Powered by Deep Web Technologies
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasifier costs short-term" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Appendix D Short-Term Analysis of Refinery Costs and Supply  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Short-Term Analysis of Refinery Costs and Supply 9302 Appendix D Short-Term Analysis of Refinery Costs and Supply As a result of the new regulations issued by the U.S. Estimating Components of the Distillate Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for ultra-low- Blend Pool sulfur diesel fuel (ULSD) the U.S. refining industry faces two major challenges: to meet the more stringent specifi- The initial step of the analysis was to analyze the poten- cations for diesel product, and to keep up with demand tial economics of producing ULSD for each refinery. by producing more diesel product from feedstocks of Using input and output data submitted to the Energy lower quality. Some refineries in the United States and Information Administration (E1A) by refiners, the cur-

2

Probabilistic Modeling and Evaluation of the Performance, Emissions, and Cost of Texaco Gasifier-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Probabilistic Modeling and Evaluation of the Performance, Emissions, and Cost of Texaco Gasifier.0 DOCUMENTATION OF THE PLANT PERFORMANCE SIMULATION MODEL IN ASPEN OF THE COAL-FUELED TEXACO-GASIFIER BASED IGCC to the Gasifier............................... 40 3.2.2 Gasification

Frey, H. Christopher

3

Short-Term Energy Outlook  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

(83/3Q) (83/3Q) Short-Term Energy Outlook iuarterly Projections August 1983 Energy Information Administration Washington, D.C. 20585 t rt jrt- .ort- iort- iort- iort- nort- lort- '.ort- ort- Tt- .-m .erm -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term Term .-Term -Term xrm Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy ^nergy -OJ.UUK Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term

4

Short-Term Energy Outlook  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Energy Information Administration | Short-Term Energy Outlook July 2013 1 July 2013 Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) Highlights The U.S. Energy Information ...

5

Short-Term Energy Outlook  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

U.S. Energy Information Administration Independent Statistics & Analysis Short Short- -Term Energy Outlook Term Energy Outlook Chart Gallery for Chart Gallery for November...

6

Short-Term Energy Outlook  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

DOE/EIA-0202(98/3Q) Distribution Category UC-950 Short-Term Energy Outlook July 1998 Energy Information Administration Office of Energy Markets and End Use

7

PNNL Coal Gasifier Transportation Logistics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides Pacific Northwest National laboratory (PNNL) craftspeople with the necessary information and suggested configurations to transport PNNL’s coal gasifier from its current location at the InEnTec facility in Richland, Washington, to PNNL’s Laboratory Support Warehouse (LSW) for short-term storage. A method of securing the gasifier equipment is provided that complies with the tie-down requirements of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration’s Cargo Securement Rules.

Reid, Douglas J.; Guzman, Anthony D.

2011-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

8

Why Do Emerging Economies Borrow Short Term?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We argue that emerging economies borrow short term due to the high risk premium charged by international capital markets on long-term debt. First, we present a model where the debt maturity structure is the outcome of a risk sharing problem between the government and bondholders. By issuing long-term debt, the government lowers the probability of a liquidity crisis, transferring risk to bondholders. In equilibrium, this risk is reflected in a higher risk premium and borrowing cost. Therefore, the government faces a trade-off between safer long-term borrowing and cheaper short-term debt. Second, we construct a new database of sovereign bond prices and issuance. We show that emerging economies pay a positive term premium (a higher risk premium on long-term bonds than on short-term bonds). During crises, the term premium increases, with issuance shifting toward shorter maturities. This suggests that changes in bondholders ’ risk aversion are important to understand emerging market crises.

unknown authors

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Short-Term Energy Outlook  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3 3 1 Short-Term Energy Outlook April 2003 Overview World Oil Markets. Crude oil prices fell sharply at the onset of war in Iraq, but the initial declines probably overshot levels that we consider to be generally consistent with fundamental factors in the world oil market. Thus, while near-term price averages are likely to be below our previous projections, the baseline outlook for crude oil prices (while generally lower) is not drastically different and includes an average for spot West Texas Intermediate (WTI) that is close to $30 per barrel in 2003 (Figure 1). The mix of uncertainties related to key oil production areas has changed since last month, as Venezuelan production has accelerated beyond previous estimates while Nigerian output has been reduced due to internal conflict.

10

Short Term Energy Outlook ,October 2002  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

October 2002 October 2002 1 Short-Term Energy Outlook October 2002 Overview World Oil Markets: Continued high oil prices are the result of declining OECD commercial oil inventories, worries over a potential clash with Iraq, and OPEC's decision to leave production quotas unchanged at its September meeting. Solid growth in world oil demand this winter (and for 2003 as a whole) is likely to tighten world oil markets and reduce commercial oil inventories. The West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil spot price averaged $29.75 in September, about $3.50 per barrel above the year-ago level and about $10 per barrel above a low point seen last January. Home Heating Costs Outlook: While fuel supplies should remain sufficient under normal weather

11

User's Guide Short-Term Energy Model  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The personal computer version of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Short Term Energy Outlook, known simply as the Short-Term Energy Model, is a modeling system used to forecast future values for key energy variables. It replicates in a Windows environment most features of EIA's mainframe-based short-term modeling system, and adds capabilities that allow the user substitute assumptions to calculate alternative projections.

Information Center

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

EIA Short -Term and Winter Fuels Outlook  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Short-Term Energy Outlook, October 2008 NASEO 2008/09 Winter Fuels Outlook Conference October 7, 2008 Washington, DC Howard Gruenspecht Acting ...

13

Short Term Energy Outlook - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Projections: EIA, Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System database, and Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels (hydroelectric and nuclear).

14

Short Term Energy Outlook - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Energy Information Administration/Short-Term Energy Outlook—February 2008 2 Global Petroleum OPEC left production targets unchanged at its February 1st ...

15

Short Term Energy Outlook - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Energy Information Administration/Short-Term Energy Outlook—March 2008 2 Diesel prices are projected to show larger gains in 2008, averaging $3.45 per

16

Short Term Energy Outlook - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Energy Information Administration/Short-Term Energy Outlook—January 2009 2 Global Petroleum Overview. The downward trend in oil prices continued in ...

17

Short Term Energy Outlook - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Energy Information Administration/Short-Term Energy Outlook—December 2008 2 Global Petroleum Overview The increasing likelihood of a prolonged global ...

18

Summary Short-Term Petroleum and Natural Gas Outlook  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Short-Term Petroleum and Natural Gas Outlook Short-Term Petroleum and Natural Gas Outlook 1/12/01 Click here to start Table of Contents Summary Short-Term Petroleum. and Natural Gas Outlook WTI Crude Oil Price: Base Case and 95% Confidence Interval Real and Nominal Crude Oil Prices OPEC Crude Oil Production 1999-2001 Total OECD Oil Stocks* U.S. Crude Oil Inventory Outlook U.S. Distillate Inventory Outlook Distillate Stocks Are Important Part of East Coast Winter Supply Retail Heating Oil and Diesel Fuel Prices Consumer Winter Heating Costs U.S. Total Gasoline Inventory Outlook Retail Motor Gasoline Prices* U.S. Propane Total Stocks Average Weekly Propane Spot Prices Current Natural Gas Spot Prices: Well Above the Recent Price Range Natural Gas Spot Prices: Base Case and 95% Confidence Interval Working Gas in Storage (Percentage Difference fron Previous 5-Year Average)

19

Short-Term Energy Outlook January 2014  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Chart Gallery for January 2014 Short-Term Energy Outlook U.S. Energy Information Administration Independent Statistics & Analysis 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 West Texas...

20

Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) quarterly forecasts of short-term energy supply, demand, and prices are revised in January, April, July, and October for publication in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes previous forecast errors, compares recent projections by other forecasters, and discusses current topics of the short-term energy markets (see Short- Term Energy Outlook: Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202). The principal users of the Outlook are managers and energy analysts in private industry and government. The projections in this volume extend through the fourth quarter of 1990. The forecasts are produced using the Short-term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). The STIFS model uses two principal driving variables: a macroeconomic forecast and world oil price assumptions. Macroeconomic forecasts produced by data Resources, Inc., (DRI), are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic forecast. EIA's Oil Market Simulation Model is used to project world oil prices. 20 refs., 17 figs., 16 tabs.

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasifier costs short-term" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections  

SciTech Connect

Energy Information Administration (EIA) quarterly forecasts of short-term energy supply, demand, and prices are revised in February, May, August, and November for publication in the Short-Term Energy Outlook, quarterly projections. Methodology volumes, which are published with the May and November issues, contain descriptions of the forecasting system and detailed analyses of the current issues that affect EIA's short-term energy forecasts. The forecasts are produced using the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). Two principal driving variables are used in the STIFS model: the macroeconomic forecast and the world oil price assumptions. The macroeconomic forecasts, which are produced by Data Resources, Inc., (DRI), are adjusted by EIA in cases where EIA projections of the world price of crude oil differ from DRI estimates. EIA's Oil Market Simulation Model is used to project the world oil prices. The three projections for petroleum supply and demand are based on low, medium, and high economic growth scenarios which incorporate high, medium, and low crude oil price trajectories. In general, the following discussion of the forecast refers to the medium, or base case, scenario. Total petroleum consumption sensitivities, using varying assumptions about the level of price, weather, and economic activity are tabulated.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Short Term Energy Outlook - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

The forecasts were generated by simulation of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System. 02-03 03-04 04-05 05-06 06-07 Avg.02-07 07-08 08-09 % Change Natural Gas

23

Electricity storage for short term power system service (Smart...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

storage for short term power system service (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name Electricity storage for short term power system service Country Denmark...

24

Implications of Wide-Area Geographic Diversity for Short- Term...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Implications of Wide-Area Geographic Diversity for Short- Term Variability of Solar Power Title Implications of Wide-Area Geographic Diversity for Short- Term Variability of Solar...

25

DOE/EIA-0202(88/3Q) Energy Information Administration Short-Term  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3Q) 3Q) Energy Information Administration Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections July 1988 Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy . oi Lor L- . ; Short-Term : Short-Term : Short-Term : Short-Term : Short-Term : Short-Term ; Short-Term . Short-Term : Short-Term : Short-Term . Short-Term : Short-Term : Short-Term ; Short-Term : Short-Term . Short-Term : Short-Term : Short-Term : Short-Term : Short-Term . Short-Term : Short-Term : Short-Term ; Short-Term . Short-Term Ent, Energ,, Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Ene r F- Ou Out, Outlc Outloc Outloo. Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlool Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlool

26

DOE/EIA-0202(87/3Q) Energy Information Administration Short-Term  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3Q) 3Q) Energy Information Administration Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections July 1987 aergy i . Energy ' Energy Energy Energy i Energy i . Energy . Energy Energy Energy . Energy . Energy Energy Energy Energy i Energy . Energy . Energy Energy Energy Energy . Energy "nergy ; Short-Term : Short-Term . Short-Term : Short-Term : Short-Term ; Short-Term : Short-Term ; Short-Term : Short-Term : Short-Term ; Short-Term ; Short-Term ; Short-Term : Short-Term : Short-Term ; Short-Term ; Short-Term ; Short-Term ; Short-Term : Short-Term : Short-Term ; Short-Term : Short-Term ; Short-Term ; Short-Term ; Short-T'- Ent. Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energv Ene1" F- Ou Out, Outlc Outloc.

27

Advanced Gasifier Pilot Plant Concept Definition  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents results from definition of a preferred commercial-scale advanced gasifier configuration and concept definition for a gasification pilot plant incorporating those preferred technologies. The preferred commercial gasifier configuration was established based on Cost Of Electricity estimates for an IGCC. Based on the gasifier configuration trade study results, a compact plug flow gasifier, with a dry solids pump, rapid-mix injector, CMC liner insert and partial quench system was selected as the preferred configuration. Preliminary systems analysis results indicate that this configuration could provide cost of product savings for electricity and hydrogen ranging from 15%-20% relative to existing gasifier technologies. This cost of product improvement draws upon the efficiency of the dry feed, rapid mix injector technology, low capital cost compact gasifier, and >99% gasifier availability due to long life injector and gasifier liner, with short replacement time. A pilot plant concept incorporating the technologies associated with the preferred configuration was defined, along with cost and schedule estimates for design, installation, and test operations. It was estimated that a 16,300 kg/day (18 TPD) pilot plant gasifier incorporating the advanced gasification technology and demonstrating 1,000 hours of hot-fire operation could be accomplished over a period of 33 months with a budget of $25.6 M.

Steve Fusselman; Alan Darby; Fred Widman

2005-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

28

DOE/EIA-0202(88/2Q) Energy Information Administration Short-Term  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2Q) 2Q) Energy Information Administration Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections April 1988 aergy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy E nergy Energy Energy Energy Energy '? nergy Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook '"""look Short-Terni Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term

29

Short-Term Energy Outlook Figures  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Independent Statistics & Analysis" Independent Statistics & Analysis" ,"U.S. Energy Information Administration" ,"Short-Term Energy Outlook Figures, December 2013" ,"U.S. Prices" ,,"West Texas Intermediate (WTI) Crude Oil Price" ,,"U.S. Gasoline and Crude Oil Prices" ,,"U.S. Diesel Fuel and Crude Oil Prices" ,,"Henry Hub Natural Gas Price" ,,"U.S. Natural Gas Prices" ,"World Liquid Fuels" ,,"World Liquid Fuels Production and Consumption Balance" ,,"Estimated Unplanned Crude Oil Production Outages Among OPEC Producers" ,,"Estimated Unplanned Crude Oil Production Disruptions Among non-OPEC Producers" ,,"World Liquid Fuels Consumption" ,,"World Liquid Fuels Consumption Growth"

30

Short-term energy outlook, July 1998  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares The Short-Term Energy Outlook (energy supply, demand, and price projections) monthly for distribution on the internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. In addition, printed versions of the report are available to subscribers in January, April, July and October. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from July 1998 through December 1999. Values for second quarter of 1998 data, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the July 1998 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. 28 figs., 19 tabs.

NONE

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Short-term energy outlook, January 1999  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares the Short-Term Energy Outlook (energy supply, demand, and price projections) monthly. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from January 1999 through December 2000. Data values for the fourth quarter 1998, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the January 1999 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 28 figs., 19 tabs.

NONE

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Short-Term Energy Outlook- May 2003  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3 3 1 Short-Term Energy Outlook May 2003 Overview World Oil Markets. The April 24 meeting of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) raised official quotas for members (excluding Iraq) by 0.9 million barrels per day from the previous (suspended) quota to 25.4 million barrels per day. OPEC members also sought tighter compliance with quotas, calling for production cuts of 2 million barrels per day from April levels. We expect these measures to result in an average total OPEC (including Iraq) crude oil production rate of about 26.7 million barrels per day in the second and third quarters. This production level is not significantly different from our base case assumptions in last month's report. Individual OPEC country shares of these output levels will depend upon the speed with which

33

August 2012 Short-Term Energy Outlook  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

August 2012 1 August 2012 1 August 2012 Short-Term Energy Outlook Highlights  EIA projects that the Brent crude oil spot price will average about $103 per barrel during the second half of 2012, about $3.50 per barrel higher than in last month's Outlook. The forecast Brent crude oil spot price falls to an average of $100 per barrel in 2013. The projected West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil spot price discount to Brent crude oil narrows from about $14 in the third quarter of 2012 to $9 by late 2013. These price forecasts assume that world oil-consumption-weighted real gross domestic product (GDP), which increased by 3.0 percent in 2011, grows by 2.8 percent in 2012 and 2.9

34

Short-Term Energy Outlook June 2013  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1 1 June 2013 Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) Highlights * After increasing to $119 per barrel in early February 2013, the Brent crude oil spot price fell to a low of $97 per barrel in mid-April and then recovered to an average of $103 per barrel in May. EIA expects that the Brent crude oil spot price will average $102 per barrel over the second half of 2013, and $100 per barrel in 2014. * EIA expects the price of regular gasoline will average $3.53 per gallon over the summer driving season (April through September). The annual average regular gasoline retail price is projected to decline from $3.63 per gallon in 2012 to $3.49 per gallon in 2013 and to $3.37 per gallon in 2014. Energy price forecasts are highly uncertain, and the current values of

35

Short Term Energy Outlook, February 2003  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3 3 1 Short-Term Energy Outlook February 2003 Overview World Oil Markets. World oil markets will likely remain tight through most of 2003, as petroleum inventories and global spare production capacity continue to dwindle amid blasts of cold weather and constrained output from Venezuela. OPEC efforts to increase output to make up for lower Venezuela output has reduced global spare production capacity to only 2 million barrels per day, leaving little room to make up for unexpected supply or demand surprises. Meanwhile, the average West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil price increased by $3.50 to $33 per barrel from December to January (Figure 1). For the year 2003, WTI oil prices are expected to remain over $30 per barrel, even though Venezuelan output appears to be moving toward normal sooner than expected. Also,

36

Berkeley Lab: Nearby Short-Term Accommodations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Accommodations Accommodations Visitor Information Maps and Directions to the Lab Offsite Shuttle Bus Service Bay Area Mass Transit Information Site Access Parking Permits and Gate Passes UC Berkeley Campus Map Nearby Short-Term Accommodations Guest House Berkeley Lab Guest House - The Berkeley Lab guest house is conveniently located on the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory campus and features 57 tastefully appointed guest rooms, many with spectacular views of the San Francisco bay, skyline, and City of Berkeley. The guest house is only a few minutes away from the University of California Berkeley Campus and the dynamic Berkeley community itself. It is available to visiting researchers and those conducting business with the University. The Faculty Club * U.C. Campus

37

Short Term Energy Outlook ,November 2002  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

November 2002 November 2002 1 Short-Term Energy Outlook November 2002 Overview World Oil Markets: During the past 3-4 months, OPEC 10 production has risen more quickly than projected, thus reducing upward pressure on prices. More specifically, while the West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil spot price averaged $28.84 in October, about $6.70 per barrel above the year-ago level (Figure 1), the WTI average price for fourth quarter 2002 is now projected to soften to $28.20, which is about $2 per barrel below our fourth-quarter projection from last month. Meanwhile, OECD inventory levels, which are now approaching 5 -year lows, should begin to rise over the next few months as additional supplies reach markets, and return to the middle of their observed range by spring.

38

Short-Term Energy Outlook July 2013  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1 1 July 2013 Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) Highlights  The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) expects that the Brent crude oil spot price will average $102 per barrel over the second half of 2013, and $100 per barrel in 2014. This forecast assumes there are no disruptions to energy markets arising from the recent unrest in Egypt. After increasing to $119 per barrel in early February 2013, the Brent crude oil spot price fell to a low of $97 per barrel in mid-April and then recovered to an average of $103 per barrel in May and June, about the same as its average over the same two-month period last year.  The discount of West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil to Brent crude oil, which averaged $18 per barrel in 2012 and increased to a monthly average of more than $20 per barrel in

39

Short Term Energy Outlook, March 2003  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3 3 1 Short-Term Energy Outlook March 2003 Overview World Oil Markets. February crude oil prices moved higher than expected pushed by fears of a war in Iraq, low inventories, slow recovery in Venezuelan exports, continued cold weather and sharply higher natural gas prices in the United States. West Texas Intermediate prices averaged close to $36 for the month (Figure 1), a level not seen since October 1990. Oil inventories continued lower through the month resulting in a cumulative reduction in total commercial stocks of 101 million barrels since September 30, 2002, the beginning of the heating season. Total OECD inventories reached an estimated 2,424 million barrels at the end of February, which would be the lowest level since

40

Short Term Energy Outlook, December 2002  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

December 2002 December 2002 1 Short-Term Energy Outlook December 2002 Overview World Oil Markets: Average crude oil prices fell by about $2.50 per barrel between October and November in response to continued high production levels from OPEC 10 countries (Figure 1). However, by the end of November oil prices had risen to end-October levels as concerns over the situations in Iraq and Venezuela pushed prices up. Oil inventories, which are currently in the lower portion of the previous 5-year range, are poised to rise to more comfortable levels soon if OPEC output continues at or above current levels. OPEC is considering cutbacks from current levels. Heating Fuels Update. As in October, weather was m uch colder than normal in November, boosting

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasifier costs short-term" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Investigation of the viability and cost effectiveness of solid fuel gasifiers close coupled to internal combustion engines for 200 kWe power generation. Technical progress report No. 9  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The viability and cost effectiveness of a 200 kWe engine generator unit fueled by a direct coupled, solid fuel gasifier were studied. Recent literature describing gasifier technology was obtained and personal visits were made to test facility sites and engine manufacturing plants to discuss the subject with researchers and engineers. Two prototype units were inspected, one of which was in partial operation. This report presents a brief discussion of fuel and gasifier technology, gas treatment (clean up) for engine use, engine use technology, other uses for gasifiers, the viability of close coupled units, and an estimate of cost effectiveness. Present small experimental gasifier systems perform as expected and have served to demonstrate the technology. Typically they operate with fuel species which are present and collected on the site of a processing plant. Certain needed development efforts are discussed. Also, fuel must be available at low cost and even then electric power produced in this way is unlikely to be competitive economically where utility poles are available. (LTN)

Mingle, J. G.; Junge, D. C.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Short-Term Energy Outlook Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook: EIA projects that natural gas prices will remain relatively high through the rest of 2003, with...

43

Short-Term Energy Carbon Dioxide Emissions Forecasts August 2009  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Supplement to the Short-Term Energy Outlook. Short-term projections for U.S. carbon dioxide emissions of the three fossil fuels: coal, natural gas, and petroleum.

Information Center

2009-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

44

Short-term energy outlook quarterly projections. First quarter 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short- term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets.

Not Available

1994-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

45

Short-Term Test Results: Multifamily Home Energy Efficiency Retrofit  

SciTech Connect

Multifamily deep energy retrofits (DERs) represent great potential for energy savings, while also providing valuable insights on research-generated efficiency measures, cost-effectiveness metrics, and risk factor strategies for the multifamily housing industry. The Bay Ridge project is comprised of a base scope retrofit with a goal of achieving 30% savings (relative to pre-retrofit), and a DER scope with a goal of 50% savings (relative to pre-retrofit). The base scope has been applied to the entire complex, except for one 12-unit building which underwent the DER scope. Findings from the implementation, commissioning, and short-term testing at Bay Ridge include air infiltration reductions of greater than 60% in the DER building; a hybrid heat pump system with a Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) > 1 (relative to a high efficiency furnace) which also provides the resident with added incentive for energy savings; and duct leakage reductions of > 60% using an aerosolized duct sealing approach. Despite being a moderate rehab instead of a gut rehab, the Bay Ridge DER is currently projected to achieve energy savings ? 50% compared to pre-retrofit, and the short-term testing supports this estimate.

Lyons, J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Short-term energy outlook, April 1999  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from April 1999 through December 2000. Data values for the first quarter 1999, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the April 1999 version of the Short-Term Integrated forecasting system (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 25 figs., 19 tabs.

NONE

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Energy Information Administration/Short-Term Energy Outlook - April 2005  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

April 2005 April 2005 1 Short-Term Energy Outlook April 2005 2005 Summer Motor Gasoline Outlook (Figure 1) Gasoline prices in 2005 are projected to remain high, at an expected average of $2.28 per gallon for the April to September summer season, 38 cents above last summer. Similar high motor gasoline prices are expected through 2006. Monthly average prices are projected to peak at about $2.35 per gallon in May. Summer diesel fuel prices are expected to average $2.24 per gallon. As in 2004, the primary factor behind these price increases is crude oil costs. WTI, for example, is projected to average 37 cents per gallon higher than last summer. High world oil demand will continue to support crude oil prices and increase competition for

48

January 2013 Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

(STEO) (STEO)  This edition of the Short-Term Energy Outlook is the first to include forecasts for 2014.  EIA expects that the Brent crude oil spot price, which averaged $112 per barrel in 2012, will fall to an average of $105 per barrel in 2013 and $99 per barrel in 2014. The projected discount of West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil to Brent, which averaged $18 per barrel in 2012, falls to an average of $16 per barrel in 2013 and $8 per barrel in 2014, as planned new pipeline capacity lowers the cost of moving Mid-continent crude oil to the Gulf Coast refining centers.  EIA expects that falling crude prices will help national average regular gasoline retail prices

49

Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers  

SciTech Connect

The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. This report covers Task 1.4, Industrial Trial of candidate materials developed by refractory producers and in the laboratory based on the results of Task 1.1, 1.2 and 1.3. Refractories provided by in-kind sponsors to industrial installations tested by cup testing, density/porosity determinations, chemical analysis and microscopy. None of the materials produced in this program have been tried in high temperature gasifiers, but the mortar developed Morcocoat SP-P is outperforming other mortars tested at ORNL. MORCO PhosGun M-90-O has shown in laboratory testing to be an acceptable candidate for hot and cold repairs of existing high temperature gasifiers. It may prove to be an acceptable lining material.

William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Laing

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, Third quarter 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202). The feature article for this issue is Demand, Supply and Price Outlook for Reformulated Gasoline, 1995.

1994-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

51

ShortShort--Term Energy Outlook Term Energy Outlook  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Energy Information Administration Independent Statistics & Analysis ShortShort--Term Energy Outlook Term Energy Outlook Chart Gallery for Chart Gallery for ...

52

Summary Short-Term Petroleum and Natural Gas Outlook  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table of Contents. Summary Short-Term Petroleum. and Natural Gas Outlook. WTI Crude Oil Price: Base Case and 95% Confidence Interval. Real and Nominal Crude Oil Prices

53

Short-Term Energy Outlook Supplement: Energy-weighted industrial...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Short-Term Energy Outlook Supplement: Energy-weighted industrial production indices December 2013 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy...

54

EIA Short-Term and Winter Fuels Outlook  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Washington, DC, October 12, 2011 Source: EIA Short-Term Energy Outlook, October 2011 History : Heating Oil Howard Gruenspecht, Winter Fuels Outlook 14

55

Short-Term Energy Outlook - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Energy Information Administration | Short-Term Energy and Winter Fuels Outlook October 2013 2 Projected Winter Fuel Expenditures by Fuel and Region

56

Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly/Biennial Updates  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Short-term forecasts of energy supply, demand, and price projections through 2001 for U.S. and International oil forecasts

Joe Ayoub

57

Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly/Biennial Updates  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Short-term forecasts of energy supply, demand, and price projections through 2001 for U.S. and International oil forecasts

2013-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

58

Short-Term Energy Outlook and Winter Fuels Outlook  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Short-Term Energy Outlook and Winter Fuels Outlook For NASEO Winter Fuels Outlook Conference November 1, 2013| Washington, DC By Adam Sieminski, Administrator EIA works closely...

59

EIA Short-Term and Winter Fuels Outlook  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

EIA Short-Term and Winter Fuels Outlook ... March 31) for fossil fuels but not electricity . Percent change in fuel bills from last winter (forecast) Fuel .

60

Short-Term Energy Outlook - U.S. Energy Information ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Short-Term Energy Outlook › ... Search EIA .gov. A-Z Index; A-Z ... Arizona's 250-megawatt Solana generation station became the first major solar ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasifier costs short-term" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Short-Term Energy Outlook September 2002 Overview  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Forecasting System database, and Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels. Energy Information Administration/Short-Term Energy Outlook -- September 2002 10

62

Short Term Energy Outlook and Summer Fuels Outlook  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Projections: EIA, Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System database, and Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels (hydroelectric and nuclear).

63

Short-Term Energy Outlook - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and

64

Short Term Energy Outlook July - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System and by EIA’s office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels (hydroelectric and nuclear).

65

Short Term Energy Outlook Supplement - U.S. Energy Information ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Energy Information Administration/Short-Term Energy Outlook Supplement – June 2007 4 Figure 2. Major Hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico, 1995?2006

66

PWR GASIFIER PEER REVIEW FINAL REPORT  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

PWR GASIFIER PEER REVIEW REPORT PWR GASIFIER PEER REVIEW REPORT 2/21/06 Background Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) signed a cooperative agreement with DOE on 9/30/04 to develop a novel gasifier concept, which is expected to improve the availability and efficiency of gasification-based power plants, and to reduce plant capital and operations costs. On 12/21/05, PWR submitted a proposal to continue development of their gasifier into the next phase. On January 24, 2006, a peer review was performed to review the work that PWR has done to date, their technical approach for future development, and to assess the potential benefit of the PWR gasifier and feed system technologies over state-of-the art coal gasification. The peer reviewers also evaluated a DOE analysis of the PWR refractory, and a DOE system study comparing the

67

DOE/EIA-0202(87/2Q) Energy Information Administration Short-Term  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2Q) 2Q) Energy Information Administration Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections April 1987 . m erm Term t-Term rt-Term jrt-Term ort-Term iort-Term ion-Term ion-Term lort-Term lort-Term ort-Term ort-Term Tt-Term ".-Term -Term Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy ^nergy Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term

68

Short-term energy outlook annual supplement, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement (supplement) is published once a year as a complement to the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook), Quarterly Projections. The purpose of the Supplement is to review the accuracy of the forecasts published in the Outlook, make comparisons with other independent energy forecasts, and examine current energy topics that affect the forecasts.

NONE

1993-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

69

Short-term energy outlook, annual supplement 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement (Supplement) is published once a year as a complement to the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook), Quarterly Projections. The purpose of the Supplement is to review the accuracy of the forecasts published in the Outlook, make comparisons with other independent energy forecasts, and examine current energy topics that affect the forecasts.

Not Available

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Short-Term Energy Outlook July 2013  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Refiner Average Crude Oil Cost 2.42 2.32 2.37 2.39 2.41 2.40 -1.2 3.7 1.3 Wholesale Gasoline Price c 2.99 3.02 3.00 2.84 2.75 2.79 -4.9 -8.9 -6.9 Wholesale Diesel Fuel Price c...

71

DOE/EIA-0202(84/1Q) Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1Q) 1Q) Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections February 1984 Published: March 1984 Energy Information Administration Washington, D.C. t rt jrt- .ort- iort- iort- .iort- iort- lort- Short-Term' Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term

72

DOE/EIA-0202(88/1Q) Energy Information Administration Short-Term  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

8/1Q) 8/1Q) Energy Information Administration Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections January 1988 .m erm Term t-Term rt-Term jrt-Term ort-Term ion-Term ion-Term tort-Term jort-Term ion-Term ort-Term ore-Term rt-Term 't-Term -Term Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy "^nergy Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook ~">Mook Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term

73

NETL: Gasifipedia - Entrained Flow Gasifiers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Entrained Flow Gasifiers Entrained Flow Gasifiers Uhde - Prenflo PRENFLO(tm) is a pressurized (>40 bar), entrained-flow gasification technology first demonstrated in the late 1980s, and currently offered by Uhde (Krupp Koppers merged with Uhde in 1997). Notably, PRENFLO(tm) is the gasification technology used at the world's largest solid feedstock-based gasifier at ELCOGAS's Puertollano IGCC plant in Spain (which is fueled with a 50%/50% mix of petcoke and coal). PRENFLO(tm) is offered in two varieties, the PRENFLO(tm) PSG (with steam generation) depicted in Figures 1 & 2, and PRENFLO(tm) PDQ (direct quench) as depicted in Figures 3 & 4. The gasifier conditions and feed characteristics are similar, but PRENFLO(tm) PSG includes an integrated waste heat boiler and uses compressed recirculated quench gas as illustrated in Figure 2, resulting in relatively low moisture raw syngas at relatively high exit temperature. PRENFLO(tm) PDQ uses direct quench, resulting in considerably lower raw syngas exit temperature (200-250°C) which is saturated. Uhde notes that PDQ has lower investment cost and shorter construction and supply schedule than PSG, though this would be at the performance expense of somewhat lower thermal efficiency and slightly higher concentration of CO2 in raw syngas.

74

Energy Information Administration/Short-Term Energy Outlook - August 2005  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 1 Short-Term Energy Outlook August 2005 Short-Term Energy Outlook - Regional Enhancements Starting with this edition of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO), EIA is introducing regional projections (the scope of which will vary by fuel) of energy prices, consumption, and production. The addition of regional data and forecasts will allow us to examine regional fuel demands and prices, regional fuel inventory trends, the interaction between regional electricity demand shifts, and regional electric generating capacity. This edition of STEO includes regional projections for heating oil, propane, and gasoline prices and natural gas and electricity demand and prices. Over the next 2 months, we will include additional regional

75

Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, Third quarter 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent projections with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the third quarter of 1995 through the fourth quarter of 1996. Values for the second quarter of 1995, however, are preliminary EIA estimates.

NONE

1995-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

76

Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

8 per MMBtu during the last 2 months of 2003 and increase to $4.36 in January 2004 (Short-Term Energy Outlook, November 2003). Prices have fallen in the past few months as mild weather and reduced industrial demand have allowed record storage refill rates. As of October 31, 2003, working gas levels had reached 3,155 Bcf, which is about 3 percent higher than the 5-year average and the first time since October 2002 that stocks exceeded the year-earlier levels. With the improved storage situation, wellhead prices during the current heating season (November through March) are expected to be about 12 percent less than last winter ($4.12 vs. $4.68 per MMBtu). However, prices in the residential sector will likely be about 8 percent higher than last winter, as accumulated natural gas utility costs through 2003 are recovered in higher household delivery charges. Overall in 2003, wellhead prices are expected to average $4.76 per MMBtu, which is nearly $2 more than the 2002 annual average and the largest year-to-year increase on record. For 2004, wellhead prices are projected to drop by nearly $0.90 per MMBtu, or about 18 percent, to $3.88 per MMBtu as the overall supply situation improves.

77

The Vermont Gasifier  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new demonstration biomass gasifier in Burlington, Vermont, is a major advance toward biopower systems of the 21st century. The purpose of the project is to verify design and operating characteristics of this gasification technology at an intermediate size. The Vermont gasifier is rated at 200 tons of biomass per day. The demonstration will allow further scale-up to a first-of-its-kind commercial gasifier to be demonstrated in the future at an industrial or utility scale.

Jones, J.; Wulf, T.

1998-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

78

Short-Term Climate Predictions for Water Management  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Short-term climate predictions (two weeks to two years) have many applications in operation of water supply and flood control facilities. They can influence use of water for irrigation, hydroelectric power production, flood control operation, ...

Charles A. McCullough

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Short-term CO? abatement in the European power sector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper focuses on the possibilities for short term abatement in response to a CO2 price through fuel switching in the European power sector. The model E-Simulate is used to simulate the electricity generation in Europe ...

Delarue, Erik D.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Short-Term Climate Extremes: Prediction Skill and Predictability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Forecasts for extremes in short-term climate (monthly means) are examined to understand the current prediction capability and potential predictability. This study focuses on 2-m surface temperature and precipitation extremes over North and South ...

Emily J. Becker; Huug van den Dool; Malaquias Peña

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasifier costs short-term" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Short-Term Energy Outlook - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Energy Information Administration | Short-Term Energy Outlook August 2013 2 Global Crude Oil and Liquid Fuels . The recent increase in crude oil and liquid fuels ...

82

Short-Term Forecast Validation of Six Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The short-term forecast accuracy of six different forecast models over the western United States is described for January, February, and March 1996. Four of the models are operational products from the National Centers for Environmental ...

Bryan G. White; Jan Paegle; W. James Steenburgh; John D. Horel; Robert T. Swanson; Louis K. Cook; Daryl J. Onton; John G. Miles

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Regional Short-Term Energy Model (RSTEM) Overview  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The Regional Short-Term Energy Model (RSTEM) utilizes estimated econometric relationships for demand, inventories and prices to forecast energy market outcomes across key sectors and selected regions throughout the United States.

Information Center

2009-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

84

Short-Term Energy and Winter Fuels Outlook October 2013  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

and Winter Fuels Outlook October 2013 1 October 2013 Short-Term Energy and Winter Fuels Outlook (STEO) Highlights EIA projects average U.S. household expenditures for natural...

85

Wind Power Integration: Smoothing Short-Term Power Fluctuations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the rapid growth of wind power generation, utility systems are beginning to feel the intermittent and variable nature of these wind resources in electricity transmission and distribution system operations. Both short-term power fluctuations resulting from gusty winds and longer term variations resulting from diurnal wind speed variations and shifting weather patterns can affect utility power delivery as well as grid operations. This report addresses the characteristics of short-term power fluctuatio...

2005-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

86

Model documentation of the Short-Term Coal Analysis System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The short-term coal analysis system (SCOAL) is used by the Data Analysis and Forecasting Branch (DAFB) as an analytic aid to support preparation of short-term projections of bituminous coal and lignite production at the state level, and anthracite production, domestic imports of coal, and domestic and export demand for US coal at the national level. A description of SCOAL is presented which includes a general overview of the model and its analytical capabilities. (DMC)

Not Available

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Short-term energy outlook: Annual supplement, 1987  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) publishes forecasts of short-term energy supply, demand, and prices in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). This volume, Short-Term Energy Outlook, Annual Supplement, (Supplement) discusses major changes in the forecasting methodology, analyzes previous forecast errors, and examines current issues that affect EIA's short-term energy forecasts. The principal users of the Supplement are managers and energy analysts in private industry and government. Chapter 2 evaluates the accuracy of previous short-term energy forecasts and the major assumptions underlying these forecasts published in the last 13 issues of the Outlook. Chapter 3 compares the EIA's present energy projections with past projections and with recent projections made by other forecasting groups. Chapter 4 analyzes the 1986 increase in residual fuel oil demand after 8 consecutive years of decline. Sectoral analysis shows where and why this increase occurred. Chapter 5 discusses the methodology, estimation, and forecasts of fossil fuel shares used in the generation of electricity. Chapter 6 presents an update of the methodology used to forecast natural gas demand, with an emphasis on sectoral disaggregation. Chapter 7 compares the current use of generation data as a representation of short-term electricity demand with proposed total and sectoral sales equations. 8 refs., 7 figs., 63 tabs.

1987-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

88

Commercial gasifier for IGCC applications study report  

SciTech Connect

This was a scoping-level study to identify and characterize the design features of fixed-bed gasifiers appearing most important for a gasifier that was to be (1) potentially commercially attractive, and (2) specifically intended for us in integrated coal gasification/combined-cycle (IGCC) applications. It also performed comparative analyses on the impact or value of these design features and on performance characteristics options of the whole IGCC system since cost, efficiency, environmental traits, and operability -- on a system basis -- are what is really important. The study also reviewed and evaluated existing gasifier designs, produced a conceptual-level gasifier design, and generated a moderately advanced system configuration that was utilized as the reference framework for the comparative analyses. In addition, technical issues and knowledge gaps were defined. 70 figs., 31 tabs.

Notestein, J.E.

