National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for gasifier costs short-term

  1. NETL: Gasifier Optimization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    gasifier optimization The Gasifier Optimization and Plant Supporting Systems key technology area focuses on improving the performance and reducing the costs of advanced gasifiers. Specifically, current projects focus on creating models to better understand the kinetics and particulate behavior of fuel inside a gasifier. This work supports development of a highly advanced gasifier optimally configured with its supporting systems, which would incorporate the most aggressive and successful

  2. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... power Liquid biofuels Wood biomass Hydropower Source: Short-Term Energy Outlook, August 2016. Note: Hydropower excludes pumped storage generation. Liquid biofuels include ...

  3. PNNL Coal Gasifier Transportation Logistics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, Douglas J.; Guzman, Anthony D.

    2011-04-13

    This report provides Pacific Northwest National laboratory (PNNL) craftspeople with the necessary information and suggested configurations to transport PNNL’s coal gasifier from its current location at the InEnTec facility in Richland, Washington, to PNNL’s Laboratory Support Warehouse (LSW) for short-term storage. A method of securing the gasifier equipment is provided that complies with the tie-down requirements of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration’s Cargo Securement Rules.

  4. Long- vs. short-term energy storage technologies analysis : a life-cycle cost study : a study for the DOE energy storage systems program.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoenung, Susan M.; Hassenzahl, William V.

    2003-08-01

    This report extends an earlier characterization of long-duration and short-duration energy storage technologies to include life-cycle cost analysis. Energy storage technologies were examined for three application categories--bulk energy storage, distributed generation, and power quality--with significant variations in discharge time and storage capacity. More than 20 different technologies were considered and figures of merit were investigated including capital cost, operation and maintenance, efficiency, parasitic losses, and replacement costs. Results are presented in terms of levelized annual cost, $/kW-yr. The cost of delivered energy, cents/kWh, is also presented for some cases. The major study variable was the duration of storage available for discharge.

  5. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (83/3Q) Short-Term Energy Outlook iuarterly Projections August 1983 Energy Information Administration Washington, D.C. 20585 t rt jrt- .ort- iort- iort- iort- nort- lort- '.ort- ort- Tt- .-m .erm -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term Term .-Term -Term xrm Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy ^nergy -OJ.UUK Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook

  6. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    and Summer Fuels Outlook April 2015 1 April 2015 Short-Term Energy and Summer Fuels Outlook (STEO) Highlights * On April 2, Iran and the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council plus Germany (P5+1) reached a framework agreement that could result in the lifting of oil- related sanctions against Iran. Lifting sanctions could substantially change the STEO forecast for oil supply, demand, and prices by allowing a significantly increased volume of Iranian barrels to enter the

  7. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (STEO) Highlights  This edition of the Short-Term Energy Outlook is the first to include forecasts for 2016.  December was the sixth consecutive month in which monthly average Brent prices decreased, falling $17/barrel (bbl) from November to a monthly average of $62/bbl, the lowest since May 2009. The December price decline reflects continued growth in U.S. tight oil production, strong global supply, and weakening outlooks for the global economy and oil demand growth.  EIA forecasts

  8. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4 1 October 2014 Short-Term Energy and Winter Fuels Outlook (STEO) Highlights  EIA projects average U.S. household expenditures for natural gas, heating oil, electricity, and propane will decrease this winter heating season (October 1 through March 31) compared with last winter, which was 11% colder than the previous 10-year average nationally. Projected average household expenditures for propane and heating oil are 27% and 15% lower, respectively, because of lower heating demand and prices.

  9. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5 1 October 2015 Short-Term Energy and Winter Fuels Outlook (STEO) Highlights  EIA projects average U.S. household expenditures for natural gas, heating oil, and propane during the upcoming winter heating season (October 1 through March 31) will be 10%, 25%, and 18% lower, respectively, than last winter, because of lower fuel prices and lower heating demand. Forecast lower heating demand and relatively unchanged prices contribute to electricity expenditures that are 3% lower than last winter

  10. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Outlook September 2015 1 September 2015 Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) Highlights * North Sea Brent crude oil prices averaged $47/barrel (b) in August, a $10/b decrease from July. This third consecutive monthly decrease in prices likely reflects concerns about lower economic growth in emerging markets, expectations of higher oil exports from Iran, and continuing growth in global inventories. Crude oil price volatility increased significantly, with Brent prices showing daily changes of more

  11. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3 1 Short-Term Energy Outlook April 2003 Overview World Oil Markets. Crude oil prices fell sharply at the onset of war in Iraq, but the initial declines probably overshot levels that we consider to be generally consistent with fundamental factors in the world oil market. Thus, while near-term price averages are likely to be below our previous projections, the baseline outlook for crude oil prices (while generally lower) is not drastically different and includes an average for spot West Texas

  12. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1 December 2014 Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) Highlights  North Sea Brent crude oil spot prices fell by more than 15% in November, declining from $85/barrel (bbl) on November 3 to $72/bbl on November 28. Monthly average Brent crude oil prices have declined 29% from their 2014 high of $112/bbl in June to an average of $79/bbl in November, the lowest monthly average since September 2010. The November price decline reflects continued growth in U.S. tight oil production along with weakening

  13. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    June 2014 1 June 2014 Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) Highlights  North Sea Brent crude oil spot prices increased from a monthly average of $108/barrel (bbl) in April to $110/bbl in May. This was the 11 th consecutive month in which the average Brent crude oil spot price fell within a relatively narrow range of $107/bbl to $112/bbl. The discount of West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil to Brent crude oil, which averaged more than $13/bbl from November through January, fell below $4/bbl in

  14. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    March 2015 Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) Highlights  North Sea Brent crude oil prices averaged $58/barrel (bbl) in February, an increase of $10/bbl from the January average, and the first monthly average price increase since June 2014. The price increase reflects news of falling U.S. crude oil rig counts and announced reductions in capital expenditures by major oil companies, along with lower-than-expected Iraqi crude oil exports.  EIA forecasts that Brent crude oil prices will average

  15. Locked into Copenhagen pledges - Implications of short-term emission targets for the cost and feasibility of long-term climate goals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riahi, Keywan; Kriegler, Elmar; Johnson, Nils; Bertram, Christoph; den Elzen, Michel; Eom, Jiyong; Schaeffer, Michiel; Edmonds, James A.; Isaac, Morna; Krey, Volker; Longden, Thomas; Luderer, Gunnar; Mejean, Aurelie; McCollum, David; Mima, Silvana; Turton, Hal; Van Vuuren, Detlef; Wada, Kenichi; Bosetti, Valentina; Capros, Pantelis; Criqui, Patrick; Hamdi-Cherif, Meriem; Kainuma, M.; Edenhofer, Ottmar

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the AMPERE intermodeling comparison with focus on the implications of near-term policies for the costs and attainability of long-term climate objectives. Ten modeling teams participated in the project to explore the consequences of global emissions following the proposed policy stringency of the national pledges from the Copenhagen Accord and Cancún Agreements to 2030. Specific features compared to earlier assessments are the explicit consideration of near-term 2030 emissions targets as well as the systematic sensitivity analysis for the availability and potential of mitigation technologies. Our estimates show that a 2030 mitigation effort comparable to the pledges would result in a further "lock-in" of the energy system into fossil fuels and thus impede the required energy transformation to reach low greenhouse-gas stabilization levels (450ppm CO2e). Major implications include significant increases in mitigation costs, increased risk that low stabilization targets become unattainable, and reduced chances of staying below the proposed temperature change target of 2C. With respect to technologies, we find that following the pledge pathways to 2030 would narrow policy choices, and increases the risks that some currently optional technologies, such as nuclear or carbon capture and storage (CCS), will become "a must" by 2030.

  16. Short-Term Energy Outlook January 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 1 January 2014 Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) Highlights This edition of the Short-Term Energy Outlook is the first to include forecasts for 2015. After falling to the...

  17. Electricity storage for short term power system service (Smart...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    storage for short term power system service (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name Electricity storage for short term power system service Country Denmark...

  18. Short-Term Energy and Winter Fuels Outlook October 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    October 2013 1 October 2013 Short-Term Energy and Winter Fuels Outlook (STEO) ... 5-year average (see EIA Short-Term Energy and Winter Fuels Outlook slideshow). ...

  19. Short Term Energy Outlook ,October 2002

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    October 2002 1 Short-Term Energy Outlook October 2002 Overview World Oil Markets: Continued high oil prices are the result of declining OECD commercial oil inventories, worries over a potential clash with Iraq, and OPEC's decision to leave production quotas unchanged at its September meeting. Solid growth in world oil demand this winter (and for 2003 as a whole) is likely to tighten world oil markets and reduce commercial oil inventories. The West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil spot price

  20. Short Term Energy Outlook, February 2003

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3 1 Short-Term Energy Outlook February 2003 Overview World Oil Markets. World oil markets will likely remain tight through most of 2003, as petroleum inventories and global spare production capacity continue to dwindle amid blasts of cold weather and constrained output from Venezuela. OPEC efforts to increase output to make up for lower Venezuela output has reduced global spare production capacity to only 2 million barrels per day, leaving little room to make up for unexpected supply or demand

  1. Short Term Energy Outlook, March 2003

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3 1 Short-Term Energy Outlook March 2003 Overview World Oil Markets. February crude oil prices moved higher than expected pushed by fears of a war in Iraq, low inventories, slow recovery in Venezuelan exports, continued cold weather and sharply higher natural gas prices in the United States. West Texas Intermediate prices averaged close to $36 for the month (Figure 1), a level not seen since October 1990. Oil inventories continued lower through the month resulting in a cumulative reduction in

  2. Short-Term Energy Outlook February 2014

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4 1 February 2014 Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) Highlights  Temperatures east of the Rocky Mountains have been significantly colder this winter (October - January) compared with the same period both last winter and the previous 10- year average, putting upward pressure on consumption and prices of fuels used for space heating. U.S. average heating degree days were 12% higher than last winter (indicating colder weather) and 8% above the previous 10-year average. The Northeast was 11% colder

  3. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Laing

    2005-10-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  4. August 2012 Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    August 2012 1 August 2012 Short-Term Energy Outlook Highlights  EIA projects that the Brent crude oil spot price will average about $103 per barrel during the second half of 2012, about $3.50 per barrel higher than in last month's Outlook. The forecast Brent crude oil spot price falls to an average of $100 per barrel in 2013. The projected West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil spot price discount to Brent crude oil narrows from about $14 in the third quarter of 2012 to $9 by late 2013.

  5. Short Term Energy Outlook, December 2002

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    December 2002 1 Short-Term Energy Outlook December 2002 Overview World Oil Markets: Average crude oil prices fell by about $2.50 per barrel between October and November in response to continued high production levels from OPEC 10 countries (Figure 1). However, by the end of November oil prices had risen to end-October levels as concerns over the situations in Iraq and Venezuela pushed prices up. Oil inventories, which are currently in the lower portion of the previous 5-year range, are poised to

  6. Short Term Energy Outlook, January 2003

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3 1 Short-Term Energy Outlook January 2003 Overview World Oil Markets. The oil market is vulnerable to a number of forces that could cause substantial price volatility over the coming months. The combination of a sustained loss of most of Venezuela's exports, risk of increased tensions in the Middle East and low oil inventories could cause oil prices to spike at least temporarily above our base case. The average West Texas Intermediate (WTI) price, which stood at $27.27 per barrel on December 2,

  7. Short-Term Energy Outlook January 2014

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (STEO) Highlights  This edition of the Short-Term Energy Outlook is the first to include forecasts for 2015.  After falling to the lowest monthly average of 2013 in November, U.S. regular gasoline retail prices increased slightly to reach an average of $3.28 per gallon (gal) during December. The annual average regular gasoline retail price, which was $3.51/gal in 2013, is expected to fall to $3.46/gal in 2014 and $3.39/gal in 2015.  The North Sea Brent crude oil spot price in December

  8. Short-Term Energy Outlook July 2013

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1 July 2013 Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) Highlights  The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) expects that the Brent crude oil spot price will average $102 per barrel over the second half of 2013, and $100 per barrel in 2014. This forecast assumes there are no disruptions to energy markets arising from the recent unrest in Egypt. After increasing to $119 per barrel in early February 2013, the Brent crude oil spot price fell to a low of $97 per barrel in mid-April and then

  9. Short-Term Energy Outlook June 2013

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1 June 2013 Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) Highlights * After increasing to $119 per barrel in early February 2013, the Brent crude oil spot price fell to a low of $97 per barrel in mid-April and then recovered to an average of $103 per barrel in May. EIA expects that the Brent crude oil spot price will average $102 per barrel over the second half of 2013, and $100 per barrel in 2014. * EIA expects the price of regular gasoline will average $3.53 per gallon over the summer driving season

  10. Short-term energy outlook, July 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-07-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares The Short-Term Energy Outlook (energy supply, demand, and price projections) monthly for distribution on the internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. In addition, printed versions of the report are available to subscribers in January, April, July and October. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from July 1998 through December 1999. Values for second quarter of 1998 data, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the July 1998 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. 28 figs., 19 tabs.

  11. Short-term energy outlook, January 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares the Short-Term Energy Outlook (energy supply, demand, and price projections) monthly. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from January 1999 through December 2000. Data values for the fourth quarter 1998, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the January 1999 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 28 figs., 19 tabs.

  12. Short-Term Energy Carbon Dioxide Emissions Forecasts August 2009

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    Supplement to the Short-Term Energy Outlook. Short-term projections for U.S. carbon dioxide emissions of the three fossil fuels: coal, natural gas, and petroleum.

  13. Short-term energy outlook quarterly projections. Third quarter 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-07-01

    This document presents the 1997 third quarter short term energy projections. Information is presented for fossil fuels and renewable energy.

  14. Short-term energy outlook quarterly projections. First quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-07

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short- term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets.

  15. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Jun Wei

    2005-03-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  16. Short-term energy outlook, April 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-04-01

    The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from April 1999 through December 2000. Data values for the first quarter 1999, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the April 1999 version of the Short-Term Integrated forecasting system (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 25 figs., 19 tabs.

  17. Short-Term Test Results: Multifamily Home Energy Efficiency Retrofit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyons, J.

    2013-01-01

    Multifamily deep energy retrofits (DERs) represent great potential for energy savings, while also providing valuable insights on research-generated efficiency measures, cost-effectiveness metrics, and risk factor strategies for the multifamily housing industry. The Bay Ridge project is comprised of a base scope retrofit with a goal of achieving 30% savings (relative to pre-retrofit), and a DER scope with a goal of 50% savings (relative to pre-retrofit). The base scope has been applied to the entire complex, except for one 12-unit building which underwent the DER scope. Findings from the implementation, commissioning, and short-term testing at Bay Ridge include air infiltration reductions of greater than 60% in the DER building; a hybrid heat pump system with a Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) > 1 (relative to a high efficiency furnace) which also provides the resident with added incentive for energy savings; and duct leakage reductions of > 60% using an aerosolized duct sealing approach. Despite being a moderate rehab instead of a gut rehab, the Bay Ridge DER is currently projected to achieve energy savings ? 50% compared to pre-retrofit, and the short-term testing supports this estimate.

  18. Short-Term Test Results. Multifamily Home Energy Efficiency Retrofit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyons, James

    2013-01-01

    Multifamily deep energy retrofits (DERs) represent great potential for energy savings, while also providing valuable insights on research-generated efficiency measures, cost-effectiveness metrics, and risk factor strategies for the multifamily housing industry. This report describes the Bay Ridge project, a base scope retrofit with a goal of achieving 30% savings (relative to pre-retrofit), and a DER scope with a goal of 50% savings (relative to pre-retrofit). Findings from the short-term testing at Bay Ridge include air infiltration reductions of greater than 60% in the DER building; a hybrid heat pump system with a Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) > 1 (relative to a high efficiency furnace) which also provides the resident with added incentive for energy savings; and duct leakage reductions of > 60% using an aerosolized duct sealing approach.

  19. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Jun Wei

    2005-04-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  20. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Alireza Rezaie

    2004-10-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  1. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang

    2005-10-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla identified materials that permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project was to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study attempted to define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials were selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; and

  2. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang

    2005-07-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  3. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Jun Wei

    2005-01-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  4. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie

    2003-12-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  5. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr.; Alireza Rezaie

    2003-12-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  6. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie; Xiaoting Liang; Musa Karakus; Jun Wei

    2005-12-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla identified materials that permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project was to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study attempted to define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials were selected or developed that reacted with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; and

  7. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie

    2003-08-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  8. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert E. Moore; William L. Headrick; Alireza Rezaie

    2003-03-31

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  9. Energy Information Administration/Short-Term Energy Outlook - August 2005

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5 1 Short-Term Energy Outlook August 2005 Short-Term Energy Outlook - Regional Enhancements Starting with this edition of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO), EIA is introducing regional projections (the scope of which will vary by fuel) of energy prices, consumption, and production. The addition of regional data and forecasts will allow us to examine regional fuel demands and prices, regional fuel inventory trends, the interaction between regional electricity demand shifts, and regional

  10. Vehicle Technologies Office: Short-Term Lightweight Materials Research

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (Advanced High-Strength Steel and Aluminum) | Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Office: Short-Term Lightweight Materials Research (Advanced High-Strength Steel and Aluminum) Vehicle Technologies Office: Short-Term Lightweight Materials Research (Advanced High-Strength Steel and Aluminum) In the short term, replacing heavy steel components with materials such as high-strength steel, aluminum, or glass fiber-reinforced polymer composites can decrease component weight by 10-60 percent.

  11. Vehicle Technologies Office: Short-Term Lightweight Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    In the short term, replacing heavy steel components with materials such as high-strength steel, aluminum, or glass fiber-reinforced polymer composites can decrease component weight ...

  12. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, Third quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-02

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202). The feature article for this issue is Demand, Supply and Price Outlook for Reformulated Gasoline, 1995.

  13. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    change the pattern of annual demand shifts reported in earlier Outlooks. Short-Term Natural Gas Market Outlook, December 2002 History Projections Sep-02 Oct-02 Nov-02...

  14. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    to increase because of accelerated economic growth and generally lower prices. Short-Term Natural Gas Market Outlook, October 2003 History Projections Jul-03 Aug-03 Sep-03...

  15. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    to increase because of accelerated economic growth and generally lower prices. Short-Term Natural Gas Market Outlook, November 2003 History Projections Aug-03 Sep-03 Oct-03...

  16. Short-term energy outlook annual supplement, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1993-08-06

    The Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement (supplement) is published once a year as a complement to the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook), Quarterly Projections. The purpose of the Supplement is to review the accuracy of the forecasts published in the Outlook, make comparisons with other independent energy forecasts, and examine current energy topics that affect the forecasts.

  17. Short-term energy outlook, annual supplement 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement (Supplement) is published once a year as a complement to the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook), Quarterly Projections. The purpose of the Supplement is to review the accuracy of the forecasts published in the Outlook, make comparisons with other independent energy forecasts, and examine current energy topics that affect the forecasts.

  18. TASK 3: PILOT PLANT GASIFIER TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fusselman, Steve

    2015-11-01

    Aerojet Rocketdyne (AR) has developed an innovative gasifier concept incorporating advanced technologies in ultra-dense phase dry feed system, rapid mix injector, and advanced component cooling to significantly improve gasifier performance, life, and cost compared to commercially available state-of-the-art systems. Design, fabrication and initial testing of the pilot plant compact gasifier was completed in 2011 by a development team led by AR. Findings from this initial test program, as well as subsequent gasifier design and pilot plant testing by AR, identified a number of technical aspects to address prior to advancing into a demonstration-scale gasifier design. Key among these were an evaluation of gasifier ability to handle thermal environments with highly reactive coals; ability to handle high ash content, high ash fusion temperature coals with reliable slag discharge; and to develop an understanding of residual properties pertaining to gasification kinetics as carbon conversion approaches 99%. The gasifier did demonstrate the ability to withstand the thermal environments of highly reactive Powder River Basin coal, while achieving high carbon conversion in < 0.15 seconds residence time. Continuous operation with the high ash fusion temperature Xinyuan coal was demonstrated in long duration testing, validating suitability of outlet design as well as downstream slag discharge systems. Surface area and porosity data were obtained for the Xinyuan and Xinjing coals for carbon conversion ranging from 85% to 97%, and showed a pronounced downward trend in surface area per unit mass carbon as conversion increased. Injector faceplate measurements showed no incremental loss of material over the course of these experiments, validating the commercially traceable design approach and supportive of long injector life goals. Hybrid testing of PRB and natural gas was successfully completed over a wide range of natural gas feed content, providing test data to anchor predictions

  19. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, Third quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-02

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent projections with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the third quarter of 1995 through the fourth quarter of 1996. Values for the second quarter of 1995, however, are preliminary EIA estimates.

  20. Off-site Lodging (short-term) | Advanced Photon Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Off-site Lodging (short-term): Extended Stay America external link 2345 Sokol Court, Darien, IL (For special Argonne rates call 630-985-4708) Oakwood Apartments external link...

  1. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    63 and 2.72 per MMBtu during the months through October without the wide variations that occurred over the spring and early summer months (Short-Term Energy Outlook, August 2002)....

  2. Regional Short-Term Energy Model (RSTEM) Overview

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    The Regional Short-Term Energy Model (RSTEM) utilizes estimated econometric relationships for demand, inventories and prices to forecast energy market outcomes across key sectors and selected regions throughout the United States.

  3. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    the rest of the winter and perhaps well into spring, with prices averaging 4.90 per MMBtu through March and 4.45 in April (Short-Term Energy Outlook, February 2003). Wellhead...

  4. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    the rest of the winter and the first part of spring, with prices averaging 5.19 per MMBtu through March and 4.58 in April (Short-Term Energy Outlook, February 2004). Wellhead...

  5. Value of Improved Short-Term Wind Power Forecasting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodge, B. M.; Florita, A.; Sharp, J.; Margulis, M.; Mcreavy, D.

    2015-02-01

    This report summarizes an assessment of improved short-term wind power forecasting in the California Independent System Operator (CAISO) market and provides a quantification of its potential value.

  6. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    commercial sector demand are offset by lower demand in the electric power sector. Short-Term Natural Gas Market Outlook, September 2003 History Projections Jun-03 Jul-03 Aug-03...

  7. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    by 1.8 percent as the economy continues to expand and prices ease slightly. Short-Term Natural Gas Market Outlook, January 2004 History Projections Oct-03 Nov-03 Dec-03...

  8. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    economy. In 2003, natural gas demand growth is expected across all sectors. Short-Term Natural Gas Market Outlook, July 2002 History Projections Apr-02 Ma May-02 Jun-02...

  9. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    of 2005 relative to the first quarter of 2004 and relatively lower fuel oil prices. Short-Term Natural Gas Market Outlook, April 2004 History Projections Jan-04 Feb-04 Mar-04...

  10. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    should relieve some of the potential upward price pressure on the domestic market Short-Term Natural Gas Market Outlook, January 2003 History Projections Oct-02 Nov-02 Dec-02...

  11. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    because of somewhat weaker prices and higher demand in the electric power sector. Short-Term Natural Gas Market Outlook, July 2003 History Projections Apr-03 May-03 Jun-03 Jul-03...

  12. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    than those of 2003, when stocks after the winter of 2002-2003 were at record lows. Short-Term Natural Gas Market Outlook, December 2003 History Projections Sep-03 Oct-03 Nov-03...

  13. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    power sector eases and relative coal and fuel oil spot prices decline somewhat. Short-Term Natural Gas Market Outlook, May 2004 History Projections Feb-04 Mar-04 Apr-04 May-04...

  14. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    demand in the first quarter of 2005 relative to the first quarter of 2004. Short-Term Natural Gas Market Outlook, March 2004 History Projections Dec-03 Jan-04 Feb-04...

  15. Short-term Human Vision Protection from Intense Light Sources...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Short-term Human Vision Protection from Intense Light Sources The primary objective of this invention is to minimize the sensitivity of the human eye to intense visible light by ...

  16. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections. Second quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-05-02

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent projections with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the second quarter of 1995 through the fourth quarter of 1996. Values for the first quarter of 1995, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled into the second quarter 1995 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service.

  17. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, second quarter 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-04-01

    The Energy Information Administration prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections. The forecasts in this issue cover the second quarter of 1996 through the fourth quarter of 1997. Changes to macroeconomic measures by the Bureau of Economic Analysis have been incorporated into the STIFS model used.

  18. Improving thermocouple service life in slagging gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, James P.; Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Powell, Cynthia A.; Thomas, Hugh; Krabbe, Rick

    2005-01-01

    The measurement of temperature within slagging gasifiers for long periods of time is difficult/impossible because of sensor failure or blockage of inputs used to monitor gasifier temperature. One of the most common means of temperature measurement in a gasifier is physically, through the use of thermocouples in a gasifier sidewall. These units can fail during startup, standby, or during the first 40-90 days of gasifier service. Failure can be caused by a number of issues; including thermocouple design, construction, placement in the gasifier, gasifier operation, and molten slag attack of the materials used in a thermocouple assembly. Lack of temperature control in a gasifier can lead to improper preheating, slag buildup on gasifier sidewalls, slag attack of gasifier refractories used to line a gasifier, or changes in desired gas output from a gasifier. A general outline of thermocouple failure issues and attempts by the Albany Research Center to improve the service life of thermocouples will be discussed.

  19. Fixed Bed Biomass Gasifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carl Bielenberg

    2006-03-31

    The report details work performed by Gazogen to develop a novel biomass gasifier for producimg electricity from commercially available hardwood chips. The research conducted by Gazogen under this grant was intended to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of a new means of producing electricity from wood chips and other biomass and carbonaceous fuels. The technical feasibility of the technology has been furthered as a result of the DOE grant, and work is expected to continue. The economic feasibility can only be shown when all operational problems have been overocme. The technology could eventually provide a means of producing electricity on a decentralized basis from sustainably cultivated plants or plant by-products.

  20. Short-Term Outlook for Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Outlook for Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids March 2016 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Short-Term Energy Outlook for Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or employee

  1. Short-term, econometrically based coal-supply model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soyster, A.L.; Enscore, E.E.

    1984-01-01

    A short-term coal supply model is described. The model is econometric in nature and is based on several statistical regressions in which coal prices are regressed against such explanatory variables as productivity, wages and mine size. The basic objective is to relate coal prices with various economic and engineering variables. A whole set of alternative regressions is provided to account for different geographical regions as well as varying coal quality. 3 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  2. Energy Information Administration/Short-Term Energy Outlook - April 2006

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    6 1 April 2006 Short-Term Energy Outlook and Summer Fuels Outlook April 11, 2006 Release Contents Overview Global Petroleum Markets U.S. Petroleum Markets Motor Gasoline Diesel Fuel Natural Gas Markets Electricity Markets Coal Markets Overview Continued steady world oil demand growth, combined with only modest increases in world spare oil production capacity and the continuing risks of geopolitical instability, are expected to keep crude oil prices high through 2006. The price of West Texas

  3. Energy Information Administration/Short-Term Energy Outlook - February 2005

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    February 2005 1 Short-Term Energy Outlook February 2005 Winter Fuels Update (Figure 1) Despite some cold weather during the second half of January, expected average consumer prices for heating fuels this heating season are little changed since the January Outlook, leaving projections for household heating fuel expenditures about the same as previously reported. Heating oil expenditures by typical Northeastern households are expected to average 32 percent above last winter's levels, with

  4. Energy Information Administration/Short-Term Energy Outlook - January 2005

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    January 2005 1 Short-Term Energy Outlook January 2005 Winter Fuels Update (Figure 1) Consumer prices for heating fuels are relatively unchanged since the December Outlook, leaving projections for household heating fuel expenditures about the same as previously projected, despite continued warm weather in the middle of the heating season. Heating oil expenditures by typical Northeastern households are expected to average 30 percent above last winter's levels, with residential fuel oil prices

  5. Energy Information Administration/Short-Term Energy Outlook - October 2005

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5 1 October 2005 Short-Term Energy Outlook and Winter Fuels Outlook October 12, 2005 Release (Next Update: November 8, 2005) Overview Warnings from previous Outlooks about the potential adverse impacts of an active hurricane season on domestic energy supply and prices are unfortunately being reflected in the challenging realities brought about by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. The impact of the hurricanes on oil and natural gas production, oil refining, natural gas processing, and pipeline systems

  6. Short-Term Energy and Winter Fuels Outlook October 2013

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3 1 October 2013 Short-Term Energy and Winter Fuels Outlook (STEO) Highlights  EIA projects average U.S. household expenditures for natural gas and propane will increase by 13% and 9%, respectively, this winter heating season (October 1 through March 31) compared with last winter. Projected U.S. household expenditures are 2% higher for electricity and 2% lower for heating oil this winter. Although EIA expects average expenditures for households that heat with natural gas will be significantly

  7. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections, fourth quarter 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-10-14

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for printed publication in January, April, July, and October in the Short-Term Energy Outlook. The details of these projections, as well as monthly updates on or about the 6th of each interim month, are available on the internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the fourth quarter of 1997 through the fourth quarter of 1998. Values for the fourth quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the fourth quarter 1997 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. 19 tabs.

  8. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Model

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    Description of the procedures for estimating carbon dioxide emissions in the Short-Term Energy Outlook

  9. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections, second quarter 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-04-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in January, April, July, and October in the Outlook. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the second quarter of 1997 through the fourth quarter of 1998. Values for the first quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the second quarter 1997 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). 34 figs., 19 tabs.

  10. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, first quarter 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-02-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Outlook. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the first quarter of 1996 through the fourth quarter of 1997. Values for the fourth quarter of 1995, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled into the first quarter 1996 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service. The cases are produced using the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook.

  11. Short-term energy outlook, quarterly projections, second quarter 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-04-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections. The details of these projections, as well as monthly updates, are available on the Internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. The paper discusses outlook assumptions; US energy prices; world oil supply and the oil production cutback agreement of March 1998; international oil demand and supply; world oil stocks, capacity, and net trade; US oil demand and supply; US natural gas demand and supply; US coal demand and supply; US electricity demand and supply; US renewable energy demand; and US energy demand and supply sensitivities. 29 figs., 19 tabs.

  12. Energy Information Administration/Short-Term Energy Outlook - April 2005

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    April 2005 1 Short-Term Energy Outlook April 2005 2005 Summer Motor Gasoline Outlook (Figure 1) Gasoline prices in 2005 are projected to remain high, at an expected average of $2.28 per gallon for the April to September summer season, 38 cents above last summer. Similar high motor gasoline prices are expected through 2006. Monthly average prices are projected to peak at about $2.35 per gallon in May. Summer diesel fuel prices are expected to average $2.24 per gallon. As in 2004, the primary

  13. Energy Information Administration/Short-Term Energy Outlook - July 2005

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    July 2005 1 Short-Term Energy Outlook July 2005 2005 Summer Motor Fuels Outlook Update (Figure 1) Retail regular-grade gasoline prices moved up from about $2.12 per gallon at the beginning of June to $2.33 on July 11. Gasoline pump prices for the summer (April-September) are now projected to average $2.25 per gallon, 8 cents per gallon higher than last month's projection and about 35 cents per gallon above the year-ago level. Crude oil prices are expected to remain high enough to keep quarterly

  14. Energy Information Administration/Short-Term Energy Outlook - June 2005

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5 1 Short-Term Energy Outlook June 2005 2005 Summer Motor Fuels Outlook Update (Figure 1) In May, while West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil prices oscillated from the low $50s range to $47 and back again, retail gasoline prices declined steadily from about $2.24 per gallon at the beginning of the month to $2.10 on May 30. On June 6, average retail prices were $2.12 per gallon. Pump gasoline prices for the summer (April-September) are now projected to average $2.17 per gallon, similar to last

  15. Energy Information Administration/Short-Term Energy Outlook - May 2005

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5 1 Short-Term Energy Outlook May 2005 2005 Summer Motor Gasoline Outlook Update (Figure 1) A considerable break in the expected strength of near-term crude oil prices has resulted in a lower forecast for retail gasoline prices this spring. Gasoline prices may well have seen their peak for the year, barring sharp disruptions in crude oil supply or refinery operations. Pump prices for the summer (April-September) are now projected to average $2.17 per gallon, still high by historical standards

  16. Energy Information Administration/Short-Term Energy Outlook - September 2005

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5 1 Short-Term Energy Outlook September 2005 Hurricane Katrina (Figures 1 and 2) The Gulf of Mexico coast region is a major oil and natural gas supply center for the United States with significant offshore oil and natural gas production, refining capacity, and petrochemical facilities, and serves as a major import hub and nexus for pipeline infrastructure. In the Gulf coast region, Federal offshore crude oil production accounts for 1.5 million barrels per day (29 percent of total U.S.

  17. Biomass-Derived Hydrogen from a Thermally Ballasted Gasifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Robert C

    2007-04-06

    The goal of this project is to develop an indirectly heated gasification system that converts switchgrass into hydrogen-rich gas suitable for powering fuel cells. The project includes investigations of the indirectly-heated gasifier, development of particulate removal equipment, evaluation of catalytic methods for upgrading producer gas, development of contaminant measurement and control techniques, modeling of the thermal performance of the ballasted gasifier, and estimation of the cost of hydrogen from the proposed gasification system. Specific technologies investigated include a thermally ballasted gasifier, a moving bed granular filter, and catalytic reactors for steam reforming and water-gas shift reaction. The approach to this project was to employ a pilot-scale (5 ton per day) gasifier to evaluate the thermally ballasted gasifier as a means for producing hydrogen from switchgrass. A slipstream from the gasifier was used to evaluate gas cleaning and upgrading options. Other tests were conducted with laboratory-scale equipment using simulated producer gas. The ballasted gasifier operated in conjunction with a steam reformer and two-stage water-gas shift reactor produced gas streams containing 54.5 vol-% H2. If purge gas to the feeder system could be substantially eliminated, hydrogen concentration would reach 61 vol-%, which closely approaches the theoretical maximum of 66 vol-%. Tests with a combined catalyst/sorbent system demonstrated that steam reforming and water-gas shift reaction could be substantially performed in a single reactor and achieve hydrogen concentrations exceeding 90 vol-%. Cold flow trials with a laboratory-scale moving bed granular filter achieved particle removal efficiencies exceeding 99%. Two metal-based sorbents were tested for their ability to remove H2S from biomass-derived producer gas. The ZnO sorbent, tested at 450° C, was effective in reducing H2S from 200 ppm to less than 2 ppm (>99% reduction) while tests with the MnO sorbent

  18. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, third quarter 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-07-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in January, April, July, and October in the Outlook. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the third quarter of 1996 through the fourth quarter of 1997. Values for the second quarter of 1996, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the third quarter 1996 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service.

  19. Short-term energy outlook, Annual supplement 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-07-25

    This supplement is published once a year as a complement to the Short- Term Energy Outlook, Quarterly Projections. The purpose of the Supplement is to review the accuracy of the forecasts published in the Outlook, make comparisons with other independent energy forecasts, and examine current energy topics that affect the forecasts. Chap. 2 analyzes the response of the US petroleum industry to the recent four Federal environmental rules on motor gasoline. Chap. 3 compares the EIA base or mid case energy projections for 1995 and 1996 (as published in the first quarter 1995 Outlook) with recent projections made by four other major forecasting groups. Chap. 4 evaluates the overall accuracy. Chap. 5 presents the methology used in the Short- Term Integrated Forecasting Model for oxygenate supply/demand balances. Chap. 6 reports theoretical and empirical results from a study of non-transportation energy demand by sector. The empirical analysis involves the short-run energy demand in the residential, commercial, industrial, and electrical utility sectors in US.

  20. Integrating catalytic coal gasifiers with solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siefert, N.; Shamsi, A.; Shekhawat, D.; Berry, D.

    2010-01-01

    A review was conducted for coal gasification technologies that integrate with solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) to achieve system efficiencies near 60% while capturing and sequestering >90% of the carbon dioxide [1-2]. The overall system efficiency can reach 60% when a) the coal gasifier produces a syngas with a methane composition of roughly 25% on a dry volume basis, b) the carbon dioxide is separated from the methane-rich synthesis gas, c) the methane-rich syngas is sent to a SOFC, and d) the off-gases from the SOFC are recycled back to coal gasifier. The thermodynamics of this process will be reviewed and compared to conventional processes in order to highlight where available work (i.e. exergy) is lost in entrained-flow, high-temperature gasification, and where exergy is lost in hydrogen oxidation within the SOFC. The main advantage of steam gasification of coal to methane and carbon dioxide is that the amount of exergy consumed in the gasifier is small compared to conventional, high temperature, oxygen-blown gasifiers. However, the goal of limiting the amount of exergy destruction in the gasifier has the effect of limiting the rates of chemical reactions. Thus, one of the main advantages of steam gasification leads to one of its main problems: slow reaction kinetics. While conventional entrained-flow, high-temperature gasifiers consume a sizable portion of the available work in the coal oxidation, the consumed exergy speeds up the rates of reactions. And while the rates of steam gasification reactions can be increased through the use of catalysts, only a few catalysts can meet cost requirements because there is often significant deactivation due to chemical reactions between the inorganic species in the coal and the catalyst. Previous research into increasing the kinetics of steam gasification will be reviewed. The goal of this paper is to highlight both the challenges and advantages of integrating catalytic coal gasifiers with SOFCs.

  1. Hot-Gas Filter Testing with a Transport Reactor Gasifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swanson, M.L.; Hajicek, D.R.

    2002-09-18

    Today, coal supplies over 55% of the electricity consumed in the United States and will continue to do so well into the next century. One of the technologies being developed for advanced electric power generation is an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) system that converts coal to a combustible gas, cleans the gas of pollutants, and combusts the gas in a gas turbine to generate electricity. The hot exhaust from the gas turbine is used to produce steam to generate more electricity from a steam turbine cycle. The utilization of advanced hot-gas particulate and sulfur control technologies together with the combined power generation cycles make IGCC one of the cleanest and most efficient ways available to generate electric power from coal. One of the strategic objectives for U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) IGCC research and development program is to develop and demonstrate advanced gasifiers and second-generation IGCC systems. Another objective is to develop advanced hot-gas cleanup and trace contaminant control technologies. One of the more recent gasification concepts to be investigated is that of the transport reactor gasifier, which functions as a circulating fluid-bed gasifier while operating in the pneumatic transport regime of solid particle flow. This gasifier concept provides excellent solid-gas contacting of relatively small particles to promote high gasification rates and also provides the highest coal throughput per unit cross-sectional area of any other gasifier, thereby reducing capital cost of the gasification island.

  2. Development of standardized air-blown coal gasifier/gas turbine concepts for future electric power systems. Volume 5, Appendix D: Cost support information: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadowski, R.S.; Brown, M.J.; Harriz, J.T.; Ostrowski, E.

