Z. -X. Shen; X. -W. Liu; H. -W. Zhang; B. Jones; D. N. C. Lin

    2007-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We present oxygen abundances of dwarfs in the young open cluster IC 4665 deduced from the OI $\\lambda$7774 triplet lines and of dwarfs in the open cluster Pleiades derived from the [OI] $\\lambda$6300 forbidden line. Stellar parameters and oxygen abundances were derived using the spectroscopic synthesis tool SME (Spectroscopy Made Easy). We find a dramatic increase in the upper boundary of the OI triplet abundances with decreasing temperature in the dwarfs of IC 4665, consistent with the trend found by Schuler et al. in the open clusters Pleiades and M 34, and to a less extent in the cool dwarfs of Hyades (Schuler et al. 2006a) and UMa (King & Schuler 2005). By contrast, oxygen abundances derived from the [OI] $\\lambda$6300 forbidden line for stars in Pleiades and Hyades (Schuler et al. 2006b) are constant within the errors. Possible mechanisms that may lead a varying oxygen triplet line abundance are examined, including systematic errors in the stellar parameter determinations, the NLTE effects, surface activities and granulation. The age-related effects stellar surface activities (especially the chromospheric activities) are suggested by our analysis to blame for the large spreads of oxygen triplet line abundances.

  4. Oxygen: From Environment to Genes. The periodic occurrence of oxygen minima can powerfully influence organisms living in near

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oxygen: From Environment to Genes. The periodic occurrence of oxygen minima can powerfully to the winter of 2014. Their scholarly work is presented in this collection. #12;1 Oxygen: From Environment", 2013, 2014 Table of contents Page 2. Laura Lilly - Low-oxygen formation along the California current. 6

  5. The oxygen abundance deficiency in irregular galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. S. Pilyugin; F. Ferrini

    2000-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The observed oxygen abundances in a number of irregular galaxies have been compared with predictions of the closed-box model of chemical and photometric evolution of galaxies. Oxygen is found to be deficient with respect to the predicted abundances. This is an indicator in favor of loss of heavy elements via galactic winds or/and of infall of low--abundance gas onto the galaxy. The oxygen abundance deficiency observed within the optical edge of a galaxy cannot be explained by mixing with the gas envelope observed outside the optical limit. We confirm the widespread idea that a significant part of the heavy elements is ejected by irregular galaxies in the intergalactic medium.

  6. Photochemical Escape of Oxygen from Early Mars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Jinjin

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photochemical escape is an important process for oxygen escape from present Mars. In this work, a 1-D Monte-Carlo Model is developed to calculate escape rates of energetic oxygen atoms produced from O2+ dissociative recombination reactions (DR) under 1, 3, 10, and 20 times present solar XUV fluxes. We found that although the overall DR rates increase with solar XUV flux almost linearly, oxygen escape rate increases from 1 to 10 times present solar XUV conditions but decreases when increasing solar XUV flux further. Analysis shows that atomic species in the upper thermosphere of early Mars increases more rapidly than O2+ when increasing XUV fluxes. While the latter is the source of energetic O atoms, the former increases the collision probability and thus decreases the escape probability of energetic O. Our results suggest that photochemical escape be a less important escape mechanism than previously thought for the loss of water and/or CO2 from early Mars.

  7. Oxygen isotope exchange between water and semiquinones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevenson, G.R.; Wang, Z.Y.; Reiter, R.C.; Peters, S.J.

    1988-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A reaction is described that can be utilized to produce /sup 17/O-labeled anion radicals that yield strong well resolved ESR signals exhibiting splitting from the /sup 17/O nucleus. The oxygen anthraquinone has been studied, and the results are reported herein. 7 references, 1 figure.

  8. Oxygen Enriched Combustion System Performance Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, S. L.; Kwan, Y.; Abele, A. R.; Silver, L. S.; Kobayashi, H.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , and then to verify the performance of selected systems in research furnaces. Tests of several commercial burner designs have been conducted at scales of 1 x 10^6 Btu/hr and 10 x 10^6 Btu/hr. The burners represent both conventional air fired designs and oxygen...

  9. Oxygen addition to sulfur of metal thiolates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soma, Takako

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , and characterized. Molecular oxygen or hydrogen peroxide reacted with (N,N'-bis(mercaptoethyl)-1,5-diazacyclooctane-nickel(II), (BME-DACO)2Ni3 +2, to produce a trimetallic, (N,N'-bismercaptoethyl-1,5-diazacyclooctane-nickel(II))-nickelate, (BME-DACO)2Ni3 2...

  10. Oxygen-producing inert anodes for SOM process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pal, Uday B

    2014-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrolysis system for generating a metal and molecular oxygen includes a container for receiving a metal oxide containing a metallic species to be extracted, a cathode positioned to contact a metal oxide housed within the container; an oxygen-ion-conducting membrane positioned to contact a metal oxide housed within the container; an anode in contact with the oxygen-ion-conducting membrane and spaced apart from a metal oxide housed within the container, said anode selected from the group consisting of liquid metal silver, oxygen stable electronic oxides, oxygen stable crucible cermets, and stabilized zirconia composites with oxygen stable electronic oxides.

  11. I. Excluded Volume Effects in Ising Cluster Distributions and Nuclear Multifragmentation II. Multiple-Chance Effects in Alpha-Particle Evaporation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breus, Dimitry E.

    2005-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    In Part 1, geometric clusters of the Ising model are studied as possible model clusters for nuclear multifragmentation. These clusters may not be considered as non-interacting (ideal gas) due to excluded volume effect which predominantly is the artifact of the cluster's finite size. Interaction significantly complicates the use of clusters in the analysis of thermodynamic systems. Stillinger's theory is used as a basis for the analysis, which within the RFL (Reiss, Frisch, Lebowitz) fluid-of-spheres approximation produces a prediction for cluster concentrations well obeyed by geometric clusters of the Ising model. If thermodynamic condition of phase coexistence is met, these concentrations can be incorporated into a differential equation procedure of moderate complexity to elucidate the liquid-vapor phase diagram of the system with cluster interaction included. The drawback of increased complexity is outweighted by the reward of greater accuracy of the phase diagram, as it is demonstrated by the Ising model. A novel nuclear-cluster analysis procedure is developed by modifying Fisher's model to contain cluster interaction and employing the differential equation procedure to obtain thermodynamic variables. With this procedure applied to geometric clusters, the guidelines are developed to look for excluded volume effect in nuclear multifragmentation. In part 2, an explanation is offered for the recently observed oscillations in the energy spectra of {alpha}-particles emitted from hot compound nuclei. Contrary to what was previously expected, the oscillations are assumed to be caused by the multiple-chance nature of {alpha}-evaporation. In a semi-empirical fashion this assumption is successfully confirmed by a technique of two-spectra decomposition which treats experimental {alpha}-spectra has having contributions from at least two independent emitters. Building upon the success of the multiple-chance explanation of the oscillations, Moretto's single-chance evaporation theory is augmented to include multiple-chance emission and tested on experimental data to yield positive results.

  12. The Economics of Oxygen Enriched Air Production Via Membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gollan, A.; Kleper, M. H.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxygen enriched air combustion is a recognized approach to energy conservation. Conventional methods of producing oxygen enriched air: Pressure Swing Adsorption and Cryogenics, are energy-intensive and expensive. In this paper the economics of using...

  13. Methane Adsorption and Dissociation and Oxygen Adsorption and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Methane Adsorption and Dissociation and Oxygen Adsorption and Reaction with CO on Pd Nanoparticles on MgO(100) and on Pd(111). Methane Adsorption and Dissociation and Oxygen...

  14. On the reduction of oxygen from dispersed media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roushdy, Omar H., 1977-

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The reduction of oxygen from an organic phase dispersed in a concentrated electrolyte is investigated. Dispersed organic phases are used to enhance oxygen transport in fermenters and artificial blood substitutes. This work ...

  15. atomic oxygen reactions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is caused Zare, Richard N. 179 Interactions of Oxygen and Hydrogen on Pd(111) surface Plasma Physics and Fusion Websites Summary: for the oxygen (2?2) structure. The...

  16. Design, measurement, and analysis of oxygenated fluid pump system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mason, Alexander M., IV (Alexander Martin)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The author sought out the opportunity to design and implement a system for pumping oxygenated fluid and mixing it with saline, for the purpose of providing sufficient levels of oxygen for patients undergoing forms of ...

  17. Label-free oxygen-metabolic photoacoustic microscopy in vivo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Lihong

    tomography (PET) using radioactively labeled oxy- gen. Many other pathological and physiological functions of oxygen consumption instead of the static oxygen concentration.11 If the region of interest has well

  18. In vivo blood oxygenation level measurements using photoacoustic microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sivaramakrishnan, Mathangi

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    in absorption spectra of oxygenated (HbO 2 ) and deoxygenated hemoglobin (Hb) is exploited to yield oxygenation level information. This method consists of using Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) as light sources to deliver light of known intensity and wavelength...

  19. Inhibitive Influence of Oxygen Vacancies for Photoactivity on...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Inhibitive Influence of Oxygen Vacancies for Photoactivity on TiO2(110). Inhibitive Influence of Oxygen Vacancies for Photoactivity on TiO2(110). Abstract: Scanning tunneling...

  20. Dopant Distribution, Oxygen Stoichiometry and Magnetism of Nanoscale...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dopant Distribution, Oxygen Stoichiometry and Magnetism of Nanoscale Sn0.99Co0.01O. Dopant Distribution, Oxygen Stoichiometry and Magnetism of Nanoscale Sn0.99Co0.01O. Abstract: In...

  1. OXYGEN TRANSFER IN TRICKLING FILTERS By BruceE. Logan~

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OXYGEN TRANSFER IN TRICKLING FILTERS By BruceE. Logan~ ABSTRACT: Insufficientoxygen transfer can result in anaerobic biofilmsand odor generation during biochemicaloxygen demand (BOD) removal plastic media trickling filters occurs by diffusion of oxygen through thin fluid films, previous models

  2. Reaction Pathways for Oxygen Evolution Promoted by Cobalt Giuseppe Mattioli,*,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guidoni, Leonardo

    ABSTRACT: The in-depth understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating the water oxidation catalysis heterogeneous and homogeneous TM-based oxygen evolving catalysts,5 containing different metal-oxygen cores (Mn,6

  3. Optimization of Oxygen Purity for Coal Conversion Energy Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, C. R.; Pike, R. A.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The conversion of coal into gaseous and liquid fuels and chemical feedstock will require large quantities of oxygen. This oxygen will be produced in large multi-train air separation plants which will consume about 350 kilowatt hours of energy...

  4. Oxygen isotope fractionation in the vacuum ultraviolet photodissociation of carbon monoxide: Wavelength, pressure and temperature dependency.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakraborty, Subrata

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxygen isotope fractionation in the vacuum ultravioletmeasurement of the associated oxygen isotopic composition ofwavelength dependency of the oxygen isotopic composition in

  5. OXYGEN REDUCTION WITH CARBON SUPPORTED METALLIC CLUSTER CATALYSTS IN ALKALINE ELECTROLYTE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ross Jr., Philip N.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    be published in the Proceedings OXYGEN REDUCTION WITH CARBONof California. LBL-11891 Oxygen Reduction with Carbonof Pt interacts with both oxygen and water more strongly

  6. Oxygen-driven relaxation processes in pre-irradiated Ar cryocrystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Savchenko, E. V; Belov, A. G; Gumenchuk, G. B; Ponomaryov, A. N; Bondybey, V. E

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Excitations of Solid Oxygen ?in Russian?, B. I. Verkin andNUMBER 11 NOVEMBER 2006 Oxygen-driven relaxation processes? Relaxation processes in oxygen-containing Ar cryocrystals

  7. Green fluorescent protein based indicators of dynamic redox changes and reactive oxygen species

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dooley, Colette

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    attached a singlet oxygen generator to the C-terminal ofencoded singlet oxygen generators, which is currentlyassays. A. Singlet oxygen generator and sensor are tethered;

  8. Electrical insulator assembly with oxygen permeation barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Der Beck, Roland R. (Lansdale, PA); Bond, James A. (Exton, PA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-voltage electrical insulator (21) for electrically insulating a thermoelectric module (17) in a spacecraft from a niobium-1% zirconium alloy wall (11) of a heat exchanger (13) filled with liquid lithium (16) while providing good thermal conductivity between the heat exchanger and the thermoelectric module. The insulator (21) has a single crystal alumina layer (SxAl.sub.2 O.sub.3, sapphire) with a niobium foil layer (32) bonded thereto on the surface of the alumina crystal (26) facing the heat exchanger wall (11), and a molybdenum layer (31) bonded to the niobium layer (32) to act as an oxygen permeation barrier to preclude the oxygen depleting effects of the lithium from causing undesirable niobium-aluminum intermetallic layers near the alumina-niobium interface.

  9. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen; David R. Thompson

    2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the second quarter July--September 2000 in the following task areas: Task 1-Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2-Oxygen Transport Membranes and Task 4-Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the first year. OTM tube characterization is well underway, the design and assembly of the high pressure permeation test facility is complete and the facility will be in full operation during the next quarter. Combustion testing has been initiated at both the University of Arizona and Praxair. Testing at the University of Arizona has experienced some delays; steps have been take to get the test work back on schedule. Completion of the first phase of the testing is expected in next quarter. Combustion modeling has been started at both REI and Praxair, preliminary results are expected in the next quarter.

  10. Electrical insulator assembly with oxygen permeation barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Der Beck, R.R.; Bond, J.A.

    1994-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-voltage electrical insulator for electrically insulating a thermoelectric module in a spacecraft from a niobium-1% zirconium alloy wall of a heat exchanger filled with liquid lithium while providing good thermal conductivity between the heat exchanger and the thermoelectric module. The insulator has a single crystal alumina layer (SxAl[sub 2]O[sub 3], sapphire) with a niobium foil layer bonded thereto on the surface of the alumina crystal facing the heat exchanger wall, and a molybdenum layer bonded to the niobium layer to act as an oxygen permeation barrier to preclude the oxygen depleting effects of the lithium from causing undesirable niobium-aluminum intermetallic layers near the alumina-niobium interface. 3 figures.

  11. IMPROVEMENTS IN MODELLING DISSOLVED OXYGEN IN ACTIVATED SLUDGE SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wells, Scott A.

    1 IMPROVEMENTS IN MODELLING DISSOLVED OXYGEN IN ACTIVATED SLUDGE SYSTEMS Jacek Makinia*, Scott A in a full-scale activated sludge reactor. The Activated Sludge Model No. 1 was used to describe for dissolved oxygen. KEYWORDS Activated sludge; dispersion; dissolved oxygen dynamics; mass transfer

  12. Instructions for use Removal of Oxygen and Nitrogen from Niobium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tachizawa, Kazuya

    Instructions for use #12;------ Removal of Oxygen and Nitrogen from Niobium by External Gettering External Gettering, Purification of Niobium, Thermodynamics of Impurities, Oxygen Diffusion, Purity niobium even below 1500K. The oxygen concentration in the deposit and the Nb bulk is evaluated

  13. Oceanic oxygen changes as a bellwether of climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischlin, Andreas

    Oceanic oxygen changes as a bellwether of climate change Term paper in Biogeochemistry@ethz.ch] Tutor: Prof. Dr. Nicholas Gruber [nicholas.gruber@env.ethz.ch] Abstract The response of oceanic oxygen of climate change. Recent publications indicate that the oceanic oxygen outgassing is substaintially larger

  14. THE OXYGEN REQUIREMENTS OF SHELLFISH By Philip H. Mitchell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    THE OXYGEN REQUIREMENTS OF SHELLFISH ~ By Philip H. Mitchell 27 #12;Blank page retained for pagination #12;THE OXYGEN REQUIREMENTS OF SHELLFISH. By PHILIP H. MITCHELL. J1, The respiratory exchanges to temperature changes, a smaller utili- zation of oxygen in proportion to the body weight with increase in size

  15. Oxygen Reduction DOI: 10.1002/anie.201403264

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    Oxygen Reduction DOI: 10.1002/anie.201403264 Dramatic Increase in the Oxygen Reduction Reaction solvation) is used to predict how the energies and barriers for the mechanistic steps of the oxygen. In these electro- chemical devices, H2 (generated e.g. from solar energy conversion) reacts with O2 to produce

  16. Oxygen stabilized zirconium vanadium intermetallic compound

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mendelsohn, Marshall H. (Woodridge, IL); Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An oxygen stabilized intermetallic compound having the formula Zr.sub.x OV.sub.y where x=0.7 to 2.0 and y=0.18 to 0.33. The compound is capable of reversibly sorbing hydrogen at temperatures from -196.degree. C. to 450.degree. C. at pressures down to 10.sup.-6 Torr. The compound is also capable of selectively sorbing hydrogen from gaseous mixtures in the presence of CO and CO.sub.2.

  17. The oxygen abundance distribution in M101

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. S. Pilyugin

    2001-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The well-observed spiral galaxy M101 was considered. The radial distributions of oxygen abundances determined in three different ways (with the classic Te - method, with the R23 - method, and with the P -- method) were compared. It was found that the parameters (the central oxygen abundance and the gradient) of the radial O/H(P) abundance distribution are close to those of the O/H(Te) abundance distribution. The parameters of the O/H(R23) abundance distribution differ significantly from those of the O/H(Te) abundance distribution: the central O/H(R23) oxygen abundance is higher by around 0.4dex and the gradient is steeper by a factor of around 1.5 as compared to those values in the O/H(Te) abundance distribution. The dispersion in O/H(P) abundance at fixed radius is rather small, around 0.08 dex, and is equal to that in O/H(Te) abundance. The dispersion in O/H(R23) abundance at fixed radius is appreciably larger, around 0.16 dex, compared to that in O/H(Te) abundance. It has been shown that the extra dispersion in O/H(R23) abundances is an artifact and reflects scatter in excitation parameter P at fixed radius.

  18. DME-to-oxygenates process studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tartamella, T.L.; Sardesai, A.; Lee, S. [Univ. of Akron, OH (United States); Kulik, C.J. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The feasibility of the production of hydrocarbons from dimethyl ether (DNM) has been illustrated in a fixed bed micro-reactor as well as a bench scale fluidized bed reactor by the University of Akron/EPRI DME-to-Hydrocarbon (DTG) Process. The DTG process has distinct advantages over its methanol based counterpart. Specifically, the DTG process excels in the area of higher productivity, higher per-pass conversion, and lower heat duties than the MTG process. Also of special importance is the production of oxygenates -- including MTBE, ETBE, and TAME. DME may be reacted with isobutylene to produce a mixture of MTBE and ETBE. The properties of ETBE excel over MTBE in the areas of lower RVP and higher RON. According to industrial reports, MTBE is the fastest growing chemical (1992 US capacity 135,350 BPD, with expected growth of 34%/year to 1997). Also, recent renewed interest as an octane-enhancer and as a source of oxygen has spurred a growing interest in nonrefinery synthesis routes to ETBE. TAME, with its lower RVP and higher RON has proven useful as a gasoline blending agent and octane enhancer and may also be produced directly from DME. DME, therefore, serves as a valuable feedstock in the conversion of may oxygenates with wide-scale industrial importance. It should be also noted that the interest in the utilization of DME as process feedstock is based on the favorable process economics of EPRI/UA`s liquid phase DME process.

  19. Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase IV Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, M.F.

    2003-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel furnace designs based on Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) technology were developed under subcontract by Techint Technologies, Coraopolis, PA, to fully exploit the energy and environmental capabilities of DOC technology and to provide a competitive offering for new furnace construction opportunities. Capital cost, fuel, oxygen and utility costs, NOx emissions, oxide scaling performance, and maintenance requirements were compared for five DOC-based designs and three conventional air5-fired designs using a 10-year net present value calculation. A furnace direct completely with DOC burners offers low capital cost, low fuel rate, and minimal NOx emissions. However, these benefits do not offset the cost of oxygen and a full DOC-fired furnace is projected to cost $1.30 per ton more to operate than a conventional air-fired furnace. The incremental cost of the improved NOx performance is roughly $6/lb NOx, compared with an estimated $3/lb. NOx for equ8pping a conventional furnace with selective catalytic reduction (SCCR) technology. A furnace fired with DOC burners in the heating zone and ambient temperature (cold) air-fired burners in the soak zone offers low capital cost with less oxygen consumption. However, the improvement in fuel rate is not as great as the full DOC-fired design, and the DOC-cold soak design is also projected to cost $1.30 per ton more to operate than a conventional air-fired furnace. The NOx improvement with the DOC-cold soak design is also not as great as the full DOC fired design, and the incremental cost of the improved NOx performance is nearly $9/lb NOx. These results indicate that a DOC-based furnace design will not be generally competitive with conventional technology for new furnace construction under current market conditions. Fuel prices of $7/MMBtu or oxygen prices of $23/ton are needed to make the DOC furnace economics favorable. Niche applications may exist, particularly where access to capital is limited or floor space limitations are critical. DOC technology will continue to have a highly competitive role in retrofit applications requiring increases in furnace productivity.

  20. Magnetic interaction in oxygenated alpha Fe-phthalocyanines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuzmann, Ern?, E-mail: kuzmann@caesar.elte.hu; Homonnay, Zoltn; Horvth, Attila [Institute of Chemistry, Etvs Lornd University, P.O. Box 32, 1512 Budapest (Hungary); Pechousek, Jiri; Cuda, Jan; Machala, Libor; Zoppellaro, Giorgio; Zboril, Radek [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Departments of Experimental Physics and Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Science Palacky University, 17. Listopadu 1192/12, 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Yin, Houping; Wei, Yen [Department of Chemistry, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Klencsr, Zoltn [Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, 1117 (Hungary); Kubuki, Shiro [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachi-Oji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Nath, Amar [Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina, Asheville, NC 28804 (United States)

    2014-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Alpha iron phthalocyanines (?-FePc) oxygenated at low temperatures were investigated with the help of {sup 57}Fe Mssbauer spectroscopy, magnetization measurements (SQUID) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). Mssbauer spectroscopy revealed that upon oxygenation of ?-FePc, new species were formed which could be associated with Fe{sup III}Pc oxygen adducts. Unexpectedly, magnetically split spectrum of oxygenated ?-FePc was observed below 20 K. In-field Mssbauer spectra in a 5 T external magnetic field at 5K and magnetization measurements indicate antiferromagnetic coupling in oxygenated ?-FePc.

  1. Hydrocarbon emissions in a homogeneous direct-injection spark engine : gasoline and gasohol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tharp, Ronald S

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to better understand the effects on hydrocarbon emissions of loading, engine temperature, fuel type, and injection timing, a series of experiments was performed. The effect of loading was observed by running the ...

  2. Effects of ethanol content on gasohol PFI engine wide-open-throttle operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Wai K.

    The NOx emission and knock characteristics of a PFI engine operating on ethanol/gasoline mixtures were assessed at 1500 and 2000 rpm with ? =1 under Wide-Open-Throttle condition. There was no significant charge cooling due ...

  3. Dissolved Oxygen in Allen CreekDissolved Oxygen in Allen Creek Dissolved oxygen (DO) enters the water by diffusion from air, as a by-product of photosynthesis and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tyler, Christy

    Dissolved Oxygen in Allen CreekDissolved Oxygen in Allen Creek Dissolved oxygen (DO) enters and rapids. There is an inverse relationship between temperature and DO, i.e. colder water holds more oxygen it supplies oxygen to aquatic organisms. Higher DO levels also give the water a better taste. Figure 2. During

  4. FORMATION OF MOLECULAR OXYGEN AND OZONE ON AMORPHOUS SILICATES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jing Dapeng; He Jiao; Vidali, Gianfranco [Physics Department, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244 (United States); Brucato, John Robert; Tozzetti, Lorenzo [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, INAF, I-50125 Florence (Italy); De Sio, Antonio [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence, I-50125 Florence (Italy)

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxygen in the interstellar medium is seen in the gas phase, in ices (incorporated in H{sub 2}O, CO, and CO{sub 2}), and in grains such as (Mg{sub x} Fe{sub 1-x} )SiO{sub 3} or (Mg{sub x} Fe{sub 1-x} ){sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, 0 < x < 1. In this investigation, we study the diffusion of oxygen atoms and the formation of oxygen molecules and ozone on the surface of an amorphous silicate film. We find that ozone is formed at low temperature (<30 K), and molecular oxygen forms when the diffusion of oxygen atoms becomes significant, at around 60 K. This experiment, besides being the first determination of the diffusion energy barrier (1785 {+-} 35 K) for oxygen atoms on a silicate surface, suggests bare silicates as a possible storage place for oxygen atoms in low-A{sub v} environments.

  5. Investigation of the electrocatalytic oxygen reduction and evolution reactions in lithiumoxygen batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Dong; Zhang, Xuran; Qu, Deyu; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Lee, Hung-Sui; Qu, Deyang

    2015-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution reactions were studied on graphite electrodes with different crystal orientations. The kinetics for the redox couple O2/O2- are very fast, therefore no catalyst seems necessary to assist the charge transfer process. Apparently, the main source of the overpotential for the O2 reduction reaction is from mass diffusion. Li2O2 becomes soluble in non-aqueous electrolytes in the presence of the tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate additive. The soluble B-O22- ions can be oxidized electro-catalytically. The edge orientation of graphite demonstrates superior catalytic activity for the oxidation over basal orientation. The findings reveal an opportunity for recharging Li-air batteries efficiently andmorea new strategy of developing the catalyst for oxygen evolution reaction.less

  6. Investigation of the electrocatalytic oxygen reduction and evolution reactions in lithiumoxygen batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Dong [Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States). Collece of Engineering and Applied Science; Zhang, Xuran [Wuhan Univ. of Technology, Wuhan (China). School of Science; Qu, Deyu [Wuhan Univ. of Technology, Wuhan (China). School of Science; Yang, Xiao-Qing [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Chemistry Dept.; Lee, Hung-Sui [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Chemistry Dept.; Qu, Deyang [Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States). Collece of Engineering and Applied Science

    2015-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution reactions were studied on graphite electrodes with different crystal orientations. The kinetics for the redox couple O2/O2- are very fast, therefore no catalyst seems necessary to assist the charge transfer process. Apparently, the main source of the overpotential for the O2 reduction reaction is from mass diffusion. Li2O2 becomes soluble in non-aqueous electrolytes in the presence of the tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate additive. The soluble B-O22- ions can be oxidized electro-catalytically. The edge orientation of graphite demonstrates superior catalytic activity for the oxidation over basal orientation. The findings reveal an opportunity for recharging Li-air batteries efficiently and a new strategy of developing the catalyst for oxygen evolution reaction.

  7. The Mechanisms of Oxygen Reduction and Evolution Reactions in Nonaqueous Lithium-Oxygen Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Ruiguo; Walter, Eric D.; Xu, Wu; Nasybulin, Eduard N.; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Bowden, Mark E.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhang, Jiguang

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The oxygen reduction/evolution reaction (ORR/OER) mechanisms in nonaqueous Li-O2 batteries have been investigated by using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy in this work. We identified the superoxide radical anion (O2-) as an intermediate in the ORR process using 5,5-dimethyl-pyrroline N-oxide as a spin trap, while no O2- in OER was detected during the charge process. These findings provide insightful understanding on the fundamental oxygen reaction mechanisms in rechargeable nonaqueous Li-O2 batteries.

  8. Oxygen stabilized zirconium-vanadium-iron alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mendelsohn, Marshall H. (Woodridge, IL); Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An oxygen stabilized intermetallic compound having the formula (Zr.sub.1-x Ti.sub.x).sub.2-u (V.sub.1-y Fe.sub.y)O.sub.z where x=0.0 to 0.9, y=0.01 to 0.9, z=0.25 to 0.5 and u=0 to 1. The compound is capable of reversibly sorbing hydrogen at temperatures from -196.degree. C. to 200.degree. C. at pressures down to 10.sup.-6 torr. The compound is suitable for use as a hydrogen getter in low pressure, high temperature applications such as magnetic confinement fusion devices.

