Sample records for gases waste gas

  1. Biological production of products from waste gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR)

    2002-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are designed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, and carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various products, such as organic acids, alcohols, hydrogen, single cell protein, and salts of organic acids by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified.

  2. Clostridium stain which produces acetic acid from waste gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, James L. (2207 Tall Oaks Dr., Fayetteville, AR 72703)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration.

  3. Clostridium strain which produces acetic acid from waste gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, J.L.

    1997-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration. 4 figs.

  4. Low-Value Waste Gases as an Energy Source 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waibel, R. T.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Waste gases with potentially useful fuel value are generated at any number of points in refineries, chemical plants and other industrial and commercial sites. The higher quality streams have been utilized successfully in fuel systems for years...

  5. Low-Value Waste Gases as an Energy Source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waibel, R. T.

    Waste gases with potentially useful fuel value are generated at any number of points in refineries, chemical plants and other industrial and commercial sites. The higher quality streams have been utilized successfully in fuel systems for years...

  6. Biological production of ethanol from waste gases with Clostridium ljungdahlii

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products is disclosed. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various product, such as organic acids, alcohols H.sub.2, SCP, and salts of organic acids by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified.

  7. Waste Heat Recovery from High Temperature Off-Gases from Electric Arc Furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nimbalkar, Sachin U [ORNL; Thekdi, Arvind [E3M Inc; Keiser, James R [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article presents a study and review of available waste heat in high temperature Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) off gases and heat recovery techniques/methods from these gases. It gives details of the quality and quantity of the sensible and chemical waste heat in typical EAF off gases, energy savings potential by recovering part of this heat, a comprehensive review of currently used waste heat recovery methods and potential for use of advanced designs to achieve a much higher level of heat recovery including scrap preheating, steam production and electric power generation. Based on our preliminary analysis, currently, for all electric arc furnaces used in the US steel industry, the energy savings potential is equivalent to approximately 31 trillion Btu per year or 32.7 peta Joules per year (approximately $182 million US dollars/year). This article describes the EAF off-gas enthalpy model developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to calculate available and recoverable heat energy for a given stream of exhaust gases coming out of one or multiple EAF furnaces. This Excel based model calculates sensible and chemical enthalpy of the EAF off-gases during tap to tap time accounting for variation in quantity and quality of off gases. The model can be used to estimate energy saved through scrap preheating and other possible uses such as steam generation and electric power generation using off gas waste heat. This article includes a review of the historical development of existing waste heat recovery methods, their operations, and advantages/limitations of these methods. This paper also describes a program to develop and test advanced concepts for scrap preheating, steam production and electricity generation through use of waste heat recovery from the chemical and sensible heat contained in the EAF off gases with addition of minimum amount of dilution or cooling air upstream of pollution control equipment such as bag houses.

  8. Overview of the Flammability of Gases Generated in Hanford Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Huckaby, James L.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Johnson, Gerald D.

    2000-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents an overview of what is known about the flammability of the gases generated and retained in Hanford waste tanks in terms of the gas composition, flammability and detonability limits of the gas constituents, and availability of ignition sources. The intrinsic flammability (or non-flammability) of waste gas mixtures is one major determinant of whether a flammable region develops in the tank headspace; other factors are the rate, surface area, and volume of the release and the tank ventilation rate, which are not covered in this report.

  9. Overview of the Flammability of Gases Generated in Hanford Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LA Mahoney; JL Huckaby; SA Bryan; GD Johnson

    2000-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents an overview of what is known about the flammability of the gases generated and retained in Hanford waste tanks in terms of the gas composition, the flammability and detonability limits of the gas constituents, and the availability of ignition sources. The intrinsic flammability (or nonflammability) of waste gas mixtures is one major determinant of whether a flammable region develops in the tank headspace; other factors are the rate, surface area, volume of the release, and the tank ventilation rate, which are not covered in this report.

  10. Greenhouse gases accounting and reporting for waste management - A South African perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedrich, Elena, E-mail: Friedriche@ukzn.ac.z [University of KwaZulu-Natal, CRECHE, School of Civil Engineering, Surveying and Construction, Howard College Campus, Durban (South Africa); Trois, Cristina [University of KwaZulu-Natal, CRECHE, School of Civil Engineering, Surveying and Construction, Howard College Campus, Durban (South Africa)

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper investigates how greenhouse gases are accounted and reported in the waste sector in South Africa. Developing countries (including South Africa) do not have binding emission reduction targets, but many of them publish different greenhouse gas emissions data which have been accounted and reported in different ways. Results show that for South Africa, inventories at national and municipal level are the most important tools in the process of accounting and reporting greenhouse gases from waste. For the development of these inventories international initiatives were important catalysts at national and municipal levels, and assisted in developing local expertise, resulting in increased output quality. However, discrepancies in the methodology used to account greenhouse gases from waste between inventories still remain a concern. This is a challenging issue for developing countries, especially African ones, since higher accuracy methods are more data intensive. Analysis of the South African inventories shows that results from the recent inventories can not be compared with older ones due to the use of different accounting methodologies. More recently the use of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) procedures in Africa, geared towards direct measurements of greenhouse gases from landfill sites, has increased and resulted in an improvement of the quality of greenhouse gas inventories at municipal level.

  11. Gas generation from Tank 241-SY-103 waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryan, S.A.; King, C.M.; Pederson, L.R.; Forbes, S.V.; Sell, R.L.

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes progress made in evaluating mechanisms by which flammable gases are generated in Hanford double-shell tank wastes, based on the results of laboratory tests using actual waste from Tank 241-SY-103. The objective of this work is to establish the identity and stoichiometry of degradation products formed in actual tank wastes by thermal and radiolytic processes as a function of temperature. The focus of the gas generation tests on Tank 241-SY-103 samples is first the effect of temperature on gas generation (volume and composition). Secondly, gas generation from irradiation of Tank 241-SY-103 samples at the corresponding temperatures as the thermal-only treatments will be measured in the presence of an external radiation source (using a {sup 137}Cs capsule). The organic content will be measured on a representative sample prior to gas generation experiments and again at the termination of heating and irradiation. The gas generation will be related to the extent of organic species consumption during heating. Described in this report are experimental methods used for producing and measuring gases generated at various temperatures from highly radioactive actual tank waste, and results of gas generation from Tank 241-SY-103 waste taken from its convective layer. The accurate measurement of gas generation rates from actual waste from highly radioactive waste tanks is needed to assess the potential for producing and storing flammable gases within the waste tanks. This report addresses the gas generation capacity of the waste from the convective layer of Tank 241-SY-103, a waste tank listed on the Flammable Gas Watch List due to its potential for flammable gas accumulation above the flammability limit.

  12. Noble gases and radiocarbon in natural gas hydrates Gisela Winckler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aeschbach-Hertig, Werner

    Noble gases and radiocarbon in natural gas hydrates Gisela Winckler Lamont-Doherty Earth 2001; published 24 May 2002. [1] In samples of pure natural gas hydrates from Hydrate Ridge, Cascadia ones preferentially incorporated into the gas hydrate structure. The hydrate methane is devoid of 14 C

  13. Slurry growth, gas retention, and flammable gas generation by Hanford radioactive waste tanks: Synthetic waste studies, FY 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryan, S.A.; Pederson, L.R.; Ryan, J.L.; Scheele, R.D.; Tingey, J.M.