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

DOE/EIA-0202(84/2QH Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2QH 2QH Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections May 1984 Published: June 1984 Energy Information Administration Washington, D.C. t rt jrt .ort lort .iort .iort- iort- iort- '.ort- ort- .m .erm Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term i-Term rTerm -Term xrm uergy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy ^nergy Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Short-Tern Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term

90

DOE/EIA-0202(85/2Q) Short-Term Energy Outlook  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2Q) 2Q) Short-Term Energy Outlook amm Quarterly Projections April 1985 Published: May 1985 Energy Information Administration Washington, D C t rt jrt .ort lort .iort iort iort lort '.ort ort .erm -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term xrm nergy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term

91

Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook EIA Home > Natural Gas > Natural Gas Weekly Update Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook This summary is based on the most recent Short-Term Energy Outlook released May 6, 2002. EIA projects that natural gas wellhead prices will average $2.73 per MMBtu in 2002 compared with about $4.00 per MMBtu last year (Short-Term Energy Outlook, May 2002). This projection reflects the sharp increases in spot and near-term futures prices in recent weeks. Average wellhead prices have risen 38 percent from $2.14 per MMBtu in February to an estimated $2.96 in April. Spot prices at the Henry Hub have increased to an even greater extent, rising more than $1.50 per MMBtu since early February. The upward price trend reflects a number of influences, such as unusual weather patterns that have led to increased gas consumption, and tensions in the Middle East and rising crude oil prices. Other factors contributing to the recent price surge include the strengthening economy, the increased capacity and planned new capacity of gas-burning power plants, and concerns about the decline in gas-directed drilling.

92

Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections. Second quarter 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent projections with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the second quarter of 1995 through the fourth quarter of 1996. Values for the first quarter of 1995, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled into the second quarter 1995 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service.

NONE

1995-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

93

Status and evaluation of hybrid electric vehicle batteries for short term applications. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this task is to compile information regarding batteries which could be use for electric cars or hybrid vehicles in the short term. More specifically, this study applies lead-acid batteries and nickel-cadmium battery technologies which are more developed than the advanced batteries which are presently being investigated under USABC contracts and therefore more accessible in production efficiency and economies of scale. Moreover, the development of these batteries has advanced the state-of-the-art not only in terms of performance and energy density but also in cost reduction. The survey of lead-acid battery development took the biggest part of the effort, since they are considered more apt to be used in the short-term. Companies pursuing the advancement of lead-acid batteries were not necessarily the major automobile battery manufacturers. Innovation is found more in small or new companies. Other battery systems for short-term are discussed in the last part of this report. We will review the various technologies investigated, their status and prognosis for success in the short term.

Himy, A. [Westinghouse Electric Co., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Machinery Technology Div.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers  

SciTech Connect

The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesia aluminate and baria aluminate spinels for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS  

SciTech Connect

The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesia aluminate and baria aluminate spinels for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

William L. Headrick Jr.; Alireza Rezaie

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers  

SciTech Connect

The University of Missouri-Rolla identified materials that permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project was to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study attempted to define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials were selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; and were functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development were divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesium aluminate and barium aluminate for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO{sub 2} and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The University of Missouri-Rolla identified materials that permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project was to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study attempted to define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials were selected or developed that reacted with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; and were functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical and physical properties and chemical stability; and are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development was divided into 2 tasks: Task 1 was development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesium aluminate and barium aluminate for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO2 and SiC. Task 2 was finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie; Xiaoting Liang; Musa Karakus; Jun Wei

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement 1995  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5) 5) Distribution Category UC-950 Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement 1995 Energy Information Administration Office of Energy Markets and End Use U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or any other organization. Energy Information Administration/ Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement 1995 ii Contacts Contacts The Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement is prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), Office of Energy Markets and End Use (EMEU). General questions concerning the content of the report may be directed to W. Calvin Kilgore (202/586-1617),

99

Short-Term Energy Outlook, Annual Supplement 1994  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4) 4) Distribution Category UC-950 Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement 1994 Energy Information Administration Office of Energy Markets and End Use U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or any other organization. Energy Information Administration/ Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement 1994 ii Contacts Contacts The Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement is prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), Office of Energy Markets and End Use (EMEU). General questions concerning the content of the report may be directed to W. Calvin Kilgore (202/586-1617),

100

Model documentation report: Short-Term Hydroelectric Generation Model  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Short- Term Hydroelectric Generation Model (STHGM), describe its basic approach, and to provide details on the model structure. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the general public. Documentation of the model is in accordance with the Energy Information Administration`s (AYE) legal obligation to provide adequate documentation in support of its models (Public Law 94-385, Section 57.b.2). The STHGM performs a short-term (18 to 27- month) forecast of hydroelectric generation in the United States using an autoregressive integrated moving average (UREMIA) time series model with precipitation as an explanatory variable. The model results are used as input for the short-term Energy Outlook.

Not Available

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasifier costs short-term" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Electricity storage for short term power system service (Smart Grid  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

storage for short term power system service (Smart Grid storage for short term power system service (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name Electricity storage for short term power system service Country Denmark Coordinates 56.26392°, 9.501785° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":56.26392,"lon":9.501785,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

102

Short-Termed Integrated Forecasting System: 1993 Model documentation report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to define the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) and describe its basic properties. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Energy Department (DOE) developed the STIFS model to generate short-term (up to 8 quarters), monthly forecasts of US supplies, demands, imports exports, stocks, and prices of various forms of energy. The models that constitute STIFS generate forecasts for a wide range of possible scenarios, including the following ones done routinely on a quarterly basis: A base (mid) world oil price and medium economic growth. A low world oil price and high economic growth. A high world oil price and low economic growth. This report is written for persons who want to know how short-term energy markets forecasts are produced by EIA. The report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public.

Not Available

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Short-Term Wind Speed Forecasting for Power System Operations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Global large scale penetration of wind energy is accompanied by significant challenges due to the intermittent and unstable nature of wind. High quality short-term wind speed forecasting is critical to reliable and secure power system operations. This paper gives an overview of the current status of worldwide wind power developments and future trends, and reviews some statistical short-term wind speed forecasting models, including traditional time series models and advanced space-time statistical models. It also discusses the evaluation of forecast accuracy, in particular the need for realistic loss functions. New challenges in wind speed forecasting regarding ramp events and offshore wind farms are also presented.

Xinxin Zhu; Marc G. Genton

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Short-term energy outlook: Annual supplement 1989  

SciTech Connect

This Supplement is published once a year as a complement to the Short-Term Energy Outlook, Quarterly Projections (Outlook). The purpose is to review the accuracy of the forecasts presented in the Outlook, make comparisons with other independent energy forecasts, and examine current energy topics that affect the forecasts. A brief description of the content of each chapter follows below: Chapter 2 evaluates the accuracy of the short-term energy forecasts published in the last 6 issues of the Outlook, for 1988/1989. Chapter 3 discusses the economics of the petrochemical feedstock market, and describes a new model which more fully captures the determinants of feedstock demand. Chapter 4 examines present and proposed new methods of forecasting short-term natural gas prices at the wellhead and spot prices. Chapter 5 discusses the modeling of natural demand in the short term. Chapter 6 discusses regional trends in the demand for fuel by electric utilities. Chapter 7 focuses on industrial coal use trends in recent years. Chapter 8 compares EIA's base case energy projections as published in the Outlook (89/2Q) with recent projections made by three other major forecasting groups. The chapter focuses on macroeconomic assumptions, primary energy demand, and primary energy supply, showing the differences and similarities in the four forecasts.

1989-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

105

Integrated Short Term Navigation of a Towed Underwater Body*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Integrated Short Term Navigation of a Towed Underwater Body* G. Damy' M. Joannides2 F. LeGland3 M. An underwater body, to be called here- after the fish, is towed by a surface ship at the end of a few hundred cannot provide any position estimates of an underwater body such as a towed fish, but only position

LeGland, François

106

Measuring Short-term Air Conditioner Demand Reductions for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

allow users to look up the demand reduction per device based on the daily maximum temperatureLBNL-5330E Measuring Short-term Air Conditioner Demand Reductions for Operations and Settlement-term Air Conditioner Demand Reductions for Operations and Settlement Josh Bode, Michael J. Sullivan Freeman

107

Short-term hydropower production planning by stochastic programming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Within the framework of multi-stage mixed-integer linear stochastic programming we develop a short-term production plan for a price-taking hydropower plant operating under uncertainty. Current production must comply with the day-ahead commitments of ... Keywords: Hydropower, OR in energy, Scenarios, Stochastic programming

Stein-Erik Fleten; Trine Krogh Kristoffersen

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Short-Term Solar Energy Forecasting Using Wireless Sensor Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Short-Term Solar Energy Forecasting Using Wireless Sensor Networks Stefan Achleitner, Tao Liu in power output is a major concern and forecasting is, therefore, a top priority. We propose a sensing infrastructure to enable sensing of solar irradiance with application to solar array output forecasting

Cerpa, Alberto E.

109

Enhancements to ANNSTLF, EPRI's Short Term Load Forecaster  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reliable hourly load forecasts are important to electric utilities, power marketers, energy service providers, and independent system operators. To meet this need, EPRI's Artificial Neural Net Short Term Load Forecaster (ANNSTLF), which is already implemented at more than thirty-five utilities, was recently enhanced for greater accuracy and user friendliness.

1997-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

110

Short-Term Energy Outlook: Quarterly projections. Fourth quarter 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the fourth quarter of 1993 through the fourth quarter of 1994. Values for the third quarter of 1993, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data are EIA data published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications.

Not Available

1993-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

111

Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, second quarter 1996  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Energy Information Administration prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections. The forecasts in this issue cover the second quarter of 1996 through the fourth quarter of 1997. Changes to macroeconomic measures by the Bureau of Economic Analysis have been incorporated into the STIFS model used.

NONE

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

RESEARCH ARTICLE Empirical assessment of short-term variability from  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

RESEARCH ARTICLE Empirical assessment of short-term variability from utility-scale solar PV plants grid because additional system resources are required to maintain the grid's reliability. In this study-term variability; PV plant ramp rate; daily aggregate ramp rate; inverter shells *Correspondence Rob van Haaren

113

Short-Term Energy Outlook - U.S. Energy Information ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Search EIA.gov. A-Z Index; A-Z Index A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W XYZ ‹ Analysis & Projections Short-Term Energy Outlook . ...

114

Short-term energy outlook, Quarterly projections. Third quarter 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the third quarter of 1993 through the fourth quarter of 1994. Values for the second quarter of 1993, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data are EIA data published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding.

NONE

1993-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

115

DOE/EIA-0202(87/4Q) Energy Information Administration Short-Term  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4Q) 4Q) Energy Information Administration Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections October 1987 i- rt- jrt ort lort lort lort- iort- lort- ort- ort Tt- " t- . m erm Perm -Term -Term -Term -Term ,-Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term 71 e rrn TT1 "1 Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy "nergy -cry Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook ""'tlook Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term Short-Term

116

EIA Short-Term Energy and Winter Fuels OutlookWinter Fuels Outlook  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Home heating oil retail price includes taxes. 16 Source: EIA Short-Term Energy Outlook, October 2012 Short-Term Energy and Winter Fuels Outlook October 10, 2012.

117

Comparisons of Short Term Load Forecasting using Artificial Neural Network and Regression Method  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In power systems the next day’s power generation must be scheduled every day, day ahead short-term load forecasting (STLF) is a necessary daily task for power dispatch. Its accuracy affects the economic operation and reliability of the system greatly. Under prediction of STLF leads to insufficient reserve capacity preparation and in turn, increases the operating cost by using expensive peaking units. On the other hand, over prediction of STLF leads to the unnecessarily large reserve capacity, which is also related to high operating cost. the research work in this area is still a challenge to the electrical engineering scholars because of its high complexity. How to estimate the future load with the historical data has remained a difficulty up to now, especially for the load forecasting of holidays, days with extreme weather and other anomalous days. With the recent development of new mathematical, data mining and artificial intelligence tools, it is potentially possible to improve the forecasting result. This paper presents a new neural network based approach for short-term load forecasting that uses the most correlated weather data for training, validating and testing the neural network. Correlation analysis of weather data determines the input parameters of the neural networks. And its results compare to regression method. Index terms Load Forecasting, artificial neural network, short term

Mr. Rajesh Deshmukh; Dr. Amita Mahor

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Record of Decision for BPA Short-Term Marketing and Operating Arrangements (1/31/96)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

0 0 Federal Register / Vol. 61, No. 21 / Wednesday, January 31, 1996 / Notices Bonneville Power Administration Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for Short-Term Marketing and Operating Arrangements AGENCY: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Notice of Availability of Record of Decision (ROD). SUMMARY: BPA has decided to enter into short-term marketing and operational arrangements in order to participate continuously in the open electric power market. These arrangements would enable BPA to achieve the best reliability and expected economic outcome, as well as to best meet its environmental responsibilities, given diverse market conditions. This decision would support power cost control, enhance BPA competitiveness, and provide public benefits. The

119

Energy Information Administration/Short-Term Energy Outlook - October 2005  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 1 October 2005 Short-Term Energy Outlook and Winter Fuels Outlook October 12, 2005 Release (Next Update: November 8, 2005) Overview Warnings from previous Outlooks about the potential adverse impacts of an active hurricane season on domestic energy supply and prices are unfortunately being reflected in the challenging realities brought about by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. The impact of the hurricanes on oil and natural gas production, oil refining, natural gas processing, and pipeline systems have further strained already-tight natural gas and petroleum product markets on the eve of the 2005-2006 heating season (October through March). This combined Short-Term Energy and Winter Fuels Outlook provides a current view of domestic energy supply and

120

Short-Term Energy and Winter Fuels Outlook October 2013  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

and Winter Fuels Outlook October 2013 1 and Winter Fuels Outlook October 2013 1 October 2013 Short-Term Energy and Winter Fuels Outlook (STEO) Highlights  EIA projects average U.S. household expenditures for natural gas and propane will increase by 13% and 9%, respectively, this winter heating season (October 1 through March 31) compared with last winter. Projected U.S. household expenditures are 2% higher for electricity and 2% lower for heating oil this winter. Although EIA expects average expenditures for households that heat with natural gas will be significantly higher than last winter, spending for gas heat will still be lower than the previous 5-year average (see EIA Short-Term Energy and Winter Fuels Outlook slideshow).  Brent crude oil spot prices fell from a recent peak of $117 per barrel in early September to

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasifier costs short-term" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Short-term hydroelectric generation model. Model documentation report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Short-Term Hydroelectric Generation Model (STHGM), describe its basic approach, and to provide details on the model structure. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the general public. Documentation of the model is in accordance with the EIA`s legal obligation to provide adequate documentation in support of its models.

NONE

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Electricity price short-term forecasting using artificial neural networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the System Marginal Price (SMP) short-term forecasting implementation using the Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) computing technique. The described approach uses the three-layered ANN paradigm with back-propagation. The retrospective SMP real-world data, acquired from the deregulated Victorian power system, was used for training and testing the ANN. The results presented in this paper confirm considerable value of the ANN based approach in forecasting the SMP.

Szkuta, B.R.; Sanabria, L.A.; Dillon, T.S. [La Trobe Univ., Melbourne (Australia). Applied Computing Research Inst.

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Split flow gasifier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A-moving bed coal gasifier for the production of tar-free, low ammonia fuel gas is described. The gasifier employs a combustion zone in a free-aboard area above the moving bed to burn coal fines to provide hot combustion gases for pyrolyzing and gasifying coal particulates in the moving bed to form fuel gas as the hot gases move co-currently with the downwardly moving coal particulates. The fuel gas contains entrained tars and ammonia compounds which contact hot char and ash in the moving bed and are cracked so that the fuel gas removed from the gasifier at a midpoint off-take is essentially tar-free and of low ammonia content. Concurrently with this gasification reaction, steam and an oxidant are introduced into a region below the moving bed to flow countercurrently to the downwardly moving bed to contact and react with carbon remaining in the char to create additional fuel gas which is also extracted from the gasifier at the mid-point off-take.

Halow, J.S.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

124

Analysis of the causes of failure in high chrome oxide refractory materials from slagging gasifiers  

SciTech Connect

High Cr2O3 refractory materials are used to line the hot face of slagging gasifiers. Gasifiers are reaction chambers that convert water, oxygen, and a carbon feedstock into CO, H2, and methane at temperatures as high as 1575oC and pressures up to 1000 psi. Ash in the carbon feedstock liquefies, erodes and corrodes the gasifier’s refractory liner, contributing to liner failure within a few months to two years. The failure of a refractory liner decreases a gasifier’s on-line availability and causes costly system downtime and repairs. Many factors contribute to refractory lining failure, including slag penetration and corrosion, thermal cycling, gasifier environment, and mechanical loads. The results of refractory post-mortem failure analysis and how observations relate to gasifier service life will be discussed.

Bennett, J.P.; Kwong, K.-S.; Powell, C.A.; Thomas, H.; Krabbe, R.A.

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Short-Term Energy Outlook - U.S. Energy Information Administration ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Greenhouse gas data, voluntary report- ing, electric power plant emissions. Highlights Short-Term Energy Outlook ...

126

Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Model  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Description of the procedures for estimating carbon dioxide emissions in the Short-Term Energy Outlook

Information Center

2009-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

127

NETL: Gasification Systems - Real Time Flame Monitoring of Gasifier...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Real Time Flame Monitoring of Gasifier Burner and Injectors Project No.: DE-FC26-02NT41585 Gas Technology Institute is developing a reliable, practical, and cost effective means to...

128

NETL: Gasification Systems - Development of Prototype Commercial Gasifier  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Development of Prototype Commercial Gasifier Sensor Development of Prototype Commercial Gasifier Sensor Project No.: DE-FE0008350 Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is developing a reliable, practical, and cost effective means to monitor coal gasifier flame characteristics using an optical flame sensor. This project builds on GTI's sensor technology developed under the "Real Time Flame Monitoring of Gasifier Burner and Injectors" DE-FC26-02NT41585 and is focused on the sensor hardware modifications needed to; provide gasifier operators with real time temperature data, improve reliability of the sensor system. Long term (six months) testing will be performed to determine sensor accuracy and reliability. An evaluation will be performed to determine the commercial viability of the sensor system.

129

Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections, second quarter 1997  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in January, April, July, and October in the Outlook. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the second quarter of 1997 through the fourth quarter of 1998. Values for the first quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the second quarter 1997 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). 34 figs., 19 tabs.

NONE

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, first quarter 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Outlook. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the first quarter of 1996 through the fourth quarter of 1997. Values for the fourth quarter of 1995, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled into the first quarter 1996 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service. The cases are produced using the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook.

NONE

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Energy Information Administration/Short-Term Energy Outlook - February 2005  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

February 2005 February 2005 1 Short-Term Energy Outlook February 2005 Winter Fuels Update (Figure 1) Despite some cold weather during the second half of January, expected average consumer prices for heating fuels this heating season are little changed since the January Outlook, leaving projections for household heating fuel expenditures about the same as previously reported. Heating oil expenditures by typical Northeastern households are expected to average 32 percent above last winter's levels, with residential fuel oil prices averaging $1.82 per gallon for the October-to-March period. Expenditures for propane-heated households are expected to increase about

132

Energy Information Administration/Short-Term Energy Outlook - January 2005  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

January 2005 January 2005 1 Short-Term Energy Outlook January 2005 Winter Fuels Update (Figure 1) Consumer prices for heating fuels are relatively unchanged since the December Outlook, leaving projections for household heating fuel expenditures about the same as previously projected, despite continued warm weather in the middle of the heating season. Heating oil expenditures by typical Northeastern households are expected to average 30 percent above last winter's levels, with residential fuel oil prices averaging $1.82 per gallon for the October-to-March period. Expenditures for propane-heated households are expected to increase about 20 percent this winter.

133

Short-term energy outlook, quarterly projections, second quarter 1998  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections. The details of these projections, as well as monthly updates, are available on the Internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. The paper discusses outlook assumptions; US energy prices; world oil supply and the oil production cutback agreement of March 1998; international oil demand and supply; world oil stocks, capacity, and net trade; US oil demand and supply; US natural gas demand and supply; US coal demand and supply; US electricity demand and supply; US renewable energy demand; and US energy demand and supply sensitivities. 29 figs., 19 tabs.

NONE

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Short-term energy outlook, Annual supplement 1995  

SciTech Connect

This supplement is published once a year as a complement to the Short- Term Energy Outlook, Quarterly Projections. The purpose of the Supplement is to review the accuracy of the forecasts published in the Outlook, make comparisons with other independent energy forecasts, and examine current energy topics that affect the forecasts. Chap. 2 analyzes the response of the US petroleum industry to the recent four Federal environmental rules on motor gasoline. Chap. 3 compares the EIA base or mid case energy projections for 1995 and 1996 (as published in the first quarter 1995 Outlook) with recent projections made by four other major forecasting groups. Chap. 4 evaluates the overall accuracy. Chap. 5 presents the methology used in the Short- Term Integrated Forecasting Model for oxygenate supply/demand balances. Chap. 6 reports theoretical and empirical results from a study of non-transportation energy demand by sector. The empirical analysis involves the short-run energy demand in the residential, commercial, industrial, and electrical utility sectors in US.

1995-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

135

Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, third quarter 1996  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in January, April, July, and October in the Outlook. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the third quarter of 1996 through the fourth quarter of 1997. Values for the second quarter of 1996, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the third quarter 1996 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service.

NONE

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Energy Information Administration/Short-Term Energy Outlook - May 2005  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 1 Short-Term Energy Outlook May 2005 2005 Summer Motor Gasoline Outlook Update (Figure 1) A considerable break in the expected strength of near-term crude oil prices has resulted in a lower forecast for retail gasoline prices this spring. Gasoline prices may well have seen their peak for the year, barring sharp disruptions in crude oil supply or refinery operations. Pump prices for the summer (April-September) are now projected to average $2.17 per gallon, still high by historical standards but well below the $2.28 anticipated last month. Our projection has been revised downward from the last Outlook as crude oil prices fell from the high $50s per barrel to the low $50s. However, oil prices remain high enough to keep expected

137

Efficient Tracking for Short-Term Multi-Company Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Tracking of shipments is an important element of customer service in the transportation industry; and essential for logistics services as merge-in-transit. However, contemporary tracking systems are designed for use within a single company, and are thus invariably inadequate for multi-company environments. The single company focus has led to a reduced span of monitoring and a diluted accessibility of information due to proprietary tracking codes and information architectures centred on the tracking service provider. This paper presents a novel forwarder-independent approach for solving the difficulties of tracking in multi-company supply networks. The research argues that the proposed tracking approach is superior to contemporary approaches for material flow tracking in short-term multi-company distribution networks.

Mikko Kärkkäinen; Timo Ala-Risku; Kary Främling

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

63 and $2.72 per MMBtu during the months through October without the wide variations that occurred over the spring and early summer months (Short-Term Energy Outlook, August 2002). Prices are expected to be less variable unless unusually hot weather in late summer results in gas being diverted from storage to meet the added cooling demand, or colder-than-normal weather for October results in an unexpected drawdown of storage stocks. Overall in 2002, wellhead prices are expected to average about $2.73 per MMBtu compared with $4.00 in 2001. Prices during the upcoming heating season (November through March), assuming normal weather, are expected to average close to $3.12 per MMBtu, which is about $0.75 higher than last winter's price but only about 10-15 percent higher than current prices.

139

Energy Information Administration/Short-Term Energy Outlook - June 2005  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 1 Short-Term Energy Outlook June 2005 2005 Summer Motor Fuels Outlook Update (Figure 1) In May, while West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil prices oscillated from the low $50s range to $47 and back again, retail gasoline prices declined steadily from about $2.24 per gallon at the beginning of the month to $2.10 on May 30. On June 6, average retail prices were $2.12 per gallon. Pump gasoline prices for the summer (April-September) are now projected to average $2.17 per gallon, similar to last month's projection but still about 26 cents per gallon above the year-ago level. Crude oil prices are expected to remain high enough to keep monthly average gasoline prices above $2.00 per gallon through 2006. The

140

Microsoft Word - Alcoa_short-term_amendments_CX.docx  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2 2 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEC-4 SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Mark Miller Account Executive, Long-term Sales and Purchases - PT-5 Proposed Action: Short-term Additional Amendments to the Alcoa Power Sales Agreement Categorical Exclusion Applied (from Subpart D, 10 C.F.R. Part 1021): A2 - Clarifying or administrative contract actions Location: Portland, OR and Ferndale, WA Proposed by: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Description of the Proposed Action: BPA proposes to execute one or more additional amendments to its existing 2009 Power Sales Agreement (Agreement) with Alcoa, Inc. (Alcoa) to further extend the Agreement's Initial Period provisions. The current date for expiration of these provisions under the most recent amendment (Amendment Number 2) is July 31, 2012.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasifier costs short-term" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Energy Information Administration/Short-Term Energy Outlook - April 2006  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

6 6 1 April 2006 Short-Term Energy Outlook and Summer Fuels Outlook April 11, 2006 Release Contents Overview Global Petroleum Markets U.S. Petroleum Markets Motor Gasoline Diesel Fuel Natural Gas Markets Electricity Markets Coal Markets Overview Continued steady world oil demand growth, combined with only modest increases in world spare oil production capacity and the continuing risks of geopolitical instability, are expected to keep crude oil prices high through 2006. The price of West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil is projected to average $65 per barrel in 2006 and $61 in 2007 (Figure 1. West Texas Intermediate Crude Oil Price). Retail regular gasoline prices are projected to average $2.50 per gallon in 2006 and $2.40 in

142

Models for Short-Term Production Planning of Cogeneration Plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The short-term production planning problem for a district heating system is a well-known but difficult optimization problem. In a district heating plant several types of energy producing units are used, the most important being the cogeneration unit, which produces both heat and electricity. The net electricity is sold at the electricity market. Most plants also have a heat water storage. Finding the optimal production of both heat and electricity and the optimal use of the heat water storage is a challenging mixed optimization problem. The production planning may be divided into two sub-problems. The unit commitment problem determines which units should be on or off and in which different mode the unit should run. The economic dispatch problem finds the optimal production plan given the units on and running modes. In this paper we formulate a new approach for the mathematical modeling of the economic dispatch problem. The model objective function is nonlinear, with nonlinear constrain...

Erik Dotzauer; Kenneth Holmström

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Energy Information Administration/Short-Term Energy Outlook - July 2005  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

July 2005 July 2005 1 Short-Term Energy Outlook July 2005 2005 Summer Motor Fuels Outlook Update (Figure 1) Retail regular-grade gasoline prices moved up from about $2.12 per gallon at the beginning of June to $2.33 on July 11. Gasoline pump prices for the summer (April-September) are now projected to average $2.25 per gallon, 8 cents per gallon higher than last month's projection and about 35 cents per gallon above the year-ago level. Crude oil prices are expected to remain high enough to keep quarterly average gasoline prices above $2.20 per gallon through 2006. The projected average for retail diesel this summer is $2.33 per gallon, up about 56 cents per gallon from last summer. Nationally, annual average diesel fuel prices

144

California’s Economic Outlook: Short-term Recovery But Longer-term Uncertainties  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Long-Term Demographic Outlook for California and LosCALIFORNIA’S ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: SHORT-TERM RECOVERY BUTCalifornia’s short-term outlook remains one of expansion,

Hurd, Joseph; Mitchell, Daniel J.B.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

CloudCast: Cloud Computing for Short-Term Weather Forecasts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CloudCast provides clients with personalized short-term weather forecasts based on their current location using cloud services

Dilip Kumar Krishnappa; David Irwin; Eric Lyons; Michael Zink

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

NETL: Gasifipedia - Entrained Flow Gasifiers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Siemens Gasifier Siemens Gasifier (source: Siemens) Siemens Gasifiers Siemens gasification technology was originally developed by Deutsches Brennstoffinstitut (DBI) in Freiberg, Germany for the gasification of pulverized local brown coal and other solid feedstocks in 1975. The Noell group acquired the technology in 1991 and developed it further to handle liquid residues and wastes. The gasifier also operated under the name of Babcock Borsig and Future Energy before being acquired by Siemens in 2006. Operation The Siemens gasifier is a dry-feed, pressurized, entrained-flow reactor, which can be supplied with either a refractory lining for low ash feedstocks or with a cooling screen in the gasification section of the gasifier. The cooling screen consists of a gas-tight membrane wall

147

Implications of Wide-Area Geographic Diversity for Short- Term Variability of Solar Power  

SciTech Connect

Worldwide interest in the deployment of photovoltaic generation (PV) is rapidly increasing. Operating experience with large PV plants, however, demonstrates that large, rapid changes in the output of PV plants are possible. Early studies of PV grid impacts suggested that short-term variability could be a potential limiting factor in deploying PV. Many of these early studies, however, lacked high-quality data from multiple sites to assess the costs and impacts of increasing PV penetration. As is well known for wind, accounting for the potential for geographic diversity can significantly reduce the magnitude of extreme changes in aggregated PV output, the resources required to accommodate that variability, and the potential costs of managing variability. We use measured 1-min solar insolation for 23 time-synchronized sites in the Southern Great Plains network of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program and wind speed data from 10 sites in the same network to characterize the variability of PV with different degrees of geographic diversity and to compare the variability of PV to the variability of similarly sited wind. The relative aggregate variability of PV plants sited in a dense 10 x 10 array with 20 km spacing is six times less than the variability of a single site for variability on time scales less than 15-min. We find in our analysis of wind and PV plants similarly sited in a 5 x 5 grid with 50 km spacing that the variability of PV is only slightly more than the variability of wind on time scales of 5-15 min. Over shorter and longer time scales the level of variability is nearly identical. Finally, we use a simple approximation method to estimate the cost of carrying additional reserves to manage sub-hourly variability. We conclude that the costs of managing the short-term variability of PV are dramatically reduced by geographic diversity and are not substantially different from the costs for managing the short-term variability of similarly sited wind in this region.

Mills, Andrew; Wiser, Ryan

2010-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

148

Economic Evaluation of Short-Term Wind Power Forecasts in ERCOT: Preliminary Results; Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Historically, a number of wind energy integration studies have investigated the value of using day-ahead wind power forecasts for grid operational decisions. These studies have shown that there could be large cost savings gained by grid operators implementing the forecasts in their system operations. To date, none of these studies have investigated the value of shorter-term (0 to 6-hour-ahead) wind power forecasts. In 2010, the Department of Energy and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration partnered to fund improvements in short-term wind forecasts and to determine the economic value of these improvements to grid operators, hereafter referred to as the Wind Forecasting Improvement Project (WFIP). In this work, we discuss the preliminary results of the economic benefit analysis portion of the WFIP for the Electric Reliability Council of Texas. The improvements seen in the wind forecasts are examined, then the economic results of a production cost model simulation are analyzed.

Orwig, K.; Hodge, B. M.; Brinkman, G.; Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Banunarayanan, V.; Nasir, S.; Freedman, J.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Engineered refractories for slagging gasifiers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Successful field trials in commercial slagging gasifier systems have been made of improved refractory materials engineered specifically for longer service life in this application.

Kwong, Kyei-sing; Bennett, James P.; Krabbe, Rick; Thomas, Hugh; Powell, Cynthia A.

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Improving thermocouple service life in slagging gasifiers  

SciTech Connect

The measurement of temperature within slagging gasifiers for long periods of time is difficult/impossible because of sensor failure or blockage of inputs used to monitor gasifier temperature. One of the most common means of temperature measurement in a gasifier is physically, through the use of thermocouples in a gasifier sidewall. These units can fail during startup, standby, or during the first 40-90 days of gasifier service. Failure can be caused by a number of issues; including thermocouple design, construction, placement in the gasifier, gasifier operation, and molten slag attack of the materials used in a thermocouple assembly. Lack of temperature control in a gasifier can lead to improper preheating, slag buildup on gasifier sidewalls, slag attack of gasifier refractories used to line a gasifier, or changes in desired gas output from a gasifier. A general outline of thermocouple failure issues and attempts by the Albany Research Center to improve the service life of thermocouples will be discussed.

Bennett, James P.; Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Powell, Cynthia A.; Thomas, Hugh; Krabbe, Rick

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

average $2.83 per MMBtu in 2002 compared with about $4.00 last year (Short-Term Energy Outlook, June 2002). Average wellhead prices have increased by nearly 50 percent from $2.09 per MMBtu in February to an estimated $3.11 per MMBtu in May. Spot prices at the Henry Hub have also increased, rising more than $1.00 per MMBtu since early February. It is atypical to see higher spot gas prices in the cooling season than during the heating season, particularly when working gas in underground storage is at high levels, as it has been for the past several months. As of the end of May, working gas levels were more than 20 percent above the previous 5-year average for that month. Moreover, gas-directed drilling, while down sharply from summer 2001 levels, is still quite strong from a historical perspective. The gas rig count as of May 31 was up 22 percent from the recent low of 591 for the week ending April 5.

152

Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4.41 per MMBtu in December 2003, although spot prices are expected to average $5.38 (Short-Term Energy Outlook, December 2003). The average wellhead price is expected to increase moderately to $4.56 during the first three months of 2004. Natural gas prices were lower in November than previously expected but forward price expectations remain sensitive to weather conditions. Prices increased rapidly in futures trading in early December as some cold weather moved into the Eastern United States and reported withdrawals from gas storage were slightly larger than expected. Spot prices above $5 per MMBtu remain likely over the next few months if normal (or colder) weather prevails, especially with oil prices remaining at relatively high levels. Natural gas storage levels are still above average and hold the potential to push prices back down if warm temperatures and weak heating demand materialize later in the winter, just as upward spikes remain a strong possibility if the weather turns cold.

153

Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

about $3.49 per MMBtu through December 2002 and then increase to $3.76 in January 2003, the peak demand month of the heating season (Short-Term Energy Outlook, released November 7, 2002). Natural gas prices were higher than expected in October as storms in the Gulf of Mexico in late September temporarily shut in some gas production, causing spot prices at the Henry Hub and elsewhere to rise above $4.00 per million Btu for most of October. In addition, early winter-like temperatures, particularly in the Midwest and Northeast, increased demand for natural gas, placing upward pressure on gas prices. Overall in 2002, wellhead prices are expected to average about $2.84 per MMBtu compared with $4.00 in 2001. Prices during the heating season (November through March), assuming normal weather, are expected to average $3.56 per MMBtu, which is about $1.20 higher than last winter's price. Prices to residential customers during the heating season are expected to average $7.81 per MMBtu compared with $7.14 last winter. In 2003, wellhead prices are projected to average $3.28 per MMBtu, or about $0.44 per MMBtu more than in 2002, owing to expectations of increasing economic growth, little or no change in the annual average crude oil price for 2003, and lower storage levels for most of 2003 compared with 2002 levels.

154

Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7 per MMBtu during the last 3 months of 2003 and increase to $4.32 in January 2004 (Short-Term Energy Outlook, October 2003). Prices have fallen somewhat from the unusually high levels that prevailed in the first half of the year and most of July, as mild summer weather and reduced industrial demand allowed record storage refill rates. As of October 3, 2003, working gas levels were only 1 percent below the 5-year average and, barring any disruptions, are on target to reach 3 Tcf by the end of October. With the improved storage situation, wellhead prices during the upcoming heating season (November through March), assuming normal weather, are expected to be about 13 percent less than last winter ($4.17 vs. $4.68 per MMBtu). But prices in the residential sector are projected to be about 9 percent higher than last winter, as the recent decline in wellhead prices is too recent and insufficient to offset the impact of the substantial spring-summer increase in wellhead prices on residential prices. Overall in 2003, wellhead prices are expected to average $4.75 per MMBtu, which is nearly $2 more than the 2002 annual average and the largest year-to-year increase on record. For 2004, wellhead prices are projected to drop by nearly $0.90 per MMBtu, or about 20 percent, to $3.86 per MMBtu as the overall supply situation improves.

155

Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

in September and range between $4.37 and $4.58 per MMBtu in the last 3 months of 2003 (Short-Term Energy Outlook, September 2003). Spot prices at the Henry Hub have fallen somewhat from the unusually high levels that prevailed in the first half of the year and most of July, as mild summer weather in many areas of the country has reduced cooling demand and allowed record storage refill rates. As of September 5, working gas levels were only 5.5 percent below the 5-year average and, barring any disruptions, are on target to reach 3 Tcf by the end of October. However, gas prices remain high-wellhead prices this summer are estimated to be 60 to 70 percent higher than levels last summer. Overall in 2003, wellhead prices are expected to average $4.84 per MMBtu, which is nearly $2 more than the 2002 annual average and the largest year-to-year increase on record. For 2004, assuming normal weather, wellhead prices are projected to drop by about $1 per MMBtu, or almost 20 percent, to $3.89 per MMBtu, as the overall supply situation improves.

156

Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5.57 per MMBtu in January 2004 and $5.40 in February, and then decrease to $4.77 in March as the heating season winds down (Short-Term Energy Outlook, January 2004). Spot prices were quite variable in December, with prices at the Henry Hub starting the month at around $5.00 per MMBtu, spiking to roughly $7.00 in the middle of the month, then falling to $5.50 toward the end of the month as warmer-than-normal weather eased demand. Spot prices will likely remain well above $5.00 over the next few months if normal or colder weather prevails, especially with oil prices remaining at relatively high levels. (Oil prices this winter are expected to average $31.35 per barrel (19 cents higher than last winter's average), or 5.41 per MMBtu.) Natural gas storage levels were 8 percent above average as of January 2, which could place downward pressure on prices if warm temperatures and weak heating demand occur later this winter, just as rising prices are possible if the weather becomes colder. Overall in 2004, natural gas wellhead prices are expected to average $4.73 per MMBtu, while spot prices will average nearly $5.00. In 2005, natural gas spot prices are projected to fall to an average of $4.83 per MMBtu under the assumption that domestic and imported supply can continue to grow by about 1-1.5 percent per year.

157

Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Now that the heating season has ended, natural gas wellhead prices have fallen from the exceptionally high levels seen in February and early March. Nevertheless, they still remain historically and unseasonably high, hovering around $5.00 per MMBtu. EIA projects that natural gas wellhead prices will remain above $5.00 per MMBtu in April and then decrease to $4.36 in May and $4.26 in June (Short-Term Energy Outlook, April 2003). Wellhead prices for the 2002-2003 heating season (November through March) averaged $4.44 per MMBtu, or $2.08 more than last winter's price. Overall in 2003, wellhead prices are projected to increase about $1.53 per MMBtu over the 2002 level to $4.40 per MMBtu. This projection is based on the expectation of lower volumes of natural gas in underground storage compared with last year and continued increases in demand over 2002 levels. Cold temperatures this past winter led to a record drawdown of storage stocks. By the end of March, estimated working gas stocks were 676 Bcf (prior estimates were 696 Bcf), which is the lowest end-of-March level in EIA records and 44 percent below the previous 5-year average. In 2004, continued tightness of domestic natural gas supply and high demand levels are expected to keep the average wellhead price near the 2003 level.

158

Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4.20 per MMBtu through January 2003 and then increase to $4.61 in February and $4.23 in March (Short-Term Energy Outlook, released January 8, 2003). Wellhead prices for the overall heating season (November through March), assuming normal weather, are expected to average about $4.10 per MMBtu, or $1.74 more than last winter's levels, while prices to residential customers are expected to average $8.51 per MMBtu compared with $7.14 last winter. Natural gas prices were higher than expected in November and December as below-normal temperatures throughout much of the nation increased heating demand, placing upward pressure on gas prices. Spot prices at the Henry Hub climbed above $5.00 per MMBtu in the second week of December and stayed near or above this threshold through the end of the month. Overall in 2002, wellhead prices are expected to average $2.90 per MMBtu compared with $4.00 in 2001. In 2003, average wellhead prices are projected to increase about $1.00 per MMBtu over the 2002 level to $3.90 per MMBtu, owing to expectations of higher demand levels than in 2002 and lower storage levels for most of the year compared with 2002 levels.