    1991-01-01

    The cost estimate provided for the DOE sponsored study of Air Blown Coal Gasification was developed from vendor quotes obtained directly for the equipment needed in the 50 MW, 100 MW, and 200 MW sized plants and from quotes from other jobs that have been referenced to apply to the particular cycle. Quotes were generally obtained for the 100 MW cycle and a scale up/down factor was used to generate the cost estimates for the 200 MW and 50 MW cycles, respectively. Information from GTPro (property of Thermoflow, Inc.) was used to estimate the cost of the 200 MW and 50 MW gas turbine, HRSG, and steam turbines. To available the use of GTPro`s estimated values for this equipment, a comparison was made between the quotes obtained for the 100 MW cycle (ABB GT 11N combustion turbine and a HSRG) against the estimated values by GTPro.

  3. Implications of Wide-Area Geographic Diversity for Short- Term Variability of Solar Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, Andrew; Wiser, Ryan

    2010-08-23

    Worldwide interest in the deployment of photovoltaic generation (PV) is rapidly increasing. Operating experience with large PV plants, however, demonstrates that large, rapid changes in the output of PV plants are possible. Early studies of PV grid impacts suggested that short-term variability could be a potential limiting factor in deploying PV. Many of these early studies, however, lacked high-quality data from multiple sites to assess the costs and impacts of increasing PV penetration. As is well known for wind, accounting for the potential for geographic diversity can significantly reduce the magnitude of extreme changes in aggregated PV output, the resources required to accommodate that variability, and the potential costs of managing variability. We use measured 1-min solar insolation for 23 time-synchronized sites in the Southern Great Plains network of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program and wind speed data from 10 sites in the same network to characterize the variability of PV with different degrees of geographic diversity and to compare the variability of PV to the variability of similarly sited wind. The relative aggregate variability of PV plants sited in a dense 10 x 10 array with 20 km spacing is six times less than the variability of a single site for variability on time scales less than 15-min. We find in our analysis of wind and PV plants similarly sited in a 5 x 5 grid with 50 km spacing that the variability of PV is only slightly more than the variability of wind on time scales of 5-15 min. Over shorter and longer time scales the level of variability is nearly identical. Finally, we use a simple approximation method to estimate the cost of carrying additional reserves to manage sub-hourly variability. We conclude that the costs of managing the short-term variability of PV are dramatically reduced by geographic diversity and are not substantially different from the costs for managing the short-term variability of similarly sited wind in

  4. Economic Evaluation of Short-Term Wind Power Forecasts in ERCOT: Preliminary Results; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orwig, K.; Hodge, B. M.; Brinkman, G.; Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Banunarayanan, V.; Nasir, S.; Freedman, J.

    2012-09-01

    Historically, a number of wind energy integration studies have investigated the value of using day-ahead wind power forecasts for grid operational decisions. These studies have shown that there could be large cost savings gained by grid operators implementing the forecasts in their system operations. To date, none of these studies have investigated the value of shorter-term (0 to 6-hour-ahead) wind power forecasts. In 2010, the Department of Energy and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration partnered to fund improvements in short-term wind forecasts and to determine the economic value of these improvements to grid operators, hereafter referred to as the Wind Forecasting Improvement Project (WFIP). In this work, we discuss the preliminary results of the economic benefit analysis portion of the WFIP for the Electric Reliability Council of Texas. The improvements seen in the wind forecasts are examined, then the economic results of a production cost model simulation are analyzed.

  5. Short-term energy outlook, quarterly projections, first quarter 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-01-01

    The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the first quarter of 1998 through the fourth quarter of 1999. Values for the fourth quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the first quarter 1998 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 24 figs., 19 tabs.

  6. Conversion of forest residues to a methane-rich gas in a high-throughput gasifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feldmann, H.F.; Paisley, M.A.; Appelbaum, H.R.; Taylor, D.R.

    1988-05-01

    Research was conducted in a process research unit to develop an entrained bed gasifier which is supplied heat by recirculating a stream of sand between a separate combustion vessel and the gasifier. The char remaining after gasification of the wood provides the fuel for the combustor. The research program was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, a 6 in. I.D. gasifier was used to establish the feasibility of the concept for a wide variety of biomass feeds. The second phase of the program was conducted with a 10 in. I.D. gasifier, and a fully automated feeder system, to evaluate gasifier performance at very high feed rates. The experimental results were used to develop design parameters and detailed energy and material balances for a conceptual plant. A preliminary cost analysis is presented in the report based on the conceptual design. 5 refs., 24 figs., 13 tabs.

  7. Long vs. short-term energy storage:sensitivity analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoenung, Susan M. (Longitude 122 West, Inc., Menlo Park, CA); Hassenzahl, William V. (,Advanced Energy Analysis, Piedmont, CA)

    2007-07-01

    This report extends earlier work to characterize long-duration and short-duration energy storage technologies, primarily on the basis of life-cycle cost, and to investigate sensitivities to various input assumptions. Another technology--asymmetric lead-carbon capacitors--has also been added. Energy storage technologies are examined for three application categories--bulk energy storage, distributed generation, and power quality--with significant variations in discharge time and storage capacity. Sensitivity analyses include cost of electricity and natural gas, and system life, which impacts replacement costs and capital carrying charges. Results are presented in terms of annual cost, $/kW-yr. A major variable affecting system cost is hours of storage available for discharge.

  8. The Value of Improved Short-Term Wind Power Forecasting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... up-ramp reserves c down cost in MWh of down-ramp reserves R down MW range for ... power forecasting and the increased gas usage that comes with less-accurate forecasting. ...

  9. Method and apparatus for gasifying with a fluidized bed gasifier having integrated pretreating facilities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rice, Louis F.

    1981-01-01

    An integral gasifier including a pretreater section and a gasifier section separated by a distribution grid is defined by a single vessel. The pretreater section pretreats coal or other carbon-containing material to be gasified to prevent caking and agglomeration of the coal in the gasifier. The level of the coal bed of the pretreater section and thus the holding or residence time in said bed is selectively regulated by the amount of pretreated coal which is lifted up a lift pipe into the gasifier section. Thus, the holding time in the pretreater section can be varied according to the amount of pretreat necessary for the particular coal to be gasified.

  10. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Coal Supply, Demand, and Prices

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2016-01-01

    The coal module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide forecasts of U.S. production, consumption, imports, exports, inventories, and prices.

  11. Newporter Apartments: Deep Energy Retrofit Short-Term Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, A.; Howard, L.; Kunkle, R.; Lubliner, M.; Auer, D.; Clegg, Z.

    2012-12-01

    This project demonstrates a path to meet the goal of the Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30% in multi-family buildings. The project demonstrates cost effective energy savings targets as well as improved comfort and indoor environmental quality (IEQ) associated with deep energy retrofits by a large public housing authority as part of a larger rehabilitation effort. The project focuses on a typical 1960's vintage low-rise multi-family apartment community (120 units in three buildings).

  12. Newporter Apartments. Deep Energy Retrofit Short Term Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, Andrew; Howard, Luke; Kunkle, Rick; Lubliner, Michael; Auer, Dan; Clegg, Zach

    2012-12-01

    This project demonstrates a path to meet the goal of the Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30% in multi-family buildings. The project demonstrates cost-effective energy savings targets as well as improved comfort and indoor environmental quality (IEQ) associated with deep energy retrofits by a large public housing authority as part of a larger rehabilitation effort. The project focuses on a typical 1960’s vintage low-rise multi-family apartment community (120 units in three buildings).

  13. Fuel-Flexible Microturbine and Gasifier System for Combined Heat...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel-Flexible Microturbine and Gasifier System for Combined Heat and Power Fuel-Flexible Microturbine and Gasifier System for Combined Heat and Power Capstone Turbine Corporation, ...

  14. Process for electrochemically gasifying coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Botts, T.E.; Powell, J.R.

    1985-10-25

    A process is claimed for electrochemically gasifying coal by establishing a flowing stream of coal particulate slurry, electrolyte and electrode members through a transverse magnetic field that has sufficient strength to polarize the electrode members, thereby causing them to operate in combination with the electrolyte to electrochemically reduce the coal particulate in the slurry. Such electrochemical reduction of the coal produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide at opposite ends of the polarized electrode members. Gas collection means are operated in conjunction with the process to collect the evolved gases as they rise from the slurry and electrolyte solution. 7 figs.

  15. Short-Term Monitoring Results for Advanced New Construction Test House - Roseville, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stecher, D.; Brozyna, K.; Imm, C.

    2013-09-01

    A builder (K. Hovnanian® Homes®), design consultant, and trades collaborated to identify a systems integrated measures package for a 2,253-ft² slab-on-grade ranch house to achieve a modeled energy savings of 60% with respect to the Building America House Simulation Protocols, while minimizing construction costs and without requiring changes to the drawing that would impact local code or zoning approval. The key building improvements were applying R-10 insulation to the slab edge, increasing exterior wall cavity insulation from R-13 to R-15, and increasing attic insulation from R-30 to R-38. Also, the air handling unit was relocated from the attic to conditioned space, and ductwork was relocated along the attic floor with an insulated bulkhead built above it. Short-term testing results showed that duct air leakage was low due to short duct runs and the placement of ductwork in conditioned space. However, during commissioning, the lack of access for servicing the ductwork and dampers in the bulkhead area prevented retroactive balancing of individual branches, resulting in significant differences between specified and measured airflow values for some duct runs. Thermal imaging results performed on the house when operating in both heating and cooling modes validated historic stratification issues of ceiling supply registers with high supply air temperatures. Long-term monitoring results will be detailed in a future report.

  16. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Petroleum Product Prices Module

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2015-01-01

    The petroleum products price module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide U.S. average wholesale and retail price forecasts for motor gasoline, diesel fuel, heating oil, and jet fuel.

  17. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Regional Residential Propane Price Model

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    The regional residential propane price module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide residential retail price forecasts for the 4 Census regions: Northeast, South, Midwest, and West.

  18. Short-Term Energy Outlook - U.S. Energy Information Administration...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Previous Short-Term Energy Outlook reports are available in the original Adobe Acrobat PDF file with text, charts, and tables, or just the monthly data tables in an Excel file. +...

  19. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Motor Gasoline Consumption Model

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2011-01-01

    The motor gasoline consumption module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide forecasts of total U.S. consumption of motor gasolien based on estimates of vehicle miles traveled and average vehicle fuel economy.

  20. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids Supply and Demand

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2015-01-01

    The hydrocarbon gas liquids (ethane, propane, butanes, and natural gasoline) module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide forecasts of U.S. production, consumption, refinery inputs, net imports, and inventories.

  1. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Regional Residential Heating Oil Price Model

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    The regional residential heating oil price module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide residential retail price forecasts for the 4 census regions: Northeast, South, Midwest, and West.

  2. High Statistics Study of Nearby Type 1a Supernovae. QUEST Camera Short Term

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Maintenance: Final Technical Report (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect High Statistics Study of Nearby Type 1a Supernovae. QUEST Camera Short Term Maintenance: Final Technical Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High Statistics Study of Nearby Type 1a Supernovae. QUEST Camera Short Term Maintenance: Final Technical Report The Quest Camera was installed at the Palomar Obervatory in California. The camera was used to carry out a survey of low redshift Type 1a supernovae.The

  3. Short-Term Energy Outlook - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Special Analysis + EXPAND ALL Feature Articles The Short-Term Outlook for Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids March 2016 PDF Changes to the Natural Gas Storage Regions December 2015 PDF 2015 Outlook for Gulf of Mexico Hurricane-Related Production Outages June 2015 PDF Weather Sensitivity in Natural Gas Markets October 2014 PDF 2014 Outlook for Gulf of Mexico Hurricane-Related Production Outages June 2014 PDF Uncertainties in the Short-Term Global Petroleum and Other Liquids Supply Forecast February 2014

  4. Slag-Refractory Interaction in Coal Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sundaram, S. K.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Williford, Ralph E.; Pilli, Siva Prasad; Matyas, Josef; Fluegel, Alexander; Cooley, Scott K.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Edmondson, Autumn B.

    2007-10-13

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has taken an integrated approach to address major technical issues in conversion of coal into clean-burning liquid fuel. The approach includes: 1) modeling of gasifier and slag flow, 2) experimental characterization of slag viscoelastic behavior as a function of temperature for representative slags and refractory-slag interactions, and 3) interplay of the modeling and experimental measurements to identify critical conditions beyond which refractory corrosion tends to increase sharply. Basic heat and mass balances were considered in the gasifier and flow models. Two new refractory spalling models were developed. An experimental design that encompassed the broad range of slag chemistries that were of interest to coal gasification was developed and implemented. Selected gasifier refractories were tested in a simulated gasifier environment in our laboratory to identify refractory degradation mechanisms. Preliminary results of the effort are summarized.

  5. Fuel-Flexible Microturbine and Gasifier System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-12-01

    This factsheet describes a project that will develop and demonstrate a prototype microturbine combined heat and power system fueled by synthesis gas and integrated with a biomass gasifier, enabling reduced fossil fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions.

  6. Short-Term Energy Outlook: Changes to the Natural Gas Storage Regions

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Short-Term Energy Outlook: Changes to the Natural Gas Storage Regions December 2015 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Short-Term Energy Outlook: Changes to the Natural Gas Storage Regions 1 This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are

  7. Microsoft PowerPoint - Arseneau_EIA_ShortTermDriversofEnergyPrices.ppt [Compatibility Mode]

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    SHORT-TERM ENERGY PRICES: WHAT DRIVERS MATTER MOST? DAVID M. ARSENEAU FEDERAL RESERVE BOARD U.S. Energy Information Administration & Johns Hopkins University - SAIS FEDERAL RESERVE BOARD Johns Hopkins University SAIS 2010 Energy Conference Washington, D.C., U.S.A. A il 6 2010 April 6, 2010 BROAD COMMODITY PRICES SINCE 2000 Short-term Energy Prices: What Drivers Matters Most? BROAD COMMODITY PRICES SINCE 2000 April 6, 2010 Seminar: 2010 EIA/SAIS Energy Conference 2 A (GROSSLY OVERSIMPLIFIED)

  8. Dynamic Testing of Gasifier Refractory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael D. Mann; Devdutt Shukla; John P. Hurley

    2003-09-27

    The University of North Dakota (UND) Chemical Engineering Department in conjunction with the UND Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) have initiated a program to thoroughly examine the combined chemical (reaction and phase change) and physical (erosion) effects experienced by a variety of refractory materials during both normal operation and thermal cycling under slagging coal gasification conditions. The goal of this work is to devise a mechanism of refractory loss under these conditions. The controlled-atmospheric dynamic corrodent application furnace (CADCAF) is being utilized to simulate refractory/slag interactions under dynamic conditions that more realistically simulate the environment in a slagging coal gasifier than any of the static tests used previously by refractory manufacturers and researchers. Shakedown testing of the CADCAF is in progress. Samples of slag and refractory from the Tampa Electric Polk Power Station have been obtained for testing in the CADCAF. The slag has been dried and sieved to the size needed for our flowing slag corrosion tests. Testing is expected to begin in October.

  9. Dynamic Testing of Gasifier Refractory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael D. Mann; Devdutt Shukla; Xi Hong; John P. Hurley

    2004-09-27

    The University of North Dakota (UND) Chemical Engineering Department in conjunction with the UND Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) have initiated a program to thoroughly examine the combined chemical (reaction and phase change) and physical (erosion) effects experienced by a variety of refractory materials during both normal operation and thermal cycling under slagging coal gasification conditions. The goal of this work is to devise a mechanism of refractory loss under these conditions. The controlled-atmospheric dynamic corrodent application furnace (CADCAF) is being utilized to simulate refractory/slag interactions under dynamic conditions that more realistically simulate the environment in a slagging coal gasifier than any of the static tests used previously by refractory manufacturers and researchers. Shakedown testing of the CADCAF has been completed. Samples of slag and refractory from the Tampa Electric Polk Power Station have been obtained for testing in the CADCAF. The slag has been dried and sieved to the size needed for our flowing slag corrosion tests. Screening tests are in currently in progress. Detailed analysis of corrosion rates from the first tests is in progress.

  10. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Petroleum Products Supply Module

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2013-01-01

    The Petroleum Products Supply Module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model provides forecasts of petroleum refinery inputs (crude oil, unfinished oils, pentanes plus, liquefied petroleum gas, motor gasoline blending components, and aviation gasoline blending components) and refinery outputs (motor gasoline, jet fuel, distillate fuel, residual fuel, liquefied petroleum gas, and other petroleum products).

  11. Predicting and verifying energy savings for energy service companies using short-term monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arney, W.M.; Waterbury, S.S.; Ossi, M.J.

    1998-07-01

    This paper describes a method using short-term monitoring to estimate lighting retrofit savings. This method meets the requirements of Options A and B of the IPMVP (International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol, US DOE 1997). This protocol was previously known as the NEMVP (North American Energy Measurement and Verification Protocol, US DOE 1996a). These protocols require that energy savings be calculated from the measured reduction in demand with run hours stipulated (Option A) or measured (Option B). Using short-term monitoring, the pre- and post-retrofit demand and energy consumption are recorded to meet the Option A requirements of measuring the demand reduction, including demand diversity, and through monitoring, the actual run hours are quantified. The short-term measured run hours are used to determine the stipulated annual run hours. After the retrofit has been performed, short-term monitoring is again performed to measure the reduced demand, and to verify that the post-retrofit run hours have not significantly changed. For Option B, both sets of run hours measurements are used for the energy savings estimates. Two case studies are presented. The first case study used the whole-building approach to monitoring of the lighting systems. The second case study required a sampling approach, since multiple end uses were served by the circuit panels. In both cases the savings estimated from the monitored data was less than the estimates based on the more traditional spreadsheet approach.

  12. Biodiesel Supply and Consumption in the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    The historical biodiesel consumption data published in the Energy Information Administration's Monthly Energy Review March 2009 edition were revised to account for imports and exports. Table 10.4 of the Monthly Energy Review was expanded to display biodiesel imports, exports, stocks, stock change, and consumption. Similar revisions were made in the April 2009 edition of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO).

  13. Changes in Natural Gas Monthly Consumption Data Collection and the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    Beginning with the December 2010 issue of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO), the Energy Information Administration (EIA) will present natural gas consumption forecasts for the residential and commercial sectors that are consistent with recent changes to the Form EIA-857 monthly natural gas survey.

  14. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Other Petroleum Products Consumption Model

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2011-01-01

    The other petroleum product consumption module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide U.S. consumption forecasts for 6 petroleum product categories: asphalt and road oil, petrochemical feedstocks, petroleum coke, refinery still gas, unfinished oils, and other miscvellaneous products

  15. Method of operating a coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blaskowski, Henry J.

    1979-01-01

    A method of operating an entrained flow coal gasifier which comprises the steps of firing coal at two levels in a combustion zone with near stoichiometric air, removing molten ash from the combustion zone, conveying combustion products upwardly from the combustion zone through a reduction zone, injecting additional coal into the combustion products in the reduction zone and gasifying at least a portion of the coal to form low BTU gas, conveying the gas to a point of use, including also reducing gasifier output by modifying the ratio of air to coal supplied to the upper level of the combustion zone so that the ratio becomes increasingly substoichiometric thereby extending the gasification of coal from the reduction zone into the upper level of the combustion zone, and maintaining the lower level of coal in the combustion zone at near stoichiometric conditions so as to provide sufficient heat to maintain effective slagging conditions.

  16. Handbook of biomass downdraft gasifier engine systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed, T B; Das, A

    1988-03-01

    This handbook has been prepared by the Solar Energy Research Institute under the US Department of Energy /bold Solar Technical Information Program/. It is intended as a guide to the design, testing, operation, and manufacture of small-scale (less than 200 kW (270 hp)) gasifiers. A great deal of the information will be useful for all levels of biomass gasification. The handbook is meant to be a practical guide to gasifier systems, and a minimum amount of space is devoted to questions of more theoretical interest.

  17. Short-Term Energy Outlook Supplement: Weather Sensitivity in Natural Gas Markets

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Short-Term Energy Outlook Supplement: Weather Sensitivity in Natural Gas Markets October 2014 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | STEO Supplement: Weather Sensitivity in Natural Gas Markets i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are

  18. Short-Term Energy Outlook - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ‹ Analysis & Projections Short-Term Energy Outlook Release Date: September 7, 2016 | Next Release Date: October 12, 2016 | Full Report | Text Only | All Tables | All Figures Glossary › FAQS › Overview STEO Report Highlights Prices Global Petroleum and Other Liquids U.S. Petroleum and Other Liquids Natural Gas Coal Electricity Renewables and Carbon Dioxide Emissions U.S. Economic Assumptions Data Figures Tables Custom Table Builder Real Prices Viewer Forecast Changes (PDF) Special

  19. Short-Term Energy Tests of a Credit Union Building in Idaho (Draft)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Subbarao, K.; Balcomb, J. D.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes tests and results of the energy performance of a credit union building in Idaho. The building is in the Energy Edge Program administered by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). BPA provided incentives to incorporate innovative features designed to conserve energy use by the building. It is of interest to determine the actual performance of these features. The objective of this project was to evaluate the applicability of the SERI short-term energy monitoring (STEM) method to nonresidential buildings.

  20. MELCOR calculations for a low-pressure short-term station blackout in a BWR-6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carbajo, J.J. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A postulated, low-pressure, short term station blackout severe accident has been analyzed using the MELCOR code for the Grand Gulf nuclear power plant. Different versions have been used with three different models of the plant. This paper presents results of the effects of different plant models and versions of MELCOR on the calculated results and to present the best-estimating timing of events for this transient.

  1. DOE/EIA-0202(84/1Q) Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1Q) Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections February 1984 Published: March 1984 Energy Information Administration Washington, D.C. t rt jrt- .ort- iort- iort- .iort- iort- lort- <ort- ort Tt- .erm -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term Term Term .-Term -Term uergy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy ^nergy Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook

  2. DOE/EIA-0202(84/3Q) Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3Q) Short-Term Energy Outlook pn Quarterly Projections August 1984 Published: September 1984 Energy Information Administration Washington, D.C. t- jrt .ort lort .iort .iort iort iort iort ort Tt jm .erm -Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term -Term -Term nergy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy ^nergy Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook

  3. DOE/EIA-0202(84/4Q) Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4Q) Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections October 1984 Published: November 1984 Energy Information Administration Washington, D.C. t rt jrt .ort lort iort lort iort lort \ort ort Tt .erm Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term -Term -Term xrm nergy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy ^nergy Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook

  4. DOE/EIA-0202(85/1Q) Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1Q) Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections January 1985 Published: February 1985 Energy Information Administration Washington, D.C. t rt jrt .ort lort lort lort nort lort *.ort ort Tt .m .erm -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term uergy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy ^nergy Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook

  5. DOE/EIA-0202(85/2Q) Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2Q) Short-Term Energy Outlook amm Quarterly Projections April 1985 Published: May 1985 Energy Information Administration Washington, D C t rt jrt .ort lort .iort iort iort lort '.ort ort .erm -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term xrm nergy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook

  6. DOE/EIA-0202(85/3Q) Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3Q) Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections July 1985 Published: August 1985 Energy Information Administration Washington, D C t rt jrt .ort lort iort iort iort iort '.ort ort Tt .-m .erm -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy ^nergy Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook

  7. DOE/EIA-0202(87/4Q) Energy Information Administration Short-Term

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4Q) Energy Information Administration Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections October 1987 i- rt- jrt ort lort lort lort- iort- lort- ort- ort Tt- " t- . m erm Perm -Term -Term -Term -Term ,-Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term 71 e rrn TT1 "1 Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy "nergy -cry Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook

  8. DOE/EIA-0202(88/2Q) Energy Information Administration Short-Term

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2Q) Energy Information Administration Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections April 1988 aergy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy E nergy Energy Energy Energy Energy '? nergy Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook '"""look Short-Terni

  9. QUARTER SHORT-TERM ENERGY OUTLOOK QUARTERLY PROJECTIONS ENERGY INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1Q) 1991 1 QUARTER SHORT-TERM ENERGY OUTLOOK QUARTERLY PROJECTIONS ENERGY INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION February 1991 This publication may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office. Purchasing in formation for this or other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications may be obtained from the Government Printing Office or ElA's National Energy Information Center. Questions on energy statistics should be directed to the Center by mail, telephone, or

  10. Short-Term Energy Outlook - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ‹ Analysis & Projections Short-Term Energy Outlook Release Date: August 9, 2016 | Next Release Date: September 7, 2016 | Full Report | Text Only | All Tables | All Figures Glossary › FAQS › Overview STEO Report Highlights Prices Global Petroleum and Other Liquids U.S. Petroleum and Other Liquids Natural Gas Coal Electricity Renewables and Carbon Dioxide Emissions U.S. Economic Assumptions Data Figures Tables Custom Table Builder Real Prices Viewer Forecast Changes (PDF) Special

  11. Short-Term Energy Outlook Supplement: Energy-weighted industrial production indices

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy-weighted industrial production indices December 2013 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Short-Term Energy Outlook Supplement: Energy-weighted industrial production indices i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of

  12. Short-Term Energy Outlook - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ‹ Analysis & Projections Short-Term Energy Outlook Release Date: September 7, 2016 | Next Release Date: October 12, 2016 | Full Report | Text Only | All Tables | All Figures Glossary › FAQS › Overview STEO Report Highlights Prices Global Petroleum and Other Liquids U.S. Petroleum and Other Liquids Natural Gas Coal Electricity Renewables and Carbon Dioxide Emissions U.S. Economic Assumptions Data Figures Tables Custom Table Builder Real Prices Viewer Forecast Changes (PDF) Special

  13. Session 4: "Short-Term Energy Prices - What Drivers Matter Most?"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4: "Short-Term Energy Prices - What Drivers Matter Most?" Speakers: Howard K. Gruenspecht, EIA David M. Arseneau, Federal Reserve Board Guy F. Caruso, Center for Strategic and International Studies Christopher Ellsworth, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Edward L. Morse, Credit Suisse Securities [Note: Recorders did not pick up introduction of panel (see biographies for details on the panelists) or introduction of session.] Howard: And this presentation could not be more timely,

  14. Ramp Forecasting Performance from Improved Short-Term Wind Power Forecasting: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, J.; Florita, A.; Hodge, B. M.; Freedman, J.

    2014-05-01

    The variable and uncertain nature of wind generation presents a new concern to power system operators. One of the biggest concerns associated with integrating a large amount of wind power into the grid is the ability to handle large ramps in wind power output. Large ramps can significantly influence system economics and reliability, on which power system operators place primary emphasis. The Wind Forecasting Improvement Project (WFIP) was performed to improve wind power forecasts and determine the value of these improvements to grid operators. This paper evaluates the performance of improved short-term wind power ramp forecasting. The study is performed for the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) by comparing the experimental WFIP forecast to the current short-term wind power forecast (STWPF). Four types of significant wind power ramps are employed in the study; these are based on the power change magnitude, direction, and duration. The swinging door algorithm is adopted to extract ramp events from actual and forecasted wind power time series. The results show that the experimental short-term wind power forecasts improve the accuracy of the wind power ramp forecasting, especially during the summer.

  15. DSM savings verification through short-term pre-and-post energy monitoring at 90 facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Misuriello, H.

    1994-12-31

    This paper summarizes the DSM impact results obtained from short-term energy measurements performed at sites monitored as part of the Commercial, Industrial and Agricultural (CIA) Retrofit Incentives Evaluation Program sponsored by the Pacific Gas & Electric Company. The DSM measures include those typically found in these sectors; i.e., lighting, motors, irrigation pumps and HVAC modifications. The most important findings from the site measurements are the estimated annual energy and demand savings. Although there may be large differences of projected energy savings for individual sites, when viewed in the aggregate the total energy savings for the program were found to be fairly comparable to engineering estimates. This paper describes the lessons learned from attempting in-situ impact evaluations of DSM savings under both direct and custom rebate approaches. Impact parameters of interest include savings under both direct and custom rebate approaches. Impact parameters of interest include gross first-year savings and load shape impacts. The major method discussed in this paper is short-term before/after field monitoring of affected end-uses; however, the complete impact evaluation method also includes a billing analysis component and a hybrid statistical/engineering model component which relies, in part, on the short-term end-use data.

  16. Commissioning an Engineering Scale Coal Gasifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, Douglas J.; Bearden, Mark D.; Cabe, James E.

    2010-07-01

    This report explains the development, commissioning, and testing of an engineering scale slagging coal gasifier at PNNL. The initial objective of this project was to commission the gasifier with zero safety incidents. The commissioning work was primarily an empirical study that required an engineering design approach. After bringing the gasifier on-line, tests were conducted to assess the impact of various operating parameters on the synthesis gas (syngas) product composition. The long-term intent of this project is to produce syngas product for use by internal Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers in catalyst, materials, and instrumentation development. Future work on the project will focus on improving the reliability and performance of the gasifier, with a goal of continuous operation for greater than 4 hours using coal feedstock. In addition, alternate designs that allow for increased flexibility regarding the fuel sources that can be used for syngas production is desired. Continued modifications to the fuel feed system will be pursued to address these goals. Alternative feed mechanisms such as a coal/methanol slurry are being considered.

  17. Slag tap for coal slagging gasifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, J. A.

    1981-06-09

    An improved slag outlet for a slagging gasifier comprises a cast body of high thermal conductivity having integral coolant passageways, said passageways being formed by shaping a metal tube into a coil having an inlet and an outlet, and casting metal to the desired shape around the coil such that the inlet and outlet communicate exteriorly of the cast body.

  18. Intermittently-fed high-pressure gasifier process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bailey, John M.; Zadoks, Abraham L.

    1993-11-30

    An improved gasifier adapted for gasifying a predetermined charge of non-gaseous fuel into fuel gas. Each charge of non-gaseous fuel, which may have optional conditioning materials added to it, is intermittently fed to a gasifier chamber where each charge is partially burned with high-pressure air supplied thereto. High-pressure and temperature fuel gas is produced which is cleansed prior to passing out of the gasifier chamber. After gasification of the charge of fuel is is ended, the gasifier chamber is vented. The residue of the burned charge in the gasifier chamber is removed, along with the contaminated or reacted conditioning materials, and replaced by a fresh charge. The subject invention provides a feasible way of continuously fueling an internal combustion engine with gasified fuel and is compact enough to be practical for even mobile applications.

  19. Intermittently-fed high-pressure gasifier process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bailey, J.M.; Zadoks, A.L.

    1993-11-30

    An improved gasifier is described which is adapted for gasifying a predetermined charge of non-gaseous fuel into fuel gas. Each charge of non-gaseous fuel, which may have optional conditioning materials added to it, is intermittently fed to a gasifier chamber where each charge is partially burned with high-pressure air supplied thereto. High-pressure and temperature fuel gas is produced which is cleansed prior to passing out of the gasifier chamber. After gasification of the charge of fuel is ended, the gasifier chamber is vented. The residue of the burned charge in the gasifier chamber is removed, along with the contaminated or reacted conditioning materials, and replaced by a fresh charge. The subject invention provides a feasible way of continuously fueling an internal combustion engine with gasified fuel and is compact enough to be practical for even mobile applications. 3 figures.

  20. High-Resolution Simulations of Coal Injection in A Gasifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Tingwen; Gel, Aytekin; Syamlal, M; Guenther, Chris; Pannala, Sreekanth

    2010-01-01

    This study demonstrates an approach to effectively combine high- and low-resolution simulations for design studies of industrial coal gasifier. The flow-field data from a 10 million cell full-scale simulation of a commercial-scale gasifier were used to construct a reduced configuration to economically study the coal injection in detail. High-resolution numerical simulations of the coal injection were performed using the open-source code MFIX running on a high performance computing system. Effects of grid resolution and numerical discretization scheme on the predicted behavior of coal injection and gasification kinetics were analyzed. Pronounced differences were predicted in the devolatilization and steam gasification rates because of different discretization schemes, implying that a high-order numerical scheme is required to predict well the unsteady gasification process on an adequately resolved grid. Computational costs for simulations of varying resolutions are presented to illustrate the trade-off between the accuracy of solution and the time-to-solution, an important consideration when engineering simulations are used for the design of commercial-scale units.

  1. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Macro Bridge Procedure to Update Regional Macroeconomic Forecasts with National Macroeconomic Forecasts

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    The Regional Short-Term Energy Model (RSTEM) uses macroeconomic variables such as income, employment, industrial production and consumer prices at both the national and regional1 levels as explanatory variables in the generation of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO). This documentation explains how national macroeconomic forecasts are used to update regional macroeconomic forecasts through the RSTEM Macro Bridge procedure.

  2. On The short-term uncertainty in performance of a point absorber wave energy converter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ON THE SHORT-TERM UNCERTAINTY IN PERFORMANCE OF A POINT ABSORBER WAVE ENERGY CONVERTER Lance Manuel 1 and Jarred Canning University of Texas at Austin Austin, TX, USA Ryan G. Coe and Carlos Michelen Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, NM, USA 1 Corresponding author: lmanuel@mail.utexas.edu INTRODUCTION Of interest, in this study, is the quantification of uncertainty in the performance of a two-body wave point absorber (Reference Model 3 or RM3), which serves as a wave energy converter

  3. DOE/EIA-0202(84/2QH Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2QH Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections May 1984 Published: June 1984 Energy Information Administration Washington, D.C. t rt jrt .ort lort .iort .iort- iort- iort- '.ort- ort- .m .erm Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term i-Term rTerm -Term xrm uergy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy ^nergy Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook

  4. DOE/EIA-0202(87/1Q) Energy Information Administration Short-Term

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    7/1Q) Energy Information Administration Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections January 1987 . m erm Term t-Term rt-Term jrt-Term ort-Term iort-Term lort-Term ion-Term lort-Term lort-Term ort-Term ort-Term rt-Term "t-Term -Term "rerm aergy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy "^nergy Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook

  5. DOE/EIA-0202(88/1Q) Energy Information Administration Short-Term

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8/1Q) Energy Information Administration Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections January 1988 .m erm Term t-Term rt-Term jrt-Term ort-Term ion-Term ion-Term tort-Term jort-Term ion-Term ort-Term ore-Term rt-Term 't-Term -Term Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy "^nergy Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook

  6. DOE/EIA-0202|83/2Q)-1 Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    |83/2Q)-1 Short-Term Energy Outlook Volume 1-Quarterly Projections May 1983 Energy Information Administration Washington, D.C. t rt jrt .ort lort iort iort lOrt iort '.ort- ort Tt . m .erm Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term -Term -Term nergy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy ^nergy Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook

  7. QUARTER SHORT-TERM ENERGY OUTLOOK QUARTERLY PROJECTIONS ENERGY INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    >OE/EIA-0202(92/3Q) 1992 3 QUARTER SHORT-TERM ENERGY OUTLOOK QUARTERLY PROJECTIONS ENERGY INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION August 1992 This publication and other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office. All telephone orders should be directed to: U.S. Government Printing Office Farragut Bookstore 151 OH Street N.W. Washington, DC 20005 (202)653-2050 FAX (202) 376-5055 9 a.m. to 5 p.m., eastern time,

  8. Short-Term Arctic Cloud Statistics at NSA from the Infrared Cloud Imager

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    November 2002 1 Short-Term Energy Outlook November 2002 Overview World Oil Markets: During the past 3-4 months, OPEC 10 production has risen more quickly than projected, thus reducing upward pressure on prices. More specifically, while the West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil spot price averaged $28.84 in October, about $6.70 per barrel above the year-ago level (Figure 1), the WTI average price for fourth quarter 2002 is now projected to soften to $28.20, which is about $2 per barrel below

  9. CANMET Gasifier Liner Coupon Material Test Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Fitzsimmons; Alan Darby; Fred Widman

    2005-10-30

    The test plan detailed in this topical report supports Task 1 of the project titled ''Development of Technologies and Capabilities for Coal Energy Resources - Advanced Gasification Systems Development (AGSD)''. The purpose of these tests is to verify that materials planned for use in an advanced gasifier pilot plant will withstand the environments in a commercial gasifier. Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) has developed and designed the cooled liner test assembly article that will be tested at CANMET Energy Technology Centre (CETC-O) in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (CETC-O). The Test Plan TP-00364 is duplicated in its entirety, with formatting changes to comply with the format required for this Topical Report. The table of contents has been modified to include the additional material required by this topical report. Test Request example and drawings of non-proprietary nature are also included as appendices.

  10. gasifier intro | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gasification Introduction Fundamentals Gasification is a partial oxidation process. The term partial oxidation is a relative term which simply means that less oxygen is used in gasification than would be required for combustion (i.e., burning or complete oxidation) of the same amount of fuel. Gasification typically uses only 25 to 40 percent of the theoretical oxidant (either pure oxygen or air) to generate enough heat to gasify the remaining unoxidized fuel, producing syngas. The major

  11. Interpretation of a short-term anomaly in the gravitational microlensing event MOA-2012-BLG-486

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, K.-H.; Choi, J.-Y.; Han, C.; Bond, I. A.; Sumi, T.; Koshimoto, N.; Gaudi, B. S.; Gould, A.; Bozza, V.; Beaulieu, J.-P.; Tsapras, Y.; Abe, F.; Fukunaga, D.; Itow, Y.; Bennett, D. P.; Botzler, C. S.; Freeman, M.; Chote, P.; Harris, P.; Fukui, A.; Collaboration: MOA Collaboration; μFUN Collaboration; PLANET Collaboration; RoboNet Collaboration; and others

    2013-11-20

    A planetary microlensing signal is generally characterized by a short-term perturbation to the standard single lensing light curve. A subset of binary-source events can produce perturbations that mimic planetary signals, thereby introducing an ambiguity between the planetary and binary-source interpretations. In this paper, we present the analysis of the microlensing event MOA-2012-BLG-486, for which the light curve exhibits a short-lived perturbation. Routine modeling not considering data taken in different passbands yields a best-fit planetary model that is slightly preferred over the best-fit binary-source model. However, when allowed for a change in the color during the perturbation, we find that the binary-source model yields a significantly better fit and thus the degeneracy is clearly resolved. This event not only signifies the importance of considering various interpretations of short-term anomalies, but also demonstrates the importance of multi-band data for checking the possibility of false-positive planetary signals.

  12. Short-term energy outlook, October 1998. Quarterly projections, 1998 4. quarter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-10-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares The Short-Term Energy Outlook (energy supply, demand, and price projections) monthly for distribution on the Internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. In addition, printed versions of the report are available to subscribers in January, April, July and October. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from October 1998 through December 1999. Values for third quarter of 1998 data, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the October 1998 version of the Short-term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding.