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Of 177 high-level waste storage tanks on the Hanford Site, 23 have been placed on a safety watch list because they are suspected of producing flammable gases in flammable or explosive concentrate. One tankin particular, Tank 241-SY-101 (Tank 101-SY), has exhibited slow increases in waste volume followed by a rapid decrease accompanied by venting of large quantities of gases. The purpose of this study is to help determine the processes by which flammable gases are produced, retained, and eventually released from Tank 101-SY. Waste composition data for single- and double-shell waste tanks on the flammable gas watch listare critically reviewed. The results of laboratory studies using synthetic double-shell wastes are summarized, including physical and chemical properties of crusts that are formed, the stoichiometry and rate ofgas generation, and mechanisms responsible for formation of a floating crust.

  14. Biological production of acetic acid from waste gases with Clostridium ljungdahlii

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration.

  15. Biological production of acetic acid from waste gases with Clostridium ljungdahlii

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, J.L.

    1998-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration. 5 figs.

  16. Steam Production from Waste Stack Gases in a Carbon Black Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Istre, R. I.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gases to produce steam has two very important rewards - energy conservation and pollution abatement. Energy conservation is achieved by using waste gases in place of fuel oil to produce the steam required by the various plants. Pollution abatement is due...

  17. Thermal and Radiolytic Gas Generation in Hanford High-Level Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryan, Samuel A.; Pederson, Larry R.; King, C. M.

    2000-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Site has 177 underground storage tanks containing radioactive wastes that are complex mixes of radioactive and chemical products. Some of these wastes are known to generate and retain large quantities of flammable gases consisting of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, nitrogen, and ammonia. Because these gases are flammable and have the potential for rapid release, the gas generation rate for each tank must be determined to establish the flammability hazard (Johnson et al. 1997). An understanding of gas generation is important to operation of the waste tanks for several reasons. First, knowledge of the overall rate of generation is needed to verify that any given tank has sufficient ventilation to ensure that flammable gases are maintained at a safe level within the dome space. Understanding the mechanisms for production of the various gases is important so that future waste operations do not create conditions that promote the production of hydrogen, ammonia, and nitrous oxide. Studying the generation of gases also provides important data for the composition of the gas mixture, which in turn is needed to assess the flammability characteristics. Finally, information about generation of gases, including the influence of various chemical constituents, temperature, and dose, would aid in assessing the future behavior of the waste during interim storage, implementation of controls, and final waste treatment. This paper summarizes the current knowledge of gas generation pathways and discusses models used in predicting gas generation rates from actual Hanford radioactive wastes. A comparison is made between measured gas generation rates and rates by the predictive models.

  18. Evaluation of Gas Retention in Waste Simulants: Tall Column Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Powell, Michael R.; Boeringa, Gregory K.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Karri, Naveen K.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Tran, Diana N.; Sande, Susan; Heldebrant, David J.; Meacham, Joseph E.; Smet, Dave; Bryan, Wesley E.; Calmus, Ronald B.

    2014-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas generation in Hanford’s underground waste storage tanks can lead to gas accumulation within the layer of settled solids (sludge) at the tank bottom. The gas, which typically has hydrogen as the major component together with other flammable species, is formed principally by radiation-driven chemical reactions. Accumulation of these gases within the sludge in a waste tank is undesirable and limits the amount of tank volume for waste storage. Further, accumulation of large amounts of gas in the sludge may potentially result in an unacceptable release of the accumulated gas if the sludge-layer density is reduced to less than that of the overlying sludge or that of the supernatant liquid. Rapid release of large amounts of flammable gases could endanger personnel and equipment near the tank. For this reason, a thorough understanding of the circumstances that can lead to a potentially problematic gas accumulation in sludge layers is needed. To respond to this need, the Deep Sludge Gas Release Event Program (DSGREP) was commissioned to examine gas release behavior in sludges.

  19. Radiolytic and radiolytically induced generation of gases from synthetic wastes. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meisel, D.; Jonah, C.D.; Kapoor, S.; Matheson, M.S.; Sauer, M.C. Jr.

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To better understand the processes leading to the generation and release of gases from waste tanks, the authors studied the radiolytic and thermal generation of H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and NH{sub 3} in nonradioactive waste simulant solutions and slurries. The radiolytic sources for H{sub 2} are e{sub aq}{sup {minus}} and its predecessors and H atoms. Radiolysis of the water generates some H{sub 2} and an additional amount comes from the hydrogen abstraction reaction H + RH{yields}H{sub 2}+R{center_dot}. Nitrate scavenges e{sub aq}{sup {minus}} and its predecessors whereas nitrite is the major H-atom scavenger. Computer modeling shows that if [NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}] is above 0.5 M, and [NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}] is above 2M, the addition of other scavengers will have little effect on the yield of H{sub 2}. In the presence of organic molecules O{sub 2} is efficiently destroyed. Small yields of ammonia were measured and the yields increase linearly with dose. The nitrogen in NH{sub 3} comes from organic chelators. The yields of gases in solution depend only weakly on temperature. The rate of thermal generation of gases increases upon preirradiation, reaches a maximum, and then declines. The known radiolytic degradation products of chelators, NTA, IDA, glycolate, glyoxylate, formaldehyde, formate, oxalate, and hydroxylainine were examined for their roles in the thermal generation of H{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O at 60{degrees}C. In solution or slurry only radiolytically produced Pd intermediate strongly retains H{sub 2}. Radiolytic yields of N{sub 2}O are strongly reduced by Cr(III). In irradiated slurry, loose and tight gas were found. The loose gas could be removed by bubbling from the slurry, but the tight gas could be released only by dissolution of the slurry.

  20. Instantaneous and efficient surface wave excitation of a low pressure gas or gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levy, Donald J. (Berkeley, CA); Berman, Samuel M. (San Francisco, CA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for instantaneously ionizing and continuously delivering energy in the form of surface waves to a low pressure gas or mixture of low pressure gases, comprising a source of rf energy, a discharge container, (such as a fluorescent lamp discharge tube), an rf shield, and a coupling device responsive to rf energy from the source to couple rf energy directly and efficiently to the gas or mixture of gases to ionize at least a portion of the gas or gases and to provide energy to the gas or gases in the form of surface waves. The majority of the rf power is transferred to the gas or gases near the inner surface of the discharge container to efficiently transfer rf energy as excitation energy for at least one of the gases. The most important use of the invention is to provide more efficient fluorescent and/or ultraviolet lamps.