159

Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

the rest of the winter and the first part of spring, with prices averaging $5.19 per MMBtu through March and $4.58 in April (Short-Term Energy Outlook, February 2004). Wellhead prices for the current heating season (November 2003 through March 2004) are expected to average $4.99 per MMBtu, or about 7 percent higher than last winter's level. Spot prices at the Henry Hub averaged $5.90 per MMBtu in January as cold temperatures (6 percent colder than normal nationally and 19 percent colder than normal in the Northeast) kept natural gas prices and heating demand high. Despite the severe weather, natural gas storage stocks were 3 percent above average as of January 30 and spot prices in early February have moved down somewhat. Overall in 2004, spot prices are expected to average about $4.90 per MMBtu and wellhead prices are expected to average $4.63 per MMBtu, declining moderately from the 2003 levels. In 2005, natural gas spot prices are projected to average about $5.00 per MMBtu, under the assumption that domestic and imported supply can continue to grow by about 1 percent per year.

160

Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

this summer and continue at elevated levels through the rest of 2003 (Short-Term Energy Outlook, June 2003). Natural gas wellhead prices are expected to average $5.40 per MMBtu in June and remain above $5.13 through December 2003. Spot prices at the Henry Hub have stayed well above $5.00 per MMBtu on a monthly basis since the beginning of the year and have been above $6.00 for the first 10 days of June. The low level of underground storage is the principal reason for these unusually high prices. As of June 6, 2003, working gas stocks were 1,324 Bcf, which is about 35 percent below year-earlier levels and 25 percent below the 5-year average. Natural gas prices are likely to stay high as long as above-normal storage injection demand competes with industrial and power sector demand for gas. Overall in 2003, wellhead prices are projected to increase about $2.33 per MMBtu (the largest U.S. annual wellhead price increase on record) over the 2002 level to a record annual high of about $5.20 per MMBtu. For 2004, prices are projected to ease only moderately, as supplies are expected to remain tight.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasifier costs short-term" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

range from $2.91 to $3.19 per MMBtu through December 2002 and then increase to $3.53 in January 2003, the peak demand month of the heating season (Short-Term Energy Outlook, October 2002). Natural gas prices climbed sharply in late September as hurricanes Isidore and Lili caused production shut downs in the Gulf of Mexico. However, this price surge is expected to be short-lived, unless the weather in October is unusually cold or if additional storm activity in the Gulf curbs production further. Overall in 2002, wellhead prices are expected to average about $2.76 per MMBtu compared with $4.00 in 2001. Prices during the upcoming heating season (November through March), assuming normal weather, are expected to average $3.32 per MMBtu, which is about $0.96 higher than last winter's price. Prices to residential customers during the heating season are expected to average $7.55 per MMBtu compared with $7.14 last winter.

162

Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

prices will remain relatively high during the storage refill season (April through October) and the rest of 2004. Wellhead prices are expected to average $4.87 per MMBtu in April and May, $4.71 from June through October, and $5.12 for November and December (Short-Term Energy Outlook, April 2004). Spot prices during the storage refill months will likely average $5.23 per MMBtu, virtually the same as the average price ($5.22) this past heating season. Overall in 2004, spot prices are expected to average $5.31 per MMBtu, slightly less than the 2003 price ($5.35), while wellhead prices will average about $4.90. In 2005, natural gas spot prices will likely average about $5.25 per MMBtu, under the assumption that domestic supply can continue to grow by about 1 percent per year. Total available supply (including imports and storage inventories) is expected to increase to 22.31 Tcf in 2004 compared with 21.78 Tcf in 2003. Storage stocks at the end of the traditional heating season (March 31) were about 6 percent less than the 5-year average but nearly 50 percent more than year-earlier levels.

163

Short-term energy outlook, quarterly projections, first quarter 1998  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the first quarter of 1998 through the fourth quarter of 1999. Values for the fourth quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the first quarter 1998 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 24 figs., 19 tabs.

NONE

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

An Empirical Analysis of Analysts' Target Prices: Short Term . . .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using a large database of analysts' target prices, we examine short-term market reactions to target price announcements and long-term co-movement of target and stock prices. We find a significant market reaction to the information contained in analysts' target prices, both unconditional and conditional on contemporaneously issued stock recommendations and earnings forecast revisions. For example, the spread in average announcement day abnormal returns between positive and negative target price revisions is as high as 7 percent. We also find that stock recommendations and earnings forecast revisions are informative controlling for the information in target prices. Using a cointegration approach, we explore the long-term behavior of market and target prices and estimate the system's long-term equilibrium. In this equilibrium a typical firm's one-year ahead target price is 22 percent higher than its current market price. Finally, while market prices react to the information conveyed in analysts' reports, we show that any subsequent corrections towards the long-term equilibrium are, in effect, done by analysts alone.

Alon Brav; Reuven Lehavy

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Evaluation of a short-term residential building test method  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project is to evaluate the effectiveness of an energy performance analysis methodology developed by the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The methodology (STEM/PSTAR) uses data collected from short-term tests conducted over a 3-day period as inputs to a model for predicting long-term performance. Under subcontract to GEOMET, SERI performed the tests on GEOMET's two research houses in Gaithersburg, Maryland, and in a blind test, predicted the heating load and fuel use for a historical period for which detailed monitoring data were available. The predicted heating load and fuel usage were compared to the actual heating load and fuel usage for the period. STEM/PSTAR predictions of heating load fuel usage agreed quite well with the measured data. The predicted heating load using the STEM/PSTAR methodology was within 1 percent of the measured heating load. STEM/PSTAR tended to overpredict fuel usage by about 10 percent. Potential applications of the method include the evaluation of demand-site management technologies, new home energy performance evaluation and heating system performance evaluation.

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Fixed Bed Biomass Gasifier  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The report details work performed by Gazogen to develop a novel biomass gasifier for producimg electricity from commercially available hardwood chips. The research conducted by Gazogen under this grant was intended to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of a new means of producing electricity from wood chips and other biomass and carbonaceous fuels. The technical feasibility of the technology has been furthered as a result of the DOE grant, and work is expected to continue. The economic feasibility can only be shown when all operational problems have been overocme. The technology could eventually provide a means of producing electricity on a decentralized basis from sustainably cultivated plants or plant by-products.

Carl Bielenberg

2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

167

PWR GASIFIER PEER REVIEW FINAL REPORT  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

PWR GASIFIER PEER REVIEW REPORT 22106 Background Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) signed a cooperative agreement with DOE on 93004 to develop a novel gasifier concept, which...

168

OUT Success Stories: Biomass Gasifiers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The world's first demonstration of an efficient, low-pressure biomass gasifier capable of producing a high-quality fuel is now operating in Vermont. The gasifier converts 200 tons of solid biomass per day into a clean-burning gas with a high energy content for electricity generation.

Jones, J.

2000-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

169

Short-Term Energy Outlook - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

The historical energy ... programs could make the system more vulnerable to local outages and ... on the country and the time of year. Compared with the cost of Phase ...

170

Short-Term Energy Outlook Market Prices and Uncertainty Report  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

uptick in unplanned crude oil production outages and increased tensions in the ... since May of this year, ... 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release Author:

171

EIA Short-Term and Winter Fuels Outlook  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Washington, DC, October 21, 2011 . EIA expects gasoline prices will track the cost of crude oil, with regular gasoline prices this winter averaging about 34 cents per

172

Long vs. short-term energy storage:sensitivity analysis.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report extends earlier work to characterize long-duration and short-duration energy storage technologies, primarily on the basis of life-cycle cost, and to investigate sensitivities to various input assumptions. Another technology--asymmetric lead-carbon capacitors--has also been added. Energy storage technologies are examined for three application categories--bulk energy storage, distributed generation, and power quality--with significant variations in discharge time and storage capacity. Sensitivity analyses include cost of electricity and natural gas, and system life, which impacts replacement costs and capital carrying charges. Results are presented in terms of annual cost, $/kW-yr. A major variable affecting system cost is hours of storage available for discharge.

Schoenung, Susan M. (Longitude 122 West, Inc., Menlo Park, CA); Hassenzahl, William V. (,Advanced Energy Analysis, Piedmont, CA)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

An analysis of the causes of failure in high chrome oxide refractory materials from slagging gasifiers  

SciTech Connect

High Cr2O3 refractory materials are used to line the hot face of slagging gasifiers. Gasifiers are reaction chambers that convert water, oxygen, and a carbon feedstock into CO, H2, and methane at temperatures as high as 1575DGC and pressures up to 1000 psi. Ash in the carbon feedstock liquefies, erodes and corrodes the gasifier's refractory liner, contributing to liner failure within a few months to two years. The failure of a refractory liner decreases a gasifier's on-line availability and causes costly system downtime and repairs. Many factors contribute to refractory lining failure, including slag penetration and corrosion, thermal cycling, gasifier environment, and mechanical loads. The results of refractory post-mortem failure analysis and how observations relate to gasifier service life will be discussed.

Bennett, James P.; Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Powell, Cynthia A.; Thomas, Hugh; Krabbe, Rick

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Short-Term Energy Outlook - U.S. Energy Information Administration ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Market Prices and Uncertainty Report. This is a regular monthly supplement to the EIA Short-Term Energy Outlook. Contact: James Preciado (James.Preciado@eia.gov) Full ...

175

Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) - U.S. Energy Information ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Energy Information Administration | Short?Term Energy Outlook February 2013 5 modestly in this forecast, increasing by 50,000 bbl/d (0 ...

176

Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) - U.S. Energy Information ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Energy Information Administration | Short?Term Energy Outlook January 2013 5 Forecast motor gasoline consumption in 2013 and 2014 ...

177

Short-Term Energy Outlook - U.S. Energy Information Administration ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Energy use in homes, commercial buildings, manufacturing, and transportation. ... Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances in the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting Model:

178

Implications of Wide-Area Geographic Diversity for Short- Term Variability of Solar Power  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

due to wind and solar power. Environmental Science &Integration of Concentrating Solar Power and Utility-ScaleShort- Term Variability of Solar Power Andrew Mills and Ryan

Mills, Andrew

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Short-Term Energy Outlook November 2004 - U.S. Energy Information ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System and by EIA’s office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels (hydroelectric and nuclear).

180

DOE/EIA-0202(85/4Q) Short-Term Washington, D C Energy Information ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

forecasting system, analyzes previous forecast errors, and provides detailed analyses of current issues that affect EIA's short-term energy forecasts.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasifier costs short-term" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

DOE/EIA-0202(85/2Q) Short-Term Washington, D C Energy Information ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Annual Energy Outlook, 1984 Published January 1985 The Short-Term Energy Outlook provides forecasts of the energy situation for 1985 and the first half of 1986.

182

DOE/EIA-0202(84/2QH Short-Term Energy Information Administration ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

DOE/EIA-0202(84/2QH Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections May 1984 Published: June 1984 Energy Information Administration Washington, D.C.

183

Biomass-Derived Hydrogen from a Thermally Ballasted Gasifier  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this project is to develop an indirectly heated gasification system that converts switchgrass into hydrogen-rich gas suitable for powering fuel cells. The project includes investigations of the indirectly-heated gasifier, development of particulate removal equipment, evaluation of catalytic methods for upgrading producer gas, development of contaminant measurement and control techniques, modeling of the thermal performance of the ballasted gasifier, and estimation of the cost of hydrogen from the proposed gasification system. Specific technologies investigated include a thermally ballasted gasifier, a moving bed granular filter, and catalytic reactors for steam reforming and water-gas shift reaction. The approach to this project was to employ a pilot-scale (5 ton per day) gasifier to evaluate the thermally ballasted gasifier as a means for producing hydrogen from switchgrass. A slipstream from the gasifier was used to evaluate gas cleaning and upgrading options. Other tests were conducted with laboratory-scale equipment using simulated producer gas. The ballasted gasifier operated in conjunction with a steam reformer and two-stage water-gas shift reactor produced gas streams containing 54.5 vol-% H2. If purge gas to the feeder system could be substantially eliminated, hydrogen concentration would reach 61 vol-%, which closely approaches the theoretical maximum of 66 vol-%. Tests with a combined catalyst/sorbent system demonstrated that steam reforming and water-gas shift reaction could be substantially performed in a single reactor and achieve hydrogen concentrations exceeding 90 vol-%. Cold flow trials with a laboratory-scale moving bed granular filter achieved particle removal efficiencies exceeding 99%. Two metal-based sorbents were tested for their ability to remove H2S from biomass-derived producer gas. The ZnO sorbent, tested at 450? C, was effective in reducing H2S from 200 ppm to less than 2 ppm (>99% reduction) while tests with the MnO sorbent were inconclusive. A computer model was developed that successfully predicted the thermal performance of the ballasted gasifier. An economic comparison of an air-blown gasification plant and a ballasted gasifier plant found that operating costs for ballasted gasification plant are about 31% higher than for the air blown gasifier plant. Hydrogen from the ballasted gasification plant and air blown gasification plant are projected to be $2.43/kg and $1.85/kg, respectively. This is lower than U.S. DOE’s 2010 target price of $2.90/kg and comparable to U.S. DOE’s 2015 target price of $2.00/kg.

Robert C. Brown

2007-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

184

Engineered refractories for slagging gasifiers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The widespread commercial adaptation of slagging gasifier technology to produce power, liquid fuels, and/or chemicals from coal and other fossil-based feedstocks and from biomass, will depend in large measure on the technology's ability to prove itself both economic and reliable. Improvements in gasifier reliability, availability, and maintainability will in part depend on the development of improved structural materials with longer service life in this application. Current generation refractory materials used to line the gasifier vessel, and contain the gasification reaction, may last no more than three months in commercial applications. The downtime required for tear-out and replacement of these critical materials results in gasifier on-line availabilities that fall short of targeted goals. In this talk we will discuss the development of improved refractory materials engineered specifically for longer service life in this application, and present results from recent field trials in commercial systems.

Powell, Cynthia A.; Kwong, Kyei-sing; Bennett, James P.; Krabbe, Rick; Thomas, Hugh

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

NETL: Gasifipedia - Types of Gasifiers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of large coal particles1 and fluxes are loaded into the top of the refractory-lined gasifier vessel and move slowly downward through the bed, while reacting with high oxygen...

186

Short-term load forecasting using lifting scheme and ARIMA models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Short-term load forecasting is achieved using a lifting scheme and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models. The lifting scheme is a general and flexible approach for constructing bi-orthogonal wavelets that are usually in the spatial ... Keywords: Autoregressive integrated moving average model, Back propagation network, Lifting scheme, Multi-revolution analysis, Short-term load forecasting, Wavelet transform

Cheng-Ming Lee; Chia-Nan Ko

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Treasurer's Annual Report, University of California, 2007-2008 Short Term Investment Pool (STIP)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Treasurer's Annual Report, University of California, 2007-2008 Short Term Investment Pool (STIP) Treasurer's Annual Report, University of California, 2007-2008 The Short Term Investment Pool (STIP of the University are the major funds invested in STIP until expended. Pension, endowment, and defined contribution

Russell, Lynn

188

Short-term scheduling of cascade reservoirs using an immune algorithm-based particle swarm optimization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a new approach for short-term hydropower scheduling of reservoirs using an immune algorithm-based particle swarm optimization (IA-PSO). IA-PSO is employed by coupling the immune information processing mechanism with the particle swarm ... Keywords: Cascade reservoirs, Immune algorithm-based particle swarm optimization, Short-term operations

Xiang Fu; Anqiang Li; Liping Wang; Changming Ji

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Newporter Apartments: Deep Energy Retrofit Short-Term Results  

SciTech Connect

This project demonstrates a path to meet the goal of the Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30% in multi-family buildings. The project demonstrates cost effective energy savings targets as well as improved comfort and indoor environmental quality (IEQ) associated with deep energy retrofits by a large public housing authority as part of a larger rehabilitation effort. The project focuses on a typical 1960's vintage low-rise multi-family apartment community (120 units in three buildings).

Gordon, A.; Howard, L.; Kunkle, R.; Lubliner, M.; Auer, D.; Clegg, Z.

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Integrating catalytic coal gasifiers with solid oxide fuel cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A review was conducted for coal gasification technologies that integrate with solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) to achieve system efficiencies near 60% while capturing and sequestering >90% of the carbon dioxide [1-2]. The overall system efficiency can reach 60% when a) the coal gasifier produces a syngas with a methane composition of roughly 25% on a dry volume basis, b) the carbon dioxide is separated from the methane-rich synthesis gas, c) the methane-rich syngas is sent to a SOFC, and d) the off-gases from the SOFC are recycled back to coal gasifier. The thermodynamics of this process will be reviewed and compared to conventional processes in order to highlight where available work (i.e. exergy) is lost in entrained-flow, high-temperature gasification, and where exergy is lost in hydrogen oxidation within the SOFC. The main advantage of steam gasification of coal to methane and carbon dioxide is that the amount of exergy consumed in the gasifier is small compared to conventional, high temperature, oxygen-blown gasifiers. However, the goal of limiting the amount of exergy destruction in the gasifier has the effect of limiting the rates of chemical reactions. Thus, one of the main advantages of steam gasification leads to one of its main problems: slow reaction kinetics. While conventional entrained-flow, high-temperature gasifiers consume a sizable portion of the available work in the coal oxidation, the consumed exergy speeds up the rates of reactions. And while the rates of steam gasification reactions can be increased through the use of catalysts, only a few catalysts can meet cost requirements because there is often significant deactivation due to chemical reactions between the inorganic species in the coal and the catalyst. Previous research into increasing the kinetics of steam gasification will be reviewed. The goal of this paper is to highlight both the challenges and advantages of integrating catalytic coal gasifiers with SOFCs.

Siefert, N.; Shamsi, A.; Shekhawat, D.; Berry, D.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Integrating catalytic coal gasifiers with solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The main advantage of steam gasification of coal to methane and carbon dioxide is that the amount of exergy consumed in the gasifier is small compared to conventional, high temperature, oxygen-blown gasifiers. However, the goal of limiting the amount of exergy destruction in the gasifier has the effect of limiting the rates of chemical reactions. Thus, one of the main advantages of steam gasification leads to one of its main problems: slow reaction kinetics. While conventional entrained-flow, high-temperature gasifiers consume a sizable portion of the available work in the coal oxidation, the consumed exergy speeds up the rates of reactions. And while the rates of steam gasification reactions can be increased through the use of catalysts, only a few catalysts can meet cost requirements because there is often significant deactivation due to chemical reactions between the inorganic species in the coal and the catalyst. Previous research into increasing the kinetics of steam gasification will be reviewed. The goal of this paper is to highlight both the challenges and advantages of integrating catalytic coal gasifiers with SOFCs.

Siefert, N.; Shamsi, A.; Shekhawat, D.; Berry, D.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Hot-Gas Filter Testing with a Transport Reactor Gasifier  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Today, coal supplies over 55% of the electricity consumed in the United States and will continue to do so well into the next century. One of the technologies being developed for advanced electric power generation is an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) system that converts coal to a combustible gas, cleans the gas of pollutants, and combusts the gas in a gas turbine to generate electricity. The hot exhaust from the gas turbine is used to produce steam to generate more electricity from a steam turbine cycle. The utilization of advanced hot-gas particulate and sulfur control technologies together with the combined power generation cycles make IGCC one of the cleanest and most efficient ways available to generate electric power from coal. One of the strategic objectives for U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) IGCC research and development program is to develop and demonstrate advanced gasifiers and second-generation IGCC systems. Another objective is to develop advanced hot-gas cleanup and trace contaminant control technologies. One of the more recent gasification concepts to be investigated is that of the transport reactor gasifier, which functions as a circulating fluid-bed gasifier while operating in the pneumatic transport regime of solid particle flow. This gasifier concept provides excellent solid-gas contacting of relatively small particles to promote high gasification rates and also provides the highest coal throughput per unit cross-sectional area of any other gasifier, thereby reducing capital cost of the gasification island.

Swanson, M.L.; Hajicek, D.R.

2002-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

193

Process Engineering Division Texaco Gasifier IGCC Base Cases  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Engineering Division Engineering Division Texaco Gasifier IGCC Base Cases PED-IGCC-98-001 July 1998 Latest Revision June 2000 PREFACE This report presents the results of an analysis of three Texaco Gasifier IGCC Base Cases. The analyses were performed by W. Shelton and J. Lyons of EG&G. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1. Process Descriptions 1.1 Texaco Gasifier 1.2 Air Separation Plant (ASU) 1.3 Gas Cooling/Heat Recovery/Hydrolysis/Gas Saturation (Case 1 and Case 2) 1.4 Cold Gas Cleanup Unit (CGCU) (Case 1 and Case 2) 1.5 Fine Particulate Removal/ Chloride Guard Bed - Case 3 1.6 Transport Desulfurization HGCU - Case 3 1.7 Sulfuric Acid Plant - Case 3 1.8 Gas Turbine 1.9 Steam Cycle 1.10 Power Production 2. Simulation Development 3. Cost of Electricity Analysis

194

Centre de Referència en Economia Analítica Barcelona Economics Working Paper Series Working Paper nº 185 Why Do Emerging Economies Borrow Short Term?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Barcelona Economics WP nº 185 We argue that emerging economies borrow short term due to the high risk premium charged by international capital markets on long-term debt. First, we present a model where the debt maturity structure is the outcome of a risk sharing problem between the government and bondholders. By issuing long-term debt, the government lowers the probability of a liquidity crisis, transferring risk to bondholders. In equilibrium, this risk is reflected in a higher risk premium and borrowing cost. Therefore, the government faces a trade-off between safer long-term borrowing and cheaper short-term debt. Second, we construct a new database of sovereign bond prices and issuance. We show that emerging economies pay a positive term premium (a higher risk premium on long-term bonds than on short-term bonds). During crises, the term premium increases, with issuance shifting toward shorter maturities. This suggests that changes in

O A. Broner; Guido Lorenzoni; Sergio L. Schmukler

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

STEMS Demo Software, Version 1.5: Short-Term Electricity Market Simulator Demo  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Short-Term Electricity Market Simulator (STEMS) Demo software version 1.5 allows the user to study the realistic behavior of a short-term electricity market using a detailed model of the power system and realistic bidding and market clearing mechanisms to emulate the behavior of various market designs, including the FERC Standard Market Design and the California MD02 design. The STEMS Demo software version 1.5 allows the user to study a short-term electricity market. It combines the functionality of ...

2003-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

196

Heat Recovery from Coal Gasifiers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper deals with heat recovery from pressurized entrained and fixed bed coal gasifiers for steam generation. High temperature waste heat, from slagging entrained flow coal gasifier, can be recovered effectively in a series of radiant and convection waste heat boilers. Medium level waste heat leaving fixed bed type gasifiers can be recovered more economically by convection type boilers or shell and tube heat exchangers. An economic analysis for the steam generation and process heat exchanger is presented. Steam generated from the waste heat boiler is used to drive steam turbines for power generation or air compressors for the oxygen plant. Low level heat recovered by process heat exchangers is used to heat product gas or support the energy requirement of the gasification plant. The mechanical design for pressure vessel shell and boiler tubes is discussed. The design considers metallurgical requirements associated with hydrogen rich, high temperature, and high pressure atmosphere.

Wen, H.; Lou, S. C.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Conversion of forest residues to a methane-rich gas in a high-throughput gasifier  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Research was conducted in a process research unit to develop an entrained bed gasifier which is supplied heat by recirculating a stream of sand between a separate combustion vessel and the gasifier. The char remaining after gasification of the wood provides the fuel for the combustor. The research program was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, a 6 in. I.D. gasifier was used to establish the feasibility of the concept for a wide variety of biomass feeds. The second phase of the program was conducted with a 10 in. I.D. gasifier, and a fully automated feeder system, to evaluate gasifier performance at very high feed rates. The experimental results were used to develop design parameters and detailed energy and material balances for a conceptual plant. A preliminary cost analysis is presented in the report based on the conceptual design. 5 refs., 24 figs., 13 tabs.

Feldmann, H.F.; Paisley, M.A.; Appelbaum, H.R.; Taylor, D.R.

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Microsoft PowerPoint - Arseneau_EIA_ShortTermDriversofEnergyPrices.ppt [Compatibility Mode]  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

SHORT-TERM ENERGY PRICES: SHORT-TERM ENERGY PRICES: WHAT DRIVERS MATTER MOST? DAVID M. ARSENEAU FEDERAL RESERVE BOARD U.S. Energy Information Administration & Johns Hopkins University - SAIS FEDERAL RESERVE BOARD Johns Hopkins University SAIS 2010 Energy Conference Washington, D.C., U.S.A. A il 6 2010 April 6, 2010 BROAD COMMODITY PRICES SINCE 2000 Short-term Energy Prices: What Drivers Matters Most? BROAD COMMODITY PRICES SINCE 2000 April 6, 2010 Seminar: 2010 EIA/SAIS Energy Conference 2 A (GROSSLY OVERSIMPLIFIED) FRAMEWORK Short-term Energy Prices: What Drivers Matters Most? A (GROSSLY OVERSIMPLIFIED) FRAMEWORK ...  Two candidate explanations:  "Fundamentals"  Fundamentals  Trend price movements appear broadly interpretable through lens of fundamental market developments...

199

Linear Statistical Short-Term Climate Predictive Skill in the Northern Hemisphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, the sources and strengths of statistical short-term climate predictability for local surface climate (temperature and precipitation) and 700-mb geopotential height in the Northern Hemisphere are explored at all times of the year at ...

Anthony G. Barnston

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

An Automated, Observations-Based System for Short-Term Prediction of Ceiling and Visibility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several methods of generating very short term (0–6 h) probabilistic forecasts of ceiling and visibility are investigated: 1) an observations-based (OBS-based) system in which potential predictors consist of weather observations from a network of ...

Robert L. Vislocky; J. Michael Fritsch

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasifier costs short-term" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Motor Gasoline Consumption Model  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The motor gasoline consumption module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide forecasts of total U.S. consumption of motor gasolien based on estimates of vehicle miles traveled and average vehicle fuel economy.

Tancred Lidderdale

2011-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

202

Mechanisms of Short-Term Sea Surface Temperature Regulation: Observations during TOGA COARE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analyses of ocean–atmosphere data from Tropical Oceans Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment indicate that short-term (weekly to monthly) fluctuations of SST in the western Pacific warm pool are closely linked to the ...

K-M. Lau; C-H. Sui

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Improving QPE and Very Short Term QPF: An Initiative for a Community-Wide Integrated Approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurate quantitative precipitation estimates (QPE) and very short term quantitative precipitation forecasts (VSTQPF) are critical to accurate monitoring and prediction of water-related hazards and water resources. While tremendous progress has ...

Steven V. Vasiloff; Kenneth W. Howard; Robert M. Rabin; Harold E. Brooks; Dong-Jun Seo; Jian Zhang; David H. Kitzmiller; Mary G. Mullusky; Witold F. Krajewski; Edward A. Brandes; Barbara G. Brown; Daniel S. Berkowitz; John A. McGinley; Robert J. Kuligowski

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

To forecast short-term load in electric power system based on FNN  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electric power system load forecasting plays an important part in the Energy Management System (EMS), which has a great effect on the operating, controlling and planning of power system. Accurate load forecasting, especially short-term load forecasting, ...

Yueli Hu; Huijie Ji; Xiaolong Song

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

EIA Short-Term Energy and Winter Fuels OutlookWinter Fuels Outlook  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

heating oil electricity South U.S. total wood kerosene/other/no heating 116 million homes 4 Short-Term Energy and Winter Fuels Outlook October 8, 2013

206

A Minimal Model for the Short-Term Prediction of Rainfall in the Tropics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A “minimal” model is proposed here for the short-term prediction (up to 12 h ahead) of precipitation occurrence in the tropics. The model is purely statistical, consisting of an optimally weighted linear combination of a Markov chain and ...

K. Fraedrich; L. M. Leslie

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

GRR/Section 6-MT-f - Short-term Water Quality Standard for Turbidity...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GRRSection 6-MT-f - Short-term Water Quality Standard for Turbidity (318 Authorization) < GRR Jump to: navigation, search GRR-logo.png GEOTHERMAL REGULATORY ROADMAP Roadmap Home...

208

Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Regional Residential Heating Oil Price Model  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The regional residential heating oil price module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide residential retail price forecasts for the 4 census regions: Northeast, South, Midwest, and West.

Information Center

2009-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

209

Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Regional Residential Propane Price Model  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The regional residential propane price module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide residential retail price forecasts for the 4 census regions: Northeast, South, Midwest, and West.

Information Center

2009-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

210

Short-Term Energy Outlook - U.S. Energy Information Administration ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Short-Term Energy Outlook ... Search EIA.gov. A-Z Index; ... but EIA expects that several large solar thermal generation projects will enter service in 2013 and 2014.

211

NETL: Gasification Systems - Gasifier Optimization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gasifier Opt & Plant Supporting Systems Gasifier Opt & Plant Supporting Systems Gasification Systems Gasifier Optimization and Plant Supporting Systems The gasifier is the core system component in the gasification process. It determines both the primary requirements for raw material inputs and the product gas composition. The gasifier is generally a high temperature/pressure vessel where oxygen (or air) and steam are directly contacted with a fuel, such as coal, causing a series of chemical reactions to occur that result in production of a fuel gas. This fuel gas (also referred to either as synthesis gas or syngas) consists primarily of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. Minor constituents present in the feedstock are converted to such products as hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, and ash/slag (mineral residues from coal). These products can be separated and captured for use or safe disposal. After cleaning to remove contaminants, the syngas consists mainly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. According to the Department of Energy's vision for coal gasification, at this point steam may be added and the syngas sent through a water-gas shift (WGS) reactor to convert the carbon monoxide to nothing but carbon dioxide and additional hydrogen. After a gas separation process, the carbon dioxide is ready for utilization (such as for Enhanced Oil Recovery) or safe storage, and the hydrogen can be fired in a gas-turbine/steam-turbine generator set to produce electricity with stack emissions containing no greenhouse gases. Alternately, syngas or hydrogen can be used to produce highly-valued fuels and chemicals. Co-production of combinations of these products and electricity is also possible.

212

Method and apparatus for gasifying with a fluidized bed gasifier having integrated pretreating facilities  

SciTech Connect

An integral gasifier including a pretreater section and a gasifier section separated by a distribution grid is defined by a single vessel. The pretreater section pretreats coal or other carbon-containing material to be gasified to prevent caking and agglomeration of the coal in the gasifier. The level of the coal bed of the pretreater section and thus the holding or residence time in said bed is selectively regulated by the amount of pretreated coal which is lifted up a lift pipe into the gasifier section. Thus, the holding time in the pretreater section can be varied according to the amount of pretreat necessary for the particular coal to be gasified.

Rice, Louis F. (Arcadia, CA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Short-Term Carbon Dioxide Exchange and Environmental Factors in a Boreal Fen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Introduction Northern peatlands are important contributors to the global carbon cycle. In cold and moist climatic conditions, boreal peatlands have sequestered large amounts of atmospheric carbon during the past few thousand years (GORHAM 1991). The carbon balance in mires depends on the rates of photosynthesis and respiration which are affected by both the long-term and the short-term variations in environmental factors. So far, more emphasis has been put on the annual carbon balance of mires, and short-term dynamics have received less attention. However, a relationship between the carbon dioxide and methane cycling has been proposed as newly photosynthesized carbon provides substrates for methanogenesis substrates and promotes methane emissions (WHITING & CHANTON 1993). To analyze the connection between green plant photosynthesis and methane emissions, we need to analyze the short-term dynamics of carbon dioxide exchange. Consequently, we use earlier data (ALM et al. 1997) to study

Anu Kettunen

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

GRR/Section 6-MT-f - Short-term Water Quality Standard for Turbidity (318  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GRR/Section 6-MT-f - Short-term Water Quality Standard for Turbidity (318 GRR/Section 6-MT-f - Short-term Water Quality Standard for Turbidity (318 Authorization) < GRR Jump to: navigation, search GRR-logo.png GEOTHERMAL REGULATORY ROADMAP Roadmap Home Roadmap Help List of Sections Section 6-MT-f - Short-term Water Quality Standard for Turbidity (318 Authorization) 06MTFShortTermWaterQualityStandardForTurbidity318Authorization.pdf Click to View Fullscreen Contact Agencies Montana Department of Natural Resources & Conservation Montana Department of Environmental Quality Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks Regulations & Policies MCA 75-5-318 Triggers None specified Click "Edit With Form" above to add content 06MTFShortTermWaterQualityStandardForTurbidity318Authorization.pdf Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range.

215

Single-Crystal Sapphire Optical Fiber Sensor Instrumentation for Coal Gasifiers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Single-Crystal Sapphire Optical Fiber Single-Crystal Sapphire Optical Fiber Sensor Instrumentation for Coal Gasifiers Description Accurate temperature measurement inside a coal gasifier is essential for safe, efficient, and cost-effective operation. However, current sensors are prone to inaccurate readings and premature failure due to harsh operating conditions like high temperature (1,200-1,600 °C), high pressure (up to 500 pounds per square inch gauge [psig]),

216

ANN-Based Short-Term Load Forecasting in Electricity Markets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract—This paper proposes an Artificial Neural Network (ANN)-based short-term load forecasting technique that considers electricity price as one of the main characteristics of the system load, demonstrating the importance of considering pricing when predicting loading in today’s electricity markets. Historical load data from the Ontario Hydro system as well as pricing information from the neighboring system are used for testing, showing the good performance of the proposed method. Keywords: Short-term load forecasting, electricity markets, spot prices, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN)

Hong Chen; Claudio A. Cañizares; Ajit Singh

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Short-term effects of Gamma Ray Bursts on oceanic photosynthesis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We continue our previous work on the potential short-term influence of a gamma ray bursts on Earth's biosphere, focusing on the only important short-term effect on life: the ultraviolet flash which occurs as a result of the retransmission of the {\\gamma} radiation through the atmosphere. Thus, in this work we calculate the ultraviolet irradiances penetrating the first hundred meters of the water column, for Jerlov's ocean water types I, II and III. Then we estimate the UV flash potential for photosynthesis inhibition, showing that it can be important in a considerable part of the water column with light enough for photosynthesis to be done, the so called photic zone.

Penate, Liuba; Cardenas, Rolando; Agusti, Susana

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

NETL: Gasification - Development of Prototype Commercial Gasifier...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Development of Prototype Commercial Gasifier Sensor Gas Technology Institute Project Number: FE0008350 Project Description Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is developing a reliable,...

219

Short-Term Supply Chain Management in Upstream Natural Gas Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Consumers LNG Tanker Fleet Regasification Terminals LNGStorage Storage (Long,medium,short-term) Inter. LNG tankers unload the liquid at LNG termi- nals (also called regasification terminals). LNG it to markets or supplied directly to bulk consumers. LNG regasification terminals may also have storage

Barton, Paul I.

220

Global Sensitivity Analysis for the Short-term Prediction of System Variables  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

into or withdrawal from the transmission grid. The short-term prediction of LMPs in these regions is important. It is next established analytically that there is a fixed linear-affine mapping between bus load patterns piecewise linear-affine mapping can be used to predict system patterns corresponding to forecasted load

Tesfatsion, Leigh

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasifier costs short-term" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Other Petroleum Products Consumption Model  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The other petroleum product consumption module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide U.S. consumption forecasts for 6 petroleum product categories: asphalt and road oil, petrochemical feedstocks, petroleum coke, refinery still gas, unfinished oils, and other miscvellaneous products

Tancred Lidderdale

2011-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

222

Can Fully Accounting for Clouds in Data Assimilation Improve Short-Term Forecasts by Global Models?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper explores the degree to which short-term forecasts with global models might be improved if clouds were fully included in a data assimilation system, so that observations of clouds affected all parts of the model state and cloud ...

Robert Pincus; Robert J. Patrick Hofmann; Jeffrey L. Anderson; Kevin Raeder; Nancy Collins; Jeffrey S. Whitaker

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Nearest neighbor technique and artificial neural networks for short-term electric consumptions forecast  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Promoting both energy savings and renewable energy development are two objectives of the actual and national French energy policy. In this sense, the present work takes part in a global development of various tools allowing managing energy demand. So, ... Keywords: Kohonen Self-Organizing Map, Multi-Layer Perceptron, Short-Term Electric Consumption, The Nearest Neighbor Technique, Virtual Power Plant

Van Giang Tran; Stéphane Grieu; Monique Polit

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Changes in Natural Gas Monthly Consumption Data Collection and the Short-Term Energy Outlook  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Beginning with the December 2010 issue of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO), the EnergyInformation Administration (EIA) will present natural gas consumption forecasts for theresidential and commercial sectors that are consistent with recent changes to the Form EIA-857monthly natural gas survey.

Information Center

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Short-term wind power forecast based on cluster analysis and artificial neural networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper an architecture for an estimator of short-term wind farm power is proposed. The estimator is made up of a Linear Machine classifier and a set of k Multilayer Perceptrons, training each one for a specific subspace of the input space. ...

Javier Lorenzo; Juan Méndez; Modesto Castrillón; Daniel Hernández

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Real-Time Short-Term Forecasting of Precipitation at an Australian Tropical Station  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The results of a major real-time trial of techniques for the short-term (12 h ahead) prediction of precipitation for the Australian tropical city of Darwin are described. The trial compared current operational manual forecasting procedures with a ...

K. Fraedrich; L. M. Leslie

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

ANN-based Short-Term Load Forecasting in Electricity Markets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ANN-based Short-Term Load Forecasting in Electricity Markets Hong Chen Claudio A. Ca~nizares Ajit forecasting technique that considers electricity price as one of the main characteristics of the system load. B. Makram, "A Hybrid Wavelet- Kalman Filter Method for Load Forecasting," Electric Power Systems

Cañizares, Claudio A.

228

An Analysis of Short-Term Risk in Power System Pricing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The power system planning process will undergo changes as the electric utility industry transforms into a competitive market. This report presents a methodology that uses classical decision analysis, sampling theory, and load forecasting theory to evaluate short-term risk in power system planning.

1999-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

229

Short-term relationship of total electron content with geomagnetic activity in equatorial regions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Short-term relationship of total electron content with geomagnetic activity in equatorial regions X equatorial ionosphere and geomagnetic activity is examined. Hourly averages of the total electron content for equatorial geomagnetic activity, at three local times (0700­0800, 1200­1300, and 1600­1700 LT) from March

Qiyu, Sun

230

An intelligent ACO-SA approach for short term electricity load prediction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Intelligent solutions, based on artificial intelligence (AI) technologies, to solve complicated practical problems in various sectors are becoming more and more widespread nowadays. On the other hand, electrical load prediction is one of the important ... Keywords: ant colony optimization, artificial neural networks, intelligent prediction, short-term electricity load prediction, simulated annealing, time series modeling

Arash Ghanbari; Esmaeil Hadavandi; Salman Abbasian-Naghneh

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Scanning Doppler Lidar for Input into Short-Term Wind Power Forecasts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Scanning Doppler lidar is a promising technology for improvements in short-term wind power forecasts since it can scan close to the surface and produce wind profiles at a large distance upstream (15–30 km) if the atmosphere has sufficient aerosol ...