  13. Causticizing for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Sinquefeld; James Cantrell; Xiaoyan Zeng; Alan Ball; Jeff Empie

    2009-01-07

    The cost-benefit outlook of black liquor gasification (BLG) could be greatly improved if the smelt causticization step could be achieved in situ during the gasification step. Or, at a minimum, the increase in causticizing load associated with BLG could be mitigated. A number of chemistries have been proven successful during black liquor combustion. In this project, three in situ causticizing processes (titanate, manganate, and borate) were evaluated under conditions suitable for high temperature entrained flow BLG, and low temperature steam reforming of black liquor. The evaluation included both thermodynamic modeling and lab experimentation. Titanate and manganate were tested for complete direct causticizing (to thus eliminate the lime cycle), and borates were evaluated for partial causticizing (to mitigate the load increase associated with BLG). Criteria included high carbonate conversion, corresponding hydroxide recovery upon hydrolysis, non process element (NPE) removal, and economics. Of the six cases (three chemistries at two BLG conditions), only two were found to be industrially viable: titanates for complete causticizing during high temperature BLG, and borates for partial causticizing during high temperature BLG. These two cases were evaluated for integration into a gasification-based recovery island. The Larsen [28] BLG cost-benefit study was used as a reference case for economic forecasting (i.e. a 1500 tpd pulp mill using BLG and upgrading the lime cycle). By comparison, using the titanate direct causticizing process yielded a net present value (NPV) of $25M over the NPV of BLG with conventional lime cycle. Using the existing lime cycle plus borate autocausticizing for extra capacity yielded a NPV of $16M.

  14. EVALUATING SHORT-TERM CLIMATE VARIABILITY IN THE LATE HOLOCENE OF THE NORTHERN GREAT PLAINS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph H. Hartman

    1999-09-01

    This literature study investigated methods and areas to deduce climate change and climate patterns, looking for short-term cycle phenomena and the means to interpret them. Many groups are actively engaged in intensive climate-related research. Ongoing research might be (overly) simplified into three categories: (1) historic data on weather that can be used for trend analysis and modeling; (2) detailed geological, biological (subfossil), and analytical (geochemical, radiocarbon, etc.) studies covering the last 10,000 years (about since last glaciation); and (3) geological, paleontological, and analytical (geochemical, radiometric, etc.) studies over millions of years. Of importance is our ultimate ability to join these various lines of inquiry into an effective means of interpretation. At this point, the process of integration is fraught with methodological troubles and misconceptions about what each group can contribute. This project has met its goals to the extent that it provided an opportunity to study resource materials and consider options for future effort toward the goal of understanding the natural climate variation that has shaped our current civilization. A further outcome of this project is a proposed methodology based on ''climate sections'' that provides spatial and temporal correlation within a region. The method would integrate cultural and climate data to establish the climate history of a region with increasing accuracy with progressive study and scientific advancement (e. g., better integration of regional and global models). The goal of this project is to better understand natural climatic variations in the recent past (last 5000 years). The information generated by this work is intended to provide better context within which to examine global climate change. The ongoing project will help to establish a basis upon which to interpret late Holocene short-term climate variability as evidenced in various studies in the northern Great Plains, northern

  15. Application of Ensemble Sensitivity Analysis to Observation Targeting for Short-term Wind Speed Forecasting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zack, J; Natenberg, E; Young, S; Manobianco, J; Kamath, C

    2010-02-21

    The operators of electrical grids, sometimes referred to as Balancing Authorities (BA), typically make critical decisions on how to most reliably and economically balance electrical load and generation in time frames ranging from a few minutes to six hours ahead. At higher levels of wind power generation, there is an increasing need to improve the accuracy of 0- to 6-hour ahead wind power forecasts. Forecasts on this time scale have typically been strongly dependent on short-term trends indicated by the time series of power production and meteorological data from a wind farm. Additional input information is often available from the output of Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models and occasionally from off-site meteorological towers in the region surrounding the wind generation facility. A widely proposed approach to improve short-term forecasts is the deployment of off-site meteorological towers at locations upstream from the wind generation facility in order to sense approaching wind perturbations. While conceptually appealing, it turns out that, in practice, it is often very difficult to derive significant benefit in forecast performance from this approach. The difficulty is rooted in the fact that the type, scale, and amplitude of the processes controlling wind variability at a site change from day to day if not from hour to hour. Thus, a location that provides some useful forecast information for one time may not be a useful predictor a few hours later. Indeed, some processes that cause significant changes in wind power production operate predominantly in the vertical direction and thus cannot be monitored by employing a network of sensors at off-site locations. Hence, it is very challenging to determine the type of sensors and deployment locations to get the most benefit for a specific short-term forecast application. Two tools recently developed in the meteorological research community have the potential to help determine the locations and parameters to

  16. Winchester/Camberley Homes New Construction Test House Design, Construction, and Short-Term Testing in a Mixed-Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mallav, D.; Wiehagen, J.; Wood, A.

    2012-10-01

    The NAHB Research Center partnered with production builder Winchester/Camberley Homes to build a DOE Building America New Construction Test House (NCTH). This single family, detached house, located in the mixed-humid climate zone of Silver Spring, MD, was completed in June 2011. The primary goal for this house was to improve energy efficiency by 30% over the Building America B10 benchmark by developing and implementing an optimized energy solutions package design that could be cost effectively and reliably constructed on a production basis using quality management practices. The intent of this report is to outline the features of this house, discuss the implementation of the energy efficient design, and report on short-term testing results. During the interactive design process of this project, numerous iterations of the framing, air sealing, insulation, and space conditioning systems were evaluated for energy performance, cost, and practical implementation. The final design featured numerous advanced framing techniques, high levels of insulation, and the HVAC system entirely within conditioned space. Short-term testing confirmed a very tight thermal envelope and efficient and effective heating and cooling. In addition, relevant heating, cooling, humidity, energy, and wall cavity moisture data will be collected and presented in a future long-term report.

  17. Biomass Gasifier Facility (BGF). Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    The Pacific International Center for High Technology Research (PICHTR) is planning, to design, construct and operate a Biomass Gasifier Facility (BGF). This facility will be located on a site easement near the Hawaiian Commercial & Sugar company (KC&S) Paia Sugar Factory on Maui, Hawaii. The proposed BGF Project is a scale-up facility, intended to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of emerging biomass gasification technology for commercialization. This Executive Summary summarizes the uses of this Environmental Assessment, the purpose and need for the project, project,description, and project alternatives.

  18. Process for electrochemically gasifying coal using electromagnetism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Botts, Thomas E.; Powell, James R.

    1987-01-01

    A process for electrochemically gasifying coal by establishing a flowing stream of coal particulate slurry, electrolyte and electrode members through a transverse magnetic field that has sufficient strength to polarize the electrode members, thereby causing them to operate in combination with the electrolyte to electrochemically reduce the coal particulate in the slurry. Such electrochemical reduction of the coal produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide at opposite ends of the polarized electrode members. Gas collection means are operated in conjunction with the process to collect the evolved gases as they rise from the slurry and electrolyte solution.

  19. Apparatus and method for feeding coal into a coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bissett, Larry A.; Friggens, Gary R.; McGee, James P.

    1979-01-01

    This invention is directed to a system for feeding coal into a gasifier operating at high pressures. A coal-water slurry is pumped to the desired pressure and then the coal is "dried" prior to feeding the coal into the gasifier by contacting the slurry with superheated steam in an entrained bed dryer for vaporizing the water in the slurry.

  20. Short-Term Energy Outlook - U.S. Energy Information Administration...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    prices include a fixed component to cover utility operating costs and the cost to transport the natural gas. Under a 10% colder scenario, EIA projects natural gas consumption...

  1. Short-Term Energy Outlook - U.S. Energy Information Administration...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Electricity Generation Fuel Costs Coal Natural Gas Residual Fuel Oil to Electric Power ... Coal Residual Fuel Oil Distillate Fuel Oil Petroleum Coke Fuel Costs Coal Natural Gas ...

  2. Short-Term Energy Outlook - U.S. Energy Information Administration...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... increases in rig and well productivity and falling drilling and completion costs. ... productivity improvements, lower breakeven costs, and forecast oil price increases. ...

  3. Short-Term Energy Monitoring (STEM): Application of the PSTAR method to a residence in Fredericksburg, Virginia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Subbarao, K.; Burch, J.D.; Hancock, C.E.; Lekov, A.; Balcomb, J.D.

    1988-09-01

    This report describes a project to assess the thermal quality of a residential building based on short-term tests during which a small number of data channels are measured. The project is called Short- Term Energy Monitoring (STEM). Analysis of the data provides extrapolation to long-term performance. The test protocol and analysis are based on a unified method for building simulations and short-term testing called Primary and Secondary Terms Analysis and Renormalization (PSTAR). In the PSTAR method, renormalized parameters are introduced for the primary terms such that the renormalized energy balance is best satisfied in the least squares sense; hence, the name PSTAR. The mathematical formulation of PSTAR is detailed in earlier reports. This report describes the short-term tests and data analysis performed using the PSTAR method on a residential building in Fredricksburg, Virginia. The results demonstrate the ability of the PSTAR method to provide a realistically complex thermal model of a building, and determine from short-term tests the statics as well as the dynamics of a building, including solar dynamics. 10 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Daily/Hourly Hydrosystem Operation : How the Columbia River System Responds to Short-Term Needs.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Columbia River System Operation Review

    1994-02-01

    The System Operation Review, being conducted by the Bonneville Power Administration, the US Army Corps of Engineers, and the US Bureau of Reclamation, is analyzing current and potential future operations of the Columbia River System. One goal of the System Operations Review is to develop a new System Operation Strategy. The strategy will be designed to balance the many regionally and nationally important uses of the Columbia River system. Short-term operations address the dynamics that affect the Northwest hydro system and its multiple uses. Demands for electrical power and natural streamflows change constantly and thus are not precisely predictable. Other uses of the hydro system have constantly changing needs, too, many of which can interfere with other uses. Project operators must address various river needs, physical limitations, weather, and streamflow conditions while maintaining the stability of the electric system and keeping your lights on. It takes staffing around the clock to manage the hour-to-hour changes that occur and the challenges that face project operators all the time.

  5. Effect of Coal Properties and Operation Conditions on Flow Behavior of Coal Slag in Entrained Flow Gasifiers: A Brief Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang,Ping; Massoudi, Mehrdad

    2011-01-01

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) is a potentially promising clean technology with an inherent advantage of low emissions, since the process removes contaminants before combustion instead of from flue gas after combustion, as in a conventional coal steam plant. In addition, IGCC has potential for cost-effective carbon dioxide capture. Availability and high capital costs are the main challenges to making IGCC technology more competitive and fully commercial. Experiences from demonstrated IGCC plants show that, in the gasification system, low availability is largely due to slag buildup in the gasifier and fouling in the syngas cooler downstream of the gasification system. In the entrained flow gasifiers used in IGCC plants, the majority of mineral matter transforms to liquid slag on the wall of the gasifier and flows out the bottom. However, a small fraction of the mineral matter (as fly ash) is entrained with the raw syngas out of the gasifier to downstream processing. This molten/sticky fly ash could cause fouling of the syngas cooler. Therefore, it is preferable to minimize the quantity of fly ash and maximize slag. In addition, the hot raw syngas is cooled to convert any entrained molten fly slag to hardened solid fly ash prior to entering the syngas cooler. To improve gasification availability through better design and operation of the gasification process, better understanding of slag behavior and characteristics of the slagging process are needed. Slagging behavior is affected by char/ash properties, gas compositions in the gasifier, the gasifier wall structure, fluid dynamics, and plant operating conditions (mainly temperature and oxygen/carbon ratio). The viscosity of the slag is used to characterize the behavior of the slag flow and is the dominating factor to determine the probability that ash particles will stick. Slag viscosity strongly depends on the temperature and chemical composition of the slag. Because coal has varying ash content and

  6. Short-Term Energy Outlook - U.S. Energy Information Administration...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rising projected costs of natural gas encourage more electricity generation from ... 7.10 6.90 6.78 6.93 Power Generation Fuel Costs (dollars per million Btu) Coal 2.36 2.23 ...

  7. Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances in the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting Model (Released in the STEO March 1998)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1998-01-01

    The blending of oxygenates, such as fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), into motor gasoline has increased dramatically in the last few years because of the oxygenated and reformulated gasoline programs. Because of the significant role oxygenates now have in petroleum product markets, the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) was revised to include supply and demand balances for fuel ethanol and MTBE. The STIFS model is used for producing forecasts in the Short-Term Energy Outlook. A review of the historical data sources and forecasting methodology for oxygenate production, imports, inventories, and demand is presented in this report.

  8. Increased bile acids in enterohepatic circulation by short-term calorie restriction in male mice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, Zidong Donna; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2013-12-15

    Previous studies showed glucose and insulin signaling can regulate bile acid (BA) metabolism during fasting or feeding. However, limited knowledge is available on the effect of calorie restriction (CR), a well-known anti-aging intervention, on BA homeostasis. To address this, the present study utilized a doseresponse model of CR, where male C57BL/6 mice were fed 0, 15, 30, or 40% CR diets for one month, followed by BA profiling in various compartments of the enterohepatic circulation by UPLC-MS/MS technique. This study showed that 40% CR increased the BA pool size (162%) as well as total BAs in serum, gallbladder, and small intestinal contents. In addition, CR dose-dependently increased the concentrations of tauro-cholic acid (TCA) and many secondary BAs (produced by intestinal bacteria) in serum, such as tauro-deoxycholic acid (TDCA), DCA, lithocholic acid, ?-muricholic acid (?MCA), and hyodeoxycholic acid. Notably, 40% CR increased TDCA by over 1000% (serum, liver, and gallbladder). Interestingly, 40% CR increased the proportion of 12?-hydroxylated BAs (CA and DCA), which correlated with improved glucose tolerance and lipid parameters. The CR-induced increase in BAs correlated with increased expression of BA-synthetic (Cyp7a1) and conjugating enzymes (BAL), and the ileal BA-binding protein (Ibabp). These results suggest that CR increases BAs in male mice possibly through orchestrated increases in BA synthesis and conjugation in liver as well as intracellular transport in ileum. - Highlights: Dose response effects of short-term CR on BA homeostasis in male mice. CR increased the BA pool size and many individual BAs. CR altered BA composition (increased proportion of 12?-hydroxylated BAs). Increased mRNAs of BA enzymes in liver (Cyp7a1 and BAL) and ileal BA binding protein.

  9. Short-Term Effects of Ankaferd Hemostat for Renal Artery Embolization: An Experimental Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozbek, Orhan; Acar, Kadir; Koc, Osman; Saritas, Kadir; Toy, Hatice; Solak, Yalcin; Ozbek, Seda; Kucukapan, Ahmet; Guler, Ibrahim; Gaipov, Abduzhappar; Turk, Suleyman; Haznedaroglu, Ibrahim Celaleddin

    2013-04-15

    Renal artery embolization (RAE) is a minimally invasive therapeutic technique that is utilized in a number of disorders. Ankaferd is a novel hemostatic agent with a new mechanism of action independent of clotting factors. We used Ankaferd for RAE in a sheep model. Seven adult female sheep were included in the study. Selective renal arteriogram using 5-F diagnostic catheter was performed to make sure that each kidney was fed by a single renal artery and the animal had normal renal vasculature. Coaxial 2.7-F microcatheter was advanced to the distal main renal artery. Under fluoroscopic guidance, 2 mL of Ankaferd mixed with 2 mL of nonionic iodinated contrast agent was slowly injected. Fluoroscopy was used to observe the deceleration of flow and stagnation. Control renal angiograms were performed just after embolization. After the procedure, the animals were observed for 1 day and then sacrificed with intravenous sodium thiopental. The technical success was observed in seven of the seven animals.. After embolization procedure, none of the animals died or experienced a major systemic adverse event. On macroscopic examination of the embolized kidneys, thrombus at the level of main renal artery formed after Ankaferd embolization was more compact compared with the thrombi that was not Ankaferd-associated, which was observed elsewhere. Microscopically, majority of the renal tubular cells (80-90 %) were necrotic, and there was epithelial cell damage in a small portion of the cells (10-20 %). RAE was safe and effective in the short-term with Ankaferd in studied animals. Further studies should be conducted to better delineate the embolizing potential of this novel hemostatic agent.

  10. Short-Term Energy Outlook - U.S. Energy Information Administration...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Because taxes and retail distribution costs are generally stable, movements in gasoline and diesel prices are primarily the result of changes in both crude oil prices and wholesale ...

  11. Down-flow moving-bed gasifier with catalyst recycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Halow, J.S.

    1999-04-20

    The gasification of coal and other carbonaceous materials by an endothermic gasification reaction is achieved in the presence of a catalyst in a down-flow, moving-bed gasifier. Catalyst is removed along with ash from the gasifier and is then sufficiently heated in a riser/burner by the combustion of residual carbon in the ash to volatilize the catalyst. This volatilized catalyst is returned to the gasifier where it uniformly contacts and condenses on the carbonaceous material. Also, the hot gaseous combustion products resulting from the combustion of the carbon in the ash along with excess air are introduced into the gasifier for providing heat energy used in the endothermic reaction. 1 fig.

  12. Down-flow moving-bed gasifier with catalyst recycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Halow, John S.

    1999-01-01

    The gasification of coal and other carbonaceous materials by an endothermic gasification reaction is achieved in the presence of a catalyst in a down-flow, moving-bed gasifier. Catalyst is removed along with ash from the gasifier and is then sufficiently heated in a riser/burner by the combustion of residual carbon in the ash to volatilize the catalyst. This volatilized catalyst is returned to the gasifier where it uniformly contacts and condenses on the carbonaceous material. Also, the hot gaseous combustion products resulting from the combustion of the carbon in the ash along with excess air are introduced into the gasifier for providing heat energy used in the endothermic reaction.

  13. Use of short-term test systems for the prediction of the hazard represented by potential chemical carcinogens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glass, L.R.; Jones, T.D.; Easterly, C.E.; Walsh, P.J.

    1990-10-01

    It has been hypothesized that results from short-term bioassays will ultimately provide information that will be useful for human health hazard assessment. Historically, the validity of the short-term tests has been assessed using the framework of the epidemiologic/medical screens. In this context, the results of the carcinogen (long-term) bioassay is generally used as the standard. However, this approach is widely recognized as being biased and, because it employs qualitative data, cannot be used to assist in isolating those compounds which may represent a more significant toxicologic hazard than others. In contrast, the goal of this research is to address the problem of evaluating the utility of the short-term tests for hazard assessment using an alternative method of investigation. Chemicals were selected mostly from the list of carcinogens published by the International Agency for Research on Carcinogens (IARC); a few other chemicals commonly recognized as hazardous were included. Tumorigenicity and mutagenicity data on 52 chemicals were obtained from the Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) and were analyzed using a relative potency approach. The data were evaluated in a format which allowed for a comparison of the ranking of the mutagenic relative potencies of the compounds (as estimated using short-term data) vs. the ranking of the tumorigenic relative potencies (as estimated from the chronic bioassays). Although this was a preliminary investigation, it offers evidence that the short-term tests systems may be of utility in ranking the hazards represented by chemicals which may contribute to increased carcinogenesis in humans as a result of occupational or environmental exposures. 177 refs., 8 tabs.

  14. ENHANCEMENT OF STRUCTURAL FOAM MATERIALS BY INCORPORATION OF GASIFIER SLAG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olin Perry Norton; Ronald A. Palmer; W. Gene Ramsey

    2006-03-15

    As advanced gasification technology is increasingly adopted as an energy source, disposal of the resulting slag will become a problem. We have shown that gasifier slag can be incorporated into foamed glass, which is currently being manufactured as an abrasive and as an insulating material. The slag we add to foamed glass does not simply act as filler, but improves the mechanical properties of the product. Incorporation of gasifier slag can make foamed glass stronger and more abrasion resistant.

  15. Real Time Flame Monitoring of Gasifier and Injectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zelepouga, Serguei; Saveliev, Alexei

    2011-12-31

    This project is a multistage effort with the final goal to develop a practical and reliable nonintrusive gasifier injector monitor to assess burner wear and need for replacement. The project team included the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Gas Technology Institute (GTI), North Carolina State University, and ConocoPhillips. This report presents the results of the sensor development and testing initially at GTI combustion laboratory with natural gas flames, then at the Canada Energy Technology Center (CANMET), Canada in the atmospheric coal combustor as well as in the pilot scale pressurized entrained flow gasifier, and finally the sensor capabilities were demonstrated at the Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) Gasifier and the Wabash River Repowering plant located in West Terre Haute, IN. The initial tests demonstrated that GTI gasifier sensor technology was capable of detecting shape and rich/lean properties of natural gas air/oxygen enriched air flames. The following testing at the Vertical Combustor Research Facility (VCRF) was a logical transition step from the atmospheric natural gas flames to pressurized coal gasification environment. The results of testing with atmospheric coal flames showed that light emitted by excited OH* and CH* radicals in coal/air flames can be detected and quantified. The maximum emission intensities of OH*, CH*, and black body (char combustion) occur at different axial positions along the flame length. Therefore, the excitation rates of CH* and OH* are distinct at different stages of coal combustion and can be utilized to identify and characterize processes which occur during coal combustion such as devolatilization, char heating and burning. To accomplish the goals set for Tasks 4 and 5, GTI utilized the CANMET Pressurized Entrained Flow Gasifier (PEFG). The testing parameters of the PEFG were selected to simulate optimum gasifier operation as well as gasifier conditions normally resulting from improper operation or

  16. Short-Term Energy Outlook - U.S. Energy Information Administration...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coal in these two regions has the advantage of lower transportation costs and a higher heat content compared with Western region coal. According to the most recent data, electric ...

  17. Short-Term Energy Outlook - U.S. Energy Information Administration...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... 2015 2016 projected 2017 projected a West Texas Intermediate. b Average regular pump price. c On-highway retail. d U.S. Residential average. e Electric power generation fuel cost. ...

  18. Short-Term Energy Outlook - U.S. Energy Information Administration...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... For much of 2016, the total cost to ship petroleum products on a Long Range 1 (LR1) tanker from the Arab Gulf to Europe has been the lowest since at least 2007 (Figure 10). The LR1 ...

  19. PSTAR: Primary and secondary terms analysis and renormalization: A unified approach to building energy simulations and short-term monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Subbarao, K.

    1988-09-01

    This report presents a unified method of hourly simulation of a building and analysis of performance data. The method is called Primary and Secondary Terms Analysis and Renormalization (PSTAR). In the PSTAR method, renormalized parameters are introduced for the primary terms such that the renormalized energy balance equation is best satisfied in the least squares sense, hence, the name PSTAR. PSTAR allows extraction of building characteristics from short-term tests on a small number of data channels. These can be used for long-term performance prediction (''ratings''), diagnostics, and control of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems (HVAC), comparison of design versus actual performance, etc. By combining realistic building models, simple test procedures, and analysis involving linear equations, PSTAR provides a powerful tool for analyzing building energy as well as testing and monitoring. It forms the basis for the Short-Term Energy Monitoring (STEM) project at SERI.

  20. Short-Term Test Results. Transitional Housing Energy Efficiency Retrofit in the Hot Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutherland, K.

    2013-02-01

    This project evaluates the renovation of a 5,800 ft2, multi-use facility located in St. Petersburg, on the west coast of central Florida, in the hot humid climate. An optimal package of retrofit measures was designed to deliver 30%-40% annual energy cost savings for this building with annual utility bills exceeding $16,000 and high base load consumption. Researchers projected energy cost savings for potential retrofit measures based on pre-retrofit findings and disaggregated, weather normalized utility bills as a basis for simulation true-up. A cost-benefit analysis was conducted for the seven retrofit measures implemented; adding attic insulation and sealing soffits, tinting windows, improving whole building air-tightness, upgrading heating and cooling systems and retrofitting the air distribution system, replacing water heating systems, retrofitting lighting, and replacing laundry equipment. The projected energy cost savings for the full retrofit package based on a post-retrofit audit is 35%. The building's architectural characteristics, vintage, and residential and commercial uses presented challenges for both economic projections and retrofit measure construction.

  1. Short-Term Test Results: Transitional Housing Energy Efficiency Retrofit in the Hot-Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutherland, K.; Martin, E.

    2013-02-01

    This project evaluates the renovation of a 5,800 ft2, multi-use facility located in St. Petersburg, on the west coast of central Florida, in the hot humid climate. An optimal package of retrofit measures was designed to deliver 30-40% annual energy cost savings for this building with annual utility bills exceeding $16,000 and high base load consumption. Researchers projected energy cost savings for potential retrofit measures based on pre-retrofit findings and disaggregated, weather normalized utility bills as a basis for simulation true-up. A cost-benefit analysis was conducted for the seven retrofit measures implemented; adding attic insulation and sealing soffits, tinting windows, improving whole building air-tightness, upgrading heating and cooling systems and retrofitting the air distribution system, replacing water heating systems, retrofitting lighting, and replacing laundry equipment. The projected energy cost savings for the full retrofit package based on a post-retrofit audit is 35%. The building's architectural characteristics, vintage, and residential and commercial uses presented challenges for both economic projections and retrofit measure construction.

  2. TVA coal-gasification commercial demonstration plant project. Volume 5. Plant based on Koppers-Totzek gasifier. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    This volume presents a technical description of a coal gasification plant, based on Koppers-Totzek gasifiers, producing a medium Btu fuel gas product. Foster Wheeler carried out a conceptual design and cost estimate of a nominal 20,000 TPSD plant based on TVA design criteria and information supplied by Krupp-Koppers concerning the Koppers-Totzek coal gasification process. Technical description of the design is given in this volume.

  3. Modeling of Time Varying Slag Flow in Coal Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pilli, Siva Prasad; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Williford, Ralph E.; Sundaram, S. K.; Korolev, Vladimir N.; Crum, Jarrod V.

    2008-08-30

    There is considerable interest within government agencies and the energy industries across the globe to further advance the clean and economical conversion of coal into liquid fuels to reduce our dependency on imported oil. To date, advances in these areas have been largely based on experimental work. Although there are some detailed systems level performance models, little work has been done on numerical modeling of the component level processes. If accurate models are developed, then significant R&D time might be saved, new insights into the process might be gained, and some good predictions of process or performance can be made. One such area is the characterization of slag deposition and flow on the gasifier walls. Understanding slag rheology and slag-refractory interactions is critical to design and operation of gasifiers with extended refractory lifetimes and also to better control of operating parameters so that the overall gasifier performance with extended service life can be optimized. In the present work, the literature on slag flow modeling was reviewed and a model similar to Seggiani’s was developed to simulate the time varying slag accumulation and flow on the walls of a Prenflo coal gasifier. This model was further extended and modified to simulate a refractory wall gasifier including heat transfer through the refractory wall with flowing slag in contact with the refractory. The model was used to simulate temperature dependent slag flow using rheology data from our experimental slag testing program. These modeling results as well as experimental validation are presented.

  4. Second stage gasifier in staged gasification and integrated process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, Wan Wang

    2015-10-06

    A second stage gasification unit in a staged gasification integrated process flow scheme and operating methods are disclosed to gasify a wide range of low reactivity fuels. The inclusion of second stage gasification unit operating at high temperatures closer to ash fusion temperatures in the bed provides sufficient flexibility in unit configurations, operating conditions and methods to achieve an overall carbon conversion of over 95% for low reactivity materials such as bituminous and anthracite coals, petroleum residues and coke. The second stage gasification unit includes a stationary fluidized bed gasifier operating with a sufficiently turbulent bed of predefined inert bed material with lean char carbon content. The second stage gasifier fluidized bed is operated at relatively high temperatures up to 1400.degree. C. Steam and oxidant mixture can be injected to further increase the freeboard region operating temperature in the range of approximately from 50 to 100.degree. C. above the bed temperature.

  5. Enhanced Short-Term Wind Power Forecasting and Value to Grid Operations: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orwig, K.; Clark, C.; Cline, J.; Benjamin, S.; Wilczak, J.; Marquis, M.; Finley, C.; Stern, A.; Freedman, J.

    2012-09-01

    The current state of the art of wind power forecasting in the 0- to 6-hour time frame has levels of uncertainty that are adding increased costs and risk on the U.S. electrical grid. It is widely recognized within the electrical grid community that improvements to these forecasts could greatly reduce the costs and risks associated with integrating higher penetrations of wind energy. The U.S. Department of Energy has sponsored a research campaign in partnership with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and private industry to foster improvements in wind power forecasting. The research campaign involves a three-pronged approach: 1) a 1-year field measurement campaign within two regions; 2) enhancement of NOAA's experimental 3-km High-Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) model by assimilating the data from the field campaign; and 3) evaluation of the economic and reliability benefits of improved forecasts to grid operators. This paper and presentation provides an overview of the regions selected, instrumentation deployed, data quality and control, assimilation of data into HRRR, and preliminary results of HRRR performance analysis.

  6. Simple Dynamic Gasifier Model That Runs in Aspen Dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, P.J.; Luyben, W.L.

    2008-10-15

    Gasification (or partial oxidation) is a vital component of 'clean coal' technology. Sulfur and nitrogen emissions can be reduced, overall energy efficiency is increased, and carbon dioxide recovery and sequestration are facilitated. Gasification units in an electric power generation plant produce a fuel for driving combustion turbines. Gasification units in a chemical plant generate gas, which can be used to produce a wide spectrum of chemical products. Future plants are predicted to be hybrid power/chemical plants with gasification as the key unit operation. The widely used process simulator Aspen Plus provides a library of models that can be used to develop an overall gasifier model that handles solids. So steady-state design and optimization studies of processes with gasifiers can be undertaken. This paper presents a simple approximate method for achieving the objective of having a gasifier model that can be exported into Aspen Dynamics. The basic idea is to use a high molecular weight hydrocarbon that is present in the Aspen library as a pseudofuel. This component should have the same 1:1 hydrogen-to-carbon ratio that is found in coal and biomass. For many plantwide dynamic studies, a rigorous high-fidelity dynamic model of the gasifier is not needed because its dynamics are very fast and the gasifier gas volume is a relatively small fraction of the total volume of the entire plant. The proposed approximate model captures the essential macroscale thermal, flow, composition, and pressure dynamics. This paper does not attempt to optimize the design or control of gasifiers but merely presents an idea of how to dynamically simulate coal gasification in an approximate way.

  7. Correlation between the critical viscosity and ash fusion temperatures of coal gasifier ashes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsieh, Peter Y.; Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Bennett, James

    2015-09-27

    Coal gasification yields synthesis gas, an important intermediate in chemical manufacturing. It is also vital to the production of liquid fuels through the Fischer-Tropsch process and electricity in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle power generation. Minerals naturally present in coal become molten in entrained-flow slagging gasifiers. Molten coal ash slag penetrates and dissolves refractory bricks, leading to costly plant shutdowns. The extent of coal ash slag penetration and refractory brick dissolution depends on the slag viscosity, the gasification temperature, and the composition of slag and bricks. Here, we measured the viscosity of several synthetic coal ash slags with a high-temperature rotary viscometer and their ash fusion temperatures through optical image analysis. We made all measurements in a carbon monoxide-carbon dioxide reducing atmosphere that approximates coal gasification conditions. Empirical correlation models based on ash fusion temperatures were used to calculate critical viscosity temperatures based on the coal ash compositions. These values were then compared with those obtained from thermodynamic phase-transition models. Finally, an understanding of slag viscosity as a function of ash composition is important to reducing refractory wear in slagging coal gasifiers, which would help to reduce the cost and environmental impact of coal for chemical and electricity production.

  8. Exergy & Economic Analysis of Catalytic Coal Gasifiers Coupled with Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siefert, Nicholas; Litster, Shawn

    2012-01-01

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has undertaken a review of coal gasification technologies that integrate with solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) to achieve system efficiencies near 60% while capturing and sequestering >90% of the carbon dioxide. One way to achieve an overall system efficiency of greater than 60% is in a power plant in which a catalytic coal gasifier produces a syngas with a methane composition of roughly 25% on a dry volume basis and this is sent to a SOFC, with CO{sub 2} capture occurring either before or after the SOFC. Integration of a catalytic gasifier with a SOFC, as opposed to a conventional entrained flow gasifier, is improved due to (a) decreased exergy destruction inside a catalytic, steam-coal gasifier producing a high-methane content syngas, and (b) decreased exergy destruction in the SOFC due to the ability to operate at lower air stoichiometric flow ratios. For example, thermal management of the SOFC is greatly improved due to the steam-methane reforming in the anode of the fuel cell. This paper has two main goals. First, we converted the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) estimates of various research groups into an average internal rate of return on investment (IRR) in order to make comparisons between their results, and to underscore the increased rate of return on investment for advanced integrated gasification fuel cell systems with carbon capture & sequestration (IGFC-CCS) compared with conventional integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC-CCS) systems and pulverized coal combustion (PCC-CCS) systems. Using capital, labor, and fuel costs from previous researchers and using an average price of baseload electricity generation of $61.50 / MW-hr, we calculated inflation-adjusted IRR values of up to 13%/yr for catalytic gasification with pressurized fuel cell and carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS), whereas we calculate an IRR of ∼4%/yr and ∼2%/yr for new, conventional IGCC-CCS and PCC-CCS, respectively. If

  9. Engineering analysis of biomass gasifier product gas cleaning technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, E.G.; Brown, M.D.; Moore, R.H.; Mudge, L.K.; Elliott, D.C.

    1986-08-01

    For biomass gasification to make a significant contribution to the energy picture in the next decade, emphasis must be placed on the generation of clean, pollutant-free gas products. This reports attempts to quantify levels of particulated, tars, oils, and various other pollutants generated by biomass gasifiers of all types. End uses for biomass gases and appropriate gas cleaning technologies are examined. Complete systems analysis is used to predit the performance of various gasifier/gas cleanup/end use combinations. Further research needs are identified. 128 refs., 20 figs., 19 tabs.

  10. Method of operating a two-stage coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tanca, Michael C.

    1982-01-01

    A method of operating an entrained flow coal gasifier (10) via a two-stage gasification process. A portion of the coal (18) to be gasified is combusted in a combustion zone (30) with near stoichiometric air to generate combustion products. The combustion products are conveyed from the combustion zone into a reduction zone (32) wherein additional coal is injected into the combustion products to react with the combustion products to form a combustible gas. The additional coal is injected into the reduction zone as a mixture (60) consisting of coal and steam, preferably with a coal-to-steam weight ratio of approximately ten to one.

  11. Conversion of forest residues to a methane-rich gas in a high-throughput gasifier. Summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feldmann, H.F.; Paisley, M.A.; Folsom, D.W.; Kim, B.C.

    1981-10-31

    Results of the experimental work conducted thus far have shown that wood can be readily gasified in a steam environment into a hydrocarbon rich fuel gas that can be used as a replacement for petroleum-based fuels or natural gas with minimal boiler retrofit. Further, this conversion can be achieved in a compact gasification reactor with heat supplied by a circulating entrained phase, thereby eliminating the need for an oxygen plant. Tars have not been found except at the lowest gasifier temperatures employed, and therefore heat recovery from the product gas should be much simpler than that from commercially available fixed-bed gasification systems where product gas contains significant quantities of tar. The data generated have been used in a preliminary conceptual design. Evaluation of this design has shown that a medium-Btu gas can be produced from wood at a cost competitive with natural gas or petroleum-based fuels.

  12. Short-Term Energy Outlook Supplement: Status of Libyan Loading Ports and Oil and Natural Gas Fields

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Short-Term Energy Outlook Supplement: Status of Libyan Loading Ports and Oil and Natural Gas Fields Tuesday, September 10, 2013, 10:00AM EST Overview During July and August 2013, protests at major oil loading ports in the central-eastern region of Libya forced the complete or partial shut-in of oil fields linked to the ports. As a result of protests at ports and at some oil fields, crude oil production fell to 1.0 million barrels per day (bbl/d) in July and 600,000 bbl/d in August, although the

  13. Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor short term thermal response to flow and reactivity transients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cleveland, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    The analyses reported here have been conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Division of Regulatory Applications of the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The short-term thermal response of the Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) is analyzed for a range of flow and reactivity transients. These include loss of forced circulation (LOFC) without scram, moisture ingress, spurious withdrawal of a control rod group, hypothetical large and rapid positive reactivity insertion, and a rapid core cooling event. The coupled heat transfer-neutron kinetics model is also described.

  14. Final Technical Report DOE Award DE-FG02-07ER41515 QUEST Camera Short Term Maintenance

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOE Award DE-FG02-07ER41515 QUEST Camera Short Term Maintenance PI: Charles Baltay, Yale University The QUEST large area astronomical camera was installed at the prime focus of the Oschin Schmidt Telescope at the Palomar Observatory in California. The camera was used to carry out a survey of low redshift Type 1a supernovae which are the distance indicators used in the measurement of the expansion history of the universe and thus provided a method to study the nature of the recently discovered

  15. Insights from Smart Meters: Ramp Up, Dependability, and Short-Term Persistence of Savings from Home Energy Reports

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In this report, we use smart meter data to analyze the ramp-up, dependability, and short-term persistence of savings in one type of BB program: Home Energy Reports (HERs). In these programs, reports are mailed to households on a monthly, bi-monthly, or even quarterly basis. The reports provide energy tips and information about how a household's energy use compares to its neighbors. HERs typically obtain 1% to 3% annual electricity savings; several studies report that savings from mature HERs persist over multiple years while the programs are running (and decay after the reports are discontinued).

  16. Long-term, mid-term, and short-term fuel scheduling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seymore, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    Since 1973, electrical utilities have gained a sharply increased awareness of the impact of fuel prices and fuel availabilities on their operations and performance. The remarkable increase in oil and gas prices, the ever-present threat of an oil embargo, and the coal strike of 1978 all highlight the instability of the current fuel supply situation. Moreover, one sees little hope of an appreciable near-term or long-term improvement. This study was undertaken to determine practical approaches by which utilities might incorporate the economics of the fuels market into their operational planning, scheduling and dispatching processes. The objective of Phase 1 was not to develop digital computer programs, but rather to determine the mathematical approaches that seem most promising. The computer program development will be done in later phases of the project. A substantial literature search and industry survey were performed. Fuel contract management was found to be of key importance, and the inherent uncertainty in the basic data (heat rate curves, fuel costs, etc.) suggested the use of simplified formulations and solution techniques. The yearly fuel planning problem and the weekly fuel scheduling problems are cast as linear network flow optimization problems, for which very efficient digital computer programs are available.

  17. A Distributed Modeling System for Short-Term to Seasonal Ensemble Streamflow Forecasting in Snowmelt Dominated Basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wigmosta, Mark S.; Gill, Muhammad K.; Coleman, Andre M.; Prasad, Rajiv; Vail, Lance W.

    2007-12-01

    This paper describes a distributed modeling system for short-term to seasonal water supply forecasts with the ability to utilize remotely-sensed snow cover products and real-time streamflow measurements. Spatial variability in basin characteristics and meteorology is represented using a raster-based computational grid. Canopy interception, snow accumulation and melt, and simplified soil water movement are simulated in each computational unit. The model is run at a daily time step with surface runoff and subsurface flow aggregated at the basin scale. This approach allows the model to be updated with spatial snow cover and measured streamflow using an Ensemble Kalman-based data assimilation strategy that accounts for uncertainty in weather forecasts, model parameters, and observations used for updating. Model inflow forecasts for the Dworshak Reservoir in northern Idaho are compared to observations and to April-July volumetric forecasts issued by the Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) for Water Years 2000 2006. October 1 volumetric forecasts are superior to those issued by the NRCS, while March 1 forecasts are comparable. The ensemble spread brackets the observed April-July volumetric inflows in all years. Short-term (one and three day) forecasts also show excellent agreement with observations.