  1. Thermal and radiolytic gas generation from Tank 241-S-102 waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, C.M.; Pederson, L.R.; Bryan, S.A.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes progress in evaluating thermal and radiolytic rate parameters for flammable gas generation in Hanford single-shell tank wastes based on the results of laboratory tests using actual waste from Tank 241-S-102 (S-102). Work described in this report was conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Flammable Gas Safety Project, whose purpose is to develop information to support Fluor Daniel Hanford (FDH) and its Project Management Hanford Contract (PHMC) subcontractors in their efforts to ensure the safe interim storage of wastes at the Hanford Site. This work is related to gas generation studies being performed at Georgia Institute of Technology (GIT) under subcontract to PNNL, using simulated wastes, and to studies being performed at Numatec Hanford Corporation (formerly Westinghouse Hanford Company) using actual wastes. The results of gas generation from Tank S-102 waste under thermal and radiolytic conditions are described in this report. The accurate measurement of gas generation rates in actual waste from highly radioactive waste tanks is needed to assess the potential for producing and storing flammable gases within the waste tanks. This report addresses the gas generation capacity of the waste from Tank S-102, a waste tank listed as high priority by the Flammable Gas Safety Program due to its potential for flammable gas accumulation above the flammability limit.

  2. Production of ethanol from refinery waste gases. Phase 2, technology development, annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arora, D.; Basu, R.; Phillips, J.R.; Wikstrom, C.V.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil refineries discharge large volumes of H{sub 2}, CO, and CO{sub 2} from cracking, coking, and hydrotreating operations. This program seeks to develop a biological process for converting these waste gases into ethanol, which can be blended with gasoline to reduce emissions. Production of ethanol from all 194 US refineries would save 450 billion BTU annually, would reduce crude oil imports by 110 million barrels/year and emissions by 19 million tons/year. Phase II efforts has yielded at least 3 cultures (Clostridium ljungdahlii, Isolate O-52, Isolate C-01) which are able to produce commercially viable concentrations of ethanol from CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2} in petroleum waste gas. Single continuous stirred tank reactor studies have shown that 15-20 g/L of ethanol can be produced, with less than 5 g/L acetic acid byproduct. Culture and reactor optimization in Phase III should yield even higher ethanol concentrations and minimal acetic acid. Product recovery studies showed that ethanol is best recovered in a multi-step process involving solvent extraction/distillation to azeotrope/azeotropic distillation or pervaporation, or direct distillation to the azeotrope/azeotropic distillation or pervaporation. Projections show that the ethanol facility for a typical refinery would require an investment of about $30 million, which would be returned in less than 2 years.

  3. Automotive Fuel Efficiency Improvement via Exhaust Gas Waste...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Efficiency Improvement via Exhaust Gas Waste Heat Conversion to Electricity Automotive Fuel Efficiency Improvement via Exhaust Gas Waste Heat Conversion to Electricity Working...

  4. Thermoelectric Conversion of Exhaust Gas Waste Heat into Usable...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Exhaust Gas Waste Heat into Usable Electricity Thermoelectric Conversion of Exhaust Gas Waste Heat into Usable Electricity Presents successful incorporation of one of the most...

  5. Program plan for evaluation and remediation of the generation and release of flammable gases in Hanford Site waste tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, G.D. (comp.)

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This program plan describes the activities being conducted for the resolution of the flammable gas problem that is associated with 23 high-level waste tanks at the Hanford Site. The classification of the wastes in all of these tanks is not final and some wastes may not be high-level wastes. However, until the characterization and classification is complete, all the tanks are treated as if they contain high-level waste. Of the 23 tanks, Tank 241-SY-101 (referred to as Tank 101-SY) has exhibited significant episodic releases of flammable gases (hydrogen and nitrous oxide) for the past 10 years. The major near-term focus of this program is for the understanding and stabilization of this tank. An understanding of the mechanism for gas generation and the processes for the episodic release will be obtained through sampling of the tank contents, laboratory studies, and modeling of the tank behavior. Additional information will be obtained through new and upgraded instrumentation for the tank. A number of remediation, or stabilization, concepts will be evaluated for near-term (2 to 3 years) applications to Tank 101-SY. Detailed safety assessments are required for all activities that will occur in the tank (sampling, removal of equipment, and addition of new instruments). This program plan presents a discussion of each task, provides schedules for near-term activities, and gives a summary of the expected work for fiscal years 1991, 1992, and 1993. 16 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. Refinery gas waste heat energy conversion optimization in gas turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, A.D.; Francuz, D.J.; West, E.W. [Fluor Daniel, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Utilization of refinery fuel gas in gas turbines poses special challenges due to the combustion characteristics of the fuel gas which contains significant concentrations of hydrogen. Proper modifications to the combustion system of the existing gas turbines are required in order to combust such fuel gas streams in gas turbines while minimizing the NO{sub x} emissions. A novel approach to the utilization of this hydrogen bearing fuel gas in gas turbines consists of humidifying the fuel gas with water vapor by direct contact with hot water in a counter-current column, the feed water to the humidifier being first circulated through the refinery to recover waste heat. The refinery waste heat produces additional motive fluid with a result that the waste heat is converted to power in the gas turbine. Furthermore, the water vapor introduced into the fuel gas reduces the NO{sub x} formation and increases the gas turbine output, while the hydrogen present in the fuel gas provides the flame stability required when combusting a fuel gas containing a large concentration of water vapor.

  7. Carbonation of alkaline paper mill waste to reduce CO2 greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montes-Hernandez, German

    Carbonation of alkaline paper mill waste to reduce CO2 greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere of anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere such as CO2, CH4, N2O and CFCs. The CO2 emissions to reflect, adsorb and emit the solar energy. However, the continuous emissions of CO2 into the atmosphere

  8. Method of removing and recovering elemental sulfur from highly reducing gas streams containing sulfur gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gangwal, Santosh K.; Nikolopoulos, Apostolos A.; Dorchak, Thomas P.; Dorchak, Mary Anne

    2005-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is provided for removal of sulfur gases and recovery of elemental sulfur from sulfur gas containing supply streams, such as syngas or coal gas, by contacting the supply stream with a catalyst, that is either an activated carbon or an oxide based catalyst, and an oxidant, such as sulfur dioxide, in a reaction medium such as molten sulfur, to convert the sulfur gases in the supply stream to elemental sulfur, and recovering the elemental sulfur by separation from the reaction medium.

  9. Survey and assessment of the effects of nonconventional gases on gas distribution equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jasionowski, W.J.; Scott, M.I.; Gracey, W.C.

    1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A literature search and a survey of the gas industry were conducted to assess potential problems in the distribution of nonconventional gases. Available literature did not uncover data that would describe potential problems or substantiate the presence of harmful trace elements in final gas compositions produced from various SNG processes. Information from the survey indicates that some companies have encountered problems with nonconventional gases and extraneous additives such as landfill gas, refinery off-gases, oil gas, carbureted water gas, coke-oven gas, propane-air, and compressor lubricant oils. These nonconventional gases and compressor oils may 1) cause pipeline corrosion, 2) degrade some elastomeric materials and greases and affect the integrity of seals, gaskets, O-rings, and meter and regulator diaphragms, and 3) cause operational and safety problems. The survey indicated that 62% of the responding companies plan to use supplemental gas, with most planning on more than one type. Distribution companies intend to significantly increase their use of polyethylene piping from 11.6% in 1980 to 22.4% in 2000 for gas mains and from 33.4% to 50.3% in 2000 for gas service lines.