Rod Frehlich

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Development of coal hydrogasification technology. 2. Hydrogasification and simulation in the ARCH gasifier  

SciTech Connect

The development of coal hydrogasification technology to secure a stable supply of substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal at low cost has been performed since FY 1996 as a part of the Japanese governmental new energy program called the New Sunshine Project. In the first step, which is approved as the Development of Elemental Technology, there are three avenues of research; Experimental Research, Supporting Research and Research on Social Adaptability. Experimental Research consists of two developments: Development of New Coal Gasifier and Development of Peripheral Technology for the gasifier. In the conference of last year, the authors reported an approach to develop the gasifier based on the experimental data and Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) techniques. In this conference, they report further results at both experiments and the simulation to express the chemical and fluid dynamics behavior in gasifier.

Asaoka, Y.; Azuma, T.; Kawamoto, M.; Noguchi, F.; Gray, H.; Maruyama, H.; Ohama, T.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Process for electrochemically gasifying coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is claimed for electrochemically gasifying coal by establishing a flowing stream of coal particulate slurry, electrolyte and electrode members through a transverse magnetic field that has sufficient strength to polarize the electrode members, thereby causing them to operate in combination with the electrolyte to electrochemically reduce the coal particulate in the slurry. Such electrochemical reduction of the coal produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide at opposite ends of the polarized electrode members. Gas collection means are operated in conjunction with the process to collect the evolved gases as they rise from the slurry and electrolyte solution. 7 figs.

Botts, T.E.; Powell, J.R.

1985-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

234

The Gasifier Optimization and Plant Supporting Systems area focuses...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gasifier Optimization and Plant Supporting Systems area focuses on the development of technologies and models to improve the performance of advanced gasifiers. Specifically,...

235

Vermont gasifier project. Final report, Phase I  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents an engineering status report for the Vermont gasifier project. Technical areas of concern are discussed with the cyclone performance, agglomeration problems in the combustor, particlate emissions, valve design, deflagration venting, gasifier and combustion blower surge control, and other related areas. Attachments pertaining to the drawing and specification register are included.

NONE

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

CANMET Gasifier Liner Coupon Material Test Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides detailed test results consisting of test data and post-test inspections from Task 1 ''Cooled Liner Coupon Development and Test'' of the project titled ''Development of Technologies and Capabilities for Coal Energy Resources--Advanced Gasification Systems Development (AGSD)''. The primary objective of this development and test program is to verify that ceramic matrix composite (CMC) liner materials planned for use in an advanced gasifier pilot plant will successfully withstand the environments in a commercial gasifier. Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) designed and fabricated the cooled liner test assembly article that was tested in a slagging gasifier at CANMET Energy Technology Center (CETC-O) in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. The test program conducted in 2006 met the objective of operating the cooled liner test article at slagging conditions in a small scale coal gasifier at CETC-O for over the planned 100 hours. The test hardware was exposed to at least 30 high temperature excursions (including start-up and shut-down cycles) during the test program. The results of the testing has provided valuable information on gasifier startup and required cooling controls in steady state operation of future advanced gasifiers using similar liners. The test program also provided a significant amount of information in the areas of CMC materials and processing for improved capability in a gasifier environment and insight into CMC liner fabrication that will be essential for near-term advanced gasifier projects.

Mark Fitzsimmons; Dave Grimmett; Bryan McEnerney

2007-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

237

Gasifier feed - Tailor-made from Illinois coals  

SciTech Connect

The main purpose of this project is to produce a feedstock from preparation plant fines from an illinois coal that is ideal for a slurry fed, slagging, entrained-flow coal gasifier. The high sulfur content and high Btu value of Illinois coals are particularly advantageous in such a gasifier; preliminary calculations indicate that the increased cost of removing sulfur from the gas from a high sulfur coal is more than offset by the increased revenue from the sale of the elemental sulfur; additionally the high Btu Illinois coal concentrates more energy into the slurry of a given coal to water ratio. The Btu is higher not only because of the higher Btu value of the coal but also because Illinois coal requires less water to produce a pumpable slurry than western coal, i.e., as little as 30--35% water may be used for Illinois coal as compared to approximately 45% for most western coals.

Ehrlinger, H.P. III (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)); Lytle, J.; Frost, R.R.; Lizzio, A.; Kohlenberger, L.; Brewer, K. (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States) DESTEC Energy (United States) Williams Technology, (United States) Illinois Coal Association (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Short-Term Energy Outlook - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

‹ Analysis & Projections ‹ Analysis & Projections Short-Term Energy Outlook Release Date: January 7, 2014 | Next Release Date: February 11, 2014 | Full Report | Text Only | All Tables | All Figures Glossary › FAQS › Overview STEO Report Highlights Prices Global Crude Oil and Liquid Fuels U.S. Crude Oil and Liquid Fuels Natural Gas Coal Electricity Renewables and CO2 Emissions U.S. Economic Assumptions Data Figures Tables Custom Table Builder Real Prices Viewer Forecast Changes (PDF) Special Analysis Price Uncertainty Highlights This edition of the Short-Term Energy Outlook is the first to include forecasts for 2015. After falling to the lowest monthly average of 2013 in November, U.S. regular gasoline retail prices increased slightly to reach an average of $3.28 per gallon (gal) during December. The annual average regular

239

Short-Term Energy Outlook - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Short-Term Energy Outlook Short-Term Energy Outlook Release Date: January 7, 2014 | Next Release Date: February 11, 2014 | Full Report | Text Only | All Tables | All Figures Glossary › FAQS › Overview STEO Report Highlights Prices Global Crude Oil and Liquid Fuels U.S. Crude Oil and Liquid Fuels Natural Gas Coal Electricity Renewables and CO2 Emissions U.S. Economic Assumptions Data Figures Tables Custom Table Builder Real Prices Viewer Forecast Changes (PDF) Special Analysis Price Uncertainty < Back to list of tables Working correctly. Table 1 : U.S. Energy Markets Summary Either scripts and active content are not permitted to run or Adobe Flash Player version ${version_major}.${version_minor}.${version_revision} or greater is not installed. Get Adobe Flash Player a Includes lease condensate.

240

Session 4: "Short-Term Energy Prices - What Drivers Matter Most?"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4: "Short-Term Energy Prices - What Drivers Matter Most?" 4: "Short-Term Energy Prices - What Drivers Matter Most?" Speakers: Howard K. Gruenspecht, EIA David M. Arseneau, Federal Reserve Board Guy F. Caruso, Center for Strategic and International Studies Christopher Ellsworth, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Edward L. Morse, Credit Suisse Securities [Note: Recorders did not pick up introduction of panel (see biographies for details on the panelists) or introduction of session.] Howard: And this presentation could not be more timely, given current developments in oil and natural gas markets and the start of the traditional summer driving season. In discussions of rapidly rising oil prices leading to a peak of $147 per barrel in the summer of 2008, the factors that were traditionally the focus of EIA's

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasifier costs short-term" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, 2nd quarter 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the second quarter of 1994 through the fourth quarter of 1995. Values for the first quarter of 1994, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available. The historical energy data, compiled into the second quarter 1994 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service. The cases are produced using the STIFS. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. The EIA model is available on computer tape from the National Technical Information Service.

Not Available

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Short-Term Aging of Polymer Insulators: Dissection of Samples Aged in a Dry Environment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For many years, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has performed large-scale aging tests on polymer insulators and has evaluated many polymer insulators that have been removed from service, in an effort to understand what the aging factors are. EPRI has learned that a significant aging factor is corona discharge activity and has therefore developed a test that focuses on how corona discharge activity degrades polymer insulators. This report highlights the latest development of a short-term ...

2013-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

243

Short Term Aging of Polymer Insulators: Impact of High Humidity Environment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For many years, EPRI has performed large scale aging tests on polymer insulators and evaluated many polymer insulators removed from service in an effort to understand what the aging factors are. EPRI has learned that a significant aging factor is corona discharge activity and has developed a test that focuses on how corona discharge activity degrades polymer insulators. This report highlights the latest development of a short-term aging test designed to assess how well a polymer insulator can ...

2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

244

Biodiesel Supply and Consumption in the Short-Term Energy Outlook  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The historical biodiesel consumption data published in the EIA Monthly Energy Review (http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/contents.html) March 2009 edition were revised to account for imports and exports. Table 10.4 of the Monthly Energy Review was expanded to display biodiesel imports, exports, stocks, stock change, and consumption. Similar revisions were made in the April 2009 edition of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO).

Information Center

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Dispersants for Tube Fouling Control: Volume 2: Short-Term Trial at ANO-2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dispersants have been used for several decades in fossil boiler units to inhibit corrosion product deposition in the boiler. However, until recently, a dispersant of sufficient purity had not been available for nuclear application. This report summarizes the methodology and results of the full-scale, short-term trial of a high-purity, high molecular weight BetzDearborn polyacrylic acid (PAA) dispersant for steam generator deposit control in the secondary system of Arkansas Nuclear One Unit 2 (ANO-2).

2001-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

246

www.inescc.pt 1 Short Term Load Forecasting Using Gaussian Process Models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract — The electrical deregulated market increases the need for short-term load forecast algorithms in order to assist electrical utilities in activities such as planning, operating and controlling electric energy systems. Methodologies based on regression methods have been widely used with satisfactory results. However, this type of approach has some shortcomings. This paper proposes a short-term load forecast methodology applied to distribution systems, based on Gaussian Process models. This methodology establishes an interesting and valuable approach to short-term forecasting applied to the electrical sector. The results obtained are in accordance with the best values of expected errors for these types of methodologies. A careful study of the input variables (regressors) was made, from the point of view of contiguous values, in order to include the strictly necessary instances of endogenous variables. Regressors representing the trend of consumption, at homologous time intervals in the past, were also included in the input vector. The proposed approach was tested on real-load from three medium-sized supply electrical distribution substations located in the center of Portugal. To test the performance of the model in different load situations, the case study includes three different electrical distribution substations representative of typical load consuming patterns,

Inesc Coimbra; João Lourenço; Paulo Santos; Lourenço J. M; Santos P. J

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Preliminary results from field testing an improved refractory material for slagging coal gasifiers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Slag attack of refractory materials used to line the hot face of slagging gasifiers limits their service life to between 3 and 24 months. These gasifiers use coal, petroleum coke, or combinations of them as raw materials to produce chemicals, liquid fuel, and/or electricity; with future consideration being given to the use of other abundant, low cost feedstock such as biomass. The ash from these materials generate liquid slags during gasification at temperature between 1300 - 1575 C and pressures up to 1000 psi, leading to severe slag attack of a vessel lining and causing unacceptable gasifier reliability and on-line availability. To maximize refractory life and provide protection of the gasifier metal shell, the best liners have contained a minimum of 60-70 pct chromia in combination with alumina, alumina/zirconia, or magnesia. The Albany Research Center of DOE has developed a phosphate containing high chrome oxide refractory liner that indicates potential for increased service life over currently used materials. This new liner has been produced commercially by a refractory company and installed in a gasifier for performance evaluation. Refractory issues in slagging gasifiers, the development and properties of the phosphate containing high chrome oxide material, and the preliminary results from the plant trial of this material will be presented.

Bennett, James P.; Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Powell, Cynthia A.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Short-Term Schedulability Analysis of Crude Oil Operations in Refinery With Oil Residency Time Constraint Using Petri Nets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A short-term schedule for oil refinery should arrange all the activities in every detail for the whole scheduling horizon, leading to a complex problem. There lacks efficient techniques and software tools for its solution applicable to industrial oil ... Keywords: Automated manufacturing system, Petri net (PN), hybrid Petri net, oil refinery, scheduling, short-term scheduling

NaiQi Wu; Feng Chu; Chengbin Chu; MengChu Zhou

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Short-term Wind Power Prediction for Offshore Wind Farms -Evaluation of Fuzzy-Neural Network Based Models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Short-term Wind Power Prediction for Offshore Wind Farms - Evaluation of Fuzzy-Neural Network Based of wind power capacities are likely to take place offshore. As for onshore wind parks, short-term wind of offshore farms and their secure integration to the grid. Modeling the behavior of large wind farms

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

250

Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Macro Bridge Procedure to Update Regional Macroeconomic Forecasts with National Macroeconomic Forecasts  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The Regional Short-Term Energy Model (RSTEM) uses macroeconomic variables such as income, employment, industrial production and consumer prices at both the national and regional1 levels as explanatory variables in the generation of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO). This documentation explains how national macroeconomic forecasts are used to update regional macroeconomic forecasts through the RSTEM Macro Bridge procedure.

Information Center

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

322 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS. VOL. 25. NO. I. FEBRUARY 2010 Short-Term Load Forecasting: Similar  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for Short Term Electrical Load Forecasting," IEEE Trans. PWRS, vol. 11, no. 1, Feb. 1996, pp. 397-402. [4Short-Term Load Forecasting by Feed-Forward Neural Networks Saied S. Sharif1 , James H. Taylor2) is presented for the hourly load forecasting of the coming days. In this approach, 24 independent networks

Luh, Peter

252

Design and economics of a lignite-to-SNG (substitute natural gas) facility using Lurgi gasifiers for lignite gasification with KRW gasifiers for gasification of coal fines. Topical report (Final), April 1985-January 1986  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A first-pass design and cost estimate was prepared for a plant to convert lignite to substitute natural gas (SNG) using Lurgi dry-bottom gasifiers to gasify the coal and the KRW fluid-bed gasifiers to gasify the coal fines. The overall plant thermal efficiency is between that of the Lurgi and KRW base case designs. The study-case design is of commercial interest compared to a Lurgi plant when the Lurgi plant coal fines cannot be sold. The study case is more capital-intensive because it requires more-expensive boilers and more of different types of process units than either base case. There is no advantage over a KRW plant design that provides a 30% lower cost of gas.

Smelser, S.C.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Measuring Short-term Air Conditioner Demand Reductions for Operations and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Measuring Short-term Air Conditioner Demand Reductions for Operations and Measuring Short-term Air Conditioner Demand Reductions for Operations and Settlement Title Measuring Short-term Air Conditioner Demand Reductions for Operations and Settlement Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-5330E Year of Publication 2012 Authors Bode, Josh, Michael J. Sullivan, and Joseph H. Eto Pagination 120 Date Published 01/2012 Publisher LBNL City Berkeley Keywords consortium for electric reliability technology solutions (certs), electricity markets and policy group, energy analysis and environmental impacts department Abstract Several recent demonstrations and pilots have shown that air conditioner (AC) electric loads can be controlled during the summer cooling season to provide ancillary services and improve the stability and reliability of the electricity grid. A key issue for integration of air conditioner load control into grid operations is how to accurately measure shorter-term (e.g., ten's of minutes to a couple of hours) demand reductions from AC load curtailments for operations and settlement. This report presents a framework for assessing the accuracy of shorter-term AC load control demand reduction measurements. It also compares the accuracy of various alternatives for measuring AC reductions - including methods that rely on regression analysis, load matching and control groups - using feeder data, household data and AC end-use data. A practical approach is recommended for settlement that relies on set of tables, updated annually, with pre-calculated load reduction estimates. The tables allow users to look up the demand reduction per device based on the daily maximum temperature, geographic region and hour of day and simplify the settlement process.

254

Determining Long-Term Performance of Cool Storage Systems from Short-Term Tests, Final Report  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This is the final report for ASHRAE Research Project 1004-RP: Determining Long-Term Performance of Cool Storage Systems from Short-Term Tests. This report presents the results of the development and application of the methodology to Case Study #2, the Delmar College, in Corpus Christi, Texas, and Case Study #3, the Austin Convention Center, in Austin, Texas. A previous report presented the analysis results for Case Study #1, which was a large hotel located in San Francisco, CA. This report also includes a summary and discussion of the results from all three case studies, recommendations for further research, and a step-by-step guide to applying the analysis methodology.

Reddy, T. A.; Elleson, J.; Haberl, J. S.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Results of short-term corrosion evaluation tests at Raft River  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Four categories of short-term materials evaluation tests were conducted in geothermal fluid from Raft River Geothermal Experiment, Well No. 1, to obtain corrosion data relevant to the design of the Raft River Thermal Loop Facility. Test programs are described and the testing philosophies are discussed. All materials and configurations which were tested are identified and details of posttest visual examinations are presented. The materials are then assigned to appropriate performance categories on the basis of test behavior, and the possible service limitations are appraised.

Miller, R.L.

1977-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Gasifiers optimized for fuel cell applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Conventional coal gasification carbonate fuel cell systems are typically configured as shown in Figure 1, where the fuel gas is primarily hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide, with waste heat recovery for process requirements and to produce additional power in a steam bottoming cycle. These systems make use of present day gasification processes to produce the low to medium Btu fuel gas which in turn is cleaned up and consumed by the fuel cell. These conventional gasification/fuel cell systems have been studied in recent years projecting system efficiencies of 45--53% (HHV). Conventional gasification systems currently available evolved as stand-alone systems producing low to medium Btu gas fuel gas. The requirements of the gasification process dictates high temperatures to carry out the steam/carbon reaction and to gasify the tars present in coal. The high gasification temperatures required are achieved by an oxidant which consumes a portion of the feed coal to provide the endothermic heat required for the gasification process. The thermal needs of this process result in fuel gas temperatures that are higher than necessary for most end use applications, as well as for gas cleanup purposes. This results in some efficiency and cost penalties. This effort is designed to study advanced means of power generation by integrating the gasification process with the unique operating characteristics of carbonate fuel cells to achieve a more efficient and cost effective coal based power generating system. This is to be done by altering the gasification process to produce fuel gas compositions which result in more efficient fuel cell operation and by integrating the gasification process with the fuel cell as shown in Figure 2. Low temperature catalytic gasification was chosen as the basis for this effort due to the inherent efficiency advantages and compatibility with fuel cell operating temperatures.

Steinfeld, G.; Fruchtman, J.; Hauserman, W.B.; Lee, A.; Meyers, S.J.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Gasifiers optimized for fuel cell applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Conventional coal gasification carbonate fuel cell systems are typically configured as shown in Figure 1, where the fuel gas is primarily hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide, with waste heat recovery for process requirements and to produce additional power in a steam bottoming cycle. These systems make use of present day gasification processes to produce the low to medium Btu fuel gas which in turn is cleaned up and consumed by the fuel cell. These conventional gasification/fuel cell systems have been studied in recent years projecting system efficiencies of 45--53% (HHV). Conventional gasification systems currently available evolved as stand-alone systems producing low to medium Btu gas fuel gas. The requirements of the gasification process dictates high temperatures to carry out the steam/carbon reaction and to gasify the tars present in coal. The high gasification temperatures required are achieved by an oxidant which consumes a portion of the feed coal to provide the endothermic heat required for the gasification process. The thermal needs of this process result in fuel gas temperatures that are higher than necessary for most end use applications, as well as for gas cleanup purposes. This results in some efficiency and cost penalties. This effort is designed to study advanced means of power generation by integrating the gasification process with the unique operating characteristics of carbonate fuel cells to achieve a more efficient and cost effective coal based power generating system. This is to be done by altering the gasification process to produce fuel gas compositions which result in more efficient fuel cell operation and by integrating the gasification process with the fuel cell as shown in Figure 2. Low temperature catalytic gasification was chosen as the basis for this effort due to the inherent efficiency advantages and compatibility with fuel cell operating temperatures.

Steinfeld, G.; Fruchtman, J.; Hauserman, W.B.; Lee, A.; Meyers, S.J.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Interpretation of a Short-Term Anomaly in the Gravitational Microlensing Event MOA-2012-BLG-486  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A planetary microlensing signal is generally characterized by a short-term perturbation to the standard single lensing light curve. A subset of binary-source events can produce perturbations that mimic planetary signals, thereby introducing an ambiguity between the planetary and binary-source interpretations. In this paper, we present analysis of the microlensing event MOA-2012-BLG-486, for which the light curve exhibits a short-lived perturbation. Routine modeling not considering data taken in different passbands yields a best-fit planetary model that is slightly preferred over the best-fit binary-source model. However, when allowed for a change in the color during the perturbation, we find that the binary-source model yields a significantly better fit and thus the degeneracy is clearly resolved. This event not only signifies the importance of considering various interpretations of short-term anomalies, but also demonstrates the importance of multi-band data for checking the possibility of false-positive pla...

Hwang, K -H; Bond, I A; Sumi, T; Han, C; Gaudi, B S; Gould, A; Bozza, V; Beaulieu, J -P; Tsapras, Y; Abe, F; Bennett, D P; Botzler, C S; Chote, P; Freeman, M; Fukui, A; Fukunaga, D; Harris, P; Itow, Y; Koshimoto, N; Ling, C H; Masuda, K; Matsubara, Y; Muraki, Y; Namba, S; Ohnishi, K; Rattenbury, N J; Saito, To; Sullivan, D J; Sweatman, W L; Suzuki, D; Tristram, P J; Wada, K; Yamai, N; Yock, P C M; Yonehara, A; de Almeida, L Andrade; DePoy, D L; Dong, Subo; Jablonski, F; Jung, Y K; Kavka, A; Lee, C -U; Park, H; Pogge, R W; Shin, I -G; Yee, J C; Albrow, M D; Bachelet, E; Batista, V; Brillant, S; Caldwell, J A R; Cassan, A; Cole, A; Corrales, E; Coutures, Ch; Dieters, S; Prester, D Dominis; Donatowicz, J; Fouqué, P; Greenhill, J; Jørgensen, U G; Kane, S R; Kubas, D; Marquette, J -B; Martin, R; Meintjes, P; Menzies, J; Pollard, K R; Williams, A; Wouters, D; Bramich, D M; Dominik, M; Horne, K; Browne, P; Hundertmark, M; Ipatov, S; Kains, N; Snodgrass, C; Steele, I A; Street, R A

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

(Short-term assays for detecting environmental mutagens, carcinogens, and teratogens)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler attended the Second Southeast Asian Workshop on Short-Term Assays for detecting Environmental Mutagens, Carcinogens, and Teratogens and presented a lecture on his work with transgenic mice. The work shop was sponsored by the Thai National Cancer Institute and was designed to acquaint scientists in Thailand and other Southeast Asian countries with the principles and state-of-the-art methods for detecting genotoxic agents. Many of the prominent scientists lecturing at the workshop, as well as several of the participants, expressed strong support for the short-term in vivo genotoxicity assays in transgenic mice that are currently under development in the traveler's laboratory in the Biology Division at ORNL. The traveler also participated in a panel discussion sponsored by the Thai Science and Technology Development Board (STDP) on the development of molecular biology programs at the universities in Thailand. After two weeks in Thailand, the traveler flew to the Philippines with several other American scientists to spend two days visiting the University of the Philippines, meeting with students and faculty, and presenting a lecture on his work with transgenic mice.

Woychik, R.P.

1989-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

260

High-solids black liquor firing in pulp and paper industry kraft recovery boilers. Quarterly report, Phase 1a: Black liquor gasifier evaluation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project phase addresses the following workscope: Conduct bench-scale tests of a low temperature, partial combustion gasifier; Prepare a gasifier pilot-plant preliminary design and cost estimate and prepare a budgetary cost estimate of the balance of the program; Outline a test program to evaluate gasification; Prepare an economic/market analysis of gasification and solicit pulp and paper industry support for subsequent phases; and Prepare a final report and conduct a project review prior to commencement of work leading to construction of any pilot scale components or facilities. The primary accomplishments included completion of installation of the bench-scale black liquor gasifier and supporting systems, preparing test plans and related safety procedures and detailed operating procedures, defining the functional design requirements and outlining the test plans for the pilot-scale gasifier, and preparing a preliminary economic assessment of the black liquor gasifier. This work accomplished under Phase 1a during this period is further described by task.

NONE

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasifier costs short-term" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

The Effect of Soil Moisture on the Short-Term Climate and Hydrology Change—A Numerical Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes a series of numerical experiments simulating the effect of large-scale irrigation on short-term changes of hydrology and climate. This is done through the use of a simple general circulation model, with a limited ...

T-C. Yeh; R. T. Wetherald; S. Manabe

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Application of a dynamic-stochastic approach to short-term forecasting of the atmospheric boundary layer.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A two-dimensional, dynamic-stochastic model presented in this study is used for short-term forecasting of vertical profiles of air temperature and wind velocity orthogonal components in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). The technique of using ...

V. S. Komarov; A. V. Lavrinenko; N. Ya. Lomakina; S. N. Il’in

263

Using futures prices to filter short-term volatility and recover a latent, long-term price series for oil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oil prices are very volatile. But much of this volatility seems to reflect short-term,transitory factors that may have little or no influence on the price in the long run. Many major investment decisions should be guided ...

Herce, Miguel Angel

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Short-Term Climate Variability and Atmospheric Teleconnections from Satellite-Observed Outgoing Longwave Radiation. Part I: Simultaneous Relationships  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Satellite-inferred short-term climate variability and atmospheric teleconnections are studied using seven years (1974–81) of Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) data from NOAA polar orbiters. This study utilizes composite, partition-of-variance and ...

Ka-Ming Lau; Paul H. Chan

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

A Survey of the Rates and Products of Short-Term Photosynthesis in Plants of 9 Phyla  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of alanine D. 5 min. photosynthesis squash showing absencePRODUCTS OF SHORT-TERM PHOTOSYNTHESIS I N PLANTS OF 9 PHYLATable III A. 5 min. photosynthesis Fontinalis showing high

Calvin, M.; Norris, R.E.; Norris, Louisa

1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

An Investigation of the Short-Term Predictability of Precipitation Using High-Resolution Composite Radar Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The short-term predictability of precipitation patterns observed by meteorological radar is an important concept as it establishes a means to characterize precipitation and provides an upper limit on the extent of useful nowcasting. Predictability ...

Evan Ruzanski; V. Chandrasekar

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Implications of geographic diversity for short-term variability and predictability of solar power.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of renewable energy policies,and on the costs, benefits, andrenewable energy in integrated resource planning; the cost

Mills, Andrew

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

EVALUATING SHORT-TERM CLIMATE VARIABILITY IN THE LATE HOLOCENE OF THE NORTHERN GREAT PLAINS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This literature study investigated methods and areas to deduce climate change and climate patterns, looking for short-term cycle phenomena and the means to interpret them. Many groups are actively engaged in intensive climate-related research. Ongoing research might be (overly) simplified into three categories: (1) historic data on weather that can be used for trend analysis and modeling; (2) detailed geological, biological (subfossil), and analytical (geochemical, radiocarbon, etc.) studies covering the last 10,000 years (about since last glaciation); and (3) geological, paleontological, and analytical (geochemical, radiometric, etc.) studies over millions of years. Of importance is our ultimate ability to join these various lines of inquiry into an effective means of interpretation. At this point, the process of integration is fraught with methodological troubles and misconceptions about what each group can contribute. This project has met its goals to the extent that it provided an opportunity to study resource materials and consider options for future effort toward the goal of understanding the natural climate variation that has shaped our current civilization. A further outcome of this project is a proposed methodology based on ''climate sections'' that provides spatial and temporal correlation within a region. The method would integrate cultural and climate data to establish the climate history of a region with increasing accuracy with progressive study and scientific advancement (e. g., better integration of regional and global models). The goal of this project is to better understand natural climatic variations in the recent past (last 5000 years). The information generated by this work is intended to provide better context within which to examine global climate change. The ongoing project will help to establish a basis upon which to interpret late Holocene short-term climate variability as evidenced in various studies in the northern Great Plains, northern hemisphere, and elsewhere. Finally these data can be integrated into a history of climate change and predictive climate models. This is not a small undertaking. The goals of researchers and the methods used vary considerably. The primary task of this project was literature research to (1) evaluate existing methodologies used in geologic climate change studies and evidence for short-term cycles produced by these methodologies and (2) evaluate late Holocene climate patterns and their interpretations.

Joseph H. Hartman

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Short-Term Energy Outlook - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

‹ Analysis & Projections ‹ Analysis & Projections Short-Term Energy Outlook Release Date: December 10, 2013 | Next Release Date: January 7, 2014 | Full Report | Text Only | All Tables | All Figures Glossary › FAQS › Overview STEO Report Highlights Prices Global Crude Oil and Liquid Fuels U.S. Crude Oil and Liquid Fuels Natural Gas Coal Electricity Renewables and CO2 Emissions U.S. Economic Assumptions Data Figures Tables Custom Table Builder Real Prices Viewer Forecast Changes (PDF) Special Analysis Price Uncertainty Custom Table Builder Frequency: Annual Monthly Quarterly Select a Year Range: 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 to 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014

270

Measuring Short-term Air Conditioner Demand Reductions for Operations and Settlement  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

330E 330E Measuring Short-term Air Conditioner Demand Reductions for Operations and Settlement Josh Bode, Michael Sullivan, Joseph H. Eto January 2012 The work described in this report was funded by the Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02- 05CH11231. ERNEST ORLANDO LAWRENCE BERKELEY NATIONAL LABORATORY Disclaimer This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government. While this document is believed to contain correct information, neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor The Regents of the University of California, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or

271

QUARTER SHORT-TERM ENERGY OUTLOOK QUARTERLY PROJECTIONS ENERGY INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1Q) 1Q) 1991 1 QUARTER SHORT-TERM ENERGY OUTLOOK QUARTERLY PROJECTIONS ENERGY INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION February 1991 This publication may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office. Purchasing in formation for this or other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications may be obtained from the Government Printing Office or ElA's National Energy Information Center. Questions on energy statistics should be directed to the Center by mail, telephone, or telecommunications device for the hearing impaired. Addresses, telephone numbers, and hours are as follows: National Energy Information Center, El-231 Energy Information Administration Forrestal Building, Room 1F-048 Washington, DC 20585 (202) 586-8800 Telecommunications Device for the

272

Microsoft Word - Alcoa_short-term_amendments2_CX.docx  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Mark Miller Mark Miller Account Executive, Long-term Sales and Purchases - PT-5 Proposed Action: Short-term Additional Amendments to the Alcoa Power Sales Agreement Categorical Exclusion Applied (from Subpart D, 10 C.F.R. Part 1021): A2 - Clarifying or administrative contract actions Location: Portland, OR and Ferndale, WA Proposed by: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Description of the Proposed Action: BPA proposes to execute one or more additional amendments to its existing 2009 Power Sales Agreement (Agreement) with Alcoa, Inc. (Alcoa) to further extend the Agreement's Initial Period provisions. The current date for expiration of these provisions under the most recent amendment (Amendment Number 4) is September 30, 2012. The current proposal involves executing one or more additional

273

DOBEIA-0202(83/4Q) Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

DOBEIA-0202(83/4Q) DOBEIA-0202(83/4Q) Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections November 1983 Energy Information Administration Washington, D.C. t rt jrt .ort lort .lort lort lort lort <.ort ort Tt- .-m .erm -Term -Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Nrm ,iergy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy ^nergy Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Short Short Short Short- Short- Short- Short- Short- Short- Short- Short- Short- Short- Short- Short- Short- Short- Short- Short- Short Short Short Short Short-

274

Short-Term Energy Outlook - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

‹ Analysis & Projections ‹ Analysis & Projections Short-Term Energy Outlook Release Date: December 10, 2013 | Next Release Date: January 7, 2014 | Full Report | Text Only | All Tables | All Figures Glossary › FAQS › Overview STEO Report Highlights Prices Global Crude Oil and Liquid Fuels U.S. Crude Oil and Liquid Fuels Natural Gas Coal Electricity Renewables and CO2 Emissions U.S. Economic Assumptions Data Figures Tables Custom Table Builder Real Prices Viewer Forecast Changes (PDF) Special Analysis Price Uncertainty Highlights After falling by more than 40 cents per gallon from the beginning of September through mid-November, weekly U.S. average regular gasoline retail prices increased by 8 cents per gallon to reach $3.27 per gallon on December 2, 2013, due in part to unplanned refinery maintenance and higher

275

DOE/EIA-0202(85/1Q) Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1Q) 1Q) Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections January 1985 Published: February 1985 Energy Information Administration Washington, D.C. t rt jrt .ort lort lort lort nort lort *.ort ort Tt .m .erm -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term uergy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy ^nergy Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Short Short Short Short Short Short Short Short Short Short Short Short Short Short Short Short Short Short Short Short Short Short Short Short

276

DOE/EIA-0202(84/4Q) Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4Q) 4Q) Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections October 1984 Published: November 1984 Energy Information Administration Washington, D.C. t rt jrt .ort lort iort lort iort lort \ort ort Tt .erm Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term -Term -Term xrm nergy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy ^nergy Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Short- Short- Short- Short- Short- Short- Short- Short- Short- Short- Short- Short- Short Short- Short- Short Short Short Short Short Short

277

Short-Term Energy Outlook - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Release Schedule Release Schedule Release Date. The Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) scheduling procedure calls for the release of the STEO on the first Tuesday following the first Thursday of each month. For example, since the first Thursday of July 2009 was July 2, under this plan, the July edition was released on Tuesday, July 7. If a Federal holiday falls on the Monday before the normal release date the release is delayed until Wednesday. There may be the occasional unusual delay in the release because of scheduling around other events, such as the annual EIA Conference in April 2009. Barring holidays or unusual rescheduling, the STEO will normally appear between the 6th and the 12th of the month. Any unforeseen scheduling adjustments will be posted here and/or on the STEO homepage.

278

Short-Term Energy Outlook - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Special Analysis Special Analysis + EXPAND ALL Feature Articles Status of Libyan Loading Ports and Oil and Natural Gas Fields September 2013 PDF EIA Estimates of Crude Oil and Liquid Fuels Supply Disruptions September 2013 PDF 2013 Outlook for Gulf of Mexico Hurricane-Related Production Outages June 2013 PDF Summer 2013 Outlook for Residential Electric Bills June 2013 PDF Key drivers for EIA's short-term U.S. crude oil production outlook February 2013 PDF Constraints in New England likely to affect regional energy prices this winter January 2013 PDF Change in STEO Regional and U.S. Degree Day Calculations September 2012 PDF Changes to Electricity and Renewables Tables August 2012 PDF Brent Crude Oil Spot Price Forecast July 2012 PDF 2012 Outlook for Hurricane-Related Production Outages in the Gulf of Mexico June 2012 PDF

279

Algorithms for Short-Term Production-Planning of Cogeneration Plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A cogeneration plant, feeding its output water into a district-heating network, may include several types of energy producing units. The most important being the Cogeneration unit, which produces both heat and electricity. Most plants also have a Heat water storage. Finding the optimal production of both heat and electricity and the optimal use of the storage is a challenging mixed integer nonlinear optimization problem. The calculations may be divided into two sub-problems. The unit commitment problem is the problem to determine when a unit should be producing (on) or not (off). To solve the economic dispatch problem is to find the optimal production plan given which units are producing in each time interval. Together the solution of these two problems form the solution of the short-term production-planning problem. In this thesis a general approach for the mathematical modeling of a cogeneration plant is presented. The model objective function is nonlinear, with nonlinear constraints....

Erik Dotzauer

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Short-term Variations in the Galactic Environment of the Sun  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The galactic environment of the Sun varies over short timescales as the Sun and interstellar clouds travel through space. Small variations in the dynamics, ionization, density, and magnetic field strength of the interstellar medium (ISM) surrounding the Sun yield pronounced changes in the heliosphere. We discuss essential information required to understand short-term variations in the galactic environment of the Sun, including the distribution and radiative transfer properties of nearby ISM, and variations in the boundary conditions of the heliosphere as the Sun traverses clouds. The most predictable transitions are when the Sun emerged from the Local Bubble interior and entered the cluster of local interstellar clouds flowing past the Sun, within the past 140,000 years, and again when the Sun entered the local interstellar cloud now surrounding and inside of the solar system, sometime during the past 44,000 years.

Priscilla C. Frisch; Jonathan D. Slavin

2006-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasifier costs short-term" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Short-Term Energy Outlook - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Market Prices and Uncertainty Report This is a regular monthly supplement to the EIA Short-Term Energy Outlook. Contact: James Preciado (James.Preciado@eia.gov) Full Report Crude Oil Prices: International crude oil benchmarks moved higher in November, showing their first month-over-month increase since August, while U.S. crude oil prices moved higher during the first week of December. The North Sea Brent front month futures price settled at $110.98 per barrel on December 5, an increase of $5.07 per barrel since its close on November 1 (Figure 1). The West Texas Intermediate (WTI) front month futures contract rose $2.77 per barrel compared to November 1, settling at $97.38 per barrel on December 5. Figure 1: Historical crude oil front month futures prices

282

Freeway Short-Term Traffic Flow Forecasting by Considering Traffic Volatility Dynamics and Missing Data Situations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Short-term traffic flow forecasting is a critical function in advanced traffic management systems (ATMS) and advanced traveler information systems (ATIS). Accurate forecasting results are useful to indicate future traffic conditions and assist traffic managers in seeking solutions to congestion problems on urban freeways and surface streets. There is new research interest in short-term traffic flow forecasting due to recent developments in ITS technologies. Previous research involves technologies in multiple areas, and a significant number of forecasting methods exist in literature. However, forecasting reliability is not properly addressed in existing studies. Most forecasting methods only focus on the expected value of traffic flow, assuming constant variance when perform forecasting. This method does not consider the volatility nature of traffic flow data. This paper demonstrated that the variance part of traffic flow data is not constant, and dependency exists. A volatility model studies the dependency among the variance part of traffic flow data and provides a prediction range to indicate the reliability of traffic flow forecasting. We proposed an ARIMA-GARCH (Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average- AutoRegressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity) model to study the volatile nature of traffic flow data. Another problem of existing studies is that most methods have limited forecasting abilities when there is missing data in historical or current traffic flow data. We developed a General Regression Neural Network(GRNN) based multivariate forecasting method to deal with this issue. This method uses upstream information to predict traffic flow at the studied site. The study results indicate that the ARIMA-GARCH model outperforms other methods in non-missing data situations, while the GRNN model performs better in missing data situations.

Zhang, Yanru

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Winchester/Camberley Homes New Construction Test House Design, Construction, and Short-Term Testing in a Mixed-Humid Climate  

SciTech Connect

The NAHB Research Center partnered with production builder Winchester/Camberley Homes to build a DOE Building America New Construction Test House (NCTH). This single family, detached house, located in the mixed-humid climate zone of Silver Spring, MD, was completed in June 2011. The primary goal for this house was to improve energy efficiency by 30% over the Building America B10 benchmark by developing and implementing an optimized energy solutions package design that could be cost effectively and reliably constructed on a production basis using quality management practices. The intent of this report is to outline the features of this house, discuss the implementation of the energy efficient design, and report on short-term testing results. During the interactive design process of this project, numerous iterations of the framing, air sealing, insulation, and space conditioning systems were evaluated for energy performance, cost, and practical implementation. The final design featured numerous advanced framing techniques, high levels of insulation, and the HVAC system entirely within conditioned space. Short-term testing confirmed a very tight thermal envelope and efficient and effective heating and cooling. In addition, relevant heating, cooling, humidity, energy, and wall cavity moisture data will be collected and presented in a future long-term report.