  18. Biomass-Derived Hydrogen from a Thermally Ballasted Gasifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-09-01

    Gasification offers an efficient approach for producing fuels and products from a wide variety of biomass. The object of this Congressionally-mandated project is to develop an indirectly-heated gasification system (ballasted gasifier) for converting switch grass into a hydrogen-rich gas suitable for powering fuel cells.

  19. Low inlet gas velocity high throughput biomass gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feldmann, Herman F.; Paisley, Mark A.

    1989-01-01

    The present invention discloses a novel method of operating a gasifier for production of fuel gas from carbonaceous fuels. The process disclosed enables operating in an entrained mode using inlet gas velocities of less than 7 feet per second, feedstock throughputs exceeding 4000 lbs/ft.sup.2 -hr, and pressures below 100 psia.

  20. High temperature erosion testing in a gasifier environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tylczak, Joseph H.; Rawers, James C.; Adler, Thomas A.

    2004-01-01

    The development of materials with the ability to operate in adverse conditions while resisting the effects of erosion and corrosion is essential to the future success of high efficiency power plants. Many next generation coal power plants are envisioned as combined cycle, with gasifiers used to produce both steam and syngas. The gasifier sections of these plants require materials of construction that are resistant to the effects of erosion from silica found in the gas streams and corrosion caused by a reducing atmosphere that may contain sulfur and chloride compounds. The Albany Research Center has developed a test apparatus designed to test the erosion-resistance of candidate materials under a range of environmental conditions, including those found in gasifiers. This Hostile Atmosphere Erosion Wear test apparatus (HAET) has been used to evaluate a group of high alloy candidate materials such as iron aluminide and Haynes HR 160, and compare them to a conventional 310 stainless steel. Erosion tests were conducted using 270μm silica abrasive, a typical impact velocities of 20 m/sec at temperatures up to 700°C in an atmosphere simulating gasifier conditions. The effects of erosion under these conditions on the surface scales that form are described. The total loss rate, loss rates due to erosion and corrosion for the test materials are compared.

  1. Low inlet gas velocity high throughput biomass gasifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feldmann, H.F.; Paisley, M.A.

    1989-05-09

    A method is described for operating a gasifier which comprises: introducing inlet gas at a velocity of about 0.5 to 7 ft/sec to fluidize a bed in a gasifier vessel; forming the bed into a fluidized bed in a first space region by means of the inlet gas, the fluidized bed containing a circulating hot relatively fine and inert solid bed particle component; inputting and throughputting carbonaceous material into and through the first space region with fluidized bed at a rate from 500-4400 lbs/ft/sup 2/-hr; endothermally pyrolyzing the carbonaceous material by means of the circulating hot inert particle component so as to form a product gas; forming contiguous to and above the fluidized bed a lower average density entrained space region containing an entrained mixture of inert solid particles, char, and carbonaceous material and the product gas; gradually and continuously removing the entrained mixture and the product gas from the lower average density entrained space region of the gasifier to a separator, residence time of the carbonaceous material in the gasifier not exceeding 3 minutes on average; separating the entrained mixture from the product gas; passing the entrained mixture containing inert solid particles, char, and carbonaceous material through an exothermic reaction zone to add heat; and returning at least the inert solid particles to the first space region.

  2. Slag Penetration into Refractory Lining of Slagging Coal Gasifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matyas, Josef; Sundaram, S. K.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Edmondson, Autumn B.; Arrigoni, Benjamin M.

    2008-10-25

    The impurities in coal are converted into molten slag typically containing SiO2, FeO, CaO, and Al2O3 when coal feedstock is burned in slagging gasifiers. The slag flows down the gasifier sidewalls, dissolves, and penetrates and reacts with the refractory lining that protects the stainless steel shell of the gasifier from elevated temperatures (1300–1600°C). Refractories composed primarily of Cr2O3 have been found most resistant to slag corrosion, but they continue to fail performance requirements because of low resistance to spalling. Post-mortem analysis of high-chromia refractory bricks collected from commercial gasifiers suggests that the spalling is affected by the depth of slag penetration that is in turn affected by the wettability and interconnected porosity of the refractory as well as the slag viscosity. Laboratory tests were conducted to measure the viscosity of slags (Wyoming Powder River Basin [PRB], Pocahontas #3, and Pittsburgh #8), their contact angle on refractories (chromia-alumina [Aurex 75SR] and high-chromia [Serv 95 and Aurex 95P]), and the apparent porosity of selected refractories. In addition, the depth of slag penetration as a function of time and temperature was determined for various refractory-slag combinations. The results of laboratory tests were used to develop a refractory material that has high resistance to penetration by molten slag and thus has a potential to have a substantially longer service life than the materials currently being used.

  3. Slag-Refractory Interaction in Slagging Coal Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matyas, Josef; Sundaram, S. K.; Hicks, Brent J.; Edmondson, Autumn B.; Arrigoni, Benjamin M.

    2008-03-03

    The combustion chamber of slagging coal gasifiers is lined with refractories to protect the stainless steel shell of the gasifier from elevated temperatures and corrosive attack of the coal slag. Refractories composed primarily of Cr2O3 have been found most resistant to slag corrosion, but they continue to fail performance requirements. Post-mortem analysis of high-chromia refractory bricks collected from commercial gasifiers suggests that slag penetration and subsequent spalling of refractory are the cause of significantly shorter service life of gasifier refractories. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine the penetration depth of three slags representative of a wide variety of coals in the United States into chromia-alumina and two high-chromia refractories. Variables tested were refractory-slag combinations and two partial pressures of O2. Slag penetration depths were measured from spliced images of each refractory. Samples heated to 1470°C for 2 hrs had maximum penetration depths ranging from 1.99±0.15 mm to at least 21.6 mm. Aurex 95P, a high-chromia refractory containing 3.3% phosphorous pentoxide (P2O5), showed the least slag penetration of all refractories tested. P2O5 likely reacts with the slags to increase their viscosity and restrict molten slag penetration. Experimental data on the slag-refractory interaction will be incorporated into mathematical model that will be used to 1) identify critical conditions at which refractory corrosion sharply increases, and 2) predict the service life of a gasifier refractory.

  4. (Short-term assays for detecting environmental mutagens, carcinogens, and teratogens): Foreign trip report, February 4--28, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Generoso, W.M.

    1989-03-08

    The traveler participated in the Second Southeast Asian Workshop on Short-term Assays for Detecting Environmental Mutagens, Carcinogens, and Teratogens, held in Bangkok and Chiang Mai, Thailand. He was a member of the International Advisory Committee of this Workshop, was a coordinator of the US delegation, and delivered two lectures. While in Bangkok, he participated in two round-table discussions on subjects of immediate significance to Thailand. He also traveled to The Philippines where he gave a lecture at the University of the Philippines in Quezon City. The contacts made by the traveler resulted in a US Environmental Protection Agency-initiated discussion of future funding for in vivo aneuploidy research at ORNL.

  5. Microstructural evolution of delta ferrite in SAVE12 steel under heat treatment and short-term creep

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Shengzhi; Eliniyaz, Zumrat; Zhang, Lanting; Sun, Feng; Shen, Yinzhong; Shan, Aidang

    2012-11-15

    This research focused on the formation and microstructural evolution of delta ferrite phase in SAVE12 steel. The formation of delta ferrite was due to the high content of ferrite forming alloy elements such as Cr, W, and Ta. This was interpreted through either JMatPro-4.1 computer program or Cr{sub eq} calculations. Delta ferrite was found in bamboo-like shape and contained large amount of MX phase. It was surrounded by Laves phases before creep or aging treatment. Annealing treatments were performed under temperatures from 1050 Degree-Sign C to 1100 Degree-Sign C and various time periods to study its dissolution kinetics. The result showed that most of the delta ferrite can be dissolved by annealing in single phase austenitic region. Dissolution process of delta ferrite may largely depend on dissolution kinetic factors, rather than on thermodynamic factors. Precipitation behavior during short-term (1100 h) creep was investigated at temperature of 600 Degree-Sign C under a stress of 180 MPa. The results demonstrated that delta ferrite became preferential nucleation sites for Laves phase at the early stage of creep. Laves phase on the boundary around delta ferrite showed relatively slower growth and coarsening rate than that inside delta ferrite. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Delta ferrite is systematically studied under heat treatment and short-term creep. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Delta ferrite contains large number of MX phase and is surrounded by Laves phases before creep or aging treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Formation of delta ferrite is interpreted by theoretical and empirical methods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Most of the delta ferrite is dissolved by annealing in single phase austenitic region. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Delta ferrite becomes preferential nucleation sites for Laves phase at the early stage of creep.

  6. Agglomerating combustor-gasifier method and apparatus for coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Joseph L. P.; Archer, David H.

    1976-09-21

    A method and apparatus for gasifying coal wherein the gasification takes place in a spout fluid bed at a pressure of about 10 to 30 atmospheres and a temperature of about 1800.degree. to 2200.degree.F and wherein the configuration of the apparatus and the manner of introduction of gases for combustion and fluidization is such that agglomerated ash can be withdrawn from the bottom of the apparatus and gas containing very low dust loading is produced. The gasification reaction is self-sustaining through the burning of a stoichiometric amount of coal with air in the lower part of the apparatus to form the spout within the fluid bed. The method and apparatus are particularly suitable for gasifying coarse coal particles.

  7. Photoconversion of gasified organic materials into biologically-degradable plastics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weaver, P.F.; Pinching Maness.

    1993-10-05

    A process is described for converting organic materials (such as biomass wastes) into a bioplastic suitable for use as a biodegradable plastic. In a preferred embodiment the process involves thermally gasifying the organic material into primarily carbon monoxide and hydrogen, followed by photosynthetic bacterial assimilation of the gases into cell material. The process is ideally suited for waste recycling and for production of useful biodegradable plastic polymer. 3 figures.

  8. Photoconversion of gasified organic materials into biologically-degradable plastics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weaver, Paul F.; Maness, Pin-Ching

    1993-01-01

    A process is described for converting organic materials (such as biomass wastes) into a bioplastic suitable for use as a biodegradable plastic. In a preferred embodiment the process involves thermally gasifying the organic material into primarily carbon monoxide and hydrogen, followed by photosynthetic bacterial assimilation of the gases into cell material. The process is ideally suited for waste recycling and for production of useful biodegradable plastic polymer.

  9. Modelling of a downdraft gasifier fed by agricultural residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antonopoulos, I.-S.; Karagiannidis, A.; Gkouletsos, A.; Perkoulidis, G.

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Development of software for downdraft gasification simulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prediction of the syngas concentration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prediction of the syngas heating value. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigation of the temperature effect in reduction zone in syngas concentration. - Abstract: A non-stoichiometric model for a downdraft gasifier was developed in order to simulate the overall gasification process. Mass and energy balances of the gasifier were calculated and the composition of produced syngas was predicted. The capacity of the modeled gasifier was assumed to be 0.5 MW, with an Equivalence Ratio (EQ) of 0.45. The model incorporates the chemical reactions and species involved, while it starts by selecting all species containing C, H, and O, or any other dominant elements. Olive wood, miscanthus and cardoon were tested in the formulated model for a temperature range of 800-1200 Degree-Sign C, in order to examine the syngas composition and the moisture impact on the supplied fuel. Model results were then used in order to design an olive wood gasification reactor.

  10. Combined goal gasifier and fuel cell system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gmeindl, Frank D.; Geisbrecht, Rodney A.

    1990-01-01

    A molten carbonate fuel cell is combined with a catalytic coal or coal char gasifier for providing the reactant gases comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide used in the operation of the fuel cell. These reactant gases are stripped of sulfur compounds and particulate material and are then separated in discrete gas streams for conveyance to appropriate electrodes in the fuel cell. The gasifier is arranged to receive the reaction products generated at the anode of the fuel cell by the electricity-producing electrochemical reaction therein. These reaction products from the anode are formed primarily of high temperature steam and carbon dioxide to provide the steam, the atmosphere and the heat necessary to endothermically pyrolyze the coal or char in the presence of a catalyst. The reaction products generated at the cathode are substantially formed of carbon dioxide which is used to heat air being admixed with the carbon dioxide stream from the gasifier for providing the oxygen required for the reaction in the fuel cell and for driving an expansion device for energy recovery. A portion of this carbon dioxide from the cathode may be recycled into the fuel cell with the air-carbon dioxide mixture.

  11. Fuel-Flexible Microturbine and Gasifier System for Combined Heat and Power

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Fuel-Flexible Microturbine and Gasifier System for Combined Heat and Power Fuel-Flexible Microturbine and Gasifier System for Combined Heat and Power Capstone Turbine Corporation, in collaboration with the University of California-Irvine, Packer Engineering, and Argonne National Laboratory, will develop and demonstrate a prototype microturbine combined heat and power system fueled by synthesis gas and integrated with a biomass gasifier, enabling reduced fossil fuel

  12. Hydrogen Production from Biomass via Indirect Gasification: The Impact of NREL Process Development Unit Gasifier Correlations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinchin, C. M.; Bain, R. L.

    2009-05-01

    This report describes a set of updated gasifier correlations developed by NREL to predict biomass gasification products and Minimum Hydrogen Selling Price.

  13. Method for enhancing the desulfurization of hot coal gas in a fluid-bed coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grindley, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    A process and apparatus for providing additional desulfurization of the hot gas produced in a fluid-bed coal gasifier, within the gasifier. A fluid-bed of iron oxide is located inside the gasifier above the gasification bed in a fluid-bed coal gasifier in which in-bed desulfurization by lime/limestone takes place. The product gases leave the gasification bed typically at 1600.degree. to 1800.degree. F. and are partially quenched with water to 1000.degree. to 1200.degree. F. before entering the iron oxide bed. The iron oxide bed provides additional desulfurization beyond that provided by the lime/limestone.

  14. Battery of short-term tests in laboratory animals to corroborate the detection of human population exposures to genotoxic chemicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pereira, M.A.; Chang, L.W.; McMillan, L.; Ward, J.B.; Legator, M.S.

    1982-02-01

    The authors are conducting a battery of short-term tests in laboratory animals for comparison to a series of monitoring test they are evaluating for the detection of human population exposures to genotoxic chemicals. The human monitoring tests are described in a separate abstract. These assays include (1) hemoglobin (Hb) alkylation, (2) cytogenetic effects in bone marrow cells including chromosomal structural aberrations, sister chromatid exchange and micronucleus production, (3) DNA damage in bone marrow cells, (4) sperm morphology and (5) urine analysis for mutagens. Formaldehyde and methanol a metabolic precursor, are being evaluated in animals. The results are as follows: Hb Alkylation: the oral administration of carbon-14 radiolabeled formaldehyde or methanol to rats resulted in their covalent binding to Hb. Adducts to amino acids were separated after acid hydrolysis by an amino acid analyzer. The binding of both chemicals exhibited a linear relationship to dose between 10 and 100 umole/kg. The extent of methanol binding to Hb was greater than formaldehyde. Cytogenetic Analyses: the oral administration in mice of formaldehyde (100 mg/kg) or methanol (lg/kg) increased the incidence of chromosomal aberrations particularly aneuploidy and exchanges and the incidence of micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes. Results of the Hb alkylation and cytogenetic analyses will be compared to the results obtained in the human monitors studies with formaldehyde.

  15. Effect of short-term material balances on the projected uranium measurement uncertainties for the gas centrifuge enrichment plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Younkin, J.M.; Rushton, J.E.

    1980-02-05

    A program is under way to design an effective International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards system that could be applied to the Portsmouth Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant (GCEP). This system would integrate nuclear material accountability with containment and surveillance. Uncertainties in material balances due to errors in the measurements of the declared uranium streams have been projected on a yearly basis for GCEP under such a system in a previous study. Because of the large uranium flows, the projected balance uncertainties were, in some cases, greater than the IAEA goal quantity of 75 kg of U-235 contained in low-enriched uranium. Therefore, it was decided to investigate the benefits of material balance periods of less than a year in order to improve the sensitivity and timeliness of the nuclear material accountability system. An analysis has been made of projected uranium measurement uncertainties for various short-term material balance periods. To simplify this analysis, only a material balance around the process area is considered and only the major UF/sub 6/ stream measurements are included. That is, storage areas are not considered and uranium waste streams are ignored. It is also assumed that variations in the cascade inventory are negligible compared to other terms in the balance so that the results obtained in this study are independent of the absolute cascade inventory. This study is intended to provide information that will serve as the basis for the future design of a dynamic materials accounting component of the IAEA safeguards system for GCEP.

  16. Liquid CO{sub 2}/Coal Slurry for Feeding Low Rank Coal to Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marasigan, Jose; Goldstein, Harvey; Dooher, John

    2013-09-30

    . During normal operation, the fuel exits the bottom of the coal silo and is fed to a rod mill for grinding to the desired particle size. From the rod mill, the coal is transported in a dense phase pneumatic transport system to the top of a solids heat exchanger, wherein the ground coal is chilled to a low temperature (in the range of -23.3°C (-10°F)) prior to mixing with liquid CO{sub 2}. This temperature was selected based on evaluating trade-offs between refrigeration work and the cost of the system pressure boundary at various combinations of pressure and temperature that correspond to the gas/liquid phase boundary for CO{sub 2}. Electrical loads to drive the equipment comprising the liquid CO{sub 2} feed system are significantly greater than those for a water slurry system, and this effect has been captured in the technical performance analysis. In the next task, a plant-wide techno-economic analysis has been conducted for PRB coal and lignite in both liquid CO{sub 2} and water slurry feed. The IGCC cases using a liquid CO{sub 2} slurry system show reduced plant output and higher heat rate for PRB coal and for ND lignite at 90% CO{sub 2} capture. Some of these performance differences can be attributed to the higher requirement for steam for the liquid CO{sub 2} slurry cases to drive the water-gas shift reaction, thereby reducing steam turbine power generation. Other factors contributing to the calculated performance differences are the increase in parasitic loads attributable to refrigeration to produce liquid CO{sub 2} and chilled coal and the reduction in enthalpy of the inlet streams to the gasifier associated with the low temperature liquid CO{sub 2} slurry feed. The capital costs for the complete plant are slightly higher for the liquid CO{sub 2} slurry cases for PRB coal but somewhat reduced for ND lignite relative to the corresponding water slurry cases. Differences in dollar/kWe costs are higher for both coals due to the reduction in net output. The cost of

  17. Short-term exposure to 17alpha-ethynylestradiol decreases the fertility of sexually maturing male rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schultz, Irv R.; Skillman, Ann D.; Nicolas, Jean-Marc; Cyr, Daniel G.; Nagler, James J.

    2003-06-01

    The synthetic estrogen 17alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE2) is a commonly used oral contraceptive that has been increasingly detected in sewage effluents. This study determined whether EE2 exposure adversely affected reproduction in sexually maturing male rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). We exposed male trout to graded water concentrations of EE2 (10, 100, and 1,000 ng/ L) for 62 d leading up to the time of spawning. Semen and blood plasma samples were removed from each fish. Semen was used to fertilize groups of eggs from one nonexposed female. As a measure of fertility, eggs were incubated for 28 d after fertilization to determine the proportion that attained the eyed stage of embryonic development. Additional endpoints also measured included sperm motility, spermatocrit, gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indices, testis histology, and circulating plasma levels of the sex steroids 17alpha, 20beta-dihydroxyprogesterone (17,20-DHP) and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT). Exposure to 1,000 ng/L of EE2 caused complete mortality of the treatment group by day 57. Exposure to lower EE2 water concentrations (10 and 100 ng/L) caused an increase in sperm density, while a significant reduction in testis mass was observed only in the 100-ng/L exposure group. Most significantly, semen harvested from fish exposed to 10 and 100 ng/L EE2 caused an approximately 50% reduction in the number of eggs attaining the eyed stage of embryonic development. Plasma levels of 17,20-DHP in exposed fish were roughly twice the level of the controls, while levels of 11-KT were significantly reduced in fish exposed to 100 ng/L EE2. These results suggest that sexually maturing male rainbow trout are susceptible to detrimental reproductive effects of short-term exposures to environmentally relevant levels of EE2.

  18. Environmental characterization studies of a high-throughput wood gasifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, H.; Niemann, R.C.; Wilzbach, K.E.; Paisley, M.

    1983-01-01

    Potential environmental effects associated with thermochemical biomass gasification have been studied by Argonne National Laboratory in cooperation with Battelle Columbus Laboratories (BCL). A series of samples from the process research unit of an indirectly heated, high-throughput wood gasifier operated by BCL has been analyzed for potentially toxic organic compounds and trace elements. The results indicate that, under the test-run conditions, the gasification of both pine and hardwood is accompanied by the formation of some oil, the heavier fraction of which gives a positive response in the Ames assay for mutagenicity and contains numerous phenols and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, including some carcinogens. The implications of these observations are discussed.

  19. Effect of wood chip size on update gasifier-combustor operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Payne, F.A.; Dunlap, J.L.; Caussanel, P.

    1984-01-01

    Three wood chip sizes were tested in a 0.3 GJ/h updraft gasifier-combustor. Thermal output did not vary significantly between wood chips. Pressure and temperature profiles were measured in the gasifier bed. Channeling occurred with the small wood chips. Efficiency of the combustor was determined by a mass and energy balance and an enthalpy technique.

  20. The Wind Forecast Improvement Project (WFIP): A Public/Private Partnership for Improving Short Term Wind Energy Forecasts and Quantifying the Benefits of Utility Operations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Wind Forecast Improvement Project (WFIP) is a U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored research project whose overarching goals are to improve the accuracy of short-term wind energy forecasts, and to demonstrate the economic value of these improvements.

  1. Apparatus, components and operating methods for circulating fluidized bed transport gasifiers and reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vimalchand, Pannalal; Liu, Guohai; Peng, Wan Wang

    2015-02-24

    The improvements proposed in this invention provide a reliable apparatus and method to gasify low rank coals in a class of pressurized circulating fluidized bed reactors termed "transport gasifier." The embodiments overcome a number of operability and reliability problems with existing gasifiers. The systems and methods address issues related to distribution of gasification agent without the use of internals, management of heat release to avoid any agglomeration and clinker formation, specific design of bends to withstand the highly erosive environment due to high solid particles circulation rates, design of a standpipe cyclone to withstand high temperature gasification environment, compact design of seal-leg that can handle high mass solids flux, design of nozzles that eliminate plugging, uniform aeration of large diameter Standpipe, oxidant injection at the cyclone exits to effectively modulate gasifier exit temperature and reduction in overall height of the gasifier with a modified non-mechanical valve.

  2. Short term aging of LaNi{sub 4.25}Al{sub 0.75} tritide storage material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holder, J.S.

    1994-10-01

    In support of the Tritium Facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS), the Tritium Exposure Program (TEP) was initiated in 1986 to investigate the effects of tritium aging on metal hydride materials used in tritium processing applications. The primary material selected for tritium storage was the substituted LaNi{sub 5} alloy, LaNi{sub 4.25}Al{sub 0.75} (LANA.75). The substitution of Al for Ni served to lower the plateau pressure of the tritide, and to stabilize the material to cycling and tritium aging effects. The sub-atmospheric plateau pressure, of LANA.75 tritide at room temperature, made it a safe tritium storage medium, and the tritium aging effects were reduced from that of LaNi{sub 5} tritide, but not eliminated. LANA.75 tritides retain the {sup 3}He decay product of absorbed tritium in the metal lattice. As the concentration of {sup 3}He grows, the lattice becomes strained due to the insoluble species. This strain is manifest in tritium aging effects. These effects include (1) a decrease in the equilibrium plateau pressure, (2) an increase in the plateau slope, (3) a reduction in the reversible storage capacity, and (4) the evolution of a tritium heel. The long term aging effects have been studied over the years, however the short term (less than one year) tritium aging effects have not been investigated until now. The acquisition of desorption isotherms at more than one temperature allows the thermodynamic parameters of change in enthalpy, {Delta}H, and change in entropy, {Delta}S, for the {beta}-{alpha} phase transition of the metal tritide to be determined. These parameters are related to the equilibrium pressure, P, and the isothermal temperature, T, through the following relation: where R is the gas constant, and the factor of 1/2 yields results per mole of atomic tritium. A van`t Hoff plot of 1/2 Ln(P) versus 1/T may be fitted to a straight line, with the slope and intercept used to determine {Delta}H and {Delta}S through equation.

  3. Air-flow regulation system for a coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasching, George E.

    1984-01-01

    An improved air-flow regulator for a fixed-bed coal gasifier is provided which allows close air-flow regulation from a compressor source even though the pressure variations are too rapid for a single primary control loop to respond. The improved system includes a primary controller to control a valve in the main (large) air supply line to regulate large slow changes in flow. A secondary controller is used to control a smaller, faster acting valve in a secondary (small) air supply line parallel to the main line valve to regulate rapid cyclic deviations in air flow. A low-pass filter with a time constant of from 20 to 50 seconds couples the output of the secondary controller to the input of the primary controller so that the primary controller only responds to slow changes in the air-flow rate, the faster, cyclic deviations in flow rate sensed and corrected by the secondary controller loop do not reach the primary controller due to the high frequency rejection provided by the filter. This control arrangement provides at least a factor of 5 improvement in air-flow regulation for a coal gasifier in which air is supplied by a reciprocating compressor through a surge tank.

  4. Process for gasifying carbonaceous material from a recycled condensate slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forney, Albert J.; Haynes, William P.

    1981-01-01

    Coal or other carbonaceous material is gasified by reaction with steam and oxygen in a manner to minimize the problems of effluent water stream disposal. The condensate water from the product gas is recycled to slurry the coal feed and the amount of additional water or steam added for cooling or heating is minimized and preferably kept to a level of about that required to react with the carbonaceous material in the gasification reaction. The gasification is performed in a pressurized fluidized bed with the coal fed in a water slurry and preheated or vaporized by indirect heat exchange contact with product gas and recycled steam. The carbonaceous material is conveyed in a gas-solid mixture from bottom to top of the pressurized fluidized bed gasifier with the solids removed from the product gas and recycled steam in a supported moving bed filter of the resulting carbonaceous char. Steam is condensed from the product gas and the condensate recycled to form a slurry with the feed coal carbonaceous particles.

  5. Fundamentals, development and scaleup of the air=oxygen stratified downdraft gasifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed, T.B.; Levie, B.; Graboski, M.S.

    1988-06-01

    In 1979 the US Department of Energy, Office of Alcohol Fuels, asked the Solar Energy Research Institute to develop a process for manufacturing methanol from biomass. This can be achieved by gasification of the biomass to a ''synthesis gas'' (syn-gas) (composed of primarily hydrogen and carbon monoxide) followed by catalytic conversion of the gas to methanol. The catalytic conversion of syn-gas is a well developed commercial process. There are a number of gasifiers for wood, but most of them make either a producer gas, high on nitrogen or a pyrolysis gas high in hydrocarbons. None were developed to make syn-gas. Thus the principal technical problem was to develop a gasifier to make synthesis gas from biomass. Work was performed at SERI from 1980--1985 which resulted in the development of a prototype 1 ton/day oxygen-biomass gasifier. In 1985 a program was undertaken for Congress by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to build a commercial scale (50--200 tons/day) medium energy gasifier, based on DOE or other research. A new company, Syn-Gas Inc. (SGI), research. A contract was awarded to SGI to modify the air gasifier for oxygen operation for this project. This modification allowed extended tests of the gasifier with oxygen to determine the possibility of scaling up the SERI-SGI gasifier to 50--200 tons/day.

  6. An Integrated Approach to Coal Gasifier Testing, Modeling, and Process Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sundaram, S. K.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Matyas, Josef; Williford, Ralph E.; Pilli, Siva Prasad; Korolev, Vladimir N.

    2009-10-01

    Gasification is an important method of converting coal into clean burning fuels and high-value industrial chemicals. However, gasifier reliability can be severely limited by rapid degradation of the refractory lining in hot-wall gasifiers. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is performing multidisciplinary research to provide the experimental data and the engineering models needed to control gasifier operation for extended refractory life. Our experimental program includes prediction of slag viscosity using empirical viscosity models encompassing US coals, characterization of selected slag-refractory interaction including transport of slag/refractory components at the slag-refractory interface, and measurement of slag penetration into refractories as a function of time and temperature. The experimental data is used in slag flow, slag penetration, and refractory damage models to predict the operating temperature limits for increased refractory life. A simplified entrained flow gasifier model is also being developed to simulate one-dimensional axial flow with average axial velocity, coal devolatilization, and combustion kinetics. Combining the slag flow, refractory degradation, and gasifier models will provide a powerful tool to predict the coal and oxidant feed rates and control the gasifier operation to balance coal conversion efficiency with increased refractory life. A research scale gasifier has also been constructed at PNNL to provide syngas for coal conversion and carbon sequestration research, and also valuable datasets on operating conditions for validating the modeling results.

  7. Gasifier feed: Tailor-made from Illinois coals. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehrlinger, H.P. III; Lytle, J.M.; Frost, R.R.; Lizzio, A.A.; Kohlenberger, L.B.; Brewer, K.K. |||

    1992-12-31

    The main purpose of this project was to produce a feedstock from preparation plant fines from an Illinois (IL) coal that is ideal for a slurry fed, slagging, entrained-flow coal gasifier. The high-sulfur content and high-Btu value of IL coals are Particularly advantageous in such a gasifier; preliminary-calculations indicate that the increased cost of removing sulfur from the gas from a high-sulfur coal is more than offset b the increased revenue from the sale of the elemental sulfur; additionally the high-Btu IL coal concentrates more energy into the slurry of a given coal to water ratio. The Btu is--higher not only because of the hither Btu value of the coal but also because IL coal requires less water to produce a pumpable slurry than western coal, i.e., as little as 30--35% water may be used for IL coal as compared to approximately 45% for most western coals. During the contract extension, additional coal testing was completed confirming the fact that coal concentrates can be made from plant waste under a variety of flotation conditions 33 tests were conducted, yielding an average of 13326 Btu with 9.6% ash while recovering 86.0%-Of the energy value.

  8. Grate assembly for fixed-bed coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Notestein, John E.

    1993-01-01

    A grate assembly for a coal gasifier of a moving-bed or fixed-bed type is provided for crushing agglomerates of solid material such as clinkers, tailoring the radial distribution of reactant gases entering the gasification reaction zone, and control of the radial distribution of downwardly moving solid velocities in the gasification and combustion zone. The clinker crushing is provided by pinching clinkers between vertically oriented stationary bars and angled bars supported on the upper surface of a rotating conical grate. The distribution of the reactant gases is provided by the selective positioning of horizontally oriented passageways extending through the grate. The radial distribution of the solids is provided by mounting a vertically and generally radially extending scoop mechanism on the upper surface of the grate near the apex thereof.

  9. THERMOCHEMICAL MODELING OF REFRACTORY CORROSION IN SLAGGING COAL GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Besmann, Theodore M

    2008-01-01

    Slagging coal gasifiers suffer corrosive attack on the refractory liner and these interactions were thermochemically simulated. The slag is observed to penetrate the refractory, which complicates modeling the phase behavior of the slag-penetrated interior of the refractory. A simple strategy was adopted such that step-wise changes in composition with decreasing slag content were assumed to account for the compositional changes as slag penetrates the refractory. The thermochemical equilibrium calculations following this strategy typically yielded three solution phases as well as the stoichiometric crystalline phases AlPO4 and Ca3(PO4)2 depending on composition/penetration. Under some conditions a slag liquid miscibility gap exists such that two slag liquids co-exist.

  10. Two-stage fixed-bed gasifier with selectable middle gas off-take point

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strickland, Larry D.; Bissett, Larry A.

    1992-01-01

    A two-stage fixed bed coal gasifier wherein an annular region is in registry with a gasification zone underlying a devolatilization zone for extracting a side stream of high temperature substantially tar-free gas from the gasifier. A vertically displaceable skirt means is positioned within the gasifier to define the lower portion of the annular region so that vertical displacement of the skirt means positions the inlet into the annular region in a selected location within or in close proximity to the gasification zone for providing a positive control over the composition of the side stream gas.

  11. Short-Term and Long-Term Technology Needs/Matching Status at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. L. Claggett

    1999-12-01

    This report identifies potential technology deployment opportunities for the Environmental Management (EM) programs at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The focus is on identifying candidates for Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) proposals within the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management areas. The 86 technology needs on the Site Technology Coordination Group list were verified in the field. Six additional needs were found, and one listed need was no longer required. Potential technology matches were identified and then investigated for applicability, maturity, cost, and performance. Where promising, information on the technologies was provided to INEEL managers for evaluation. Eleven potential ASTD projected were identified, seven for near-term application and four for application within the next five years.

  12. Winchester/Camberley Homes New Construction Test House Design, Construction, and Short-Term Testing in a Mixed-Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mallay, D.; Wiehagen, J.; Wood, A.

    2012-10-01

    The NAHB Research Center partnered with production builder Winchester/Camberley Homes to build a new construction test house in the mixed-humid climate zone of Silver Spring, MD in June 2011. The goal for this house was to improve energy efficiency by 30% over the Building America B10 benchmark through an optimized energy solutions package design that could be constructed on a production basis. This report outlines the features of this house, discusses the energy efficient design, and reports on short-term testing results.

  13. Comparison of MELCOR and SCDAP/RELAP5 results for a low-pressure, short-term station blackout at Browns Ferry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carbajo, J.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This study compares results obtained with two U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-sponsored codes, MELCOR version 1.8.3 (1.8PQ) and SCDAP/RELAP5 Mod3.1 release C, for the same transient - a low-pressure, short-term station blackout accident at the Browns Ferry nuclear plant. This work is part of MELCOR assessment activities to compare core damage progression calculations of MELCOR against SCDAP/RELAP5 since the two codes model core damage progression very differently.

  14. Detailed model for practical pulverized coal furnaces and gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, P.J.; Smoot, L.D.

    1989-08-01

    This study has been supported by a consortium of nine industrial and governmental sponsors. Work was initiated on May 1, 1985 and completed August 31, 1989. The central objective of this work was to develop, evaluate and apply a practical combustion model for utility boilers, industrial furnaces and gasifiers. Key accomplishments have included: Development of an advanced first-generation, computer model for combustion in three dimensional furnaces; development of a new first generation fouling and slagging submodel; detailed evaluation of an existing NO{sub x} submodel; development and evaluation of an improved radiation submodel; preparation and distribution of a three-volume final report: (a) Volume 1: General Technical Report; (b) Volume 2: PCGC-3 User's Manual; (c) Volume 3: Data Book for Evaluation of Three-Dimensional Combustion Models; and organization of a user's workshop on the three-dimensional code. The furnace computer model developed under this study requires further development before it can be applied generally to all applications; however, it can be used now by specialists for many specific applications, including non-combusting systems and combusting geseous systems. A new combustion center was organized and work was initiated to continue the important research effort initiated by this study. 212 refs., 72 figs., 38 tabs.

  15. Ash level meter for a fixed-bed coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasching, George E.

    1984-01-01

    An ash level meter for a fixed-bed coal gasifier is provided which utilizes the known ash level temperature profile to monitor the ash bed level. A bed stirrer which travels up and down through the extent of the bed ash level is modified by installing thermocouples to measure the bed temperature as the stirrer travels through the stirring cycle. The temperature measurement signals are transmitted to an electronic signal process system by an FM/FM telemetry system. The processing system uses the temperature signals together with an analog stirrer position signal, taken from a position transducer disposed to measure the stirrer position to compute the vertical location of the ash zone upper boundary. The circuit determines the fraction of each total stirrer cycle time the stirrer-derived bed temperature is below a selected set point, multiplies this fraction by the average stirrer signal level, multiplies this result by an appropriate constant and adds another constant such that a 1 to 5 volt signal from the processor corresponds to a 0 to 30 inch span of the ash upper boundary level. Three individual counters in the processor store clock counts that are representative of: (1) the time the stirrer temperature is below the set point (500.degree. F.), (2) the time duration of the corresponding stirrer travel cycle, and (3) the corresponding average stirrer vertical position. The inputs to all three counters are disconnected during any period that the stirrer is stopped, eliminating corruption of the measurement by stirrer stoppage.

  16. Isolated thermocouple amplifier system for stirred fixed-bed gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasching, George E.

    1992-01-01

    A sensing system is provided for determining the bed temperature profile of the bed of a stirred, fixed-bed gasifier including a plurality of temperature sensors for sensing the bed temperature at different levels, a transmitter for transmitting data based on the outputs of the sensors to a remote operator's station, and a battery-based power supply. The system includes an isolation amplifier system comprising a plurality of isolation amplifier circuits for amplifying the outputs of the individual sensors. The isolation amplifier circuits each comprise an isolation operational amplifier connected to a sensor; a first "flying capacitor" circuit for, in operation, controlling the application of power from the power supply to the isolation amplifier; an output sample and hold circuit connected to the transmitter; a second "flying capacitor" circuit for, in operation, controlling the transfer of the output of the isolation amplifier to the sample and hold circuit; and a timing and control circuit for activating the first and second capacitor circuits in a predetermined timed sequence.

  17. Development of standardized air-blown coal gasifier/gas turbine concepts for future electric power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadowski, R.S.; Brown, M.J.; Hester, J.C.; Harriz, J.T.; Ritz, G.J.

    1991-02-01

    The objective of this study is to develop standardized air blown fixed bed gasification hot gas cleanup integrated gasifier combined cycle (IGCC) systems.

  18. Method and apparatus for enhancing the desulfurization of hot coal gas in a fluid-bed coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grindley, T.

    1988-04-05

    A process and apparatus for providing additional desulfurization of the hot gas produced in a fluid-bed coal gasifier, within the gasifier is described. A fluid-bed of iron oxide is located inside the gasifier above the gasification bed in a fluid-bed coal gasifier in which in-bed desulfurization by lime/limestone takes place. The product gases leave the gasification bed typically at 1600 to 1800 F and are partially quenched with water to 1000 to 1200 F before entering the iron oxide bed. The iron oxide bed provides additional desulfurization beyond that provided by the lime /limestone. 1 fig.