  9. Oxygen Handling and Cooling Options in High Temperature Electrolysis Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manohar S. Sohal; J. Stephen Herring

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Idaho National Laboratory is working on a project to generate hydrogen by high temperature electrolysis (HTE). In such an HTE system, safety precautions need to be taken to handle high temperature oxygen at ~830C. This report is aimed at addressing oxygen handling in a HTE plant.. Though oxygen itself is not flammable, most engineering material, including many gases and liquids, will burn in the presence of oxygen under some favorable physicochemical conditions. At present, an absolute set of rules does not exist that can cover all aspects of oxygen system design, material selection, and operating practices to avoid subtle hazards related to oxygen. Because most materials, including metals, will burn in an oxygen-enriched environment, hazards are always present when using oxygen. Most materials will ignite in an oxygen-enriched environment at a temperature lower than that in air, and once ignited, combustion rates are greater in the oxygen-enriched environment. Even many metals, if ignited, burn violently in an oxygen-enriched environment. However, these hazards do not preclude the operations and systems involving oxygen. Oxygen can be safely handled and used if all the materials in a system are not flammable in the end-use environment or if ignition sources are identified and controlled. In fact, the incidence of oxygen system fires is reported to be low with a probability of about one in a million. This report is a practical guideline and tutorial for the safe operation and handling of gaseous oxygen in high temperature electrolysis system. The intent is to provide safe, practical guidance that permits the accomplishment of experimental operations at INL, while being restrictive enough to prevent personnel endangerment and to provide reasonable facility protection. Adequate guidelines are provided to govern various aspects of oxygen handling associated with high temperature electrolysis system to generate hydrogen. The intent here is to present acceptable oxygen standards and practices for minimum safety requirements. A summary of operational hazards, along with oxygen safety and emergency procedures, are provided.

  10. OXYGEN DEPLETION IN THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM: IMPLICATIONS FOR GRAIN MODELS AND THE DISTRIBUTION OF ELEMENTAL OXYGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whittet, D. C. B. [New York Center for Astrobiology, and Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 Eighth Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)

    2010-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper assesses the implications of a recent discovery that atomic oxygen is being depleted from diffuse interstellar gas at a rate that cannot be accounted for by its presence in silicate and metallic oxide particles. To place this discovery in context, the uptake of elemental O into dust is considered over a wide range of environments, from the tenuous intercloud gas and diffuse clouds sampled by the depletion observations to dense clouds where ice mantles and gaseous CO become important reservoirs of O. The distribution of O in these contrasting regions is quantified in terms of a common parameter, the mean number density of hydrogen (n{sub H}). At the interface between diffuse and dense phases (just before the onset of ice-mantle growth) as much as {approx}160 ppm of the O abundance is unaccounted for. If this reservoir of depleted oxygen persists to higher densities it has implications for the oxygen budget in molecular clouds, where a shortfall of the same order is observed. Of various potential carriers, the most plausible appears to be a form of O-bearing carbonaceous matter similar to the organics found in cometary particles returned by the Stardust mission. The 'organic refractory' model for interstellar dust is re-examined in the light of these findings, and it is concluded that further observations and laboratory work are needed to determine whether this class of material is present in quantities sufficient to account for a significant fraction of the unidentified depleted oxygen.

  11. Oxygen Abundance Measurements of SHIELD Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haurberg, Nathalie C; Cannon, John M; Marshall, Melissa V

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have derived oxygen abundances for 8 galaxies from the Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs (SHIELD). The SHIELD survey is an ongoing study of very low-mass galaxies, with M$_{\\rm HI}$ between 10$^{6.5}$ and 10$^{7.5}$ M$_{\\odot}$, that were detected by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey. H$\\alpha$ images from the WIYN 3.5m telescope show that these 8 SHIELD galaxies each possess one or two active star-forming regions which were targeted with long-slit spectral observations using the Mayall 4m telescope at KPNO. We obtained a direct measurement of the electron temperature by detection of the weak [O III] $\\lambda$4363 line in 2 of the HII regions. Oxygen abundances for the other HII regions were estimated using a strong-line method. When the SHIELD galaxies are plotted on a B-band luminosity-metallicity diagram they appear to suggest a slightly shallower slope to the relationship than normally seen. However, that offset is systematically reduced when the near-infrared luminosity is used ins...

  12. Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase I Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, H.M.; Riley, M.F.; Kobayashi, H.

    1997-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NOx) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NOx through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NOx production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature (~1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O2 vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d+ scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d+ scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW (~0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NOx emissions increased with increasing furnace nitrogen content and furnace temperature, but remained relatively insensitive to variations in fuel injection velocity and firing rate. NOx emissions below 5-10-3 g/MJ (10 ppm-air equivalent at 3% O2 dry) were obtained for furnace temperatures below 1533 K (2300°F) and furnace nitrogen levels between 1 and 40%. CO emissions were typically low (<35 ppm). Detailed in-furnace species measurements revealed the importance of the interior furnace circulation patterns, as influenced by fuel and oxidant injection schemes, on pollutant emissions. The combustion stability traits of several DOC burner arrangements were ascertained through furnace pressure measurements, wit6h increased stability occurring as furnace temperature increased and as the separation distance between fuel and oxidant inputs decreased. Based on current market conditions, oxy-fuel conversion of batch steel reheat furnaces with a DOC burner is justified on the basis of lower utility costs alone. However, conversion of continuous steel reheat furnaces, which are responsible for most steel production, required additional economic incentives, such as further fuel savings, increased furnace productivity, or emission credits.

  13. Dilute oxygen combustion. Phase I report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NO{sub x}) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NO{sub x} through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NO{sub x} production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature ({approximately}1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O{sub 2} vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d{sup +} scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d{sup +} scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW ({approximately}0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NO{sub x} emissions increased with increasing furnace nitrogen content and furnace temperature, but remained relatively insensitive to variations in fuel injection velocity and firing rate. NO{sub x} emissions below 5{times}10{sup -3} g/MJ (10 ppm-air equivalent at 3% O{sub 2} dry) were obtained for furnace temperatures below 1533 K (2300{degree}F) and furnace nitrogen levels between 1 and 40%. CO emissions were typically low (<35 ppm). Detailed in- furnace species measurements revealed the importance of the interior furnace circulation patterns, as influenced by fuel and oxidant injection schemes, on pollutant emissions. The combustion stability traits of several DOC burner arrangements were ascertained through furnace pressure measurements, with increased stability occurring as furnace temperature increased and as the separation distance between fuel and oxidant inputs decreased. Based on current market conditions, oxy-fuel conversion of batch steel reheat furnaces with a DOC burner is justified on the basis of utility costs alone. However, conversion of continuous steel reheat furnaces, which are responsible for most steel production, requires additional economic incentives, such as further fuel savings, increased furnace productivity, or emission credits.

  14. Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase 2 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, H.M.; Riley, M.F.; Kobayashi, H.

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NOx) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NOx through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NOx production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature (~1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O2 vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d+ scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d+ scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW (~0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NOx emissions increased with increasing furnace nitrogen content and furnace temperature, but remained relatively insensitive to variations in fuel injection velocity and firing rate. NOx emissions below 5-10-3 g/MJ (10 ppm-air equivalent at 3% O2 dry) were obtained for furnace temperatures below 1533 K (2300?F) and furnace nitrogen levels between 1 and 40%. CO emissions were typically low (<35 ppm). Detailed in-furnace species measurements revealed the importance of the interior furnace circulation patterns, as influenced by fuel and oxidant injection schemes, on pollutant emissions. The combustion stability traits of several DOC burner arrangements were ascertained through furnace pressure measurements, wit6h increased stability occurring as furnace temperature increased and as the separation distance between fuel and oxidant inputs decreased. Based on current market conditions, oxy-fuel conversion of batch steel reheat furnaces with a DOC burner is justified on the basis of lower utility costs alone. However, conversion of continuous steel reheat furnaces, which are responsible for most steel production, required additional economic incentives, such as further fuel savings, increased furnace productivity, or emission credits.

  15. Electrochemical oxygen pumps. Final CRADA report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, J. D.

    2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    All tasks of the Work Plan of ISTC Project 2277p have been completed, thus: (1) techniques of chemical synthesis were developed for more than ten recipes of electrolyte based on cerium oxide doped with 20 mole% of gadolinium (CeGd)O{sub 2}, doped by more than 10 oxide systems including 6 recipes in addition to the Work Plan; (2) electric conductivity and mechanical strength of CeGd specimens with additions of oxide systems were performed, two candidate materials for the electrolyte of electrochemical oxygen pump (pure CeGd and CeGd doped by 0.2 wt% of a transition metal) were chosen; (3) extended studies of mechanical strength of candidate material specimens were performed at room temperature and at 400, 600, 800 C; (4) fixtures for determination of mechanical strength of tubes by external pressure above 40 atmospheres at temperature up to 700 C were developed and fabricated; and (5) technology of slip casting of tubes from pure (Ce,Gd)O{sub 2} and of (Ce,Gd)O{sub 2} doped by 0.2 wt% of a transition metal, withstanding external pressure of minimum 40 atmospheres at temperature up to 700 C was developed, a batch of tubes was sent for testing to Argonne National Laboratory; (6) technology of making nanopowder from pure (Ce,Gd)O{sub 2} was developed based on chemical synthesis and laser ablation techniques, a batch of nanopowder with the weight 1 kg was sent for testing to Argonne National Laboratory; (7) a business plan for establishing a company for making powders of materials for electrochemical oxygen pump was developed; and (8) major results obtained within the Project were reported at international conferences and published in the Russian journal Electrochemistry. In accordance with the Work Plan a business trip of the following project participants was scheduled for April 22-29, 2006, to Tonawanda, NY, USA: Manager Victor Borisov; Leader of technology development Gennady Studenikin; Leader of business planning Elena Zadorozhnaya; Leader of production Vasily Lepalovsky; and Translator Vladimir Litvinov. During this trip project participants were to discuss with the project Technical Monitor J.D. Carter and representative of Praxair Inc. J. Chen the results of project activities (prospects of transition metal-doped material application in oxygen pumps), as well as the prospects of cooperation with Praxair at the meeting with the company management in the following fields: (1) Deposition of thin films of oxide materials of complex composition on support by magnetron and ion sputtering, research of coatings properties; (2) Development of block-type structure technology (made of porous and dense ceramics) for oxygen pump. The block-type structure is promising because when the size of electrolyte block is 2 x 2 inches and assembly height is 10 inches (5 blocks connected together) the area of active surface is ca. 290 square inches (in case of 8 slots), that roughly corresponds to one tube with diameter 1 inch and height 100 inches. So performance of the system made of such blocks may be by a factor of two or three higher than that of tube-based system. However one month before the visit, J. Chen notified us of internal changes at Praxair and the cancellation of the visit to Tonawanda, NY. During consultations with the project Technical Monitor J.D. Carter and Senior Project Manager A. Taylor a decision was made to extend the project term by 2 quarters to prepare proposals for follow-on activities during this extension (development of block-type structures made of dense and porous oxide ceramics for electrochemical oxygen pumps) using the funds that were not used for the trip to the US.

  16. Heat release analysis of oxygen-enriched diesel combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Assanis, D.; Karvounis, E. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)); Sekar, R.; Marr, W. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat release correlation for oxygen-enriched diesel combustion is being developed through heat release analysis of cylinder pressure data from a single-cylinder diesel engine operating under various levels of oxygen enrichment. Results show that standard combustion correlations available in the literature do not accurately describe oxygen-enriched diesel combustion. A novel functional form is therefore proposed, which is shown to reproduce measured heat release profiles closely, under different operating conditions and levels of oxygen enrichment. The mathematical complexity of the associated curve-fitting problem is maintained at the same level of difficulty as for standard correlations. When the novel correlation is incorporated into a computer simulation of diesel engine operation with oxygen enrichment, the latter predicts pressure traces in excellent agreement with measured pressure data. This demonstrates the potential of the proposed combustion simulation to guide the application of oxygen-enriched technology successfully to a variety of multicylinder diesel systems.

  17. A fiber optic probe for oxygen partial pressure sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlain, Leslie Ariel

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the electronic circuitry, and Steve Spar for software development. TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION Purpose Current Status of Conventional Oxygen Sensors Optical Sensors Technical Obj ect ives 1 5 10 MATERIAL AND METHODS 14 Transducer Design... the partial pressure of oxygen (p02) in solutions. The research effort was specifically aimed at the development of an oxygen sensor suitable for physiological applications. The sensor described in this thesis is an application of a generic fiber optic...

  18. Nanoscale Phase Separation, Cation Ordering, and Surface Oxygen...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    been identified to be attributed to the oxygen deficiency near the particle surfaces. Characterization of the nanoscale phase separation and cation ordering in the pristine...

  19. atomic oxygen erosion: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ADSORPTION ON NITROGEN CONTAINING CARBON SURFACES Chemistry Websites Summary: OXYGEN ADSORPTION ON NITROGEN CONTAINING CARBON SURFACES Alejandro Montoya, Jorge O. Gil,...

  20. Microbial metatranscriptomics in a permanent marine oxygen minimum zone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stewart, Frank J.

    Simultaneous characterization of taxonomic composition, metabolic gene content and gene expression in marine oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) has potential to broaden perspectives on the microbial and biogeochemical dynamics ...

  1. Table 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    - - - - - - - - - - - - See footnotes at end of table. 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 116 Energy Information...

  2. Table 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  3. atmospheric oxygenation recorded: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cores may contain high quality records of atmospheric deposition. The qualitative Short, Daniel 3 Bistability of atmospheric oxygen and the Great Oxidation Geosciences Websites...

  4. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Intake Air Oxygen...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Robert Bosch at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about intake air oxygen sensors....

  5. Electron-Stimulated Production of Molecular Oxygen in Amorphous...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water on Pt(111): Precursor Transport Through the Hydrogen Electron-Stimulated Production of Molecular Oxygen in Amorphous Solid Water on Pt(111): Precursor Transport Through the...

  6. Lattice Distortions and Oxygen Vacancies Produced in Au+-Irradiated...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the efficiency of solid oxide fuel cells can be improved. Citation: Edmondson PD, WJ Weber, F Namavar, and Y Zhang.2011."Lattice Distortions and Oxygen Vacancies Produced in...

  7. active oxygen probe: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CERN Preprints Summary: I present here the results of the first principles studies of the adsorption energetics of the intermediates of the oxygen electro-reduction reaction (ORR)...

  8. Catalytic reduction system for oxygen-rich exhaust

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogtlin, G.E.; Merritt, B.T.; Hsiao, M.C.; Wallman, P.H.; Penetrante, B.M.

    1999-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Non-thermal plasma gas treatment is combined with selective catalytic reduction to enhance NO{sub x} reduction in oxygen-rich vehicle engine exhausts. 8 figs.

  9. Geothermal reservoir temperatures estimated from the oxygen isotope...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    reservoir temperatures estimated from the oxygen isotope compositions of dissolved sulfate and water from hot springs and shallow drillholes Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI...

  10. Geothermal Reservoir Temperatures Estimated from the Oxygen Isotope...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Temperatures Estimated from the Oxygen Isotope Compositions of Dissolved Sulfate and Water from Hot Springs and Shallow Drillholes Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference...

  11. An Oxygen Isotope Study Of Silicates In The Larderello Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: An Oxygen Isotope Study Of Silicates In The Larderello Geothermal Field, Italy Abstract...

  12. activated sludge oxygen: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Effects of oxygen transport limitation on nitrification in the activated sludge process Environmental Management and Restoration Websites Summary: sludge age (MCRT), pH,...

  13. Combustion in a multiburner furnace with selective flow of oxygen...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in a multiburner furnace with selective flow of oxygen Re-direct Destination: Improved operational characteristics such as improved fuel efficiency, reduction of NOx formation,...

  14. Thickness Dependency of Thin Film Samaria Doped Ceria for Oxygen...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High temperature oxygen sensors are widely used for exhaust gas monitoring in automobiles. This particular study explores the use of thin film single crystalline samaria...

  15. Korean oxygenates rule sparks MTBE capacity plans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Hyung-Jin

    1994-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Korean government`s strict standard for gasoline sold domestically is expected to have a significant impact on the methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) market. The mandate-requiring gasoline oxygen content of 0.5% this year, 0.75% by 1996, and 1.0% by 1998-has sparked a rush by Korean refineries to build new MTBE plants. If expansion plans are carried out, Korea`s MTBE capacity will increase from 280,000 m.t./year to 650,000 m.t./year by 1996, far surpassing predicted demand. Honam Oil, part of the Lucky Group, plans startup of a 100,000-m.t./year unit at Yeochon by early 1996. In addition, by the end of 1996 Ssangyong Oil will bring a 100,000-m.t./year unit onstream.

  16. Dilute Oxygen Combustion - Phase 3 Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, Michael F.

    2000-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) burners have been successfully installed and operated in the reheat furnace at Auburn Steel Co., Inc., Auburn, NY, under Phase 3 of the Dilute Oxygen Combustion project. Two new preheat zones were created employing a total of eight 6.5 MMBtu/hr capacity burners. The preheat zones provide a 30 percent increase in maximum furnace production rate, from 75 tph to 100 tph. The fuel rate is essentially unchanged, with the fuel savings expected from oxy-fuel combustion being offset by higher flue gas temperatures. When allowance is made for the high nitrogen level and high gas phase temperature in the furnace, measured NOx emissions are in line with laboratory data on DOC burners developed in Phase 1 of the project. Burner performance has been good, and there have been no operating or maintenance problems. The DOC system continues to be used as part of Auburn Steel's standard reheat furnace practice. High gas phase temperature is a result of the high firing density needed to achieve high production rates, and little opportunity exists for improvement in that area. However, fuel and NOx performance can be improved by further conversion on furnace zones to DOC burners, which will lower furnace nitrogen levels. Major obstacles are cost and concern about increased formation of oxide scale on the steel. Oxide scale formation may be enhanced by exposure of the steel to higher concentrations of oxidizing gas components (primarily products of combustion) in the higher temperature zones of the furnace. Phase 4 of the DOC project will examine the rate of oxide scale formation in these higher temperature zones and develop countermeasures that will allow DOC burners to be used successfully in these furnace zones.

  17. Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase 3 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, M.F.; Ryan, H.M.

    2000-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) burners have been successfully installed and operated in the reheat furnace at Auburn Steel Co., Inc., Auburn, NY, under Phase 3 of the Dilute Oxygen Combustion project. Two new preheat zones were created employing a total of eight 6.5 MMBtu/hr capacity burners. The preheat zones provide a 30 percent increase in maximum furnace production rate, from 75 tph to 100 tph. The fuel rate is essentially unchanged, with the fuel savings expected from oxy-fuel combustion being offset by higher flue gas temperatures. When allowance is made for the high nitrogen level and high gas phase temperature in the furnace, measured NOx emissions are in line with laboratory data on DOC burners developed in Phase 1 of the project. Burner performance has been good and there have been no operating or maintenance problems. The DOC system continues to be used as part of Auburn Steel?s standard reheat furnace practice. High gas phase temperature is a result of the high firing density needed to achieve high production rates, and little opportunity exists for improvement in that area. However, fuel and NOx performance can be improved by further conversion of furnace zones to DOC burners, which will lower furnace nitrogen levels. Major obstacles are cost and concern about increased formation of oxide scale on the steel. Oxide scale formation may be enhanced by exposure of the steel to higher concentrations of oxidizing gas components (primarily products of combustion) in the higher temperature zones of the furnace. Phase 4 of the DOC project will examine the rate of oxide scale formation in these higher temperature zones and develop countermeasures that will allow DOC burners to be used successfully in these furnace zones.

  18. Hypolimnetic Oxygen Depletion in Eutrophic Lakes Beat Muller,*,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wehrli, Bernhard

    Hypolimnetic Oxygen Depletion in Eutrophic Lakes Beat Muller,*, Lee D. Bryant,, Andreas Matzinger obtained from 11 eutrophic lakes and suggests a model describing the consumption of dissolved oxygen (O2) in the hypolimnia of eutrophic lakes as a result of only two fundamental processes: O2 is consumed (i) by settled

  19. Anoxygenic photosynthesis modulated Proterozoic oxygen and sustained Earth's middle age

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Macalady, Jenn

    Anoxygenic photosynthesis modulated Proterozoic oxygen and sustained Earth's middle age D. T photosynthesis to overall primary production would have influ- enced oceanic redox and the Proterozoic O2 budget time in Earth's history, complete dominance of oxygenic photosynthesis in the oceans. This paved

  20. Reactive oxygen species deglycosilate glomerular a-dystroglycan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Campbell, Kevin P.

    Reactive oxygen species deglycosilate glomerular a-dystroglycan NPJ Vogtla¨nder1 , WPM Tamboer1 open. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to degrade and depolymerize carbohydrates, and to playDa in skeletal muscle, ranging from 120 kDa in brain to 190 kDa in the Torpedo electric organ.8

  1. Fiber-optic oxygen sensor using molybdenum chloride cluster luminescence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghosh, Ruby N.

    Fiber-optic oxygen sensor using molybdenum chloride cluster luminescence Ruby N. Ghosh,a) Gregory L on a reflection-mode fiber-optic oxygen sensor based on the 3 O2 quenching of the red emission from hexanuclear, and medical applications. In these en- vironments the advantages of fiber-optic chemical sensors are that they

  2. Singlet oxygen luminescence detection with a fibre-coupled superconducting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenaway, Alan

    Singlet oxygen luminescence detection with a fibre-coupled superconducting nanowire single luminescence detection Fibre-based singlet oxygen luminescence detection References Superconducting Detector, is an intermediate in many biological processes. We employ a superconducting nanowire single-photon detector (SNSPD

  3. Unexpected Nondissociative Binding of N2O on Oxygen Vacancies...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nondissociative Binding of N2O on Oxygen Vacancies on a Rutile TiO2(110)-11 . Unexpected Nondissociative Binding of N2O on Oxygen Vacancies on a Rutile TiO2(110)-11 ....

  4. Palladium-cobalt particles as oxygen-reduction electrocatalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adzic, Radoslav (East Setauket, NY); Huang, Tao (Manorville, NY)

    2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to palladium-cobalt particles useful as oxygen-reducing electrocatalysts. The invention also relates to oxygen-reducing cathodes and fuel cells containing these palladium-cobalt particles. The invention additionally relates to methods for the production of electrical energy by using the palladium-cobalt particles of the invention.

  5. Direct tuyere injection of oxygen for enhanced coal combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, M.F. [Praxair, Inc., Tarrytown, NY (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Injecting oxygen directly into the tuyere blowpipe can enhance the ignition and combustion of injected pulverized coal, allowing the efficient use of higher coal rates at high furnace production levels. The effects of direct oxygen injection have been estimated from an analysis of the factors controlling the dispersion, heating, ignition, and combustion of injected coal. Injecting ambient temperature oxygen offers mechanical improvements in the dispersion of coal but provides little thermochemical benefit over increased blast enrichment. Injecting hot oxygen through a novel, patented thermal nozzle lance offers both mechanical and thermochemical benefits over increased enrichment or ambient oxygen injection. Plans for pilot-scale and commercial-scale testing of this new lance are described.

  6. HERSCHEL MEASUREMENTS OF MOLECULAR OXYGEN IN ORION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldsmith, Paul F.; Chen, Jo-Hsin; Li Di [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Liseau, Rene; Black, John H. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, SE-439 92 Onsala (Sweden); Bell, Tom A. [Centro de Astrobiologia, CSIC-INTA, 28850 Madrid (Spain); Hollenbach, David [SETI Institute, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Kaufman, Michael J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Jose State University, San Jose, CA 95192 (United States); Lis, Dariusz C. [California Institute of Technology, Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics 301-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Melnick, Gary [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS 66, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Neufeld, David [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Pagani, Laurent; Encrenaz, Pierre [LERMA and UMR8112 du CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, 61 Av. de l'Observatoire, 75014 Paris (France); Snell, Ronald [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Benz, Arnold O.; Bruderer, Simon [Institute of Astronomy, ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Bergin, Edwin [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Caselli, Paola [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Caux, Emmanuel [Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); Falgarone, Edith, E-mail: Paul.F.Goldsmith@jpl.nasa.gov [LRA/LERMA, CNRS, UMR8112, Observatoire de Paris and Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2011-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We report observations of three rotational transitions of molecular oxygen (O{sub 2}) in emission from the H{sub 2} Peak 1 position of vibrationally excited molecular hydrogen in Orion. We observed the 487 GHz, 774 GHz, and 1121 GHz lines using the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far Infrared on the Herschel Space Observatory, having velocities of 11 km s{sup -1} to 12 km s{sup -1} and widths of 3 km s{sup -1}. The beam-averaged column density is N(O{sub 2}) = 6.5 x 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2}, and assuming that the source has an equal beam-filling factor for all transitions (beam widths 44, 28, and 19''), the relative line intensities imply a kinetic temperature between 65 K and 120 K. The fractional abundance of O{sub 2} relative to H{sub 2} is (0.3-7.3) x 10{sup -6}. The unusual velocity suggests an association with a {approx}5'' diameter source, denoted Peak A, the Western Clump, or MF4. The mass of this source is {approx}10 M{sub sun} and the dust temperature is {>=}150 K. Our preferred explanation of the enhanced O{sub 2} abundance is that dust grains in this region are sufficiently warm (T {>=} 100 K) to desorb water ice and thus keep a significant fraction of elemental oxygen in the gas phase, with a significant fraction as O{sub 2}. For this small source, the line ratios require a temperature {>=}180 K. The inferred O{sub 2} column density {approx_equal}5 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -2} can be produced in Peak A, having N(H{sub 2}) {approx_equal} 4 x 10{sup 24} cm{sup -2}. An alternative mechanism is a low-velocity (10-15 km s{sup -1}) C-shock, which can produce N(O{sub 2}) up to 10{sup 17} cm{sup -2}.

  7. Faraday Discuss., 1997, 108, 115130 Excited state dynamics in clusters of oxygen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Continetti, Robert E.

    Faraday Discuss., 1997, 108, 115130 Excited state dynamics in clusters of oxygen Runjun Li, Karl A clusters of oxygen. Oxygen clusters and liquid oxygen have a com- plicated chemistry due to numerous low) dynamics of small anionic clusters of oxygen. We nd that the dynamics of the neutral DPD pathway

  8. Normal muscle oxygen consumption and fatigability in sickle cell patients despite reduced microvascular oxygenation and hemorheological abnormalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    sickle cell anemia (SS) patients. Results: Muscle microvascular oxygenation was reduced in SS patients;4 Introduction Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) are characterized by anemia and altered blood rheology1 Normal muscle oxygen consumption and fatigability in sickle cell patients despite reduced

  9. Oxygen Modulation via Microfluidic Devices Oxygen is a key but under-studied metabolic variable. It influences biological phenomena as diverse as

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben-Arie, Jezekiel

    Oxygen Modulation via Microfluidic Devices Oxygen is a key but under-studied metabolic variable methods to modulate oxygen are crude and inefficient. Our lab has developed a suite of devices which can rapidly alter oxygen conditions surrounding cells in both position and time.[1-3]. Moreover, because

  10. Oxygen diffusion, surface exchange and oxygen semi-permeation performances of Ln2NiO4+ membranes (Ln = La, Pr and Nd)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    Oxygen diffusion, surface exchange and oxygen semi-permeation performances of Ln2NiO4+ membranes the rate determining step (rds) in oxygen semi-permeation of dense Ln2NiO4+ membranes (with Ln = La, Pr and Nd), a specific setup has been designed, which allowed measuring the oxygen semi-permeation flux

  11. Impact of oxygenates on petroleum refining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unzelman, G.H. [HyOx Inc., Fallbrook, CA (United States)

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The concept of an oxygenate, primarily ethanol, as motor fuel or as a blending agent with gasoline has been around for a long time. The idea started with the development of the internal combustion engine. Experiments in Germany almost 100 years ago. The inventor of the four-stroke-cycle combustion engine, Nikolaus Otto, originally recommended ethyl alcohol as fuel. So did Henry Ford early in his career as an automobile manufacturer. However, gasoline was readily available from crude oil at a time when the kerosene market was fading. Since it was the lowest-cost approach to satisfy a growing market, the idea of alcohol as a primary fuel was set aside. Early gasoline was simply distilled from the {open_quotes}top of the barrel.{close_quotes} While it was satisfactory for the {open_quotes}horseless carriage,{close_quotes} quality was insufficient for innovations such as higher-compression engines. Knock became a serious problem, which prompted research and the discovery of tetraethyllead as an octane improver. Had this event not taken place, the alcohols probably would have been alternatives to solve the antiknock dilemma. Instead, it took another 60 years for the octane value of alcohols and ethers to resurface and exert a commercial impact on gasoline.