Mallav, D.; Wiehagen, J.; Wood, A.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Application of Ensemble Sensitivity Analysis to Observation Targeting for Short-term Wind Speed Forecasting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The operators of electrical grids, sometimes referred to as Balancing Authorities (BA), typically make critical decisions on how to most reliably and economically balance electrical load and generation in time frames ranging from a few minutes to six hours ahead. At higher levels of wind power generation, there is an increasing need to improve the accuracy of 0- to 6-hour ahead wind power forecasts. Forecasts on this time scale have typically been strongly dependent on short-term trends indicated by the time series of power production and meteorological data from a wind farm. Additional input information is often available from the output of Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models and occasionally from off-site meteorological towers in the region surrounding the wind generation facility. A widely proposed approach to improve short-term forecasts is the deployment of off-site meteorological towers at locations upstream from the wind generation facility in order to sense approaching wind perturbations. While conceptually appealing, it turns out that, in practice, it is often very difficult to derive significant benefit in forecast performance from this approach. The difficulty is rooted in the fact that the type, scale, and amplitude of the processes controlling wind variability at a site change from day to day if not from hour to hour. Thus, a location that provides some useful forecast information for one time may not be a useful predictor a few hours later. Indeed, some processes that cause significant changes in wind power production operate predominantly in the vertical direction and thus cannot be monitored by employing a network of sensors at off-site locations. Hence, it is very challenging to determine the type of sensors and deployment locations to get the most benefit for a specific short-term forecast application. Two tools recently developed in the meteorological research community have the potential to help determine the locations and parameters to measure in order to get the maximum positive impact on forecast performance for a particular site and short-term look-ahead period. Both tools rely on the use of NWP models to assess the sensitivity of a forecast for a particular location to measurements made at a prior time (i.e. the look-ahead period) at points surrounding the target location. The fundamental hypothesis is that points and variables with high sensitivity are good candidates for measurements since information at those points are likely to have the most impact on the forecast for the desired parameter, location and look-ahead period. One approach is called the adjoint method (Errico and Vukicevic, 1992; Errico, 1997) and the other newer approach is known as Ensemble Sensitivity Analysis (ESA; Ancell and Hakim 2007; Torn and Hakim 2008). Both approaches have been tested on large-scale atmospheric prediction problems (e.g. forecasting pressure or precipitation over a relatively large region 24 hours ahead) but neither has been applied to mesoscale space-time scales of winds or any other variables near the surface of the earth. A number of factors suggest that ESA is better suited for short-term wind forecasting applications. One of the most significant advantages of this approach is that it is not necessary to linearize the mathematical representation of the processes in the underlying atmospheric model as required by the adjoint approach. Such a linearization may be especially problematic for the application of short-term forecasting of boundary layer winds in complex terrain since non-linear shifts in the structure of boundary layer due to atmospheric stability changes are a critical part of the wind power production forecast problem. The specific objective of work described in this paper is to test the ESA as a tool to identify measurement locations and variables that have the greatest positive impact on the accuracy of wind forecasts in the 0- to 6-hour look-ahead periods for the wind generation area of California's Tehachapi Pass during the warm (high generation) season. The paper is organized

Zack, J; Natenberg, E; Young, S; Manobianco, J; Kamath, C

2010-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

285

Application of Ensemble Sensitivity Analysis to Observation Targeting for Short-term Wind Speed Forecasting  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The operators of electrical grids, sometimes referred to as Balancing Authorities (BA), typically make critical decisions on how to most reliably and economically balance electrical load and generation in time frames ranging from a few minutes to six hours ahead. At higher levels of wind power generation, there is an increasing need to improve the accuracy of 0- to 6-hour ahead wind power forecasts. Forecasts on this time scale have typically been strongly dependent on short-term trends indicated by the time series of power production and meteorological data from a wind farm. Additional input information is often available from the output of Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models and occasionally from off-site meteorological towers in the region surrounding the wind generation facility. A widely proposed approach to improve short-term forecasts is the deployment of off-site meteorological towers at locations upstream from the wind generation facility in order to sense approaching wind perturbations. While conceptually appealing, it turns out that, in practice, it is often very difficult to derive significant benefit in forecast performance from this approach. The difficulty is rooted in the fact that the type, scale, and amplitude of the processes controlling wind variability at a site change from day to day if not from hour to hour. Thus, a location that provides some useful forecast information for one time may not be a useful predictor a few hours later. Indeed, some processes that cause significant changes in wind power production operate predominantly in the vertical direction and thus cannot be monitored by employing a network of sensors at off-site locations. Hence, it is very challenging to determine the type of sensors and deployment locations to get the most benefit for a specific short-term forecast application. Two tools recently developed in the meteorological research community have the potential to help determine the locations and parameters to measure in order to get the maximum positive impact on forecast performance for a particular site and short-term look-ahead period. Both tools rely on the use of NWP models to assess the sensitivity of a forecast for a particular location to measurements made at a prior time (i.e. the look-ahead period) at points surrounding the target location. The fundamental hypothesis is that points and variables with high sensitivity are good candidates for measurements since information at those points are likely to have the most impact on the forecast for the desired parameter, location and look-ahead period. One approach is called the adjoint method (Errico and Vukicevic, 1992; Errico, 1997) and the other newer approach is known as Ensemble Sensitivity Analysis (ESA; Ancell and Hakim 2007; Torn and Hakim 2008). Both approaches have been tested on large-scale atmospheric prediction problems (e.g. forecasting pressure or precipitation over a relatively large region 24 hours ahead) but neither has been applied to mesoscale space-time scales of winds or any other variables near the surface of the earth. A number of factors suggest that ESA is better suited for short-term wind forecasting applications. One of the most significant advantages of this approach is that it is not necessary to linearize the mathematical representation of the processes in the underlying atmospheric model as required by the adjoint approach. Such a linearization may be especially problematic for the application of short-term forecasting of boundary layer winds in complex terrain since non-linear shifts in the structure of boundary layer due to atmospheric stability changes are a critical part of the wind power production forecast problem. The specific objective of work described in this paper is to test the ESA as a tool to identify measurement locations and variables that have the greatest positive impact on the accuracy of wind forecasts in the 0- to 6-hour look-ahead periods for the wind generation area of California's Tehachapi Pass during the warm (high generation) season. The paper is organized

Zack, J; Natenberg, E; Young, S; Manobianco, J; Kamath, C

2010-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

286

Method of operating a coal gasifier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of operating an entrained flow coal gasifier which comprises the steps of firing coal at two levels in a combustion zone with near stoichiometric air, removing molten ash from the combustion zone, conveying combustion products upwardly from the combustion zone through a reduction zone, injecting additional coal into the combustion products in the reduction zone and gasifying at least a portion of the coal to form low BTU gas, conveying the gas to a point of use, including also reducing gasifier output by modifying the ratio of air to coal supplied to the upper level of the combustion zone so that the ratio becomes increasingly substoichiometric thereby extending the gasification of coal from the reduction zone into the upper level of the combustion zone, and maintaining the lower level of coal in the combustion zone at near stoichiometric conditions so as to provide sufficient heat to maintain effective slagging conditions.

Blaskowski, Henry J. (West Simsbury, CT)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Handbook of biomass downdraft gasifier engine systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This handbook has been prepared by the Solar Energy Research Institute under the US Department of Energy /bold Solar Technical Information Program/. It is intended as a guide to the design, testing, operation, and manufacture of small-scale (less than 200 kW (270 hp)) gasifiers. A great deal of the information will be useful for all levels of biomass gasification. The handbook is meant to be a practical guide to gasifier systems, and a minimum amount of space is devoted to questions of more theoretical interest.

Reed, T B; Das, A

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Ris0-R-833(EN) Cyclone Gasifier for Biomass  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ris0-R-833(EN) Cyclone Gasifier for Biomass Preliminary Investigations Poul Astrup Ris0 National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark July 1995 #12;#12;Cyclone Gasifier for Biomass Ris0-R-833(EN) Preliminary at the design of a 20 MW as fired slagging cyclone gasifier for biomass, it has been investigated how biomass

289

Biomass-Derived Hydrogen from a Thermally Ballasted Gasifier  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biomass-Derived Hydrogen from a Thermally Ballasted Gasifier DOE Hydrogen Program Contractors biomass #12;Approach Outline Gasifier Pilot Plant· Develop subsystems for the hydrogen production system heated gasifier Q Air N2 H2O CO2 O2 Steam H2 CO CO2 CmHn Biomass 45 kg/hr Biomass 180 kg/hr Sand Bed: 43

290

Short-Term Power Fluctuation of Wind Turbines: Analyzing Data from the German 250-MW Measurement Program from the Ancillary Services Viewpoint  

SciTech Connect

Short-term power fluctuations from wind farms may affect interconnected-grid operating costs and stability. With the increasing availability of wind power worldwide, this has become a concern for some utilities. Under electric industry restructuring in the United States, the impact of these fluctuations will be evaluated by examining provisions and costs of ancillary services for wind power. However, the magnitude of the impact and the effect of aggregation of multiple turbines are not well quantified due to a lack of actual wind farm power data. This paper analyzes individual turbine and aggregate power output data from the German ''250-MW Wind'' data project. Electric system load following and regulation impacts are examined as a function of the number of turbines and turbine spacing in order to quantify the impacts of aggregation. The results show a significant decrease in the relative system regulation burden with increasing number of turbines, even if the turbines are in close proximity.

Ernst, B. (Institut fur Solare Energieversorgungstechnik); Wan, Y.-H. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory); Kirby, B. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory)

1999-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

291

Short?Term Energy Outlook Supplement: Key drivers for EIA’s ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

site, thereby reducing operating and maintenance costs. ... Lease strategies can also contribute to drilling efficiency ...

292

Short-Term Energy Monitoring (STEM): Application of the PSTAR method to a residence in Fredericksburg, Virginia  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes a project to assess the thermal quality of a residential building based on short-term tests during which a small number of data channels are measured. The project is called Short- Term Energy Monitoring (STEM). Analysis of the data provides extrapolation to long-term performance. The test protocol and analysis are based on a unified method for building simulations and short-term testing called Primary and Secondary Terms Analysis and Renormalization (PSTAR). In the PSTAR method, renormalized parameters are introduced for the primary terms such that the renormalized energy balance is best satisfied in the least squares sense; hence, the name PSTAR. The mathematical formulation of PSTAR is detailed in earlier reports. This report describes the short-term tests and data analysis performed using the PSTAR method on a residential building in Fredricksburg, Virginia. The results demonstrate the ability of the PSTAR method to provide a realistically complex thermal model of a building, and determine from short-term tests the statics as well as the dynamics of a building, including solar dynamics. 10 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

Subbarao, K.; Burch, J.D.; Hancock, C.E.; Lekov, A.; Balcomb, J.D.

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Incremental costs of higher efficiency can vary by appliance ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Short-Term Energy Outlook ... Search EIA.gov. A-Z Index; ... consumers can also enter cost and performance attributes of specific models they are considering.

294

Incremental costs of higher efficiency can vary by ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Short-Term Energy Outlook ... Search EIA.gov. A-Z Index; ... consumers can also enter cost and performance attributes of specific models they are ...

295

Short-Term Energy Outlook - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

STEO Archives STEO Archives Previous Short-Term Energy Outlook reports are available in the original Adobe Acrobat PDF file with text, charts, and tables, or just the monthly data tables in an Excel file. + EXPAND ALL 2013 STEO Issues Release Date Full PDF Report Excel Data File Energy Price Volatility and Forecast Uncertainty December 2013 12/10/2013 dec13.pdf dec13_base.xlsx dec13_uncertainty.pdf November 2013 11/13/2013 nov13.pdf nov13_base.xlsx nov13_uncertainty.pdf October 2013 10/08/2013 oct13.pdf oct13_base.xlsx oct13_uncertainty.pdf September 2013 09/10/2013 sep13.pdf sep13_base.xlsx sep13_uncertainty.pdf August 2013 08/06/2013 aug13.pdf aug13_base.xlsx aug13_uncertainty.pdf July 2013 07/09/2013 jul13.pdf jul13_base.xlsx jul13_uncertainty.pdf

296

Short Term Energy Monitoring: What Does This Information Mean to the Facility Energy Manager?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Engineers at the Energy Systems Laboratory at Texas A&M University have completed short term energy metering studies at a complex of offices in northern Texas and several buildings on the Texas A&M University campus during the past 18 months. These studies typically consisted of installing electrical metering at the, whole building level and included sub-metering of selected circuits when possible. Personnel would go through the entire facility ensuring that all lighting, fan, and mechanical systems were active and on. After a period of approximately 10 minutes, a selected areas of the building would be "turned off." This sequence was repeated for all areas of interest in the facility. At the end of the lighting test, air handlers, then chilling and pumping equipment was turned off (if applicable) and a final ten minutes of electrical use data taken. In each of these facilities, lighting system load verification was the primary goal and the data provided a very good accounting for all buildings studied. The northern Texas office buildings in particular, were interested in these data for comparison with a recently hired performance contractor. The A&M study was a follow-up to an earlier lighting study that had been conducted by the campus energy office. Base electrical load data was also determined from these tests. This paper presents results of these studies and suggests that the method is attractive to both contractors and facility energy managers as well.

Bryant, J. A.; Carlson, K. A.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Daily/Hourly Hydrosystem Operation : How the Columbia River System Responds to Short-Term Needs.  

SciTech Connect

The System Operation Review, being conducted by the Bonneville Power Administration, the US Army Corps of Engineers, and the US Bureau of Reclamation, is analyzing current and potential future operations of the Columbia River System. One goal of the System Operations Review is to develop a new System Operation Strategy. The strategy will be designed to balance the many regionally and nationally important uses of the Columbia River system. Short-term operations address the dynamics that affect the Northwest hydro system and its multiple uses. Demands for electrical power and natural streamflows change constantly and thus are not precisely predictable. Other uses of the hydro system have constantly changing needs, too, many of which can interfere with other uses. Project operators must address various river needs, physical limitations, weather, and streamflow conditions while maintaining the stability of the electric system and keeping your lights on. It takes staffing around the clock to manage the hour-to-hour changes that occur and the challenges that face project operators all the time.

Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Model documentation of the Short-Term Coal Analysis System. Volume 2. Model description. [SCOAL  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is the second of three volumes of documentation for the Short-Term Coal Analysis System (SCOAL) developed by the Coal Data Analysis and Forecasting Branch, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric, and Alternate Fuels. The principal aim of SCOAL is to project on a quarterly basis the likely contribution of each of the 26 major bituminous coal, lignite, and anthracite producing states to total US production. A secondary objective is to estimate a companion demand-side aggregated by region but disaggregated by end-use sector. In its current use, the two sides are operated in tandem, and serve to cross-validate each other by means of tracking market balances. The purposes of this report are to describe the estimation method, results, and performance evaluation criteria that were deemed relevant in assessing the potential predictive performance of SCOAL's statistically fitted relationships and to discuss the pre- and post-estimation considerations that prevailed over the course of mode development. The single equation parameter estimates, associated significance levels, statistical equation performance measures, and general comments regarding SCOAL's supply and demand side equations are presented.

Not Available

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Biological monitoring of oil shale products and effluents using short-term genetic analyses  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The long-term health hazards such as mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, and teratogenesis due to the exposure to crude shale oil, particulate pollutants, and the leachates from raw or spent shale constitute a major concern in the development of shale oil technology. In order to monitor such biological effects, we have applied short-term genetic analyses with the exemplary test materials. The Salmonella/microsomal activation system (Ames assay) was generally applicable but only upon chemical fractionation. The Stedman liquid-liquid extraction procedure or the Sephadex gel filtration (LH-20) technique were effectively utilized. Mutagenicity analyses with various crude oils and product water have revealed biological activity in the basic (aromatic amine fractions) or in the neutral (polyaromatic hydrocarbon fraction) fractions. Extracts and chromatographically isolated materials from raw and spent shale were subjected to mutagenicity studies. Mutagenic activity was noted and correlates with the biological activity of compounds that are either identified or predicted to occur in these materials. Comparison to other energy technologies and overall health hazard of the test materials are discussed.

Rao, T.K.; Epler, J.L.; Schmidt-Collerus, J.J.; Leffler, L.; Guerin, M.R.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Summary Short?Term Energy Outlook Supplement: Energy Price Volatility and Forecast Uncertainty 1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is often noted that energy prices are quite volatile, reflecting market participants’ adjustments to new information from physical energy markets and/or markets in energyrelated financial derivatives. Price volatility is an indication of the level of uncertainty, or risk, in the market. This paper describes how markets price risk and how the marketclearing process for risk transfer can be used to generate “price bands ” around observed futures prices for crude oil, natural gas, and other commodities. These bands provide a quantitative measure of uncertainty regarding the range in which markets expect prices to trade. The Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) monthly Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) publishes “base case ” projections for a variety of energy prices that go out 12 to 24 months (every January the STEO forecast is extended through December of the following year). EIA has recognized that all price forecasts are highly uncertain and has described the uncertainty by identifying the market factors that may significantly move prices away from their expected paths, such as economic growth, Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) behavior, geo-political events, and hurricanes.

unknown authors

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasifier costs short-term" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

SHORT-TERM SOLAR FLARE LEVEL PREDICTION USING A BAYESIAN NETWORK APPROACH  

SciTech Connect

A Bayesian network approach for short-term solar flare level prediction has been proposed based on three sequences of photospheric magnetic field parameters extracted from Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Michelson Doppler Imager longitudinal magnetograms. The magnetic measures, the maximum horizontal gradient, the length of neutral line, and the number of singular points do not have determinate relationships with solar flares, so the solar flare level prediction is considered as an uncertainty reasoning process modeled by the Bayesian network. The qualitative network structure which describes conditional independent relationships among magnetic field parameters and the quantitative conditional probability tables which determine the probabilistic values for each variable are learned from the data set. Seven sequential features-the maximum, the mean, the root mean square, the standard deviation, the shape factor, the crest factor, and the pulse factor-are extracted to reduce the dimensions of the raw sequences. Two Bayesian network models are built using raw sequential data (BN{sub R}) and feature extracted data (BN{sub F}), respectively. The explanations of these models are consistent with physical analyses of experts. The performances of the BN{sub R} and the BN{sub F} appear comparable with other methods. More importantly, the comprehensibility of the Bayesian network models is better than other methods.

Yu Daren; Huang Xin; Hu Qinghua; Zhou Rui [Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 92 West Da Zhi Street, Harbin, Heilongjiang Province 150001 (China); Wang Huaning [National Astronomical Observatories, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Cui Yanmei, E-mail: huangxinhit@yahoo.com.c [Center for Space Science and Applied Research, No. 1 Nanertiao, Zhongguancun, Haidian District, Beijing 100080 (China)

2010-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

302

ACL Reconstruction with Autologous Hamstring Tendon: Comparison of Short Term Clinical Results  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Purpose: To compare the short term clinical results of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with autologous hamstring tendon between Rigid-fix and PINN-ACL Cross Pin for femoral side fixation. Materials and Methods: 127 patients who underwent arthroscopic ACL reconstruction using autologous hamstring tendon and had been followedup for over than one year were enrolled for the present study. Rigid-fix was used in 71 cases (group 1), and PINN-ACL Cross Pin was used in 56 cases (group 2). Clinical and radiological results, operation time, and perioperative complications were compared amongst the two groups. Results: The International Knee Documentation Committee subjective score and Lysholm score were 94 and 95 in group 1 and 87 and 91 in group 2, with no statistical difference (p=0.892, p=0.833), respectively. However, significant difference was observed in one-leg hop test between the two groups (p=0.032). Five cases in group 1 and 40 cases in group 2 were found to be associated with perioperative complications with statistical difference (p<0.0001). Conclusions: There was no resultant difference between the employment of PINN-ACL Cross Pin and Rigid-fix as femoral graft fixation for ACL reconstruction with hamstring tendon. However, PINN-ACL Cross Pin led to complications with extensive operation times. Hence, it needs further improvement of tools for minimization of complications. Key words: Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, Hamstring tendon, Rigid-fix, PINN-ACL Cross Pin.

Knee Surg; Relat Res; Between Rigid-fix; Pinn-acl Cross Pin

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Utilization of Partially Gasified Coal for Mercury Removal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this project, General Electric Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) developed a novel mercury (Hg) control technology in which the sorbent for gas-phase Hg removal is produced from coal in a gasification process in-situ at a coal burning plant. The main objective of this project was to obtain technical information necessary for moving the technology from pilot-scale testing to a full-scale demonstration. A pilot-scale gasifier was used to generate sorbents from both bituminous and subbituminous coals. Once the conditions for optimizing sorbent surface area were identified, sorbents with the highest surface area were tested in a pilot-scale combustion tunnel for their effectiveness in removing Hg from coal-based flue gas. It was determined that the highest surface area sorbents generated from the gasifier process ({approx}600 m{sup 2}/g) had about 70%-85% of the reactivity of activated carbon at the same injection rate (lb/ACF), but were effective in removing 70% mercury at injection rates about 50% higher than that of commercially available activated carbon. In addition, mercury removal rates of up to 95% were demonstrated at higher sorbent injection rates. Overall, the results of the pilot-scale tests achieved the program goals, which were to achieve at least 70% Hg removal from baseline emissions levels at 25% or less of the cost of activated carbon injection.

Chris Samuelson; Peter Maly; David Moyeda

2008-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

304

Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances in the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting Model (Released in the STEO March 1998)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The blending of oxygenates, such as fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), into motor gasoline has increased dramatically in the last few years because of the oxygenated and reformulated gasoline programs. Because of the significant role oxygenates now have in petroleum product markets, the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) was revised to include supply and demand balances for fuel ethanol and MTBE. The STIFS model is used for producing forecasts in the Short-Term Energy Outlook. A review of the historical data sources and forecasting methodology for oxygenate production, imports, inventories, and demand is presented in this report.

Information Center

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Intermittently-fed high-pressure gasifier process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved gasifier adapted for gasifying a predetermined charge of non-gaseous fuel into fuel gas. Each charge of non-gaseous fuel, which may have optional conditioning materials added to it, is intermittently fed to a gasifier chamber where each charge is partially burned with high-pressure air supplied thereto. High-pressure and temperature fuel gas is produced which is cleansed prior to passing out of the gasifier chamber. After gasification of the charge of fuel is is ended, the gasifier chamber is vented. The residue of the burned charge in the gasifier chamber is removed, along with the contaminated or reacted conditioning materials, and replaced by a fresh charge. The subject invention provides a feasible way of continuously fueling an internal combustion engine with gasified fuel and is compact enough to be practical for even mobile applications.

Bailey, John M. (Dunlap, IL); Zadoks, Abraham L. (Peoria, IL)

1993-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

306

Intermittently-fed high-pressure gasifier process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved gasifier is described which is adapted for gasifying a predetermined charge of non-gaseous fuel into fuel gas. Each charge of non-gaseous fuel, which may have optional conditioning materials added to it, is intermittently fed to a gasifier chamber where each charge is partially burned with high-pressure air supplied thereto. High-pressure and temperature fuel gas is produced which is cleansed prior to passing out of the gasifier chamber. After gasification of the charge of fuel is ended, the gasifier chamber is vented. The residue of the burned charge in the gasifier chamber is removed, along with the contaminated or reacted conditioning materials, and replaced by a fresh charge. The subject invention provides a feasible way of continuously fueling an internal combustion engine with gasified fuel and is compact enough to be practical for even mobile applications. 3 figures.

Bailey, J.M.; Zadoks, A.L.

1993-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

307

Cost and Performance Baseline for Low-Rank Coal Fossil Energy Plants - Cases S-1A and S-1B Rosebud PRB-Fired Shell Gasifier without and with CO2 Capture  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cost and Performance of PC and IGCC Plants Cost and Performance of PC and IGCC Plants for a Range of Carbon Dioxide Capture Revision 1 - September 19, 2013 Original - May 27, 2011 DOE/NETL-2011/1498 Carbon Dioxide Capture Sensitivity Analysis Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference therein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name,

308

Model documentation report: Short-term Integrated Forecasting System demand model 1985. [(STIFS)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) Demand Model consists of a set of energy demand and price models that are used to forecast monthly demand and prices of various energy products up to eight quarters in the future. The STIFS demand model is based on monthly data (unless otherwise noted), but the forecast is published on a quarterly basis. All of the forecasts are presented at the national level, and no regional detail is available. The model discussed in this report is the April 1985 version of the STIFS demand model. The relationships described by this model include: the specification of retail energy prices as a function of input prices, seasonal factors, and other significant variables; and the specification of energy demand by product as a function of price, a measure of economic activity, and other appropriate variables. The STIFS demand model is actually a collection of 18 individual models representing the demand for each type of fuel. The individual fuel models are listed below: motor gasoline; nonutility distillate fuel oil, (a) diesel, (b) nondiesel; nonutility residual fuel oil; jet fuel, kerosene-type and naphtha-type; liquefied petroleum gases; petrochemical feedstocks and ethane; kerosene; road oil and asphalt; still gas; petroleum coke; miscellaneous products; coking coal; electric utility coal; retail and general industry coal; electricity generation; nonutility natural gas; and utility petroleum. The demand estimates produced by these models are used in the STIFS integrating model to produce a full energy balance of energy supply, demand, and stock change. These forecasts are published quarterly in the Outlook. Details of the major changes in the forecasting methodology and an evaluation of previous forecast errors are presented once a year in Volume 2 of the Outlook, the Methodology publication.

Not Available

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Short-Term Monitoring to Diagnose Comfort Problems in a Residence in Central Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents results from a project to resolve comfort problems created by high indoor humidity in a 3,400 sq.ft. house in Bryan, Texas. The case study house had been certified by the local utility to meet their energy efficiency standards. However, the resident of the house complained that the house felt too humid although the desired temperature conditions were being maintained. Several HVAC contractors had been previously hired to resolve the problem without success. The field measurements undertaken to diagnose the problem are typical of those that could be undertaken by a house inspector and include an inspection of the construction of the house, short-term monitoring of temperature and humidity, blower door tests and whole-house pressurization tests. To perform the analysis both floors of the house were instrumented with portable data loggers and monitored for a period of two weeks to measure the temperature and relative humidity of the supply, return and ambient conditions. Analysis procedures applied to the house include comparing the measured data against the ASHRAE comfort zone (ASHRAE, 1997) which confirmed adequate zone temperatures with high humidity conditions, and inadequate supply air delivery temperatures for humidity removal. Combined results of the blower door tests and whole-house pressurization tests indicated a potential for leakage through the return air duct. After the recommendations were presented to the homeowner, a new contractor was hired and retrofits applied on the house (i.e., cleaning the cooling coils, enlarging the compressor and relining of the return duct). Measurements were then repeated to determine that the problem had been f ~ e d . This paper describes the case study residence, the measurements used to diagnose the problem, analysis methods, and presents results of the application of the analysis.

Kootin-Sanwu, V.; Sresthaputra, A.; Haberl, J. S.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Short Term Irradiation Test of Fuel Containing Minor Actinides Using the Experimental Fast Reactor Joyo  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A mixed oxide containing minor actinides (MA-MOX) fuel irradiation program is being conducted using the experimental fast rector Joyo of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency to research early thermal behavior of MA-MOX fuel. Two irradiation experiments were conducted as part of the short-term phase of this program in May and August 2006. Six prepared fuel pins included MOX fuel containing 3% or 5% americium (Am-MOX), and MOX fuel containing 2% americium and 2% neptunium (Np/Am-MOX). The first test was conducted with high linear heat rates of approximately 430 W/cm maintained during only 10 minutes. After 10 minutes irradiation test, the test subassembly was transferred to the hot cell facility and an Am-MOX pin and a Np/Am-MOX pin were replaced with dummy pins with neutron dosimeters. The test subassembly loaded with the remaining four fuel pins was re-irradiated in Joyo for 24-hours in August 2006 at nearly the same linear power to obtain re-distribution data on MA-MOX fuel. The linear heat rate for each MA-MOX test fuel pin was calculated using the Monte Carlo calculation code MCNP. The calculated fission rates were compared with the measured data based on the Nd-148 method. The maximum linear heat rate was approximately 444{+-}19 W/cm at the actual reactor power of 119.6 MWt. Post irradiation examination of these pins to confirm the absence of fuel melting and the local concentration under irradiation of NpO{sub 2-x} or AmO{sub 2-x}, in the (U,Pu)0{sub 2-x}, fuel are underway. The test results are expected to reduce uncertainties on the margin in the thermal design for MA-MOX fuel. (authors)

Sekine, Takashi; Soga, Tomonori; Koyama, Shin-ichi; Aoyama, Takafumi [Oarai Research and Development Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency. 4002 Narita, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Wootan, David [Pacific Northwest National Laboratoy, M/S K8-34, P.O. Box 999 Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

High Statistics Study of Nearby Type 1a Supernovae. QUEST Camera Short Term Maintenance: Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect

The Quest Camera was installed at the Palomar Obervatory in California. The camera was used to carry out a survey of low redshift Type 1a supernovae.The purpose of this DOE grant was to perform short term maintenance on the QUEST camera.

Baltay, Charles

2012-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

312

Short-Term Oceanic Response Predicted by a Mixed Layer Model Forced with a Sector Atmospheric Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A one-dimensional version of the Garwood bulk, oceanic mixed layer model is used to simulate the short- term response in a 60° sector. The atmospheric forcing is derived from a version of the UCLA general circulation model used by Sandgathe to ...

Russell L. Elsberry; Scott A. Sandgathe; Frank J. Winninghoff

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Accurate Short Term Load Forecasting for an ESKOM Major Distribution Region in South Africa: An Application of EPRI ANNSTLF  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ANNSTLF (Artificial Neural Network Short-term Load Forecaster), developed by EPRI, is a Microsoft Windows-based neural-network load forecasting software that uses historical load and weather parameters to predict future load values. The software requires customization for each utility. This project involved customizing ANNSTLF for the Eastern Region of the South African energy company ESKOM.

2005-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

314

Synergistic Effects of Ultrasound-Activated Microbubbles and Doxorubicin on Short-Term Survival of Mouse Mammary  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Synergistic Effects of Ultrasound-Activated Microbubbles and Doxorubicin on Short-Term Survival and incubated for 24 hours at 37 °C, 100% humidity and 5% CO2 . The efficacies of the drug only and ultrasound-activated 24 hoursof treat- ment using the MTT Cell Proliferation Assay. The combined therapy resulted in 60

Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

315

Short-Term Climatic Variability in the Thermal Structure of the Pacific Ocean during 1979–82  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Short-term climatic variability in both sea surface temperature (SST) and vertically averaged temperature over the upper 400 m of ocean (Tav) is mapped over the Pacific from 20°S to 50°N each bimonth for four years from 1979 to 1982, leading up ...

Warren B. White; Gary A. Meyers; Jean Rene Donguy; Stephen E. Pazan

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 24, NO. 1, MARCH 2009 125 Short-Term Prediction of Wind Farm Power  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 24, NO. 1, MARCH 2009 125 Short-Term Prediction of Wind Farm Power: A Data Mining Approach Andrew Kusiak, Member, IEEE, Haiyang Zheng, and Zhe Song, Student Member, IEEE Abstract--This paper examines time series models for predicting the power of a wind

Kusiak, Andrew

317

EIA Short-Term and Winter Fuels Outlook - U.S. Energy Information ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Global Economic Growth OPEC Production Decisions Nigeria Venezuela Refinery Outages 8 ... 5-year historical ... year-ago average. Continued high crude costs, ...

318

Short-Term Energy Outlook - U.S. Energy Information Administration ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Electricity Retail Prices. Generation fuel costs and wholesale electricity prices have increased this year after a considerable decline in 2012.

319

Project update: The Vermont gasifier  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Biomass is a proven option for electricity generation. A diverse range of biopower producers includes electric utilities, independent power producers, and the pulp and paper industry. To help expand opportunities for biomass power production, the U.S. Department of Energy established the Biopower Program and is sponsoring efforts to increase the productivity of dedicated energy crops. The Program aims to double biomass conversion efficiencies, thus reducing biomass power generation costs. These efforts will promote industrial and agricultural growth, improve the environment, create jobs, increase U.S. energy security, and provide new export markets.

Shepherd, P.

2000-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

320

CANMET Gasifier Liner Coupon Material Test Plan  

SciTech Connect

The test plan detailed in this topical report supports Task 1 of the project titled ''Development of Technologies and Capabilities for Coal Energy Resources - Advanced Gasification Systems Development (AGSD)''. The purpose of these tests is to verify that materials planned for use in an advanced gasifier pilot plant will withstand the environments in a commercial gasifier. Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) has developed and designed the cooled liner test assembly article that will be tested at CANMET Energy Technology Centre (CETC-O) in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (CETC-O). The Test Plan TP-00364 is duplicated in its entirety, with formatting changes to comply with the format required for this Topical Report. The table of contents has been modified to include the additional material required by this topical report. Test Request example and drawings of non-proprietary nature are also included as appendices.

Mark Fitzsimmons; Alan Darby; Fred Widman

2005-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasifier costs short-term" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

CANMET Gasifier Liner Coupon Material Test Plan  

SciTech Connect

The test plan detailed in this topical report supports Task 1 of the project titled ''Development of Technologies and Capabilities for Coal Energy Resources - Advanced Gasification Systems Development (AGSD)''. The purpose of these tests is to verify that materials planned for use in an advanced gasifier pilot plant will withstand the environments in a commercial gasifier. Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) has developed and designed the cooled liner test assembly article that will be tested at CANMET Energy Technology Centre (CETC-O) in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (CETC-O). The Test Plan TP-00364 is duplicated in its entirety, with formatting changes to comply with the format required for this Topical Report. The table of contents has been modified to include the additional material required by this topical report. Test Request example and drawings of non-proprietary nature are also included as appendices.

Mark Fitzsimmons; Alan Darby; Fred Widman

2005-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

322

Use of short-term test systems for the prediction of the hazard represented by potential chemical carcinogens  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It has been hypothesized that results from short-term bioassays will ultimately provide information that will be useful for human health hazard assessment. Historically, the validity of the short-term tests has been assessed using the framework of the epidemiologic/medical screens. In this context, the results of the carcinogen (long-term) bioassay is generally used as the standard. However, this approach is widely recognized as being biased and, because it employs qualitative data, cannot be used to assist in isolating those compounds which may represent a more significant toxicologic hazard than others. In contrast, the goal of this research is to address the problem of evaluating the utility of the short-term tests for hazard assessment using an alternative method of investigation. Chemicals were selected mostly from the list of carcinogens published by the International Agency for Research on Carcinogens (IARC); a few other chemicals commonly recognized as hazardous were included. Tumorigenicity and mutagenicity data on 52 chemicals were obtained from the Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) and were analyzed using a relative potency approach. The data were evaluated in a format which allowed for a comparison of the ranking of the mutagenic relative potencies of the compounds (as estimated using short-term data) vs. the ranking of the tumorigenic relative potencies (as estimated from the chronic bioassays). Although this was a preliminary investigation, it offers evidence that the short-term tests systems may be of utility in ranking the hazards represented by chemicals which may contribute to increased carcinogenesis in humans as a result of occupational or environmental exposures. 177 refs., 8 tabs.

Glass, L.R.; Jones, T.D.; Easterly, C.E.; Walsh, P.J.

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Evaluating the status of the Texaco gasifier  

SciTech Connect

Conclusions after a series of runs at steady state conditions in the pilot plant are: (1) Western Kentucky No. 9 coal (either run-of-mine or washed) can be gasified without pretreatment; (2) other coking bituminous coal may also be able to be gasified without pretreatment; (3) pretreatment is not required to achieve satisfactory ash agglomeration; (4) balanced ash agglomeration with satisfactory removal of the agglomerates has been achieved and stable operation of ash agglomeration is possible during periods of short upset; (5) solutions appear to have been found for prevention of clinkering and sintering by alternative venturi design, modification in the oxygen feed system and increasing the superficial velocity of the gas; (6) under certain circumstances fines recycle has been achieved with stable operation and fluidization; (7) the process can be operated at pressures up to 60 psig without adversely affecting other process parameters; (8) a wide range of operating conditions can be used while maintaining system operability; and (9) in a single test water cooling of the cyclone appears to prevent ash deposition on the cooled surfaces which confirms the experience of Westinghouse with ash deposition prevention in their fluidized bed gasifier. 11 references, 12 tables.

Perry, H.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Causticizing for Black Liquor Gasifiers  

SciTech Connect

The cost-benefit outlook of black liquor gasification (BLG) could be greatly improved if the smelt causticization step could be achieved in situ during the gasification step. Or, at a minimum, the increase in causticizing load associated with BLG could be mitigated. A number of chemistries have been proven successful during black liquor combustion. In this project, three in situ causticizing processes (titanate, manganate, and borate) were evaluated under conditions suitable for high temperature entrained flow BLG, and low temperature steam reforming of black liquor. The evaluation included both thermodynamic modeling and lab experimentation. Titanate and manganate were tested for complete direct causticizing (to thus eliminate the lime cycle), and borates were evaluated for partial causticizing (to mitigate the load increase associated with BLG). Criteria included high carbonate conversion, corresponding hydroxide recovery upon hydrolysis, non process element (NPE) removal, and economics. Of the six cases (three chemistries at two BLG conditions), only two were found to be industrially viable: titanates for complete causticizing during high temperature BLG, and borates for partial causticizing during high temperature BLG. These two cases were evaluated for integration into a gasification-based recovery island. The Larsen [28] BLG cost-benefit study was used as a reference case for economic forecasting (i.e. a 1500 tpd pulp mill using BLG and upgrading the lime cycle). By comparison, using the titanate direct causticizing process yielded a net present value (NPV) of $25M over the NPV of BLG with conventional lime cycle. Using the existing lime cycle plus borate autocausticizing for extra capacity yielded a NPV of $16M.

Scott Sinquefeld; James Cantrell; Xiaoyan Zeng; Alan Ball; Jeff Empie

2009-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

325

DOE/EIA-0202(85/3Q) Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

as a result of lower crude oil prices. This forecast does include an expected increase in production costs of about 2 cents per gallon attributable to the ruling by the...

326

NETL: CCPI - Demonstration of a Coal-Based Transport Gasifier...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Initiative (CCPI) - Round 2 Advanced Electric Power Generation - Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Demonstration of a Coal-Based Transport Gasifier (Active) Project Brief...

327

Small-angle Synchrotron Diffraction Study of Partially Gasified Coal ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Small-angle Synchrotron Diffraction Study of Partially Gasified Coal Chars. Author(s), Keith Gordon McLennan, Daniel Roberts, Richard ...

328

Hybrid Molten Bed Gasifier for High Hydrogen Syngas Production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hybrid Molten Bed Gasifier for High Hydrogen (H2) Syngas Production Gas Technology Institute (GTI) Project Number: FE0012122 Project Description The research team will evaluate and...