  10. Position for determining gas-phase volatile organic compound concentrations in transuranic waste containers. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Connolly, M.J.; Liekhus, K.J. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.] [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.; Djordjevic, S.M.; Loehr, C.A.; Spangler, L.R. [Benchmark Environmental Corp. (United States)] [Benchmark Environmental Corp. (United States)

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the conditional no-migration determination (NMD) for the test phase of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) imposed certain conditions on the US Department of Energy (DOE) regarding gas phase volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in the void space of transuranic (TRU) waste containers. Specifically, the EPA required the DOE to ensure that each waste container has no layer of confinement that contains flammable mixtures of gases or mixtures of gases that could become flammable when mixed with air. The EPA also required that sampling of the headspace of waste containers outside inner layers of confinement be representative of the entire void space of the container. The EPA stated that all layers of confinement in a container would have to be sampled until DOE can demonstrate to the EPA that sampling of all layers is either unnecessary or can be safely reduced. A test program was conducted at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to demonstrate that the gas phase VOC concentration in the void space of each layer of confinement in vented drums can be estimated from measured drum headspace using a theoretical transport model and that sampling of each layer of confinement is unnecessary. This report summarizes the studies performed in the INEEL test program and extends them for the purpose of developing a methodology for determining gas phase VOC concentrations in both vented and unvented TRU waste containers. The methodology specifies conditions under which waste drum headspace gases can be said to be representative of drum gases as a whole and describes a method for predicting drum concentrations in situations where the headspace concentration is not representative. The methodology addresses the approach for determining the drum VOC gas content for two purposes: operational period drum handling and operational period no-migration calculations.

  11. Position for determining gas phase volatile organic compound concentrations in transuranic waste containers. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Connolly, M.J.; Liekhus, K.J. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Djordjevic, S.M.; Loehr, C.A.; Spangler, L.R. [Benchmark Environmental Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the conditional no-migration determination (NMD) for the test phase of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) imposed certain conditions on the US Department of Energy (DOE) regarding gas phase volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in the void space of transuranic (TRU) waste containers. Specifically, the EPA required the DOE to ensure that each waste container has no layer of confinement that contains flammable mixtures of gases or mixtures of gases that could become flammable when mixed with air. The EPA also required that sampling of the headspace of waste containers outside inner layers of confinement be representative of the entire void space of the container. The EPA stated that all layers of confinement in a container would have to be sampled until DOE can demonstrate to the EPA that sampling of all layers is either unnecessary or can be safely reduced. A test program was conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to demonstrate that the gas phase VOC concentration in the void space of each layer of confinement in vented drums can be estimated from measured drum headspace using a theoretical transport model and that sampling of each layer of confinement is unnecessary. This report summarizes the studies performed in the INEL test program and extends them for the purpose of developing a methodology for determining gas phase VOC concentrations in both vented and unvented TRU waste containers. The methodology specifies conditions under which waste drum headspace gases can be said to be representative of drum gases as a whole and describes a method for predicting drum concentrations in situations where the headspace concentration is not representative. The methodology addresses the approach for determining the drum VOC gas content for two purposes: operational period drum handling and operational period no-migration calculations.

  12. Radiolytic and radiolytically induced generation of gases in simulated waste solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meisel, D.; Sauer, M.C. Jr.; Jonah, C.D.; Diamond, H.; Matheson, M.S.; Barnabas, F.; Cerny, E.; Cheng, Y.

    1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The radiolytic generation of gases in simulated mixed waste solutions was studied. Computer modeling of the non-homogeneous kinetic processes in these highly concentrated homogeneous solutions was attempted. The predictions of the modeling simulations were verified experimentally. Two sources for the radiolytic generation of H{sub 2} are identified: direct dissociation of highly energetic water molecules and hydrogen abstraction from the organic molecules by hydrogen atoms. Computer simulation of the homogeneous kinetics of the NO{sub X} system indicate that no N{sub 2}O will be produced in the absence of organic solutes and none was experimentally detected. It was also found that long term pre-irradiation of the simulated waste solutions leads to enhanced thermal production of these two gases. 22 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Radiolytic and radiolytically induced generation of gases in simulated waste solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meisel, D.; Sauer, M.C. Jr.; Jonah, C.D.; Diamond, H.; Matheson, M.S.; Barnabas, F.; Cerny, E.; Cheng, Y.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The radiolytic generation of gases in simulated mixed waste solutions was studied. Computer modeling of the non-homogeneous kinetic processes in these highly concentrated homogeneous solutions was attempted. The predictions of the modeling simulations were verified experimentally. Two sources for the radiolytic generation of H{sub 2} are identified: direct dissociation of highly energetic water molecules and hydrogen abstraction from the organic molecules by hydrogen atoms. Computer simulation of the homogeneous kinetics of the NO{sub X} system indicate that no N{sub 2}O will be produced in the absence of organic solutes and none was experimentally detected. It was also found that long term pre-irradiation of the simulated waste solutions leads to enhanced thermal production of these two gases. 22 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Theoretical Gas Phase Mass Transfer Coefficients for Endogenous Gases in the Lungs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George, Steven C.

    Theoretical Gas Phase Mass Transfer Coefficients for Endogenous Gases in the Lungs PETER CONDORELLI, is produced within the tissue of the airways of the lungs.16 As an intercellular messenger, NO is involved is available regarding the basic gas exchange dynamics of NO in the lungs. Ingested ethanol EtOH is transported

  15. Separation of gases through gas enrichment membrane composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swedo, R.J.; Kurek, P.R.

    1988-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin film composite membranes having as a permselective layer a film of a homopolymer of certain vinyl alkyl ethers are useful in the separation of various gases. Such homopolymers have a molecular weight of greater than 30,000 and the alkyl group of the vinyl alkyl monomer has from 4 to 20 carbon atoms with branching within the alkyl moiety at least at the carbon atom bonded to the ether oxygen or at the next adjacent carbon atom. These membranes show excellent hydrolytic stability, especially in the presence of acidic or basic gaseous components.

  16. Separation of gases through gas enrichment membrane composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swedo, Raymond J. (Mt. Prospect, IL); Kurek, Paul R. (Schaumburg, IL)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin film composite membranes having as a permselective layer a film of a homopolymer of certain vinyl alkyl ethers are useful in the separation of various gases. Such homopolymers have a molecular weight of greater than 30,000 and the alkyl group of the vinyl alkyl monomer has from 4 to 20 carbon atoms with branching within the alkyl moiety at least at the carbon atom bonded to the ether oxygen or at the next adjacent carbon atom. These membranes show excellent hydrolytic stability, especially in the presence of acidic or basic gaseous components.