  12. Nanoparticulate-catalyzed oxygen transfer processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Andrew T. (Atlanta, GA); Breitkopf, Richard C. (Dunwoody, GA)

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanoparticulates of oxygen transfer materials that are oxides of rare earth metals, combinations of rare earth metals, and combinations of transition metals and rare earth metals are used as catalysts in a variety of processes. Unexpectedly large thermal efficiencies are achieved relative to micron sized particulates. Processes that use these catalysts are exemplified in a multistage reactor. The exemplified reactor cracks C6 to C20 hydrocarbons, desulfurizes the hydrocarbon stream and reforms the hydrocarbons in the stream to produce hydrogen. In a first reactor stage the steam and hydrocarbon are passed through particulate mixed rare earth metal oxide to crack larger hydrocarbon molecules. In a second stage, the steam and hydrocarbon are passed through particulate material that desulfurizes the hydrocarbon. In a third stage, the hydrocarbon and steam are passed through a heated, mixed transition metal/rare earth metal oxide to reform the lower hydrocarbons and thereby produce hydrogen. Stages can be alone or combined. Parallel reactors can provide continuous reactant flow. Each of the processes can be carried out individually.

  13. Flammability of selected heat resistant alloys in oxygen gas mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zawierucha, R.; McIlroy, K.; Million, J.F. [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Within recent years, the use of oxygen has increased in applications where elevated temperatures and corrosion may be significant factors. In such situations, traditional alloys used in oxygen systems will not be adequate. Where alternative alloys must be utilized, based upon environmental requirements, it is essential that they may be characterized with respect to their ignition and combustion resistance in oxygen. Promoted ignition and promoted ignition-combustion are terms which have been used to describe a situation where a substance with low oxygen supports the combustion of a compatibility ignites and more ignition resistant material. In this paper, data will be presented on the promoted ignition-combustion behavior of selected heat resistant engineering alloys that may be considered for gaseous oxygen applications in severe environments. In this investigation, alloys have been evaluated via both flowing and static (fixed volume) approaches using a rod configuration. Oxygen-nitrogen gas mixtures with compositions ranging from approximately 40 to 99.7% oxygen at pressures of 3.55 to 34.6 MPa were used in the comparative studies.

  14. Measuring oxygen reduction/evolution reactions on the nanoscale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL; Kumar, Amit [ORNL; Morozovska, A. N. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine; Ciucci, Francesco [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The efficiency of fuel cells and metal-air batteries is significantly limited by the activation of oxygen reduction and evolution reactions (ORR/OER). Despite the well-recognized role of oxygen reaction kinetics on the viability of energy technologies, the governing mechanisms remain elusive and until now addressable only by macroscopic studies. This lack of nanoscale understanding precludes optimization of material architecture. Here we report direct measurements of oxygen reduction/evolution reactions and oxygen vacancy diffusion on oxygen-ion conductive solid surfaces with sub-10 nanometer resolution. In electrochemical strain microscopy (ESM), the biased scanning probe microscopy tip acts as a moving, electrocatalytically active probe exploring local electrochemical activity. The probe concentrates an electric field in a nanometer-scale volume of material, and bias-induced, picometer-level surface displacements provide information on local electrochemical processes. Systematic mapping of oxygen activity on bare and Pt-functionalized yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) surfaces is demonstrated. This approach allows directly visualization of ORR/OER activation process at the triple-phase boundary, and can be extended to broad spectrum of oxygen-conductive and electrocatalytic materials.

  15. Nitrated and oxygenated derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the ambient air of two

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Nitrated and oxygenated derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the ambient air of two aromatic hydrocarbons, 17 nitrated PAHs (NPAHs) and 8 oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) were carried out during hydrocarbons; Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

  16. Atomic oxygen flux determined by mixed-phase Ag/Ag2O deposition...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    oxygen flux determined by mixed-phase AgAg2O deposition. Atomic oxygen flux determined by mixed-phase AgAg2O deposition. Abstract: The flux of atomic oxygen generated in a...

  17. Oxygen Loss from Venus and the Influence of Extreme Solar Wind Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McEnulty, Tess

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and I. Sillanp (2009), Oxygen ion escape from Venus in aobservations of atmospheric oxygen escape during the passageI. F. Stewart (1981), Hot oxygen BIBLIOGRAPHY atoms in the

  18. Seasonal and interannual oxygen variability on the Washington and Oregon continental shelves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A. Pe~ na (2013), Declining oxygen on the British ColumbiaE. , and L. I. Gordon (1992), Oxygen solubility in seawater:10.1002/2014JC010254 Key Points: Oxygen model presented for

  19. Triple Oxygen Isotope Measurement of Nitrate to Analyze Impact of Aircraft Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Sharleen

    P. ; Craig, H. Atmospheric oxygen: isotopic composition andM.H. 1986. A non-mass-dependent oxygen isotope effect in theof ozone from molecular oxygen: the role of symmetry in

  20. Solid phases of spatially nanoconfined oxygen: A neutron scattering study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kojda, Danny [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fr Materialien und Energie GmbH, 14109 Berlin (Germany) [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fr Materialien und Energie GmbH, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Freie Universitt Berlin, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Wallacher, Dirk; Hofmann, Tommy, E-mail: tommy.hofmann@helmholtz-berlin.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fr Materialien und Energie GmbH, 14109 Berlin (Germany)] [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fr Materialien und Energie GmbH, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Baudoin, Simon; Hansen, Thomas [Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)] [Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Huber, Patrick [Technische Universitt Hamburg-Harburg, 21073 Hamburg (Germany)] [Technische Universitt Hamburg-Harburg, 21073 Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a comprehensive neutron scattering study on solid oxygen spatially confined in 12 nm wide alumina nanochannels. Elastic scattering experiments reveal a structural phase sequence known from bulk oxygen. With decreasing temperature cubic ?-, orthorhombic ?- and monoclinic ?-phases are unambiguously identified in confinement. Weak antiferromagnetic ordering is observed in the confined monoclinic ?-phase. Rocking scans reveal that oxygen nanocrystals inside the tubular channels do not form an isotropic powder. Rather, they exhibit preferred orientations depending on thermal history and the very mechanisms, which guide the structural transitions.

  1. Hydrogen Production Using Hydrogenase-Containing Oxygenic Photosynthetic Organisms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Melis, A.; Zhang, L.; Benemann, J. R.; Forestier, M.; Ghirardi, M.; Seibert, M.

    2006-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A reversible physiological process provides for the temporal separation of oxygen evolution and hydrogen production in a microorganism, which includes the steps of growing a culture of the microorganism in medium under illuminated conditions to accumulate an endogenous substrate, depleting from the medium a nutrient selected from the group consisting of sulfur, iron, and/or manganese, sealing the culture from atmospheric oxygen, incubating the culture in light whereby a rate of light-induced oxygen production is equal to or less than a rate of respiration, and collecting an evolved gas. The process is particularly useful to accomplish a sustained photobiological hydrogen gas production in cultures of microorganisms, such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

  2. Boron nitride nanosheets as oxygen-atom corrosion protective coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yi, Min [Beijing Key Laboratory for Powder Technology Research and Development, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China); Plasma Laboratory, Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory of Fluid Mechanics, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China); Shen, Zhigang, E-mail: shenzhg@buaa.edu.cn [Beijing Key Laboratory for Powder Technology Research and Development, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China); Plasma Laboratory, Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory of Fluid Mechanics, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China); School of Material Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhao, Xiaohu [Plasma Laboratory, Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory of Fluid Mechanics, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China); Liang, Shuaishuai [Beijing Key Laboratory for Powder Technology Research and Development, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China); Liu, Lei [Beijing Key Laboratory for Powder Technology Research and Development, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China); School of Material Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2014-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The research of two-dimensional nanomaterials for anticorrosion applications is just recently burgeoning. Herein, we demonstrate the boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs) coatings for protecting polymer from oxygen-atom corrosion. High-quality BNNSs, which are produced by an effective fluid dynamics method with multiple exfoliation mechanisms, can be assembled into coatings with controlled thickness by vacuum filtration. After exposed in atom oxygen, the naked polymer is severely corroded with remarkable mass loss, while the BNNSs-coated polymer remains intact. Barrier and bonding effects of the BNNSs are responsible for the coating's protective performance. These preliminary yet reproducible results pave a way for resisting oxygen-atom corrosion.

  3. Production of Ultra-Cold-Neutrons in Solid ?-Oxygen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Gutsmiedl; A. Frei; F. Boehle; A. Maier; S. Paul; H. Schober; A. Orecchini

    2010-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Our recent neutron scattering measurements of phonons and magnons in solid \\alpha-oxygen have led us to a new understanding of the production mechanismen of ultra-cold-neutrons (UCN) in this super-thermal converter. The UCN production in solid \\alpha-oxygen is dominated by the excitation of phonons. The contribution of magnons to UCN production becomes only slightly important above E >10 meV and at E >4 meV. Solid \\alpha-oxygen is in comparison to solid deuterium less effcient in the down-scattering of thermal or cold neutrons into the UCN energy regime.

  4. THERMOCHEMICAL CONVERSION OF FERMENTATION-DERIVED OXYGENATES TO FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Wang, Yong

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At present ethanol generated from renewable resources through fermentation process is the dominant biofuel. But ethanol suffers from undesirable fuel properties such as low energy density and high water solubility. The production capacity of fermentation derived oxygenates are projected to rise in near future beyond the current needs. The conversion of oxygenates to hydrocarbon compounds that are similar to gasoline, diesel and jet fuel is considered as one of the viable option. In this chapter the thermo catalytic conversion of oxygenates generated through fermentation to fuel range hydrocarbons will be discussed.

  5. Hydrogen production using hydrogenase-containing oxygenic photosynthetic organisms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Melis, Anastasios; Zhang, Liping; Benemann, John R.; Forestier, Marc; Ghirardi, Maria; Seibert, Michael

    2006-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A reversible physiological process provides for the temporal separation of oxygen evolution and hydrogen production in a microorganism, which includes the steps of growing a culture of the microorganism in medium under illuminated conditions to accumulate an endogenous substrate, depleting from the medium a nutrient selected from the group consisting of sulfur, iron, and/or manganese, sealing the culture from atmospheric oxygen, incubating the culture in light whereby a rate of light-induced oxygen production is equal to or less than a rate of respiration, and collecting an evolved gas. The process is particularly useful to accomplish a sustained photobiological hydrogen gas production in cultures of microorganisms, such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

  6. Influence of geometry on liquid oxygen magnetohydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boulware, Jeffrey C.; Ban, Heng [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Utah State University, 4130 Old Main Hill, Logan, UT 84322-4130 (United States); Jensen, Scott; Wassom, Steve [Space Dynamics Laboratory, Utah State University Research Foundation, 1695 North Research Park Way, North Logan, UT 84341 (United States)

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetic fluid actuators have performed well in industrial applications, but have a limited temperature range due to the freezing point of the carrier fluid. Liquid oxygen (LOX) presents a pure, paramagnetic fluid suitable for use in a cryogenic magnetic fluid system; therefore, it is a potential solution to increasing the thermal range of magnetic fluid technology without the need for magnetic particles. The current study presents experimental work regarding the influence of geometry on the dynamics of a LOX slug in a 1.9 mm quartz tube when pulsed by a solenoid in a closed volume. A numerical analysis calculated the optimal solenoid geometry and balanced the magnetic, damping, and pressure forces to determine optimal slug lengths. Three configurations comprised the experiment: (1) a 24-gauge wire solenoid with an optimized 2.7 cm length slug, (2) a 30-gauge wire solenoid with an optimized 1.3 cm length slug, and (3) a 30-gauge wire solenoid with a nonoptimized 2.5 cm length slug. Typically, the hydrodynamic breakdown limit is calculated and used to determine the system range; however the experiment showed that the hydrodynamic breakdown limit was never reached by the slug. This implied that, instead, the system range should factor in a probabilistic risk of failure calculated as a function of the induced pressure change from its oscillations. The experimental data were also used to establish a nondimensional relationship between the maximum displacement and initial magnetic pressure on the slug. The average initial velocity of the slug was found to be proportional to the initial magnetic pressure, Mason number, and slug length. The results of this study can be used in the design and optimization of a LOX fluid system for space or low-temperature applications. (author)

  7. Oxygen enriched combustion system performance study. Phase 2: 100 percent oxygen enriched combustion in regenerative glass melters, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuson, G.B.; Kobayashi, H.; Campbell, M.J.

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The field test project described in this report was conducted to evaluate the energy and environmental performance of 100% oxygen enriched combustion (100% OEC) in regenerative glass melters. Additional objectives were to determine other impacts of 100% OEC on melter operation and glass quality, and to verify on a commercial scale that an on-site Pressure Swing Adsorption oxygen plant can reliably supply oxygen for glass melting with low electrical power consumption. The tests constituted Phase 2 of a cooperative project between the United States Department of Energy, and Praxair, Inc. Phase 1 of the project involved market and technical feasibility assessments of oxygen enriched combustion for a range of high temperature industrial heating applications. An assessment of oxygen supply options for these applications was also performed during Phase 1, which included performance evaluation of a pilot scale 1 ton per day PSA oxygen plant. Two regenerative container glass melters were converted to 100% OEC operation and served as host sites for Phase 2. A 75 ton per day end-fired melter at Carr-Lowrey Glass Company in Baltimore, Maryland, was temporarily converted to 100% OEC in mid- 1990. A 350 tpd cross-fired melter at Gallo Glass Company in Modesto, California was rebuilt for permanent commercial operation with 100% OEC in mid-1991. Initially, both of these melters were supplied with oxygen from liquid storage. Subsequently, in late 1992, a Pressure Swing Adsorption oxygen plant was installed at Gallo to supply oxygen for 100% OEC glass melting. The particular PSA plant design used at Gallo achieves maximum efficiency by cycling the adsorbent beds between pressurized and evacuated states, and is therefore referred to as a Vacuum/Pressure Swing Adsorption (VPSA) plant.

  8. Microfluidic advantage : novel techniques for protein folding and oxygen control in cell cultures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polinkovsky, Mark E.; Polinkovsky, Mark E.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel Techniques for Protein Folding and Oxygen Control inTemperature Jump System to Study Fast Protein FoldingNovel Techniques for Protein Folding and Oxygen Control in

  9. Aging Enhances the Production of Reactive Oxygen Species andBactericid...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enhances the Production of Reactive Oxygen Species andBactericidal Activity in Peritoneal Macrophages by Aging Enhances the Production of Reactive Oxygen Species andBactericidal...

  10. High-Temperature Zirconia Oxygen Sensor with Sealed Metal/Metal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Temperature Zirconia Oxygen Sensor with Sealed MetalMetal Oxide Internal Reference High-Temperature Zirconia Oxygen Sensor with Sealed MetalMetal Oxide Internal Reference...

  11. Low-Oxygen Induction of Normally Cryptic psbA Genes in Cyanobacteria...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oxygen Induction of Normally Cryptic psbA Genes in Cyanobacteria. Low-Oxygen Induction of Normally Cryptic psbA Genes in Cyanobacteria. Abstract: Microarray analysis indicated...

  12. A method of determining the dissolved oxygen in the moisture of a porous medium and some oxygen diffusion studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Runkles, Jack Ralph

    1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    this dissolved oxygen The sample chamber apparatus gives ocnsplcte seal of the bottle from the atmosphere The ohsabor does not require a large ameunt Of nitrogen Sb remove all the oxygen from it, It is easily portable and light in weight The proposed method... METHOD QF DETRHRIUIHO THE DISSOLVED OXmEK IE THE MOISTURE OF A POROUS ERDD% @AD SMfE QXYOEB DKFFUSIOE STUDIES ' INTRO DUO fQRF, I Oxygen, bas been known to be important in plant growth fox maay years There has been a great deal of xesearoh...

  13. D0 Detector Collision Hall Oxygen Deficiancy Hazard Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, J.; /Fermilab

    1992-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    EN-258, D0 Platform ODH Analysts. provided the oxygen deficiency hazard analysts for the D0 detector in the Assembly Hall. This note covers the same analysis. but revised for the Collision Hall. Liquid cryogens. released and warming to atmosphere conditions, expand to, on average, seven hundred times their liquid volume, and displace vital atmospheric oxygen. An oxygen deficiency hazard analysis assesses the increased risk to personnel in areas containing cryogenic systems. The D0 detector Collision Hall ODH analysis has been approached five different ways using established methods. If the low beta quad magnets are powered, and the exhaust rate is below 4220 scfm, the area is ODH class 1. In any other case, the analysis shows the area to be ODH class 0 as equipped (with ventilation fans) and requiring no special safety provisions. System designers have provided for a reduced oxygen level detection and warning system as well as emergency procedures to address fault conditions.

  14. Hybrid membrane--PSA system for separating oxygen from air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Staiger, Chad L. (Albuquerque, NM); Vaughn, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM); Miller, A. Keith (Albuquerque, NM); Cornelius, Christopher J. (Blackburg, VA)

    2011-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A portable, non-cryogenic, oxygen generation system capable of delivering oxygen gas at purities greater than 98% and flow rates of 15 L/min or more is described. The system consists of two major components. The first component is a high efficiency membrane capable of separating argon and a portion of the nitrogen content from air, yielding an oxygen-enriched permeate flow. This is then fed to the second component, a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) unit utilizing a commercially available, but specifically formulated zeolite compound to remove the remainder of the nitrogen from the flow. The system is a unique gas separation system that can operate at ambient temperatures, for producing high purity oxygen for various applications (medical, refining, chemical production, enhanced combustion, fuel cells, etc . . . ) and represents a significant advance compared to current technologies.

  15. atmospheric oxygen concentration: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Websites Summary: can be combined into a tracer known as atmospheric potential oxygen (APO % O2N2 + CO2) that is conservative with respect to terrestrial biological activity....

  16. Dissolution of oxygen reduction electrocatalysts in acidic environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gu, Zhihui

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Platinum (Pt) alloy nanoparticles are used as catalysts in electrochemical cells to reduce oxygen to water and to oxidize hydrogen; the overall reaction converts chemical energy into electrical energy. These nanocatalysts are deposited on a carbon...

  17. A DIGITAL CONTROL SYSTEM FOR OPTIMAL OXYGEN TRANSFER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A DIGITAL CONTROL SYSTEM FOR OPTIMAL OXYGEN TRANSFER EFFICIENCY Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor system ............................. 10 5.2 Types of aeration processes of fine bubble diffusers for sub-surface aeration ............ 13 5.5 Process design considerations

  18. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Intake Air Oxygen Sensor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Robert Bosch at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about intake air oxygen sensor.

  19. active oxygen control: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the oxygen sensor has limitation because it provides a fixed point on the sensible heat loss curve. A better way is to measure the fuel... Miller, J. G. 2 Short...

  20. New Opportunities for Lithium and Oxygen Spectroscopy in Working...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Opportunities for Lithium and Oxygen Spectroscopy in Working Batteries Using Inelastic X-ray Scattering T. T. Fister, P. Fenter, M. Balasubramanian, N. Karan, M. Chan, and J....

  1. In-situ generation of oxygen-releasing metal peroxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Looney, Brian B. (Aiken, SC); Denham, Miles E. (Aiken, SC)

    2007-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for remediation of contaminants in soil and groundwater is disclosed. The method generates oxygen releasing solids in groundwater or soil by injecting an aqueous energetic oxidant solution containing free radicals, oxidative conditions can be created within or ahead of a contaminant plume. Some contaminants may be remediated directly by reaction with the free radicals. Additionally and more importantly, the free radicals create an oxidative condition whereby native or injected materials, especially metals, are converted to peroxides. These peroxides provide a long-term oxygen reservoir, releasing oxygen relatively slowly over time. The oxygen can enhance microbial metabolism to remediate contaminants, can react with contaminant metals either to form immobile precipitants or to mobilize other metals to permit remediation through leaching techniques. Various injection strategies for injecting the energetic oxidant solution are also disclosed.

  2. Transient Mobility of Oxygen Adatoms upon O2 Dissociation on...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    only at the bridging oxygen vacancies, with one O atom healing a vacancy and other O atom bonding at the neighboring Ti site as an adatom. Majority (81%) of O adatoms are found...

  3. Enhancing SNCR-aided combustion with oxygen addition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kobayashi, Hisashi; Wu, Kuang Tsai; Bool, III, Lawrence E.

    2004-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    NOx emissions from combustion are reduced, NOx reduction efficiency by SNCR is improved, and other efficiencies are realized, by injecting oxygen into a fuel-rich combustion zone under controlled conditions.

  4. Phosphorescent semiconductor nanocrystals and proteins for biological oxygen sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McLaurin, Emily J. (Emily Jane)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxygen is required for cellular respiration by all complex life making it a key metabolic profiling factor in biological systems. Tumors are defined by hypoxia (low pO2), which has been shown to influence response to ...

  5. Oxygen enhanced switching to combustion of lower rank fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kobayashi, Hisashi; Bool III, Lawrence E.; Wu, Kuang Tsai

    2004-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A furnace that combusts fuel, such as coal, of a given minimum energy content to obtain a stated minimum amount of energy per unit of time is enabled to combust fuel having a lower energy content, while still obtaining at least the stated minimum energy generation rate, by replacing a small amount of the combustion air fed to the furnace by oxygen. The replacement of oxygen for combustion air also provides reduction in the generation of NOx.

  6. Method for making oxygen-reducing catalyst layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Brien, Dennis P.; Schmoeckel, Alison K.; Vernstrom, George D.; Atanasoski, Radoslav; Wood, Thomas E.; O'Neill, David G.

    2010-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods are provided for making oxygen-reducing catalyst layers, which include simultaneous or sequential stops of physical vapor depositing an oxygen-reducing catalytic material onto a substrate, the catalytic material comprising a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum; and thermally treating the catalytic material. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

  7. Oxygen Enrichment in the Process and Chemical Industries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milne, R. T.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . The gases may also be shipped as pure cryogenic liquids in special insulated transports to customers remote from the plant. The availability of pure oxygen (typically 99.5%) in large quantities at a reasonable cost provided a stimulus..., the average selling price of oxygen has declined steadily as a result of refinements in the production technology, and development of important markets for nitrogen and argon, once regarded as mere by-products of the air separation process. The cost...

  8. Determination of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen in high purity magnesium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roche, Neil Gerard

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DETERMINATION OF CARBON, NITROGEN, AND OXYGEN IN HIGH PURITY MAGNESIUM A Thesis by NEIL GERARD ROCHE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8cM University in partial i'ulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1981 Major Subject: Chemistry DETERMINATION OF CARBON, NITROGEN, AND OXYGEN IN HIGH PURITY MAGNESIUM A Thesis by NEIL GERARD ROCHE Approved as to style and content by: E. A. Schweikert (Chairman of Committee) G. J. Bastiaans (Member) L...

  9. Effects of oxygenate concentration on species mole fractions in premixed n-heptane flames

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Senkan, Selim M.

    -heptane/oxygenate mixtures were 2.7 and 3.4. Three different fuel oxygenates (i.e. MTBE, methanol, and ethanol) were tested tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE), and tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME)) were considered as possible fuel oxygenates. MTBE and ethanol are the most common oxygenates currently used

  10. The JET Hydrogen-Oxygen Recombination Sensor A Safety Device for Hydrogen Isotope Processing Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The JET Hydrogen-Oxygen Recombination Sensor A Safety Device for Hydrogen Isotope Processing Systems

  11. The influence of kinetics on the oxygen isotope composition of calcium carbonate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watkins, Jim

    The influence of kinetics on the oxygen isotope composition of calcium carbonate James M. Watkins a and calcium carbonate. Although oxygen isotope separation is expected on theoretical grounds, the temperature on equilibrium fractionation of oxygen isotopes between calcium carbonate and water. Equili- brium oxygen isotope

  12. Dissolved Oxygen Sensing in a Flow Stream using Molybdenum Chloride Optical Indicators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghosh, Ruby N.

    Dissolved Oxygen Sensing in a Flow Stream using Molybdenum Chloride Optical Indicators Reza Loloee1@msu.edu Abstract--Dissolved oxygen concentration is considered the most important water quality variable in fish culture. Reliable and continuous (24/7) oxygen monitoring of dissolved oxygen (DO) in the 1 11 mg

  13. Oxygen Consumption by Germinating Seeds Advisor: Dr. Neil Budko (n.v.budko@tudelft.nl)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vuik, Kees

    Oxygen Consumption by Germinating Seeds Advisor: Dr. Neil Budko (n.v.budko@tudelft.nl) Problem) by the Fytagoras B.V. (Leiden): "Seed germination in most seeds depends on the availability of oxygen. Living seeds commences. The availability of oxygen to the embryo in the seed depends on the oxygen concentration around

  14. Oxygen sublattice defect in cobalt oxide : formation, migration, charge localization and thermodynamic processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    643 Oxygen sublattice defect in cobalt oxide : formation, migration, charge localization of oxygen defects in CoO using classical simulations. The charge localization in the oxygen vacancy has]. The defect concentration in the oxygen sublattice is several orders of magnitude smaller, but never- theless

  15. Ocean oxygen minima expansions and their biological impacts Lothar Stramma a,, Sunke Schmidtko a,b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levin, Lisa

    Ocean oxygen minima expansions and their biological impacts Lothar Stramma a,, Sunke Schmidtko a Keywords: Deoxygenation Oxygen minimum zones Ecosystem changes Hypoxia Tropical ocean Tropical Atlantic dissolved oxygen with global warming. In coastal regimes oxygen deficits represent acute ecosystem

  16. Turbulent Oxygen Flames in Type Ia Supernovae A. J. Aspden1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turbulent Oxygen Flames in Type Ia Supernovae A. J. Aspden1 , J. B. Bell1 , and S. E. Woosley2 oxygen flames. The two aims of the paper are to examine the response of the inductive oxygen flame to intense levels of turbulence, and to explore the possibility of transition to detonation in the oxygen

  17. Controlled oxygen doping of GaN using plasma assisted molecular-beam epitaxy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myers, Tom

    Controlled oxygen doping of GaN using plasma assisted molecular-beam epitaxy A. J. Ptak, L. J-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy to study the dependence of oxygen incorporation on polarity and oxygen partial pressure. Oxygen incorporates at a rate ten times faster on nitrogen-polar GaN than on the Ga polarity

  18. Natural Ores as Oxygen Carriers in Chemical Looping Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, Hanjing; Siriwardane, Ranjani; Simonyi, Thomas; Poston, James

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a combustion technology that utilizes oxygen from oxygen carriers (OC), such as metal oxides, instead of air to combust fuels. The use of natural minerals as oxygen carriers has advantages, such as lower cost and availability. Eight materials, based on copper or iron oxides, were selected for screening tests of CLC processes using coal and methane as fuels. Thermogravimetric experiments and bench-scale fixed-bed reactor tests were conducted to investigate the oxygen transfer capacity, reaction kinetics, and stability during cyclic reduction/oxidation reaction. Most natural minerals showed lower combustion capacity than pure CuO/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} due to low-concentrations of active oxide species in minerals. In coal CLC, chryscolla (Cu-based), magnetite, and limonite (Fe-based) demonstrated better reaction performances than other materials. The addition of steam improved the coal CLC performance when using natural ores because of the steam gasification of coal and the subsequent reaction of gaseous fuels with active oxide species in the natural ores. In methane CLC, chryscolla, hematite, and limonite demonstrated excellent reactivity and stability in 50-cycle thermogravimetric analysis tests. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based ores possess greater oxygen utilization but require an activation period before achieving full performance in methane CLC. Particle agglomeration issues associated with the application of natural ores in CLC processes were also studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  19. Surface Modification of Polymer Substrates by Oxygen Ion Irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takaoka, G. H.; Ryuto, H.; Araki, R.; Yakushiji, T. [Photonics and Electronics Science and Engineering Center, Kyoto University, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)

    2008-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxygen cluster ions and/or monomer ions were used for the sputtering and the surface modification of polymers such as polycarbonate (PC) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). For the case of oxygen cluster ion irradiation, the sputtered depth increased with increase of the acceleration voltage, and the sputtering yield was much larger than that by the monomer ion irradiation. The sputtered particles represented the polymer structure, which indicated that the bond scission by the cluster ion irradiation resulted in an ejection of monomer molecule through the intermolecular collision. On the other hand, for the oxygen monomer ion irradiation, the implanted depth increased with increase of the acceleration voltage, and the bond scission occurred at the deep region through the binary collision with the high energetic ions. Therefore, the sputtering yield for the polymer surfaces decreased, and the sputtering effect became very small. Furthermore, the simultaneous use of oxygen cluster and monomer ions was more effective for oxidation of the PET surfaces rather than the monomer ion irradiation or the cluster ion irradiation. As a result, the contact angle measurement showed that the wettability of the PET surfaces irradiated by the simultaneous use of oxygen cluster and monomer ions was much enhanced.