329

Short-Term Energy Outlook Supplement: Status of Libyan Loading Ports and Oil and Natural Gas Fields  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Short-Term Energy Outlook Supplement: Short-Term Energy Outlook Supplement: Status of Libyan Loading Ports and Oil and Natural Gas Fields Tuesday, September 10, 2013, 10:00AM EST Overview During July and August 2013, protests at major oil loading ports in the central-eastern region of Libya forced the complete or partial shut-in of oil fields linked to the ports. As a result of protests at ports and at some oil fields, crude oil production fell to 1.0 million barrels per day (bbl/d) in July and 600,000 bbl/d in August, although the production level at the end of August was far lower. At the end of August, an armed group blocked pipelines that connect the El Sharara and El Feel (Elephant) fields to the Zawiya and Mellitah export terminals, respectively, forcing the shutdown of those fields. El Sharara had been

330

PSTAR: Primary and secondary terms analysis and renormalization: A unified approach to building energy simulations and short-term monitoring  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents a unified method of hourly simulation of a building and analysis of performance data. The method is called Primary and Secondary Terms Analysis and Renormalization (PSTAR). In the PSTAR method, renormalized parameters are introduced for the primary terms such that the renormalized energy balance equation is best satisfied in the least squares sense, hence, the name PSTAR. PSTAR allows extraction of building characteristics from short-term tests on a small number of data channels. These can be used for long-term performance prediction (''ratings''), diagnostics, and control of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems (HVAC), comparison of design versus actual performance, etc. By combining realistic building models, simple test procedures, and analysis involving linear equations, PSTAR provides a powerful tool for analyzing building energy as well as testing and monitoring. It forms the basis for the Short-Term Energy Monitoring (STEM) project at SERI.

Subbarao, K.

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Research on Short-term Load Forecasting of the Thermoelectric Boiler Based on a Dynamic RBF Neural Network  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As thermal inertia is the key factor for the lag of thermoelectric utility regulation, it becomes very important to forecast its short-term load according to running parameters. In this paper, dynamic radial basis function (RBF) neural network is proposed based on the RBF neural network with the associated parameters of sample deviation and partial sample deviation, which are defined for the purpose of effective judgment of new samples. Also, in order to forecast the load of sample with large deviation, sensitivity coefficients of input layer is given in this paper. To validate this model, an experiment is performed on a thermoelectric plant, and the experimental result indicates that the network can be put into extensive use for short-term load forecasting of thermoelectric utility.

Dai, W.; Zou, P.; Yan, C.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Dispersants for Tube Fouling Control: Volume 1: Qualifications for a Short-Term Trial at ANO-2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes the methodology and results of a detailed qualification program for injection of a high-purity polyacrylate dispersant into the secondary system of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) with recirculating steam generators. The dispersant inhibits corrosion product deposition, thereby mitigating sludge buildup and reducing tube fouling in nuclear steam generators. The qualification work was performed expressly for a short-term field trial at Arkansas Nuclear One Unit 2 (ANO-2) as part o...

2001-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

333

Analysis of the Performance Benefits of Short-Term Energy Storage in Wind-Diesel Hybrid Power Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A variety of prototype high penetration wind-diesel hybrid power systems have been implemented with different amounts of energy storage. They range from systems with no energy storage to those with many hours worth of energy storage. There has been little consensus among wind-diesel system developers as to the appropriate role and amount of energy storage in such systems. Some researchers advocate providing only enough storage capacity to supply power during the time it takes the diesel genset to start. Others install large battery banks to allow the diesel(s) to operate at full load and/or to time-shift the availability of wind-generated electricity to match the demand. Prior studies indicate that for high penetration wind-diesel systems, short-term energy storage provides the largest operational and economic benefit. This study uses data collected in Deering, Alaska, a small diesel-powered village, and the hybrid systems modeling software Hybrid2 to determine the optimum amount of short-term storage for a particular high penetration wind-diesel system. These findings were then generalized by determining how wind penetration, turbulence intensity, and load variability affect the value of short term energy storage as measured in terms of fuel savings, total diesel run time, and the number of diesel starts.

Shirazi, M.; Drouilhet, S.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Short-Term Test Results: Transitional Housing Energy Efficiency Retrofit in the Hot-Humid Climate  

SciTech Connect

This project evaluates the renovation of a 5,800 ft2, multi-use facility located in St. Petersburg, on the west coast of central Florida, in the hot humid climate. An optimal package of retrofit measures was designed to deliver 30-40% annual energy cost savings for this building with annual utility bills exceeding $16,000 and high base load consumption. Researchers projected energy cost savings for potential retrofit measures based on pre-retrofit findings and disaggregated, weather normalized utility bills as a basis for simulation true-up. A cost-benefit analysis was conducted for the seven retrofit measures implemented; adding attic insulation and sealing soffits, tinting windows, improving whole building air-tightness, upgrading heating and cooling systems and retrofitting the air distribution system, replacing water heating systems, retrofitting lighting, and replacing laundry equipment. The projected energy cost savings for the full retrofit package based on a post-retrofit audit is 35%. The building's architectural characteristics, vintage, and residential and commercial uses presented challenges for both economic projections and retrofit measure construction.

Sutherland, K.; Martin, E.

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Short-Term Test Results: Transitional Housing Energy Efficiency Retrofit in the Hot-Humid Climate  

SciTech Connect

This project evaluates the renovation of a 5,800 ft2, multi-use facility located in St. Petersburg, on the west coast of central Florida, in the hot humid climate. An optimal package of retrofit measures was designed to deliver 30-40% annual energy cost savings for this building with annual utility bills exceeding $16,000 and high base load consumption. Researchers projected energy cost savings for potential retrofit measures based on pre-retrofit findings and disaggregated, weather normalized utility bills as a basis for simulation true-up. A cost-benefit analysis was conducted for the seven retrofit measures implemented; adding attic insulation and sealing soffits, tinting windows, improving whole building air-tightness, upgrading heating and cooling systems and retrofitting the air distribution system, replacing water heating systems, retrofitting lighting, and replacing laundry equipment. The projected energy cost savings for the full retrofit package based on a post-retrofit audit is 35%. The building's architectural characteristics, vintage, and residential and commercial uses presented challenges for both economic projections and retrofit measure construction.

Sutherland, K.; Martin, E.

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Process for electrochemically gasifying coal using electromagnetism  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for electrochemically gasifying coal by establishing a flowing stream of coal particulate slurry, electrolyte and electrode members through a transverse magnetic field that has sufficient strength to polarize the electrode members, thereby causing them to operate in combination with the electrolyte to electrochemically reduce the coal particulate in the slurry. Such electrochemical reduction of the coal produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide at opposite ends of the polarized electrode members. Gas collection means are operated in conjunction with the process to collect the evolved gases as they rise from the slurry and electrolyte solution.

Botts, Thomas E. (Markham, VA); Powell, James R. (Shoreham, NY)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Biomass Gasifier Facility (BGF). Environmental Assessment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Pacific International Center for High Technology Research (PICHTR) is planning, to design, construct and operate a Biomass Gasifier Facility (BGF). This facility will be located on a site easement near the Hawaiian Commercial & Sugar company (KC&S) Paia Sugar Factory on Maui, Hawaii. The proposed BGF Project is a scale-up facility, intended to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of emerging biomass gasification technology for commercialization. This Executive Summary summarizes the uses of this Environmental Assessment, the purpose and need for the project, project,description, and project alternatives.

Not Available

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Apparatus and method for feeding coal into a coal gasifier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is directed to a system for feeding coal into a gasifier operating at high pressures. A coal-water slurry is pumped to the desired pressure and then the coal is "dried" prior to feeding the coal into the gasifier by contacting the slurry with superheated steam in an entrained bed dryer for vaporizing the water in the slurry.

Bissett, Larry A. (Morgantown, WV); Friggens, Gary R. (Morgantown, WV); McGee, James P. (Morgantown, WV)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Design of gasifiers to optimize fuel cell systems. Final report, September 1990--September 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pursuing the key national goal of clean and efficient utilization of the abundant domestic coal resources for power generation, this study was conducted to evaluate the potential of optimizing the integrated catalytic gasification/carbonate fuel cell power generation system. ERC in close collaboration with Fluor Daniel (providing engineering design and costing), conducted a detailed system configuration study to evaluate various catalytic gasification/carbonate fuel cell power plant configurations and compare them to present day, as well as emerging, alternate coal-based power plant technologies to assess their competitive position. A Topical Report (1992) was submitted documenting this effort, and the three catalytic gasification case studies are summarized in Appendix A. Results of this study indicate that system efficiencies approaching 55% (HHV) can be achieved by integrating low temperature catalytic gasification with high efficiency carbonate fuel cells. Thermal balance in the gasifier is achieved without oxygen by recycling hydrogen from the fuel cell anode exhaust. A small amount of air is added to the gasifier to minimize hydrogen recycle. In order to validate the assumptions made in the case configurations, experimental studies were performed to determine the reactivity of Illinois No. 6 coal with the gasification catalysts. The reactivity of the catalyzed coal has significant bearing on gasifier sizing and hence system cost and efficiency.

Not Available

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Integrated solar receiver/biomass gasifier research  

SciTech Connect

Processes for producing liquid fuels from olefin-rich pyrolysis gases obtained from fast pyrolysis of biomass are being developed by J. Kuester at Arizona State University and J. Diebold at the Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, Calif. In the Diebold process the biomass, carried by steam, is blown through an entrained bed gasifier. The olefins are then separated from the rest of the reaction products and polymerized thermally to gasoline; the other gases are used as fuel for the process. The Kuester process uses a fluidized bed gasifier and a catalytic Fischer-Tropsch reactor which converts the olefins, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide into n-propanol and paraffinic hydrocarbons. The advantages over the Diebold process are shorter residence time and elimination of the gas separation requirement. One disadvantage is the low octane rating of the fuel. As part of the solar thermal program at the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), an entrained bed reactor/receiver for fast pyrolysis of biomass is being developed for use with either the Diebold or Kuester process. This system is discussed.

Benham, C.; Bergeron, P.; Bessler, G.; Bohn, M.

1979-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasifier costs short-term" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Improved Lining Material for Gasifiers Could Lead to Wider  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Improved Lining Material for Gasifiers Could Lead to Wider Improved Lining Material for Gasifiers Could Lead to Wider Commercialization of Clean and Efficient Energy Technology Improved Lining Material for Gasifiers Could Lead to Wider Commercialization of Clean and Efficient Energy Technology November 16, 2009 - 12:00pm Addthis Refractories removed from adjacent positions in a slagging gasifier. The NETL refractory (right) has approximately 50 percent more material remaining after the test. Refractories removed from adjacent positions in a slagging gasifier. The NETL refractory (right) has approximately 50 percent more material remaining after the test. Washington, DC - A new improved-performance refractory lining material developed by the Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has been successfully tested and could lead to greatly

342

Improved Lining Material for Gasifiers Could Lead to Wider  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Improved Lining Material for Gasifiers Could Lead to Wider Improved Lining Material for Gasifiers Could Lead to Wider Commercialization of Clean and Efficient Energy Technology Improved Lining Material for Gasifiers Could Lead to Wider Commercialization of Clean and Efficient Energy Technology November 16, 2009 - 12:00pm Addthis Refractories removed from adjacent positions in a slagging gasifier. The NETL refractory (right) has approximately 50 percent more material remaining after the test. Refractories removed from adjacent positions in a slagging gasifier. The NETL refractory (right) has approximately 50 percent more material remaining after the test. Washington, DC - A new improved-performance refractory lining material developed by the Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has been successfully tested and could lead to greatly

343

Enhanced Short-Term Wind Power Forecasting and Value to Grid Operations: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The current state of the art of wind power forecasting in the 0- to 6-hour time frame has levels of uncertainty that are adding increased costs and risk on the U.S. electrical grid. It is widely recognized within the electrical grid community that improvements to these forecasts could greatly reduce the costs and risks associated with integrating higher penetrations of wind energy. The U.S. Department of Energy has sponsored a research campaign in partnership with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and private industry to foster improvements in wind power forecasting. The research campaign involves a three-pronged approach: 1) a 1-year field measurement campaign within two regions; 2) enhancement of NOAA's experimental 3-km High-Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) model by assimilating the data from the field campaign; and 3) evaluation of the economic and reliability benefits of improved forecasts to grid operators. This paper and presentation provides an overview of the regions selected, instrumentation deployed, data quality and control, assimilation of data into HRRR, and preliminary results of HRRR performance analysis.

Orwig, K.; Clark, C.; Cline, J.; Benjamin, S.; Wilczak, J.; Marquis, M.; Finley, C.; Stern, A.; Freedman, J.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Effect of Coal Properties and Operation Conditions on Flow Behavior of Coal Slag in Entrained Flow Gasifiers: A Brief Review  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) is a potentially promising clean technology with an inherent advantage of low emissions, since the process removes contaminants before combustion instead of from flue gas after combustion, as in a conventional coal steam plant. In addition, IGCC has potential for cost-effective carbon dioxide capture. Availability and high capital costs are the main challenges to making IGCC technology more competitive and fully commercial. Experiences from demonstrated IGCC plants show that, in the gasification system, low availability is largely due to slag buildup in the gasifier and fouling in the syngas cooler downstream of the gasification system. In the entrained flow gasifiers used in IGCC plants, the majority of mineral matter transforms to liquid slag on the wall of the gasifier and flows out the bottom. However, a small fraction of the mineral matter (as fly ash) is entrained with the raw syngas out of the gasifier to downstream processing. This molten/sticky fly ash could cause fouling of the syngas cooler. Therefore, it is preferable to minimize the quantity of fly ash and maximize slag. In addition, the hot raw syngas is cooled to convert any entrained molten fly slag to hardened solid fly ash prior to entering the syngas cooler. To improve gasification availability through better design and operation of the gasification process, better understanding of slag behavior and characteristics of the slagging process are needed. Slagging behavior is affected by char/ash properties, gas compositions in the gasifier, the gasifier wall structure, fluid dynamics, and plant operating conditions (mainly temperature and oxygen/carbon ratio). The viscosity of the slag is used to characterize the behavior of the slag flow and is the dominating factor to determine the probability that ash particles will stick. Slag viscosity strongly depends on the temperature and chemical composition of the slag. Because coal has varying ash content and composition, different operating conditions are required to maintain the slag flow and limit problems downstream. This report briefly introduces the IGCC process, the gasification process, and the main types and operating conditions of entrained flow gasifiers used in IGCC plants. This report also discusses the effects of coal ash and slag properties on slag flow and its qualities required for the entrained flow gasifier. Finally this report will identify the key operating conditions affecting slag flow behaviors, including temperature, oxygen/coal ratio, and flux agents.

Wang,Ping; Massoudi, Mehrdad

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Short-Term Energy Outlook - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Real Prices Viewer Real Prices Viewer Real Petroleum Prices are computed by dividing the nominal price in a given month by the ratio of the Consumer Price Index (CPI) in that month to the CPI in some "base" period. The Real Petroleum Prices spreadsheet and charts are updated every month so that the current month is the base period in the monthly price series. Consequently, all real prices are expressed in "current" dollars and any current month price may be compared directly with any past or projected real prices. Download all real and nominal price series to an Excel Spreadsheet (Excel xlsx file) Data Sources History Imported Crude Oil Price (refiner average imported crude oil acquisition cost) 1968 - Present: EIA Petroleum Marketing Monthly Motor Gasoline Regular Grade Retail Price (including taxes)

346

Web Version of the Artificial Neural Network Short Term Load Forecaster (WebANNSTLF 6.0)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The EPRI-developed ANNSTLF (Artificial Neural Network Short-Term Load Forecaster) is a neural-network load forecasting software system that uses historical load and weather parameters to predict future load values. EPRI has upgraded the most recent desktop version of the software (ANNSTLF 5.1) to a web-based version (WebANNSTLF 6.0). The new version, which retains almost all the functionally of ANNSTLF 5.1, features a web-based user interface that makes it possible to exploit a wide range of web services.

2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

347

STEMS-RT 1.0: Short-Term Electricity Market Simulator (Real Time), Demonstration Version 1.0  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Short-Term Electricity Market Simulator (Real Time) Demonstration Version 1.0 (STEMS-RT 1.0) allows the user to simulate simple examples of electricity markets. Description: The STEMS-RT 1.0 software is based on EPRI's pioneering development and application of agent-based simulation for the study of decision-making associated with electricity markets. In fact, the Nobel Prize in Economics was recently awarded to earlier pioneers of such investigations using people and otherwise known as experimental ...

2004-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

348

STEMS-MS v3.0, Short-Term Electricity Market Simulator - MultiSettle, Version 3.0  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Short-Term Electricity Market Simulator – MultiSettle (STEMS-MS), Version 3.0 software allows the user to simulate flexibly examples of electricity markets. STEMS-MS is based on EPRI's pioneering development and application of agent-based simulation for the study of decision-making associated with electricity markets. A recent Nobel Prize in Economics was awarded to earlier pioneers of this type of investigation using human subjects, which is called experimental economics. While the use of computer-...

2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

349

A Distributed Modeling System for Short-Term to Seasonal Ensemble Streamflow Forecasting in Snowmelt Dominated Basins  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a distributed modeling system for short-term to seasonal water supply forecasts with the ability to utilize remotely-sensed snow cover products and real-time streamflow measurements. Spatial variability in basin characteristics and meteorology is represented using a raster-based computational grid. Canopy interception, snow accumulation and melt, and simplified soil water movement are simulated in each computational unit. The model is run at a daily time step with surface runoff and subsurface flow aggregated at the basin scale. This approach allows the model to be updated with spatial snow cover and measured streamflow using an Ensemble Kalman-based data assimilation strategy that accounts for uncertainty in weather forecasts, model parameters, and observations used for updating. Model inflow forecasts for the Dworshak Reservoir in northern Idaho are compared to observations and to April-July volumetric forecasts issued by the Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) for Water Years 2000 – 2006. October 1 volumetric forecasts are superior to those issued by the NRCS, while March 1 forecasts are comparable. The ensemble spread brackets the observed April-July volumetric inflows in all years. Short-term (one and three day) forecasts also show excellent agreement with observations.

Wigmosta, Mark S.; Gill, Muhammad K.; Coleman, Andre M.; Prasad, Rajiv; Vail, Lance W.

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Design of gasifiers to optimize fuel cell systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The activities in this task are designed to evaluate experimentally the performance of the gasification catalysts chosen for the system study in the first year of this effort. The objectives of this task have been broken down as follows: To experimentally characterize the performance of the previously recommended gasification catalysts for integrates gasification carbonate fuel cell systems as identified in the system study performed during Tasks 1, 2, and 3. The catalysts which will be tested include Potassium carbonates. limestone and taconite in dry form as well as a coal-impregnated with soluble salts of potassium, calcium and iron. To evaluate the degree to which SO[sub 2] in a recycled stream, and or sulfur in the feed, can be captured by the selected calcium or iron containing catalyst at the operation conditions in the catalytic gasifier. To carry out tests under simulated conditions approaching the preferred final process design conditions identified in the system study. The first phase of experimental testing consists of a cost-effective minimum scale screening by Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA).

Steinfeld, G.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Determining Long-Term Performance of Cool Storage Systems from Short-Term Tests; Literature Review and Site Selection, Nov. 1997 (Revised Feb. 1998)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This is the preliminary report contains the literature review and site selection recommendations for ASHRAE Research Project RP 1004 — "Determining Long-term Performance of Cool Storage Systems From Short-term Tests".

Haberl, J. S.; Claridge, D. E.; Reddy, T. A.; Elleson, J.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Short-Term Basin-Scale Streamflow Forecasting Using Large-Scale Coupled Atmospheric–Oceanic Circulation and Local Outgoing Longwave Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper investigates the use of large-scale circulation patterns (El Niño–Southern Oscillation and the equatorial Indian Ocean Oscillation), local outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), and previous streamflow information for short-term (weekly) ...

Rajib Maity; S. S. Kashid

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Down-flow moving-bed gasifier with catalyst recycle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The gasification of coal and other carbonaceous materials by an endothermic gasification reaction is achieved in the presence of a catalyst in a down-flow, moving-bed gasifier. Catalyst is removed along with ash from the gasifier and is then sufficiently heated in a riser/burner by the combustion of residual carbon in the ash to volatilize the catalyst. This volatilized catalyst is returned to the gasifier where it uniformly contacts and condenses on the carbonaceous material. Also, the hot gaseous combustion products resulting from the combustion of the carbon in the ash along with excess air are introduced into the gasifier for providing heat energy used in the endothermic reaction.

Halow, J.S.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

354

Down-flow moving-bed gasifier with catalyst recycle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The gasification of coal and other carbonaceous materials by an endothermic gasification reaction is achieved in the presence of a catalyst in a down-flow, moving-bed gasifier. Catalyst is removed along with ash from the gasifier and is then sufficiently heated in a riser/burner by the combustion of residual carbon in the ash to volatilize the catalyst. This volatilized catalyst is returned to the gasifier where it uniformly contacts and condenses on the carbonaceous material. Also, the hot gaseous combustion products resulting from the combustion of the carbon in the ash along with excess air are introduced into the gasifier for providing heat energy used in the endothermic reaction.

Halow, John S. (Waynesburg, PA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Rocketdyne Gasifier Development Up to Pre-Commercial Demonstration...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Rocketdyne Gasifier Development Up to Pre-Commercial Demonstration Readiness FY05 FY09 FY06 FY07 FY08 Install high pressure pump Long term tests Dynamic refractory coupon tests at...

356

Down-flow moving-bed gasifier with catalyst recycle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The gasification of coal and other carbonaceous materials by an endothermic gasification reaction is achieved in the presence of a catalyst in a down-flow, moving-bed gasifier. Catalyst is removed along with ash from the gasifier and is then sufficiently heated in a riser/burner by the combustion of residual carbon in the ash to volatilize the catalyst. This volatilized catalyst is returned to the gasifier where it uniformly contacts and condenses on the carbonaceous material. Also, the hot gaseous combustion products resulting from the combustion of the carbon in the ash along with excess air are introduced into the gasifier for providing heat energy used in the endothermic reaction. 1 fig.

Halow, J.S.

1999-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

357

Accuracy assessment of solar system performance projection based on short-term data acquisition as compared to seasonal results from the National Solar Data Network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Considerable interest has been placed on the assessment of solar thermal performance based on data acquired during short-term monitoring periods of up to two weeks time. This paper utilizes the measured long-term performance data available from the National Solar Data Network (NSDN) to assess the accuracy of projected thermal performance factors which are based on short-term data acquisition. 7 refs.

Kendall, P.W.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Advanced gasifier-desulfurizer process development for SNG (substitute natural gas) application. Final report, August 1987-December 1988  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

KRW conducted investigations of calcium-promoted coal pyrolysis and gasification by means of bench-scale studies and an oxygen-blown PDU test. Results were used in a design study of a commercial KRW gasifier-desulfurizer, operating on Pittsburgh No. 8 coal and limestone for production of SNG. Bench-scale fluid-bed reactor studies were conducted with various fluidizing gases at temperatures and pressures of 1650 to 1950 F and 40 to 450 psig, with and without limestone, to give methane-yield and tar-yield data. The gasification kinetics studies of chars produced gave data which showed that limestone increases char reactivity and exerts a catalytic effect. Methane yields correlated exponentially to pressure. The bench-scale test results lead to an expectation that feeding some of the coal to the upper portion of the gasifier will increase methane yield and decrease oxygen consumption. In two PDU test-set points, expected operability and performance of the oxygen-blown gasifier-desulfurizer were confirmed. In Set Point 2, in-bed desulfurization efficiency was 88% and the product-gas higher heating value was 302 Btu/scf. The test results provided inputs to the design study of a KRW gasifier-desulfurizer island for production of 125 MM Btu/day of SNG. Results included a 4 to 6% improvement in feedstock inputs when compared to an earlier GRI-sponsored study. Methane yield decreased but the number of operating gasifier-desulfurizers remained at five. Equipment costs are expected to remain well within the previous + or - 25% cost estimate.

Blinn, M.B.; Cover, A.E.; Haldipur, G.B.; Datta, S.C.; Holmgren, J.D.

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

ENHANCEMENT OF STRUCTURAL FOAM MATERIALS BY INCORPORATION OF GASIFIER SLAG  

SciTech Connect

As advanced gasification technology is increasingly adopted as an energy source, disposal of the resulting slag will become a problem. We have shown that gasifier slag can be incorporated into foamed glass, which is currently being manufactured as an abrasive and as an insulating material. The slag we add to foamed glass does not simply act as filler, but improves the mechanical properties of the product. Incorporation of gasifier slag can make foamed glass stronger and more abrasion resistant.

Olin Perry Norton; Ronald A. Palmer; W. Gene Ramsey

2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

360

Actinide partitioning-transmutation program final report. VI. Short-term risk analysis of reprocessing, refabrication, and transportation: summary  

SciTech Connect

A Partitioning-Transmutation (PT) fuel cycle is being compared to a Reference cycle employing conventional fuel-material recovery methods. The PT cycle uses enhanced recovery methods so that most of the long-lived actinides are recycled to nuclear power plants and transmuted thereby reducing the waste toxicity. This report compares the two fuel cycles on the basis of the short-term radiological and nonradiological risks. The accidental radiological risk to the public is analyzed by estimating the probabilities of sets of accidents; the consequences are calculated using the risk, which is RAC code. Routine radiological risks to the public are estimated from the calculated release amounts, also using the CRAC code. Radiological occupational risks are determined from prior experience, projected standards, and estimates of accident risk. Nonradiological risks are calculated from the number of personnel involved, historical experience, and epidemiological studies. Result of this analysis is that the short-term risk of PT is 2.9 times greater than that of the Reference cycle, primarily due to the larger amount of industry. The nonradiological risk which is about 150 times greater than the radiological risk. If the radiological risk is consdered alone, the ratio of PT to Reference risk is 3, composed as follows: radiological operations affecting the public 5, radiological operations affecting the workers 1.7, and radiological accidents affecting the public 1.4, all in the order of decreasing risk. The absolute risk as estimated for the fuel cycle portions considered in this report is 0.91 fatality/GWe-year for the PT cycle and 0.34 fatality/GWe-year for the reference cycle; this compares with 1.5 for nuclear and 150 for coal. All of the risks assumed here are associated with the production of one billion watts of electricity (GWe) per year.

Fullwood, R.; Jackson, R.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasifier costs short-term" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Real Time Flame Monitoring of Gasifier and Injectors  

SciTech Connect

This project is a multistage effort with the final goal to develop a practical and reliable nonintrusive gasifier injector monitor to assess burner wear and need for replacement. The project team included the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Gas Technology Institute (GTI), North Carolina State University, and ConocoPhillips. This report presents the results of the sensor development and testing initially at GTI combustion laboratory with natural gas flames, then at the Canada Energy Technology Center (CANMET), Canada in the atmospheric coal combustor as well as in the pilot scale pressurized entrained flow gasifier, and finally the sensor capabilities were demonstrated at the Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) Gasifier and the Wabash River Repowering plant located in West Terre Haute, IN. The initial tests demonstrated that GTI gasifier sensor technology was capable of detecting shape and rich/lean properties of natural gas air/oxygen enriched air flames. The following testing at the Vertical Combustor Research Facility (VCRF) was a logical transition step from the atmospheric natural gas flames to pressurized coal gasification environment. The results of testing with atmospheric coal flames showed that light emitted by excited OH* and CH* radicals in coal/air flames can be detected and quantified. The maximum emission intensities of OH*, CH*, and black body (char combustion) occur at different axial positions along the flame length. Therefore, the excitation rates of CH* and OH* are distinct at different stages of coal combustion and can be utilized to identify and characterize processes which occur during coal combustion such as devolatilization, char heating and burning. To accomplish the goals set for Tasks 4 and 5, GTI utilized the CANMET Pressurized Entrained Flow Gasifier (PEFG). The testing parameters of the PEFG were selected to simulate optimum gasifier operation as well as gasifier conditions normally resulting from improper operation or failed gasifier injectors. The sensor developed under previous tasks was used to assess the spectroscopic characteristics of the gasifier flame. The obtained spectral data were successfully translated into flame temperature measurements. It was also demonstrated that the reduced spectral data could be very well correlated with very important gasification process parameters such as the air/fuel and water/fuel ratio. Any of these parameters (temperature, air/fuel, and water/fuel) is sufficient to assess burner wear; however, the tested sensor was capable of monitoring all three of them plus the flame shape as functions of burner wear. This will likely be a very powerful tool which should enable significant improvements in gasifier efficiency, reliability, and availability. The sensor technology was presented to the projectâ??s industrial partner (ConocoPhillips). The partner expressed its strong interest in continuing to participate in the field validation phase of GTI's Flame Monitor Project. Finally the sensor was tested in the PWR (Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne) gasification plant located at GTIâ??s research campus and at the ConocoPhillips industrial scale gasifier at Wabash River Indiana. The field trials of the GTI Gasifier sensor modified to withstand high temperature and pressure corrosive atmosphere of the industrial entrain flow gasifier. The project team successfully demonstrated the Gasifier Sensor system ability to monitor gasifier interior temperature maintaining unobstructed optical access for in excess of six week without any maintenance. The sensor examination upon completion of the trial revealed that the system did not sustain any damage and required minor cleanup of the optics.

Zelepouga, Serguei; Saveliev, Alexei

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

362

STIMULATION OF INCREASED SHORT-TERM GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE MAYFLY BAETIS TRICAUDATUS FROM THE THOMPSON RIVER BASIN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

such as organochlorines (e.g. chlorophenols, guaiacols, catechols) are costly, and despite their release

363

How Much Does That Incinerator Cost?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biosecurity on poultry farms includes proper disposal of dead carcasses. In many cases, that means using an incinerator. Calculating the cost of an incinerator means considering long and short-term expenses and the cost of fuel. This publication explains how to select the right size incinerator and calculate all associated costs.

Mukhtar, Saqib; Nash, Catherine; Harman, Wyatte; Padia, Reema

2008-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

364

Improved Refractory Materials for Slagging Gasifiers in IGCC Power Systems  

SciTech Connect

Gasifiers are the heart of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power system currently being developed as part of the DOE's Vision 21 Fossil Fuel Power Plant. A gasification chamber is a high pressure/high temperature reaction vessel used to contain a mixture of O2, H2O, and coal (or other carbon containing materials) while it is converted into thermal energy and chemicals (H2, CO, and CH4). IGCC systems are expected to play a dominant role in meeting the Nation's future energy needs. Gasifiers are also used to produce chemicals that serve as feedstock for other industrial processes, and are considered a potential source of H2 in applications such as fuel cells. A distinct advantage of gasifiers is their ability to meet or exceed current and anticipated future environmental emission regulations. Also, because gasification systems are part of a closed circuit, gasifiers are considered process ready to capture CO2 emissions for reuse or processing should that become necessary or economically feasible in the future. The service life of refractory liners for gasifiers has been identified by users as a critical barrier to IGC

Bennett, James P.; Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Powell, Cynthia A.; Krabbe, Rick; Thomas, Hugh

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Improved Refractory Materials for Slagging Gasifiers in IGCC Power Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Gasifiers are the heart of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power system currently being developed as part of the DOE's Vision 21 Fossil Fuel Power Plant. A gasification chamber is a high pressure/high temperature reaction vessel used to contain a mixture of O2, H2O, and coal (or other carbon containing materials) while it is converted into thermal energy and chemicals (H2, CO, and CH4). IGCC systems are expected to play a dominant role in meeting the Nation's future energy needs. Gasifiers are also used to produce chemicals that serve as feedstock for other industrial processes, and are considered a potential source of H2 in applications such as fuel cells. A distinct advantage of gasifiers is their ability to meet or exceed current and anticipated future environmental emission regulations. Also, because gasification systems are part of a closed circuit, gasifiers are considered process ready to capture CO2 emissions for reuse or processing should that become necessary or economically feasible in the future. The service life of refractory liners for gasifiers has been identified by users as a critical barrier to IGC

Bennett, James P.; Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Powell, Cynthia A.; Krabbe, Rick; Thomas, Hugh

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Core structure heat-up and material relocation in a BWR short-term station blackout accident  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents an analytical and numerical analysis which evaluates the core-structure heat-up and subsequent relocation of molten core materials during a NWR short-term station blackout accident with ADS. A simplified one-dimensional approach coupled with bounding arguments is first presented to establish an estimate of the temperature differences within a BWR assembly at the point when structural material first begins to melt. This analysis leads to the conclusions that the control blade will be the first structure to melt and that at this point in time, overall temperature differences across the canister-blade region will not be more than 200 K. Next, a three-dimensional heat-transfer model of the canister-blade region within the core is presented that uses a diffusion approximation for the radiation heat transfer. This is compared to the one-dimensional analysis to establish its compatibility. Finally, the extension of the three-dimensional model to include melt relocation using a porous media type approximation is described. The results of this analysis suggest that under these conditions significant amounts of material will relocate to the core plate region and refreeze, potentially forming a significant blockage. The results also indicate that a large amount of lateral spreading of the melted blade and canister material into the fuel rod regions will occur during the melt progression process. 22 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

Schmidt, R.C.; Dosanjh, S.S.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Interpretation of Strong Short-Term Central Perturbations in the Light Curves of Moderate-Magnification Microlensing Events  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To improve the planet detection efficiency, current planetary microlensing experiments are focused on high-magnification events searching for planetary signals near the peak of lensing light curves. However, it is known that central perturbations can also be produced by binary companions and thus it is important to distinguish planetary signals from those induced by binary companions. In this paper, we analyze the light curves of microlensing events OGLE-2007-BLG-137/MOA-2007-BLG-091, OGLE-2007-BLG-355/MOA-2007-BLG-278, and MOA-2007-BLG-199/OGLE-2007-BLG-419, for all of which exhibit short-term perturbations near the peaks of the light curves. From detailed modeling of the light curves, we find that the perturbations of the events are caused by binary companions rather than planets. From close examination of the light curves combined with the underlying physical geometry of the lens system obtained from modeling, we find that the short time-scale caustic-crossing feature occurring at a low or a moderate base ...

Han, C; Kim, D; Udalski, A; Abe, F; Monard, L A B; McCormick, J; Szymanski, M K; Kubiak, M; Pietrzynski, G; Soszynski, I; Szewczyk, O; Wyrzykowski, L; Ulaczyk, K; Bond, I A; Botzler, C S; Fukui, A; Furusawa, K; Hearnshaw, J B; Itow, Y; Kamiya, K; Kilmartin, P M; Korpela, A; Lin, W; Ling, C H; Masuda, K; Matsubara, Y; Miyake, N; Muraki, Y; Nagaya, M; Ohnishi, K; Tokumura, T; Perrott, Y C; Rattenbury, N; Saito, To; Sako, T; Skuljan, L; Sullivan, D S; Sumi, T; Sweatman, W L; Tristram, P J; Yock, P C M; Allen, W; Christie, G W; DePoy, D L; Dong, S; Gaudi, B S; Gould, A; Lee, C -U; Natusch, T; Park, B -G; Pogge, R W; Albrow, M D; Allan, A; Batista, V; Beaulieu, J P; Bennett, D P; Brillant, S; Bode, M; Bramich, D M; Burgdorf, M; Caldwell, J A R; Calitz, H; Cassan, A; Corrales, E; Dieters, S; Prester, D D; Dominik, M; Donatowicz, J; Fouque, P; Greenhill, J; Hill, K; Hoffman, M; Horne, K; Jorgensen, U G; Kains, N; Kubas, D; Marquette, J B; Martin, R; Meintjes, P; Menzies, J; Pollard, K R; Sahu, K C; Snodgrass, C; Steele, I; Street, R; Tsapras, Y; Wambsganss, J; Williams, A; Zub, M

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Coal-CO2 Slurry Feeding System for Pressurized Gasifiers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Feed Systems Feed Systems Coal-CO2 Slurry Feeding System for Pressurized Gasifiers Massachusetts Institute of Technology Project Number: FE0012500 Project Description This project will develop and assess a slurry feeding system based on a suspension of coal in liquid CO2 that can be pumped into a high-pressure gasifier. The advantages of this solution are that CO2 has a low heat capacity, a low heat of vaporization and low viscosity. Thus, the liquid CO2 imposes a much smaller thermal load on the gasifier relative to a water slurry, and has the potential to improve the efficiency and economics of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants with carbon capture and dramatically reduce greenhouse gas emissions from coal fired power plants. Project Details

369

Modelling of a solar-powered supercritical water biomass gasifier Laurance A Watson1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modelling of a solar-powered supercritical water biomass gasifier Laurance A Watson1 , John D Pye2 to efficiently gasify biomass would offer one potential source of sustainable hydrocarbons and deliver desirable

370

Simple Dynamic Gasifier Model That Runs in Aspen Dynamics  

SciTech Connect

Gasification (or partial oxidation) is a vital component of 'clean coal' technology. Sulfur and nitrogen emissions can be reduced, overall energy efficiency is increased, and carbon dioxide recovery and sequestration are facilitated. Gasification units in an electric power generation plant produce a fuel for driving combustion turbines. Gasification units in a chemical plant generate gas, which can be used to produce a wide spectrum of chemical products. Future plants are predicted to be hybrid power/chemical plants with gasification as the key unit operation. The widely used process simulator Aspen Plus provides a library of models that can be used to develop an overall gasifier model that handles solids. So steady-state design and optimization studies of processes with gasifiers can be undertaken. This paper presents a simple approximate method for achieving the objective of having a gasifier model that can be exported into Aspen Dynamics. The basic idea is to use a high molecular weight hydrocarbon that is present in the Aspen library as a pseudofuel. This component should have the same 1:1 hydrogen-to-carbon ratio that is found in coal and biomass. For many plantwide dynamic studies, a rigorous high-fidelity dynamic model of the gasifier is not needed because its dynamics are very fast and the gasifier gas volume is a relatively small fraction of the total volume of the entire plant. The proposed approximate model captures the essential macroscale thermal, flow, composition, and pressure dynamics. This paper does not attempt to optimize the design or control of gasifiers but merely presents an idea of how to dynamically simulate coal gasification in an approximate way.

Robinson, P.J.; Luyben, W.L. [Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

371

Low-Chrome/Chrome Free Refractories for Slagging Gasifiers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Gasifiers are containment vessels used to react carbon-containing materials with oxygen and water, producing syngas (CO and H2) that is used in chemical and power production. It is also a potential source of H2 in a future hydrogen economy. Air cooled slagging gasifiers are one type of gasifier, operating at temperatures from 1275-1575º C and at pressures of 400 psi or higher. They typically use coal or petroleum coke as the carbon source, materials which contain ash impurities that liquefy at the gasification temperatures, producing liquid slag in quantities of 100 or more tons/day, depending on the carbon fed rate and the percent ash present in the feedstock. The molten slag is corrosive to refractory linings, causing chemical dissolution and spalling. The refractory lining is composed of chrome oxide, alumina, and zirconia; and is replaced every 3-24 months. Gasifier users would like greater on-line availability and reliability of gasifier liners, something that has impacted gasifier acceptance by industry. Research is underway at NETL to improve refractory service life and to develop a no-chrome or low-chrome oxide alternative refractory liner. Over 250 samples of no- or low-chrome oxide compositions have been evaluated for slag interactions by cup testing; with potential candidates for further studies including those with ZrO2, Al2O3, and MgO materials. The development of improved liner materials is necessary if technologies such as IGCC and DOE’s Near Zero Emissions Advanced Fossil Fuel Power Plant are to be successful and move forward in the marketplace.