  19. CFD modeling of entrained-flow coal gasifiers with improved physical and chemical sub-models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, J.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01

    Optimization of an advanced coal-fired integrated gasification combined cycle system requires an accurate numerical prediction of gasifier performance. While the turbulent multiphase reacting flow inside entrained-flow gasifiers has been modeled through computational fluid dynamic (CFD), the accuracy of sub-models requires further improvement. Built upon a previously developed CFD model for entrained-flow gasification, the advanced physical and chemical sub-models presented here include a moisture vaporization model with consideration of high mass transfer rate, a coal devolatilization model with more species to represent coal volatiles and heating rate effect on volatile yield, and careful selection of global gas phase reaction kinetics. The enhanced CFD model is applied to simulate two typical oxygen-blown entrained-flow configurations including a single-stage down-fired gasifier and a two-stage up-fired gasifier. The CFD results are reasonable in terms of predicted carbon conversion, syngas exit temperature, and syngas exit composition. The predicted profiles of velocity, temperature, and species mole fractions inside the entrained-flow gasifier models show trends similar to those observed in a diffusion-type flame. The predicted distributions of mole fractions of major species inside both gasifiers can be explained by the heterogeneous combustion and gasification reactions and the homogeneous gas phase reactions. It was also found that the syngas compositions at the CFD model exits are not in chemical equilibrium, indicating the kinetics for both heterogeneous and gas phase homogeneous reactions are important. Overall, the results achieved here indicate that the gasifier models reported in this paper are reliable and accurate enough to be incorporated into process/CFD co-simulations of IGCC power plants for systemwide design and optimization.

  20. An integrated approach to coal gasifier testing, modeling, and process optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.K. Sundaram; K.I. Johnson; J. Matyas; R.E. Williford; S.P. Pilli; V.N. Korolev

    2009-09-15

    Gasification is an important method of converting coal into clean-burning fuels and high-value industrial chemicals. However, gasifier reliability can be severely limited by rapid degradation of the refractory lining in hot-wall gasifiers. This paper describes an integrated approach to provide the experimental data and engineering models needed to better understand how to control gasifier operation for extended refractory life. The experimental program includes slag viscosity testing and measurement of slag penetration into refractories as a function of time and temperature. The experimental data is used in slag flow, slag penetration, and refractory damage models to predict the limits on operating temperature for increased refractory life. A simplified entrained flow gasifier model is also described to simulate one-dimensional axial flow with average axial velocity, coal devolatilization, and combustion kinetics. The goal of this experimental and model program is to predict coal and oxidant feed rates and to control the gasifier operation to balance coal conversion efficiency with increased refractory life. 26 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Gasifier feed: Tailor-made from Illinois coals. Interim final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehrlinger, H.P. III; Lytle, J.; Frost, R.R.; Lizzio, A.; Kohlenberger, L.; Brewer, K.

    1992-12-31

    The main purpose of this project is to produce a feedstock from preparation plant fines from an Illinois coal that is ideal for a slurry fed, slagging, entrained-flow coal gasifier. The high sulfur content and high Btu value of Illinois coals are particularly advantageous in such a gasifier; preliminary calculations indicate that the increased cost of removing sulfur from the gas from a high sulfur coal is more than offset by the increased revenue from the sale of the elemental sulfur; additionally the high Btu Illinois coal concentrates more energy into the slurry of a given coal to water ratio. The Btu is higher not only because of the higher Btu value of the coal but also because Illinois coal requires less water to produce a pumpable slurry than western coal, i.e., as little as 30--35% water may be used for Illinois coal as compared to approximately 45% for most western coals. Destec Energy, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Dow Chemical Company, will provide guidelines and test compatibility of the slurries developed for gasification feedstock. Williams Technologies, Inc., will provide their expertise in long distance slurry pumping, and test selected products for viscosity, pumpability, and handleability. The Illinois State Geological Survey will study methods for producing clean coal/water slurries from preparation plant wastes including the concentration of pyritic sulfur into the coal slurry to increase the revenue from elemental sulfur produced during gasification operations, and decrease the pyritic sulfur content of the waste streams. ISGS will also test the gasification reactivity of the coals.

  2. Method for the desulfurization of hot product gases from coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grindley, Thomas

    1988-01-01

    The gasification of sulfur-bearing coal produces a synthesis gas which contains a considerable concentration of sulfur compounds especially hydrogen sulfide that renders the synthesis gas environmentally unacceptable unless the concentration of the sulfur compounds is significantly reduced. To provide for such a reduction in the sulfur compounds a calcium compound is added to the gasifier with the coal to provide some sulfur absorption. The synthesis gas from the gasifier contains sulfur compounds and is passed through an external bed of a regenerable solid absorbent, preferably zinc ferrite, for essentially completed desulfurizing the hot synthesis gas. This absorbent is, in turn, periodically or continuously regenerated by passing a mixture of steam and air or oxygen through the bed for converting absorbed hydrogen sulfide to sulfur dioxide. The resulting tail gas containing sulfur dioxide and steam is injected into the gasifier where the sulfur dioxide is converted by the calcium compound into a stable form of sulfur such as calcium sulfate.

  3. Containment failure time and mode for a low-pressure short-term station blackout in a BWR-4 with Mark-I containment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carbajo, J.J.; Greene, S.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1993-01-01

    This study investigates containment failure time and mode for a low-pressure, short-term station blackout severe accident sequence in a boiling water reactor (BWR-4) with a Mark-I containment. The severe accident analysis code MELCOR, version 1.8.1, was used in these calculations. Other results using the MELCOR/CORBH package and the BWRSAR and CONTAIN codes are also presented and compared to the MELCOR results. The plant analyzed is the Peach Bottom atomic station, a BWR-4 with a Mark-I containment. The automatic depressurization system was used to depressurize the vessel in accordance with the Emergency Procedure Guidelines. Two different variations of the station blackout were studied: one with a dry cavity and the other with a flooded cavity. For the flooded cavity, it is assumed that a control rod drive (CRD) pump becomes operational after vessel failure, and it is used to pump water into the cavity.

  4. Evaluation of the deposition, translocation and pathological response of brake dust with and without added chrysotile in comparison to crocidolite asbestos following short-term inhalation: Interim results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernstein, David M.; Rogers, Rick; Sepulveda, Rosalina; Kunzendorf, Peter; Bellmann, Bernd; Ernst, Heinrich; Phillips, James I.

    2014-04-01

    Chrysotile has been frequently used in the past in manufacturing brakes and continues to be used in brakes in many countries. This study was designed to provide an understanding of the biokinetics and potential toxicology following inhalation of brake dust following short term exposure in rats. The deposition, translocation and pathological response of brake dust derived from brake pads manufactured with chrysotile were evaluated in comparison to the amphibole, crocidolite asbestos. Rats were exposed by inhalation 6 h/day for 5 days to either brake dust obtained by sanding of brake-drums manufactured with chrysotile, a mixture of chrysotile and the brake dust or crocidolite asbestos. No significant pathological response was observed at any time point in either the brake dust or chrysotile/brake dust exposure groups. The long chrysotile fibers (> 20 μm) cleared quickly with T{sub 1/2} estimated as 30 and 33 days, respectively in the brake dust and the chrysotile/brake dust exposure groups. In contrast, the long crocidolite fibers had a T{sub 1/2} > 1000 days and initiated a rapid inflammatory response in the lung following exposure resulting in a 5-fold increase in fibrotic response within 91 days. These results provide support that brake dust derived from chrysotile containing brake drums would not initiate a pathological response in the lung following short term inhalation. - Highlights: • We evaluated brake dust w/wo added chrysotile in comparison to crocidolite asbestos. • Persistence, translocation, pathological response in the lung and pleural cavity. • Chrysotile cleared rapidly from the lung while the crocidolite asbestos persisted. • No significant pathology observed at any time point in the brake-dust groups. • Crocidolite produced pathological response - Wagner 4 interstitial fibrosis by 32d.

  5. The University of Minnesota aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) field test facility -- system description, aquifer characterization, and results of short-term test cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walton, M.; Hoyer, M.C.; Eisenreich, S.J.; Holm, N.L.; Holm, T.R.; Kanivetsky, R.; Jirsa, M.A.; Lee, H.C.; Lauer, J.L.; Miller, R.T.; Norton, J.L.; Runke, H. )

    1991-06-01

    Phase 1 of the Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) Project at the University of Minnesota was to test the feasibility, and model, the ATES concept at temperatures above 100{degrees}C using a confined aquifer for the storage and recovery of hot water. Phase 1 included design, construction, and operation of a 5-MW thermal input/output field test facility (FTF) for four short-term ATES cycles (8 days each of heat injection, storage, and heat recover). Phase 1 was conducted from May 1980 to December 1983. This report describes the FTF, the Franconia-Ironton-Galesville (FIG) aquifer used for the test, and the four short-term ATES cycles. Heat recovery; operational experience; and thermal, chemical, hydrologic, and geologic effects are all included. The FTF consists of monitoring wells and the source and storage well doublet completed in the FIG aquifer with heat exchangers and a fixed-bed precipitator between the wells of the doublet. The FIG aquifer is highly layered and a really anisotropic. The upper Franconia and Ironton-Galesville parts of the aquifer, those parts screened, have hydraulic conductivities of {approximately}0.6 and {approximately}1.0 m/d, respectively. Primary ions in the ambient ground water are calcium and magnesium bicarbonate. Ambient temperature FIG ground water is saturated with respect to calcium/magnesium bicarbonate. Heating the ground water caused most of the dissolved calcium to precipitate out as calcium carbonate in the heat exchanger and precipitator. Silica, calcium, and magnesium were significantly higher in recovered water than in injected water, suggesting dissolution of some constituents of the aquifer during the cycles. Further work on the ground water chemistry is required to understand water-rock interactions.

  6. Platform/foreslope facies and buildup geometry resulting from short-term and long-term eustatic sea level fluctuations: latemar buildup (Middle Triassic), Dolomites, northern Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, M.T.; Goldhammer, R.

    1987-05-01

    Superimposed short-term and long-term eustatic sea level fluctuations directly controlled Latemar platform stratigraphy and indirectly influenced the deeper water facies and overall buildup geometry. Deeper water facies, the foreslope and toe of slope, are a function of platform submergence (highstand shedding) and subaerial exposure (lowstand lithification and erosion) and thus only indirectly reflect eustatic fluctuations. The Latemar consists of a platform core (3-4 km wide, 700 m thick) with a narrow margin, flanked by foreslope (30-35/sup 0/ dips), toe of slope, and basin deposits. The shallowing-upward platform sequence records a long-term (about 10 m.y.) eustatic sea level oscillation with an amplitude of about 150 m. The lower 250 m marks an initial catch-up phase (subtidal carbonates); the upper 450 m marks the sequential keep-up phase (meter-scale cyclic carbonates). These cycles record platform submergence and exposure caused by short-term (10/sup 4/-10/sup 5/ years) Milankovitch eustatic oscillations superimposed on the long-term trend. Platform submergence and exposure conditions result in contrasting foreslope deposits. During highstands, platform-derived sands bypass the foreslope, accumulating as toe-of-slope graded beds and basin turbidites. During lowstands, sand supply ceases, producing basin hard-grounds. Foreslope megabreccias contain margin-derived boundstone clasts, with only minor platform-derived sands (highstands) and lithified clasts (lowstands). As the platform margin/foreslope contact is nearly vertical, a progressively increasing volume of foreslope megabreccia was needed to maintain the depositional geometry. This coincides with the most commonly exposed platform interval, suggesting that platform exposure determines buildup flank geometry by controlling megabreccia clast production.

  7. CFD modeling of commercial-scale entrained-flow coal gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, J.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01

    Optimization of an advanced coal-fired integrated gasification combined cycle system requires an accurate numerical prediction of gasifier performance. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been used to model the turbulent multiphase reacting flow inside commercial-scale entrained-flow coal gasifiers. Due to the complexity of the physical and chemical processes involved, the accuracy of sub-models requires further improvement. Built upon a previously developed CFD model for entrained-flow gasification, the advanced physical and chemical sub-models presented in this paper include a moisture vaporization model with consideration of high mass transfer rate and a coal devolatilization model with more species to represent coal volatiles and the heating rate effect on volatile yield. The global gas phase reaction kinetics is also carefully selected. To predict a reasonable peak temperature of the coal/O{sub 2} flame inside an entrained-flow gasifier, the reserve reaction of H{sub 2} oxidation is included in the gas phase reaction model. The enhanced CFD model is applied to simulate two typical commercial-scale oxygen-blown entrained-flow configurations including a single-stage down-fired gasifier and a two-stage up-fired gasifier. The CFD results are reasonable in terms of predicted carbon conversion, syngas exit temperature, and syngas exit composition. The predicted profiles of velocity, temperature, and species mole fractions inside the entrained-flow gasifier models show trends similar to those observed in a diffusion-type flame. The predicted distributions of mole fractions of major species inside both gasifiers can be explained by the heterogeneous combustion and gasification reactions and the homogeneous gas phase reactions. It was also found that the syngas compositions at the CFD model exits are not in chemical equilibrium, indicating the kinetics for both heterogeneous and gas phase homogeneous reactions are important. Overall, the results achieved here

  8. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Quarterly Coal Distribution Report Release Date: August 17, 2016 | Next Release Date: December 22, 2016 | full report The Quarterly Coal Distribution Report (QCDR) provides detailed U.S. domestic coal distribution data by coal origin state, coal destination state, mode of transportation, and consuming sector. All quarterly data are preliminary and will be superseded by the release of the corresponding "Annual Coal Distribution Report." Highlights for the fourth quarter 2015: Total

  9. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    market outlook and drivers for Official Monetary and Financial Institutions Forum (OMFIF) July 14, 2016 | St. Louis, MO by Howard Gruenspecht, Deputy Administrator Forecast -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 100 2011-Q1 2012-Q1 2013-Q1 2014-Q1 2015-Q1 2016-Q1 2017-Q1 Implied stock change and balance (right axis) World production (left axis) World consumption (left axis) world supply and demand million barrels per day implied stock change million barrels per day OMFIF l Third Main

  10. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (STEO) Highlights * Crude oil prices increased during the first three weeks of July 2013 as world oil markets tightened in the face of seasonal increases in world consumption, unexpected supply disruptions, and heightened uncertainty over the security of supply with the renewed unrest in Egypt. The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) expects that the Brent crude oil spot price, which averaged $108 per barrel over the first half of 2013, will average $104 per barrel over the second half

  11. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (STEO) Highlights * The market's perception of reduced risk to Iraqi oil exports and news regarding increasing Libyan oil exports contributed to a drop in the Brent crude oil spot price to an average of $107 per barrel (bbl) in July, $5/bbl lower than the June average. EIA projects Brent crude oil prices to average $107/bbl over the second half of 2014 and $105/bbl in 2015. West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil prices fell from an average of $106/bbl in June to $104/bbl in July, despite record

  12. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (STEO) Highlights  North Sea Brent crude oil prices averaged $57/barrel (b) in July, a $5/b decrease from June. Brent crude oil spot prices fell further in early August, settling at $48/b on August 7. The recent price declines reflect concerns about lower economic growth in emerging markets, expectations of higher oil exports from Iran, and continuing actual and expected growth in global inventories.  EIA forecasts that Brent crude oil prices will average $54/b in 2015 and $59/b in 2016,

  13. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (STEO) Highlights  After falling by more than 40 cents per gallon from the beginning of September through mid-November, weekly U.S. average regular gasoline retail prices increased by 8 cents per gallon to reach $3.27 per gallon on December 2, 2013, due in part to unplanned refinery maintenance and higher crude oil prices. The annual average regular gasoline retail price, which was $3.63 per gallon in 2012, is expected to average $3.50 per gallon in 2013 and $3.43 per gallon in 2014.  The

  14. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (STEO) Highlights * North Sea Brent crude oil prices averaged $44/barrel (b) in November, a $4/b decrease from October. Global oil inventories are estimated to have increased by 1.3 million barrels per day (b/d) in November, putting downward pressure on Brent prices. * EIA forecasts that Brent crude oil prices will average $53/b in 2015 and $56/b in 2016. Forecast West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil prices average $4/b lower than the Brent price in 2015 and $5/b lower in 2016. The current

  15. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (STEO) Highlights  January was the seventh consecutive month in which monthly average North Sea Brent crude oil prices decreased, reaching $48/barrel (bbl), the lowest since March 2009. The price decline reflects continued growth in U.S. tight oil production and strong global supply, amid weaker global oil demand growth, which contributed to rising global oil inventories. In January, estimated Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) total commercial oil inventories

  16. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (STEO) Highlights * Unrest in Iraq put upward pressure on world oil prices last month, helping North Sea Brent crude oil spot prices reach their highest daily level of the year at just over $115/barrel (bbl) on June 19. North Sea Brent crude oil spot prices increased from a monthly average of $110/bbl in May to $112/bbl in June. This was the 12th consecutive month in which the average Brent crude oil spot price ranged between $107/bbl and $112/bbl. EIA projects Brent crude oil prices to average

  17. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (STEO) Highlights  North Sea Brent crude oil prices averaged $61/barrel (b) in June, a $3/b decrease from May. Crude oil prices fell by about $4/b on July 6 in the aftermath of the "no" vote in Greece on the economic program, as well as lingering concerns about lower economic growth in China, higher oil exports from Iran, and continuing growth in global petroleum and other liquids inventories. A percent price change of this extent on a single day is unusual, but despite daily price

  18. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (STEO) Highlights * North Sea Brent crude oil prices averaged $64/barrel (b) in May, a $5/b increase from April and the highest monthly average of 2015. Despite estimated global inventories increasing by more than 2 million barrels per day (b/d) for the third consecutive month, several factors contributed to higher prices in May, including continued signals of higher global oil demand growth, expectations for declining U.S. tight oil production in the coming months, and the growing risk of

  19. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (STEO) Highlights * Benchmark North Sea Brent crude oil spot prices averaged $47/barrel (b) in May, a $5/b increase from April and the fourth consecutive monthly increase since reaching a 12-year low of $31/b in January. Growing global oil supply disruptions, rising oil demand, and falling U.S. crude oil production contributed to the price increase. * Brent crude oil prices are forecast to average $43/b in 2016 and $52/b in 2017, $3/b and $1/b higher than forecast in last month's STEO,

  20. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (STEO) Highlights  North Sea Brent crude oil prices averaged $60/barrel (b) in April, a $4/b increase from March and the highest monthly average of 2015. Despite increasing global inventories, several factors contributed to higher prices in April, including indications of higher global oil demand growth, expectations for declining U.S. tight oil production in the coming months, and the growing risk of unplanned supply outages in the Middle East and North Africa.  EIA forecasts that Brent

  1. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (STEO) Highlights * North Sea Brent crude oil prices averaged $42/barrel (b) in April, a $3/b increase from March. Improving economic data, growing supply disruptions, and falling U.S. crude oil production and rig counts contributed to the price increase. * Brent crude oil prices are forecast to average $41/b in 2016 and $51/b in 2017, $6/b and $10/b higher than forecast in last month's STEO, respectively. West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil prices are forecast to average slightly less than

  2. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (STEO) Highlights  The weekly U.S. average regular gasoline retail price has fallen by more than 40 cents per gallon since the beginning of September. EIA's forecast for the regular gasoline retail price averages $3.24 per gallon in the fourth quarter of 2013, $0.10 per gallon less than forecast in last month's STEO. The annual average regular gasoline retail price, which was $3.63 per gallon in 2012, is expected to average $3.50 per gallon in 2013 and $3.39 per gallon in 2014.  The North

  3. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (STEO) Highlights  North Sea Brent crude oil prices averaged $48/barrel (b) in October, a $1/b increase from September. Daily Brent prices have ranged between $45/b and $53/b since the beginning of September. Oil price volatility was lower during October than during August and September, but it remains elevated compared with levels in recent years.  EIA forecasts that Brent crude oil prices will average $54/b in 2015 and $56/b in 2016. The 2015 forecast price is unchanged from last month's

  4. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

  5. Effect of simulated medium-Btu coal gasifier atmospheres on the biaxial stress rupture behavior of four candidate coal gasifier alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horton, R.M.; Smolik, G.R.

    1982-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine whether the biaxial stress rupture behavior of four alloys was adversely affected by exposure to four simulated medium-Btu coal gasifier atmospheres. The results of exposures up to approximately 500 h at temperatures between 649 and 982/sup 0/C are presented. Exposure to these atmospheres at temperatures below 900/sup 0/C did not significantly reduce the rupture properties from those measured in air. Only at 982/sup 0/C were the rupture strength and life in the simulated coal gasifier atmospheres lower than those measured in air at atmospheric pressure. Possible reasons for this reduction in strength/life are discussed. The results of detailed examination of specimen ruptures are also presented.

  6. Uncertainty analysis of an IGCC system with single-stage entrained-flow gasifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shastri, Y.; Diwekar, U.; Zitney, S.

    2008-01-01

    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems using coal gasification is an attractive option for future energy plants. Consequenty, understanding the system operation and optimizing gasifier performance in the presence of uncertain operating conditions is essential to extract the maximum benefits from the system. This work focuses on conducting such a study using an IGCC process simulation and a high-fidelity gasifier simulation coupled with stochastic simulation and multi-objective optimization capabilities. Coal gasifiers are the necessary basis of IGCC systems, and hence effective modeling and uncertainty analysis of the gasification process constitutes an important element of overall IGCC process design and operation. In this work, an Aspen Plus{reg_sign} steady-state process model of an IGCC system with carbon capture enables us to conduct simulation studies so that the effect of gasification variability on the whole process can be understood. The IGCC plant design consists of an single-stage entrained-flow gasifier, a physical solvent-based acid gas removal process for carbon capture, two model-7FB combustion turbine generators, two heat recovery steam generators, and one steam turbine generator in a multi-shaft 2x2x1 configuration. In the Aspen Plus process simulation, the gasifier is represented as a simplified lumped-parameter, restricted-equilibrium reactor model. In this work, we also make use of a distributed-parameter FLUENT{reg_sign} computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to characterize the uncertainty for the entrained-flow gasifier. The CFD-based gasifer model is much more comprehensive, predictive, and hence better suited to understand the effects of uncertainty. The possible uncertain parameters of the gasifier model are identified. This includes input coal composition as well as mass flow rates of coal, slurry water, and oxidant. Using a selected number of random (Monte Carlo) samples for the different parameters, the CFD model is

  7. Cogeneration of electricity: Cost-effective over long term

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barger, R.L.; Barham, J. )

    1991-08-01

    This article describes the determination of the cost-effectiveness of a cogeneration project five years after it became operational in 1984. The cogeneration project uses digester sludge gas from a wastewater treatment plant. The topics covered include the history of electrical cogeneration at the site, cogeneration economics in the short term and the long term, and the factors in cost-effectiveness.

  8. Method of generating electricity using an endothermic coal gasifier and MHD generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marchant, David D.; Lytle, John M.

    1982-01-01

    A system and method of generating electrical power wherein a mixture of carbonaceous material and water is heated to initiate and sustain the endothermic reaction of carbon and water thereby providing a gasified stream containing carbon monoxide, hydrogen and nitrogen and waste streams of hydrogen sulfide and ash. The gasified stream and an ionizing seed material and pressurized air from a preheater go to a burner for producing ionized combustion gases having a temperature of about 5000.degree. to about 6000.degree. F. which are accelerated to a velocity of about 1000 meters per second and passed through an MHD generator to generate DC power and thereafter through a diffuser to reduce the velocity. The gases from the diffuser go to an afterburner and from there in heat exchange relationship with the gasifier to provide heat to sustain the endothermic reaction of carbon and water and with the preheater to preheat the air prior to combustion with the gasified stream. Energy from the afterburner can also be used to energize other parts of the system.

  9. Differences in gasification behaviors and related properties between entrained gasifier fly ash and coal char

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jing Gu; Shiyong Wu; Youqing Wu; Ye Li; Jinsheng Gao

    2008-11-15

    In the study, two fly ash samples from Texaco gasifiers were compared to coal char and the physical and chemical properties and reactivity of samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), SEM-energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} adsorption method, and isothermal thermogravimetric analysis. The main results were obtained. The carbon content of gasified fly ashes exhibited 31-37%, which was less than the carbon content of 58-59% in the feed coal. The fly ashes exhibited higher Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, richer meso- and micropores, more disordered carbon crystalline structure, and better CO{sub 2} gasification reactivity than coal char. Ashes in fly ashes occurred to agglomerate into larger spherical grains, while those in coal char do not agglomerate. The minerals in fly ashes, especial alkali and alkaline-earth metals, had a catalytic effect on gasification reactivity of fly ash carbon. In the low-temperature range, the gasification process of fly ashes is mainly in chemical control, while in the high-temperature range, it is mainly in gas diffusion control, which was similar to coal char. In addition, the carbon in fly ashes was partially gasified and activated by water vapor and exhibited higher BET surface area and better gasification activity. Consequently, the fact that these carbons in fly ashes from entrained flow gasifiers are reclaimed and reused will be considered to be feasible. 15 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Technical and economic assessment of producing hydrogen by reforming syngas from the Battelle indirectly heated biomass gasifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mann, M.K.

    1995-08-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of producing hydrogen from biomass by means of indirectly heated gasification and steam reforming was studied. A detailed process model was developed in ASPEN Plus{trademark} to perform material and energy balances. The results of this simulation were used to size and cost major pieces of equipment from which the determination of the necessary selling price of hydrogen was made. A sensitivity analysis was conducted on the process to study hydrogen price as a function of biomass feedstock cost and hydrogen production efficiency. The gasification system used for this study was the Battelle Columbus Laboratory (BCL) indirectly heated gasifier. The heat necessary for the endothermic gasification reactions is supplied by circulating sand from a char combustor to the gasification vessel. Hydrogen production was accomplished by steam reforming the product synthesis gas (syngas) in a process based on that used for natural gas reforming. Three process configurations were studied. Scheme 1 is the full reforming process, with a primary reformer similar to a process furnace, followed by a high temperature shift reactor and a low temperature shift reactor. Scheme 2 uses only the primary reformer, and Scheme 3 uses the primary reformer and the high temperature shift reactor. A pressure swing adsorption (PSA) system is used in all three schemes to produce a hydrogen product pure enough to be used in fuel cells. Steam is produced through detailed heat integration and is intended to be sold as a by-product.

  11. Short-term calorie restriction feminizes the mRNA profiles of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters in livers of mice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, Zidong Donna; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2014-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) is one of the most effective anti-aging interventions in mammals. A modern theory suggests that aging results from a decline in detoxification capabilities and thus accumulation of damaged macromolecules. The present study aimed to determine how short-term CR alters mRNA profiles of genes that encode metabolism and detoxification machinery in the liver. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed CR (0, 15, 30, or 40%) diets for one month, followed by mRNA quantification of 98 xenobiotic processing genes (XPGs) in the liver, including 7 uptake transporters, 39 phase-I enzymes, 37 phase-II enzymes, 10 efflux transporters, and 5 transcription factors. In general, 15% CR did not alter mRNAs of most XPGs, whereas 30 and 40% CR altered over half of the XPGs (32 increased and 29 decreased). CR up-regulated some phase-I enzymes (fold increase), such as Cyp4a14 (12), Por (2.3), Nqo1 (1.4), Fmo2 (5.4), and Fmo3 (346), and numerous number of phase-II enzymes, such as Sult1a1 (1.2), Sult1d1 (2.0), Sult1e1 (33), Sult3a1 (2.2), Gsta4 (1.3), Gstm2 (1.3), Gstm3 (1.7), and Mgst3 (2.2). CR feminized the mRNA profiles of 32 XPGs in livers of male mice. For instance, CR decreased the male-predominantly expressed Oatp1a1 (97%) and increased the female-predominantly expressed Oatp1a4 (11). In conclusion, short-term CR alters the mRNA levels of over half of the 98 XPGs quantified in livers of male mice, and over half of these alterations appear to be due to feminization of the liver. - Highlights: Utilized a graded CR model in male mice The mRNA profiles of xenobiotic processing genes (XPGs) in liver were investigated. CR up-regulates many phase-II enzymes. CR tends to feminize the mRNA profiles of XPGs.

  12. Interim Data Changes in the Short-term Energy Outlook Data Systems Related to Electric Power Sector and Natural Gas Demand Data Revisions (Released in the STEO December 2002)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2002-01-01

    Beginning with the December 2002 issue of the Energy Information Administration's Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO), electricity generation and related fuel consumption totals will be presented on a basis that is consistent with the definitions and aggregates used in the 2001 edition of EIA's Annual Energy Review (AER). Particularly affected by these changes are the demand and balancing item totals for natural

  13. System Modeling of ORNL s 20 MW(t) Wood-fired Gasifying Boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daw, C Stuart; FINNEY, Charles E A; Wiggins, Gavin; Hao, Ye

    2010-01-01

    We present an overview of the new 20 MW(t) wood-fired steam plant currently under construction by Johnson Controls, Inc. at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee. The new plant will utilize a low-temperature air-blown gasifier system developed by the Nexterra Systems Corporation to generate low-heating value syngas (producer gas), which will then be burned in a staged combustion chamber to produce heat for the boiler. This is considered a showcase project for demonstrating the benefits of clean, bio-based energy, and thus there is considerable interest in monitoring and modeling the energy efficiency and environmental footprint of this technology relative to conventional steam generation with petroleum-based fuels. In preparation for system startup in 2012, we are developing steady-state and dynamic models of the major process components, including the gasifiers and combustor. These tools are intended to assist in tracking and optimizing system performance and for carrying out future conceptual studies of process changes that might improve the overall energy efficiency and sustainability. In this paper we describe the status of our steady-state gasifier and combustor models and illustrate preliminary results from limited parametric studies.

  14. Tunable Diode Laser Sensors to Monitor Temperature and Gas Composition in High-Temperature Coal Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanson, Ronald; Whitty, Kevin

    2014-12-01

    The integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) when combined with carbon capture and storage can be one of the cleanest methods of extracting energy from coal. Control of coal and biomass gasification processes to accommodate the changing character of input-fuel streams is required for practical implementation of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) technologies. Therefore a fast time-response sensor is needed for real-time monitoring of the composition and ideally the heating value of the synthesis gas (here called syngas) as it exits the gasifier. The goal of this project was the design, construction, and demonstration an in situ laserabsorption sensor to monitor multiple species in the syngas output from practical-scale coal gasifiers. This project investigated the hypothesis of using laser absorption sensing in particulateladen syngas. Absorption transitions were selected with design rules to optimize signal strength while minimizing interference from other species. Successful in situ measurements in the dusty, high-pressure syngas flow were enabled by Stanford’s normalized and scanned wavelength modulation strategy. A prototype sensor for CO, CH4, CO2, and H2O was refined with experiments conducted in the laboratory at Stanford University, a pilot-scale at the University of Utah, and an engineering-scale gasifier at DoE’s National Center for Carbon Capture with the demonstration of a prototype sensor with technical readiness level 6 in the 2014 measurement campaign.

  15. Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 2: Gas Cleanup Design and Cost Estimates -- Wood Feedstock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nexant Inc.

    2006-05-01

    As part of Task 2, Gas Cleanup and Cost Estimates, Nexant investigated the appropriate process scheme for treatment of wood-derived syngas for use in the synthesis of liquid fuels. Two different 2,000 metric tonne per day gasification schemes, a low-pressure, indirect system using the gasifier, and a high-pressure, direct system using gasification technology were evaluated. Initial syngas conditions from each of the gasifiers was provided to the team by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Nexant was the prime contractor and principal investigator during this task; technical assistance was provided by both GTI and Emery Energy.

  16. On the modeling of a single-stage, entrained-flow gasifier using Aspen Custom Modeler (ACM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kasule, J.; Turton, R.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Zitney, S.

    2010-01-01

    Coal-fired gasifiers are the centerpiece of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants. The gasifier produces synthesis gas that is subsequently converted into electricity through combustion in a gas turbine. Several mathematical models have been developed to study the physical and chemical processes taking place inside the gasifier. Such models range from simple one-dimensional (1D) steady-state models to sophisticated dynamic 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models that incorporate turbulence effects in the reactor. The practical operation of the gasifier is dynamic in nature but most 1D and some higher-dimensional models are often steady state. On the other hand, many higher order CFD-based models are dynamic in nature, but are too computationally expensive to be used directly in operability and controllability dynamic studies. They are also difficult to incorporate in the framework of process simulation software such as Aspen Plus Dynamics. Thus lower-dimensional dynamic models are still useful in these types of studies. In the current study, a 1D dynamic model for a single-stage, downward-firing, entrained-flow GE-type gasifier is developed using Aspen Custom Modeler{reg_sign} (ACM), which is a commercial equation-based simulator for creating, editing, and re-using models of process units. The gasifier model is based on mass, momentum, and energy balances for the solid and gas phases. The physical and chemical reactions considered in the model are drying, devolatilization/pyrolysis, gasification, combustion, and the homogeneous gas phase reactions. The dynamic gasifier model is being developed for use in a plant-wide dynamic model of an IGCC power plant. For dynamic simulation, the resulting highly nonlinear system of partial differential algebraic equations (PDAE) is solved in ACM using the well-known Method of Lines (MoL) approach. The MoL discretizes the space domain and leaves the time domain continuous, thereby converting the PDAE to

  17. Development of standardized air-blown coal gasifier/gas turbine concepts for future electric power systems. Volume 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadowski, R.S.; Brown, M.J.; Hester, J.C.; Harriz, J.T.; Ritz, G.J.

    1991-02-01

    The objective of this study is to develop standardized air blown fixed bed gasification hot gas cleanup integrated gasifier combined cycle (IGCC) systems.

  18. Detailed model for practical pulverized coal furnaces and gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Philips, S.D.; Smoot, L.D.

    1989-08-01

    The need to improve efficiency and reduce pollutant emissions commercial furnaces has prompted energy companies to search for optimized operating conditions and improved designs in their fossil-fuel burning facilities. Historically, companies have relied on the use of empirical correlations and pilot-plant data to make decisions about operating conditions and design changes. The high cost of collecting data makes obtaining large amounts of data infeasible. The main objective of the data book is to provide a single source of detailed three-dimensional combustion and combustion-related data suitable for comprehensive combustion model evaluation. Five tasks were identified as requirements to achieve the main objective. First, identify the types of data needed to evaluate comprehensive combustion models, and establish criteria for selecting the data. Second, identify and document available three-dimensional combustion data related to pulverized coal combustion. Third, collect and evaluate three-dimensional data cases, and select suitable cases based on selection criteria. Fourth, organize the data sets into an easy-to-use format. Fifth, evaluate and interpret the nature and quality of the data base. 39 refs., 15 figs., 14 tabs.

  19. Distributed Fiber Optic Sensor for On-Line Monitoring of Coal Gasifier Refractory Health

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Anbo; Yu, Zhihao

    2015-11-30

    This report summarizes technical progress on the program “Distributed Fiber Optic Sensor for On-Line Monitoring of Coal Gasifier Refractory Health,” funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The scope of work entails analyses of traveling grating generation technologies in an optical fiber, as well as the interrogation of the gratings to infer a distributed temperature along the fiber, for the purpose of developing a real-time refractory health condition monitoring technology for coal gasifiers. During the project period, which is from 2011-2015, three different sensing principles were studied, including four-wave mixing (FWM), coherent optical time-domain reflectometer (C-OTDR) and Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA). By comparing the three methods, the BOTDA was selected for further development into a complete bench-top sensing system for the proposed high-temperature sensing application. Based on the input from Eastman Chemical, the industrial collaborator on this project, a cylindrical furnace was designed and constructed to simulate typical gasifier refractory temperature conditions in the laboratory, and verify the sensor’s capability to fully monitor refractory conditions on the back-side at temperatures up to 1000°C. In the later stages of the project, the sensing system was tested in the simulated environment for its sensing performance and high-temperature survivability. Through theoretical analyses and experimental research on the different factors affecting the sensor performance, a sensor field deployment strategy was proposed for possible future sensor field implementations.

  20. Fixed-bed gasifier and cleanup system engineering summary report through Test Run No. 100

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pater, K. Jr.; Headley, L.; Kovach, J.; Stopek, D.

    1984-06-01

    The state-of-the-art of high-pressure, fixed-bed gasification has been advanced by the many refinements developed over the last 5 years. A novel full-flow gas cleanup system has been installed and tested to clean coal-derived gases. This report summarizes the results of tests conducted on the gasifier and cleanup system from its inception through 1982. Selected process summary data are presented along with results from complementary programs in the areas of environmental research, process simulation, analytical methods development, and component testing. 20 references, 32 figures, 42 tables.

  1. System overview and characterization of a high-temperature, high-pressure, entrained-flow, laboratory-scale gasifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelley, Madison A.; Dreyer, Christopher B.; Parker, Terence E.; Porter, Jason M.; Jakulewicz, Micah S.

    2015-05-15

    The high-temperature, high-pressure, entrained-flow, laboratory-scale gasifier at the Colorado School of Mines, including the primary systems and the supporting subsystems, is presented. The gasifier is capable of operating at temperatures and pressures up to 1650 °C and 40 bar. The heated section of the reactor column has an inner diameter of 50 mm and is 1 m long. Solid organic feedstock (e.g., coal, biomass, and solid waste) is ground into batches with particle sizes ranging from 25 to 90 μm and is delivered to the reactor at feed rates of 2–20 g/min. The maximum useful power output of the syngas is 10 kW, with a nominal power output of 1.2 kW. The initial characterization and demonstration results of the gasifier system with a coal feedstock are also reported.

  2. Subpilot scale gasifier evaluation of ceramic cross flow filter. Final report, February 1, 1988--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lippert, T.E.; Alvin, M.A.; Smeltzer, E.E.; Bachovchin, D.M.; Meyer, J.H.

    1993-08-01

    The operating characteristics, performance and durability of a hot gas cross flow filter system were evaluated at the Texaco 15 tpd, entrained-bed gasifier pilot plant facility that is located at their Montebello Research Facilities (MRL) in California. A candle filter unit was also tested for comparative purposes. A wide range of operating test conditions were experienced. This report summarizes the results of eleven different test runs that occurred from April 1989 through August 1992. Differences between filter operation on the entrained gasifier and prior experience on fluid bed combustion are discussed.

  3. Development of an entrained flow gasifier model for process optimization study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biagini, E.; Bardi, A.; Pannocchia, G.; Tognotti, L.

    2009-10-15

    Coal gasification is a versatile process to convert a solid fuel in syngas, which can be further converted and separated in hydrogen, which is a valuable and environmentally acceptable energy carrier. Different technologies (fixed beds, fluidized beds, entrained flow reactors) are used, operating under different conditions of temperature, pressure, and residence time. Process studies should be performed for defining the best plant configurations and operating conditions. Although 'gasification models' can be found in the literature simulating equilibrium reactors, a more detailed approach is required for process analysis and optimization procedures. In this work, a gasifier model is developed by using AspenPlus as a tool to be implemented in a comprehensive process model for the production of hydrogen via coal gasification. It is developed as a multizonal model by interconnecting each step of gasification (preheating, devolatilization, combustion, gasification, quench) according to the reactor configuration, that is in entrained flow reactor. The model removes the hypothesis of equilibrium by introducing the kinetics of all steps and solves the heat balance by relating the gasification temperature to the operating conditions. The model allows to predict the syngas composition as well as quantity the heat recovery (for calculating the plant efficiency), 'byproducts', and residual char. Finally, in view of future works, the development of a 'gasifier model' instead of a 'gasification model' will allow different reactor configurations to be compared.