  20. Oxygen abundance in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Shi; X. Kong; F. Z. Cheng

    2006-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We present two samples of $\\hii$ galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectroscopic observations data release 3. The electron temperatures($T_e$) of 225 galaxies are calculated with the photoionized $\\hii$ model and $T_e$ of 3997 galaxies are calculated with an empirical method. The oxygen abundances from the $T_e$ methods of the two samples are determined reliably. The oxygen abundances from a strong line metallicity indicator, such as $R_{23}$, $P$, $N2$, and $O3N2$, are also calculated. We compared oxygen abundances of $\\hii$ galaxies obtained with the $T_e$ method, $R_{23}$ method, $P$ method, $N2$ method, and $O3N2$method. The oxygen abundances derived with the $T_e$ method are systematically lower by $\\sim$0.2 dex than those derived with the $R_{23}$ method, consistent with previous studies based on $\\hii$ region samples. No clear offset for oxygen abundance was found between $T_e$ metallicity and $P$, $N2$ and $O3N2$ metallicity. When we studied the relation between N/O and O/H, we found that in the metallicity regime of $\\zoh > 7.95$, the large scatter of the relation can be explained by the contribution of small mass stars to the production of nitrogen. In the high metallicity regime, $\\zoh > 8.2$, nitrogen is primarily a secondary element produced by stars of all masses.

  1. The effect of an evaporation suppressant upon the liquid film oxygen transfer coefficient

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amad, Mohamad Towfic

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    " ? By Winkler Method 32 Oxygen Transfer Coefficient At 21'C Using Distilled Water Without "Aquasave" ? By Winkler Method 33 Oxygen Transfer Coefficient At 36'C Using Distilled Water With "Aquasave" ? By Winkler Method 34 Oxygen Transfer Coefficient At 36'C... Using Distilled Water Without "Aquasave" ? By Winkler Method 35 Oxygen Transfer Coefficient At 21'C Using Blended Water With "Aquasave" ? By D. O. Meter 37 10. Oxygen Transfer Coefficient At 21'C Using Blended Water Without "Aquasave" ? By D. 0...

  2. Method and apparatus for producing oxygenates from hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lessing, Paul A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical reactor for oxygenating hydrocarbons includes: a) a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell, the plasma cell comprising a pair of electrodes having a dielectric material and void therebetween, the plasma cell comprising a hydrocarbon gas inlet feeding to the void; b) a solid oxide electrochemical cell, the electrochemical cell comprising a solid oxide electrolyte positioned between a porous cathode and a porous anode, an oxygen containing gas inlet stream feeding to the porous cathode side of the electrochemical cell; c) a first gas passageway feeding from the void to the anode side of the electrochemical cell; and d) a gas outlet feeding from the anode side of the electrochemical cell to expel reaction products from the chemical reactor. A method of oxygenating hydrocarbons is also disclosed.

  3. Method and apparatus for producing oxygenates from hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, P.C.; Lessing, P.A.

    1995-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical reactor for oxygenating hydrocarbons includes: (a) a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell, the plasma cell comprising a pair of electrodes having a dielectric material and void therebetween, the plasma cell comprising a hydrocarbon gas inlet feeding to the void; (b) a solid oxide electrochemical cell, the electrochemical cell comprising a solid oxide electrolyte positioned between a porous cathode and a porous anode, an oxygen containing gas inlet stream feeding to the porous cathode side of the electrochemical cell; (c) a first gas passageway feeding from the void to the anode side of the electrochemical cell; and (d) a gas outlet feeding from the anode side of the electrochemical cell to expel reaction products from the chemical reactor. A method of oxygenating hydrocarbons is also disclosed. 4 figs.

  4. CRADA Final Report: Ionically Conductive Membranes Oxygen Separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Visco, Steven J.

    2001-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Scientists at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in a collaborative effort with Praxair Corporation developed a bench-top oxygen separation unit capable of producing ultra-high purity oxygen from air. The device is based on thin-film electrolyte technology developed at LBNL as part of a solid oxide fuel cell program. The two teams first demonstrated the concept using planar ceramic disks followed by the development of tubular ceramic structures for the bench-top unit. The highly successful CRADA met all technical milestones on time and on budget. Due to the success of this program the industrial partner and the team at LBNL submitted a grant proposal for further development of the unit to the Advanced Technology Program administered by the National Institute of Standar~s. This proposal was selected for funding, and now the two teams are developing a precommercial oxygen separation unit under a 3-year, $6 million dollar program.

  5. Fuel and oxygen addition for metal smelting or refining process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlichting, M.R.

    1994-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A furnace for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance, through which a center stream of particulate coal is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace. 7 figs.

  6. Properties of Reactive Oxygen Species by Quantum Monte Carlo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrea Zen; Bernhardt L. Trout; Leonardo Guidoni

    2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The electronic properties of the oxygen molecule, in its singlet and triplet states, and of many small oxygen-containing radicals and anions have important roles in different fields of Chemistry, Biology and Atmospheric Science. Nevertheless, the electronic structure of such species is a challenge for ab-initio computational approaches because of the difficulties to correctly describe the statical and dynamical correlation effects in presence of one or more unpaired electrons. Only the highest-level quantum chemical approaches can yield reliable characterizations of their molecular properties, such as binding energies, equilibrium structures, molecular vibrations, charge distribution and polarizabilities. In this work we use the variational Monte Carlo (VMC) and the lattice regularized Monte Carlo (LRDMC) methods to investigate the equilibrium geometries and molecular properties of oxygen and oxygen reactive species. Quantum Monte Carlo methods are used in combination with the Jastrow Antisymmetrized Geminal Power (JAGP) wave function ansatz, which has been recently shown to effectively describe the statical and dynamical correlation of different molecular systems. In particular we have studied the oxygen molecule, the superoxide anion, the nitric oxide radical and anion, the hydroxyl and hydroperoxyl radicals and their corresponding anions, and the hydrotrioxyl radical. Overall, the methodology was able to correctly describe the geometrical and electronic properties of these systems, through compact but fully-optimised basis sets and with a computational cost which scales as $N^3-N^4$, where $N$ is the number of electrons. This work is therefore opening the way to the accurate study of the energetics and of the reactivity of large and complex oxygen species by first principles.

  7. Organic matter of anoxic and oxygenated marine waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gershey, Robert Michael

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the water column of the Trench indicated that no enrich- ment of organic matter has occurred with respect to the oxygenated water. The organic carbon content of the first 10 cm of a gravity core taken in the Trench was 3. 4%, as compared to a value of 1... Distributions of Sulfide Sulfur and Dis- solved Oxygen as a Function of Depth for Station 4 (10'38' N; 65'24' W) October, 1972 34 6 Distribution of Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) as a Function of Depth for Sta- tion 4 (10'38'N; 65'24'W) and Station 6 (11...

  8. Oxygen buffering of Kilauea volcanic gases and the oxygen fugacity of Kilauea basalt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerlach, T.M. (Geological Survey, Vancouver, WA (United States))

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Volcanic gases collected during episode 1 of the Puu Oo eruption along the east rift zone of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, have uniform C-O-H-S-Cl-F compositions that are sharply depleted in CO[sub 2]. The CO[sub 2]-poor gases are typical of Type II volcanic gases (GERLACH and GRAEBER, 1985) and were emitted from evolved magma stored for a prolonged period of time in the east rift zone after releasing CO[sub 2]-rich gases during an earlier period of temporary residence in the summit magma chamber. The samples are remarkably free of contamination by atmospheric gases and meteoric water. Thermodynamic evaluation of the analytical data shows that the episode 1 gases have equilibrium compositions appropriate for temperatures between 935 and 1032[degrees]C. Open- and closed-system equilibrium models of species distributions for the episode 1 gases show unequivocally that coexisting lavas buffered the gas oxygen fugacities during cooling. These models indicate that the F[sub o[sub 2

  9. A DIGITAL CONTROL SYSTEM FOR OPTIMAL OXYGEN TRANSFER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A DIGITAL CONTROL SYSTEM FOR OPTIMAL OXYGEN TRANSFER EFFICIENCY Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor wastewater treatment not only focus on effluent quality, but also energy consumption Background Terminology and Discussion #12;3 Introduction Activated Sludge Process Aeration needs energy (45~75% of the total) Fine

  10. Process for conversion of lignin to reformulated, partially oxygenated gasoline

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shabtai, Joseph S. (Salt Lake City, UT); Zmierczak, Wlodzimierz W. (Salt Lake City, UT); Chornet, Esteban (Golden, CO)

    2001-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-yield process for converting lignin into reformulated, partially oxygenated gasoline compositions of high quality is provided. The process is a two-stage catalytic reaction process that produces a reformulated, partially oxygenated gasoline product with a controlled amount of aromatics. In the first stage of the process, a lignin feed material is subjected to a base-catalyzed depolymerization reaction, followed by a selective hydrocracking reaction which utilizes a superacid catalyst to produce a high oxygen-content depolymerized lignin product mainly composed of alkylated phenols, alkylated alkoxyphenols, and alkylbenzenes. In the second stage of the process, the depolymerized lignin product is subjected to an exhaustive etherification reaction, optionally followed by a partial ring hydrogenation reaction, to produce a reformulated, partially oxygenated/etherified gasoline product, which includes a mixture of substituted phenyl/methyl ethers, cycloalkyl methyl ethers, C.sub.7 -C.sub.10 alkylbenzenes, C.sub.6 -C.sub.10 branched and multibranched paraffins, and alkylated and polyalkylated cycloalkanes.

  11. Utilization of Renewable Oxygenates as Gasoline Blending Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yanowitz, J.; Christensen, E.; McCormick, R. L.

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report reviews the use of higher alcohols and several cellulose-derived oxygenates as blend components in gasoline. Material compatibility issues are expected to be less severe for neat higher alcohols than for fuel-grade ethanol. Very little data exist on how blending higher alcohols or other oxygenates with gasoline affects ASTM Standard D4814 properties. Under the Clean Air Act, fuels used in the United States must be 'substantially similar' to fuels used in certification of cars for emission compliance. Waivers for the addition of higher alcohols at concentrations up to 3.7 wt% oxygen have been granted. Limited emission testing on pre-Tier 1 vehicles and research engines suggests that higher alcohols will reduce emissions of CO and organics, while NOx emissions will stay the same or increase. Most oxygenates can be used as octane improvers for standard gasoline stocks. The properties of 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, dimethylfuran, 2-methylfuran, methyl pentanoate and ethyl pentanoate suggest that they may function well as low-concentration blends with gasoline in standard vehicles and in higher concentrations in flex fuel vehicles.

  12. A DIGITAL CONTROL SYSTEM FOR OPTIMAL OXYGEN TRANSFER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A DIGITAL CONTROL SYSTEM FOR OPTIMAL OXYGEN TRANSFER EFFICIENCY Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor operations improvement (i.e., operators training, cleaning frequency and methods, process upgrade, etc audits specialist ­ Henryk Melcer Brown & Caldwell, process designer ­ Rod Reardon Camp, Dresser, and Mc

  13. Atomic oxygen patterning from a biomedical needle-plasma source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, Sen; Turner, Miles M. [School of Physical Science and National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology, Dublin City University, Dublin (Ireland)] [School of Physical Science and National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology, Dublin City University, Dublin (Ireland)

    2013-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A plasma needle is a cold plasma source operating at atmospheric pressure. Such sources interact strongly with living cells, but experimental studies on bacterial samples show that this interaction has a surprising pattern resulting in circular or annular killing structures. This paper presents numerical simulations showing that this pattern occurs because biologically active reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are produced dominantly where effluent from the plasma needle interacts with ambient air. A novel solution strategy is utilised coupling plasma produced neutral (uncharged) reactive species to the gas dynamics solving for steady state profiles at the treated biological surface. Numerical results are compared with experimental reports corroborating evidence for atomic oxygen as a key bactericidal species. Surface losses are considered for interaction of plasma produced reactants with reactive solid and liquid interfaces. Atomic oxygen surface reactions on a reactive solid surface with adsorption probabilities above 0.1 are shown to be limited by the flux of atomic oxygen from the plasma. Interaction of the source with an aqueous surface showed hydrogen peroxide as the dominant species at this interface.

  14. Fault Tolerant Oxygen Control of a Diesel Engine Air System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    Fault Tolerant Oxygen Control of a Diesel Engine Air System Rainer Nitsche Matthias Bitzer control problem of a Diesel engine air system having a jammed Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) valve of the air system. Keywords: Fault tolerant control, Diesel engine, Air system, Model-based trajectory

  15. Oxygen isotopic ratios in intermediate-mass red giants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lebzelter, Thomas; Hinkle, Kenneth; Nowotny, Walter; Aringer, Bernhard

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Context. The abundances of the three main isotopes of oxygen are altered in the course of the CNO-cycle. When the first dredge-up mixes the burning products to the surface, the nucleosynthesis processes can be probed by measuring oxygen isotopic ratios. Aims. By measuring 16O/17O and 16O/18O in red giants of known mass we compare the isotope ratios with predictions from stellar and galactic evolution modelling. Methods. Oxygen isotopic ratios were derived from the K-band spectra of six red giants. The sample red giants are open cluster members with known masses of between 1.8 and 4.5 Msun . The abundance determination employs synthetic spectra calculated with the COMARCS code. The effect of uncertainties in the nuclear reaction rates, the mixing length, and of a change in the initial abundance of the oxygen isotopes was determined by a set of nucleosynthesis and mixing models using the FUNS code. Results. The observed 16O/17O ratios are in good agreement with the model results, even if the measured values do ...

  16. Characteristics of Knock in Hydrogen-Oxygen-Argon SI Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Killingsworth, N; Rapp, V; Flowers, D; Aceves, S; Chen, J; Dibble, R

    2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A promising approach for improving the efficiency of internal combustion engines is to employ a working fluid with a high specific heat ratio such as the noble gas argon. Moreover, all harmful emissions are eliminated when the intake charge is composed of oxygen, nonreactive argon, and hydrogen fuel. Previous research demonstrated indicated thermal efficiencies greater than 45% at 5.5 compression ratio in engines operating with hydrogen, oxygen, and argon. However, knock limits spark advance and increasing the efficiency further. Conditions under which knock occurs in such engines differs from typical gasoline fueled engines. In-cylinder temperatures using hydrogen-oxygen-argon are higher due to the high specific heat ratio and pressures are lower because of the low compression ratio. Better understanding of knock under these conditions can lead to operating strategies that inhibit knock and allow operation closer to the knock limit. In this work we compare knock with a hydrogen, oxygen, and argon mixture to that of air-gasoline mixtures in a variable compression ratio cooperative fuels research (CFR) engine. The focus is on stability of knocking phenomena, as well as, amplitude and frequency of the resulting pressure waves.

  17. High-temperature potentiometric oxygen sensor with internal reference

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Routbort, Jules L. (Hinsdale, IL); Singh, Dileep (Naperville, IL); Dutta, Prabir K. (Worthington, OH); Ramasamy, Ramamoorthy (North Royalton, OH); Spirig, John V. (Columbus, OH); Akbar, Sheikh (Hilliard, OH)

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact oxygen sensor is provided, comprising a mixture of metal and metal oxide an enclosure containing said mixture, said enclosure capable of isolating said mixture from an environment external of said enclosure, and a first wire having a first end residing within the enclosure and having a second end exposed to the environment. Also provided is a method for the fabrication of an oxygen sensor, the method comprising confining a metal-metal oxide solid mixture to a container which consists of a single material permeable to oxygen ions, supplying an electrical conductor having a first end and a second end, whereby the first end resides inside the container as a reference (PO.sub.2).sup.ref, and the second end resides outside the container in the atmosphere where oxygen partial pressure (PO.sub.2).sup.ext is to be measured, and sealing the container with additional single material such that grain boundary sliding occurs between grains of the single material and grains of the additional single material.

  18. Optimization of Oxygen Purity for Coal Conversion Energy Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, C. R.; Pike, R. A.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    %. Oxygen is a major tonnage chemical which is also highly energy intensive. The current United States capacity of about 80 thousand tons per day places it in the top five of basic chemicals, and its energy requirement of 350 to 450 kilowatt hours per ton...

  19. Blood storage device and method for oxygen removal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bitensky, Mark W. (Waban, MA); Yoshida, Tatsuro (Newton, MA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a storage device and method for the long-term storage of blood and, more particularly, to a blood storage device and method capable of removing oxygen from the stored blood and thereby prolonging the storage life of the deoxygenated blood.

  20. An oxygen reduction electrocatalyst based on carbon nanotubegraphene complexes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    such as platinum or its alloys are routinely used in fuel cells because of their high activity. Carbon alloys) for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in acidic media for proton-exchange membrane fuel cells1, and designing catalysts with both optimal activity and stability for ORR in acidic solutions all remain

  1. Materials and methods for the separation of oxygen from air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacKay, Richard; Schwartz, Michael; Sammells, Anthony F.

    2003-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal oxides particularly useful for the manufacture of catalytic membranes for gas-phase oxygen separation processes having the formula: O.sub.5+z where: x and x' are greater than 0; y and y' are greater than 0; x+x' is equal to 2; y+y' is less than or equal to 2; z is a number that makes the metal oxide charge neutral; A is an element selected from the lanthanide elements; A' is an element selected from Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra; A" is an element selected from the f block lanthanides, Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra; B is an element selected from the group consisting of Al, Ga, In or mixtures thereof and B" is Co or Mg, with the exception that when B" is Mg, A' and A" are not Mg. The metal oxides are useful for preparation of dense membranes which may be formed from dense thin films of the mixed metal oxide on a porous metal oxide element. The invention also provides methods and catalytic reactors for oxygen separation and oxygen enrichment of oxygen deficient gases which employ mixed conducting metal oxides of the above formula.

  2. Controlled temperature expansion in oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erickson, Donald C. (Annapolis)

    1985-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A continuous process is set forth for the production of oxygen from an oxygen containing gas stream, such as air, by contacting a feed gas stream with a molten solution of an oxygen acceptor to oxidize the acceptor and cyclically regenerating the oxidized acceptor by releasing oxygen from the acceptor wherein the oxygen-depleted gas stream from the contact zone is treated sequentially to temperature reduction by heat exchange against the feed stream so as to condense out entrained oxygen acceptor for recycle to the process, combustion of the gas stream with fuel to elevate its temperature and expansion of the combusted high temperature gas stream in a turbine to recover power.

  3. Oxygen as a site specific structural probe in neutron diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neuefeind, Joerg C [ORNL; Simonson, J Michael {Mike} [ORNL; Salmon, Phil [University of Bath; Zeidler, Anita [University of Bath; Fischer, Henry E [Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL); Rauch, Helmut [E141 Atominstitut der & #xD6; sterreichischen Universit& #xE4; ten,; Markland, Thomas [Columbia University; Lemmel, Hartmut [Technical University Vienna

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxygen is a ubiquitous element, playing an essential role in most scientific and technological disciplines, and is often incorporated within a structurally disordered material where examples include molten silicates in planetary science, glasses used for lasers and optical communication, and water in biological processes. Establishing the structure of a liquid or glassy oxide and thereby its relation to the functional properties of a material is not, however, a trivial task owing to the complexity associated with atomic disorder. Here we approach this challenge by measuring the bound coherent neutron scattering lengths of the oxygen isotopes with the sensitive technique of neutron interferometry. We find that there is a small but finite contrast of 0.204(6) fm between the scattering lengths of the isotope 18O and oxygen of natural isotopic abundance natO, contrary to tables of recommended values. This has enabled us to investigate the structure of both light and heavy water by exploiting, for the first time, the method of oxygen isotope substitution in neutron diffraction, thus circumventing many of the significant problems associated with more traditional methods in which hydrogen is substituted by deuterium. We find a difference of ~0.5% between the O-H and O-D intra-molecular bond distances which is much smaller than recent estimates based on diffraction data and is found to be in excellent agreement with path integral molecular dynamics simulations made with a flexible polarisable water model. Our results demonstrate the potential for using oxygen isotope substitution as a powerful and effective site specific probe in a plethora of materials, of pertinence as instrumentation at next generation neutron sources comes online

  4. Electrocatalysis of anodic and cathodic oxygen-transfer reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wels, B.R.

    1990-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The electrocatalysis of oxygen-transfer reactions is discussed in two parts. In Part I, the reduction of iodate (IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}) is examined as an example of cathodic oxygen transfer. On oxide-covered Pt electrodes (PtO), a large cathodic current is observed in the presence of IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} to coincide with the reduction of PtO. The total cathodic charge exceeds the amount required for reduction of PtO and IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} to produce an adsorbed product. An electrocatalytic link between reduction of IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} and reduction of PtO is indicated. In addition, on oxide-free Pt electrodes, the reduction of IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} is determined to be sensitive to surface treatment. The electrocatalytic oxidation of CN{sup {minus}} is presented as an example of anodic oxygen transfer in Part II. The voltametric response of CN{sup {minus}} is virtually nonexistent at PbO{sub 2} electrodes. The response is significantly improved by doping PbO{sub 2} with Cu. Cyanide is also oxidized effectively at CuO-film electrodes. Copper is concluded to serve as an adsorption site for CN{sup {minus}}. It is proposed that an oxygen tunneling mechanism comparable to electron tunneling does not occur at the electrode-solution interface. The adsorption of CN{sup {minus}} is therefore considered to be a necessary prerequisite for oxygen transfer. 201 refs., 23 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. D0 Detector Assemble Hall Platform Oxygen Deficiency Hazard Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, D.; Michael, J.; /Fermilab

    1991-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid cryogens, released and warming to atmosphere conditions, expand to, on average, seven hundred times their liquid volume, and displace vital atmospheric oxygen. An oxygen deficiency hazard analysis assesses the increased risk to personnel in areas containing cryogenic systems. The D0 detector platform area ODH analysis has been approached four different ways using established methods. In each case, the analysis shows the platform area to be ODH class 0 as equipped (with ventilation fans) and requiring no special safety provisions. System designers have provided for a reduced oxygen level detection and warning system as well as emergency procedures to address fault conditions. The Oxygen Deficiency Hazard of any particular area is defined by these parameters: the nature of the accidental supply of inert gas (probability of occurrence and quantity then released), the area's volume, the area's ventilation rate, and to a small degree the elevation of the area. Once this information is assembled, the ODH classification can be determined through standardized calculations. The platform area under the D0 detector contains much of the cryogenic and gas system piping necessary for the D0 experiment. Prior to moving the detector into the Collision Hall, the liquid argon calorimeters are cooled down and operated in the Assembly Hall. The first phase of this operation involved the cooldown of the Central Calorimeter, which was done in February 1991. This engineering note assesses the increased risk to personnel in the platform level to a reduced oxygen atmosphere during the cool down and subsequent operation of the calorimeters in the Assembly Hall. In addition, it outlines the steps taken to warn personnel of an emergency and to direct the subsequent evacuation. This note analyses only the Assembly Hall area. A similar engineering note, EN-332, covers the analysis of the Collision Hall area.

  6. Oxygen and Nitrogen in Isolated Dwarf Irregular Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. van Zee; M. P. Haynes

    2005-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We present long slit optical spectroscopy of 67 HII regions in 21 dwarf irregular galaxies to investigate the enrichment of oxygen, nitrogen, neon, sulfur, and argon in low mass galaxies. Oxygen abundances are obtained via direct detection of the temperature sensitive emission lines for 25 HII regions; for the remainder of the sample, oxygen abundances are estimated from strong line calibrations. The direct abundance determinations are compared to the strong-line abundance calibrations of both McGaugh (1991) and Pilyugin (2000). Global oxygen and nitrogen abundances for this sample of dwarf irregular galaxies are examined in the context of open and closed box chemical evolution models. While several galaxies are consistent with closed box chemical evolution, the majority of this sample have an effective yield ~1/4 of the expected yield for a constant star formation rate and Salpeter IMF, indicating that either outflow of enriched gas or inflow of pristine gas has occurred. The effective yield strongly correlates with M_H/L_B in the sense that gas-rich galaxies are more likely to be closed systems. However, the effective yield does not appear to correlate with other global parameters such as dynamical mass, absolute magnitude, star formation rate or surface brightness. A correlation is found between the observed nitrogen-to-oxygen ratio and the color of the underlying stellar population; redder dwarf irregular galaxies have higher N/O ratios than blue dwarf irregular galaxies. The relative abundance ratios are interpreted in the context of delayed release of nitrogen and varied star formation histories.

  7. Summary -Procedure For Shutting Off The Oxygen Zone Valve 1. Implement RACE Call the Emergency Operator at 4-2012.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acton, Scott

    Summary - Procedure For Shutting Off The Oxygen Zone Valve 1. Implement RACE ­ Call the Emergency-cylinders for low oxygen needs and bag ventilated patients using E-cylinders. 4. Identify oxygen zone valve for the affected rooms/areas. 5. Turn off the flow of oxygen at the zone valve if the oxygen cannot be turned off

  8. OXYGEN CONSUMPTION OF NORMAL AND GREEN OYSTERS 1 PAUL S. GALTSOFF, Ph. D., In Charge, Oyster Fishery Investigations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OXYGEN CONSUMPTION OF NORMAL AND GREEN OYSTERS 1 $ By PAUL S. GALTSOFF, Ph. D., In Charge, Oyster _ ~ethod _ Oxygen consumption of normal oyster _ Effect of oxygen tension on oxygen con- sumption _ Page 489 Increased rate of metabolism _ 490 Experiments with green oysters _ 493 Oxygen consumption

  9. Farm Fuel Safety Accidents in the handling, use and storage of gasoline, gasohol, diesel fuel, LP-gas and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    risk to life and property, the requirements of NFPA 30 & 321, OAR 473-004-0720 and OSHA Standard 1910 from fire and other safety and health hazards. Storage of Flammable liquids shall be in NFPA approved at a point of use. Appropriate fire extinguishers are to be mounted within 75 feet of outside areas

  10. A Mechanism of Photo-Induced Desorption of Oxygen Atoms From...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Photo-Induced Desorption of Oxygen Atoms From MgO Nano-Crystals. A Mechanism of Photo-Induced Desorption of Oxygen Atoms From MgO Nano-Crystals. Abstract: In a series of recent...

  11. Nitrated and oxygenated derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the ambient air of two

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Nitrated and oxygenated derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the ambient air of two;2 Abstract The size distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PAH derivatives of compounds. Keywords: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Oxygenated

  12. Electronic structure of perovskite oxide surfaces at elevated temperatures and its correlation with oxygen reduction reactivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yan, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective is to understand the origin of the local oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity on the basis of the local electronic structure at the surface of transition metal oxides at elevated temperatures and in oxygen ...

  13. Fundamental studies of heterostructured oxide thin film electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction at high temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crumlin, Ethan J

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Searching for active and cost-effective catalysts for oxygen electrocatalysis is essential for the development of efficient clean electrochemical energy technologies. Perovskite oxides are active for surface oxygen exchange ...