Bennett, J.P.; Kwong, K.-S.; Powell, C.P.; Thomas, H.; Petty, A.V., Jr.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Real Time Flame Monitoring of Gasifier Burner and Injectors  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Real Time Flame Monitoring of Gasifier Real Time Flame Monitoring of Gasifier Burner and Injectors Background The Gasification Technologies Program at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) supports research and development (R&D) in the area of gasification-a process whereby carbon-based materials (feedstocks) such as coal are converted into synthesis gas (syngas), which is separated into hydrogen (H 2 ) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) gas streams in a combustion turbine-generator as a way to generate clean electricity while

373

Method of operating a two-stage coal gasifier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of operating an entrained flow coal gasifier (10) via a two-stage gasification process. A portion of the coal (18) to be gasified is combusted in a combustion zone (30) with near stoichiometric air to generate combustion products. The combustion products are conveyed from the combustion zone into a reduction zone (32) wherein additional coal is injected into the combustion products to react with the combustion products to form a combustible gas. The additional coal is injected into the reduction zone as a mixture (60) consisting of coal and steam, preferably with a coal-to-steam weight ratio of approximately ten to one.

Tanca, Michael C. (Tariffville, CT)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Engineering analysis of biomass gasifier product gas cleaning technology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

For biomass gasification to make a significant contribution to the energy picture in the next decade, emphasis must be placed on the generation of clean, pollutant-free gas products. This reports attempts to quantify levels of particulated, tars, oils, and various other pollutants generated by biomass gasifiers of all types. End uses for biomass gases and appropriate gas cleaning technologies are examined. Complete systems analysis is used to predit the performance of various gasifier/gas cleanup/end use combinations. Further research needs are identified. 128 refs., 20 figs., 19 tabs.

Baker, E.G.; Brown, M.D.; Moore, R.H.; Mudge, L.K.; Elliott, D.C.

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Appendix D: Coal Gasifier Control: A Process Engineering Approach 208 DD.. CCOOAALL GGAASSIIFFIIEERR CCOONNTTRROOLL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Appendix D: Coal Gasifier Control: A Process Engineering Approach 208 DD.. CCOOAALL 24 June 1998 Coventry University #12;Appendix D: Coal Gasifier Control: A Process Engineering Approach 209 Coal Gasifier Control: A Process Engineering Approach B N Asmar, W E Jones and J A Wilson

Skogestad, Sigurd

376

A review of biomass integrated-gasifier/gas turbine combined cycle technology and its  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A review of biomass integrated-gasifier/gas turbine combined cycle technology and its application Copersucar, CP 162, Piracicaba, SP ­ Brazil ­ 13400-970 Biomass integrated-gasifier/gas turbine combined-from-sugarcane program. 1. Introduction The biomass integrated-gasifier/gas turbine combined cy- cle (BIG

377

Operation of a steam hydro-gasifier in a fluidized bed reactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

OF A S T E A M HYDRO-GASIFIER IN A FLUIDIZED BED REACTOROF A S T E A M HYDRO-GASIFIER IN A FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR F Iis fed into a hydro-gasifier reactor. One such process was

Park, Chan Seung; Norbeck, Joseph N.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

BIOMASS AND BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIER/GAS TURBINE COGENERATION AT PULP AND PAPER MILLS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BIOMASS AND BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIER/GAS TURBINE COGENERATION AT PULP AND PAPER MILLS ERIC D. LARSON Milano Milan, Italy ABSTRACT Cogeneration of heat and power at kraft pulp/paper mills from on-site bioma modeling of gasifier/gas turbine pulp-mill cogeneration systemsusing gasifier designs under commercial

379

Microbial dynamics in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) bioreactor granules in response to short-term changes in substrate feed  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The complexity and diversity of the microbial communities in biogranules from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) bioreactor were determined in response to short-term changes in substrate feeds. The reactor was fed simulated brewery wastewater (SBWW) (70% ethanol, 15% acetate, 15% propionate) for 1.5 months (phase 1), acetate / sulfate for 2 months (phase 2), acetate-alone for 3 months (phase 3), and then a return to SBWW for 2 months (phase 4). Performance of the reactor remained relatively stable throughout the experiment as shown by COD removal and gas production. 16S rDNA, methanogen-associated mcrA and sulfate reducer-associated dsrAB genes were PCR amplified, then cloned and sequenced. Sequence analysis of 16S clone libraries showed a relatively simple community composed mainly of the methanogenic Archaea (Methanobacterium and Methanosaeta), members of the Green Non-Sulfur (Chloroflexi) group of Bacteria, followed by fewer numbers of Syntrophobacter, Spirochaeta, Acidobacteria and Cytophaga-related Bacterial sequences. Methanogen-related mcrA clone libraries were dominated throughout by Methanobacter and Methanospirillum related sequences. Although not numerous enough to be detected in our 16S rDNA libraries, sulfate reducers were detected in dsrAB clone libraries, with sequences related to Desulfovibrio and Desulfomonile. Community diversity levels (Shannon-Weiner index) generally decreased for all libraries in response to a change from SBWW to acetate-alone feed. But there was a large transitory increase noted in 16S diversity at the two-month sampling on acetate-alone, entirely related to an increase in Bacterial diversity. Upon return to SBWW conditions in phase 4, all diversity measures returned to near phase 1 levels.

Kovacik, William P.; Scholten, Johannes C.; Culley, David E.; Hickey, Robert; Zhang, Weiwen; Brockman, Fred J.

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Seismic Activity of the Earth, the Cosmological Vectorial Potential And Method of a Short-term Earthquakes Forecasting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To the foundation of a principally new short-term forecasting method there has been laid down a theory of surrounding us world's creation and of physical vacuum as a result of interaction of byuons - discrete objects. The definition of the byuon contains the cosmological vector-potential A_g - a novel fundamental vector constant. This theory predicts a new anisotropic interaction of nature objects with the physical vacuum. A peculiar "tap" to gain new energy (giving rise to an earthquake) are elementary particles because their masses are proportional to the modulus of some summary potential A_sum that contains potentials of all known fields. The value of A_sum cannot be larger than the modulus of A_g. In accordance with the experimental results a new force associated with A_sum ejects substance from the area of the weakened A_sum along a conical formation with the opening of 100 +- 10 and the axis directed along the vector A_sum. This vector has the following coordinates in the second equatorial coordinate system: right ascension alpha = 293 +- 10, declination delta = 36 +- 10. Nearly 100% probability of an earthquake (earthquakes of 6 points strong and more by the Richter scale) arises when in the process of the earth rotation the zenith vector of a seismically dangerous region and/or the vectorial potential of Earth's magnetic fields are in a certain way oriented relative to the vector A_g. In the work, basic models and standard mechanisms of earthquakes are briefly considered, results of processing of information on the earthquakes in the context of global spatial anisotropy caused by the existence of the vector A_g, are presented, and an analysis of them is given.

Yu. A. Baurov; Yu. A. Baurov; Yu. A. Baurov Jr.; A. A. Spitalnaya; A. A. Abramyan; V. A. Solodovnikov

2008-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasifier costs short-term" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Assimilation of Remote-sensing Soil Moisture in Short-term River Forecasting M. Pan1, E. F. Wood1, W. Crow2, J. Schaake3  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Assimilation of Remote-sensing Soil Moisture in Short-term River Forecasting M. Pan1, E. F. Wood1 Hydrology and Remote Sensing Lab, US Department of Agriculture 3 National Weather Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 1. Introduction This study focuses on evaluation of hydrologic remote sensing

Pan, Ming

382

286 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SMART GRID, VOL. 1, NO. 3, DECEMBER 2010 Short-Term Load Forecast of Microgrids by a New  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Microgrids by a New Bilevel Prediction Strategy Nima Amjady, Senior Member, IEEE, Farshid Keynia, Member, IEEE, and Hamidreza Zareipour, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract--Microgrids are a rapidly growing sector. In the operation of a microgrid, forecasting the short-term load is an important task. With a more accurate short

383

Impact of coal quality and gasifier technology on IGCC performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Impact of coal quality and gasifier technology on IGCC performance Ola Maurstad1 *, Howard Herzog 02139, USA Abstract Integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants withpre different coals were used and alternatives with and without CO2 capture calculated. It was found

384

Coal Devolatilization in a Moving-Bed Gasifier  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During moving-bed coal gasification, coal volatile matter entering the product gas phase affects gas yields and composition. The coal devolatilization database and empirical model developed here can be used to predict the yield and composition of the major coal devolatilization products in moving-bed gasifiers at atmospheric and elevated pressure.

1990-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

385

Simulation of a moving bed gasifier for a western coal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes an adiabatic steady state plug flow model for a moving bed coal gasifier with gas-solid heat transfer. The model considers 17 solid stream components, 10 gas stream components and 17 reactions. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters ...

R. Stillman

1979-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Nonlinear Modelling of Alstom Gasifier Using Wiener Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel nonlinear modelling approach has been developed and implemented on Alstom gasifier using Wiener model. The linear element of the Wiener model was identified by a combined subspace state space method, which integrated MOESP (Multivariable Output-Error ... Keywords: modelling, subspace, wiener model, neural networks, state space methods

Wang Xin; Zhao Liang; Lu Jianhong; Xiang Wenguo

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Slag Penetration into Refractory Lining of Slagging Coal Gasifier  

SciTech Connect

The impurities in coal are converted into molten slag typically containing SiO2, FeO, CaO, and Al2O3 when coal feedstock is burned in slagging gasifiers. The slag flows down the gasifier sidewalls, dissolves, and penetrates and reacts with the refractory lining that protects the stainless steel shell of the gasifier from elevated temperatures (1300–1600°C). Refractories composed primarily of Cr2O3 have been found most resistant to slag corrosion, but they continue to fail performance requirements because of low resistance to spalling. Post-mortem analysis of high-chromia refractory bricks collected from commercial gasifiers suggests that the spalling is affected by the depth of slag penetration that is in turn affected by the wettability and interconnected porosity of the refractory as well as the slag viscosity. Laboratory tests were conducted to measure the viscosity of slags (Wyoming Powder River Basin [PRB], Pocahontas #3, and Pittsburgh #8), their contact angle on refractories (chromia-alumina [Aurex 75SR] and high-chromia [Serv 95 and Aurex 95P]), and the apparent porosity of selected refractories. In addition, the depth of slag penetration as a function of time and temperature was determined for various refractory-slag combinations. The results of laboratory tests were used to develop a refractory material that has high resistance to penetration by molten slag and thus has a potential to have a substantially longer service life than the materials currently being used.

Matyas, Josef; Sundaram, S. K.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Edmondson, Autumn B.; Arrigoni, Benjamin M.

2008-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

388

Low inlet gas velocity high throughput biomass gasifier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention discloses a novel method of operating a gasifier for production of fuel gas from carbonaceous fuels. The process disclosed enables operating in an entrained mode using inlet gas velocities of less than 7 feet per second, feedstock throughputs exceeding 4000 lbs/ft.sup.2 -hr, and pressures below 100 psia.

Feldmann, Herman F. (Worthington, OH); Paisley, Mark A. (Upper Arlington, OH)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Corrosion resistant refractory ceramics for slagging gasifier environment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Integrated gasification combined cycle power systems are the most efficient and economical power generation systems with a relatively low environmental impact. The gasification process requires the optimal design of gasifiers with extremely corrosion resistant refractory lining. The majority of the refractory materials tested for gasifier lining applications cannot resist the action of slagging corrosive environment combined with high operation temperatures as high as 1600?C and possible thermal shocks and thermal expansion mismatch between the lining and the slag. Silicon carbide-based ceramics and some zirconia- and zircon-based ceramics manufactured by Ceramic Protection Corporation (CPC) have been tested in a simulated coal-fired slagging gasifier environment at a temperature of 1500?C. Crucible ceramic samples have been examined after exposure to the slag at high temperature. Microstructure studies of the ceramic zone contacted with the slag have been carried out. The highest performance, i.e. the absence of corrosion damage and thermal cracking after testing, was observed for silicon carbide-based ceramics ABSC formed by silicon carbide grains with an optimized particle size distribution bonded by the aluminosilicate crystalline-glassy matrix. Dense zirconia and alumina-zirconia and slightly porous zircon ceramics demonstrated comparatively lower performance due to their lower corrosion resistance and greater thermal cracking. ABSC ceramics can be manufactured as thick-walled large components and may be considered as a promising material for gasifier refractory applications. Similar ceramics, but with finer grain sizes, may also be recommended for thermocouple protection.

Medvedovski, E. (Ceramic Protection Corp., Calgary, Alberta, Canada); Chinn, Richard E.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Material and Energy Balances for Methanol from Biomass Using Biomass Gasifiers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of the Biomass to Methanol Systems Analysis Project is the determination of the most economically optimum combination of unit operations which will make the production of methanol from biomass competitive with or more economic than traditional processes with conventional fossil fuel feedstocks. This report summarizes the development of simulation models for methanol production based upon the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) ''Renugas'' gasifier and the Battelle Columbus Laboratory (BCL) gasifier. This report discusses methanol production technology, the IGT and BCL gasifiers, analysis of gasifier data for gasification of wood, methanol production material and energy balance simulations, and one case study based upon each of the gasifiers.

Bain, R. L.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Predicting Long-Term Performance of Photovoltaic Arrays Using Short-Term Test Data and an Annual Simulation Tool: Preprint (Revised)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We present a method of analysis for predicting annual performance of an in-situ photovoltaic (PV) array using short-term test data and an annual simulation tool. The method involves fitting data from a family of I-V curves (depicting current versus voltage) taken from a short-term test (1 to 3 day) of a PV array to a set of polynomial functions. These functions are used to predict the array's behaviour under a wide range of temperatures and irradiances. TRNSYS, driven by TMY2 weather data, is used to simulate the array's behaviour under typical weather conditions. We demonstrate this method by using results from a nominal 630-W array.

Barker, G.; Norton, P.

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Customization of the EPRI Artificial Neural Network Short-Term Load Forecaster (ANNSTLF) and User Support for the California Independent System Operator (CA-ISO)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Load forecasting is an important part of power system planning and operation. In the past, forecasting was achieved by extrapolating existing load data combined with other influencing factors. This method is no longer accurate enough. The Artificial Neural Network Short-Term Load Forecaster (ANNSTLF) is a tool for the quick and accurate prediction of hourly loads that provides the level of accuracy required by today's complex and competitive power markets. This report describes all the deliverables for t...

2002-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

393

Agglomerating combustor-gasifier method and apparatus for coal gasification  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for gasifying coal wherein the gasification takes place in a spout fluid bed at a pressure of about 10 to 30 atmospheres and a temperature of about 1800.degree. to 2200.degree.F and wherein the configuration of the apparatus and the manner of introduction of gases for combustion and fluidization is such that agglomerated ash can be withdrawn from the bottom of the apparatus and gas containing very low dust loading is produced. The gasification reaction is self-sustaining through the burning of a stoichiometric amount of coal with air in the lower part of the apparatus to form the spout within the fluid bed. The method and apparatus are particularly suitable for gasifying coarse coal particles.

Chen, Joseph L. P. (Murrysville, PA); Archer, David H. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1976-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

394

PSTAR: Primary and secondary terms analysis and renormalization: A unified approach to building energy simulations and short-term monitoring: A summary  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes a longer report entitled PSTAR - Primary and Secondary Terms Analysis and Renormalization. A Unified Approach to Building Energy Simulations and Short-Term Monitoring. These reports highlight short-term testing for predicting long-term performance of residential buildings. In the PSTAR method, renormalized parameters are introduced for the primary terms such that the renormalized energy balance equation is best satisfied in the least squares sense; hence, the name PSTAR. Testing and monitoring the energy performance of buildings has several important applications, among them: extrapolation to long-term performance, refinement of design tools through feedback from comparing design versus actual parameters, building-as-a-calorimeter for heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) diagnostics, and predictive load control. By combining realistic building models, simple test procedures, and analysis involving linear equations, PSTAR provides a powerful tool for analyzing building energy as well as testing and monitoring. It forms the basis for the Short-Term Energy Monitoring (STEM) project at SERI. 3 figs., 1 tab.

Subbarao, K.

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Advanced coal gasifier designs using large-scale simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Porting of the legacy code MFIX to a high performance computer (HPC) and the use of high resolution simulations for the design of a coal gasifier are described here. MFIX is based on a continuum multiphase flow model that considers gas and solids to form interpenetrating continua. Low resolution simulations of a commercial scale gasifier with a validated MFIX model revealed interesting physical phenomena with implications on the gasifier design, which prompted the study reported here. To be predictive, the simulations need to model the spatiotemporal variations in gas and solids volume fractions, velocities, temperatures with any associated phase change and chemical reactions. These processes occur at various time- and length-scales requiring very high spatial resolution and large number of iterations with small time-steps. We were able to perform perhaps the largest known simulations of gas-solids reacting flows, providing detailed information about the gas-solids flow structure and the pressure, temperature and species distribution in the gasifier. One key finding is the new features of the coal jet trajectory revealed with the high spatial resolution, which provides information on the accuracy of the lower resolution simulations. Methodologies for effectively combining high and low resolution simulations for design studies must be developed. From a computational science perspective, we found that global communication has to be reduced to achieve scalability to 1000s of cores, hybrid parallelization is required to effectively utilize the multicore chips, and the wait time in the batch queue significantly increases the actual time-to-solution. From our experience, development is required in the following areas: efficient solvers for heterogeneous, massively parallel systems; data analysis tools to extract information from large data sets; and programming environments for easily porting legacy codes to HPC.

Syamlal, M [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL); Guenther, Chris [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL); Gel, Aytekin [Aeolus Research Inc.; Pannala, Sreekanth [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Testing of Biomass in a Transport Reactor Gasifier  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A 200-hour gasification test was undertaken on biomass fuels from sources that include wood waste and a potential energy crop such as switchgrass. The test involved the design and construction of a feed system to allow 100% biomass to be continuously fed to the pilot-scale transport reactor development unit (TRDU) at the Energy & Environmental Research Center. Biomass performance was also assessed in a high-efficiency transport reactor gasifier, the centerpiece of an advanced biomass integrated ...

2012-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

397

Photoconversion of gasified organic materials into biologically-degradable plastics  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for converting organic materials (such as biomass wastes) into a bioplastic suitable for use as a biodegradable plastic. In a preferred embodiment the process involves thermally gasifying the organic material into primarily carbon monoxide and hydrogen, followed by photosynthetic bacterial assimilation of the gases into cell material. The process is ideally suited for waste recycling and for production of useful biodegradable plastic polymer.

Weaver, Paul F. (Golden, CO); Maness, Pin-Ching (Golden, CO)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Photoconversion of gasified organic materials into biologically-degradable plastics  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for converting organic materials (such as biomass wastes) into a bioplastic suitable for use as a biodegradable plastic. In a preferred embodiment the process involves thermally gasifying the organic material into primarily carbon monoxide and hydrogen, followed by photosynthetic bacterial assimilation of the gases into cell material. The process is ideally suited for waste recycling and for production of useful biodegradable plastic polymer. 3 figures.

Weaver, P.F.; Pinching Maness.

1993-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

399

Economic impact evaluation of short-term load forecast errors using a mutative scale chaos optimization algorithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Under the circumstances of Power Market, load forecast errors directly lead to the increase of costs of dispatch and maintenance. With a mutative scale chaos optimization algorithm (MSCOA), and the next-day units bidding model as the valuation model ... Keywords: MSCOA, load forecast error, power market

Jiang Chuanwen; Li Shuai; Wang Chengmin

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Modelling of a downdraft gasifier fed by agricultural residues  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Development of software for downdraft gasification simulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prediction of the syngas concentration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prediction of the syngas heating value. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigation of the temperature effect in reduction zone in syngas concentration. - Abstract: A non-stoichiometric model for a downdraft gasifier was developed in order to simulate the overall gasification process. Mass and energy balances of the gasifier were calculated and the composition of produced syngas was predicted. The capacity of the modeled gasifier was assumed to be 0.5 MW, with an Equivalence Ratio (EQ) of 0.45. The model incorporates the chemical reactions and species involved, while it starts by selecting all species containing C, H, and O, or any other dominant elements. Olive wood, miscanthus and cardoon were tested in the formulated model for a temperature range of 800-1200 Degree-Sign C, in order to examine the syngas composition and the moisture impact on the supplied fuel. Model results were then used in order to design an olive wood gasification reactor.

Antonopoulos, I.-S., E-mail: jantonop@aix.meng.auth.gr [Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Box 483, GR-54124, Thessaloniki (Greece); Karagiannidis, A.; Gkouletsos, A.; Perkoulidis, G. [Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Box 483, GR-54124, Thessaloniki (Greece)

2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasifier costs short-term" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Combined goal gasifier and fuel cell system and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A molten carbonate fuel cell is combined with a catalytic coal or coal char gasifier for providing the reactant gases comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide used in the operation of the fuel cell. These reactant gases are stripped of sulfur compounds and particulate material and are then separated in discrete gas streams for conveyance to appropriate electrodes in the fuel cell. The gasifier is arranged to receive the reaction products generated at the anode of the fuel cell by the electricity-producing electrochemical reaction therein. These reaction products from the anode are formed primarily of high temperature steam and carbon dioxide to provide the steam, the atmosphere and the heat necessary to endothermically pyrolyze the coal or char in the presence of a catalyst. The reaction products generated at the cathode are substantially formed of carbon dioxide which is used to heat air being admixed with the carbon dioxide stream from the gasifier for providing the oxygen required for the reaction in the fuel cell and for driving an expansion device for energy recovery. A portion of this carbon dioxide from the cathode may be recycled into the fuel cell with the air-carbon dioxide mixture.

Gmeindl, Frank D. (Morgantown, WV); Geisbrecht, Rodney A. (New Alexandria, PA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Combined coal gasifier and fuel cell system and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This report describes a process whereby a molten carbonate fuel cell is combined with a catalytic coal or coal char gasifier for providing the reactant gases comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide used in the operation of the fuel cell. These reactant gases are stripped of sulfur compounds and particulate material and are then separated in discrete gas streams for conveyance to appropriate electrodes in the fuel cell. The gasifier is arranged to receive the reaction products generated at the anode of the fuel cell by the electricity-producing electrochemical reaction therein. These reaction products from the anode are formed primarily of high temperature steam and carbon dioxide to provide the steam, the atmosphere and the heat necessary to endothermically pyrolyze the coal or char in the presence of a catalyst. The reaction products generated at the cathode are substantially formed of carbon dioxide which is used to heat air being admixed with the carbon dioxide stream from the gasifier for providing the oxygen required for the reaction in the fuel cell and for driving an expansion device for energy recovery. A portion of this carbon dioxide from the cathode may be recycled into the fuel cell with the air-carbon dioxide mixture. 1 fig.

Gmeindl, F.D.; Geisbrecht, R.A.

1989-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

403

Method for enhancing the desulfurization of hot coal gas in a fluid-bed coal gasifier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process and apparatus for providing additional desulfurization of the hot gas produced in a fluid-bed coal gasifier, within the gasifier. A fluid-bed of iron oxide is located inside the gasifier above the gasification bed in a fluid-bed coal gasifier in which in-bed desulfurization by lime/limestone takes place. The product gases leave the gasification bed typically at 1600.degree. to 1800.degree. F. and are partially quenched with water to 1000.degree. to 1200.degree. F. before entering the iron oxide bed. The iron oxide bed provides additional desulfurization beyond that provided by the lime/limestone.

Grindley, Thomas (Morgantown, WV)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Hydrogen Production from Biomass via Indirect Gasification: The Impact of NREL Process Development Unit Gasifier Correlations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes a set of updated gasifier correlations developed by NREL to predict biomass gasification products and Minimum Hydrogen Selling Price.

Kinchin, C. M.; Bain, R. L.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Integrated operation of a pressurized fixed-bed gasifier, hot gas desulfurization system, and turbine simulator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The overall objective of the General Electric Hot Gas Cleanup (HGCU) Program is to develop a commercially viable technology to remove sulfur, particulates, and halogens from a high-temperature fuel gas stream using a moving bed, regenerable mixed metal oxide sorbent based process. The HGCU Program is based on the design and demonstration of the HGCU system in a test facility made up of a pilot-scale fixed bed gasifier, a HGCU system, and a turbine simulator in Schenectady, NY, at the General Electric Research and Development Center. The objectives of the turbine simulator testing are (1) to demonstrate the suitability of fuel gas processed by the HGCU system for use in state-of-the-art gas turbines firing at 2,350 F rotor inlet temperature and (2) to quantify the combustion characteristics and emissions on low-Btu fuel gas. The turbine simulator program also includes the development and operation of experimental combustors based on the rich-quench-lean concept (RQL) to minimize the conversion of ammonia and other fuel-bound nitrogen species to NO{sub x} during combustion. The HGCU system and turbine simulator have been designed to process approximately 8,000 lb/hr of low heating value fuel gas produced by the GE fixed bed gasifier. The HGCU system has utilized several mixed metal oxide sorbents, including zinc ferrite, zinc titanate, and Z-Sorb, with the objective of demonstrating good sulfur removal and mechanical attrition resistance as well as economic cost characteristics. Demonstration of halogen removal and the characterization of alkali and trace metal concentrations in the fuel gas are subordinate objectives of the overall program. This report describes the results of several long-duration pilot tests.

Bevan, S.; Ayala, R.E.; Feitelberg, A.; Furman, A.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Short-term recovery of NH4-15N applied to a temperate forest inceptisol and ultisol in east Tennessee USA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The short-term fate and retention of ammonium (NH4)-{sup 15}nitrogen (N) applied to two types of forest soils in east Tennessee was investigated. Four ridgetop forests, predominantly oak (Quercus spp.), were studied. Five applications of NH{sub 4}-{sup 15}N tracer were made to the forest floor at 2- to 4-week intervals over a 14-week period in 2004. Nitrogen-15 recovery in the forest floor, fine roots (100 weeks) indicated the forest floor is an effective filter for atmospheric N inputs.

Garten Jr, Charles T [ORNL; Brice, Deanne Jane [ORNL; Todd Jr, Donald E [ORNL

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Optical Fiber Sensor Instrumentation for Slagging Coal Gasifiers  

SciTech Connect

Coal gasifier is one of the most promising solutions for clean fossil energy. Refractory thickness monitoring and online real-time temperature measurement is needed for improved reliability and advanced process control for current and future generation power plants. The objective of this program is to design and implement an optical fiber based sensing system that could potentially be used to monitor refractory wall thickness and temperature inside a coal gasifier. For the thickness monitoring, the system should be able to operate at temperatures up to 1000 C. For this temperature range, silica fiber can still work so it is chosen for the sensor design. The measurement is based on a photon counting optical time domain reflectometer. A narrow light pulse is launched into a silica fiber which could be embedded into the gasifier refractory wall, and is partially reflected by the far end of the fiber. The time of flight of the light pulse in the fiber then gives an indication of the position of the fiber end, which is a function of the wall thickness when the fiber is embedded. Results obtained show a measurement accuracy of {+-}2cm in environment of 1000 C with a saw cut fiber end. When the fiber end is corroded by sodium carbide at 900 C, the accuracy is {+-}3cm. For the temperature measurement, a single crystal sapphire fiber sensor is designed. The sapphire fiber guides the broadband light from a light emitting diode to a sapphire wafer functioning as a Fabry-Perot interferometer and the wafer optical thickness is a function of temperature. The returned optical signal is then demodulated by multimode fiber based whitelight interferometry. The system was tested up to 1500 C with a measurement accuracy of {+-}10 C for the entire measurement range.

Anbo Wang; Kristie Cooper

2008-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

408

Development of standardized air-blown coal gasifier/gas turbine concepts for future electric power systems  

SciTech Connect

CRS Sirrine (CRSS) is evaluating a novel IGCC process in which gases exiting the gasifier are burned in a gas turbine combustion system. The turbine exhaust gas is used to generate additional power in a conventional steam generator. This results in a significant increase in efficiency. However, the IGCC process requires development of novel approaches to control SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions and alkali vapors which can damage downstream turbine components. Ammonia is produced from the reaction of coal-bound nitrogen with steam in the reducing zone of any fixed bed coal gasifier. This ammonia can be partially oxidized to NO{sub x} when the product gas is oxidized in a gas turbine combustor. Alkali metals vaporize in the high-temperature combustion zone of the gasifier and laser condense on the surface of small char or ash particles or on cooled metal surfaces. It these alkali-coated materials reach the gas turbine combustor, the alkali will revaporize condense on turbine blades and cause rapid high temperature corrosion. Efficiency reduction will result. PSI Technology Company (PSIT) was contracted by CRSS to evaluate and recommend solutions for NO{sub x} emissions and for alkali metals deposition. Various methods for NO{sub x} emission control and the potential process and economic impacts were evaluated. This included estimates of process performance, heat and mass balances around the combustion and heat transfer units and a preliminary economic evaluation. The potential for alkali metal vaporization and condensation at various points in the system was also estimated. Several control processes and evaluated, including an order of magnitude cost for the control process.

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Process for gasifying carbonaceous material from a recycled condensate slurry  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Coal or other carbonaceous material is gasified by reaction with steam and oxygen in a manner to minimize the problems of effluent water stream disposal. The condensate water from the product gas is recycled to slurry the coal feed and the amount of additional water or steam added for cooling or heating is minimized and preferably kept to a level of about that required to react with the carbonaceous material in the gasification reaction. The gasification is performed in a pressurized fluidized bed with the coal fed in a water slurry and preheated or vaporized by indirect heat exchange contact with product gas and recycled steam. The carbonaceous material is conveyed in a gas-solid mixture from bottom to top of the pressurized fluidized bed gasifier with the solids removed from the product gas and recycled steam in a supported moving bed filter of the resulting carbonaceous char. Steam is condensed from the product gas and the condensate recycled to form a slurry with the feed coal carbonaceous particles.

Forney, Albert J. (Coraopolis, PA); Haynes, William P. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Air-flow regulation system for a coal gasifier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved air-flow regulator for a fixed-bed coal gasifier is provided which allows close air-flow regulation from a compressor source even though the pressure variations are too rapid for a single primary control loop to respond. The improved system includes a primary controller to control a valve in the main (large) air supply line to regulate large slow changes in flow. A secondary controller is used to control a smaller, faster acting valve in a secondary (small) air supply line parallel to the main line valve to regulate rapid cyclic deviations in air flow. A low-pass filter with a time constant of from 20 to 50 seconds couples the output of the secondary controller to the input of the primary controller so that the primary controller only responds to slow changes in the air-flow rate, the faster, cyclic deviations in flow rate sensed and corrected by the secondary controller loop do not reach the primary controller due to the high frequency rejection provided by the filter. This control arrangement provides at least a factor of 5 improvement in air-flow regulation for a coal gasifier in which air is supplied by a reciprocating compressor through a surge tank.

Fasching, George E. (Morgantown, WV)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Development of improved performance refractory liner materials for slagging gasifiers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Refractory liners for slagging gasifiers used in power generation, chemical production, or as a possible future source of hydrogen for a hydrogen based economy, suffer from a short service life. These liner materials are made of high Cr2O3 and lower levels of Al2O3 and/or ZrO2. As a working face lining in the gasifier, refractories are exposed to molten slags at elevated temperature that originate from ash in the carbon feedstock, including coal and/or petroleum coke. The molten slag causes refractory failure by corrosion dissolution and by spalling. The Albany Research Center is working to improve the performance of Cr2O3 refractories and to develop refractories without Cr2O3 or with Cr2O3 content under 30 wt pct. Research on high Cr2O3 materials has resulted in an improved refractory with phosphate additions that is undergoing field testing. Results to date of field trials, along with research direction on refractories with no or low Cr2O3, will be discussed.

Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Bennett, James P.; Powell, Cynthia; Thomas, Hugh; Krabbe, Rick

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Field Trial Results of an Improved Refractory Material for Slagging Gasifiers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Gasifiers are used commercially to react a carbon feedstock with water and oxygen under reducing conditions; producing chemicals used as feedstock for other processes, fuel for power plants, and/or steam used in other processes. A gasifier acts as a high temperature, high pressure reaction chamber, typically operating between 1250-1575°C, and with pressures between 300-1000 psi. Ash that originates from mineral impurities in the carbon feedstock becomes a by-product of gasification. In a slagging gasifier it melts, forming a liquid which flows down the gasifier sidewall; penetrating and wearing away the refractory liner by corrosive dissolution, abrasive wear, or by other processes such as spalling. The refractory liner must withstand the severe service environment, protecting the steel shell against corrosive gases, temperature, and material wear. Users have identified refractory service life as the most important limitation to sustained on-line availability of gasifiers, limiting gasifier acceptance and use by industry. The National Energy Technology Laboratory in Albany, OR, has developed and patented (US Patent # 6,815,386) a phosphate containing high chrome oxide refractory for use in slagging gasifiers. In cooperation with ANH Refractories Company, this refractory material has been commercially produced and is undergoing field tests in commercial gasifiers. An analysis of data from these field tests indicates that the phosphate containing refractory results in an improved service life over other refractory materials currently used as gasifier liners. Results from the post-mortem analysis of the field trial in relation to the failure mechanisms in a slagging gasifier will be presented.

Bennett, J.P.; Kwong, K.-S.; Powell, C.P.; Petty, A.V., Jr.; Thomas, H.; Prior, H.D. (ANH Refractories, West Mifflin, PA); Schnake, M. (Harbison Walker, Fulton, MO)

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

An evaluation of the Gilian TRACEAIR Organic Vapor Monitoring Diffusive Badge in measuring short-term exposure levels of benzene under field conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The objective of this research is to evaluate the performance of the Gilian TRACEAIR Organic Vapor Monitoring I (OVMI) Diffusive Badge in measuring short-term benzene exposures under field conditions. In general, a diffusive badge is a device which is capable of taking samples of gas or vapor pollutants from the atmosphere at a rate controlled by a physical process such as diffusion through a static layer. Diffusive badges continue to flood the industrial hygiene market as an alternative means to charcoal tubes for sampling organic vapors. The OVMI badge has been on the market since 1990, and is the only diffusive sampler that offers dual sampling rates for measuring organic vapors. This dual sampling rate feature allows one the flexibility of sampling at 3 5 to I 00 mL/@n depending on the vapors being sampled. The OVM I badge has been designed to monitor short-term exposure limits (STEL) and long-term limits with only negligible modifications to the badge housing. Side-by-side benzene STEL concentrations were measured in a Texas Gulf Coast refinery implementing two OVM I badges, an SKC charcoal tube, and a Tedlar bag used for gas chromatograph analyses. The results of the study indicated that a) no significant concentration differences were found between the badges; b) the badges overestimated the charcoal tube on average by 54%, although their performance comparisons were highly predictable based on linear regression; and c) the results of the Tedlar baga?s chromatograph comparisons were inconclusive. Factors which might have contributed to the discrepancy between the charcoal tube and badges are possible concentration gradients and starvation effects occurring at the samplers' inlet face, interference from other competing vapors, and an overestimated badge sampling rate when sampling at the maximum uptake rate. Collectively, the outcomes of this research suggests that a correction factor in the badge's sampling rate might prove useful as a means of correcting for short-term overestimations when sampling for benzene under field conditions. It is hoped that the contents of this research serve as an useful aid for those specifically interested in the OVMI badge and for those whose line of work involve passive sampling.

Pierce, Mark Edward

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Design and economics of a plant to convert western subbituminous coal to SNG (substitute natural gas) using KRW (KRW Energy Systems Inc. ) gasifiers. Topical report (Final) May 1985-January 1986  

SciTech Connect

A first-pass design and cost estimate indicates that the levelized constant-dollar cost of gas for a 125 billion Btu/day plant to convert western subbituminous coal to substitute natural gas (SNG) using KRW gasifiers is $4.70/MMBtu. Process development allowances (PDA) increase the gas cost to $5.09/MMBtu. The levelized constant-dollar gas cost for a scaled-up 250 billion Btu/day plant is estimated at $4.17/MMBtu, indicating that smaller plants can be constructed with less capital risk while producing methane at only slightly higher costs.

Smith, J.T.; Hanny, D.J.; Smelser, S.C.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Superheater Tube Corrosion in Wood Gasifier Ash Deposits  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The upper operating temperature of tubes in heat exchangers/steam generators is strongly influenced by the degradation that can occur because of the reaction of the exchanger/generator tubing with the deposits that accumulate on the surface of the tubes. In fact, severe corrosion has been observed in some biomass fired systems, particularly with elevated potassium and chlorine concentrations in the deposits. Wood gasifiers have recently been and are currently being constructed at several sites in North America. In these systems, the syngas is burned to produce steam and the performance of the heat exchanger tubes under ash deposits is of great concern. As temperatures of the heat exchangers are increased in an effort to increase their operating efficiency, the performance of the tubes is of greater interest. The corrosion behavior of alloy steel tubes as a function of temperature has been investigated by exposing samples of selected alloys to ash collected from the steam generator fired by syngas produced in wood gasifiers. This study compares corrosion rates from laboratory exposures of synthesis gas and ash at 500 C and 600 C. This study investigated the material performance of four ferritic steels and one austenitic steel exposed to conditions expected on the fireside of a wood gasifier. The purpose of this study was to identify an effective method for determining material performance for samples exposed to both the process gas and the fly ash that is typically observed within the steam generator for times up to 1000 hours. Mass changes were measured for all of the samples, but this information can be misleading concerning material performance due to the difficulty in sufficiently cleaning the samples after exposure in the ash. Therefore, small cross sections of the samples were collected and imaged using optical microscopy. Oxide thicknesses were measured along with metal losses. The metal loss information provides a clear indication of material performance. The metal loss rates for the ferritic steels at 500 C were almost half of those observed at 600 C and the rates decreased with increasing exposure time. It was also reported that the metal loss rates generally decrease with increasing chromium concentration.

Bestor, Michael A [ORNL; Keiser, James R [ORNL; Meisner, Roberta A [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

The University of Minnesota aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) field test facility -- system description, aquifer characterization, and results of short-term test cycles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Phase 1 of the Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) Project at the University of Minnesota was to test the feasibility, and model, the ATES concept at temperatures above 100{degrees}C using a confined aquifer for the storage and recovery of hot water. Phase 1 included design, construction, and operation of a 5-MW thermal input/output field test facility (FTF) for four short-term ATES cycles (8 days each of heat injection, storage, and heat recover). Phase 1 was conducted from May 1980 to December 1983. This report describes the FTF, the Franconia-Ironton-Galesville (FIG) aquifer used for the test, and the four short-term ATES cycles. Heat recovery; operational experience; and thermal, chemical, hydrologic, and geologic effects are all included. The FTF consists of monitoring wells and the source and storage well doublet completed in the FIG aquifer with heat exchangers and a fixed-bed precipitator between the wells of the doublet. The FIG aquifer is highly layered and a really anisotropic. The upper Franconia and Ironton-Galesville parts of the aquifer, those parts screened, have hydraulic conductivities of {approximately}0.6 and {approximately}1.0 m/d, respectively. Primary ions in the ambient ground water are calcium and magnesium bicarbonate. Ambient temperature FIG ground water is saturated with respect to calcium/magnesium bicarbonate. Heating the ground water caused most of the dissolved calcium to precipitate out as calcium carbonate in the heat exchanger and precipitator. Silica, calcium, and magnesium were significantly higher in recovered water than in injected water, suggesting dissolution of some constituents of the aquifer during the cycles. Further work on the ground water chemistry is required to understand water-rock interactions.