  17. Florida Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803 Table A1.GasYear Jan Feb Mar AprVented andDecade Year-0

  18. Florida Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803 Table A1.GasYear Jan Feb Mar AprVented andDecade

  19. Application of evolved gas analysis to cold-cap reactions of melter feeds for nuclear waste vitrification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Chun, Jaehun; Schweiger, Michael J.; Kruger, Albert A.; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the vitrification of nuclear wastes, the melter feed (a mixture of nuclear waste and glass forming and modifying additives) experiences multiple gas-evolving reactions in an electrical glass-melting furnace. Foams from the residual gases can significantly alter the melting rate through mass and heat transfers. We employed the thermogravimetry-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TGA-GC-MS) combination to perform quantitative evolved gas analysis (EGA) and developed a simple calibration model which correlates the overall mass loss rate with the evolution rates for individual gases. The model parameters are obtained from the least squares analysis, assuming that the gas-evolving reactions are independent. Thus, the EGA adds the ‘chemical identity’ to the reactions indicated by the ‘phenomenological’ kinetic model.

  20. Denitrification of combustion gases. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, R.T.

    1980-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating waste combustion gas to remove the nitrogen oxygen gases therefrom is disclosed wherein the waste gas is first contacted with calcium oxide which absorbs and chemically reacts with the nitrogen oxide gases therein at a temperature from about 100/sup 0/ to 430/sup 0/C. The thus reacted calcium oxide (now calcium nitrate) is then heated at a temperature range between about 430/sup 0/ and 900/sup 0/C, resulting in regeneration of the calcium oxide and production of the decomposition gas composed of nitrogen and nitrogen oxide gas. The decomposition gases can be recycled to the calcium oxide contacting step to minimize the amount of nitrogen oxide gases in the final product gas.

  1. Simultaneous gas-chromatographic determination of four toxic gases generally present in combustion atmospheres. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Endecott, B.R.; Sanders, D.C.; Chaturvedi, A.K.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurement of combustion gases produced by burning aircraft cabin materials poses a continuing limitation for smoke toxicity research. Since toxic effects of gases depend on both their concentrations and duration of exposures, frequent atmosphere sampling is necessary to define the concentration-time curve. A gas chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous analyses of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and hydrogen cyanide (HCN). The method utilized an MTI M200 dual-column gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with 4-m molecular sieve-5A and 8-m PoraPlot-U capillary columns and two low-volume, high-sensitivity thermal conductivity detectors. Detectability (ppm)/retention times (seconds) for the gases were: CO (100/28); H2S (50/26); SO2 (125/76); HCN (60/108). The method was effective for determining these gases in mixtures and in the combustion atmospheres generated by burning wool (CO, HCN, and H2S) and modacrylic (CO and HCN) fabrics. Common atmospheric gaseous or combustion products (oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, water vapor, and other volatiles) did not interfere with the analyses. However, filtration of the combustion atmospheres was necessary to prevent restriction of the GC sampling inlet by smoke particulates. The speed, sensitivity, and selectivity of this method make it suitable for smoke toxicity research and for evaluating performance of passenger protective breathing equipment.

  2. Capturing Waste Gas: Saves Energy, Lower Costs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube platformBuilding RemovalCSS Letter -SeptemberWorkshop |Capturing Waste Gas:

  3. Application of evolved gas analysis to cold-cap reactions of melter feeds for nuclear waste vitrification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Chun, Jaehun; Hrma, Pavel R.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Schweiger, Michael J.

    2014-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In the vitrification of nuclear wastes, the melter feed (a mixture of nuclear waste and glass-forming and modifying additives) experiences multiple gas-evolving reactions in an electrical glass-melting furnace. We employed the thermogravimetry-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TGA-GC-MS) combination to perform evolved gas analysis (EGA). Apart from identifying the gases evolved, we performed quantitative analysis relating the weighed sum of intensities of individual gases linearly proportional with the differential themogravimetry. The proportionality coefficients were obtained by three methods based on the stoichiometry, least squares, and calibration. The linearity was shown to be a good first-order approximation, in spite of the complicated overlapping reactions.

  4. Waste minimization in the oil and gas industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.P.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent legislative actions place an emphasis on waste minimization as opposed to traditional end-of-pipe waste management. This new philosophy, coupled with increasing waste disposal costs and associated liabilities, sets the stage for investigating waste minimization opportunities in all industries wastes generated by oil and gas exploration and production (E P) and refuting activities are regulated as non-hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Potential reclassification of these wastes as hazardous would make minimization of these waste streams even more desirable. Oil and gas E P activities generate a wide variety of wastes, although the bulk of the wastes (98%) consists of a single waste stream: produced water. Opportunities to minimize E P wastes through point source reduction activities are limited by the extractive nature of the industry. Significant waste minimization is possible, however, through recycling. Recycling activities include underground injection of produced water, use of closed-loop drilling systems, reuse of produced water and drilling fluids in other oilfield activities, use of solid debris as construction fill, use of oily wastes as substitutes for road mix and asphalt, landspreading of produced sand for soil enhancement, and roadspreading of suitable aqueous wastes for dust suppression or deicing. Like the E P wastes, wastes generated by oil and gas treatment and refining activities cannot be reduced substantially at the point source but can be reduced through recycling. For the most part, extensive recycling and reprocessing of many waste streams already occurs at most petroleum refineries. A variety of innovative waste treatment activities have been developed to minimize the toxicity or volume of oily wastes generated by both E P and refining activities. These treatments include bioremediation, oxidation, biooxidation, incineration, and separation. Application of these treatment processes is still limited.

  5. Waste minimization in the oil and gas industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.P.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent legislative actions place an emphasis on waste minimization as opposed to traditional end-of-pipe waste management. This new philosophy, coupled with increasing waste disposal costs and associated liabilities, sets the stage for investigating waste minimization opportunities in all industries wastes generated by oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) and refuting activities are regulated as non-hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Potential reclassification of these wastes as hazardous would make minimization of these waste streams even more desirable. Oil and gas E&P activities generate a wide variety of wastes, although the bulk of the wastes (98%) consists of a single waste stream: produced water. Opportunities to minimize E&P wastes through point source reduction activities are limited by the extractive nature of the industry. Significant waste minimization is possible, however, through recycling. Recycling activities include underground injection of produced water, use of closed-loop drilling systems, reuse of produced water and drilling fluids in other oilfield activities, use of solid debris as construction fill, use of oily wastes as substitutes for road mix and asphalt, landspreading of produced sand for soil enhancement, and roadspreading of suitable aqueous wastes for dust suppression or deicing. Like the E&P wastes, wastes generated by oil and gas treatment and refining activities cannot be reduced substantially at the point source but can be reduced through recycling. For the most part, extensive recycling and reprocessing of many waste streams already occurs at most petroleum refineries. A variety of innovative waste treatment activities have been developed to minimize the toxicity or volume of oily wastes generated by both E&P and refining activities. These treatments include bioremediation, oxidation, biooxidation, incineration, and separation. Application of these treatment processes is still limited.

  6. Production of ethanol from refinery waste gases. Phase 3. Engineering development. Annual report, April 1, 1995--May 15, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arora, D.; Basu, R.; Phillips, J.R.; Wikstrom, C.V.; Clausen, E.C; Gaddy, J.L.