  14. Effects of Hydration and Oxygen Vacancy on CO2 Adsorption and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydration and Oxygen Vacancy on CO2 Adsorption and Activation on ?-Ga2O3(100). Effects of Hydration and Oxygen Vacancy on CO2 Adsorption and Activation on ?-Ga2O3(100)....

  15. In Situ Ambient Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Studies of Lithium-Oxygen Redox Reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Yi-chun

    The lack of fundamental understanding of the oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution in nonaqueous electrolytes significantly hinders the development of rechargeable lithium-air batteries. Here we employ a solid-state ...

  16. Active Oxygen Vacancy Site for Methanol Synthesis from CO2 Hydrogenati...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oxygen Vacancy Site for Methanol Synthesis from CO2 Hydrogenation on In2O3(110): A DFT Study. Active Oxygen Vacancy Site for Methanol Synthesis from CO2 Hydrogenation on...

  17. Impact of ethanol and butanol as oxygenates on SIDI engine efficiency...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Impact of ethanol and butanol as oxygenates on SIDI engine efficiency and emissions using steady-state and transient test procedures Impact of ethanol and butanol as oxygenates on...

  18. Development, testing, and application of quantitative oxygenation imaging from magnetic susceptibility by MRI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Audrey Peiwen

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The healthy brain consumes 20% of total oxygen used by the body under normal conditions. Continuous oxygen delivery to neural tissue is needed to maintain normal brain function and viability. Reliable measurements of brain ...

  19. Surface structure of ?-Cr2O3(0001) after activated oxygen...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Surface structure of ?-Cr2O3(0001) after activated oxygen exposure. Surface structure of ?-Cr2O3(0001) after activated oxygen exposure. Abstract: The surface structure...

  20. Acetone-Assisted Oxygen Vacancy Diffusion on TiO2(110). | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Acetone-Assisted Oxygen Vacancy Diffusion on TiO2(110). Acetone-Assisted Oxygen Vacancy Diffusion on TiO2(110). Abstract: We have studied the dynamic relationship between acetone...

  1. Growth of Epitaxial Thin Pd(111) Films on Pt(111) and Oxygen...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Growth of Epitaxial Thin Pd(111) Films on Pt(111) and Oxygen-Terminated FeO(111) Surfaces . Growth of Epitaxial Thin Pd(111) Films on Pt(111) and Oxygen-Terminated FeO(111)...

  2. Direct Electrolysis of Molten Lunar Regolith for the Production of Oxygen and Metals on the Moon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sirk, Aislinn H.

    The feasibility of producing oxygen by direct electrolysis of the molten lunar regolith at 1600 C was investigated and the generation of usable oxygen gas at the anode and concomitant production of iron and silicon at the ...

  3. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Categorically Excluded...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Monitoring Wells South of the Tuba City, Arizona, Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) Title I Ste 05282013 B1.3 LM 01-13 Current and Future Actions Related to...

  4. Evaluation of Advanced PSA and Oxygen Combustion System for Industrial Furnace Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delano, M. A.; Lagree, D.; Kwan, Y.

    M. A. Delano Union Carbide Corp. Tarrytown, NY ABSTRACT EVALUATION OF ADVANCED PSA AND OXYGEN COMBUSTION SYSTEM FOR INDUSTRIAL FURNACE APPLICATIONS D. Lagree Union Carbide Corp. Tonawanda, NY The performance of a pilot scale advanced PSA... oxygen generation system and a low NO x oxygen burner was evaluated for industrial furnace applications. The PSA system employs a two-bed vacuum cycle design with a capacity of 1.3 TPD at 90% O 2 purity. The oxygen generated from the PSA system...

  5. Impacts of Oxygenated Gasoline Use on California Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Singer, Brett C.; Harley, Robert A.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fuel and oxygenates (ethanol, MTBE, ETBE) emissions and onmeasured effects of MTBE, ETBE, and ethanol content on

  6. Simultaneous analysis of oxygenated and nitrated polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons on standard reference material 1649a (urban dust) and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Simultaneous analysis of oxygenated and nitrated polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons on standard nitrated polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) and 9 oxygenated polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (OPAHs aromatic hydrocarbons; Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic

  7. Oxygen and nitrogen abundances in Virgo and field spirals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. S. Pilyugin; Mercedes Molla; Federico Ferrini; Jose M. Vilchez

    2001-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The oxygen and nitrogen abundances in the HII regions of the nine Virgo spirals of the sample from Skillman et al (1996) and in nine field spiral galaxies are re-determined with the recently suggested P - method. We confirm that there is an abundance segregation in the sample of Virgo spirals in the sense that the HI deficient Virgo spirals near the core of the cluster have higher oxygen abundances in comparison to the spirals at the periphery of the Virgo cluster. At the same time both the Virgo periphery and core spirals have counterparts among field spirals. We conclude that if there is a difference in the abundance properties of the Virgo and field spirals, this difference appears to be small and masked by the observational errors.

  8. Toxicological and performance aspects of oxygenated motor vehicle fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    At the request of the Environmental Protection Agency, the committee reviewed a draft of a federal report that assesses the effects of oxygenated fuels on public health, air quality, fuel economy, engine performance, and water quality. The committee determined that much of the federal report adequately represents what is known about the effects of methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) -- the most commonly used additive in the federal oxygenated-fuels program -- on health, the environment, and motor vehicles. MTBE, a chemical added to gasoline to reduce carbon monoxide pollution, appears not to pose a substantial human health risk, but more-definitive data are needed to assess short-term health effects and to determine whether this additive is effective in reducing carbon monoxide pollution in cold environments.

  9. Modulation of mixed-phase titania photoluminescence by oxygen adsorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pallotti, D.; Orabona, E.; Amoruso, S.; Maddalena, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universit degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Institute for Superconductors, Oxides and Innovative Materials and Devices, CNR-SPIN, U.O.S. Napoli, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Lettieri, S., E-mail: stefano.lettieri@spin.cnr.it [Institute for Superconductors, Oxides and Innovative Materials and Devices, CNR-SPIN, U.O.S. Napoli, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy)

    2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the effect of oxygen (O{sub 2}) adsorption on photoluminescence properties of mixed-phase titania nanoparticle films deposited by femtosecond pulsed laser deposition, aiming to assess preliminary conclusions about the feasibility of opto-chemical sensing based on titania. We evidence that O{sub 2} produces opposite responses in rutile and anatase photoluminescence efficiency, highlighting interesting potentialities for future double-parametric optical sensing based on titania. The results evidence an important role of lattice oxygen atoms, suggesting that the standard Schottky barrier mechanism driving the response toward gas species in most used metal-oxide sensors (e.g., tin dioxide) is not the only active mechanism in titania.

  10. Oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts using multiple absorption-desorption cycles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cassano, Anthony A. (Allentown, PA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A continuous chemical air separation is performed wherein oxygen is recovered with a molten alkali metal salt oxygen acceptor in a series of absorption zones which are connected to a plurality of desorption zones operated in separate parallel cycles with the absorption zones. A greater recovery of high pressure oxygen is achieved at reduced power requirements and capital costs.

  11. Oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts using multiple absorption-desorption cycles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cassano, A.A.

    1985-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A continuous chemical air separation is performed wherein oxygen is recovered with a molten alkali metal salt oxygen acceptor in a series of absorption zones which are connected to a plurality of desorption zones operated in separate parallel cycles with the absorption zones. A greater recovery of high pressure oxygen is achieved at reduced power requirements and capital costs. 3 figs.

  12. Faunal responses to oxygen gradients on the Pakistan margin: A comparison of foraminiferans, macrofauna and megafauna

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levin, Lisa

    Faunal responses to oxygen gradients on the Pakistan margin: A comparison of foraminiferans Oxygen minimum zone Benthos Arabian Sea Biodiversity Deep sea a b s t r a c t The Pakistan Margin where oxygen levels were lowest. The rarity of larger animals between 300 and 700 m on the Pakistan

  13. Interaction of CO2 with Oxygen Adatoms on Rutile TiO2(110). ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CO2 with Oxygen Adatoms on Rutile TiO2(110). Interaction of CO2 with Oxygen Adatoms on Rutile TiO2(110). Abstract: The interactions of CO2 with oxygen adatoms (Oas) on...

  14. Molecular H2O as carrier for oxygen diffusion in hydrous silicate melts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Youxue

    Molecular H2O as carrier for oxygen diffusion in hydrous silicate melts H. Behrens a,, Y. Zhang b water is known to dramatically enhance oxygen diffusion in silicate melts, glasses and minerals in the diffusion of water and oxygen in silicates, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 103 (1991) 228­240.]. Here we report

  15. Oxygen production and carbon sequestration in an upwelling coastal Burke Hales,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierce, Stephen

    Oxygen production and carbon sequestration in an upwelling coastal margin Burke Hales,1 Lee Karp), Oxygen production and carbon sequestration in an upwelling coastal margin, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 20 of particulate organic carbon (POC) and dissolved O2 during the upwelling season off the Oregon coast. Oxygen

  16. A Noninvasive Thin Film Sensor for Monitoring Oxygen Tension during in Vitro Cell Culture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raghavan, Srinivasa

    demonstrated how low oxygen levels lead to vasoocclusion in sickle cell anemia.7 Cancer cells that existA Noninvasive Thin Film Sensor for Monitoring Oxygen Tension during in Vitro Cell Culture Peter C of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, and SAIC, Arlington, VA 22203 Oxygen tension in mammalian cell

  17. Step-modied phase diagram of chemisorbed oxygen on nickel T.P. Pearl 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sibener, Steven

    Step-modied phase diagram of chemisorbed oxygen on nickel T.P. Pearl 1 , S.B. Darling, S of chemisorbed oxygen overlayers on a vicinal nickel surface using low energy electron diraction (LEED), Auger by the presence of regular steps. 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Oxygen; Nickel

  18. Net production of oxygen in the subtropical ocean Stephen C. Riser1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riser, Stephen C.

    LETTERS Net production of oxygen in the subtropical ocean Stephen C. Riser1 & Kenneth S. Johnson2% of the global ocean surface area, are net producers or consumers of oxygen and fixed carbon is a key uncertainty in the global carbon cycle1,2 . Direct measurements in bottle experiments indicate net oxygen con- sumption

  19. Oxygen diffusion and reactions in Hf-based dielectrics L. V. Goncharova,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gustafsson, Torgny

    Oxygen diffusion and reactions in Hf-based dielectrics L. V. Goncharova,a M. Dalponte, D. G Oxygen transport in and reactions with thin hafnium oxide and hafnium silicate films have been. The exchange rate is faster for pure hafnium oxides than for silicates. The amount of exchanged oxygen

  20. Oxygen affinity and amino acid sequence of myoglobins from endothermic and ectothermic fish

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Block, Barbara A.

    Oxygen affinity and amino acid sequence of myoglobins from endothermic and ectothermic fish DAVID J, David J., Joseph Bonaventura, Jonathan B. Wittenberg, and Barbara A. Block. Oxygen affinity and amino the partial pressure of oxygen at which Mb is half saturated (P50) of the molecule. We test the hypothesis

  1. Oxygen: A Fundamental Property Regulating Pelagic Ecosystem Structure in the Coastal Southeastern Tropical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oxygen: A Fundamental Property Regulating Pelagic Ecosystem Structure in the Coastal Southeastern questions about the role of temperature. Here we investigate the role of oxygen in structuring fish that the distribution of oxygen in the ocean is changing with uncertain consequences. Methodology/Principal Findings

  2. Dissolved oxygen stratification in two micro-tidal partially-mixed estuaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mallin, Michael

    Dissolved oxygen stratification in two micro-tidal partially-mixed estuaries Jing Lin a,*, Lian Xie online 21 August 2006 Abstract The controlling physical factors for vertical oxygen stratification that vertical stratification of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration can be explained by the extended Hansen

  3. Oxygen driven reconstruction dynamics of Ni,,977... measured by time-lapse scanning tunneling microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sibener, Steven

    Oxygen driven reconstruction dynamics of Ni,,977... measured by time-lapse scanning tunneling-lapse scanning tunneling microscopy STM has been used to observe the oxygen induced reconstruction behavior of Ni for the merging of steps in the presence of small amounts of adsorbed oxygen, less than 2% of a monolayer. Point

  4. Oxygen Transport from the Outer Boundary of a Pulsating Arteriole Wall to the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salamon, Peter

    Oxygen Transport from the Outer Boundary of a Pulsating Arteriole Wall to the Surrounding Tissue In all living organisms, oxygen transport from arterioles to the surrounding tissue is critical for survival. However, the exact nature of the transport of oxygen from the arteriole to the surrounding tissue

  5. Oxygen impurity and microalloying effect in a Zr-based bulk metallic glass alloy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    Oxygen impurity and microalloying effect in a Zr-based bulk metallic glass alloy C.T. Liu*, M composition Zr10 at.%Al5% Ti17.9% Cu14.6% Ni (BAM-11) was used to study the effects of oxygen impurities and microalloying on the microstructure and mechanical properties. Oxygen impurity at a level of 3000 appm

  6. Oxygen chemisorption on Au nanoparticles A. Franceschetti a,b,*, S.J. Pennycook b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    Oxygen chemisorption on Au nanoparticles A. Franceschetti a,b,*, S.J. Pennycook b , S.T. Pantelides; in final form 11 March 2003 Abstract Oxygen molecules do not adsorb on flat gold surfaces at room temperature, but recent experimental results have demonstrated adsorption of oxygen on small, negatively

  7. Oxygen isotopic disequilibrium in plagioclasecorundumhercynite xenoliths from the Voisey's Bay Intrusion, Labrador, Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oxygen isotopic disequilibrium in plagioclasecorundumhercynite xenoliths from the Voisey's Bay to skeletal. Ion microprobe analyses indicate that oxygen isotopic equilibrium was neither established during corundum is characterized by 18 O values between 2.5 and 7.6. Oxygen isotopic equilibration with mantle

  8. Chemical oxygen diffusion coefficient measurement by conductivity relaxation--correlation between tracer diffusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    Chemical oxygen diffusion coefficient measurement by conductivity relaxation--correlation between J. P., Grenier J. C., Loup J. P. ABSTRACT Chemical oxygen diusion coecient (D)was measured the oxygen partial pressure in the surrounding atmosphere of the sample. The consequent evolution

  9. Oxygen diffusion in titanite: Lattice diffusion and fast-path diffusion in single crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, E. Bruce

    Oxygen diffusion in titanite: Lattice diffusion and fast-path diffusion in single crystals X June 2006 Editor: P. Deines Abstract Oxygen diffusion in natural and synthetic single-crystal titanite be recognized as responsible for oxygen diffusion. The diffusion profiles showed two segments: a steep one close

  10. Movement of oxygen vacancies in oxide film during annealing observed by an optical reflectivity difference technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Xiangdong

    Movement of oxygen vacancies in oxide film during annealing observed by an optical reflectivity. The growth and annealing of the film in vacuum and in oxygen ambient are monitored in real time by an oblique tell whether the oxygen vacancies are moving into or moving out of the film during the annealing

  11. Singlet oxygen generation using iodinated squaraine and squaraine-rotaxane dyesw

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Bradley D.

    Singlet oxygen generation using iodinated squaraine and squaraine-rotaxane dyesw Easwaran Arunkumar-rotaxanes to generate singlet oxygen for potential application in photodynamic therapy (PDT). Specifically, we compare-to-face orientations in the solid state. Singlet oxygen generation efficiency was measured by trapping with 1

  12. Oxygen as a control on seafloor biological communities and their roles in sedimentary carbon cycling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oxygen as a control on seafloor biological communities and their roles in sedimentary carbon experiments were conducted at sites spanning the steep oxygen, organic matter, and biological community gradients across the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone, in order to quantify the role that fauna play

  13. Oxygen Isotope Effects as Probes of Electron Transfer Mechanisms and Structures of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roth, Justine P.

    Oxygen Isotope Effects as Probes of Electron Transfer Mechanisms and Structures of Activated O2, Maryland 21218 RECEIVED ON JULY 26, 2008 C O N S P E C T U S Competitively determined oxygen (18 O) isotope effects can be power- ful probes of chemical and biological transformations involving molec- ular oxygen

  14. Supplemental Oxygen and Mountaineer Death Rates on Everest and K2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huey, Raymond B.

    Supplemental Oxygen and Mountaineer Death Rates on Everest and K2 To the Editor: The use of supplemental oxygen by Hima- layan mountaineers has been debated for more than 8 de- cades.1 Although sometimes viewed as unsporting, supplemen- tal-oxygen use may improve survival rates by increasing performance

  15. Atomic oxygen in solid deuterium A. V. Danilychev and V. A. Apkarian*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apkarian, V. Ara

    Atomic oxygen in solid deuterium A. V. Danilychev and V. A. Apkarian* Department of Chemistry 113, Japan Submitted June 8, 2000 Fiz. Nizk. Temp. 26, 909917 SeptemberOctober 2000 Atomic oxygen is photogenerated in solid D2 by 193 nm irradiation of samples initially doped with molecular oxygen. The atoms

  16. Movement of oxygen from the atmosphere to the mitochondria occurs via several convective and diffusive steps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bennett, Albert F.

    4111 Movement of oxygen from the atmosphere to the mitochondria occurs via several convective and diffusive steps (Weibel et al., 1981). In mammals, maximal rate of oxygen consumption (VOmax) is not limited by any one step of the oxygen cascade; rather limitations to VOmax are distributed across all steps

  17. OXYGEN GAS-PHASE ABUNDANCE REVISITED M. K. Andre,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howk, Jay Christopher

    OXYGEN GAS-PHASE ABUNDANCE REVISITED M. K. Andre,1,2 C. M. Oliveira,2 J. C. Howk,2 R. Ferlet,1 J gas-phase oxygen abundance along the sight lines toward 19 early-type Galactic stars at an average mag1 with a standard deviation of 15% is consistent with previous surveys. The mean oxygen abundance

  18. Production of Oxygen Gas and Liquid Metal by Electrochemical Decomposition of Molten Iron Oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadoway, Donald Robert

    on the moon and on Mars for the generation of oxygen along with the production of structural metalsProduction of Oxygen Gas and Liquid Metal by Electrochemical Decomposition of Molten Iron Oxide) is the electrolytic decomposition of a metal oxide, most preferably into liquid metal and oxygen gas. The successful

  19. Generation of reactive oxygen species by a persulfide (BnSSH) Tonika Chatterji,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gates, Kent. S.

    Generation of reactive oxygen species by a persulfide (BnSSH) Tonika Chatterji, Kripa Keerthi generate reactive oxygen species under biologically rele- vant conditions via the sequence of reactions by reactive oxygen species generated in this manner may contribute to the cytotoxic properties of leinamycin

  20. MOLTEN OXIDE ELECTROLYSIS FOR LUNAR OXYGEN GENERATION USING IN-SITU RESOURCES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadoway, Donald Robert

    MOLTEN OXIDE ELECTROLYSIS FOR LUNAR OXYGEN GENERATION USING IN-SITU RESOURCES A.T. Vai1 , J.; Woburn, MA, 01801, USA Keywords: ISRU, Molten Oxide Electrolysis, Inert Anode, Oxygen Generation Abstract technology for generating oxygen from lunar regolith simulant. Prior to this work, iridium metal was the only

  1. Nitric Oxide Production from Surface Recombination of Oxygen and Nitrogen Atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martn, Pino

    of hypersonic reentry vehicles. In the Earth's atmosphere, oxygen and nitrogen atoms are generated in the shock1 Nitric Oxide Production from Surface Recombination of Oxygen and Nitrogen Atoms Dusan A. Pejakovi from the recombination of oxygen and nitrogen atoms on quartz. The experiments employ two-photon laser

  2. Effects of applied voltages and dissolved oxygen on sustained power generation by microbial fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Effects of applied voltages and dissolved oxygen on sustained power generation by microbial fuel), Faculty of Advanced Technology, University of Glamorgan, Pontypridd RCT CF37 1DL, UK Oxygen intrusion chamber MFCs at the end of a cycle when the substrate is depleted. A slight increase in dissolved oxygen

  3. Direct Electrolysis of Molten Lunar Regolith for the Production of Oxygen and Metals on the Moon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadoway, Donald Robert

    regolith at 1600 C was investigated. Oxygen gas at the anode was generated concomitantly with productionDirect Electrolysis of Molten Lunar Regolith for the Production of Oxygen and Metals on the Moon A Center, Florida 32899, USA The feasibility of producing oxygen by direct electrolysis of molten lunar

  4. Performance of a Multistream Injection Chemical OxygenIodine Laser with Starlet Ejectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carroll, David L.

    and has the potential for higher pressure recovery. Pressures in the singlet-oxygen generator were technology development to date has focused on the singlet-oxygen generator (SOG). The liquid SOG technology- oxygen generation and transport efficiency. The idea of the starlet nozzle concept stems originally from

  5. Geographic variation in phenotypic plasticity in response to dissolved oxygen in an African cichlid fish

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nuismer, Scott L.

    Geographic variation in phenotypic plasticity in response to dissolved oxygen in an African cichlid variation in a population over a number of generations to result in a population that is locally adapted and plastic variation in gill and brain size among swamp (low oxygen; hypoxic) and river (normal oxygen

  6. Microbial Respiration and Its Consequences on Oxygen Availability in Peat Substrate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    91 Microbial Respiration and Its Consequences on Oxygen Availability in Peat Substrate R. Naasz, J to Horticulture 2, rue Le Ntre, F-49045 Angers Cedex 01 France Keywords: peat, oxygen uptake, microorganisms (Sphagnum peat) on oxygen transport and availability to the root. This is why, a one-dimensional transfer

  7. Beryllium, Lithium and Oxygen Abundances in F-type Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. J. Garcia Lopez; M. C. Dominguez Herrera; M. R. Perez de Taoro; C. Casares; J. L. Rasilla; R. Rebolo; C. Allende Prieto

    1997-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Beryllium and oxygen abundances have been derived in a sample of F-type field stars for which lithium abundances had been measured previously, with the aim of obtaining observational constraints to discriminate between the different mixing mechanisms proposed. Mixing associated with the transport of angular momentum in the stellar interior and internal gravity waves within the framework of rotating evolutionary models, appear to be promising ways to explain the observations.

  8. Quasi-Reversible Oxygen Exchange of Amorphous IGZO Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shahriar, Selim

    MRSEC Quasi-Reversible Oxygen Exchange of Amorphous IGZO Thin Films NSF Grant # 1121262 A. U. Adler Center In situ electrical properties of a-IGZO thin films were carried out at 200C as a function/"defect" structure of amorphous oxide films. In situ conductivity of 70 nm a-IGZO thin film at 200oC measured in van

  9. Degradation of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria by neutral oxygen atoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cvelbar, U.; Mozetic, M. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Hauptman, N.; Klanjsek-Gunde, M. [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The degradation of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria during treatment with neutral oxygen atoms was monitored by scanning electron microscopy. Experiments were performed in an afterglow chamber made from borosilicate glass. The source of oxygen atoms was remote inductively coupled radiofrequency oxygen plasma. The density of atoms at the samples was 8x10{sup 20} m{sup -3}. The treatment was performed at room temperature. The first effect was the removal of dried capsule. Capsule on exposed parts of bacteria was removed after receiving the dose of 6x10{sup 23} at./m{sup 2}, while the parts of capsule filling the gaps between bacteria were removed after receiving the dose of 2.4x10{sup 24} m{sup -2}. After removing the capsule, degradation continued as etching of bacterial cell wall. The etching was rather nonuniform as holes with diameter of several 10 nm were observed. The cell wall was removed after receiving the dose of about 7x10{sup 24} m{sup -2}. The etching probabilities were about 2x10{sup -5} for the capsule and 2x10{sup -6} for the cell wall. The results were explained by different compositions of capsule and the cell wall.

  10. Evolution of Photosynthesis and Biospheric Oxygenation Contingent Upon Nitrogen Fixation?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John W. Grula

    2006-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    How photosynthesis by Precambrian cyanobacteria oxygenated Earth's biosphere remains incompletely understood. Here it is argued that the oxic transition, which took place between approximately 2.3 and 0.5 Gyr ago, required a great proliferation of cyanobacteria, and this in turn depended on their ability to fix nitrogen via the nitrogenase enzyme system. However, the ability to fix nitrogen was not a panacea, and the rate of biospheric oxygenation may still have been affected by nitrogen constraints on cyanobacterial expansion. Evidence is presented for why cyanobacteria probably have a great need for fixed nitrogen than other prokaryotes, underscoring the importance of their ability to fix nitrogen. The connection between nitrogen fixation and the evolution of photosynthesis is demonstrated by the similarities between nitrogenase and enzymes critical for the biosynthesis of (bacterio)chlorophyll. It is hypothesized that biospheric oxygenation would not have occurred if the emergence of cyanobacteria had not been preceded by the evolution of nitrogen fixation, and if these organisms had not also acquired the ability to fix nitrogen at the beginning of or very early in their history. The evolution of nitrogen fixation also appears to have been a precondition for the evolution of (bacterio)chlorophyll-based photosynthesis. Given that some form of chlorophyll is obligatory for true photosynthesis, and its light absorption and chemical properties make it a "universal pigment," it may be predicted that the evolution of nitrogen fixation and photosynthesis are also closely linked on other Earth- like planets.

  11. Oxygen abundance methods in the SDSS: view from modern statistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Shi; G. Zhao; James Wicker

    2007-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Our purpose is to find which is the most reliable one among various oxygen abundance determination methods. We will test the validity of several different oxygen abundance determination methods using methods of modern statistics. These methods include Bayesian analysis and information scoring. We will analyze a sample of $\\sim$6000 $\\hii$ galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectroscopic observations data release four. All methods that we used drew the same conclusion that the $T_e$ method is a more reliable oxygen abundance determination methods than the Bayesian metallcity method under the existing telescope ability. The ratios of the likelihoods between the different kinds of methods tell us that the $T_e$, $P$, and $O3N2$ methods are consistent with each other because the $P$ and $O3N2$ method are calibrated by $T_e$-method. The Bayesian and $R_{23}$ method are consistent with each other because both are calibrated by a galaxy model. In either case, the $N2$ method is an {\\it unreliable} method.

  12. Oxygen and Nitrogen in Leo A and GR 8

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. van Zee; E. D. Skillman; M. P. Haynes

    2005-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We present elemental abundances for multiple HII regions in Leo A and GR 8 obtained from long slit optical spectroscopy of these two nearby low luminosity dwarf irregular galaxies. As expected from their luminosities, and in agreement with previous observations, the derived oxygen abundances are extremely low in both galaxies. High signal-to-noise ratio observations of a planetary nebula in Leo A yield 12 + log(O/H) = 7.30 +/- 0.05; "semi-empirical" calculations of the oxygen abundance in four HII regions in Leo A indicate 12 + log(O/H) = 7.38 +/- 0.10. These results confirm that Leo A has one of the lowest ISM metal abundances of known nearby galaxies. Based on results from two HII regions with high signal-to-noise measurements of the weak [O III] 4363 line, the mean oxygen abundance of GR 8 is 12 + log(O/H) = 7.65 +/- 0.06; using "empirical" and "semi-empirical" methods, similar abundances are derived for 6 other GR 8 HII regions. Similar to previous results in other low metallicity galaxies, the mean log(N/O) = -1.53 +/- 0.09 for Leo A and -1.51 +/- 0.07 for GR 8. There is no evidence of significant variations in either O/H or N/O in the HII regions. The metallicity-luminosity relation for nearby (D oxygen abundances has a mean correlation of 12 + log(O/H) = 5.67 - 0.151 M_B with a dispersion in oxygen about the relationship of 0.21. These observations confirm that gas-rich low luminosity galaxies have extremely low elemental abundances in the ionized gas-phase of their interstellar media. Although Leo A has one of the lowest metal abundances of known nearby galaxies, detection of tracers of an older stellar population indicate that it is not a newly formed galaxy as has been proposed for some other similarly low metallicity star forming galaxies.