  4. Thermal valorization of post-consumer film waste in a bubbling bed gasifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martínez-Lera, S. Torrico, J.; Pallarés, J.; Gil, A.

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: • Film waste from packaging is a common waste, a fraction of which is not recyclable. • Gasification can make use of the high energy value of the non-recyclable fraction. • This waste and two reference polymers were gasified in a bubbling bed reactor. • This experimental research proves technical feasibility of the process. • It also analyzes impact of composition and ER on the performance of the plant. - Abstract: The use of plastic bags and film packaging is very frequent in manifold sectors and film waste is usually present in different sources of municipal and industrial wastes. A significant part of it is not suitable for mechanical recycling but could be safely transformed into a valuable gas by means of thermal valorization. In this research, the gasification of film wastes has been experimentally investigated through experiments in a fluidized bed reactor of two reference polymers, polyethylene and polypropylene, and actual post-consumer film waste. After a complete experimental characterization of the three materials, several gasification experiments have been performed to analyze the influence of the fuel and of equivalence ratio on gas production and composition, on tar generation and on efficiency. The experiments prove that film waste and analogue polymer derived wastes can be successfully gasified in a fluidized bed reactor, yielding a gas with a higher heating value in a range from 3.6 to 5.6 MJ/m{sup 3} and cold gas efficiencies up to 60%.

  5. Basic refractory and slag management for petcoke carbon feedstock in gasifiers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Bennett, James P; Nakano, Jinichiro

    2014-04-22

    The disclosure provides methods of operating a slagging gasifier using a carbon feedstock having a relatively high V.sub.2O.sub.5 to SiO.sub.2 ratio, such as petcoke. The disclosure generates a combined chemical composition in the feed mixture having less than 25 wt. % SiO.sub.2, greater than 20 wt. % V.sub.2O.sub.5, and greater than 20 wt. % CaO. The method takes advantage of a novel recognition that increased levels of SiO.sub.2 tend to decrease dissolution of the V.sub.2O.sub.3 which forms under the reducing conditions of the gasifier, and utilizes the CaO additive to establish a chemical phase equilibria comprised of lower melting compounds. The method further provides for control based on the presence of Al.sub.2O.sub.3 and FeO, and provides for a total combined chemical composition of greater than about 5 wt. % MgO for use with refractory linings comprised of MgO based refractory brick.

  6. Gasification Plant Cost and Performance Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samuel Tam; Alan Nizamoff; Sheldon Kramer; Scott Olson; Francis Lau; Mike Roberts; David Stopek; Robert Zabransky; Jeffrey Hoffmann; Erik Shuster; Nelson Zhan

    2005-05-01

    As part of an ongoing effort of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to investigate the feasibility of gasification on a broader level, Nexant, Inc. was contracted to perform a comprehensive study to provide a set of gasification alternatives for consideration by the DOE. Nexant completed the first two tasks (Tasks 1 and 2) of the ''Gasification Plant Cost and Performance Optimization Study'' for the DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) in 2003. These tasks evaluated the use of the E-GAS{trademark} gasification technology (now owned by ConocoPhillips) for the production of power either alone or with polygeneration of industrial grade steam, fuel gas, hydrocarbon liquids, or hydrogen. NETL expanded this effort in Task 3 to evaluate Gas Technology Institute's (GTI) fluidized bed U-GAS{reg_sign} gasifier. The Task 3 study had three main objectives. The first was to examine the application of the gasifier at an industrial application in upstate New York using a Southeastern Ohio coal. The second was to investigate the GTI gasifier in a stand-alone lignite-fueled IGCC power plant application, sited in North Dakota. The final goal was to train NETL personnel in the methods of process design and systems analysis. These objectives were divided into five subtasks. Subtasks 3.2 through 3.4 covered the technical analyses for the different design cases. Subtask 3.1 covered management activities, and Subtask 3.5 covered reporting. Conceptual designs were developed for several coal gasification facilities based on the fluidized bed U-GAS{reg_sign} gasifier. Subtask 3.2 developed two base case designs for industrial combined heat and power facilities using Southeastern Ohio coal that will be located at an upstate New York location. One base case design used an air-blown gasifier, and the other used an oxygen-blown gasifier in order to evaluate their relative economics. Subtask 3.3 developed an advanced design for an air-blown gasification combined heat and power

  7. Crystallization of synthetic coal-petcoke slag mixtures simulating those encountered in entrained bed slagging gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jinichiro Nakano; Seetharaman Sridhar; Tyler Moss; James Bennett; Kyei-Sing Kwong

    2009-09-15

    Commercial entrained bed slagging gasifiers use a carbon feedstock of coal, petcoke, or combinations of them to produce CO and H{sub 2}. These carbon sources contain mineral impurities that liquefy during gasification and flow down the gasification sidewall, interacting with the refractory linear and solidifying in the cooler zones of the gasifier. Proper slag flow is critical to good gasifier operation. A hot-stage confocal scanning laser microscope (CSLM) was used to analyze the kinetic behavior of slag crystallization for a range of synthetic coal-petcoke mixtures. On the basis of the observed precipitation during cool down studies in the 1200-1700{sup o}C temperature range, a time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagram was created. The crystallization studies were conducted with a CO/CO{sub 2} (=1.8) corresponding to a gasification PO{sub 2} of approximately 10-8 atm at 1500{sup o}C. Ash chemistries were chosen such that they correspond to coal-petcoke feedstock mixtures with coal ash amounts of 0, 10, 30, 50, 70, and 100% (by weight), with the balance being petcoke ash. The TTT diagram exhibited two crystallization areas, one above and one below 1350{sup o}C. At the nose of the higher temperature curves, karelianite (V{sub 2}O{sub 3}) crystallization occurred and was fastest for a 30% coal-petcoke ash mixture. The second nose was located below 1350{sup o}C and had spinel-type phases that formed at 1200{sup o}C, in which preferred atomic occupation at the octahedral and tetrahedral sites varied depending upon the ash composition. At 1200{sup o}C, an Al-rich spinel formed for 100% coal slag and a Fe-rich spinel formed in petcoke-enriched slags. The addition of petcoke ash to coal ash promoted crystallization in the slag, with additional crystalline phases, such as V-rich spinel, forming at the lower temperatures. These phases were not predicted using commercially available databases. 30 refs., 18 figs.

  8. Regeneratively cooled coal combustor/gasifier with integral dry ash removal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beaufrere, A.H.

    1982-04-30

    A coal combustor/gasifier is disclosed which produces a low or medium combustion gas fired furnances or boilers. Two concentric shells define a combustion air flows to provide regenerative cooling of the inner shell for dry ash operation. A fuel flow and a combustion air flow having opposed swirls are mixed and burned in a mixing-combustion portion of the combustion volume and the ash laden combustion products flow with a residual swirl into an ash separation region. The ash is cooled below the fusion temperature and is moved to the wall by centrifugal force where it is entrained in the cool wall boundary layer. The boundary layer is stabilized against ash re-entrainment as it is moved to an ash removal annulus by a flow of air from the plenum through slots in the inner shell, and by suction on an ash removal skimmer slot.

  9. Electric co-generation units equipped with wood gasifier and Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartolini, C.M.; Caresana, F.; Pelagalli, L.

    1998-07-01

    The disposal of industrial waste such as oil sludges, waste plastic, lubricant oils, paper and wood poses serious problems due to the ever increasing amount of material to be disposed of and to the difficulty in finding new dumping sites. The interest in energy recovery technologies is accordingly on the increase. In particular, large amounts of waste wood are simply burned or thrown away causing considerable environmental damage. In this context the co-generation technique represents one of the possible solutions for efficient energy conversion. The present paper proposes the employment of a Stirling engine as prime mover in a co-generation set equipped with a wood gasifier. A Stirling engine prototype previously developed in a joint project with Mase Generators, an Italian manufacturer of fixed and portable electrogenerators, is illustrated and its design is described.

  10. Slurry atomizer for a coal-feeder and dryer used to provide coal at gasifier pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loth, John L.; Smith, William C.; Friggens, Gary R.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a coal-water slurry atomizer for use a high-pressure dryer employed in a pumping system utilized to feed coal into a pressurized coal gasifier. The slurry atomizer is provided with a venturi, constant area slurry injection conduit, and a plurality of tangentially disposed steam injection ports. Superheated steam is injected into the atomizer through these ports to provide a vortical flow of the steam, which, in turn, shears slurry emerging from the slurry injection conduit. The droplets of slurry are rapidly dispersed in the dryer through the venturi where the water is vaporized from the slurry by the steam prior to deleterious heating of the coal.

  11. A 50-month gasifier mechanistic study and downstream unit process development program for the pressurized ash-agglomerating fluidized-bed gasification system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haldipur, G.B.; Schmidt, D.K.; Smith, K.J.

    1989-03-01

    This technology development program scope included studies of those processes and components necessary to convert coal, oxidant and steam into a clean fuel gas. The configuration of the processes and components constitutes a Gasifier Island which is a key concept in the application of the KRW gasification and cleanup technologies. This Gasifier Island typically consists of process units that perform the following functions: feedstock preparation, gasification, desulfurization, heat recovery, particulate removal, and solid waste treatment. The processing has been conducted in a variety of gasifier operating modes including air-blown and oxygen-blown, both with and without in-bed desulfurization which includes injection of limestone or dolomite sorbent. Process configurations downstream of the gasifier have included recycle and non-recycle cyclones, sintered filters, and zinc ferrite fixed beds. Because of the developmental nature of the KRW technology program and the flexibility of the pilot plant itself, a wide range of gasifier-cleanup process configurations has been investigated. The KRW pilot plant program evaluated a system comprised of the following major process elements: gasifier and in-bed desulfurizer, particulate cleanup train, external sulfur polishing bed, and solid waste disposal system.

  12. Evaluation of the fate and pathological response in the lung and pleura of brake dust alone and in combination with added chrysotile compared to crocidolite asbestos following short-term inhalation exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernstein, D.M.; Rogers, R.A.; Sepulveda, R.; Kunzendorf, P.; Bellmann, B.; Ernst, H.; Creutzenberg, O.; Phillips, J.I.

    2015-02-15

    This study was designed to provide an understanding of the biokinetics and potential toxicology in the lung and pleura following inhalation of brake dust following short term exposure in rats. The deposition, translocation and pathological response of brake-dust derived from brake pads manufactured with chrysotile were evaluated in comparison to the amphibole, crocidolite asbestos. Rats were exposed by inhalation 6 h/day for 5 days to either brake-dust obtained by sanding of brake-drums manufactured with chrysotile, a mixture of chrysotile and the brake-dust or crocidolite asbestos. The chrysotile fibers were relatively biosoluble whereas the crocidolite asbestos fibers persisted through the life-time of the animal. This was reflected in the lung and the pleura where no significant pathological response was observed at any time point in the brake dust or chrysotile/brake dust exposure groups through 365 days post exposure. In contrast, crocidolite asbestos produced a rapid inflammatory response in the lung parenchyma and the pleura, inducing a significant increase in fibrotic response in both of these compartments. Crocidolite fibers were observed embedded in the diaphragm with activated mesothelial cells immediately after cessation of exposure. While no chrysotile fibers were found in the mediastinal lymph nodes, crocidolite fibers of up to 35 μm were observed. These results provide support that brake-dust derived from chrysotile containing brake drums would not initiate a pathological response in the lung or the pleural cavity following short term inhalation. - Highlights: • Evaluated brake dust w/wo added chrysotile in comparison to crocidolite asbestos. • Persistence, translocation, pathological response in the lung and pleural cavity. • Chrysotile cleared rapidly from the lung while the crocidolite asbestos persisted. • No significant pathology in lung or pleural cavity observed at any time point in the brake-dust groups. • Crocidolite quickly

  13. The Wind Forecast Improvement Project (WFIP): A Public/Private Partnership for Improving Short Term Wind Energy Forecasts and Quantifying the Benefits of Utility Operations. The Southern Study Area, Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freedman, Jeffrey M.; Manobianco, John; Schroeder, John; Ancell, Brian; Brewster, Keith; Basu, Sukanta; Banunarayanan, Venkat; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Flores, Isabel

    2014-04-30

    This Final Report presents a comprehensive description, findings, and conclusions for the Wind Forecast Improvement Project (WFIP) -- Southern Study Area (SSA) work led by AWS Truepower (AWST). This multi-year effort, sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) and National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), focused on improving short-term (15-minute - 6 hour) wind power production forecasts through the deployment of an enhanced observation network of surface and remote sensing instrumentation and the use of a state-of-the-art forecast modeling system. Key findings from the SSA modeling and forecast effort include: 1. The AWST WFIP modeling system produced an overall 10 - 20% improvement in wind power production forecasts over the existing Baseline system, especially during the first three forecast hours; 2. Improvements in ramp forecast skill, particularly for larger up and down ramps; 3. The AWST WFIP data denial experiments showed mixed results in the forecasts incorporating the experimental network instrumentation; however, ramp forecasts showed significant benefit from the additional observations, indicating that the enhanced observations were key to the model systems’ ability to capture phenomena responsible for producing large short-term excursions in power production; 4. The OU CAPS ARPS simulations showed that the additional WFIP instrument data had a small impact on their 3-km forecasts that lasted for the first 5-6 hours, and increasing the vertical model resolution in the boundary layer had a greater impact, also in the first 5 hours; and 5. The TTU simulations were inconclusive as to which assimilation scheme (3DVAR versus EnKF) provided better forecasts, and the additional observations resulted in some improvement to the forecasts in the first 1 - 3 hours.

  14. Startup Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter discusses startup costs for construction and environmental projects, and estimating guidance for startup costs.

  15. Short Term Energy Outlook ,November 2002

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    60,644 97,449 131,616 129,396 159,115 199,684 2007-2014 Alaska 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007-2014 Lower 48 States 60,644 97,449 131,616 129,396 159,115 199,684 2007-2014 Alabama 0 0 2007-2010 Arkansas 9,070 12,526 14,808 9,779 12,231 11,695 2007-2014 California 855 777 756 44 2011-2014 San Joaquin Basin Onshore 855 777 756 15 2011-2014 Colorado 4 4 10 53 136 3,775 2007-2014 Kansas 2 3 4 2012-2014 Kentucky 55 10 41 34 46 50 2007-2014 Louisiana 9,307 20,070 21,950 13,523 11,483 12,792 2007-2014 North 9,307

  16. Short-Term Energy Outlook April 2014

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    and Summer Fuels Outlook (STEO) Highlights * During the April-through-September summer driving season this year, regular gasoline retail prices are forecast to average $3.57/gallon (gal). The projected monthly national average regular retail gasoline price falls from $3.66/gal in May to $3.46/gal in September. EIA expects regular gasoline retail prices to average $3.45/gal in 2014 and $3.37/gal in 2015, compared with $3.51/gal in 2013. The July 2014 New York Harbor reformulated blendstock for

  17. Short-Term Energy Outlook April 2016

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    and Summer Fuels Outlook Highlights  During the 2016 April-through-September summer driving season, U.S. regular gasoline retail prices are forecast to average $2.04/gallon (gal), compared with $2.63/gal last summer (see EIA Summer Fuels Outlook presentation). For all of 2016, the forecast average price is $1.94/gal, which if realized would save the average U.S. household about $350 on gasoline in 2016 compared with 2015, with annual average motor fuel expenditures at the lowest level in 12

  18. Short-Term Energy Outlook February 2016

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (STEO) Highlights * North Sea Brent crude oil prices averaged $31/barrel (b) in January, a $7/b decrease from December and the lowest monthly average price since December 2003. Brent crude oil prices averaged $52/b in 2015, down $47/b from the average in 2014. Growth in global liquids inventories, which averaged 1.8 million barrels per day (b/d) in 2015, continues to put downward pressure on Brent prices. * Brent crude oil prices are forecast to average $38/b in 2016 and $50/b in 2017. Forecast

  19. Short-Term Energy Outlook July 2016

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (STEO) Highlights * U.S. regular gasoline retail prices this summer are forecast to average $2.25/gallon (gal), 2 cents/gal lower than forecast in last month's STEO and 39 cents/gal lower than last summer, measured as April through September. U.S. regular gasoline retail prices are forecast to average $2.12/gal in 2016 and $2.28/gal in 2017. * U.S. crude oil production averaged 9.4 million barrels per day (b/d) in 2015. Production is forecast to average 8.6 million b/d in 2016 and 8.2 million

  20. Short-Term Energy Outlook March 2014

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (STEO) Highlights  Temperatures east of the Rocky Mountains have been significantly colder this winter (October - February) compared with the same period both last winter and the average for the past 10 years, straining distribution networks and putting upward pressure on consumption and prices of fuels used for space heating. U.S. average heating degree days were 13% higher than last winter (indicating colder weather) and 10% above the October through February 10-year average. The Northeast

  1. Short-Term Energy Outlook March 2016

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (STEO) Highlights * North Sea Brent crude oil prices averaged $32/barrel (b) in February, a $1/b increase from January. * Brent crude oil prices are forecast to average $34/b in 2016 and $40/b in 2017, $3/b and $10/b lower than forecast in last month's STEO, respectively. The lower forecast prices reflect oil production that has been more resilient than expected in a low-price environment and lower expectations for forecast oil demand growth. * Forecast West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil

  2. Short-Term Energy Outlook May 2014

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (STEO) Highlights * During the April-through-September summer driving season this year, regular gasoline retail prices are forecast to average $3.61/gallon (gal), 3 cents higher than last year and 4 cents higher than projected in last month's STEO. The projected monthly national average regular gasoline retail price falls from $3.72/gal in May to $3.51/gal in September. EIA expects regular gasoline retail prices to average $3.48/gal in 2014 and $3.39/gal in 2015, compared with $3.51/gal in 2013.

  3. Short-Term Energy Outlook September 2013

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (STEO) Highlights  Monthly average crude oil prices increased for the fourth consecutive month in August 2013, as supply disruptions in Libya increased and concerns over the conflict in Syria intensified. The U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA) forecast for Brent crude oil spot price, which averaged $108 per barrel during the first half of 2013, averages $109 per barrel over the second half of 2013 and $102 per barrel in 2014, $5 per barrel and $2 per barrel higher than forecast in

  4. Short-Term Energy Outlook September 2014

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (STEO) Highlights  Driven in large part by falling crude oil prices, U.S. regular gasoline retail prices fell to an average of $3.49/per gallon (gal) in August, 12 cents below the July average and 21 cents below the average in June. U.S. regular gasoline retail prices are projected to continue to decline to an average of $3.18/gal in December, 12 cents lower than projected in last month's STEO. EIA expects U.S. regular gasoline retail prices, which averaged $3.51/gal in 2013, to average

  5. Short-Term Energy Outlook- May 2003

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Supplement: Weather Sensitivity in Natural Gas Markets October 2014 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | STEO Supplement: Weather Sensitivity in Natural Gas Markets i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any

  6. Short-Term Energy Outlook May 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    97.1 97.5 97.9 99.0 99.4 100.6 101.8 102.6 103.5 104.4 105.5 106.3 97.9 101.1 104.9 Food ... 104.0 104.2 104.3 105.2...

  7. Short-Term Energy Outlook April 2016

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... Although the Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (MATS) went into effect in April 2015, some ... As the extensions expire, plants will need to either install pollution controls, switch ...

  8. September 2012 Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    expects the recent trend of substituting coal-fired electricity generation with natural gas ... natural gas plant liquids, biofuels, other liquids, and refinery processing gains. ...

  9. Ash bed level control system for a fixed-bed coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasching, George E.; Rotunda, John R.

    1984-01-01

    An ash level control system is provided which incorporates an ash level meter to automatically control the ash bed level of a coal gasifier at a selected level. The ash level signal from the ash level meter is updated during each cycle that a bed stirrer travels up and down through the extent of the ash bed level. The ash level signal is derived from temperature measurements made by thermocouples carried by the stirrer as it passes through the ash bed and into the fire zone immediately above the ash bed. The level signal is compared with selected threshold level signal to determine if the ash level is above or below the selected level once each stirrer cycle. A first counter is either incremented or decremented accordingly. The registered count of the first counter is preset in a down counter once each cycle and the preset count is counted down at a selected clock rate. A grate drive is activated to rotate a grate assembly supporting the ash bed for a period equal to the count down period to maintain the selected ash bed level. In order to avoid grate binding, the controller provides a short base operating duration time each stirrer cycle. If the ash bed level drops below a selected low level or exceeds a selected high level, means are provided to notify the operator.

  10. Regeneratively cooled coal combustor/gasifier with integral dry ash removal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beaufrere, Albert H.

    1983-10-04

    A coal combustor/gasifier is disclosed which produces a low or medium combustion gas for further combustion in modified oil or gas fired furnaces or boilers. Two concentric shells define a combustion volume within the inner shell and a plenum between them through which combustion air flows to provide regenerative cooling of the inner shell for dry ash operation. A fuel flow and a combustion air flow having opposed swirls are mixed and burned in a mixing-combustion portion of the combustion volume and the ash laden combustion products flow with a residual swirl into an ash separation region. The ash is cooled below the fusion temperature and is moved to the wall by centrifugal force where it is entrained in the cool wall boundary layer. The boundary layer is stabilized against ash re-entrainment as it is moved to an ash removal annulus by a flow of air from the plenum through slots in the inner shell, and by suction on an ash removal skimmer slot.

  11. Development of Mercury and Hydrogen Chloride Emission Monitors for Coal Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Norton; D. Eckels; C. Chriswell

    2001-02-26

    The gas conditioning issues involved with coal gasification streams are very complex and do not have simple solutions. This is particularly true in view of the fact that the gas conditioning system must deal with tars, high moisture contents, and problems with NH{sub 3} without affecting low ppb levels of Hg, low levels (low ppm or less) of HCl, or the successful operation of conditioner components and analytical systems. Those issues are far from trivial. Trying to develop a non-chemical system for gas conditioning was very ambitious in view of the difficult sampling environment and unique problems associated with coal gasification streams. Although a great deal was learned regarding calibration, sample transport, instrumentation options, gas stream conditioning, and CEM design options, some challenging issues still remain. Sample transport is one area that is often not adequately considered. Because of the gas stream composition and elevated temperatures involved, special attention will need to be given to the choice of materials for the sample line and other plumbing components. When using gas stream oxidation, there will be sample transport regions under oxidizing as well as reducing conditions, and each of those regions will require different materials of construction for sample transport. The catalytic oxidation approach worked well for removal of tars and NH{sub 3} on a short term basis, but durability issues related to using the catalyst tube during extended testing periods still require study.

  12. Numerical simulation of the environmental impact of hydraulic fracturing of tight/shale gas reservoirs on near-surface groundwater: Background, base cases, shallow reservoirs, short-term gas, and water transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reagan, Matthew T.; Moridis, George J.; Keen, Noel D.; Johnson, Jeffrey N.

    2015-04-18

    Hydrocarbon production from unconventional resources and the use of reservoir stimulation techniques, such as hydraulic fracturing, has grown explosively over the last decade. However, concerns have arisen that reservoir stimulation creates significant environmental threats through the creation of permeable pathways connecting the stimulated reservoir with shallower freshwater aquifers, thus resulting in the contamination of potable groundwater by escaping hydrocarbons or other reservoir fluids. This study investigates, by numerical simulation, gas and water transport between a shallow tight-gas reservoir and a shallower overlying freshwater aquifer following hydraulic fracturing operations, if such a connecting pathway has been created. We focus on two general failure scenarios: (1) communication between the reservoir and aquifer via a connecting fracture or fault and (2) communication via a deteriorated, preexisting nearby well. We conclude that the key factors driving short-term transport of gas include high permeability for the connecting pathway and the overall volume of the connecting feature. Production from the reservoir is likely to mitigate release through reduction of available free gas and lowering of reservoir pressure, and not producing may increase the potential for release. We also find that hydrostatic tight-gas reservoirs are unlikely to act as a continuing source of migrating gas, as gas contained within the newly formed hydraulic fracture is the primary source for potential contamination. Such incidents of gas escape are likely to be limited in duration and scope for hydrostatic reservoirs. Reliable field and laboratory data must be acquired to constrain the factors and determine the likelihood of these outcomes.

  13. Summary, biomass gasifier facility start-up tests - October and December 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turn, S.Q.; Ishimura, D.M.; Kinoshita, C.M.; Masutani, S.M.

    1996-02-01

    Shakedown testing of the biomass gasifier facility, located at the Hawaiian Commercial and Sugar Co. factory in Paia on the island of Maui, utilizing sugarcane bagasse, occurred in October 1995. Input and output streams for the process were sampled during three periods of steady-state operation in an air-blown mode. Additional tests were carried out in early December, 1995. Air and a mixture of air and steam were utilized as the fluidizing agent in the December operations, with two sampling periods occurring during air gasification and a single period under air-steam-blown conditions. This summary reports average values for the October test period, the December air-blown tests and the December air-steam tests (see following table). Details of individual tests are presented in the body of this report. During the October sampling periods, the average reactor temperature and pressure were 1545{degrees}F (840{degrees}C) and 43 psi (300 kPa), respectively. Bagasse from the sugar factory entered the dryer at a nominal moisture content of 45% and exited at 26%, wet basis. Wet fuel feed rate to the reactor averaged 1.2 ton hr{sup -1} (1.1 tonne hr{sup -1}). Average gas composition determined over the sample periods was 4% H{sub 2}, 10% CO, 18% CO{sub 2}, 3% CH{sub 4}, 1% C{sub 2}`s and higher hydrocarbons, and the balance N{sub 2}. The higher heating value of the gas was 100 Btu ft{sup -3} (3.7 MJ m{sup -3}). Condensable hydrocarbons (C{sub 6} and higher) in the output stream averaged 2.3% of dry fuel feed with benzene (C{sub 6}H{sub 6}) and naphthalene (C{sub 10}H{sub 8}) being the principal constituents. Carbon conversion efficiency, defined as the percentage of fuel carbon converted into gas or liquids, was estimated to be {approximately}96%.

  14. Numerical simulation of the environmental impact of hydraulic fracturing of tight/shale gas reservoirs on near-surface groundwater: Background, base cases, shallow reservoirs, short-term gas, and water transport

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Reagan, Matthew T.; Moridis, George J.; Keen, Noel D.; Johnson, Jeffrey N.

    2015-04-18

    Hydrocarbon production from unconventional resources and the use of reservoir stimulation techniques, such as hydraulic fracturing, has grown explosively over the last decade. However, concerns have arisen that reservoir stimulation creates significant environmental threats through the creation of permeable pathways connecting the stimulated reservoir with shallower freshwater aquifers, thus resulting in the contamination of potable groundwater by escaping hydrocarbons or other reservoir fluids. This study investigates, by numerical simulation, gas and water transport between a shallow tight-gas reservoir and a shallower overlying freshwater aquifer following hydraulic fracturing operations, if such a connecting pathway has been created. We focus on twomore » general failure scenarios: (1) communication between the reservoir and aquifer via a connecting fracture or fault and (2) communication via a deteriorated, preexisting nearby well. We conclude that the key factors driving short-term transport of gas include high permeability for the connecting pathway and the overall volume of the connecting feature. Production from the reservoir is likely to mitigate release through reduction of available free gas and lowering of reservoir pressure, and not producing may increase the potential for release. We also find that hydrostatic tight-gas reservoirs are unlikely to act as a continuing source of migrating gas, as gas contained within the newly formed hydraulic fracture is the primary source for potential contamination. Such incidents of gas escape are likely to be limited in duration and scope for hydrostatic reservoirs. Reliable field and laboratory data must be acquired to constrain the factors and determine the likelihood of these outcomes.« less

  15. Solids circulation around a jet in a fluidized bed gasifier. Final technical report, September 1, 1978-September 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gidaspow, D.; Ettehadieh, B.; Lin, C.; Goyal, A.; Lyczkowski, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The object of this investigation was to develop an experimentally verified hydrodynamic model to predict solids circulation around a jet in a fluidized bed gasifier. Hydrodynamic models of fluidization use the principles of conservation of mass, momentum and energy. To account for unequal velocities of solid and fluid phases, separate phase momentum balances are developed. Other fluid bed models used in the scale-up of gasifiers do not employ the principles of conservation of momentum. Therefore, these models cannot predict fluid and particle motion. In such models solids mixing is described by means of empirical transfer coefficients. A two dimensional unsteady state computer code was developed to give gas and solid velocities, void fractions and pressure in a fluid bed with a jet. The growth, propagation and collapse of bubbles was calculated. Time-averaged void fractions were calculated that showed an agreement with void fractions measured with a gamma ray densitometer. Calculated gas and solid velocities in the jet appeared to be reasonable. Pressure and void oscillations also appear to be reasonable. A simple analytical formula for the rate of solids circulation was developed from the equations of change. It agrees with Westinghouse fluidization data in a bed with a draft tube. One dimensional hydrodynamic models were applied to modeling of entrained-flow coal gasification reactors and compared with data. Further development of the hydrodynamic models should make the scale-up and simulation of fluidized bed reactors a reality.

  16. High temperature millimeter wave radiometric and interferometric measurements of slag-refractory interaction for application to coal gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCloy, John S.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Sundaram, S. K.; Slaugh, Ryan W.; Woskov, Paul P.

    2011-09-17

    Millimeter wave (MMW) radiometry can be used for simultaneous measurement of emissivity and temperature of materials under extreme environments (high temperature, pressure, and corrosive environments) such as in slagging coal gasifiers, where sensors have been identified as a key enabling technology need for process optimization. We present a state-of-the-art dual-channel MMW heterodyne radiometer with active interferometric capability that allows simultaneous radiometric measurements of sample temperature, emissivity, and flow dynamics to over 1873 K. Interferometric capability is supplied via a probe signal originating from the 137 GHz radiometer local oscillator (LO). The interferometric 'video' channels allow measurement of additional parameters simultaneously, such as volume expansion, thickness change, and slag viscosity along with temperature or emissivity. This capability has been used to demonstrate measurement of temperature and simulated coal slag infiltration into a chromia refractory brick sample as well as slag flow down a vertically placed refractory brick. Observed phenomena include slag melting and slumping, slag reboil and foam with oxygen evolution, and eventual failure of the alumina crucible through corrosion by the molten slag. These results show the promise of the MMW system for extracting quantitative and qualitative process parameters from operating slagging coal gasifiers, providing valuable information for process efficiency, control, and increased productivity.

  17. The gasification of coal-peat and coal-wood chip mixtures in the University of Minnesota, two-stage coal gasifier: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, R.P.

    1986-12-01

    The technical feasibility of gasifying coal-peat and coal-wood chip mixtures with the University of Minnesota, Duluth Campus commercially technology two-stage coal gasifier was demonstrated during a series of experimental tests. Three types of processed peat products were mixed with coal and gasified. The three peat products were: peat briquettes, peat pellets and sod peat. The best peat product for gasification and handling was found to be peat pellets with a diameter of 7/8 inch and a length of .75 to 2 inches. A mixture of 65% coal and 35% peat pellets was found to cause no loss in gasifier efficiency and no operational problems. However, there was found to be no economic advantage in using coal-peat mixtures. The very limited testing performed with coal-wood chip mixtures indicated that the wood chips would be difficult to handle with the coal handling-equipment and there would be no economic advantage in using wood chips. 3 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Effect of sewage sludge content on gas quality and solid residues produced by cogasification in an updraft gasifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seggiani, Maurizia; Puccini, Monica; Raggio, Giovanni

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cogasification of sewage sludge with wood pellets in updraft gasifier was analysed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of sewage sludge content on the gasification process were examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sewage sludge addition up to 30 wt.% reduces moderately the process performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At high sewage sludge content slagging and clinker formation occurred. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid residues produced resulted acceptable at landfills for non-hazardous waste. - Abstract: In the present work, the gasification with air of dehydrated sewage sludge (SS) with 20 wt.% moisture mixed with conventional woody biomass was investigated using a pilot fixed-bed updraft gasifier. Attention was focused on the effect of the SS content on the gasification performance and on the environmental impact of the process. The results showed that it is possible to co-gasify SS with wood pellets (WPs) in updraft fixed-bed gasification installations. However, at high content of sewage sludge the gasification process can become instable because of the very high ash content and low ash fusion temperatures of SS. At an equivalent ratio of 0.25, compared with wood pellets gasification, the addition of sewage sludge led to a reduction of gas yield in favor of an increase of condensate production with consequent cold gas efficiency decrease. Low concentrations of dioxins/furans and PAHs were measured in the gas produced by SS gasification, well below the limiting values for the exhaust gaseous emissions. NH{sub 3}, HCl and HF contents were very low because most of these compounds were retained in the wet scrubber systems. On the other hand, high H{sub 2}S levels were measured due to high sulfur content of SS. Heavy metals supplied with the feedstocks were mostly retained in gasification solid residues. The leachability tests performed according to European regulations showed that metals leachability was

  19. Impacts of Rising Construction and Equipment Costs on Energy Industries (released in AEO2007)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01

    Costs related to the construction industry have been volatile in recent years. Some of the volatility may be related to higher energy prices. Prices for iron and steel, cement, and concrete -- commodities used heavily in the construction of new energy projects -- rose sharply from 2004 to 2006, and shortages have been reported. How such price fluctuations may affect the cost or pace of new development in the energy industries is not known with any certainty, and short-term changes in commodity prices are not accounted for in the 25-year projections in Annual Energy Outlook 2007. Most projects in the energy industries require long planning and construction lead times, which can lessen the impacts of short-term trends.

  20. THERMOCHEMICAL MODELING OF REFRACTORY CORROSION IN SLAGGING COAL GASIFIERS IN SUPPORT OF DEVELOPMENT OF IMPROVED REFRACTORY MATERIAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Besmann, Theodore M; Petty, Arthur; Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Powell, Dr. Cynthia; Bennett, Dr. James

    2007-01-01

    Slagging coal gasifiers suffer from significant attack by the coal slag on the refractory liner. To better understand the corrosive attack on the refractory the interactions were thermochemically simulated. The slag is observed to penetrate the refractory, which complicates modeling the phase behavior of the slag-penetrated interior of the refractory. To address this issue a simple strategy was adopted such that step-wise changes in composition with decreasing slag content were assumed to account for the compositional changes as slag penetrates the refractory, at least partially through its thickness. The thermochemical equilibrium calculations following this strategy typically yielded three solution phases as well as the stoichiometric crystalline phases AlPO4, Ca3(PO4)2, and (MgO)(Cr2O3), depending on composition/penetration. In addition, under some conditions a slag liquid miscibility gap exists such that two slag liquids co-exist.

  1. Method and apparatus for removing coarse unentrained char particles from the second stage of a two-stage coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donath, Ernest E.

    1976-01-01

    A method and apparatus for removing oversized, unentrained char particles from a two-stage coal gasification process so as to prevent clogging or plugging of the communicating passage between the two gasification stages. In the first stage of the process, recycled process char passes upwardly while reacting with steam and oxygen to yield a first stage synthesis gas containing hydrogen and oxides of carbon. In the second stage, the synthesis gas passes upwardly with coal and steam which react to yield partially gasified char entrained in a second stage product gas containing methane, hydrogen, and oxides of carbon. Agglomerated char particles, which result from caking coal particles in the second stage and are too heavy to be entrained in the second stage product gas, are removed through an outlet in the bottom of the second stage, the particles being separated from smaller char particles by a counter-current of steam injected into the outlet.

  2. Operating Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter is focused on capital costs for conventional construction and environmental restoration and waste management projects and examines operating cost estimates to verify that all elements of the project have been considered and properly estimated.

  3. BPA's Costs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases BP-18 Rate Case Related Publications Meetings and Workshops Customer...

  4. Integrated Sensing and Controls for Coal Gasification - Development of Model-Based Controls for GE's Gasifier and Syngas Cooler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aditya Kumar

    2010-12-30

    This report summarizes the achievements and final results of this program. The objective of this program is to develop a comprehensive systems approach to integrated design of sensing and control systems for an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant, using advanced model-based techniques. In particular, this program is focused on the model-based sensing and control system design for the core gasification section of an IGCC plant. The overall approach consists of (i) developing a first-principles physics-based dynamic model of the gasification section, (ii) performing model-reduction where needed to derive low-order models suitable for controls analysis and design, (iii) developing a sensing system solution combining online sensors with model-based estimation for important process variables not measured directly, and (iv) optimizing the steady-state and transient operation of the plant for normal operation as well as for startup using model predictive controls (MPC). Initially, available process unit models were implemented in a common platform using Matlab/Simulink{reg_sign}, and appropriate model reduction and model updates were performed to obtain the overall gasification section dynamic model. Also, a set of sensor packages were developed through extensive lab testing and implemented in the Tampa Electric Company IGCC plant at Polk power station in 2009, to measure temperature and strain in the radiant syngas cooler (RSC). Plant operation data was also used to validate the overall gasification section model. The overall dynamic model was then used to develop a sensing solution including a set of online sensors coupled with model-based estimation using nonlinear extended Kalman filter (EKF). Its performance in terms of estimating key unmeasured variables like gasifier temperature, carbon conversion, etc., was studied through extensive simulations in the presence sensing errors (noise and bias) and modeling errors (e.g. unknown gasifier kinetics, RSC

  5. On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang

    2005-11-01

    This report summarizes technical progress April-September 2005 on the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Due to the difficulties described on the last report, field testing of the BPDI system has not continued to date. However, we have developed an alternative high temperature sensing solution, which is described in this report. The sensing system will be installed and tested at TECO's Polk Power Station. Following a site visit in June 2005, our efforts have been focused on preparing for that field test, including he design of the sensor mechanical packaging, sensor electronics, the data transfer module, and the necessary software codes to accommodate this application.. We are currently ready to start sensor fabrication.

  6. On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristie Cooper; Anbo Wang

    2007-03-31

    This report summarizes technical progress October 2006 - March 2007 on the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. During the second phase, an alternative high temperature sensing system based on Fabry-Perot interferometry was developed that offers a number of advantages over the BPDI solution. The objective of this program is to bring the sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. The sapphire wafer-based interferometric sensing system that was installed at TECO's Polk Power Station remained in operation for seven months. Our efforts have been focused on monitoring and analyzing the real-time data collected, and preparing for a second field test.

  7. Improving Power System Modeling. A Tool to Link Capacity Expansion and Production Cost Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diakov, Victor; Cole, Wesley; Sullivan, Patrick; Brinkman, Gregory; Margolis, Robert

    2015-11-01

    Capacity expansion models (CEM) provide a high-level long-term view at the prospects of the evolving power system. In simulating the possibilities of long-term capacity expansion, it is important to maintain the viability of power system operation in the short-term (daily, hourly and sub-hourly) scales. Production-cost models (PCM) simulate routine power system operation on these shorter time scales using detailed load, transmission and generation fleet data by minimizing production costs and following reliability requirements. When based on CEM 'predictions' about generating unit retirements and buildup, PCM provide more detailed simulation for the short-term system operation and, consequently, may confirm the validity of capacity expansion predictions. Further, production cost model simulations of a system that is based on capacity expansion model solution are 'evolutionary' sound: the generator mix is the result of logical sequence of unit retirement and buildup resulting from policy and incentives. The above has motivated us to bridge CEM with PCM by building a capacity expansion - to - production cost model Linking Tool (CEPCoLT). The Linking Tool is built to onset capacity expansion model prescriptions onto production cost model inputs. NREL's ReEDS and Energy Examplar's PLEXOS are the capacity expansion and the production cost models, respectively. Via the Linking Tool, PLEXOS provides details of operation for the regionally-defined ReEDS scenarios.