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Refineries discharge large volumes of H2, CO, and CO 2 from cracking, coking, and hydrotreating operations. This R&D program seeks to develop, demonstrate, and commercialize a biological process for converting these waste gases into ethanol for blending with gasoline. A 200,000 BPD refinery could produce up to 38 million gallons ethanol per year. The program is being conducted in 3 phases: II, technology development; III, engineering development; and IV, demonstration. Phase I, exploratory development, has been completed. The research effort has yielded two strains (Isolates O-52 and C-01) which are to be used in the pilot studies to produce ethanol from CO, CO2, and H2 in petroleum waste gas. Results from single continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) laboratory tests have shown that 20-25 g/L ethanol can be produced with < 5 g/L acetic acid byproduct. Laboratory studies with two CSTRs in series have yielded ethanol concentrations of 30-35 g/L with 2-4 g/L acetic acid byproduct. Water recycle from distillation back to the fermenter shows that filtration of the water before distillation eliminates the recycle of toxic materials back to the fermenter. Product recovery in the process will use direct distillation to the azeotrope, followed by adsorption to produce neat ethanol. This is less energy intensive than e.g. solvent extraction, azeotropic distillation, or pervaporation. Economic projections are quite attractive; the economics are refinery stream dependent and thus vary depending on refinery location and operation.

  7. Corrosion-induced gas generation in a nuclear waste repository: Reactive geochemistry and multiphase flow effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, T.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lying Repositories for Nuclear Waste, NAGRA Technical Reporthost rock formation for nuclear waste storage. EngineeringGas Generation in a Nuclear Waste Repository: Reactive

  8. Electrochemical separation and concentration of sulfur containing gases from gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winnick, Jack (3805 Woodrail-on-the-Green, Columbia, MO 65201)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of removing sulfur oxides of H.sub.2 S from high temperature gas mixtures (150.degree.-1000.degree. C.) is the subject of the present invention. An electrochemical cell is employed. The cell is provided with inert electrodes and an electrolyte which will provide anions compatible with the sulfur containing anions formed at the anode. The electrolyte is also selected to provide inert stable cations at the temperatures encountered. The gas mixture is passed by the cathode where the sulfur gases are converted to SO.sub.4.sup.= or, in the case of H.sub.2 S, to S.sup.=. The anions migrate to the anode where they are converted to a stable gaseous form at much greater concentration levels (>10X). Current flow may be effected by utilizing an external source of electrical energy or by passing a reducing gas such as hydrogen past the anode.

  9. Production of ethanol from refinery waste gases. Final report, April 1994--July 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arora, D.; Basu, R.; Breshears, F.S.; Gaines, L.D.; Hays, K.S.; Phillips, J.R.; Wikstrom, C.V.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this program was to develop a commercial process for producing ethanol from refinery waste gases. this report presents results from the development phases. The major focus of this work was the preparation of the prototype design which will demonstrate this technology in a 2.5 lb/hr ethanol production facility. Additional areas of focus included efforts in obtaining an industrial partner to help finance the prototype, and advanced engineering experiments concentrating on process optimization in various areas needing future development and optimization. The advanced engineering experiments were performed in the laboratory in these areas: treatment and use of recycle water from distillation back to fermentation; alternative methods of removing cells from the fermentation broth; the fermentation of streams containing CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} alone, with little to no CO present; dealing with methanogen contaminants that are capable of fermenting CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} to methane; and acetate tolerance by the culture. Results from the design, industrial partner search and the laboratory R&D efforts are discussed in this report.

  10. Evaluation of Gas Retention in Waste Simulants: Intermediate-Scale Column and Open-Channel-Depth Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, Michael R.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Fischer, Christopher M.; Heldebrant, David J.; Prowant, Matthew S.; Sande, Susan; Davis, James M.; Telander, Monty R.

    2014-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas generation in Hanford’s radioactive waste storage tanks can lead to gas accumulation within the layer of settled solids (sludge) at the tank bottom. The gas, which may be hazardous and/or flammable, is formed principally by radiation-driven chemical reactions. Accumulation of these gases within the sludge increases the sludge-layer volume, which decreases the available tank volume for waste storage. Further, accumulation of large amounts of gas in the sludge can potentially result in a relatively rapid release of the accumulated gas if the sludge-layer density is reduced to less than that of the overlying sludge or that of the supernatant liquid. The potential for rapid release of large amounts of hazardous and/or flammable gases is a safety hazard that needs to be managed. Accordingly, a thorough understanding is needed of the circumstances that can lead to problematic gas accumulation in sludge layers. The Deep-Sludge Gas Release Event Project (DSGREP) is tasked with developing an improved understanding of these gas release events.

  11. Mechanisms of gas retention and release: Experimental results for Hanford waste tanks 241-AW-101 and 241-AN-103

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rassat, S.D.; Gauglitz, P.A.; Bredt, P.R.; Mahoney, L.A.; Forbes, S.V.; Tingey, S.M.

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 177 storage tanks at Hanford contain a vast array of radioactive waste forms resulting, primarily, from nuclear materials processing. Through radiolytic, thermal, and other decomposition reactions of waste components, gaseous species including hydrogen, ammonia, and the oxidizer nitrous oxide are generated within the waste tanks. Many of these tanks are known to retain and periodically release quantities of these flammable gas mixtures. The primary focus of the Flammable Gas Project is the safe storage of Hanford tank wastes. To this end, we strive to develop an understanding of the mechanisms of flammable gas retention and release in Hanford tanks through laboratory investigations on actual tank wastes. These results support the closure of the Flammable Gas Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) on the safe storage of waste tanks known to retain flammable gases and support resolution of the broader Flammable Gas Safety Issue. The overall purpose of this ongoing study is to develop a comprehensive and thorough understanding of the mechanisms of flammable gas retention and release. The first objective of the current study was to classify bubble retention and release mechanisms in two previously untested waste materials from Tanks 241-AN-103 (AN-103) and 241-AW-101 (AW-101). Results were obtained for retention mechanisms, release characteristics, and the maximum gas retention. In addition, unique behavior was also documented and compared with previously studied waste samples. The second objective was to lengthen the duration of the experiments to evaluate the role of slowing bubble growth on the retention and release behavior. Results were obtained for experiments lasting from a few hours to a few days.

  12. Oil and gas exploration system and method for detecting trace amounts of hydrocarbon gases in the atmosphere

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wamsley, Paula R. (Littleton, CO); Weimer, Carl S. (Littleton, CO); Nelson, Loren D. (Evergreen, CO); O'Brien, Martin J. (Pine, CO)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An oil and gas exploration system and method for land and airborne operations, the system and method used for locating subsurface hydrocarbon deposits based upon a remote detection of trace amounts of gases in the atmosphere. The detection of one or more target gases in the atmosphere is used to indicate a possible subsurface oil and gas deposit. By mapping a plurality of gas targets over a selected survey area, the survey area can be analyzed for measurable concentration anomalies. The anomalies are interpreted along with other exploration data to evaluate the value of an underground deposit. The system includes a differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system with a spectroscopic grade laser light and a light detector. The laser light is continuously tunable in a mid-infrared range, 2 to 5 micrometers, for choosing appropriate wavelengths to measure different gases and avoid absorption bands of interference gases. The laser light has sufficient optical energy to measure atmospheric concentrations of a gas over a path as long as a mile and greater. The detection of the gas is based on optical absorption measurements at specific wavelengths in the open atmosphere. Light that is detected using the light detector contains an absorption signature acquired as the light travels through the atmosphere from the laser source and back to the light detector. The absorption signature of each gas is processed and then analyzed to determine if a potential anomaly exists.