  13. Oxygen transport membrane system and method for transferring heat to catalytic/process reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelly, Sean M; Kromer, Brian R; Litwin, Michael M; Rosen, Lee J; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie R; Kosowski, Lawrence W; Robinson, Charles

    2014-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for producing heat used in a synthesis gas production is provided. The disclosed method and apparatus include a plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements adapted to separate oxygen from an oxygen containing stream contacting the retentate side of the membrane elements. The permeated oxygen is combusted with a hydrogen containing synthesis gas stream contacting the permeate side of the tubular oxygen transport membrane elements thereby generating a reaction product stream and radiant heat. The present method and apparatus also includes at least one catalytic reactor containing a catalyst to promote the stream reforming reaction wherein the catalytic reactor is surrounded by the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements. The view factor between the catalytic reactor and the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements radiating heat to the catalytic reactor is greater than or equal to 0.5.

  14. Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatment in Radiation-Induced Cystitis and Proctitis: A Prospective Cohort Study on Patient-Perceived Quality of Recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oscarsson, Nicklas, E-mail: nicklas.oscarsson@vgregion.se [Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg and Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Arnell, Per [Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg and Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Lodding, Pr [Department of Urology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg and Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Ricksten, Sven-Erik; Seeman-Lodding, Helne [Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg and Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: In this prospective cohort study, the effects of hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) were evaluated concerning patient-perceived symptoms of late radiation-induced cystitis and proctitis secondary to radiation therapy for pelvic cancer. Methods and Materials: Thirty-nine patients, 35 men and 4 women with a mean age of 71 (range, 35-84) years were included after informed consent and institutional ethics approval. They had all been treated with radiation therapy for prostate (n=34), cervix (n=2), or rectal (n=3) cancer using external beam radiation at a dose of 25 to 75 Gy. Patients with hematuria requiring blood transfusion were excluded. The HBOT was delivered with 100% oxygen for 90 minutes at 2.0 to 2.4 atmospheres (ATA). Mean number of treatments was 36 (28-40). Symptoms were prospectively assessed using the Expanded Prostate Index Composite score before, during, and 6 to 12 months after HBOT. Results: The HBOT was successfully conducted, and symptoms were alleviated in 76% for patients with radiation cystitis, 89% for patients with radiation proctitis, and 88% of patients with combined cystitis and proctitis. Symptom reduction was demonstrated by an increased Expanded Prostate Index Composite score in the urinary domain from 50 16 to 66 20 after treatment (P<.001) and in the bowel domain from 48 18 to 68 18 after treatment (P<.001). For 31% of the patients with cystitis and 22% with proctitis, there were only trivial symptoms after HBOT. The improvement was sustained at follow-up in both domains 6 to 12 months after HBOT. No severe side effects were observed related to HBOT, and treatment compliance was high. Conclusions: HBOT can be an effective and safe treatment modality for late radiation therapy-induced soft tissue injuries in the pelvic region.

  15. Oxygen vacancy ordering within anion-deficient Ceria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hull, S., E-mail: stephen.hull@stfc.ac.u [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Norberg, S.T.; Ahmed, I. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Eriksson, S.G. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Marrocchelli, D. [School of Chemistry, Edinburgh University, The King's Building, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JJ (United Kingdom); Madden, P.A. [School of Chemistry, Edinburgh University, The King's Building, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JJ (United Kingdom); Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The structural properties of anion deficient ceria, CeO{sub 2-{delta}}, have been studied as a function of oxygen partial pressure, p(O{sub 2}), over the range 0>=log{sub 10p}(O{sub 2})>=-18.9 at 1273(2) K using the neutron powder diffraction technique. Rietveld refinement of the diffraction data collected on decreasing p(O{sub 2}) showed increases in the cubic lattice parameter, a, the oxygen nonstoichiometry, delta, and the isotropic thermal vibration parameters, u{sub Ce} and u{sub O}, starting at log{sub 10p}(O{sub 2}){approx}-11. The increases are continuous, but show a distinct kink at log{sub 10p}(O{sub 2}){approx}-14.5. Analysis of the total scattering (Bragg plus diffuse components) using reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) modelling indicates that the O{sup 2-} vacancies preferentially align as pairs in the <111> cubic directions as the degree of nonstoichiometry increases. This behaviour is discussed with reference to the chemical crystallography of the CeO{sub 2}-Ce{sub 2}O{sub 3} system at ambient temperature and, in particular, to the nature of the long-range ordering of O{sup 2-} vacancies within the crystal structure of Ce{sub 7}O{sub 12}. - Graphical abstract: Partial radial distribution function for oxygen vacancies within CeO{sub 1.710} at 1273 K (solid line) showing the increased tendency for local ordering in <111> directions compared to a random distribution (dashed line).

  16. Active Oxygen on Au/TiO2 Catalysts DOI: 10.1002/anie.201102062 Active oxygen on a Au/TiO2 catalyst Formation, stability and CO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Holger

    1 Active Oxygen on Au/TiO2 Catalysts DOI: 10.1002/anie.201102062 Active oxygen on a Au/TiO2 are the activation of molecular oxygen, the active site for this reaction step, and the nature of the catalytically active oxygen species present under working conditions.[3;9-15] Stiehl et al. had shown that molecularly

  17. IN-SITU STUDY OF OXYGEN ISOTOPES IN GRAPHITE FROM L3 CHONDRITES: INDICATIONS FOR OXYGEN ISOTOPIC HETEROGENEITY. S. Mostefaoui1, FJ. Stadermann2, and A. El Goresy1. !Max-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IN-SITU STUDY OF OXYGEN ISOTOPES IN GRAPHITE FROM L3 CHONDRITES: INDICATIONS FOR OXYGEN ISOTOPIC in-situ measurements of oxygen isotopes in graphite from the Khohar and Mez6-Madaras (L3) chondrites. Oxygen isotopic measurements were conducted with the Washington University ion microprobe (a modified

  18. Oxygen-stabilized zirconium-vanadium intermetallic compound

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mendelsohn, M.H.; Gruen, D.M.

    1981-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    An oxygen stabilized intermetallic compound having the formula Zr/sub x/OV/sub y/ where x = 0.7 to 2.0 and y = 0.18 to 0.33 is described. The compound is capable of reversibly sorbing hydrogen at temperatures from - 196/sup 0/C to 450/sup 0/C at pressures down to 10/sup -6/ Torr. The compound is also capable of selectively sorbing hydrogen from gaseous mixtures in the presence of CO and CO/sub 2/.

  19. Thermochemical generation of hydrogen and oxygen from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robinson, Paul R. (Knoxville, TN); Bamberger, Carlos E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermochemical cyclic process for the production of hydrogen exploits the reaction between sodium manganate (NaMnO.sub.2) and titanium dioxide (TiO.sub.2) to form sodium titanate (Na.sub.2 TiO.sub.3), manganese (II) titanate (MnTiO.sub.3) and oxygen. The titanate mixture is treated with sodium hydroxide, in the presence of steam, to form sodium titanate, sodium manganate (III), water and hydrogen. The sodium titanate-manganate (III) mixture is treated with water to form sodium manganate (III), titanium dioxide and sodium hydroxide. Sodium manganate (III) and titanium dioxide are recycled following dissolution of sodium hydroxide in water.

  20. Thermochemical generation of hydrogen and oxygen from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robinson, Paul R. (Knoxville, TN); Bamberger, Carlos E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermochemical cyclic process for the production of hydrogen exploits the reaction between sodium manganate (NaMnO.sub.2) and titanium dioxide (TiO.sub.2) to form sodium titanate (Na.sub.2 TiO.sub.3), manganese (II) titanate (MnTiO.sub.3) and oxygen. The titanate mixture is treated with sodium hydroxide, in the presence of steam, to form sodium titanate, sodium manganate (III), water and hydrogen. The sodium titanate-manganate (III) mixture is treated with water to form sodium manganate (III), titanium dioxide and sodium hydroxide. Sodium manganate (III) and titanium dioxide are recycled following dissolution of sodium hydroxide in water.

  1. Determination of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen in high purity magnesium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roche, Neil Gerard

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the determination of low Z impurities (carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen) is a prerequisite for gaining an understanding of the effects of chemical imperfections on the physical, metallurgical, and chemical properties of magnesium (2). The purpose of this study... of nitrogen was accomplished with a 7. 8 MeV Be beam and 9 3 some modifications of the preceeding He procedure were necessary due to the nature of the ion beam. Sam les and Standards Eleven magnesium ingots were received from Dow Chemical Co. , Texas...

  2. Avian embryonic development in a helium-oxygen atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, David Harrison

    1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -through of the helium-oxygen mixture or com- pressed breathing air, (Figure 1, 2, and 3). Although the chambers were tightly sealed and a slight pressure inside the chamber showed no leaks when tested with a soapy solution, the interior atmosphere (He-02), became... seal without the use of tape. A slight positive pressure wss maintained inside each chamber and a soapy solution or ~gnoo (manufactured by Nuclear Products Co. , Cleveland, Ohio) was used to test for leaks. The chamber with He-02 was flushed...

  3. Method for providing oxygen ion vacancies in lanthanide oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kay, D. Alan R. (4305 Lakeshore Rd., Burlington, CA); Wilson, William G. (820 Harden Dr., Pittsburgh, PA 15229)

    1989-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for desulfurization of fuel gases resulting from the incomplete combustion of sulfur containing hydrocarbons whereby the gases are treated with lanthanide oxides containing large numbers of oxygen-ion vacancies providing ionic porosity which enhances the ability of the lanthanide oxides to react more rapidly and completely with the sulfur in the fuel gases whereby the sulfur in such gases is reduced to low levels suitable for fuels for firing into boilers of power plants generating electricity with steam turbine driven generators, gas turbines, fuel cells and precursors for liquid fuels such as methanol and the like.

  4. Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeeding access toTest andOptimize carbonOtherdefault Sign InOverviewOxygen

  5. Influence of oxygen on the interfacial stability of Cu on Co,,0001... thin films Hongmei Wen,1 Matthew Neurock,1,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    Influence of oxygen on the interfacial stability of Cu on Co,,0001... thin films Hongmei Wen,1 of oxygen, which can impact the quality of film and its properties. Previously we found that oxygen to examine the effects of surface atomic oxygen on the stability of the Cu 111 /Co 0001 interface

  6. Declining Oxygen in the Northeast Pacific* STEPHEN D. PIERCE, JOHN A. BARTH, R. KIPP SHEARMAN, AND ANATOLI Y. EROFEEV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierce, Stephen

    Declining Oxygen in the Northeast Pacific* STEPHEN D. PIERCE, JOHN A. BARTH, R. KIPP SHEARMAN a decrease in oceanic dissolved oxygen and a thickening of the oxygen minimum zone, associated with global warming. Comprehensive observational analyses of oxygen decline are chal- lenging, given generally sparse

  7. Type Ia supernovae from exploding oxygen-neon white dwarfs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marquardt, Kai S; Ruiter, Ashley J; Seitenzahl, Ivo R; Ohlmann, Sebastian T; Kromer, Markus; Pakmor, Ruediger; Roepke, Friedrich K

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The progenitor problem of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is still unsolved. Most of these events are thought to be explosions of carbon-oxygen (CO) white dwarfs (WDs), but for many of the explosion scenarios, particularly those involving the externally triggered detonation of a sub-Chandrasekhar mass WD (sub-M Ch WD), there is also a possibility of having an oxygen-neon (ONe) WD as progenitor. We simulate detonations of ONe WDs and calculate synthetic observables from these models. The results are compared with detonations in CO WDs of similar mass and observational data of SNe Ia. We perform hydrodynamic explosion simulations of detonations in initially hydrostatic ONe WDs for a range of masses below the Chandrasekhar mass (M Ch), followed by detailed nucleosynthetic postprocessing with a 384-isotope nuclear reaction network. The results are used to calculate synthetic spectra and light curves, which are then compared with observations of SNe Ia. We also perform binary evolution calculations to determine the nu...

  8. The bound coherent neutron scattering length of the oxygen isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, Henry E [Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL); Simonson, J Michael {Mike} [ORNL; Neuefeind, Joerg C [ORNL; Lemmel, Hartmut [Technical University Vienna; Rauch, Helmut [E141 Atominstitut der sterreichischen Universitten,; Zeidler, Anita [University of Bath; Salmon, Phil [University of Bath

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The technique of neutron interferometry was used to measure the bound coherent neutron scattering length bcoh of the oxygen isotopes 17O and 18O. From the measured difference in optical path between two water samples, either H2 17O or H2 18O versus H2 natO, where nat denotes the natural isotopic composition, we obtain bcoh , 17O = 5.867(4) fm and bcoh , 18O = 6.009(5) fm, based on the accurately known value of bcoh , natO = 5.805(4) fm which is equal to bcoh , 16O within the experimental uncertainty. Our results for bcoh , 17O and bcoh , 18O differ appreciably from the standard tabulated values of 5.6(5) fm and 5.84(7) fm, respectively. In particular, our measured scattering length contrast of 0.204(3) fm between 18O and natO is nearly a factor of 6 greater than the tabulated value, which renders feasible neutron diffraction experiments using 18O isotope substitution and thereby offers new possibilites for measuring the partial structure factors of oxygen-containing compounds, such as water.

  9. Commercialization Development of Oxygen Fired CFB for Greenhouse Gas Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; David G. Turek

    2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Given that fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic (i.e., man-made) CO{sub 2} emissions. In 2001, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) began a two-phase program to investigate the feasibility of various carbon capture technologies. This program was sponsored under a Cooperative Agreement from the US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE). The first phase entailed a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants. Thirteen cases, representing various levels of technology development, were evaluated. Seven cases represented coal combustion in CFB type equipment. Four cases represented Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. Two cases represented advanced Chemical Looping Combined Cycle systems. Marion, et al. reported the details of this work in 2003. One of the thirteen cases studied utilized an oxygen-fired circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. In this concept, the fuel is fired with a mixture of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (mainly CO{sub 2}). This combustion process yields a flue gas containing over 80 percent (by volume) CO{sub 2}. This flue gas can be processed relatively easily to enrich the CO{sub 2} content to over 96 percent for use in enhanced oil or gas recovery (EOR or EGR) or simply dried for sequestration. The Phase I study identified the O{sub 2}-fired CFB as having a near term development potential, because it uses conventional commercial CFB technology and commercially available CO{sub 2} capture enabling technologies such as cryogenic air separation and simple rectification or distillation gas processing systems. In the long term, air separation technology advancements offer significant reductions in power requirements, which would improve plant efficiency and economics for the oxygen-fired technology. The second phase consisted of pilot-scale testing followed by a refined performance and economic evaluation of the O{sub 2} fired CFB concept. As a part of this workscope, ALSTOM modified its 3 MW{sub th} (9.9 MMBtu/hr) Multiuse Test Facility (MTF) pilot plant to operate with O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} mixtures of up to 70 percent O{sub 2} by volume. Tests were conducted with coal and petroleum coke. The test objectives were to determine the impacts of oxygen firing on heat transfer, bed dynamics, potential agglomeration, and gaseous and particulate emissions. The test data results were used to refine the design, performance, costs, and economic models developed in Phase-I for the O{sub 2}-fired CFB with CO{sub 2} capture. Nsakala, Liljedahl, and Turek reported results from this study in 2004. ALSTOM identified several items needing further investigation in preparation for large scale demonstration of the oxygen-fired CFB concept, namely: (1) Operation and performance of the moving bed heat exchanger (MBHE) to avoid recarbonation and also for cost savings compared to the standard bubbling fluid bed heat exchanger (FBHE); (2) Performance of the back-end flash dryer absorber (FDA) for sulfur capture under high CO{sub 2}/high moisture flue gas environment using calcined limestone in the fly ash and using fresh commercial lime directly in the FDA; (3) Determination of the effect of recarbonation on fouling in the convective pass; (4) Assessment of the impact of oxygen firing on the mercury, other trace elements, and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions; and (5) Develop a proposal-level oxygen-fired retrofit design for a relatively small existing CFB steam power plant in preparation for a large-scale demonstration of the O{sub 2} fired CFB concept. Hence, ALSTOM responded to a DOE Solicitation to address all these issues with further O{sub 2} fired MTF pilot testing and a subsequent retrofit design study of oxygen firing and CO{s

  10. High-resolution NMR process analyzer for oxygenates in gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skloss, T.W.; Kim, A.J.; Haw, J.F. (Texas A M Univ., College Station, TX (United States))

    1994-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a high-resolution 42-MHz[sup 1]HFT-NMR instrument that is suitable for use as a process analyzer and demonstrate its use in the determination of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in a flowing stream of gasoline. This spectrometer is based on a 55-kg permanent magnet with essentially no fringe field. A spectral resolution of 3 Hz was typically obtained for spinning samples, and this performance was only slightly degraded with flowing samples. We report a procedure for magnet drift compensation using a software procedure rather than a field-frequency lock channel. This procedure allowed signal averaging without loss of resolution. Regulatory changes to be implemented in the near future have created a need for the development of methods for the determination of MTBE and other oxygenates in reformulated gasolines. Existing methods employing gas chromatography are not fast enough for process control of a gasoline blender and suffer from other limitations. This study demonstrates that process analysis NMR is well-suited to the determination of MTBE in a simulated gasoline blender. The detection limit of 0.5 vol % MTBE was obtained with a measurement time of 1 min. The absolute standard deviation of independent determinations was 0.17% when the MTBE concentration was 10%, a nominal value. Preliminary results also suggest that the method may be applicable to gasolines containing mixtures of oxygenate additives as well as the measurement of aromatic and olefinic hydrogens. 33 refs., 9 figs.

  11. Radiation chemistry of alternative fuel oxygenates -- Substituted ethers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mezyk, S. P.; Cooper, W. J.; Bartels, D. M.; Tobien, T.; O'Shea, K. E.

    1999-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The electron beam process, an advanced oxidation and reduction technology, is based in the field of radiation chemistry. Fundamental to the development of treatment processes is an understanding of the underlying chemistry. The authors have previously evaluated the bimolecular rate constants for the reactions of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and with this study have extended their studies to include ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), di-isopropyl ether (DIPE) and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) with the hydroxyl radical, hydrogen atom and solvated electron using pulse radiolysis. For all of the oxygenates the reaction with the hydroxyl radical appears to be of primary interest in the destruction of the compounds in water. The rates with the solvated electron are limiting values as the rates appear to be relatively low. The hydrogen atom rate constants are relatively low, coupled with the low yield in radiolysis, they concluded that these are of little significance in the destruction of the alternative fuel oxygenates (and MTBE).

  12. Oxygen-Diffused Titanium as a Candidate Brake Rotor Material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qu, Jun [ORNL; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Jolly, Brian C [ORNL

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Titanium alloys are one of several candidate materials for the next generation of truck disk brake rotors. Despite their advantages of lightweight relative to cast iron and good strength and corrosion resistance, titanium alloys are unlikely to be satisfactory brake rotor materials unless their friction and wear behavior can be significantly improved. In this study, a surface engineering process oxygen diffusion was applied to titanium rotors and has shown very encouraging results. The oxygen diffused Ti-6Al-4V (OD-Ti) was tested on a sub-scale brake tester against a flat block of commercial brake lining material and benchmarked against several other Ti-based materials, including untreated Ti-6Al-4V, ceramic particle-reinforced Ti composites (MMCs), and a thermal-spray-coated Ti alloy. With respect to friction, the OD-Ti outperformed all other candidate materials under the imposed test conditions with the friction coefficient remaining within a desirable range of 0.35-0.50, even under the harshest conditions when the disk surface temperature reached nearly 600 ?C. In addition, the OD-Ti showed significantly improved wear-resistance over the non-treated one and was even better than the Ti-based composite materials.

  13. A new approach to oxygen enriched high temperature blast generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Queille, P.H.; Macauley, D.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    When increasing fuel injection in a blast furnace in order to reduce coke consumption and/or to increase production, the blast furnace operator tries to keep similar raceway conditions, for instance, an equivalent flame temperature. To compensate for the cooling effect due to the higher injection rate, two solutions can be selected or combined: to raise the temperature of the blast and/or to increase the level of oxygen in the blast. Whatever the choice, the Blast Furnace manager will certainly try to reduce the resulting investment and operating costs to a minimum. Air Liquide and Kvaerner Davy are trying to provide a new way to address these needs by offering a new technology for blast heating. A higher blast temperature will not only allow a higher fuel injection at tuyere level, a lower coke consumption, but also a lower oxygen consumption. Air Liquide and Kvaerner Davy are now able to offer a new heat regenerator with major advantages over conventional stoves. This new device can be used as a permanent substitute for a stove, or as a temporary one during repair, or stove improvement. It can also be added to an existing set of stoves to increase the average blast temperature.

  14. Hydrogen and Oxygen Gas Monitoring System Design and Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee C. Cadwallader; Kevin G. DeWall; J. Stephen Herring

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes pertinent design practices of selecting types of monitors, monitor unit placement, setpoint selection, and maintenance considerations for gas monitors. While hydrogen gas monitors and enriched oxygen atmosphere monitors as they would be needed for hydrogen production experiments are the primary focus of this paper, monitors for carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide are also discussed. The experiences of designing, installing, and calibrating gas monitors for a laboratory where experiments in support of the DOE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI) are described along with codes, standards, and regulations for these monitors. Information from the literature about best operating practices is also presented. The NHI program has two types of activities. The first, near-term activity is laboratory and pilot-plant experimentation with different processes in the kilogram per day scale to select the most promising types of processes for future applications of hydrogen production. Prudent design calls for indoor gas monitors to sense any hydrogen leaks within these laboratory rooms. The second, longer-term activity is the prototype, or large-scale plants to produce tons of hydrogen per day. These large, outdoor production plants will require area (or fencepost) monitoring of hydrogen gas leaks. Some processes will have oxygen production with hydrogen production, and any oxygen releases are also safety concerns since oxygen gas is the strongest oxidizer. Monitoring of these gases is important for personnel safety of both indoor and outdoor experiments. There is some guidance available about proper placement of monitors. The fixed point, stationary monitor can only function if the intruding gas contacts the monitor. Therefore, monitor placement is vital to proper monitoring of the room or area. Factors in sensor location selection include: indoor or outdoor site, the location and nature of potential vapor/gas sources, chemical and physical data of the gases or vapors, liquids with volatility need sensors near the potential sources of release, nature and concentration of gas releases, natural and mechanical ventilation, detector installation locations not vulnerable to mechanical or water damage from normal operations, and locations that lend themselves to convenient maintenance and calibration. The guidance also states that sensors should be located in all areas where hazardous accumulations of gas may occur. Such areas might not be close to release points but might be areas with restricted air movement. Heavier than air gases are likely to accumulate in pits, trenches, drains, and other low areas. Lighter than air gases are more likely to accumulate in overhead spaces, above drop ceilings, etc. In general, sensors should be located close to any potential sources of major release of gas. The paper gives data on monitor sensitivity and expected lifetimes to support the monitor selection process. Proper selection of indoor and outdoor locations for monitors is described, accounting for the vapor densities of hydrogen and oxygen. The latest information on monitor alarm setpoint selection is presented. Typically, monitors require recalibration at least every six months, or more frequently for inhospitable locations, so ready access to the monitors is an important issue to consider in monitor siting. Gas monitors, depending on their type, can be susceptible to blockages of the detector element (i.e., dus

  15. Origin of deep subgap states in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide: Chemically disordered coordination of oxygen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sallis, S.; Williams, D. S. [Materials Science and Engineering, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States); Butler, K. T.; Walsh, A. [Center for Sustainable Technologies and Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Quackenbush, N. F. [Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States); Junda, M.; Podraza, N. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 43606 (United States); Fischer, D. A.; Woicik, J. C. [Materials Science and Engineering Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); White, B. E.; Piper, L. F. J., E-mail: lpiper@binghamton.edu [Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States)

    2014-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The origin of the deep subgap states in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO), whether intrinsic to the amorphous structure or not, has serious implications for the development of p-type transparent amorphous oxide semiconductors. We report that the deep subgap feature in a-IGZO originates from local variations in the oxygen coordination and not from oxygen vacancies. This is shown by the positive correlation between oxygen composition and subgap intensity as observed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We also demonstrate that the subgap feature is not intrinsic to the amorphous phase because the deep subgap feature can be removed by low-temperature annealing in a reducing environment. Atomistic calculations of a-IGZO reveal that the subgap state originates from certain oxygen environments associated with the disorder. Specifically, the subgap states originate from oxygen environments with a lower coordination number and/or a larger metal-oxygen separation.

  16. The effect of bed temperature on oxygen partial pressures in an atmospheric fluidized bed combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malik, S.R. [PCSIR, Karachi (Pakistan). Fuel Research Centre; Gibbs, B.M. [Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom). Dept. of Fuel and Energy

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the factors which cause corrosion of in-bed material is the existence of low oxygen levels. Therefore, oxygen`s partial pressure measurements are important for corrosion studies in atmospheric fluidized bed combustor (AFBC). The effect of bed temperature on oxygen levels has been discussed in this paper. The experiments were conducted on a 0.3 meters square combustor. In-bed oxygen partial pressures were measured using zirconia oxygen probes and recorded on a computerized data logging system. Detail statistical analysis of the data has been presented. The probability density function (PDF) was the most important statistical parameter which reveals not only how long environment is exposed to oxidizing reducing conditions but also the probability whether corrosion could occur.

  17. Calculation of the degree of utilization of oxygen in the oxidation of bitumen under industrial conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marakaeva, L.A.; Bereznikov, A.V.; Rozental', D.A.

    1988-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The degree of utilization of air oxygen plays an important role in bitumen production. This parameter depends firstly on the capacity of the compressor that could be reduced at a more complete utilization of oxygen; secondly, a high oxygen content of the waste gases can lead to explosions and coke formation. Besides this, the waste gases contain toxic substances at concentrations which are not permitted for discharge into the atmosphere. Thus, the possibility of calculating the oxygen content of waste gases on industrial installation was investigated. The authors have derived an equation which describes the oxygen content of the waste gases as a function of the temperature and depth of oxidation, the oxygen flow rate, and the height of the liquid phase, for a laboratory unit; it was taken as the basis for the transition to the industrial scale.

  18. Controlled temperature expansion in oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erickson, D.C.

    1985-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A continuous process is set forth for the production of oxygen from an oxygen containing gas stream, such as air, by contacting a feed gas stream with a molten solution of an oxygen acceptor to oxidize the acceptor and cyclically regenerating the oxidized acceptor by releasing oxygen from the acceptor wherein the oxygen-depleted gas stream from the contact zone is treated sequentially to temperature reduction by heat exchange against the feed stream so as to condense out entrained oxygen acceptor for recycle to the process, combustion of the gas stream with fuel to elevate its temperature and expansion of the combusted high temperature gas stream in a turbine to recover power. 1 fig.

  19. The quantification of oxygen toxicity by the technique of cellulose acetate electrophoresis of rat serum proteins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barker, Marcia Wagner

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    symptoms of atelectasis, pulmonary edema, congestion and consolidation of the lungs, alveoli filled with a granular fibrillar exudate, and a general pneumonic condition. Therefore, pulmonary pathology associated with oxygen toxicity has been termed... the epithelial cells of the lungs are in direct contact with the changes in partial pressures of oxygen. Exposure to oxygen at increased partial pressures has had some dramatic effects on the circulatory system, such as increased osmotic fragility (96, 105...

  20. Blast furnace injection of massive quantities of coal with enriched air or pure oxygen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ponghis, N.; Dufresne, P.; Vidal, R.; Poos, A. (Center de Recherches Metallurgiques, Liege (Belgium))

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An extensive study of the phenomena associated with the blast furnace injection of massive quantities of coal is described. Trials with conventional lances or oxy-coal injectors and hot blast at different oxygen contents - up to 40% - or with cold pure oxygen were realized at coal to oxygen ratios corresponding to a range of 150 to 440 kg. Pilot scale rigs, empty or filled with coke, as well as industrial blast furnaces were utilized.

  1. The structure of oxygen difluoride and an attempted preparation of cyanogen fluoride

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hilton, Albert Ray

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ...................................................... 45 Figure 5. A Graphical Determination of the Fluorine Carbon Force Constant for FCN ...................... . . . ............ 46 Page vi ABSTRACT The molecular structure of oxygen difluoride (OF2 ) gas was studied by a standard microwave... components, where J is the total angular momentum quantum number of the initial state. 11 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE 1. Preparation of Oxygen Difluoride Oxygen difluoride was prepared by passing fluorine gas through a cold, dilute, aqueous solution of sodium...