  8. levelized costs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    levelized costs - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  9. Computational fluid dynamics assessment: Volume 1, Computer simulations of the METC (Morgantown Energy Technology Center) entrained-flow gasifier: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Celik, I.; Chattree, M.

    1988-07-01

    An assessment of the theoretical and numerical aspects of the computer code, PCGC-2, is made; and the results of the application of this code to the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) advanced gasification facility entrained-flow reactor, ''the gasifier,'' are presented. PCGC-2 is a code suitable for simulating pulverized coal combustion or gasification under axisymmetric (two-dimensional) flow conditions. The governing equations for the gas and particulate phase have been reviewed. The numerical procedure and the related programming difficulties have been elucidated. A single-particle model similar to the one used in PCGC-2 has been developed, programmed, and applied to some simple situations in order to gain insight to the physics of coal particle heat-up, devolatilization, and char oxidation processes. PCGC-2 was applied to the METC entrained-flow gasifier to study numerically the flash pyrolysis of coal, and gasification of coal with steam or carbon dioxide. The results from the simulations are compared with measurements. The gas and particle residence times, particle temperature, and mass component history were also calculated and the results were analyzed. The results provide useful information for understanding the fundamentals of coal gasification and for assessment of experimental results performed using the reactor considered. 69 refs., 35 figs., 23 tabs.

  10. Estimating Specialty Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Specialty costs are those nonstandard, unusual costs that are not typically estimated. Costs for research and development (R&D) projects involving new technologies, costs associated with future regulations, and specialty equipment costs are examples of specialty costs. This chapter discusses those factors that are significant contributors to project specialty costs and methods of estimating costs for specialty projects.

  11. Cost Study Manual

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 Cost Study Manual Executive Summary This Cost Study Manual documents the procedures for preparing a Cost Study to compare the cost of a contractor's employee benefits to the industry average from a broad-based national benefit cost survey. The annual Employee Benefits Cost Study Comparison (Cost Study) assists with the analysis of contractors' employee benefits costs. The Contracting Officer (CO) may require corrective action when the average benefit per capita cost or the benefit cost as a

  12. Should we transport coal, gas, or electricity: cost, efficiency, and environmental implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joule A. Bergerson; Lester B. Lave

    2005-08-15

    The authors examine the life cycle costs, environmental discharges, and deaths of moving coal via rail, coal to synthetic natural gas via pipeline, and electricity via wire from the Powder River Basin (PRB) in Wyoming to Texas. Which method has least social cost depends on how much additional investment in rail line, transmission, or pipeline infrastructure is required, as well as how much and how far energy is transported. If the existing rail lines have unused capacity, coal by rail is the cheapest method (up to 200 miles of additional track could be added). If no infrastructure exists, greater distances and larger amounts of energy favor coal by rail and gasified coal by pipeline over electricity transmission. For 1,000 miles and 9 gigawatts of power, a gas pipeline is cheapest, has less environmental discharges, uses less land, and is least obtrusive. 28 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Short-term Time Step Convergence in a Climate Model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wan, Hui; Rasch, Philip J.; Taylor, Mark; Jablonowski, Christiane

    2015-02-11

    A testing procedure is designed to assess the convergence property of a global climate model with respect to time step size, based on evaluation of the root-mean-square temperature difference at the end of very short (1 h) simulations with time step sizes ranging from 1 s to 1800 s. A set of validation tests conducted without sub-grid scale parameterizations confirmed that the method was able to correctly assess the convergence rate of the dynamical core under various configurations. The testing procedure was then applied to the full model, and revealed a slow convergence of order 0.4 in contrast to themore » expected first-order convergence. Sensitivity experiments showed without ambiguity that the time stepping errors in the model were dominated by those from the stratiform cloud parameterizations, in particular the cloud microphysics. This provides a clear guidance for future work on the design of more accurate numerical methods for time stepping and process coupling in the model.« less

  14. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5.85 per MMBtu from July through December, while composite spot prices will likely stay well above 6.00. Spot prices at the Henry Hub averaged 6.34 per MMBtu in May and...

  15. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    levels and 25 percent below the 5-year average. Natural gas prices are likely to stay high as long as above-normal storage injection demand competes with industrial and...

  16. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    and 6.00 per MMBtu in the fourth quarter, while composite spot prices will likely stay well above 6.00 through December. Spot prices averaged about 5.35 per MMBtu in the...

  17. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    this winter is expected to be almost 9 percent higher than last winter, as estimated gas consumption weighted heating degree days during the fourth quarter of 2002 and first...

  18. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    gas is heavily used for power generation. Such conditions could cause a mid-year spike in prices to above 6 per MMBtu. With high natural gas prices, natural gas demand is...

  19. Short-term Time Step Convergence in a Climate Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wan, Hui; Rasch, Philip J.; Taylor, Mark; Jablonowski, Christiane

    2015-02-11

    A testing procedure is designed to assess the convergence property of a global climate model with respect to time step size, based on evaluation of the root-mean-square temperature difference at the end of very short (1 h) simulations with time step sizes ranging from 1 s to 1800 s. A set of validation tests conducted without sub-grid scale parameterizations confirmed that the method was able to correctly assess the convergence rate of the dynamical core under various configurations. The testing procedure was then applied to the full model, and revealed a slow convergence of order 0.4 in contrast to the expected first-order convergence. Sensitivity experiments showed without ambiguity that the time stepping errors in the model were dominated by those from the stratiform cloud parameterizations, in particular the cloud microphysics. This provides a clear guidance for future work on the design of more accurate numerical methods for time stepping and process coupling in the model.

  20. Short-term time step convergence in a climate model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wan, Hui; Rasch, Philip J.; Taylor, Mark; Jablonowski, Christiane

    2015-02-11

    A testing procedure is designed to assess the convergence property of a global climate model with respect to time step size, based on evaluation of the root-mean-square temperature difference at the end of very short (1 h) simulations with time step sizes ranging from 1 s to 1800 s. A set of validation tests conducted without sub-grid scale parameterizations confirmed that the method was able to correctly assess the convergence rate of the dynamical core under various configurations. The testing procedure was then applied to the full model, and revealed a slow convergence of order 0.4 in contrast to themoreexpected first-order convergence. Sensitivity experiments showed without ambiguity that the time stepping errors in the model were dominated by those from the stratiform cloud parameterizations, in particular the cloud microphysics. This provides a clear guidance for future work on the design of more accurate numerical methods for time stepping and process coupling in the model.less

  1. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    and continued increases in demand over 2002 levels. Cold temperatures this past winter led to a record drawdown of storage stocks. By the end of March, estimated working gas...

  2. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    price trend reflects a number of influences, such as unusual weather patterns that have led to increased gas consumption, and tensions in the Middle East and rising crude oil...

  3. Natural Gas Consumption and Prices Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    6.18 5.63 4.73 4.88 5.71 4.26 1973-2015 Alabama 6.46 5.80 5.18 4.65 4.93 NA 1984-2015 Alaska 6.67 6.53 6.14 6.02 6.34 6.57 1988-2015 Arizona 6.59 5.91 4.68 4.73 5.20 NA 1984-2015 Arkansas 6.76 6.27 5.36 4.99 5.84 4.76 1984-2015 California 4.86 4.47 3.46 4.18 4.88 3.27 1984-2015 Colorado 5.26 4.94 4.26 4.76 5.42 3.96 1984-2015 Connecticut 6.58 5.92 5.12 5.42 5.61 4.07 1984-2015 Delaware 5.67 9.03 7.19 5.67 5.54 NA 1984-2015 District of Columbia -- -- -- -- -- -- 1989-2015 Florida 5.49 5.07 3.93

  4. Technical analysis in short-term uranium price forecasting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schramm, D.S.

    1990-03-01

    As market participants anticipate the end of the current uranium price decline and its subsequent reversal, increased attention will be focused upon forecasting future price movements. Although uranium is economically similar to other mineral commodities, it is questionable whether methodologies used to forecast price movements of such commodities may be successfully applied to uranium.

  5. Short-Term Outlook for Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids - Energy Information...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Highlights Prices Global Petroleum and Other Liquids U.S. Petroleum and Other Liquids Natural Gas Coal Electricity Renewables and Carbon Dioxide Emissions U.S. Economic Assumptions ...

  6. April 2013 Short-Term Energy and Summer Fuels Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    and Summer Fuels Outlook (STEO) Highlights  During the April-through-September summer driving season this year, regular gasoline retail prices are forecast to average $3.63 per gallon. The projected monthly average regular retail gasoline price falls from $3.69 per gallon in May to $3.57 per gallon in September. EIA expects regular gasoline retail prices to average $3.56 per gallon in 2013 and $3.39 per gallon in 2014, compared with $3.63 per gallon in 2012. The July 2013 New York harbor

  7. December 2012 Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (STEO)  EIA expects that the Brent crude oil spot price will average $110 per barrel in the fourth quarter of 2012, while the West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil spot price will average $89 per barrel. The Brent and WTI crude oil spot prices are forecast to average $104 per barrel and $88 per barrel, respectively, in 2013. The projected WTI discount to Brent crude oil, which averaged $23 per barrel in November 2012, falls to an average of $11 per barrel by the fourth quarter of 2013. This

  8. February 2013 Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    BOE Reserve Class No 2001 reserves 1 - 10 MBOE 10 - 100 MBOE 100 - 1,000 MBOE 1,000 - 10,000 MBOE 10,000 - 100,000 MBOE > 100,000 MBOE Study Area Boundary South Florida Peninsula Oil and Gas Fields By 2001 BOE

    Gas Reserve Class No 2001 gas reserves 1 - 10 MMCF 10 - 100 MMCF Appalachian Basin Boundary South Florida Peninsula Oil and Gas Fields By 2001 Gas

    Liquids Reserve Class No 2001 liquids reserves 0.1 - 10 MMbbl 10 - 100 Mbbl 100 - 1,000 Mbbl 1,000 - 10,000 Mbbl Study Area

  9. January 2013 Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ___________________________________________________________________________________ Direct all questions to: Tony Radich, anthony.radich@eia.gov, (202) 586-0504 or Sean Hill, sean.hill@eia.gov (202) 586-4247 Disclaimer: Views not necessarily those of the U.S. Energy Information Administration 1 Issues and Methods for Estimating the Share of Ethanol in the Motor Gasoline Supply U.S. Energy Information Administration October 6, 2011 This paper is released to encourage discussion and critical

  10. March 2013 Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (STEO) Highlights  The weekly U.S. average regular gasoline retail price fell in early March for the first time since mid-December. The March 11 average was $3.71 per gallon, down $0.07 per gallon from February 25. EIA expects that lower crude oil prices will result in monthly average regular gasoline prices staying near the February average of $3.67 per gallon over the next few months, with the annual average regular gasoline retail price declining from $3.63 per gallon in 2012 to $3.55 per

  11. Short-Term Energy Outlook April 1999-Summer Gasoline Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Summer Motor Gasoline Outlook This year's base case outlook for summer (April-September) motor gasoline markets may be summarized as follows: * Pump Prices: (average regular) projected to average about $1.13 per gallon this summer, up 9-10 cents from last year. The increase, while substantial, still leaves average prices low compared to pre-1998 history, especially in inflation-adjusted terms. * Supplies: expected to be adequate, overall. Beginning-of-season inventories were even with the 1998

  12. Short-Term Energy Outlook April 2000--STEO Preface

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    April 2000 Summer 2000 Motor Gasoline Outlook Summary For the upcoming summer season (April to September), motor gasoline markets are projected to exhibit an extraordinarily tight supply/demand balance. * Retail gasoline prices (regular grade) are expected to average $1.46 per gallon, 25 percent higher than last summer's average of $1.17 per gallon. That projection also exceeds the previous (current-dollar) record summer average of $1.35 recorded in 1981. Nominal prices are expected to reach a

  13. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3.20 per MMBtu, which is about 0.84 higher than last winter's price. Domestic dry natural gas production is projected to fall by about 1.7 percent in 2002 compared with the...

  14. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2002). Natural gas prices were higher than expected in October as storms in the Gulf of Mexico in late September temporarily shut in some gas production, causing spot prices at...

  15. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    late September as hurricanes Isidore and Lili caused production shut downs in the Gulf of Mexico. However, this price surge is expected to be short-lived, unless the weather in...

  16. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    generation (to run air-conditioners) turns out to be moderate, the wellhead price could once more dip below 3.00 per MMBtu. Wellhead prices are expected to average 2.81 per MMBtu...

  17. Short-Term Energy Outlook Supplement: Uncertainties in the Short-Term Global Petroleum and Other Liquids Supply Forecast

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Summer 2013 Outlook for Residential Electric Bills June 2013 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | STEO Supplement: Summer 2013 Outlook for Residential Electric Bills i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by

  18. Method and apparatus for acoustically monitoring the flow of suspended solid particulate matter. [Patent application; monitoring char flow in coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roach, P.D.; Raptis, A.C.

    1980-11-24

    A method and apparatus for monitoring char flow in a coal gasifier system includes flow monitor circuits which measure acoustic attenuation caused by the presence of char in a char line and provides a char flow/no flow indication and an indication of relative char density. The flow monitor circuits compute the ratio of signals in two frequency bands, a first frequency band representative of background noise, and a second higher frequency band in which background noise is attenuated by the presence of char. Since the second frequency band contains higher frequencies, the ratio can be used to provide a flow/no flow indication. The second band can also be selected so that attenuation is monotonically related to particle concentration, providing a quantitative measure of char concentration.

  19. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Information Administration | Short-Term Energy Outlook May 2016 2 Louisiana Light Sweet (LLS) crude oil prices rose more than other crude oils and is trading at a premium to Brent. ...

  20. GASIFICATION PLANT COST AND PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samuel S. Tam

    2002-05-01

    The goal of this series of design and estimating efforts was to start from the as-built design and actual operating data from the DOE sponsored Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project and to develop optimized designs for several coal and petroleum coke IGCC power and coproduction projects. First, the team developed a design for a grass-roots plant equivalent to the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project to provide a starting point and a detailed mid-year 2000 cost estimate based on the actual as-built plant design and subsequent modifications (Subtask 1.1). This unoptimized plant has a thermal efficiency of 38.3% (HHV) and a mid-year 2000 EPC cost of 1,681 $/kW. This design was enlarged and modified to become a Petroleum Coke IGCC Coproduction Plant (Subtask 1.2) that produces hydrogen, industrial grade steam, and fuel gas for an adjacent Gulf Coast petroleum refinery in addition to export power. A structured Value Improving Practices (VIP) approach was applied to reduce costs and improve performance. The base case (Subtask 1.3) Optimized Petroleum Coke IGCC Coproduction Plant increased the power output by 16% and reduced the plant cost by 23%. The study looked at several options for gasifier sparing to enhance availability. Subtask 1.9 produced a detailed report on this availability analyses study. The Subtask 1.3 Next Plant, which retains the preferred spare gasification train approach, only reduced the cost by about 21%, but it has the highest availability (94.6%) and produces power at 30 $/MW-hr (at a 12% ROI). Thus, such a coke-fueled IGCC coproduction plant could fill a near term niche market. In all cases, the emissions performance of these plants is superior to the Wabash River project. Subtasks 1.5A and B developed designs for single-train coal and coke-fueled power plants. This side-by-side comparison of these plants, which contain the Subtask 1.3 VIP enhancements, showed their similarity both in design and cost (1,318 $/kW for the

  1. PAFC Cost Challenges

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PAFC Cost Challenges Sridhar Kanuri Manager, PAFC Technology *Sridhar.Kanuri@utcpower.com 2 AGENDA Purecell® 400 cost challenge Cost reduction opportunities Summary 3 PURECELL ® FUEL CELL SYSTEM First cost 2010 cost reduction is being accomplished by incremental changes in technology & low cost sourcing Technology advances are required to reduce further cost and attain UTC Power's commercialization targets 2010 First unit 2010 Last unit Commercialization target Powerplant cost 4

  2. Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 2: Gas Cleanup Design and Cost Estimates -- Black Liquor Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nexant Inc.

    2006-05-01

    As part of Task 2, Gas Cleanup and Cost Estimates, Nexant investigated the appropriate process scheme for removal of acid gases from black liquor-derived syngas for use in both power and liquid fuels synthesis. Two 3,200 metric tonne per day gasification schemes, both low-temperature/low-pressure (1100 deg F, 40 psi) and high-temperature/high-pressure (1800 deg F, 500 psi) were used for syngas production. Initial syngas conditions from each of the gasifiers was provided to the team by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Princeton University. Nexant was the prime contractor and principal investigator during this task; technical assistance was provided by both GTI and Emery Energy.

  3. Low Cost High-H2 Syngas Production for Power and Liquid Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, S. James

    2015-07-31

    This report summarizes the technical progress made of the research project entitled “Low Cost High-H2 Syngas Production for Power and Liquid Fuels,” under DOE Contract No. DE-FE-0011958. The period of performance was October 1, 2013 through July 30, 2015. The overall objectives of this project was to determine the technical and economic feasibility of a systems approach for producing high hydrogen syngas from coal with the potential to reduce significantly the cost of producing power, chemical-grade hydrogen or liquid fuels, with carbon capture to reduce the environmental impact of gasification. The project encompasses several areas of study and the results are summarized here. (1) Experimental work to determine the technical feasibility of a novel hybrid polymer/metal H2-membrane to recover pure H2 from a coal-derived syngas was done. This task was not successful. Membranes were synthesized and show impermeability of any gases at required conditions. The cause of this impermeability was most likely due to the densification of the porous polymer membrane support made from polybenzimidazole (PBI) at test temperatures above 250 °C. (2) Bench-scale experimental work was performed to extend GTI's current database on the University of California Sulfur Recovery Process-High Pressure (UCSRP-HP) and recently renamed Sulfur Removal and Recovery (SR2) process for syngas cleanup including removal of sulfur and other trace contaminants, such as, chlorides and ammonia. The SR2 process tests show >90% H2S conversion with outlet H2S concentrations less than 4 ppmv, and 80-90% ammonia and chloride removal with high mass transfer rates. (3) Techno-economic analyses (TEA) were done for the production of electric power, chemical-grade hydrogen and diesel fuels, from a mixture of coal- plus natural gas-derived syngas using the Aerojet Rocketdyne (AR) Advanced Compact coal gasifier and a natural gas partial oxidation reactor (POX) with SR2 technology. Due to the unsuccessful

  4. Development of standardized air-blown coal gasifier/gas turbine concepts for future electric power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadowski, R.S.; Brown, M.J.; Harriz, J.T.; Ostrowski, E.

    1991-01-01

    The cost estimate provided for the DOE sponsored study of Air Blown Coal Gasification was developed from vendor quotes obtained directly for the equipment needed in the 50 MW, 100 MW, and 200 MW sized plants and from quotes from other jobs that have been referenced to apply to the particular cycle. Quotes were generally obtained for the 100 MW cycle and a scale up/down factor was used to generate the cost estimates for the 200 MW and 50 MW cycles, respectively. Information from GTPro (property of Thermoflow, Inc.) was used to estimate the cost of the 200 MW and 50 MW gas turbine, HRSG, and steam turbines. To available the use of GTPro's estimated values for this equipment, a comparison was made between the quotes obtained for the 100 MW cycle (ABB GT 11N combustion turbine and a HSRG) against the estimated values by GTPro.

  5. Cost and performance baseline for fossil energy plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-05-15

    The objective of this report is to present performance and cost data for fossil energy power systems, specifically integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), pulverized coal (PC), and natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plants, in a consistent technical and economic manner that accurately reflects current market conditions for plants starting operation in 2010. This is Volume 2 of the three-volume report. Twelve different power plant design configurations were analyzed. These include six IGCC cases utilizing the General Electric Energy (GEE), ConocoPhillips (CoP), and Shell gasifiers each with and without CO{sub 2} capture, and six cases representing conventional technologies: PC-subcritical, PC-supercritical, and NGCC plants both with and without CO{sub 2} capture. Cases 7 and 8 were originally included in this study and involve production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) and the repowering of an existing NGCC facility using SNG. The two SNG cases were subsequently moved to Volume 2 of this report resulting in the discontinuity of case numbers (1-6 and 9-14). Chapter 2 provides the basis for technical, environmental and cost evaluations. Chapter 3 describes the IGCC technologies modeled and presents the results for the six IGCC cases. Chapter 4 describes the PC technologies modeled and presents the results for the four PC cases. Chapter 5 described the NGCC technologies modeled and presents the results for the two NGCC cases. Chapter 6 contains the reference list. 64 refs., 253 exhibits.

  6. Examining the effectiveness of municipal solid waste management systems: An integrated cost-benefit analysis perspective with a financial cost modeling in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weng, Yu-Chi; Fujiwara, Takeshi

    2011-06-15

    In order to develop a sound material-cycle society, cost-effective municipal solid waste (MSW) management systems are required for the municipalities in the context of the integrated accounting system for MSW management. Firstly, this paper attempts to establish an integrated cost-benefit analysis (CBA) framework for evaluating the effectiveness of MSW management systems. In this paper, detailed cost/benefit items due to waste problems are particularly clarified. The stakeholders of MSW management systems, including the decision-makers of the municipalities and the citizens, are expected to reconsider the waste problems in depth and thus take wise actions with the aid of the proposed CBA framework. Secondly, focusing on the financial cost, this study develops a generalized methodology to evaluate the financial cost-effectiveness of MSW management systems, simultaneously considering the treatment technological levels and policy effects. The impacts of the influencing factors on the annual total and average financial MSW operation and maintenance (O and M) costs are analyzed in the Taiwanese case study with a demonstrative short-term future projection of the financial costs under scenario analysis. The established methodology would contribute to the evaluation of the current policy measures and to the modification of the policy design for the municipalities.

  7. Cost Model and Cost Estimating Software

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter discusses a formalized methodology is basically a cost model, which forms the basis for estimating software.

  8. Levelized life-cycle costs for four residue-collection systems and four gas-production systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thayer, G.R.; Rood, P.L.; Williamson, K.D. Jr.; Rollett, H.

    1983-01-01

    Technology characterizations and life-cycle costs were obtained for four residue-collection systems and four gas-production systems. All costs are in constant 1981 dollars. The residue-collection systems were cornstover collection, wheat-straw collection, soybean-residue collection, and wood chips from forest residue. The life-cycle costs ranged from $19/ton for cornstover collection to $56/ton for wood chips from forest residues. The gas-production systems were low-Btu gas from a farm-size gasifier, solar flash pyrolysis of biomass, methane from seaweed farms, and hydrogen production from bacteria. Life-cycle costs ranged from $3.3/10/sup 6/ Btu for solar flash pyrolysis of biomass to $9.6/10/sup 6/ Btu for hydrogen from bacteria. Sensitivity studies were also performed for each system. The sensitivity studies indicated that fertilizer replacement costs were the dominate costs for the farm-residue collection, while residue yield was most important for the wood residue. Feedstock costs were most important for the flash pyrolysis. Yields and capital costs are most important for the seaweed farm and the hydrogen from bacteria system.

  9. Activity Based Costing

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Activity Based Costing (ABC) is method for developing cost estimates in which the project is subdivided into discrete, quantifiable activities or a work unit. This chapter outlines the Activity Based Costing method and discusses applicable uses of ABC.

  10. Cellulosic Ethanol Cost Target

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plenary Talk May 21, 2013 Cellulosic Ethanol Cost Target 2 | Biomass Program ... "Our goal is to make cellulosic ethanol practical and cost competitive within 6 ...

  11. Biomass to Hydrogen Production Detailed Design and Economics Utilizing the Battelle Columbus Laboratory Indirectly-Heated Gasifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spath, P.; Aden, A.; Eggeman, T.; Ringer, M.; Wallace, B.; Jechura, J.

    2005-05-01

    This analysis developed detailed process flow diagrams and an Aspen Plus{reg_sign} model, evaluated energy flows including a pinch analysis, obtained process equipment and operating costs, and performed an economic evaluation of two process designs based on the syngas clean up and conditioning work being performed at NREL. One design, the current design, attempts to define today's state of the technology. The other design, the goal design, is a target design that attempts to show the effect of meeting specific research goals.

  12. Thermodynamic effects of calcium and iron oxides on crystal phase formation in synthetic gasifier slags containing from 0 to 27wt.% V2O3

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nakano, Jinichiro; Duchesne, Marc; Bennett, James; Kwong, Kyei -Sing; Nakano, Anna; Hughes, Robin

    2014-11-15

    Thermodynamic phase equilibria in synthetic slags (Al2O3–CaO–FeO–SiO2–V2O3) were investigated with 0–27 wt.% vanadium oxide corresponding to industrial coal–petroleum coke (petcoke) feedstock blends in a simulated gasifier environment. Samples encompassing coal–petcoke mixed slag compositions were equilibrated at 1500 °C in a 64 vol.% CO/36 vol.% CO2 atmosphere (Po2 ≈ 10–8 atm at 1500 °C) for 72 h, followed by rapid water quench, then analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, X-ray diffractometry, and scanning electron microscopy with wavelength dispersive spectroscopy. With increasing CaO content, FeO content, or both; the slag homogeneity region expanded and a composition range exhibiting crystals wasmore » reduced. The mullite (Al6Si2O13) crystalline phase was not present in the slags above 9 wt.% FeO while the karelianite (V2O3) crystalline phase was always present in compositions studied if a sufficient amount of vanadium existed in the slag. Furthermore, based on the present experimental equilibrium evaluation, a set of isothermal phase diagrams showing effects of CaO and FeO on thermodynamic phase stabilities in the vanadium-bearing slags is proposed. Some uses of the diagrams for potential industrial practice are discussed.« less

  13. Life Cycle Cost Estimate

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Life-cycle costs (LCCs) are all the anticipated costs associated with a project or program alternative throughout its life. This includes costs from pre-operations through operations or to the end of the alternative.This chapter discusses life cycle costs and the role they play in planning.

  14. Cost Estimation Package

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter focuses on the components (or elements) of the cost estimation package and their documentation.

  15. A chronicle of costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elioff, T.

    1994-04-01

    This report contains the history of all estimated costs associated with the superconducting super collider.

  16. Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program Record (Offices of Fuel Cell Technologies) Record #: 11007 Date: March 25, 2011 Title: Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation Originator: Mark Ruth & Fred Joseck Approved by: Sunita Satyapal Date: March 24, 2011 Description: The hydrogen threshold cost is defined as the hydrogen cost in the range of $2.00-$4.00/gge (2007$) which represents the cost at which hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) are projected to become competitive on a cost per mile basis with the competing

  17. OOTW COST TOOLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HARTLEY, D.S.III; PACKARD, S.L.

    1998-09-01

    This document reports the results of a study of cost tools to support the analysis of Operations Other Than War (OOTW). It recommends the continued development of the Department of Defense (DoD) Contingency Operational Support Tool (COST) as the basic cost analysis tool for 00TWS. It also recommends modifications to be included in future versions of COST and the development of an 00TW mission planning tool to supply valid input for costing.

  18. Hydrogen Pathway Cost Distributions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pathway Cost Distributions Jim Uihlein Fuel Pathways Integration Tech Team January 25, 2006 2 Outline * Pathway-Independent Cost Goal * Cost Distribution Objective * Overview * H2A Influence * Approach * Implementation * Results * Discussion Process * Summary 3 Hydrogen R&D Cost Goal * Goal is pathway independent * Developed through a well defined, transparent process * Consumer fueling costs are equivalent or less on a cents per mile basis * Evolved gasoline ICE and gasoline-electric

  19. ASPEN costing manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwint, K.J.

    1986-07-25

    The ASPEN program contains within it a Cost Estimation System (CES) which estimates the purchase cost and utility consumption rates for major pieces of equipment in a process flowsheet as well as installed equipment costs. These estimates are ''preliminary-study grade'' with an accuracy of plus or minus 30%. The ASPEN program also contains within it an Economic Evaluation System (EES) which estimates overall capital investment costs, annual operating expenses and profitability indices for a chemical plant. This ASPEN costing manual has been written as a guide for those inexperienced in the use of ASPEN and unfamiliar with standard cost estimating techniques who want to use the ASPEN CES and EES. The ASPEN Costing Manual is comprised of the following sections: (1) Introduction, (2) ASPEN Input Language, (3) ASPEN Cost Estimation System (CES), (4) ASPEN Cost Blocks; and (5) ASPEN Economic Evaluation System (EES).

  20. Direct/Indirect Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter provides recommended categories for direct and indirect elements developed by the Committee for Cost Methods Development (CCMD) and describes various estimating techniques for direct and indirect costs.

  1. Vehicle Cost Calculator

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Annual Fuel Cost gal Annual GHG Emissions (lbs of CO2) Vehicle Cost Calculator See Assumptions and Methodology Back Next U.S. Department of Energy Energy Efficiency and ...

  2. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

    2012-07-01

    This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

  3. GASIFICATION PLANT COST AND PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheldon Kramer

    2003-09-01

    This project developed optimized designs and cost estimates for several coal and petroleum coke IGCC coproduction projects that produced hydrogen, industrial grade steam, and hydrocarbon liquid fuel precursors in addition to power. The as-built design and actual operating data from the DOE sponsored Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project was the starting point for this study that was performed by Bechtel, Global Energy and Nexant under Department of Energy contract DE-AC26-99FT40342. First, the team developed a design for a grass-roots plant equivalent to the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project to provide a starting point and a detailed mid-year 2000 cost estimate based on the actual as-built plant design and subsequent modifications (Subtask 1.1). This non-optimized plant has a thermal efficiency to power of 38.3% (HHV) and a mid-year 2000 EPC cost of 1,681 $/kW.1 This design was enlarged and modified to become a Petroleum Coke IGCC Coproduction Plant (Subtask 1.2) that produces hydrogen, industrial grade steam, and fuel gas for an adjacent Gulf Coast petroleum refinery in addition to export power. A structured Value Improving Practices (VIP) approach was applied to reduce costs and improve performance. The base case (Subtask 1.3) Optimized Petroleum Coke IGCC Coproduction Plant increased the power output by 16% and reduced the plant cost by 23%. The study looked at several options for gasifier sparing to enhance availability. Subtask 1.9 produced a detailed report on this availability analyses study. The Subtask 1.3 Next Plant, which retains the preferred spare gasification train approach, only reduced the cost by about 21%, but it has the highest availability (94.6%) and produces power at 30 $/MW-hr (at a 12% ROI). Thus, such a coke-fueled IGCC coproduction plant could fill a near term niche market. In all cases, the emissions performance of these plants is superior to the Wabash River project. Subtasks 1.5A and B developed designs for

  4. Cost analysis guidelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strait, R.S.

    1996-01-10

    The first phase of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program (Program)--management strategy selection--consists of several program elements: Technology Assessment, Engineering Analysis, Cost Analysis, and preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Cost Analysis will estimate the life-cycle costs associated with each of the long-term management strategy alternatives for depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF6). The scope of Cost Analysis will include all major expenditures, from the planning and design stages through decontamination and decommissioning. The costs will be estimated at a scoping or preconceptual design level and are intended to assist decision makers in comparing alternatives for further consideration. They will not be absolute costs or bid-document costs. The purpose of the Cost Analysis Guidelines is to establish a consistent approach to analyzing of cost alternatives for managing Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) stocks of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6). The component modules that make up the DUF6 management program differ substantially in operational maintenance, process-options, requirements for R and D, equipment, facilities, regulatory compliance, (O and M), and operations risk. To facilitate a consistent and equitable comparison of costs, the guidelines offer common definitions, assumptions or basis, and limitations integrated with a standard approach to the analysis. Further, the goal is to evaluate total net life-cycle costs and display them in a way that gives DOE the capability to evaluate a variety of overall DUF6 management strategies, including commercial potential. The cost estimates reflect the preconceptual level of the designs. They will be appropriate for distinguishing among management strategies.

  5. Replacement energy costs for nuclear electricity-generating units in the United States: 1997--2001. Volume 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VanKuiken, J.C.; Guziel, K.A.; Tompkins, M.M.; Buehring, W.A.

    1997-09-01

    This report updates previous estimates of replacement energy costs for potential short-term shutdowns of 109 US nuclear electricity-generating units. This information was developed to assist the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in its regulatory impact analyses, specifically those that examine the impacts of proposed regulations requiring retrofitting of or safety modifications to nuclear reactors. Such actions might necessitate shutdowns of nuclear power plants while these changes are being implemented. The change in energy cost represents one factor that the NRC must consider when deciding to require a particular modification. Cost estimates were derived from probabilistic production cost simulations of pooled utility system operations. Factors affecting replacement energy costs, such as random unit failures, maintenance and refueling requirements, and load variations, are treated in the analysis. This report describes an abbreviated analytical approach as it was adopted to update the cost estimates published in NUREG/CR-4012, Vol. 3. The updates were made to extend the time frame of cost estimates and to account for recent changes in utility system conditions, such as change in fuel prices, construction and retirement schedules, and system demand projects.

  6. TRU Waste Management Program. Cost/schedule optimization analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Detamore, J.A.; Raudenbush, M.H.; Wolaver, R.W.; Hastings, G.A.

    1985-10-01

    This Current Year Work Plan presents in detail a description of the activities to be performed by the Joint Integration Office Rockwell International (JIO/RI) during FY86. It breaks down the activities into two major work areas: Program Management and Program Analysis. Program Management is performed by the JIO/RI by providing technical planning and guidance for the development of advanced TRU waste management capabilities. This includes equipment/facility design, engineering, construction, and operations. These functions are integrated to allow transition from interim storage to final disposition. JIO/RI tasks include program requirements identification, long-range technical planning, budget development, program planning document preparation, task guidance development, task monitoring, task progress information gathering and reporting to DOE, interfacing with other agencies and DOE lead programs, integrating public involvement with program efforts, and preparation of reports for DOE detailing program status. Program Analysis is performed by the JIO/RI to support identification and assessment of alternatives, and development of long-term TRU waste program capabilities. These analyses include short-term analyses in response to DOE information requests, along with performing an RH Cost/Schedule Optimization report. Systems models will be developed, updated, and upgraded as needed to enhance JIO/RI's capability to evaluate the adequacy of program efforts in various fields. A TRU program data base will be maintained and updated to provide DOE with timely responses to inventory related questions.

  7. substantially reduced production costs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    production costs - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy ...

  8. SOFT COST GRAND CHALLENGE

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    energycenter.org California Center for Sustainable Energy Soft Cost Grand Challenge May 22, 2014 Accelerating the transition to a sustainable world powered by clean energy 2...

  9. Low Cost, Durable Seal

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    UTC Power Corporation February 14, 2007 This presentation does not contain any proprietary or confidential information 1 LOW COST, DURABLE SEAL Outline * Project Objective * ...

  10. Workplace Charging Installation Costs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Installation costs and services vary considerably, so employers are encouraged to obtain a number of quotes before moving forward with any installation. An initial site investigation should include:

  11. Simple Modular LED Cost Model

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The LED Cost Model, developed by the DOE Cost Modeling Working Group, provides a simplified method for analyzing the manufacturing costs of an LED package. The model focuses on the major cost...

  12. Transmission line capital costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, K.R.; Brown, D.R.

    1995-05-01

    The displacement or deferral of conventional AC transmission line installation is a key benefit associated with several technologies being developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management (OEM). Previous benefits assessments conducted within OEM have been based on significantly different assumptions for the average cost per mile of AC transmission line. In response to this uncertainty, an investigation of transmission line capital cost data was initiated. The objective of this study was to develop a database for preparing preliminary estimates of transmission line costs. An extensive search of potential data sources identified databases maintained by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) as superior sources of transmission line cost data. The BPA and WAPA data were adjusted to a common basis and combined together. The composite database covers voltage levels from 13.8 to 765 W, with cost estimates for a given voltage level varying depending on conductor size, tower material type, tower frame type, and number of circuits. Reported transmission line costs vary significantly, even for a given voltage level. This can usually be explained by variation in the design factors noted above and variation in environmental and land (right-of-way) costs, which are extremely site-specific. Cost estimates prepared from the composite database were compared to cost data collected by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for investor-owned utilities from across the United States. The comparison was hampered because the only design specifications included with the FERC data were voltage level and line length. Working within this limitation, the FERC data were not found to differ significantly from the composite database. Therefore, the composite database was judged to be a reasonable proxy for estimating national average costs.

  13. Decommissioning Unit Cost Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanford, P. C.; Stevens, J. L.; Brandt, R.

    2002-02-26

    The Rocky Flats Closure Site (Site) is in the process of stabilizing residual nuclear materials, decommissioning nuclear facilities, and remediating environmental media. A number of contaminated facilities have been decommissioned, including one building, Building 779, that contained gloveboxes used for plutonium process development but did little actual plutonium processing. The actual costs incurred to decommission this facility formed much of the basis or standards used to estimate the decommissioning of the remaining plutonium-processing buildings. Recent decommissioning activities in the first actual production facility, Building 771, implemented a number of process and procedural improvements. These include methods for handling plutonium contaminated equipment, including size reduction, decontamination, and waste packaging, as well as management improvements to streamline planning and work control. These improvements resulted in a safer working environment and reduced project cost, as demonstrated in the overall project efficiency. The topic of this paper is the analysis of how this improved efficiency is reflected in recent unit costs for activities specific to the decommissioning of plutonium facilities. This analysis will allow the Site to quantify the impacts on future Rocky Flats decommissioning activities, and to develop data for planning and cost estimating the decommissioning of future facilities. The paper discusses the methods used to collect and arrange the project data from the individual work areas within Building 771. Regression and data correlation techniques were used to quantify values for different types of decommissioning activities. The discussion includes the approach to identify and allocate overall project support, waste management, and Site support costs based on the overall Site and project costs to provide a ''burdened'' unit cost. The paper ultimately provides a unit cost basis that can be used to support cost estimates for

  14. Soft Costs Fact Sheet

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy SunShot Initiative is a collaborative national effort to make solar energy technologies cost-competitive with conventional forms of energy by the end of the decade. ...

  15. Estimating Renewable Energy Costs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Some renewable energy measures, such as daylighting, passive solar heating, and cooling load avoidance, do not add much to the cost of a building. However, renewable energy technologies typically...

  16. Vehicle Cost Calculator

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Choose a vehicle to compare fuel cost and emissions with a conventional vehicle. Select FuelTechnology Electric Hybrid Electric Plug-in Hybrid Electric Natural Gas (CNG) Flex Fuel ...

  17. Cost Estimating Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-05-09

    This Guide provides uniform guidance and best practices that describe the methods and procedures that could be used in all programs and projects at DOE for preparing cost estimates.