  13. Development and testing of prototype alpha waste incinerator off-gas systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freed, E J; Becker, G W

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A test program is in progress at Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) to confirm and develop incinerator design technology for an SRP production Alpha Waste Incinerator (AWI) to be built in the mid-1980's. The Incinerator Components Test Facility (ICTF) is a full-scale (5 kg/h), electrically heated, controlled-air prototype incinerator built to burn nonradioactive solid waste. The incinerator has been operating successfully at SRL since March 1979 and has met or exceeded all design criteria. During the first 1-1/2 years of operation, liquid scrubbers were used to remove particulates and hydrochloric acid from the incinerator exhaust gases. A dry off-gas system is currently being tested to provide data to Savannah River Plant's proposed AWI.

  14. Assessment of gas flammability in transuranic waste container

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Connolly, M.J. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Loehr, C.A.; Djordjevic, S.M.; Spangler, L.R. [Benchmark Environmental Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Safety Analysis Report for the TRUPACT-II Shipping Package [Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) SARP] set limits for gas generation rates, wattage limits, and flammable volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in transuranic (TRU) waste containers that would be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Based on existing headspace gas data for drums stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), over 30 percent of the contact-handled TRU waste drums contain flammable VOC concentrations greater than the limit. Additional requirements may be imposed for emplacement of waste in the WIPP facility. The conditional no-migration determination (NMD) for the test phase of the facility required that flame tests be performed if significant levels of flammable VOCs were present in TRU waste containers. This paper describes an approach for investigating the potential flammability of TRU waste drums, which would increase the allowable concentrations of flammable VOCS. A flammability assessment methodology is presented that will allow more drums to be shipped to WIPP without treatment or repackaging and reduce the need for flame testing on drums. The approach includes experimental work to determine mixture lower explosive limits (MLEL) for the types of gas mixtures observed in TRU waste, a model for predicting the MLEL for mixtures of VOCS, hydrogen, and methane, and revised screening limits for total flammable VOCs concentrations and concentrations of hydrogen and methane using existing drum headspace gas data and the model predictions.

  15. Composition, preparation, and gas generation results from simulated wastes of Tank 241-SY-101

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryan, S.A.; Pederson, L.R.

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document reviews the preparation and composition of simulants that have been developed to mimic the wastes temporarily stored in Tank 241-SY-101 at Hanford. The kinetics and stoichiometry of gases that are generated using these simulants are also compared, considering the roles of hydroxide, chloride, and transition metal ions; the identities of organic constituents; and the effects of dilution, radiation, and temperature. Work described in this report was conducted for the Flammable Gas Safety Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory, (a) whose purpose is to develop information that is necessary to mitigate potential safety hazards associated with waste tanks at the Hanford Site. The goal of this research and of related efforts at the Georgia Institute of Technology (GIT), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) is to determine the thermal and thermal/radiolytic mechanisms by which flammable and other gases are produced in Hanford wastes, emphasizing those stored in Tank 241-SY-101. A variety of Tank 241-SY-101 simulants have been developed to date. The use of simulants in laboratory testing activities provides a number of advantages, including elimination of radiological risks to researchers, lower costs associated with experimentation, and the ability to systematically alter simulant compositions to study the chemical mechanisms of reactions responsible for gas generation. The earliest simulants contained the principal inorganic components of the actual waste and generally a single complexant such as N-(2-hydroxyethyl) ethylenediaminetriacetic acid (HEDTA) or ethylenediaminetriacetic acid (EDTA). Both homogeneous and heterogeneous compositional forms were developed. Aggressive core sampling and analysis activities conducted during Windows C and E provided information that was used to design new simulants that more accurately reflected major and minor inorganic components.

  16. Assessment of microbial processes on gas production at radioactive low-level waste disposal sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, A.J.; Tate, R.L. III; Colombo, P.

    1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Factors controlling gaseous emanations from low level radioactive waste disposal sites are assessed. Importance of gaseous fluxes of methane, carbon dioxide, and possible hydrogen from the site, stems from the inclusion of tritium and/or carbon-14 into the elemental composition of these compounds. In that the primary source of these gases is the biodegradation of organic components of the waste material, primary emphasis of the study involved an examination of the biochemical pathways producing methane, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen, and the environmental parameters controlling the activity of the microbial community involved. Initial examination of the data indicates that the ecosystem is anaerobic. As the result of the complexity of the pathway leading to methane production, factors such as substrate availability, which limit the initial reaction in the sequence, greatly affect the overall rate of methane evolution. Biochemical transformations of methane, hydrogen and carbon dioxide as they pass through the soil profile above the trench are discussed. Results of gas studies performed at three commercial low level radioactive waste disposal sites are reviewed. Methods used to obtain trench and soil gas samples are discussed. Estimates of rates of gas production and amounts released into the atmosphere (by the GASFLOW model) are evaluated. Tritium and carbon-14 gaseous compounds have been measured in these studies; tritiated methane is the major radionuclide species in all disposal trenches studied. The concentration of methane in a typical trench increases with the age of the trench, whereas the concentration of carbon dioxide is similar in all trenches.

  17. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION & LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE [SEC 1 & 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HU, T.A.

    2003-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Flammable gases such as hydrogen, ammonia, and methane are observed in the tank dome space of the Hanford Site high-level waste tanks. This report assesses the steady-state flammability level under normal and off-normal ventilation conditions in the tank dome space for 177 double-shell tanks and single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. The steady-state flammability level was estimated from the gas concentration of the mixture in the dome space using estimated gas release rates, Le Chatelier's rule and lower flammability limits of fuels in an air mixture. A time-dependent equation of gas concentration, which is a function of the gas release and ventilation rates in the dome space, has been developed for both soluble and insoluble gases. With this dynamic model, the time required to reach the specified flammability level at a given ventilation condition can be calculated. In the evaluation, hydrogen generation rates can be calculated for a given tank waste composition and its physical condition (e.g., waste density, waste volume, temperature, etc.) using the empirical rate equation model provided in Empirical Rate Equation Model and Rate Calculations of Hydrogen Generation for Hanford Tank Waste, HNF-3851. The release rate of other insoluble gases and the mass transport properties of the soluble gas can be derived from the observed steady-state gas concentration under normal ventilation conditions. The off-normal ventilation rate is assumed to be natural barometric breathing only. A large body of data is required to do both the hydrogen generation rate calculation and the flammability level evaluation. For tank waste that does not have sample-based data, a statistical-based value from probability distribution regression was used based on data from tanks belonging to a similar waste group. This report (Revision 3) updates the input data of hydrogen generation rates calculation for 177 tanks using the waste composition information in the Best-Basis Inventory Detail Report in the Tank Waste Information Network System, and the waste temperature data in the Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) (dated July 2003). However, the release rate of methane, ammonia, and nitrous oxide is based on the input data (dated October 1999) as stated in Revision 0 of this report. Scenarios for adding waste to existing waste levels (dated July 2003) have been studied to determine the gas generation rates and the effect of smaller dome space on the flammability limits to address the issues of routine water additions and other possible waste transfer operations. In the flammability evaluation with zero ventilation, the sensitivity to waste temperature and to water addition was calculated for double-shell tanks 241-AY-102, 241-AN-102,241-AZ-101,241-AN-107,241-AY-101 and 241-AZ-101. These six have the least margin to flammable conditions among 28 double-shell tanks.