  2. Rat colonic reactive oxygen species production and DNA damage are mediated by diet and age

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, Cara Aletha Everett

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    diacetate docosahexanoic acid diphenyliodonium chloride ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid eicosapentanoic acid ethidium homodiner ? 1 fragment length analysis using repair enzymes Fapy glycosylase Hanks' balanced salt solution hydrogen peroxide lipid... the elimination of cancer cells. Production and Functions of Reactive Oxygen Species Formation of reactive oxygen species Reactive oxygen species are a by-product of normal metabolism and include superoxide (Ot' ), hydrogen peroxide (HzO&), and the hydroxyl...

  3. Effect of phenylephrine and ephedrine bolus treatment on cerebral oxygenation in anaesthetized patients.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Miller RD, ed. Millers Anesthesia, 6th Edn. Philadelphia:with oxytocin during spinal anesthesia for elective cesareanlobe oxygenation following anesthesia-induced hypotension.

  4. Towards forming-free resistive switching in oxygen engineered HfO{sub 2?x}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharath, S. U., E-mail: sharath@oxide.tu-darmstadt.de; Kurian, J.; Hildebrandt, E.; Alff, L. [Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universitt Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Strasse 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Bertaud, T.; Walczyk, C.; Calka, P.; Zaumseil, P.; Sowinska, M.; Walczyk, D. [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt Oder (Germany); Gloskovskii, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Schroeder, T. [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt Oder (Germany); Brandenburgische Technische Universitt, Konrad-Zuse-Strasse 1, 03046 Cottbus (Germany)

    2014-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We have investigated the resistive switching behavior in stoichiometric HfO{sub 2} and oxygen-deficient HfO{sub 2?x} thin films grown on TiN electrodes using reactive molecular beam epitaxy. Oxygen defect states were controlled by the flow of oxygen radicals during thin film growth. Hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the presence of sub-stoichiometric hafnium oxide and defect states near the Fermi level. The oxygen deficient HfO{sub 2?x} thin films show bipolar switching with an electroforming occurring at low voltages and low operating currents, paving the way for almost forming-free devices for low-power applications.

  5. Cold-Start and Warm-Up Driveability Performance of Hybrid Electric Vehicles Using Oxygenated Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornton, M.; Jorgensen, S.; Evans, B.; Wright, K.

    2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Provides analysis and results of the driveability performance testing from four hybrid electric vehicles--Honda Civic, Toyota Prius, and two Honda Insights--that used oxygenated fuels.

  6. Webinar: Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Video recording of the Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar, Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique, originally presented on March 12, 2013.

  7. Impact of ethanol and butanol as oxygenates on SIDI engine efficiency...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    as oxygenates on SIDI engine efficiency and emissions using steady-state and transient test procedures Thomas Wallner, Neeraj Shidore, Andrew Ickes Argonne National Laboratory 16...

  8. Effect of different intravenous iron preparations on lymphocyte intracellular reactive oxygen species generation and subpopulation survival.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Ajay; Zhuo, Jiaying; Zha, Junli; Reddy, Srinivasa; Olp, Jonathan; Pai, Amy

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    IV iron compounds induced greater intracellular ROS generation,IV iron preparations on intracellular reactive oxygen species generationIV iron preparations on intracellular immune cell ROS generation

  9. Task Technical Plan for Studies of Oxygen Consumption in the Catalyzed Hydrolysis of Tetraphenylborate Ion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fink, S.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1996-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This document presents the plan for studies of how dissolved oxygen affects the catalytic decomposition of the tetraphenylborate ion in alkaline aqueous solution.

  10. Oxygen-resistant hydrogenases and methods for designing and making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, Paul (Golden, CO); Ghirardi, Maria L (Lakewood, CO); Seibert, Michael (Lakewood, CO)

    2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides oxygen- resistant iron-hydrogenases ([Fe]-hydrogenases) for use in the production of H2. Methods used in the design and engineering of the oxygen-resistant [Fe]-hydrogenases are disclosed, as are the methods of transforming and culturing appropriate host cells with the oxygen-resistant [Fe]-hydrogenases. Finally, the invention provides methods for utilizing the transformed, oxygen insensitive, host cells in the bulk production of H.sub.2 in a light catalyzed reaction having water as the reactant.

  11. Modeling and Control of High-Velocity Oxygen-Fuel (HVOF) Thermal Spray: A Tutorial Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Mingheng; Christofides, Panagiotis D.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluid Dynamics Analysis of a Wire- Feed, High-Velocity Oxygen Fuel (Fluid Dynamic Modeling of Gas Flow Charac- teristics in a High-Velocity Oxy-Fuel

  12. E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric pressure helium-oxygen Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Copyright permission to reproduce figures andor text from this article 12;Remote Atmospheric-Pressure... ) were treated with an atmospheric-pressure oxygen and...

  13. Oxygen-Dependent Morphogenesis of Modern Clumped Photosynthetic Mats and Implications for the Archean Stromatolite Record

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sim, Min Sub

    Some modern filamentous oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria (cyanobacteria) form macroscopic tufts, laminated cones and ridges that are very similar to some Archean and Proterozoic stromatolites. However, it remains unclear ...

  14. The effect of an evaporation suppressant upon the liquid film oxygen transfer coefficient

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amad, Mohamad Towfic

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by organisms in a lake and the quantity of oxygen diffusion through the air-water interface were determined and the results were verified by field measurements. It was shown that the oxygen uptake rate of organisms in a body of water can be measured... diffusion. 3. To derive an expression to predict the minimum dissolved oxygen concentration during the critical night period for a lake o" pond treated with "Aquasave". The ~sco e of this research has been to determine the oxygen transfer coefficient...

  15. Silicon-on-glass pore network micromodels with oxygen-sensing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Silicon-on-glass pore network micromodels with oxygen-sensing fluorophore films for chemical imaging and defined spatial Silicon-on-glass pore network micromodels with...

  16. Low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oils and methods for producing the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marinangeli, Richard; Brandvold, Timothy A; Kocal, Joseph A

    2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oils and methods for producing them from carbonaceous biomass feedstock are provided. The carbonaceous biomass feedstock is pyrolyzed in the presence of a catalyst comprising base metal-based catalysts, noble metal-based catalysts, treated zeolitic catalysts, or combinations thereof to produce pyrolysis gases. During pyrolysis, the catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction whereby at least a portion of the oxygenated hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis gases are converted into hydrocarbons. The oxygen is removed as carbon oxides and water. A condensable portion (the vapors) of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  17. Table 11. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Volumes by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 11. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type (Million Gallons per Day) - Continued Year...

  18. Oxygen-resistant hydrogenases and methods for designing and making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, Paul; Ghirardi, Maria Lucia; Seibert, Michael

    2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides oxygen-resistant iron-hydrogenases ([Fe]-hydrogenases) for use in the production of H.sub.2. Methods used in the design and engineering of the oxygen-resistant [Fe]-hydrogenases are disclosed, as are the methods of transforming and culturing appropriate host cells with the oxygen-resistant [Fe]-hydrogenases. Finally, the invention provides methods for utilizing the transformed, oxygen insensitive, host cells in the bulk production of H.sub.2 in a light catalyzed reaction having water as the reactant.

  19. Photocatalytic reactions of oxygenates on tropospheric oxide particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Idriss, H.; Seebauer, E.G.; Miller, A. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxygenates such as ethanol and tert-butyl methyl ether (MTBE) are finding increased use as additives to fuels. The relative merits of ethanol and MTBE have become the focus of intense debate with their ultimate fate as fugitive emissions representing one aspect of this controversy. Both species are known to react homogeneously with photogenerated OH radicals. Here we show that both can also photoreact on suspended solid particulates in the atmosphere with rates comparable to those of OH reactions. Heterogeneous reactions of ethanol yield acetaldehyde and those of MTBE give isobutene and formaldehyde (carcinogenic). Experiments by spectroscopic and kinetic techniques show that the active phases in fly ash are Fe and Ti oxides. In addition, the effects of humidity and alkali addition on the activity and selectivity of these reactions are also discussed. This work appears to be the first demonstration that volatile organic compounds can react as fast by a heterogeneous mechanism as by a homogeneous one in the atmosphere.

  20. Lithium-Beryllium-Boron and Oxygen in the early Galaxy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elisabeth Vangioni-Flam; Michel Casse

    2000-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxygen is a much better evolutionary index than iron to follow the history of Lithium-Beryllium-Boron (LiBeB) since it is the main producer of these light elements at least in the early Galaxy. The O-Fe relation is crucial to the determination of the exact physical process responsible for the LiBeB production. Calculated nucleosynthetic yields of massive stars, estimates of the energy cost of Be production, and above all recent observations reported in this meeting seem to favor a mechanism in which fast nuclei enriched into He, C and O arising from supernovae are accelerated in superbubbles and fragment on H and He in the interstellar medium.

  1. Enhanced carbon-oxygen log interpretations using supplemental log curves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wyatt, D.F. Jr.; Jacobson, L.A.; Fox, P.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Supplemental measurements from induced nuclear spectrometry tools are examined to demonstrate what additional information they provide about the well and reservoir conditions. Logs in shut-in wells from Indonesia provide examples of oxygen activation measurements showing cross-flow from one reservoir to another via open perforations. Leaking squeezed perforations were also observed. An example from Alaska shows radioactive scale build-up in the casing which spectral analysis identifies as a mixture of uranium and thorium salts. Another log, where the casing fluid was replaced with crude oil, demonstrates a technique for identifying cement channels. Logs from Nigeria comparing oil saturation estimates before and after a squeeze operation illustrate the effect of casing fluid flushing of the formation through open perforations. Understanding the diagnostic character of these curves leads to higher confidence in the overall log interpretation process.

  2. Metallicity of the intergalactic medium using pixel statistics: IV. Oxygen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anthony Aguirre; Corey Dow-Hygelund; Joop Schaye; Tom Theuns

    2008-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We have studied the abundance of oxygen in the IGM by analyzing OVI, CIV, SiIV, and HI pixel optical depths derived from a set of high-quality VLT and Keck spectra of 17 QSOs at 2.1 ~ 0.2. Consistent results are obtained by similarly comparing OVI to HI or OVI to SiIV optical depth ratios to simulation values, and also by directly ionization-correcting OVI optical depths as function of HI optical depths into [O/H] as a function of density. Subdividing the sample reveals no evidence for evolution, but low- and high-density samples are inconsistent, suggesting either density-dependence of [O/C] or -- more likely -- prevalence of collisionally-ionized gas at high density.

  3. Platinum - Coated Cobalt Nanowires as Oxygen Reduction Reaction Electrocatalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alia, Shaun M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Pylypenko, Svitlana [ORNL; Neyerlin, Kenneth C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Cullen, David A [ORNL; Kocha, Shyam S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Pivovar, Bryan [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cobalt nanowires (CoNWs) are coated with platinum (Pt) by partial galvanic displacement, forming core/shell wires 200 300 nm in diameter and 100 200 1m in length. PtCoNWs are characterized for activit y in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) with rotating disk electrode half5cells in 0.1 M perchloric acid electrolytes. The resulting catalysts demonstrate ORR specific activi ties in the range 2053 2783 1A cm Pt 2 , comparable to the specific activity of polycrystalline Pt. The specific activi ties of PtCoNWs increase with decreasing Pt content and exhibit a corresponding increase in Pt lattice compression. P tCoNWs have exhibited a maximum mass activity of 79 3 mA mg Pt 1 , 2.6 times greater than carbon5supported Pt nanopart icles.

  4. Oxygen at Nanomolar Levels Reversibly Suppresses Process Rates and Gene Expression in Anammox and Denitrification in the Oxygen Minimum Zone off Northern Chile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dalsgaard, Tage

    A major percentage (20 to 40%) of global marine fixed-nitrogen loss occurs in oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). Concentrations of O[subscript 2] and the sensitivity of the anaerobic N[subscript 2]-producing processes of anammox ...

  5. Covalency in Metal-Oxygen Multiple Bonds Evaluated Using Oxygen K-edge Spectroscopy and Electronic Structure Theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minasian, Stefan G.; Keith, Jason M.; Batista, Enrique R.; Boland, Kevin S.; Bradley, Joseph A.; Daly, Scott R.; Kozimor, Stosh A.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Martin, Richard L.; Nordlund, Dennis; Seidler, Gerald T.; Shuh, David K.; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Wagner, Gregory L.; Weng, Tsu-Chein; Yang, Ping

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advancing theories of how metal oxygen bonding influences metal oxo properties can expose new avenues for innovation in materials science, catalysis, and biochemistry. Historically, spectroscopic analyses of the transition metal peroxyanions, MO4x-, have formed the basis for new M O bonding theories. Herein, relative changes in M O orbital mixing in MO42- (M = Cr, Mo, W) and MO41- (M = Mn, Tc, Re) are evaluated for the first time by non-resonant inelastic X-ray scattering, X-ray absorption spectroscopy using fluorescence and transmission (via a scanning transmission X-ray microscope), and linear-response density functional theory. The results suggest that moving from Group 6 to Group 7 or down the triads increases M O e () mixing. Meanwhile, t2 mixing ( + ) remains relatively constant within the same Group. These unexpected changes in frontier orbital energy and composition are evaluated in terms of periodic trends in d orbital energy and radial extension.

  6. Recent Electric Oxygen-Iodine Laser Experiments and Modeling David L. Carrolla

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carroll, David L.

    and modeling have led to a continuing evolution of the Electric Oxygen-Iodine Laser (ElectricOIL) system. A new experiments and modeling of our ElectricOIL system. 2. EXPERIMENTS The ElectricOIL system consists primarilyRecent Electric Oxygen-Iodine Laser Experiments and Modeling David L. Carrolla , Gabriel F

  7. Semi-insulating crystalline silicon formed by oxygen doping during low-temperature chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Semi-insulating crystalline silicon formed by oxygen doping during low-temperature chemical vapor) In this letter we demonstrate the use of oxygen as a dopant in silicon to create semi-insulating, crystalline of the films exhibit classical characteristics of space-charge-limited current associated with insulators

  8. Changes in the Ventilation of the Oxygen Minimum Zone of the Tropical North Atlantic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Changes in the Ventilation of the Oxygen Minimum Zone of the Tropical North Atlantic PETER BRANDT) ABSTRACT Changes in the ventilation of the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the tropical North Atlantic centimeters per second in the depth range of the OMZ contribute to the ventilation of the OMZ. A conceptual

  9. Correlation of secondary organic aerosol with odd oxygen in Mexico City

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jimenez, Jose-Luis

    Correlation of secondary organic aerosol with odd oxygen in Mexico City Scott C. Herndon,1 Timothy location, free from local sources, within the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. Analysis of the Mexico City. C., et al. (2008), Correlation of secondary organic aerosol with odd oxygen in Mexico City, Geophys

  10. Modeling of the oxygen transfer in the respiratory process Sebastien Martin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    in the acinar periphery. Introduction The respiratory system is designed to achieve two main functions: oxygenModeling of the oxygen transfer in the respiratory process Sebastien Martin Laboratoire de Math, coupled with a lumped mechanical model for the ventilation process. Objectives. We aim at investigating

  11. Hydrogen absorption characteristics of oxygen-stabilized rare-earth iron intermetallic compounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    Hydrogen absorption characteristics of oxygen-stabilized rare-earth iron intermetallic compounds M Abstract. -- The thermal behavior of oxygen-stabilized RjFegO^-hydrogen (R = Y, Dy, Ho) systems was studied decade to the study of the hydrogenation characte- ristics of a variety of intermetallic compounds, our

  12. FISHERY WASTE EFFLUENTS: A METHOD TO DETERMINE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND AND RESIDUE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FISHERY WASTE EFFLUENTS: A METHOD TO DETERMINE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND effluents, especially for total suspended and settleable solids, and oil and grease. The relationship between chemical oxygen demand and residue was determined on a limited number of samples from four types

  13. Oxygen isotope composition of evapotranspiration and its relation to C4 photosynthetic discrimination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    the relation between canopy leaf water 18 O enrichment, 18 OCO2 photosynthetic discrimination (18 D), isotopeOxygen isotope composition of evapotranspiration and its relation to C4 photosynthetic; published 23 March 2011. [1] The oxygen isotope of water (18 OH2O) and carbon dioxide (18 OCO2

  14. Mineralization pathways in lake sediments with different oxygen and organic carbon supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wehrli, Bernhard

    Mineralization pathways in lake sediments with different oxygen and organic carbon supply Martin Abstract The intensity and pathways of mineralization of sedimentary organic matter were investigated equipped with both oxygen and ion-selective electrodes. Anaerobic sedimentary mineralization ranged from 13

  15. Calibration of sclerosponge oxygen isotope records to temperature using high-resolution d18

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miami, University of

    Calibration of sclerosponge oxygen isotope records to temperature using high-resolution d18 O data; available online 21 May 2009 Abstract A revised calibration is presented relating the oxygen isotope an existing calibration which was determined using measurements of salinity rather than directly measured d18

  16. Regulation of Singlet Oxygen Generation Using Single-Walled Carbon Zhiwen Tang,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tan, Weihong

    Regulation of Singlet Oxygen Generation Using Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Zhi Zhu, Zhiwen Tang of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan UniVersity, Changsha 410082, P. R. China Received April 20, 2008DNA aptamer, and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) for controllable singlet oxygen (1 O2) generation. 1 O

  17. Proceedings of IEEE Sensors 2003 Fiber Optic Oxygen Sensor for Power Plant Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghosh, Ruby N.

    807 Proceedings of IEEE Sensors 2003 Paper 22-2 Fiber Optic Oxygen Sensor for Power Plant for power plant applications. The sensor utilizes quenching of the bright red fluorescence from inorganic. Motivation Combustion processes in power plants require the correct mix of fuel and oxygen to maximize

  18. Diffuse Optical Tomography of Cerebral Blood Flow, Oxygenation, and Metabolism in Rat During Focal Ischemia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yodh, Arjun G.

    of oxygen consumption (CMRO2). Temporary (60-minute) MCAO was performed on five rats. Ischemic changes--Cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption. Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) of the brain is an attractive new complementary to those of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomog- raphy (PET), and holds

  19. Stability and Migration of Charged Oxygen Interstitials in ThO2...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    oxygen interstitial mobility in ThO2 than in CeO2. Citation: Xiao HY, Y Zhang, and WJ Weber.2013."Stability and Migration of Charged Oxygen Interstitials in ThO2 and CeO2."Acta...

  20. The Paleoproterozoic snowball Earth: A climate disaster triggered by the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    photosynthesis Robert E. Kopp*, Joseph L. Kirschvink, Isaac A. Hilburn, and Cody Z. Nash Division of Geological biomarker, trace element, and isotopic evidence have been used to claim that oxygenic photosynthesis evolved phases. First, oxygenic photosynthesis evolved and brought into the world locally oxic environments

  1. Amorphous FeOOH Oxygen Evolution Reaction Catalyst for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Jung-Fu "Afu"

    activity electrocatalysts for the hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions (HER and OER). Toward this goal cells with a photovoltaic efficiency of 6.8%. The resulting a-FeOOH/a-Si devices achieve a total water, and (iv) be catalytically active for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) or hydrogen evolution reaction

  2. JOIJKUAL I)E I'HYSIQUE Diffusion study of oxygen implanted in nickel oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    JOIJKUAL I)E I'HYSIQUE Diffusion study of oxygen implanted in nickel oxide M. Meyer, S. Barbezat, C coefficients d'autodiffusion de I'oxygene dans l'oxyde de nickel, mesurkes rkemment, par Cchange isotopique implanted in nickel oxide; the experiments are carried out by annealing between 1 300 and 1 500 OC nickel

  3. Low energy consumption method for separating gaseous mixtures and in particular for medium purity oxygen production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jujasz, Albert J. (North Olmsted, OH); Burkhart, James A. (Olmsted Falls, OH); Greenberg, Ralph (New York, NY)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for the separation of gaseous mixtures such as air and for producing medium purity oxygen, comprising compressing the gaseous mixture in a first compressor to about 3.9-4.1 atmospheres pressure, passing said compressed gaseous mixture in heat exchange relationship with sub-ambient temperature gaseous nitrogen, dividing the cooled, pressurized gaseous mixture into first and second streams, introducing the first stream into the high pressure chamber of a double rectification column, separating the gaseous mixture in the rectification column into a liquid oxygen-enriched stream and a gaseous nitrogen stream and supplying the gaseous nitrogen stream for cooling the compressed gaseous mixture, removing the liquid oxygen-enriched stream from the low pressure chamber of the rectification column and pumping the liquid, oxygen-enriched steam to a predetermined pressure, cooling the second stream, condensing the cooled second stream and evaporating the oxygen-enriched stream in an evaporator-condenser, delivering the condensed second stream to the high pressure chamber of the rectification column, and heating the oxygen-enriched stream and blending the oxygen-enriched stream with a compressed blend-air stream to the desired oxygen concentration.

  4. Dissociation of water on oxygen-covered Rh^111 A. Shavorskiy,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schnadt, Joachim

    to the somewhat unusual situation that these water layers are actually hydrophobic due to the lack of hydrogenDissociation of water on oxygen-covered Rh^111 A. Shavorskiy,1 T. Eralp,1 E. Ataman,2 C. Isvoranu,2 November 2009; published online 4 December 2009 The adsorption of water and coadsorption with oxygen on Rh

  5. Boundaries of the Peruvian Oxygen Minimum Zone shaped by coherent mesoscale dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bettencourt, Joo H; Garca, Emilio Hernndez; Montes, Ivonne; Sudre, Jol; Dewitte, Boris; Paulmier, Aurlien; Garon, Vronique

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dissolved oxygen in sea water is a major factor affecting marine habitats and biogeochemical cycles. Oceanic zones with oxygen deficits represent significant portions of the area and volume of the oceans and are thought to be expanding. The Peruvian oxygen minimum zone is one of the most pronounced and lies in a region of strong mesoscale activity in the form of vortices and frontal regions, whose effect in the dynamics of the oxygen minimum zone is largely unknown. Here, we study this issue from a modeling approach and a Lagrangian point of view, using a coupled physical-biogeochemical simulation of the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone and finite-size Lyapunov exponent fields to understand the link between mesoscale dynamics and oxygen variations. Our results show that, at depths between 380 and 600 meters, mesoscale structures have a relevant dual role. First, their mean positions and paths delimit and maintain the oxygen minimum zone boundaries. Second, their high frequency fluctuations entrain oxygen across t...

  6. Sensing performances of ZnO nanostructures grown under different oxygen pressures to hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, Jin; Peng, Xiaoyan [Department of Physics, University of Puerto Rico Rio Piedras, San Juan, 00936-8377 PR (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Puerto Rico Rio Piedras, San Juan, 00936-8377 PR (United States); Wang, Zhenbo [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)] [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Feng, Peter, E-mail: P.feng@upr.edu [Department of Physics, University of Puerto Rico Rio Piedras, San Juan, 00936-8377 PR (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Puerto Rico Rio Piedras, San Juan, 00936-8377 PR (United States)

    2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Surface morphology depends on the oxygen pressure. ? Structural degradation was observed for the ZnO samples when oxygen pressure was overhigh. ? The sensitivity of the ZnO-based sensors increase with grown oxygen pressure. -- Abstract: For extensive use in an industrialized process of individual ZnO nanostructures applied in gas sensors, a simple, inexpensive, and safe synthesis process is required. Here, nanostructured ZnO films were grown by a pulsed laser deposition technique under different oxygen pressures. Scanning electron microscopy images show nanopores, nanotips, and nanoparticles are obtained and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy data indicate oxygen concentration of the synthesized samples increases monotonously with oxygen pressure. The sensor based on ZnO with high oxygen concentration has high sensitivity, rapid response (9 s) and recovery (80 s) behavior to 500 ppm hydrogen below 150 C. Experimental data indicate that high oxygen concentration effectively improves the sensing properties of nanostructured ZnO.

  7. 15N2 formation and fast oxygen isotope exchange during pulsed...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    N2 formation and fast oxygen isotope exchange during pulsed 15N18O exposure of MnOxCeO2. 15N2 formation and fast oxygen isotope exchange during pulsed 15N18O exposure of MnOx...

  8. Instructions for use Petrology, trace element abundances and oxygen isotopic1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsunogai, Urumu

    Instructions for use #12;1 Petrology, trace element abundances and oxygen isotopic1 compositions@jamstec.go.jp15 16 17 #12;2 ABSTRACT1 We report the petrology, trace element abundances and oxygen isotopic and isotopic compositions as well as in their petrology.1 CAIs are composed of refractory minerals

  9. Oxygen isotope records of goethite from ferricrete deposits indicate regionally varying Holocene climate change in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hren, Michael

    Oxygen isotope records of goethite from ferricrete deposits indicate regionally varying Holocene isotopes of goethite from ferricrete deposits were measured from both northern and southern Rocky Mountain in oxygen isotope values of 14 C-dated goethites in the northern Rocky Mountains suggests a regional

  10. Is condensation the cause of plasma leakage in microporous hollow ber membrane oxygenators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Federspiel, William J.

    , the analysis predicts that the gas heats up to the temperature of blood ¯ow outside of the ®bers after passingIs condensation the cause of plasma leakage in microporous hollow ®ber membrane oxygenators Laura W of the oxygenator. Condensation of water vapor on the pore walls is thought to be a possible precursor to plasma

  11. The effect of plutonium dioxide water surface coverage on the generation of hydrogen and oxygen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veirs, Douglas K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Berg, John M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Crowder, Mark L. [Savannah River National Laboratory

    2012-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The conditions for the production of oxygen during radiolysis of water adsorbed onto plutonium dioxide powder are discussed. Studies in the literature investigating the radiolysis of water show that both oxygen and hydrogen can be generated from water adsorbed on high-purity plutonium dioxide powder. These studies indicate that there is a threshold in the amount of water below which oxygen is not generated. The threshold is associated with the number of monolayers of adsorbed water and is shown to occur at approximately two monolayers of molecularly adsorbed water. Material in equilibrium with 50% relative humidity (RH) will be at the threshold for oxygen generation. Using two monolayers of molecularly adsorbed water as the threshold for oxygen production, the total pressure under various conditions is calculated assuming stoichiometric production of hydrogen and oxygen. The specific surface area of the oxide has a strong effect on the final partial pressure. The specific surface areas resulting in the highest pressures within a 3013 container are evaluated. The potential for oxygen generation is mitigated by reduced relative humidity, and hence moisture adsorption, at the oxide surface which occurs if the oxide is warmer than the ambient air. The potential for oxygen generation approaches zero as the temperature difference between the ambient air and the material approaches 6 C.

  12. Lung deflation and oxygen pulse in COPD: Results from the NETT randomized trial*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lung deflation and oxygen pulse in COPD: Results from the NETT randomized trial* Carolyn E. Come a July 2011 Available online 16 August 2011 KEYWORDS Cardiac function; Hyperinflation; Lung volume function. We examined whether lung deflation improves oxygen pulse, a surrogate marker of stroke volume

  13. On the relationship between auroral and nebular oxygen line intensities in spectra of HII regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. S. Pilyugin

    2005-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate relationships between observed auroral and nebular oxygen line fluxes in spectra of HII regions. We find a relation that is metallicity-dependent at low metallicities, but becomes independent of metallicity (within the uncertainties of the available data) above 12+logO/H ~ 8.25, i.e. there is one-to-one correspondance (the ff - relation) between auroral and nebular oxygen line fluxes in spectra of high-metallicity HII regions. The ff - relation allows one to estimate the flux in the auroral line from strong oxygen line measurements. This solves the problem of the electron temperature (and, consequently, abundance) determination in high-metallicity HII regions. The ff - relation confirms the basic idea of the empirical method, proposed by Pagel et al. (1979) a qurter of a century ago, that the oxygen abundance in HII region can be estimated from the strong oxygen lines measurements only.