Walton, M.; Hoyer, M.C.; Eisenreich, S.J.; Holm, N.L.; Holm, T.R.; Kanivetsky, R.; Jirsa, M.A.; Lee, H.C.; Lauer, J.L.; Miller, R.T.; Norton, J.L.; Runke, H. (Minnesota Geological Survey, St. Paul, MN (United States))

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

An Integrated Approach to Coal Gasifier Testing, Modeling, and Process Optimization  

SciTech Connect

Gasification is an important method of converting coal into clean burning fuels and high-value industrial chemicals. However, gasifier reliability can be severely limited by rapid degradation of the refractory lining in hot-wall gasifiers. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is performing multidisciplinary research to provide the experimental data and the engineering models needed to control gasifier operation for extended refractory life. Our experimental program includes prediction of slag viscosity using empirical viscosity models encompassing US coals, characterization of selected slag-refractory interaction including transport of slag/refractory components at the slag-refractory interface, and measurement of slag penetration into refractories as a function of time and temperature. The experimental data is used in slag flow, slag penetration, and refractory damage models to predict the operating temperature limits for increased refractory life. A simplified entrained flow gasifier model is also being developed to simulate one-dimensional axial flow with average axial velocity, coal devolatilization, and combustion kinetics. Combining the slag flow, refractory degradation, and gasifier models will provide a powerful tool to predict the coal and oxidant feed rates and control the gasifier operation to balance coal conversion efficiency with increased refractory life. A research scale gasifier has also been constructed at PNNL to provide syngas for coal conversion and carbon sequestration research, and also valuable datasets on operating conditions for validating the modeling results.

Sundaram, S. K.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Matyas, Josef; Williford, Ralph E.; Pilli, Siva Prasad; Korolev, Vladimir N.

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Fundamentals, development and scaleup of the air=oxygen stratified downdraft gasifier  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In 1979 the US Department of Energy, Office of Alcohol Fuels, asked the Solar Energy Research Institute to develop a process for manufacturing methanol from biomass. This can be achieved by gasification of the biomass to a ''synthesis gas'' (syn-gas) (composed of primarily hydrogen and carbon monoxide) followed by catalytic conversion of the gas to methanol. The catalytic conversion of syn-gas is a well developed commercial process. There are a number of gasifiers for wood, but most of them make either a producer gas, high on nitrogen or a pyrolysis gas high in hydrocarbons. None were developed to make syn-gas. Thus the principal technical problem was to develop a gasifier to make synthesis gas from biomass. Work was performed at SERI from 1980--1985 which resulted in the development of a prototype 1 ton/day oxygen-biomass gasifier. In 1985 a program was undertaken for Congress by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to build a commercial scale (50--200 tons/day) medium energy gasifier, based on DOE or other research. A new company, Syn-Gas Inc. (SGI), research. A contract was awarded to SGI to modify the air gasifier for oxygen operation for this project. This modification allowed extended tests of the gasifier with oxygen to determine the possibility of scaling up the SERI-SGI gasifier to 50--200 tons/day.

Reed, T.B.; Levie, B.; Graboski, M.S.

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Real Time Flame Monitoring of Gasifier Burner and Injectors  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

8 8 Gasification Technologies contacts Gary J. stiegel Gasification Technology Manager National Energy Technology Laboratory 626 Cochrans Mill Road P.O. Box 10940 Pittsburgh, PA 15236 412-386-4499 gary.stiegel@netl.doe.gov Jenny tennant Project Manager National Energy Technology Laboratory 3610 Collins Ferry Road P.O. Box 880 Morgantown, WV 26507 304-285-4830 jenny.tennant@netl.doe.gov David Rue Principal Investigator Gas Technology Institute 1700 South Mount Prospect Road Des Plaines, IL 60018 847-768-0508 david.rue@gastechnology.org Real Time Flame moniToRing oF gasiFieR BuRneR and injecToRs Description Combustion scientists and engineers have studied radiant emissions of various flames for many years. For some time, technologists have understood the rich potential for

420

Grate assembly for fixed-bed coal gasifier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A grate assembly for a coal gasifier of a moving-bed or fixed-bed type is provided for crushing agglomerates of solid material such as clinkers, tailoring the radial distribution of reactant gases entering the gasification reaction zone, and control of the radial distribution of downwardly moving solid velocities in the gasification and combustion zone. The clinker crushing is provided by pinching clinkers between vertically oriented stationary bars and angled bars supported on the upper surface of a rotating conical grate. The distribution of the reactant gases is provided by the selective positioning of horizontally oriented passageways extending through the grate. The radial distribution of the solids is provided by mounting a vertically and generally radially extending scoop mechanism on the upper surface of the grate near the apex thereof.

Notestein, J.E.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasifier costs short-term" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Westinghouse to launch coal gasifier with combined cycle unit  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Westinghouse has designed a prototype coal gasifier which can be intergrated with a combined cycle unit and enable power plants to use coal in an efficient and environmentally acceptable way. Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (CGCC) technology burns gas made from coal in a gas turbine to generate power and then collects the hot exhaust gases to produce steam for further power generation. The commercialization of this process would meet the public's need for an economical and clean way to use coal, the utitities' need to meet electric power demands, and the nation's need to reduce dependence on imported oil. The Westinghouse process is described along with the company's plans for a demonstration plant and the option of a phased introduction to allow utilities to continue the use of existing equipment and generate revenue while adding to capacity. (DCK)

Stavsky, R.M.; Margaritis, P.J.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Grate assembly for fixed-bed coal gasifier  

SciTech Connect

A grate assembly for a coal gasifier of a moving-bed or fixed-bed type is provided for crushing agglomerates of solid material such as clinkers, tailoring the radial distribution of reactant gases entering the gasification reaction zone, and control of the radial distribution of downwardly moving solid velocities in the gasification and combustion zone. The clinker crushing is provided by pinching clinkers between vertically oriented stationary bars and angled bars supported on the upper surface of a rotating conical grate. The distribution of the reactant gases is provided by the selective positioning of horizontally oriented passageways extending through the grate. The radial distribution of the solids is provided by mounting a vertically and generally radially extending scoop mechanism on the upper surface of the grate near the apex thereof.

Notestein, John E. (Morgantown, WV)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

THERMOCHEMICAL MODELING OF REFRACTORY CORROSION IN SLAGGING COAL GASIFIERS  

SciTech Connect

Slagging coal gasifiers suffer corrosive attack on the refractory liner and these interactions were thermochemically simulated. The slag is observed to penetrate the refractory, which complicates modeling the phase behavior of the slag-penetrated interior of the refractory. A simple strategy was adopted such that step-wise changes in composition with decreasing slag content were assumed to account for the compositional changes as slag penetrates the refractory. The thermochemical equilibrium calculations following this strategy typically yielded three solution phases as well as the stoichiometric crystalline phases AlPO4 and Ca3(PO4)2 depending on composition/penetration. Under some conditions a slag liquid miscibility gap exists such that two slag liquids co-exist.

Besmann, Theodore M [ORNL

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Integrated gasifier combined cycle polygeneration system to produce liquid hydrogen  

SciTech Connect

An integrated gasifier combined cycle (IGCC) system which simultaneously produces electricity, process steam, and liquid hydrogen was evaluated and compared to IGCC systems which cogenerate electricity and process steam. A number of IGCC plants, all employing a 15 MW gas turbine and producing from 0 to 20 tons per day of liquid hydrogen and from 0 to 20 MW of process steam were considered. The annual revenue required to own and operate such plants was estimated to be significantly lower than the potential market value of the products. The results indicate a significant potential economic benefit to configuring IGCC systems to produce a clean fuel in addition to electricity and process steam in relatively small industrial applications.

Burns, R.K.; Staiger, P.J.; Donovan, R.M.

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Development of mercury and chloride monitors for coal gasifiers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ames Laboratory will develop an integrated sampling and analysis system suitable for on-line monitoring of mercury (Hg) and hydrogen chloride (HCl) in advanced coal-based gasifiers. The objectives of this project are to (1) summarize current technology for monitoring Hg and HCl in gaseous effluents; (2) identify analytical techniques for such determinations in high-temperature, high-pressure gases from coal-based systems for producing electrical power; (3) evaluate promising analytical approaches, and (4) produce reliable on-line monitors which are adaptable to plant-scale diagnostics and process control. For HG, the techniques selected for further consideration were atomic absorption and atomic fluorescence. For HCl, non-dispersive infrared absorption, a dry colorimetric procedure, and ion mobility spectroscopy were selected for testing in the laboratory. Results to date are described.

Buttermore, W.H.; Norton, G.A.; Chriswell, C.D.; Eckels, D.E.; Peters, R.E.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

426

Short-Term Energy Outlook  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

(STEO) (STEO) Highlights  After falling by more than 40 cents per gallon from the beginning of September through mid-November, weekly U.S. average regular gasoline retail prices increased by 8 cents per gallon to reach $3.27 per gallon on December 2, 2013, due in part to unplanned refinery maintenance and higher crude oil prices. The annual average regular gasoline retail price, which was $3.63 per gallon in 2012, is expected to average $3.50 per gallon in 2013 and $3.43 per gallon in 2014.  The North Sea Brent crude oil spot price averaged near $110 per barrel for the fifth consecutive month in November. EIA expects the Brent crude oil price to average $108 per barrel in December and decline gradually to $104 per barrel in 2014. Projected West Texas

427

Short-Term Energy Outlook  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

degree-days. ** thousand cubic feet 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 2012 2013 2014 Energy Supply Crude Oil Production (a) (million barrels per day)...

428

Short-Term Energy Outlook  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

(STEO) (STEO) Highlights * Crude oil prices increased during the first three weeks of July 2013 as world oil markets tightened in the face of seasonal increases in world consumption, unexpected supply disruptions, and heightened uncertainty over the security of supply with the renewed unrest in Egypt. The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) expects that the Brent crude oil spot price, which averaged $108 per barrel over the first half of 2013, will average $104 per barrel over the second half of 2013, and $100 per barrel in 2014. * The discount of West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil to Brent crude oil, which averaged $18 per barrel in 2012 and increased to a monthly average of $21 per barrel in February 2013, closed below $1.50 per barrel on July 19, 2013, and averaged $3 per barrel for the

429

Short Term Energy Outlook Supplement  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

increased impacts on offshore crude oil and natural gas producers in the Gulf of Mexico ... threaten any offshore platforms.

430

Two-stage fixed-bed gasifier with selectable middle gas off-take point  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A two-stage fixed bed coal gasifier wherein an annular region is in registry with a gasification zone underlying a devolatilization zone for extracting a side stream of high temperature substantially tar-free gas from the gasifier. A vertically displaceable skirt means is positioned within the gasifier to define the lower portion of the annular region so that vertical displacement of the skirt means positions the inlet into the annular region in a selected location within or in close proximity to the gasification zone for providing a positive control over the composition of the side stream gas.

Strickland, L.D.; Bissett, L.A.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

431

Two-stage fixed-bed gasifier with selectable middle gas off-take point  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A two-stage fixed bed coal gasifier wherein an annular region is in registry with a gasification zone underlying a devolatilization zone for extracting a side stream of high temperature substantially tar-free gas from the gasifier. A vertically displaceable skirt means is positioned within the gasifier to define the lower portion of the annular region so that vertical displacement of the skirt means positions the inlet into the annular region in a selected location within or in close proximity to the gasification zone for providing a positive control over the composition of the side stream gas.

Strickland, Larry D. (Morgantown, WV); Bissett, Larry A. (Morgantown, WV)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Operation of a steam hydro-gasifier in a fluidized bed reactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

OPERATION OF A S T E A M HYDRO-GASIFIER IN A FLUIDIZED BEDMaterial Using Self-Sustained Hydro- Gasification." [0011]the process, using a steam hydro-gasification reactor (SHR)

Park, Chan Seung; Norbeck, Joseph N.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Biomass gasification using a horizontal entrained-flow gasifier and catalytic processing of the product gas.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A novel study on biomass-air gasification using a horizontal entrained-flow gasifier and catalytic processing of the product gas has been conducted. The study was designed… (more)

Legonda, Isack Amos

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Option valuation of flexible investments : the case of a coal gasifier  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper examines the use of contingent claim analysis to evaluate the option of retrofitting a coal gasifier on an existing gas-fired power plant in order to take advantage of changes in the relative prices of natural ...

Herbelot, Olivier

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Operation of a steam hydro-gasifier in a fluidized bed reactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

GASIFIER IN A FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR Inventors: Joseph M .a steam hydro-gasification reactor (SHR) the carbonaceous0012] Fluidized bed reactors are well known and used in a

Park, Chan Seung; Norbeck, Joseph N.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Characteristics of pine needle combustion in a semi-gasifier burner  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The motivation behind this report was to develop a stronger understanding of pine needle combustion behavior in a semi-gasifier, in order to ultimately design an effective pine needle cook stove for people in the developing ...

Fang, Liane Jessica

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Isolated thermocouple amplifier system for stirred fixed-bed gasifier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A sensing system is provided for determining the bed temperature profile of the bed of a stirred, fixed-bed gasifier including a plurality of temperature sensors for sensing the bed temperature at different levels, a transmitter for transmitting data based on the outputs of the sensors to a remote operator's station, and a battery-based power supply. The system includes an isolation amplifier system comprising a plurality of isolation amplifier circuits for amplifying the outputs of the individual sensors. The isolation amplifier circuits each comprise an isolation operational amplifier connected to a sensor; a first flying capacitor circuit for, in operation, controlling the application of power from the power supply to the isolation amplifier; an output sample and hold circuit connected to the transmitter; a second flying capacitor circuit for, in operation, controlling the transfer of the output of the isolation amplifier to the sample and hold circuit; and a timing and control circuit for activating the first and second capacitor circuits in predetermined timed sequence. 4 figs.

Fasching, G.E.

1989-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

438

Isolated thermocouple amplifier system for stirred fixed-bed gasifier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A sensing system is provided for determining the bed temperature profile of the bed of a stirred, fixed-bed gasifier including a plurality of temperature sensors for sensing the bed temperature at different levels, a transmitter for transmitting data based on the outputs of the sensors to a remote operator's station, and a battery-based power supply. The system includes an isolation amplifier system comprising a plurality of isolation amplifier circuits for amplifying the outputs of the individual sensors. The isolation amplifier circuits each comprise an isolation operational amplifier connected to a sensor; a first "flying capacitor" circuit for, in operation, controlling the application of power from the power supply to the isolation amplifier; an output sample and hold circuit connected to the transmitter; a second "flying capacitor" circuit for, in operation, controlling the transfer of the output of the isolation amplifier to the sample and hold circuit; and a timing and control circuit for activating the first and second capacitor circuits in a predetermined timed sequence.

Fasching, George E. (Morgantown, WV)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Ash level meter for a fixed-bed coal gasifier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An ash level meter for a fixed-bed coal gasifier is provided which utilizes the known ash level temperature profile to monitor the ash bed level. A bed stirrer which travels up and down through the extent of the bed ash level is modified by installing thermocouples to measure the bed temperature as the stirrer travels through the stirring cycle. The temperature measurement signals are transmitted to an electronic signal process system by an FM/FM telemetry system. The processing system uses the temperature signals together with an analog stirrer position signal, taken from a position transducer disposed to measure the stirrer position to compute the vertical location of the ash zone upper boundary. The circuit determines the fraction of each total stirrer cycle time the stirrer-derived bed temperature is below a selected set point, multiplies this fraction by the average stirrer signal level, multiplies this result by an appropriate constant and adds another constant such that a 1 to 5 volt signal from the processor corresponds to a 0 to 30 inch span of the ash upper boundary level. Three individual counters in the processor store clock counts that are representative of: (1) the time the stirrer temperature is below the set point (500.degree. F.), (2) the time duration of the corresponding stirrer travel cycle, and (3) the corresponding average stirrer vertical position. The inputs to all three counters are disconnected during any period that the stirrer is stopped, eliminating corruption of the measurement by stirrer stoppage.

Fasching, George E. (Morgantown, WV)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Detailed model for practical pulverized coal furnaces and gasifiers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study has been supported by a consortium of nine industrial and governmental sponsors. Work was initiated on May 1, 1985 and completed August 31, 1989. The central objective of this work was to develop, evaluate and apply a practical combustion model for utility boilers, industrial furnaces and gasifiers. Key accomplishments have included: Development of an advanced first-generation, computer model for combustion in three dimensional furnaces; development of a new first generation fouling and slagging submodel; detailed evaluation of an existing NO{sub x} submodel; development and evaluation of an improved radiation submodel; preparation and distribution of a three-volume final report: (a) Volume 1: General Technical Report; (b) Volume 2: PCGC-3 User's Manual; (c) Volume 3: Data Book for Evaluation of Three-Dimensional Combustion Models; and organization of a user's workshop on the three-dimensional code. The furnace computer model developed under this study requires further development before it can be applied generally to all applications; however, it can be used now by specialists for many specific applications, including non-combusting systems and combusting geseous systems. A new combustion center was organized and work was initiated to continue the important research effort initiated by this study. 212 refs., 72 figs., 38 tabs.

Smith, P.J.; Smoot, L.D.

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasifier costs short-term" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Dynamic modeling of a single-stage downward firing, entrained flow gasifier  

SciTech Connect

The gasifier is the heart of the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), a technology that has emerged as an attractive alternative to conventional coal-fired power plant technology due to its higher efficiency and cleaner environmental performance especially with the option of CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration. Understanding the optimal performance of the gasifier is therefore paramount for the efficient operation of IGCC power plants. Numerous gasifier models of varying complexity have been developed to study the various aspects of gasifier performance. These range from simple one-dimensional (1D) process-type models to rigorous higher order 2-3D models based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Whereas high-fidelity CFD models can accurately predict most key aspects of gasifier performance, they are computationally expensive and typically take hours to days to execute on high-performance computers. Therefore, faster 1D partial differential equation (PDE)-based models are required for use in dynamic simulation studies, control system analysis, and training applications. A number of 1D gasifier models can be found in the literature, but most are steady-state models that have limited application in the practical operation of the gasifier. As a result, 1D PDE-based dynamic models are needed to further study and predict gasifier performance under a wide variety of process conditions and disturbances. In the current study, a 1D transient model of a single-stage downward-fired GE/Texaco-type entrained-flow gasifier has been developed. The model comprises mass, momentum and energy balances for the gas and solid phases. The model considers the initial gasification processes of water evaporation and coal devolatilization. In addition, the key heterogeneous and homogeneous chemical reactions have been modeled. The resulting time-dependent PDE model is solved using the well-known method of lines approach in Aspen Custom Modeler®, whereby the PDEs in the spatial domain are discretized and the resulting differential algebraic equations (DAEs) are then integrated over time using a dynamic integrator. The dynamic response results of the gasifier performance parameters to certain disturbances commonly encountered during practical operation are presented. These disturbances include ramp and step changes to input variables such as coal flow rate, oxygen-to-coal ratio and water-to-coal ratio among others. Comparison of model predictions to available dynamic data will also be discussed.

Kasule, J., Turton, R., Bhattacharyya, D., Zitney, S.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

New England Wind Forum: Cost Trends  

Wind Powering America (EERE)

Cost Trends Cost Trends Figure 1: Cost of Energy and Cumulative Domestic Capacity This graph shows how the cumulative domestic wind capacity (MW) has increased since 1980, while the cost of energy from wind power has declined by a factor of approximately 20 times during the same period but has increased slightly since 2001. Click on the image to view a larger version. This graph shows how the cumulative domestic wind capacity (MW) has increased since 1980, while the cost of energy from wind power has declined by a factor of approximately 20 times during the same period but has increased slightly since 2001. View a larger version of the graph. Overall, the wind industry is experiencing long-term decreases in the cost to produce wind-generated electricity (Figure 1), despite recent short-term increases in upfront equipment costs. Even in the short term, however, the effect of increases in up-front capital costs on the cost of energy from wind power projects has been dampened by improvements in energy capture from the wind and decreases in operating and maintenance costs.

443

CFD modeling of entrained-flow coal gasifiers with improved physical and chemical sub-models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Optimization of an advanced coal-fired integrated gasification combined cycle system requires an accurate numerical prediction of gasifier performance. While the turbulent multiphase reacting flow inside entrained-flow gasifiers has been modeled through computational fluid dynamic (CFD), the accuracy of sub-models requires further improvement. Built upon a previously developed CFD model for entrained-flow gasification, the advanced physical and chemical sub-models presented here include a moisture vaporization model with consideration of high mass transfer rate, a coal devolatilization model with more species to represent coal volatiles and heating rate effect on volatile yield, and careful selection of global gas phase reaction kinetics. The enhanced CFD model is applied to simulate two typical oxygen-blown entrained-flow configurations including a single-stage down-fired gasifier and a two-stage up-fired gasifier. The CFD results are reasonable in terms of predicted carbon conversion, syngas exit temperature, and syngas exit composition. The predicted profiles of velocity, temperature, and species mole fractions inside the entrained-flow gasifier models show trends similar to those observed in a diffusion-type flame. The predicted distributions of mole fractions of major species inside both gasifiers can be explained by the heterogeneous combustion and gasification reactions and the homogeneous gas phase reactions. It was also found that the syngas compositions at the CFD model exits are not in chemical equilibrium, indicating the kinetics for both heterogeneous and gas phase homogeneous reactions are important. Overall, the results achieved here indicate that the gasifier models reported in this paper are reliable and accurate enough to be incorporated into process/CFD co-simulations of IGCC power plants for systemwide design and optimization.

Ma, J.; Zitney, S.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Development of standardized air-blown coal gasifier/gas turbine concepts for future electric power systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this study is to develop standardized air blown fixed bed gasification hot gas cleanup integrated gasifier combined cycle (IGCC) systems.

Sadowski, R.S.; Brown, M.J.; Hester, J.C.; Harriz, J.T.; Ritz, G.J.

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Method and apparatus for enhancing the desulfurization of hot coal gas in a fluid-bed coal gasifier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process and apparatus for providing additional desulfurization of the hot gas produced in a fluid-bed coal gasifier, within the gasifier is described. A fluid-bed of iron oxide is located inside the gasifier above the gasification bed in a fluid-bed coal gasifier in which in-bed desulfurization by lime/limestone takes place. The product gases leave the gasification bed typically at 1600 to 1800 F and are partially quenched with water to 1000 to 1200 F before entering the iron oxide bed. The iron oxide bed provides additional desulfurization beyond that provided by the lime /limestone. 1 fig.

Grindley, T.

1988-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

446

Comparison of MELCOR modeling techniques and effects of vessel water injection on a low-pressure, short-term, station blackout at the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station  

SciTech Connect

A fully qualified, best-estimate MELCOR deck has been prepared for the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station and has been run using MELCOR 1.8.3 (1.8 PN) for a low-pressure, short-term, station blackout severe accident. The same severe accident sequence has been run with the same MELCOR version for the same plant using the deck prepared during the NUREG-1150 study. A third run was also completed with the best-estimate deck but without the Lower Plenum Debris Bed (BH) Package to model the lower plenum. The results from the three runs have been compared, and substantial differences have been found. The timing of important events is shorter, and the calculated source terms are in most cases larger for the NUREG-1150 deck results. However, some of the source terms calculated by the NUREG-1150 deck are not conservative when compared to the best-estimate deck results. These results identified some deficiencies in the NUREG-1150 model of the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station. Injection recovery sequences have also been simulated by injecting water into the vessel after core relocation started. This marks the first use of the new BH Package of MELCOR to investigate the effects of water addition to a lower plenum debris bed. The calculated results indicate that vessel failure can be prevented by injecting water at a sufficiently early stage. No pressure spikes in the vessel were predicted during the water injection. The MELCOR code has proven to be a useful tool for severe accident management strategies.

Carbajo, J.J.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Design and economics of a lignite-to-SNG (substitute natural gas) facility using Lurgi gasifiers with in-line conversion of by-product liquids to methane. Topical report (Final), December 1985-November 1986  

SciTech Connect

A first-pass conceptual design and screening cost estimate was prepared for a hypothetical plant to convert lignite to methane using Lurgi dry-bottom gasifiers and employing a black box reactor to convert by-product liquids in the gas phase to methane. Results were compared to those from conventional and modified Lurgi-plant designs. The in-line conversion plant can potentially reduce the cost of gas from a Lurgi plant by about 20%. Due to reduced capital investment, over $200 million could be invested in the reactor before the cost of gas from the in-line conversion plant is as high as that of a Lurgi plant.

Smelser, S.C.

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Modeling the Performance, Emissions, and Costs of Texaco Gasifier-Based Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Systems.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems are an advanced power generation concept with the flexibility to use coal, heavy oils, petroleum coke, biomass, and waste… (more)

Akunuri, Naveen

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities for petroleum refineries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in an entrained bed gasifier. Due to the limited oxygenof power in an Integrated Gasifier Combined Cycle (IGCC). In

Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Determining Long-Term Performance of Cool Storage Systems from Short-Term Tests; Literature Review, Preliminary Methodology Description, and Final Site Selection (Final Revision of Nov. 1997 Report)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This preliminary report contains the literature review, a preliminary description of the methodologies that have been chosen for the project and final site selection recommendations for ASHRAE Research Project RP 1004 ~ "Determining Long-term Performance of Cool Storage Systems From Short-term Tests".

Reddy, T. A.; Elleson, J.; Haberl, J. S.; Claridge, D. E.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Evaluation of a cloud scale lightning data assimilation technique and a 3DVAR method for the analysis and short-term forecast of the 29 June 2012 derecho event  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work evaluates the short-term forecast (? 6-h) of the 29-30 June 2012 derecho event from the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) ARW model when using two distinct data assimilation techniques at cloud resolving scales (3-km horizontal grid). ...

Alexandre O. Fierro; Jidong Gao; Conrad L. Ziegler; Edward R. Mansell; Donald R. Macgorman; Scott R. Dembek

452

Interim Data Changes in the Short-term Energy Outlook Data Systems Related to Electric Power Sector and Natural Gas Demand Data Revisions (Released in the STEO December 2002)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Beginning with the December 2002 issue of EIAs Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO),electricity generation and related fuel consumption totals will be presented on a basis that isconsistent with the definitions and aggregates used in the 2001 edition of EIAs Annual EnergyReview (AER). Particularly affected by these changes are the demand and balancing itemtotals for natural

Information Center

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

An integrated approach to coal gasifier testing, modeling, and process optimization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gasification is an important method of converting coal into clean-burning fuels and high-value industrial chemicals. However, gasifier reliability can be severely limited by rapid degradation of the refractory lining in hot-wall gasifiers. This paper describes an integrated approach to provide the experimental data and engineering models needed to better understand how to control gasifier operation for extended refractory life. The experimental program includes slag viscosity testing and measurement of slag penetration into refractories as a function of time and temperature. The experimental data is used in slag flow, slag penetration, and refractory damage models to predict the limits on operating temperature for increased refractory life. A simplified entrained flow gasifier model is also described to simulate one-dimensional axial flow with average axial velocity, coal devolatilization, and combustion kinetics. The goal of this experimental and model program is to predict coal and oxidant feed rates and to control the gasifier operation to balance coal conversion efficiency with increased refractory life. 26 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

S.K. Sundaram; K.I. Johnson; J. Matyas; R.E. Williford; S.P. Pilli; V.N. Korolev [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

454

Development Of An Acoustice Sensor For On-Line Gas Temperature Measurement In Gasifiers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-02NT41422 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 2 - Gasification Technologies. The project team includes Enertechnix, Inc. as the main contractor and ConocoPhillips Company as a technical partner, who also provides access to the SG Solutions Gasification Facility (formerly Wabash River Energy Limited), host for the field-testing portion of the research. The objective of this project was to adapt acoustic pyrometer technology to make it suitable for measuring gas temperature inside a coal gasifier, to develop a prototype sensor based on this technology, and to demonstrate its performance through testing on a commercial gasifier. The project was organized in three phases, each of approximately one year duration. The first phase consisted of researching a variety of sound generation and coupling approaches suitable for use with a high pressure process, evaluation of the impact of gas composition variability on the acoustic temperature measurement approach, evaluation of the impact of suspended particles and gas properties on sound attenuation, evaluation of slagging issues and development of concepts to deal with this issue, development and testing of key prototype components to allow selection of the best approaches, and development of a conceptual design for a field prototype sensor that could be tested on an operating gasifier. The second phase consisted of designing and fabricating a series of prototype sensors, testing them in the laboratory, and developing a conceptual design for a field prototype sensor. The third phase consisted of designing and fabricating the field prototype, and testing it in the lab and in a commercial gasifier to demonstrate the ability to obtain accurate measurements of gas temperature in an operating gasifier. This report describes all of the activities conducted during the project and reports the findings of each activity in detail. The investigation of potential sound generation and coupling methods led to the selection of a reflected shock method which has been developed into a functioning prototype device. The principles of operation of this device and its performance characteristics are described in the report. Modeling of the attenuation of sound by suspended particles and by interaction of the sound pulses with the high temperature syngas inside the gasifier was conducted and the predictions of those models were used to determine the required sound pulse intensity to allow the sound pulses to be detected after passage through the gasifier environment. These modeling results are presented in this report. A study of the likely spatial and temporal variability of gas composition inside the gasifier was performed and the results of that study was used to predict the impact of that variability on the accuracy of the acoustic temperature method. These results are reported here. A design for a port rodding mechanism was developed to deal with potential slagging issues and was incorporated into the prototype sensor. This port rodding mechanism operated flawlessly during the field testing, but because these tests were performed in a region of the gasifier that experiences little slagging, the effectiveness of the rodding mechanism in dealing with highly slagging conditions was not fully demonstrated. This report describes the design and operation of the automated Gasifier Acoustic Pyrometer (autoGAP) which was tested at the Wabash River facility. The results of the tests are reported and analyzed in detail. All of the objectives of the project have been achieved. A field prototype acoustic pyrometer sensor has been successfully tested at the Wabash River gasifier plant. Acoustic signals were propagated through the gases inside the gasifier and were detected by the receiver unit, the times of flight of these sound pulses were measured and these propagation times were converted into temperatures which agreed very well with thermocouple measurements m

Peter Ariessohn; Hans Hornung

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Method for the desulfurization of hot product gases from coal gasifier  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The gasification of sulfur-bearing coal produces a synthesis gas which contains a considerable concentration of sulfur compounds especially hydrogen sulfide that renders the synthesis gas environmentally unacceptable unless the concentration of the sulfur compounds is significantly reduced. To provide for such a reduction in the sulfur compounds a calcium compound is added to the gasifier with the coal to provide some sulfur absorption. The synthesis gas from the gasifier contains sulfur compounds and is passed through an external bed of a regenerable solid absorbent, preferably zinc ferrite, for essentially completed desulfurizing the hot synthesis gas. This absorbent is, in turn, periodically or continuously regenerated by passing a mixture of steam and air or oxygen through the bed for converting absorbed hydrogen sulfide to sulfur dioxide. The resulting tail gas containing sulfur dioxide and steam is injected into the gasifier where the sulfur dioxide is converted by the calcium compound into a stable form of sulfur such as calcium sulfate.

Grindley, Thomas (Morgantown, WV)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Method for the desulfurization of hot product gases from a coal gasifier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The gasification of sulfur-bearing coal produces a synthesis gas which contains a considerable concentration of sulfur compounds, especially hydrogen sulfide that renders the synthesis gas environmentally unacceptable unless the concentration of the sulfur compounds is significantly reduced. To provide for such a reduction in the sulfur compounds a calcium compound is added to the gasifier with the coal to provide some sulfur absorption. The synthesis gas from the gasifier contains sulfur compounds and is passed through an external bed of a regenerable solid absorbent, preferably zinc ferrite, for essentially completed desulfurizing the hot synthesis gas. This absorbent is, in turn, periodically or continuously regenerated by passing a mixture of steam and air or oxygen through the bed for converting absorbed hydrogen sulfide to sulfur dioxide. The resulting tail gas containing sulfur dioxide and steam is injected into the gasifier where the sulfur dioxide is converted by the calcium compound into a stable form of sulfur such as calcium sulfate. 2 figs.

Grindley, T.

1986-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

457

Operating Experience with a Large Fluidized-Bed Gasifier of Woodwaste  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The town of Hearst in northern Ontario is the location of many forest product industries. One enterprising manufacturer of plywood and particleboard found that his daily production of waste almost exactly equaled in energy content his purchases of natural gas for his factory. He ordered an Omnifuel fluidized-bed gasifier, which has been in operation since April, 1981, and which is currently believed to be the largest commercial biomass gasifier in operation with a rating of 80 million BTU/hr. The gasifier accepts any material including chips, shavings, sawdust and sanderdust. Large pieces are hogged to fist-sized lumps. No drier is used. Minimum chars or tars are produced. The system is designed for round-the-clock unattended operation, and the first few months saw a continuous improvement in reliability as debugging continued. The plant feeds a hot combustible gas to four boilers in various locations, with natural gas available as standby.

Guard, R. F. W.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

The Analysis and Application of the Monitor Model of Gasifier Temperature Based on the PSO Neural Network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The coal gasification technology is widely used in industrial production, but in its production process, there exists a tough problem that the gasified temperature is not easy to detect and monitor. This paper proposes the approach of pso neural network, ... Keywords: particle swarm optimization, neural network, gasifier temperature

Qun Jia, Yongxin Li

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

PERFORMANCE OF BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIER/GAS TURBINE COMBINED CYCLE COGENERATION IN mE KRAFT PULP  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PERFORMANCE OF BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIER/GAS TURBINE COMBINED CYCLE COGENERATION IN mE KRAFT PULP the next 5 to 20 years. As a replacement for Tomlinson-based cogeneration, black liquor- gasifier/gas turbine cogeneration promises higher elecuical efficiency, with prospective environmental, safety

460

CFD modeling of commercial-scale entrained-flow coal gasifiers  

SciTech Connect

Optimization of an advanced coal-fired integrated gasification combined cycle system requires an accurate numerical prediction of gasifier performance. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been used to model the turbulent multiphase reacting flow inside commercial-scale entrained-flow coal gasifiers. Due to the complexity of the physical and chemical processes involved, the accuracy of sub-models requires further improvement. Built upon a previously developed CFD model for entrained-flow gasification, the advanced physical and chemical sub-models presented in this paper include a moisture vaporization model with consideration of high mass transfer rate and a coal devolatilization model with more species to represent coal volatiles and the heating rate effect on volatile yield. The global gas phase reaction kinetics is also carefully selected. To predict a reasonable peak temperature of the coal/O{sub 2} flame inside an entrained-flow gasifier, the reserve reaction of H{sub 2} oxidation is included in the gas phase reaction model. The enhanced CFD model is applied to simulate two typical commercial-scale oxygen-blown entrained-flow configurations including a single-stage down-fired gasifier and a two-stage up-fired gasifier. The CFD results are reasonable in terms of predicted carbon conversion, syngas exit temperature, and syngas exit composition. The predicted profiles of velocity, temperature, and species mole fractions inside the entrained-flow gasifier models show trends similar to those observed in a diffusion-type flame. The predicted distributions of mole fractions of major species inside both gasifiers can be explained by the heterogeneous combustion and gasification reactions and the homogeneous gas phase reactions. It was also found that the syngas compositions at the CFD model exits are not in chemical equilibrium, indicating the kinetics for both heterogeneous and gas phase homogeneous reactions are important. Overall, the results achieved here indicate that the gasifier models reported in this paper are reliable and accurate enough to be incorporated into process/CFD co-simulations of IGCC power plants for system-wide design and optimization.

Ma, J.; Zitney, S.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasifier costs short-term" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Biomass-Derived Hydrogen from a Thermally Ballasted Gasifier Robert C. Brown, Glenn Norton, Andy Suby, Jerod Smeenk, Keith Cummer, and Josh Nunez  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biomass-Derived Hydrogen from a Thermally Ballasted Gasifier Robert C. Brown, Glenn Norton, Andy fuel cells. We have developed a thermally ballasted gasifier that uses a single reactor for both compared to conventional gasifiers. The carbon monoxide, along with steam used to fluidize the reactor, can

462

Investigation of hydrodynamics of a dual fluidized bed biomass steam gasifier using a cold model: The effect of fluidising agent on gasification performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Investigation of hydrodynamics of a dual fluidized bed biomass steam gasifier using a cold model) biomass steam gasifiers are able to produce gas with low tar and high hydrogen contents and have shown a promising potential for converting the biomass to hydrogen-rich syngas. The DFB gasifier system

Hickman, Mark

463

Uncertainty analysis of an IGCC system with single-stage entrained-flow gasifier  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems using coal gasification is an attractive option for future energy plants. Consequenty, understanding the system operation and optimizing gasifier performance in the presence of uncertain operating conditions is essential to extract the maximum benefits from the system. This work focuses on conducting such a study using an IGCC process simulation and a high-fidelity gasifier simulation coupled with stochastic simulation and multi-objective optimization capabilities. Coal gasifiers are the necessary basis of IGCC systems, and hence effective modeling and uncertainty analysis of the gasification process constitutes an important element of overall IGCC process design and operation. In this work, an Aspen Plus{reg_sign} steady-state process model of an IGCC system with carbon capture enables us to conduct simulation studies so that the effect of gasification variability on the whole process can be understood. The IGCC plant design consists of an single-stage entrained-flow gasifier, a physical solvent-based acid gas removal process for carbon capture, two model-7FB combustion turbine generators, two heat recovery steam generators, and one steam turbine generator in a multi-shaft 2x2x1 configuration. In the Aspen Plus process simulation, the gasifier is represented as a simplified lumped-parameter, restricted-equilibrium reactor model. In this work, we also make use of a distributed-parameter FLUENT{reg_sign} computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to characterize the uncertainty for the entrained-flow gasifier. The CFD-based gasifer model is much more comprehensive, predictive, and hence better suited to understand the effects of uncertainty. The possible uncertain parameters of the gasifier model are identified. This includes input coal composition as well as mass flow rates of coal, slurry water, and oxidant. Using a selected number of random (Monte Carlo) samples for the different parameters, the CFD model is simulated to observe the variations in the output variables (such as syngas composition, gas and ash flow rates etc.). The same samples are then used to conduct simulations using the Aspen Plus IGCC model. The simulation results for the high-fidelity CFD-based gasifier model and the Aspen Plus equilibrium reactor model for selected uncertain parameters are then used to perform the estimation