  18. Cost Estimating Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    The objective of this Guide is to improve the quality of cost estimates and further strengthen the DOE program/project management system. The original 25 separate chapters and three appendices have been combined to create a single document.

  19. Cost Estimating Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-05-09

    This Guide provides uniform guidance and best practices that describe the methods and procedures that could be used in all programs and projects at DOE for preparing cost estimates. No cancellations.

  20. Liquefaction and Pipeline Costs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Distribution Pipeline Costs Collected historical Oil & Gas Journal data, and surveyed for ... mile Downtown: 1 to 8 in. Downtown: 4 to 20 in. Urban H2A Right of Way Oil & Gas Journal

  1. INDEPENDENT COST REVIEW (ICR)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Report SOP Standard Operating Procedure TEC Total Estimated Cost TIPR Technical ... FY13 FY14 FY15 FY16 Total PED Construction TEC OPC TPC Note: above values include MR...

  2. System Cost Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-03-27

    SCM is used for estimation of the life-cycle impacts (costs, health and safety risks) of waste management facilities for mixed low-level, low-level, and transuranic waste. SCM uses parametric cost functions to estimate life-cycle costs for various treatment, storage, and disposal modules which reflect planned and existing waste management facilities at Department of Energy (DOE) installations. SCM also provides transportation costs for intersite transfer of DOE wastes. SCM covers the entire DOE waste management complex tomore » allow system sensitivity analysis including: treatment, storage, and disposal configuration options; treatment technology selection; scheduling options; transportation options; waste stream and volume changes; and site specific conditions.« less

  3. Workplace Charging Equipment Costs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Charging stations are available from a variety of manufacturers in a range of models for all charging applications. For a single port charging station, Level 1 hardware costs range from $300-$1,500...

  4. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Intertek APTECH has organized the cycling cost data in consultation with NREL and WECC by the following eight generator plant types: 1. Small coal-fired sub-critical steam (35-299 ...

  5. Vehicle Cost Calculator

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Choose a vehicle to compare fuel cost and emissions with a conventional vehicle. Select Fuel/Technology Electric Hybrid Electric Plug-in Hybrid Electric Natural Gas (CNG) Flex Fuel (E85) Biodiesel (B20) Next Vehicle Cost Calculator Update Your Widget Code This widget version will stop working on March 31. Update your widget code. × Widget Code Select All Close U.S. Department of Energy Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

  6. Independent Cost Estimate (ICE)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Independent Cost Estimate (ICE). On August 8-12, the Office of Project Management Oversight and Assessments (PM) will conduct an ICE on the NNSA Albuquerque Complex Project (NACP) at Albuquerque, NM. This estimate will support the Critical Decision (CD) for establishing the performance baseline and approval to start construction (CD-2/3). This project is at CD-1, with a total project cost range of $183M to $251M.

  7. Soft Costs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Soft Costs » Soft Costs Soft Costs The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot Initiative's soft costs program works to lower the non-hardware costs of solar and accelerate the adoption of solar energy technologies throughout the United States. In support of the SunShot Initiative goals, the soft costs program works in the following strategic areas: networking and technical assistance, data analysis, business innovation, and training. Soft Costs Activity Areas, Business Innovation, Networking

  8. Factory Cost Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-12-17

    The Factory Cost Model (FCM) is an economic analysis tool intended to provide flat panel display (FPD) and other similar discrete component manufacturers with the ability to make first-order estimates of the cost of unit production. This software has several intended uses. Primary among these is the ability to provide first-order economic analysis for future factories. Consequently, the model requires a minimal level of input detail, and accomodates situations where actual production data are notmore » available. This software is designed to be activity based such that most of the calculated direct costs are associated with the steps of a manufacturibg process. The FCM architecture has the ability to accomodate the analysis of existing manufacturing facilities. The FCM can provide assistance with strategic economic decisions surrounding production related matters. For instance, the program can project the effect on costs and resources of a new product''s introduction, or it can assess the potential cost reduction produced by step yield improvements in the manufacturing process.« less

  9. Factors Impacting Decommissioning Costs - 13576

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Karen; McGrath, Richard

    2013-07-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studied United States experience with decommissioning cost estimates and the factors that impact the actual cost of decommissioning projects. This study gathered available estimated and actual decommissioning costs from eight nuclear power plants in the United States to understand the major components of decommissioning costs. Major costs categories for decommissioning a nuclear power plant are removal costs, radioactive waste costs, staffing costs, and other costs. The technical factors that impact the costs were analyzed based on the plants' decommissioning experiences. Detailed cost breakdowns by major projects and other cost categories from actual power plant decommissioning experiences will be presented. Such information will be useful in planning future decommissioning and designing new plants. (authors)

  10. Soft Costs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    costs program works to lower the non-hardware costs of ... data analysis, business innovation, and training. ... for as much as 64% of the total cost of a new solar system. ...

  11. QGESS: Capital Cost Scaling Methodology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the tonnes of CO2 utilized. The costs of the process are to include infrastructure, raw materials, processing, byproduct disposal, and utilities costs, as well as any other costs....

  12. Low Cost, Durable Seal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, George; Parsons, Jason; Friedman, Jake

    2010-12-17

    Seal durability is critical to achieving the 2010 DOE operational life goals for both stationary and transportation PEM fuel cell stacks. The seal material must be chemically and mechanically stable in an environment consisting of aggressive operating temperatures, humidified gases, and acidic membranes. The seal must also be producible at low cost. Currentlyused seal materials do not meet all these requirements. This project developed and demonstrated a high consistency hydrocarbon rubber seal material that was able to meet the DOE technical and cost targets. Significant emphasis was placed on characterization of the material and full scale molding demonstrations.

  13. Recovery Act: Low Cost Integrated Substrate for OLED Lighting Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Benton; Abhinav Bhandari

    2012-09-30

    PPG pursued the development of an integrated substrate, including the anode, external, and internal extraction layers. The objective of PPG??s program was to achieve cost reductions by displacing the existing expensive borosilicate or double-side polished float glass substrates and developing alternative electrodes and scalable light extraction layer technologies through focused and short-term applied research. One of the key highlights of the project was proving the feasibility of using PPG??s high transmission Solarphire® float glass as a substrate to consistently achieve organic lightemitting diode (OLED) devices with good performance and high yields. Under this program, four low-cost alternatives to the Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) anode were investigated using pilot-scale magnetron sputtered vacuum deposition (MSVD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technologies. The anodes were evaluated by fabricating small and large phosphorescent organic lightemitting diode (PHOLED) devices at Universal Display Corporation (UDC). The device performance and life-times comparable to commercially available ITO anodes were demonstrated. A cost-benefit analysis was performed to down-select two anodes for further low-cost process development. Additionally, PPG developed and evaluated a number of scalable and compatible internal and external extraction layer concepts such as scattering layers on the outside of the glass substrate or between the transparent anode and the glass interface. In one external extraction layer (EEL) approach, sol-gel sprayed pyrolytic coatings were deposited using lab scale equipment by hand or automated spraying of sol-gel solutions on hot glass, followed by optimizing of scattering with minimal absorption. In another EEL approach, PPG tested large-area glass texturing by scratching a glass surface with an abrasive roller and acid etching. Efficacy enhancements of 1.27x were demonstrated using white PHOLED devices for 2.0mm substrates which are at par

  14. Turbine Cost Systems Engineering Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-09-30

    turb_costSE is a set of models that link wind turbine component masses (and a few other key variables) to component costs.

  15. Heliostat cost reduction study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Scott A.; Lumia, Ronald. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Davenport, Roger (Science Applications International Corporation, San Diego, CA); Thomas, Robert C. (Advanced Thermal Systems, Centennial, CO); Gorman, David; Kolb, Gregory J.; Donnelly, Matthew W.

    2007-06-01

    Power towers are capable of producing solar-generated electricity and hydrogen on a large scale. Heliostats are the most important cost element of a solar power tower plant. Since they constitute {approx} 50% of the capital cost of the plant it is important to reduce heliostat cost as much as possible to improve the economic performance of power towers. In this study we evaluate current heliostat technology and estimate a price of $126/m{sup 2} given year-2006 materials and labor costs for a deployment of {approx}600 MW of power towers per year. This 2006 price yields electricity at $0.067/kWh and hydrogen at $3.20/kg. We propose research and development that should ultimately lead to a price as low as $90/m{sup 2}, which equates to $0.056/kWh and $2.75/kg H{sup 2}. Approximately 30 heliostat and manufacturing experts from the United States, Europe, and Australia contributed to the content of this report during two separate workshops conducted at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility.

  16. Cost Estimating, Analysis, and Standardization

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1984-11-02

    To establish policy and responsibilities for: (a) developing and reviewing project cost estimates; (b) preparing independent cost estimates and analysis; (c) standardizing cost estimating procedures; and (d) improving overall cost estimating and analytical techniques, cost data bases, cost and economic escalation models, and cost estimating systems. Cancels DOE O 5700.2B, dated 8-5-1983; DOE O 5700.8, dated 5-27-1981; and HQ 1130.1A, dated 12-30-1981. Canceled by DOE O 5700.2D, dated 6-12-1992

  17. Levelized Power Generation Cost Codes

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-04-30

    LPGC is a set of nine microcomputer programs for estimating power generation costs for large steam-electric power plants. These programs permit rapid evaluation using various sets of economic and technical ground rules. The levelized power generation costs calculated may be used to compare the relative economics of nuclear and coal-fired plants based on life-cycle costs. Cost calculations include capital investment cost, operation and maintenance cost, fuel cycle cost, decommissioning cost, and total levelized power generationmore » cost. These programs can be used for quick analyses of power generation costs using alternative economic parameters, such as interest rate, escalation rate, inflation rate, plant lead times, capacity factor, fuel prices, etc. The two major types of electric generating plants considered are pressurized water reactor (PWR) and pulverized coal-fired plants. Data are also provided for the Large Scale Prototype Breeder (LSPB) type liquid metal reactor.« less

  18. Geothermal probabilistic cost study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orren, L.H.; Ziman, G.M.; Jones, S.C.; Lee, T.K.; Noll, R.; Wilde, L.; Sadanand, V.

    1981-08-01

    A tool is presented to quantify the risks of geothermal projects, the Geothermal Probabilistic Cost Model (GPCM). The GPCM model is used to evaluate a geothermal reservoir for a binary-cycle electric plant at Heber, California. Three institutional aspects of the geothermal risk which can shift the risk among different agents are analyzed. The leasing of geothermal land, contracting between the producer and the user of the geothermal heat, and insurance against faulty performance are examined. (MHR)

  19. Hydrogen and Infrastructure Costs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM Hydrogen and Infrastructure Costs Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness Workshop Washington D.C. February 17, 2011 Fred Joseck U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Program Fuel Cells: Diverse Fuels and Applications More than $40 million from the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to fund 12 projects to deploy up to 1,000 fuel cells Recovery Act Funding for Fuel Cells COMPANY AWARD APPLICATION Delphi Automotive $2.4 M Auxiliary Power FedEx

  20. Low-cost household paint abatement to reduce children's blood lead levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taha, T.; Kanarek, M.S.; Schultz, B.D.; Murphy, A.

    1999-11-01

    The purpose was to examine the effectiveness of low-cost abatement on children's blood lead levels. Blood lead was analyzed before and after abatement in 37 homes of children under 7 years old with initial blood lead levels of 25--44 {micro}g/dL. Ninety-five percent of homes were built before 1950. Abatement methods used were wet-scraping and repainting deteriorated surfaces and wrapping window wells with aluminum or vinyl. A control group was retrospectively selected. Control children were under 7 years old, had initial blood lead levels of 25--44 {micro}g/dL and a follow-up level at least 28 days afterward, and did not have abatements performed in their homes between blood lead levels. After abatement, statistically significant declines occurred in the intervention children's blood lead levels. The mean decline was 22%, 1 to 6 months after treatment. After adjustment for seasonality and child's age, the mean decline was 6.0 {micro}g/dL, or 18%. The control children's blood levels did not decline significantly. There was a mean decline of 0.25 {micro}g/dL, or 0.39%. After adjustment for seasonality and age, the mean decline for control children was 1.6 {micro}g/dL, or 1.8%. Low-cost abatement and education are effective short-term interim controls.

  1. Cost Study Manual | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cost Study Manual Cost Study Manual Update 62912. PDF icon Memo regarding Cost Study Manual PDF icon Cost Study Manual More Documents & Publications Contractor Human Resources ...

  2. Levelized cost and levelized avoided cost of new generation resources...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    3 The importance of the factors varies among the technologies. For technologies such as solar and wind generation that have no fuel costs and relatively small variable O&M costs,...

  3. LIFE Cost of Electricity, Capital and Operating Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anklam, T

    2011-04-14

    Successful commercialization of fusion energy requires economic viability as well as technical and scientific feasibility. To assess economic viability, we have conducted a pre-conceptual level evaluation of LIFE economics. Unit costs are estimated from a combination of bottom-up costs estimates, working with representative vendors, and scaled results from previous studies of fission and fusion plants. An integrated process model of a LIFE power plant was developed to integrate and optimize unit costs and calculate top level metrics such as cost of electricity and power plant capital cost. The scope of this activity was the entire power plant site. Separately, a development program to deliver the required specialized equipment has been assembled. Results show that LIFE power plant cost of electricity and plant capital cost compare favorably to estimates for new-build LWR's, coal and gas - particularly if indicative costs of carbon capture and sequestration are accounted for.

  4. Cost | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cost Home Ocop's picture Submitted by Ocop(5) Member 15 July, 2014 - 07:07 MHK LCOE Reporting Guidance Draft Cost Current DOE LCOE numerical modeling Performance Tidal Wave To...

  5. Wind Integration Cost and Cost-Causation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Estanqueiro, A.; Martin-Martinez, S.; Gomez-Lazaro, E.; Peneda, I.; Smith, C.

    2013-10-01

    The question of wind integration cost has received much attention in the past several years. The methodological challenges to calculating integration costs are discussed in this paper. There are other sources of integration cost unrelated to wind energy. A performance-based approach would be technology neutral, and would provide price signals for all technology types. However, it is difficult to correctly formulate such an approach. Determining what is and is not an integration cost is challenging. Another problem is the allocation of system costs to one source. Because of significant nonlinearities, this can prove to be impossible to determine in an accurate and objective way.

  6. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5 1 April 2015 Short-Term Energy Outlook Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: After increasing in February, global crude oil prices declined in March. The North Sea Brent front month futures price settled at $54.95/bbl on April 2, a decline of $4.59/bbl since the close on March 2 (Figure 1). The West Texas Intermediate (WTI) front month futures price declined by $0.45/bbl over the same period to settle at $49.14/bbl on April 2. The average Brent price for March was 3.2% lower

  7. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1 December 2014 Short-Term Energy Outlook Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: Crude oil prices continued to move lower in November and recorded their fifth consecutive month of declines. The North Sea Brent front month futures price settled at $69.64/bbl on December 4, a decline of $15.14/bbl from November 3 (Figure 1). The front month West Texas Intermediate (WTI) contract price settled at $66.81/bbl on December 4, decreasing by $11.97/bbl since the start of November. The

  8. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4 1 November 2014 Short-Term Energy Outlook Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: Both international and domestic crude oil prices moved sharply lower over the previous five weeks. The North Sea Brent front month futures price settled at $82.86/bbl on November 6, a decline of $11.30/bbl from October 1 (Figure 1). The front month West Texas Intermediate (WTI) contract price settled at $77.91/bbl on November 6, decreasing by $12.82/bbl since the start of October. November marked

  9. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3 1 October 2013 Short-Term Energy Outlook Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: Front month futures prices for the Brent and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil benchmarks fell in September. The Brent contract settled at $109.00 per barrel on October 3, a decline of $6.68 per barrel since September 3, and WTI settled at $103.31 per barrel on October 3, falling by $5.23 per barrel over the same period (Figure 1). These changes marked the first month-over-month declines in

  10. Check Estimates and Independent Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Check estimates and independent cost estimates (ICEs) are tools that can be used to validate a cost estimate. Estimate validation entails an objective review of the estimate to ensure that estimate criteria and requirements have been met and well documented, defensible estimate has been developed. This chapter describes check estimates and their procedures and various types of independent cost estimates.

  11. Hydropower Baseline Cost Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Connor, Patrick W.; Zhang, Qin Fen; DeNeale, Scott T.; Chalise, Dol Raj; Centurion, Emma E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent resource assessments conducted by the United States Department of Energy have identified significant opportunities for expanding hydropower generation through the addition of power to non-powered dams and on undeveloped stream-reaches. Additional interest exists in the powering of existing water resource infrastructure such as conduits and canals, upgrading and expanding existing hydropower facilities, and the construction new pumped storage hydropower. Understanding the potential future role of these hydropower resources in the nation’s energy system requires an assessment of the environmental and techno-economic issues associated with expanding hydropower generation. To facilitate these assessments, this report seeks to fill the current gaps in publically available hydropower cost-estimating tools that can support the national-scale evaluation of hydropower resources.

  12. Wind turbine reliability : understanding and minimizing wind turbine operation and maintenance costs.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2004-11-01

    potential impact on reliability whenever new technologies are introduced. While some of these innovations may ultimately improve reliability, in the short term, the technology risks and the perception of risk will increase. The COE metric used by researchers to evaluate technologies does not address this issue. This paper outlines the issues relevant to wind turbine reliability for wind turbine power generation projects. The first sections describe the current state of the industry, identify the cost elements associated with wind farm O&M and availability and discuss the causes of uncertainty in estimating wind turbine component reliability. The latter sections discuss the means for reducing O&M costs and propose O&M related research and development efforts that could be pursued by the wind energy research community to reduce COE.

  13. Realistic costs of carbon capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al Juaied, Mohammed . Belfer Center for Science and International Affiaris); Whitmore, Adam )

    2009-07-01

    There is a growing interest in carbon capture and storage (CCS) as a means of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. However there are substantial uncertainties about the costs of CCS. Costs for pre-combustion capture with compression (i.e. excluding costs of transport and storage and any revenue from EOR associated with storage) are examined in this discussion paper for First-of-a-Kind (FOAK) plant and for more mature technologies, or Nth-of-a-Kind plant (NOAK). For FOAK plant using solid fuels the levelised cost of electricity on a 2008 basis is approximately 10 cents/kWh higher with capture than for conventional plants (with a range of 8-12 cents/kWh). Costs of abatement are found typically to be approximately US$150/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$120-180/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants the additional cost of electricity with capture is approximately 2-5 cents/kWh, with costs of the range of US$35-70/tCO2 avoided. Costs of abatement with carbon capture for other fuels and technologies are also estimated for NOAK plants. The costs of abatement are calculated with reference to conventional SCPC plant for both emissions and costs of electricity. Estimates for both FOAK and NOAK are mainly based on cost data from 2008, which was at the end of a period of sustained escalation in the costs of power generation plant and other large capital projects. There are now indications of costs falling from these levels. This may reduce the costs of abatement and costs presented here may be 'peak of the market' estimates. If general cost levels return, for example, to those prevailing in 2005 to 2006 (by which time significant cost escalation had already occurred from previous levels), then costs of capture and compression for FOAK plants are expected to be US$110/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$90-135/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants costs are expected to be US$25-50/tCO2. Based on these considerations a likely representative range of costs of abatement from CCS excluding

  14. Hedging effects of wind on retail electric supply costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graves, Frank; Litvinova, Julia

    2009-12-15

    In the short term, renewables - especially wind - are not as effective as conventional hedges due to uncertain volume and timing as well as possibly poor correlation with high-value periods. In the long term, there are more potential hedging advantages to renewables because conventional financial hedges are not available very far in the future. (author)

  15. REDUCING ULTRA-CLEAN TRANSPORTATION FUEL COSTS WITH HYMELT HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald P. Malone; William R. Renner

    2005-07-01

    Phase I of the work to be done under this agreement consisted of conducting atmospheric gasification of coal using the HyMelt technology to produce separate hydrogen rich and carbon monoxide rich product streams. In addition smaller quantities of petroleum coke and a low value refinery stream were gasified. Phase II of the work to be done under this agreement, consists of gasification of the above-mentioned feeds at a gasifier pressure of approximately 5 bar. The results of this work will be used to evaluate the technical and economic aspects of producing ultra-clean transportation fuels using the HyMelt technology in existing and proposed refinery configurations. This report describes activities for the ninth quarter of work performed under this agreement. The design of the vessel for pressure testing has been completed. The design will be finalized and purchased in the next quarter.

  16. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

    2008-03-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

  17. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

    2009-12-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

  18. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert

    2007-04-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 26 cost modules—24 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, and high-level waste.

  19. Forage Harvest and Transport Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butler, J.; Downing, M.; Turhollow, A.

    1998-12-01

    An engineering-economic approach is used to calculate harvest, in-field transport, and over-the-road transport costs for hay as bales and modules, silage, and crop residues as bales and modules. Costs included are equipment depreciation interest; fuel, lube, and oil; repairs; insurance, housing, and taxes; and labor. Field preparation, pest control, fertilizer, land, and overhead are excluded from the costs calculated Equipment is constrained by power available, throughput or carrying capacity, and field speed.

  20. Short-Term Energy Outlook - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3b : Non-OPEC Petroleum and Other Liquids Supply (Million Barrels per Day) Either scripts and active content are not permitted to run or Adobe Flash Player version ${version_major}.${version_minor}.${version_revision} or greater is not installed. Get Adobe Flash Player - = no data available OPEC = Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries: Algeria, Angola, Ecuador, Gabon, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Venezuela. Notes: The

  1. Short-Term Energy Outlook - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 : U.S. Energy Markets Summary Either scripts and active content are not permitted to run or Adobe Flash Player version ${version_major}.${version_minor}.${version_revision} or greater is not installed. Get Adobe Flash Player a Includes lease condensate. b Total consumption includes Independent Power Producer (IPP) consumption. c Renewable energy includes minor components of non-marketed renewable energy that is neither bought nor sold, either directly or indirectly, as inputs to marketed

  2. Short-Term Energy Outlook - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3d : World Petroleum and Other Liquids Consumption (Million Barrels per Day) Either scripts and active content are not permitted to run or Adobe Flash Player version ${version_major}.${version_minor}.${version_revision} or greater is not installed. Get Adobe Flash Player a Weighted geometric mean of real indices for various countries with weights equal to each country's share of world oil consumption in the base period. Exchange rate is measured in foreign currency per U.S. dollar. - = no data

  3. Short-Term Energy Outlook - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a : International Petroleum and Other Liquids Production, Consumption, and Inventories (Million Barrels per Day, Except OECD Commercial Stocks) Either scripts and active content are not permitted to run or Adobe Flash Player version ${version_major}.${version_minor}.${version_revision} or greater is not installed. Get Adobe Flash Player a Supply includes production of crude oil (including lease condensates), natural gas plant liquids, biofuels, other liquids, and refinery processing gains. b

  4. Short-Term Energy Outlook - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    c : OPEC Crude Oil (excluding condensates) Supply (Million Barrels per Day) Either scripts and active content are not permitted to run or Adobe Flash Player version ${version_major}.${version_minor}.${version_revision} or greater is not installed. Get Adobe Flash Player a Includes lease condensate, natural gas plant liquids, other liquids, and refinery processing gain. Includes other unaccounted-for liquids. - = no data available Only regional projections are available for OPEC production,

  5. Short-Term Energy Outlook - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 : Energy Prices Either scripts and active content are not permitted to run or Adobe Flash Player version ${version_major}.${version_minor}.${version_revision} or greater is not installed. Get Adobe Flash Player a Average for all sulfur contents. b Average self-service cash price. c Includes fuel oils No. 4, No. 5, No. 6, and topped crude. - = no data available Notes: Prices are not adjusted for inflation. The approximate break between historical and forecast values is shown with estimates and

  6. Short-Term Energy Outlook Supplement: Summer 2013 Outlook for Residential Electric Bills

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Summer 2013 Outlook for Residential Electric Bills June 2013 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | STEO Supplement: Summer 2013 Outlook for Residential Electric Bills i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by

  7. Effects of Biomass Fuels on Engine & System Out Emissions for Short Term Endurance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Results of an investigation into effects of biofuels on engine- and system-out emissions, specifically US 2010 EPA exhaust after-treatment system from Mack Trucks

  8. Laboratory Studies of the Short-term Responses of Freshwater Fish to Electromagnetic Fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bevelhimer, Mark S; Cada, Glenn F; Fortner, Allison M; Schweizer, Peter E; Riemer, Kristina P

    2013-01-01

    Hydrokinetic energy technologies are being proposed as an environmentally preferred means of generating electricity from river and tidal currents. Among the potential issues that must be investigated in order to resolve environmental concerns are the effects on aquatic organisms of electromagnetic fields created by underwater generators and transmission cables. The behavioral responses of common freshwater fishes to static and variable electromagnetic fields (EMF) that may be emitted by hydrokinetic projects were evaluated in laboratory experiments. Various fish species were exposed to either static (DC) EMF fields created by a permanent bar magnet or variable (AC) EMF fields created by a switched electromagnet for 48 h, fish locations were recorded with a digital imaging system, and changes in activity level and distribution relative to the magnet position were quantified at 5-min intervals. Experiments with fathead minnows, redear sunfish, striped bass, lake sturgeon, and channel catfish produced mixed results. Except for fathead minnows there was no effect on activity level. Only redear sunfish and channel catfish exhibited a change in distribution relative to the position of the magnet with an apparent attraction to the EMF source. In separate experiments, rapid behavioral responses of paddlefish and lake sturgeon to onset of the AC field were recorded with high-speed video. Paddlefish did not react to a variable, 60-Hz magnetic field like that which would be emitted by an AC generator or cable, but lake sturgeon consistently responded to the variable, AC-generated magnetic field with a variety of altered swimming behaviors. These results will be useful for determining under what circumstances cables or generators need to be positioned to minimize interactions with sensitive species.

  9. Short-Term Metal/Organic Interface Stability Investigations of Organic Photovoltaic Devices: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reese, M. O.; Morfa, A. J.; White, M. S.; Kopidakis, N.; Shaheen, S. E.; Rumbles, G.; Ginley, D. S.

    2008-05-01

    This paper addresses one source of degradation in OPV devices: the metal/organic interface. The basic approach was to study the completed device stability vs. the stability of the organic film itself as shown in subsequent devices fabricated from the films.

  10. Short-term modulation of Indian summer monsoon rainfall by West Asian dust

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vinoj, V.; Rasch, Philip J.; Wang, Hailong; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Ma, Po-Lun; Landu, Kiranmayi; Singh, Balwinder

    2014-03-16

    The Indian summer monsoon is the result of a complex interplay between radiative heating, dynamics and cloud and aerosol interactions. Despite increased scientific attention, the effect of aerosols on monsoons still remains uncertain. Here we present both observational evidence and numerical modeling results demonstrating a remote aerosol link to Indian summer monsoon rainfall. Rainfall over central India is positively correlated to natural aerosols over the Arabian Sea and West Asia. Simulations using a state-of-the-art global climate model support this remote aerosol link and indicate that dust aerosols induce additional moisture transport and convergence over Central India, producing increased monsoon rainfall. The convergence is driven through solar heating and latent heating within clouds over West Asia that increases surface winds over the Arabian Sea. On the other hand, sea-salt aerosol tends to counteract the effect of dust and reduces rainfall. Our findings highlight the importance of natural aerosols in modulating the strength of the Indian summer monsoon, and motivate additional research in how changes in background aerosols of natural origin may be influencing long-term trends in monsoon precipitation.

  11. Buildings in a Test Tube: Validation of the Short-Term Energy Monitoring (STEM) Method (Preprint)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Judkoff, R.; Balcomb, J.D.; Barker, G.; Hancock, E.; Subbarao, K.

    2001-02-26

    This paper is extracted from a full-length technical report that presents a detailed analysis of the differences in thermal performance between the SIP and frame units and describes the validation of the STEM method.

  12. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Electricity Generation and Fuel Consumption Models

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Model Documentation: Electricity Generation and Fuel Consumption Models January 2014 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | STEO Model Documentation: Electricity Generation and Fuel Consumption Models i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts

  13. Short-Term Energy Outlook - U.S. Energy Information Administration...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... Iran Iraq Kuwait Libya Nigeria Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Venezuela OPEC Total Non-crude Liquids Total OPEC Supply Unplanned OPEC Production Outages Indonesia Iran ...

  14. Short-Term Energy Outlook - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Contacts Overview Tim Hess 202-586-4212 timothy.hess@eia.gov World Oil Prices/International Petroleum Erik Kreil 202-586-6573 erik.kreil@eia.gov Energy Prices Sean Hill 202-586-4247 sean.hill@eia.gov Futures Markets and Energy Price Uncertainty James Preciado 202-586-8769 james.preciado@eia.gov U.S. Crude Oil Production Danya Murali 202-586-8676 danya.murali@eia.gov U.S. Petroleum Demand Michael Morris 202-586-1199 michael.morris@eia.gov Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids Stacy MacIntyre 202-586-9795

  15. Short-Term Energy Outlook - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Outlook Release Date: August 9, 2016 | Next Release Date: September 7, 2016 | Full Report | Text Only | All Tables | All Figures Glossary › FAQS › Overview STEO Report Highlights Prices Global Petroleum and Other Liquids U.S. Petroleum and Other Liquids Natural Gas Coal Electricity Renewables and Carbon Dioxide Emissions U.S. Economic Assumptions Data Figures Tables Custom Table Builder Real Prices Viewer Forecast Changes (PDF) Special Analysis Price Uncertainty Real Prices Viewer Real

  16. Short-Term Energy Outlook - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Global Petroleum and Other Liquid Fuels EIA estimates that global petroleum and other liquid fuels inventory builds averaged 1.9 million b/d in 2015. The pace of inventory builds is expected to slow to an average of 0.8 million b/d in 2016. The market is expected to be relatively balanced in 2017, with inventory draws averaging almost 0.2 million b/d. Figure 32: World Supply and Demand Balance Global Petroleum and Other Liquid Fuels Consumption Global consumption of petroleum and other liquid

  17. Short-Term Energy Outlook - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Natural Gas Working natural gas inventories were 3,288 billion cubic feet (Bcf) as of Friday, July 29, 6 Bcf lower than the previous week, marking the first draw during the June-August period since 2006. Injections during the refill season have fallen short of five-year average levels in most weeks because of the high use of natural gas for electricity generation and because of slight declines in production. However, warm weather last winter left inventories at record high levels going into the

  18. Short-Term Energy Outlook - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Renewables and Carbon Dioxide Emissions Electricity and Heat Generation from Renewables EIA expects total renewables used in the electric power sector to increase by 10.5% in 2016 and by 4.3% in 2017. Forecast hydropower generation in the electric power sector increases by 7.8% in 2016 and then falls by 2.0% in 2017. Consumption of renewable energy other than hydropower in the electric power sector is forecast to grow by 12.9% in 2016 and by 9.6% in 2017. EIA expects that utility-scale solar

  19. Short-Term Energy Outlook - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Economic Assumptions Recent Economic Indicators The Bureau of Economic Analysis reported that real gross domestic product (GDP) increased at an annual rate of 1.2% in the second quarter of 2016. Real GDP grew by 0.8% in the first quarter of 2016. The increase in real GDP in the second quarter reflected positive contributions from personal consumption expenditures and exports. Production, Income, and Employment EIA used the July 2016 version of the IHS macroeconomic model with EIA's energy price

  20. Motor Gasoline Consumption 2008 - Historical Perspective and Short-Term Projections

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2008-01-01

    This report reviews how gasoline markets relate to population, income, prices, and the growing role of ethanol. It also analyzes the structural shift in motor gasoline markets that took place in the late 1990s.

  1. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Short-Term Energy Outlook January 2016 1

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    44 Created on: 8/26/2016 4:47:25 PM Table 16. Natural gas deliveries to industrial consumers, by state, 2014-2016 (million cubic feet) State 2016 6-Month YTD 2015 6-Month YTD 2014 6-Month YTD 2016 June May April March Alabama 99,834 94,194 94,595 15,245 16,730 15,853 16,683 Alaska 1,767 2,554 2,042 363 R 261 R 183 237 Arizona 10,197 10,246 11,406 1,537 1,584 1,570 1,701 Arkansas 40,688 44,426 44,551 5,975 6,363 6,457 6,885 California 373,627 376,811 376,525 62,742 63,299 61,587 62,711 Colorado

  2. Short-Term Energy Outlook - U.S. Energy Information Administration...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5a : U.S. Natural Gas Supply, Consumption, and Inventories Either scripts and active content are not permitted to run or Adobe Flash Player version versionmajor.versionminor...

  3. Short-Term Load Forecasting Error Distributions and Implications for Renewable Integration Studies: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodge, B. M.; Lew, D.; Milligan, M.

    2013-01-01

    Load forecasting in the day-ahead timescale is a critical aspect of power system operations that is used in the unit commitment process. It is also an important factor in renewable energy integration studies, where the combination of load and wind or solar forecasting techniques create the net load uncertainty that must be managed by the economic dispatch process or with suitable reserves. An understanding of that load forecasting errors that may be expected in this process can lead to better decisions about the amount of reserves necessary to compensate errors. In this work, we performed a statistical analysis of the day-ahead (and two-day-ahead) load forecasting errors observed in two independent system operators for a one-year period. Comparisons were made with the normal distribution commonly assumed in power system operation simulations used for renewable power integration studies. Further analysis identified time periods when the load is more likely to be under- or overforecast.

  4. Short-Term Energy Outlook - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Outlook Release Date: September 7, 2016 | Next Release Date: October 12, 2016 | Full Report | Text Only | All Tables | All Figures Glossary › FAQS › Overview STEO Report Highlights Prices Global Petroleum and Other Liquids U.S. Petroleum and Other Liquids Natural Gas Coal Electricity Renewables and Carbon Dioxide Emissions U.S. Economic Assumptions Data Figures Tables Custom Table Builder Real Prices Viewer Forecast Changes (PDF) Special Analysis Price Uncertainty Real Prices Viewer Real

  5. Short-Term Energy Outlook - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. Energy Information Administration - EIA - Independent Statistics and Analysis Sources & Uses Petroleum & Other Liquids Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas Exploration and reserves, storage, imports and exports, production, prices, sales. Electricity Sales, revenue and prices, power plants, fuel use, stocks, generation, trade, demand & emissions. Consumption & Efficiency Energy use in

  6. Short-Term Energy Outlook Supplement: 2014 Outlook for Gulf of...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... as well as refineries, gas processing plants, and power generating stations onshore. ... 3 Despite the potential for significant outages if a strong hurricane were to pass ...

  7. Short-Term Energy Outlook - U.S. Energy Information Administration...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Non-OPEC Liquid Fuels Production Outages XLSX PNG World Liquid Fuels Consumption ... Coal Production XLSX PNG U.S. Electric Power Coal Stocks XLSX PNG U.S. Electricity U.S. ...

  8. Short-Term Energy Outlook - U.S. Energy Information Administration...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    not permitted to run or Adobe Flash Player version versionmajor.versionminor.versionrevision or greater is not installed. Get Adobe Flash Player - no data available ...

  9. Short-Term Energy Outlook - U.S. Energy Information Administration...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    See STEO Supplement: Change in Regional and U.S. Degree-Day Calculations for more ... Projections: Based on forecasts by the NOAA Climate Prediction Center (http:...

  10. Short-Term Energy Outlook - U.S. Energy Information Administration...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    International crude oil prices increased compared with domestic ones in June. The Brent-Light Louisiana Sweet (LLS) differential increased 50 centsb since June 1, settling at -54 ...

  11. Risk management considerations for seismic upgrading of an older facility for short-term residue stabilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Additon, S.L.; Peregoy, W.L.; Foppe, T.L.

    1999-06-01

    Building 707 and its addition, Building 707A, were selected, after the production mission of Rocky Flats was terminated a few years ago, to stabilize many of the plutonium residues remaining at the site by 2002. The facility had undergone substantial safety improvements to its safety systems and conduct of operations for resumption of plutonium operations in the early 1990s and appeared ideally suited for this new mission to support accelerated Site closure. During development of a new authorization basis, a seismic evaluation was performed. This evaluation addressed an unanalyzed expansion joint and suspect connection details for the precast concrete tilt-up construction and concluded that the seismic capacity of the facility is less than half of that determined by previous analysis. Further, potential seismic interaction was identified between a collapsing Building 707 and the seismically upgraded Building 707A, possibly causing the partial collapse of the latter. Both the operating contractor and the Department of Energy sought a sound technical basis for deciding how to proceed. This paper addresses the risks of the as-is facility and possible benefits of upgrades to support a decision on whether to upgrade the seismic capacity of Building 707, accept the risk of the as-is facility for its short remaining mission, or relocate critical stabilization missions. The paper also addresses the Department of Energy`s policy on natural phenomena.

  12. OFermilab OFF-SITE SHORT-TERM HOUSING-2013--2014 Housing Office...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    regarding availability and current prices. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory I Kirk Road and Pine Street I P.O. Box 500 I Batavia. IL 60510 I 630.840.3000 I www.fnal.gov I...

  13. DOBEIA-0202(83/4Q) Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... Specifically, a 6- percent increase in coal-fired generation and a comparable increase in ... Growth in coke plant use of coal should be stronger in 1984 but is not expected to push ...

  14. DOE/EIA-0202(85/4Q) Short-Term Energy Outlook OBIS Quarterly

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... tion rates at coal-fired generating plants are estimated to have exceeded 52 percent in 1984.3 The current projections assume an increase in coal plant utilization to almost ...

  15. DOE/EIA-0202(87/2Q) Energy Information Administration Short-Term

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... Assuming higher oil prices in 1987, there should be an increase in coal-fired generation, ... Projections Natural Gas Plant Liquids Alaska Crude Production Lower 48 States Crude ...

  16. DOE/EIA-0202(87/3Q) Energy Information Administration Short-Term

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... is attributable mainly to increased coal-fired and nuclear generation at electric ... History Natural Gas Plant Liquids ' Alaska Crude Production Active Rotary Rigs 2,000 ...

  17. DOE/EIA-0202(88/3Q) Energy Information Administration Short-Term

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... Low water levels coming into 1988 and drought conditions this year have kept coal-fired plant utilization rates high in order to replace a significant loss of hydroelectric power. ...

  18. PHEV Battery Cost Assessment | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    es_02_barnett.pdf (615.99 KB) More Documents & Publications PHEV Battery Cost Assessment PHEV Battery Cost Assessment PHEV and LEESS Battery Cost Assessment

  19. Project Cost Profile Spreadsheet | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project Cost Profile Spreadsheet Project Cost Profile Spreadsheet File Project Cost Profile Spreadsheet.xlsx More Documents & Publications Statement of Work (SOW) Template ...

  20. Hydrogen Pathway Cost Distributions | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pathway Cost Distributions Hydrogen Pathway Cost Distributions Presentation on hydrogen pathway cost distributions presented January 25, 2006. PDF icon wkshpstorageuihlein.pdf...