  14. Oxygen abundances in dwarf irregular galaxies and the metallicity - luminosity relationship

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. S. Pilyugin

    2001-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The low-luminosity dwarf irregular galaxies are considered. The oxygen abundances in HII regions of dwarf irregular galaxies were recalculated from published spectra through the recently suggested P - method. It has been found that the metallicity of low-luminosity dwarf irregular galaxies, with a few exceptions, correlates well with galaxy luminosity. The dispersion of oxygen abundances around the metallicity - luminosity relationship increases with decreasing of galaxy luminosity, as was found by Richer and McCall (1995). No relationship between the oxygen abundance and the absolute magnitude in the blue band for irregular galaxies obtained by Hidalgo-Gamez and Olofsson (1998) can be explained by the large uncertainties in the oxygen abundances derived through the Te - method, that in turn can be explained by the large uncertainties in the measurements of the strengths of the weak oxygen line [OIII]4363 used in the Te - method.

  15. Refinery fuel oxygenates in view of the complex model for reformulated gasline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, C.D.; Haelsig, C.P. [Fluor Daniel, Irvine, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The final version of the Complex Model for reformulated gasoline (RFG) has now been issued with some surprising features that will significantly affect refinery fuel oxygenates planning. These include the following: (1) The only oxygenates included in the model are MTBE, ETBE, TAME, and Ethanol. (2) The Complex Model calculates that MTBE and TAME are significantly more effective for reduction of air toxics emissions than Ethanol and ETBE. (3) The Complex Model calculates that MTBE and TAME typically produce about equal reduction in air toxics emissions at the same RFG oxygen content. Although gasoline certification by the Complex Model is optional prior to 1998, after 1998 it will be mandatory for both reformulated and conventional gasolines. This paper considers refinery oxygenates production in view of these features of the Complex Model for RFG, basing the discussion on 2.0 weight percent oxygen content for RFG.

  16. Origin of photoactivity of oxygen-deficient TiO{sub 2} under visible light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lo, H.-H.; Gopal, Neeruganti O.; Ke, S.-C. [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology Research Center, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien 974-01, Taiwan (China)

    2009-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    As it is now well established that oxygen vacancies are spontaneously introduced during nitrogen doping of anatase TiO{sub 2}, there is a lively debate on whether nitrogen dopant or oxygen vacancy contributes to the visible light photoactivity of the doped catalyst. We showed that the coordinately unsaturated Ti site is integral to the visible light photoactivity in anatase oxygen-deficient TiO{sub 2} catalyst. Accordingly, oxygen vacancies may contribute to the visible light photoactivities in N-doped TiO{sub 2} and other nonmetallic ion-doped TiO{sub 2} as well. A redox active visible light photocatalyst has been developed based on oxygen-deficient structure in anatase TiO{sub 2}.

  17. EPA`s proposed renewable oxygenate requirement (ROR): Pros and cons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Czeskleba, H.M. [Ashland Petroleum Co., KY (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In December 1993, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released its final rule that sets for the details for requirements to sell reformulated gasoline (RFG) in certain ozone non-attainment areas. At the same time, EPA also issued a proposed rule to require that 30% of the oxygen required in RFG be based on a renewable oxygenate. Renewables include ethanol and its ether derivatives such as ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE). The RFG rule is a final rule, while the Renewable Oxygenate Requirement (ROR) rule is a proposed rule yet to be finalized and subject to revision. Included in this paper are brief reviews of Ashland petroleum Company`s ethanol usage, oxygenated fuel and reformulated gasoline blending economics, and some comments on the EPA proposed renewable oxygenate requirement.

  18. Prolonged cold storage of red blood cells by oxygen removal and additive usage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bitensky, Mark W. (Boston, MA); Yoshida, Tatsuro (Newton, MA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Prolonged cold storage of red blood cells by oxygen removal and additive usage. A cost-effective, 4.degree. C. storage procedure that preserves red cell quality and prolongs post-transfusion in vivo survival is described. The improved in vivo survival and the preservation of adenosine triphosphate levels, along with reduction in hemolysis and membrane vesicle production of red blood cells stored at 4.degree. C. for prolonged periods of time, is achieved by reducing the oxygen level therein at the time of storage; in particular, by flushing the cells with an inert gas, and storing them in an aqueous solution which includes adenine, dextrose, mannitol, citrate ion, and dihydrogen phosphate ion, but no sodium chloride, in an oxygen-permeable container which is located in an oxygen-free environment containing oxygen-scavenging materials.

  19. Prolonged cold storage of red blood cells by oxygen removal and additive usage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bitensky, M.W.; Yoshida, Tatsuro

    1998-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Prolonged cold storage of red blood cells by oxygen removal and additive usage. A cost-effective, 4 C storage procedure that preserves red cell quality and prolongs post-transfusion in vivo survival is described. The improved in vivo survival and the preservation of adenosine triphosphate levels, along with reduction in hemolysis and membrane vesicle production of red blood cells stored at 4 C for prolonged periods of time, is achieved by reducing the oxygen level therein at the time of storage; in particular, by flushing the cells with an inert gas, and storing them in an aqueous solution which includes adenine, dextrose, mannitol, citrate ion, and dihydrogen phosphate ion, but no sodium chloride, in an oxygen-permeable container which is located in an oxygen-free environment containing oxygen-scavenging materials. 8 figs.

  20. Comparative developmental toxicity of environmentally relevant oxygenated PAHs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knecht, Andrea L., E-mail: andrea.knecht@tanguaylab.com [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, the Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Goodale, Britton C., E-mail: goodaleb@onid.orst.edu [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, the Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Truong, Lisa, E-mail: lisa.truong.888@gmail.com [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, the Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Simonich, Michael T., E-mail: mtsimonich@oregonstate.edu [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, the Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Swanson, Annika J., E-mail: swansoan@onid.orst.edu [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, the Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Matzke, Melissa M., E-mail: melissa.matzke@pnl.gov [Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Anderson, Kim A., E-mail: kim.anderson@oregonstate.edu [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, the Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Waters, Katrina M., E-mail: katrina.waters@pnl.gov [Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Tanguay, Robert L., E-mail: robert.tanguay@oregonstate.edu [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, the Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OPAHs) are byproducts of combustion and photo-oxidation of parent PAHs. OPAHs are widely present in the environment and pose an unknown hazard to human health. The developing zebrafish was used to evaluate a structurally diverse set of 38 OPAHs for malformation induction, gene expression changes and mitochondrial function. Zebrafish embryos were exposed from 6 to 120 h post fertilization (hpf) to a dilution series of 38 different OPAHs and evaluated for 22 developmental endpoints. AHR activation was determined via CYP1A immunohistochemistry. Phenanthrenequinone (9,10-PHEQ), 1,9-benz-10-anthrone (BEZO), xanthone (XAN), benz(a)anthracene-7,12-dione (7,12-B[a]AQ), and 9,10-anthraquinone (9,10-ANTQ) were evaluated for transcriptional responses at 48 hpf, prior to the onset of malformations. qRT-PCR was conducted for a number of oxidative stress genes, including the glutathione transferase(gst), glutathione peroxidase(gpx), and superoxide dismutase(sod) families. Bioenergetics was assayed to measure in vivo oxidative stress and mitochondrial function in 26 hpf embryos exposed to OPAHs. Hierarchical clustering of the structure-activity outcomes indicated that the most toxic of the OPAHs contained adjacent diones on 6-carbon moieties or terminal, para-diones on multi-ring structures. 5-carbon moieties with adjacent diones were among the least toxic OPAHs while the toxicity of multi-ring structures with more centralized para-diones varied considerably. 9,10-PHEQ, BEZO, 7,12-B[a]AQ, and XAN exposures increased expression of several oxidative stress related genes and decreased oxygen consumption rate (OCR), a measurement of mitochondrial respiration. Comprehensive in vivo characterization of 38 structurally diverse OPAHs indicated differential AHR dependency and a prominent role for oxidative stress in the toxicity mechanisms. - Highlights: OPAHs are byproducts of combustion present in the environment. OPAHs pose a largely unknown hazard to human health. We assayed the developmental toxicology of 39 different OPAHs in zebrafish. The most toxic OPAHs contained adjacent diones or terminal, para-diones. AHR dependency varied among OPAHs, and oxidative stress influenced their toxicology.

  1. Oxygen-related dielectric relaxation and leakage characteristics of Pt,,Ba,Sr...TiO3 Pt thin-film capacitors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Wenwu

    Oxygen-related dielectric relaxation and leakage characteristics of Pt,,Ba,Sr...TiO3 Pt thin to the postannealing temperature in oxygen and nitrogen atmosphere. High leakage currents and low-frequency dielectric and subsequently annealed in oxygen at 350 C. Such results are related to the mobile oxygen ions and oxygen

  2. ICPIG, July 15-20, 2007, Prague, Czech Republic C9 Heavy particle impact excitation of atomic oxygen in front of the powered

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fehske, Holger

    was assumed. Collision between O2 + and the background gas O2 generate electronically excited atomic oxygen oxygen in front of the powered electrode of oxygen rf plasmas ­ Experiment and PIC-Simulation K. Dittmann) resolved plasma induced optical emission of the atomic oxygen in an asymmetrical oxygen rf plasma (CCP

  3. Standard Test Method for Determination of Uranium, Oxygen to Uranium (O/U), and Oxygen to Metal (O/M) in Sintered Uranium Dioxide and Gadolinia-Uranium Dioxide Pellets by Atmospheric Equilibration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Standard Test Method for Determination of Uranium, Oxygen to Uranium (O/U), and Oxygen to Metal (O/M) in Sintered Uranium Dioxide and Gadolinia-Uranium Dioxide Pellets by Atmospheric Equilibration

  4. Oxygen enrichment in carbon-rich planetary nebulae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delgado-Inglada, Gloria; Peimbert, Manuel; Stasi?ska, Gra?yna; Morisset, Christophe

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the relation between the chemical composition and the type of dust present in a group of 20 Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe) that have high quality optical and infrared spectra. The optical spectra are used, together with the best available ionization correction factors, to calculate the abundances of Ar, C, Cl, He, N, Ne, and O relative to H. The infrared spectra are used to classify the PNe in two groups depending on whether the observed dust features are representative of oxygen-rich or carbon-rich environments. The sample contains one object from the halo, eight from the bulge, and eleven from the local disc. We compare their chemical abundances with nucleosynthesis model predictions and with the ones obtained in seven Galactic H II regions of the solar neighbourhood. We find evidence of O enrichment (by $\\sim$ 0.3 dex) in all but one of the PNe with carbon-rich dust (CRD). Our analysis shows that Ar, and especially Cl, are the best metallicity indicators of the progenitors of PNe. There is a tig...

  5. Oxygen sensor for monitoring gas mixtures containing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruka, R.J.; Basel, R.A.

    1996-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas sensor measures O{sub 2} content of a reformable monitored gas containing hydrocarbons, H{sub 2}O and/or CO{sub 2}, preferably in association with an electrochemical power generation system. The gas sensor has a housing communicating with the monitored gas environment and carries the monitored gas through an integral catalytic hydrocarbon reforming chamber containing a reforming catalyst, and over a solid electrolyte electrochemical cell used for sensing purposes. The electrochemical cell includes a solid electrolyte between a sensor electrode that is exposed to the monitored gas, and a reference electrode that is isolated in the housing from the monitored gas and is exposed to a reference gas environment. A heating element is also provided in heat transfer communication with the gas sensor. A circuit that can include controls operable to adjust operations via valves or the like is connected between the sensor electrode and the reference electrode to process the electrical signal developed by the electrochemical cell. The electrical signal varies as a measure of the equilibrium oxygen partial pressure of the monitored gas. Signal noise is effectively reduced by maintaining a constant temperature in the area of the electrochemical cell and providing a monitored gas at chemical equilibria when contacting the electrochemical cell. The output gas from the electrochemical cell of the sensor is fed back into the conduits of the power generating system. 4 figs.

  6. Porous platinum-based catalysts for oxygen reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erlebacher, Jonah D; Snyder, Joshua D

    2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A porous metal that comprises platinum and has a specific surface area that is greater than 5 m.sup.2/g and less than 75 m.sup.2/g. A fuel cell includes a first electrode, a second electrode spaced apart from the first electrode, and an electrolyte arranged between the first and the second electrodes. At least one of the first and second electrodes is coated with a porous metal catalyst for oxygen reduction, and the porous metal catalyst comprises platinum and has a specific surface area that is greater than 5 m.sup.2/g and less than 75 m.sup.2/g. A method of producing a porous metal according to an embodiment of the current invention includes producing an alloy consisting essentially of platinum and nickel according to the formula Pt.sub.xNi.sub.1-x, where x is at least 0.01 and less than 0.3; and dealloying the alloy in a substantially pH neutral solution to reduce an amount of nickel in the alloy to produce the porous metal.

  7. Experimental test of a microwave ion beam source in oxygen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asmussen, J.; Dahimene, M.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent experiments have demonstrated a microwave (2.45 GHz) plasma disk ion source operating with inert gases both with and without an applied static magnetic field. Earlier results were reported using a preliminary, multicusp static magnetic field configuration produced by alternating pole, small, --2.5 kG rare earth magnets surrounding the microwave discharge zone. This electrodeless ion source has been rebuilt incorporating several improvements and has been experimentally tested with different discharge diffusion lengths. The improvements include removing the rare earth magnets from the inside of the microwave cavity and embedding them in the cavity walls. The placement and strength of the magnets allows electron cyclotron resonant surfaces (--875 G) to lie entirely within the discharge zone. Discharges with different diffusion lengths were created by varying the thickness of the disk-shaped discharge zone. The experimental performance with and without a static magnetic field is discussed at the low flow rates of 2--10 sccm and using a 2.5 cm diam double grid set. Experimental test results are compared to similar ion beam sources in oxygen that employ a dc discharge. The expected lifetime, startup, and shutdown problems and maintenance are also reviewed.

  8. Platinum-Coated Nickel Nanowires as Oxygen-Reducing Electrocatalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alia, Shaun M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Larsen, Brian A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Pylypenko, Svitlana [ORNL; Cullen, David A [ORNL; Diercks, David R [Colorado School of Mines, Golden; Neyerlin, Kenneth C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Kocha, Shyam S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Pivovar, Bryan [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Platinum (Pt)-coated nickel (Ni) nanowires (PtNiNWs) are synthesized by the partial spontaneous galvanic displacement of NiNWs, with a diameter of 150 250 nm and a length of 100 200 m. PtNiNWs are electrochemically characterized for oxygen reduction (ORR) in rotating disk electrode half-cells with an acidic electrolyte and compared to carbon-supported Pt (Pt/HSC) and a polycrystalline Pt electrode. Like other extended surface catalysts, the nanowire morphology yields significant gains in ORR specific activity compared to Pt/HSC. Unlike other extended surface approaches, the resultant materials have yielded exceptionally high surface areas, greater than 90 m2 gPt 1. These studies have found that reducing the level of Pt displacement increases Pt surface area and ORR mass activity. PtNiNWs produce a peak mass activity of 917 mA mgPt 1, 3.0 times greater than Pt/HSC and 2.1 times greater than the U.S. Department of Energy target for proton-exchange membrane fuel cell activity.

  9. Effects of Oxygen-Containing Functional Groups on Supercapacitor Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Schwenzer, Birgit; Vijayakumar, M.

    2014-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the interface between graphene and the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate (BMIM OTf) were carried out to gain molecular-level insights into the performance of graphene-based supercapacitors and, in particular, determine the effects of the presence of oxygen-containing defects at the graphene surface on their integral capacitance. The MD simulations predict that increasing the surface coverage of hydroxyl groups negatively affects the integral capacitance, whereas the effect of the presence of epoxy groups is much less significant. The calculated variations in capacitance are found to be directly correlated to the interfacial structure. Indeed, hydrogen bonding between hydroxyl groups and SO3 anion moieties prevents BMIM+ and OTf- molecules from interacting favorably in the dense interfacial layer and restrains the orientation and mobility of OTf- ions, thereby reducing the permittivity of the ionic liquid at the interface. The results of the molecular simulations can facilitate the rational design of electrode materials for supercapacitors.

  10. Conceptual Design of Oxygen-Based PC Boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Seltzer; Zhen Fan

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal is presently the world's primary fuel for generating electrical power and, being more abundant and less expensive than oil or natural gas, is expected to continue its dominance into the future. Coal, however, is more carbon intensive than natural gas and oil and consequently coal-fired power plants are large point source emitters of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Since CO{sub 2} is a greenhouse gas, which may have an adverse impact on the world's climate/weather patterns, studies have been conducted to determine the feasibility and economic impact of capturing power plant CO{sub 2} emissions for pipeline transport to a sequestration/storage site. The stack gas that exhausts from a modern coal-fired power plant typically contains about 15% CO{sub 2} on a dry volume basis. Although there are numerous processes available for removing CO{sub 2} from gas streams, gas scrubbing with amine solvent is best suited for this application because of the large gas volumes and low CO{sub 2} concentrations involved. Unfortunately the energy required to regenerate the solvent for continued use as a capturing agent is large and imposes a severe energy penalty on the plant. In addition this ''back end'' or post combustion cleanup requires the addition of large vessels, which, in retrofit applications, are difficult to accommodate. As an alternative to post combustion scrubbing, Foster Wheeler (FW) has proposed that the combustion process be accomplished with oxygen rather than air. With all air nitrogen eliminated, a CO{sub 2}-water vapor rich flue gas will be generated. After condensation of the water vapor, a portion of the flue gas will be recirculated back to the boiler to control the combustion temperature and the balance of the CO{sub 2} will be processed for pipeline transport. This proposed oxygen-carbon dioxide (O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2}) combustion process eliminates the need for CO{sub 2} removal/separation and reduces the cost of supplying a CO{sub 2} rich stream for sequestration. FW has developed a conceptual design of an O{sub 2} fired boiler to determine overall plant performance and economics. Five subtasks were conducted: (1) a literature review, (2) a system design and analysis, (3) a low NOx burner design and analysis, (4) a furnace and heat recovery area design analysis, and (5) an economic analysis. The objective of the literature search is to locate any data/information relevant to the Oxygen-Based PC Boiler conceptual design. The objective of the system design and analysis task is to optimize the PC boiler plant by maximizing system efficiency within practical considerations. Simulations of the oxygen-fired plant with CO{sub 2} sequestration were conducted using Aspen Plus and were compared to a reference air-fired 460 MW plant. Flue gas recycle is used in the O{sub 2}-fired PC to control the flame temperature. Parametric runs were made to determine the effect of flame temperature on system efficiency and required waterwall material and thickness. The degree of improvement on system efficiency of various modifications including hot gas recycle, purge gas recycle, flue gas feedwater recuperation, and recycle purge gas expansion were investigated. The selected O{sub 2}-fired design case has a system efficiency of 30.6% compared to the air-fired system efficiency of 36.7%. The design O{sub 2}-fired case requires T91 waterwall material and has a waterwall surface area of only 65% of the air-fired reference case. The objective of the low NOx burner design and analysis task is to optimize the burner design to ensure stable ignition, to provide safe operation, and to minimize pollutant formation. The burners were designed and analyzed using the Fluent CFD computer program. Four burner designs were developed: (1) with no OFG and 65% flue gas recycle, (2) with 20% OFG and 65% flue gas recycle, (3) with no OFG and 56% flue gas recycle and (4) with 20% OFG and 56% flue gas recycle. A 3-D Fluent simulation was made of a single wall-fired burner and horizontal portion of the furnace from the wall to the center. Without primary gas sw

  11. Oxygen sensor for monitoring gas mixtures containing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Basel, Richard A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas sensor measures O.sub.2 content of a reformable monitored gas containing hydrocarbons H.sub.2 O and/or CO.sub.2, preferably in association with an electrochemical power generation system. The gas sensor has a housing communicating with the monitored gas environment and carries the monitored gas through an integral catalytic hydrocarbon reforming chamber containing a reforming catalyst, and over a solid electrolyte electrochemical cell used for sensing purposes. The electrochemical cell includes a solid electrolyte between a sensor electrode that is exposed to the monitored gas, and a reference electrode that is isolated in the housing from the monitored gas and is exposed to a reference gas environment. A heating element is also provided in heat transfer communication with the gas sensor. A circuit that can include controls operable to adjust operations via valves or the like is connected between the sensor electrode and the reference electrode to process the electrical signal developed by the electrochemical cell. The electrical signal varies as a measure of the equilibrium oxygen partial pressure of the monitored gas. Signal noise is effectively reduced by maintaining a constant temperature in the area of the electrochemical cell and providing a monitored gas at chemical equilibria when contacting the electrochemical cell. The output gas from the electrochemical cell of the sensor is fed back into the conduits of the power generating system.

  12. Cryptic photosynthesis, Extrasolar planetary oxygen without a surface biological signature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. S. Cockell; L. Kaltenegger; J. A. Raven

    2009-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    On the Earth, photosynthetic organisms are responsible for the production of virtually all of the oxygen in the atmosphere. On the land, vegetation reflects in the visible, leading to a red edge that developed about 450 Myr ago and has been proposed as a biosignature for life on extrasolar planets. However, in many regions of the Earth, and particularly where surface conditions are extreme, for example in hot and cold deserts, photosynthetic organisms can be driven into and under substrates where light is still sufficient for photosynthesis. These communities exhibit no detectable surface spectral signature to indicate life. The same is true of the assemblages of photosynthetic organisms at more than a few metres depth in water bodies. These communities are widespread and dominate local photosynthetic productivity. We review known cryptic photosynthetic communities and their productivity. We link geomicrobiology with observational astronomy by calculating the disk-averaged spectra of cryptic habitats and identifying detectable features on an exoplanet dominated by such a biota. The hypothetical cryptic photosynthesis worlds discussed here are Earth-analogs that show detectable atmospheric biomarkers like our own planet, but do not exhibit a discernable biological surface feature in the disc-averaged spectrum.

  13. Recovery Act: Novel Oxygen Carriers for Coal-fueled Chemical Looping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Wei-Ping; Cao, Yan

    2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) could totally negate the necessity of pure oxygen by using oxygen carriers for purification of CO{sub 2} stream during combustion. It splits the single fuel combustion reaction into two linked reactions using oxygen carriers. The two linked reactions are the oxidation of oxygen carriers in the air reactor using air, and the reduction of oxygen carriers in the fuel reactor using fuels (i.e. coal). Generally metal/metal oxides are used as oxygen carriers and operated in a cyclic mode. Chemical looping combustion significantly improves the energy conversion efficiency, in terms of the electricity generation, because it improves the reversibility of the fuel combustion process through two linked parallel processes, compared to the conventional combustion process, which is operated far away from its thermo-equilibrium. Under the current carbon-constraint environment, it has been a promising carbon capture technology in terms of fuel combustion for power generation. Its disadvantage is that it is less mature in terms of technological commercialization. In this DOE-funded project, accomplishment is made by developing a series of advanced copper-based oxygen carriers, with properties of the higher oxygen-transfer capability, a favorable thermodynamics to generate high purity of CO{sub 2}, the higher reactivity, the attrition-resistance, the thermal stability in red-ox cycles and the achievement of the auto-thermal heat balance. This will be achieved into three phases in three consecutive years. The selected oxygen carriers with final-determined formula were tested in a scaled-up 10kW coal-fueled chemical looping combustion facility. This scaled-up evaluation tests (2-day, 8-hour per day) indicated that, there was no tendency of agglomeration of copper-based oxygen carriers. Only trace-amount of coke or carbon deposits on the copper-based oxygen carriers in the fuel reactor. There was also no evidence to show the sulphidization of oxygen carriers in the system by using the high-sulfur-laden asphalt fuels. In all, the scaled-up test in 10 kW CLC facility demonstrated that the preparation method of copper-based oxygen carrier not only help to maintain its good reactivity, also largely minimize its agglomeration tendency.

  14. Experimental studies of oxygen isotope fractionation in the carbonic acid system at 15, 25, and 40 (degrees)C

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beck, William Cory

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In light of recent studies that show oxygen isotope fractionation in carbonate minerals to be a function of HCO3 2-; and CO3 2- concentrations, the oxygen isotope fractionation and exchange between water and components ...

  15. Oxygen and Hydroxyl Species Induce Multiple Reaction Pathways for the Partial Oxidation of Allyl Alcohol on Gold

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henkelman, Graeme

    , acrolein, over oxygen-precovered gold surfaces occurs via multiple reaction pathways. Utilizing temperature -dehydrogenation via interaction with an oxygen adatom or surface hydroxyl species to generate acrolein. Mediation

  16. Impacts of dissolved oxygen on the behavior and physiology of bonefish: Implications for live-release angling tournaments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suski, Cory David

    to elevated biomass of fish, coupled with low exchange of water. Some anglers use oxygen infusion systems

  17. Oxygen abundances in G- and F-type stars from HARPS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Lis, S Bertran; Adibekyan, V Zh; Santos, N C; Sousa, S G

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a detailed and uniform study of oxygen abundance from two different oxygen lines at 6158$\\AA$ and 6300$\\AA$ in a large sample of solar-type stars. The results are used to check the behaviour of these spectral lines as oxygen abundance indicators and to study the evolution of oxygen in thick and thin disk populations of the Galaxy. Equivalent width measurements were carried out for the [OI]~6158$\\AA$ and OI~6300$\\AA$ lines. LTE abundances were obtained from these two lines in 610 and 535 stars, respectively. We were able to measure oxygen abundance from both indicators in 447 stars, enabling us, for the first time, to compare them in a uniform way. Careful error analysis has been performed. We found that oxygen abundances derived from the 6158$\\AA$ and 6300$\\AA$ lines agree to within 0.1dex in 58\\% of the stars in our sample, and this result improves for higher signal-to-noise values. We confirm an oxygen enhancement in stars of the thick disk, as has also been seen for other $\\alpha$-elements. The ...

  18. A review of the environmental behavior and fate of fuel oxygenates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Squillace, P.J.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The ways in which fuel oxygenate compounds behave in water, soil, and air are determined by how they partition among the different media. The behavior of a gasoline oxygenate in water is affected by the oxygenate`s (1) solubility in water from gasoline: (2) partitioning between water and soil materials; and (3) partitioning between air and water. Water in equilibrium with oxygenated gasoline can contain high concentrations of the oxygenate. For example, at room temperature water solubility of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) will be about 5,000 mg/L for a gasoline that is 10% MTBE by weight. In contrast, the total hydrocarbon solubility in water is typically about 120 mg/L for nonoxygenated gasoline. Fuel oxygenates sorb only weakly to soil and aquifer materials. Therefore, sorption to these materials will not significantly retard their transport by ground water. Fuel oxygenates tend to partition into atmospheric water, including precipitation. For example, washout of gas-phase MTBE by precipitation would not, by itself, greatly alter the gas-phase concentration of the compound in the atmosphere. Nevertheless, the partitioning of MTBE to precipitation is strong enough to allow for submicrogram per liter to 3 pg/L or more inputs of MTBE to ground water and surface water. Occurrence data for MTBE in water and air supports partition theoretical calculations. MTBE and other alkyl ether oxygenates have half lives in the atmosphere that range from about 1 to 14 days. These compounds are generally considered recalcitrant in ground water; whereas ethanol and methanol will readily undergo microbial degradation except where present in concentrations toxic to microorganisms.

  19. Evaluation of CuAl2O4 as an Oxygen Carrier in Chemical-Looping Mehdi Arjmand,*,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azad, Abdul-Majeed

    Al2O4) was assessed as a potential oxygen carrier using methane as fuel. The carrier particles were of the oxygen carrier is achieved. Thus, CuAl2O4 could be a potential oxygen carrier for chemical dioxide in the atmosphere. Among these, carbon capture and storage (CCS) is considered promising

  20. Oxygen Distribution in the Macaque Retina Jameel Ahmed* Rod D. Braun,^ Robert Dunn, Jr. * and Robert A. Linsenmeier*X

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linsenmeier, Robert

    Oxygen Distribution in the Macaque Retina Jameel Ahmed* Rod D. Braun,^ Robert Dunn, Jr. * and Robert A. Linsenmeier*X Purpose. Oxygen distribution was characterized in the macaque retina, which is more like the human retina than others studied previously. Methods. Profiles of oxygen tension (Po2