  18. Effects of Globally Waste Disturbing Activities on Gas Generation, Retention, and Release in Hanford Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, Charles W.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Huckaby, James L.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Meyer, Perry A.; Wells, Beric E.

    2005-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Various operations are authorized in Hanford single- and double-shell tanks that disturb all or a large fraction of the waste. These globally waste-disturbing activities have the potential to release a large fraction of the retained flammable gas and to affect future gas generation, retention, and release behavior. This report presents analyses of the expected flammable gas release mechanisms and the potential release rates and volumes resulting from these activities. The background of the flammable gas safety issue at Hanford is summarized, as is the current understanding of gas generation, retention, and release phenomena. Considerations for gas monitoring and assessment of the potential for changes in tank classification and steady-state flammability are given.

  19. Greenhouse Gases | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Greenhouse Gases Greenhouse Gases Executive Order 13514 requires Federal agencies to inventory and manage greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to meet Federal goals and mitigate climate...

  20. Flammable gas tank waste level reconciliation for 241-SX-105

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddie, L.A.

    1997-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluor Daniel Northwest was authorized to address flammable gas issues by reconciling the unexplained surface level increases in Tank 241-SX-105 (SX-105, typical). The trapped gas evaluation document states that Tank SX-105 exceeds the 25% of the lower flammable limit criterion, based on a surface level rise evaluation. The Waste Storage Tank Status and Leak Detection Criteria document, commonly referred to as the Welty Report is the basis for this letter report. The Welty Report is also a part of the trapped gas evaluation document criteria. The Welty Report contains various tank information, including: physical information, status, levels, and dry wells. The unexplained waste level rises were attributed to the production and retention of gas in the column of waste corresponding to the unaccounted for surface level rise. From 1973 through 1980, the Welty Report tracked Tank SX-105 transfers and reported a net cumulative change of 20.75 in. This surface level increase is from an unknown source or is unaccounted for. Duke Engineering and Services Hanford and Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation are interested in determining the validity of unexplained surface level changes reported in the Welty Report based upon other corroborative sources of data. The purpose of this letter report is to assemble detailed surface level and waste addition data from daily tank records, logbooks, and other corroborative data that indicate surface levels, and to reconcile the cumulative unaccounted for surface level changes as shown in the Welty Report from 1973 through 1980. Tank SX-105 initially received waste from REDOX starting the second quarter of 1955. After June 1975, the tank primarily received processed waste (slurry) from the 242-S Evaporator/Crystallizer and transferred supernate waste to Tanks S-102 and SX-102. The Welty Report shows a cumulative change of 20.75 in. from June 1973 through December 1980.

  1. Preventing Buoyant Displacement Gas Release Events in Hanford Double-Shell Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Perry A.; Stewart, Charles W.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the predictive methods used to ensure that waste transfer operations in Hanford waste tanks do not create waste configurations that lead to unsafe gas release events. The gas release behavior of the waste in existing double-shell tanks has been well characterized, and the flammable gas safety issues associated with safe storage of waste in the current configuration are being formally resolved. However, waste is also being transferred between double-shell tanks and from single-shell tanks into double-shell tanks by saltwell pumping and sluicing that create new wastes and waste configurations that have not been studied as well. Additionally, planning is underway for various waste transfer scenarios to support waste feed delivery to the proposed vitrification plant. It is critical that such waste transfers do not create waste conditions with the potential for dangerous gas release events.

  2. Flammable gas tank waste level reconciliation for 241-S-111

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.

    1997-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluor Daniel Northwest (FDNW) was authorized to address flammable gas issues by reconciling the unexplained surface level increases in Tank 241-S-111. The trapped gas evaluation document states that Tank S-111 exceeds the 25% of the lower flammable-limit criterion, based on a surface level rise evaluation. The Waste Storage Tank Status and Leak Detection Criteria document, commonly referred to as the Welty Report is the basis for this letter report. The unexplained waste level rises were attributed to the production and retention of gas in the column of waste corresponding to the unaccounted for surface level rise. From 1973 through 1980, the Welty Report tracked Tank S-111 transfers. This surface level increase is from an unknown source or is unaccounted for. Duke Engineering and Services Hanford and Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation are interested in determining the validity of the unexplained surface level changes reported in the Welty Report based upon other corroborative sources of data. The purpose of this letter report is to assemble detailed surface level and waste addition data from daily tank records, logbooks, and other corroborative data that indicate surface levels, and to reconcile the cumulative unaccounted for surface level changes as shown in the Welty Report from 1973 through 1980. Tank S-111 initially received waste from REDOX in 1952, and after April 1974, primarily received processed waste slurry from the 242-S Evaporator/Crystallizer and transferred supernatant waste to Tank S-102. From the FDNW review and comparisons of the Welty Report versus other daily records for Tank S-111, FDNW determined that the majority of the time, the Welty Report is consistent with daily records. Surface level decreases that occurred following saltwell pumping were identified as unaccounted for decreases in the Welty Report, however they were probably a continued settlement caused by saltwell pumping of the interstitial liquids. Because the flammable/trapped gas issue is linked to the unexplained increase in the surface level, FDNW recommends that all occurrence reports, concerning tank waste level increases or decreases from 1970 through 1980, be reevaluated for acceptability of the evaluation as to the root cause of the occurrence.

  3. Gas Separation Membrane Use in the Refinery and Petrochemical Industries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vari, J.

    Membranes have gained commercial acceptance as proven methods to recover valuable gases from waste gas streams. This paper explores ways in which gas separation membranes are used in the refinery and petrochemical industries to recover and purify...

  4. Flammable gas tank waste level reconcilliation for 241-SX-102

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddie, L.A.

    1997-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluoro Dynel Northwest (FDNW) was authorized to address flammable gas issues by reconciling the unexplained surface level increases in Tank 24 1-S-1 1 1 (S-I 1 1, typical). The trapped gas evaluation document (ref 1) states that Tank SX-102 exceeds the 25% of the lower flammable limit (FL) criterion (ref 2), based on a surface level rise evaluation. The Waste Storage Tank Status and Leak Detection Criteria document, commonly referred to as the ``Wallet Report`` is the basis for this letter report (ref 3). The Wallet Report is also a part of the trapped gas evaluation document criteria. The Wallet Report contains various tank information, including: physical information, status, levels, and dry wells, see Appendix A. The unexplained waste level rises were attributed to the production and retention of gas in the column of waste corresponding to the unacquainted for surface level rise. From 1973 through 1980, the Wallet Report tracked Tank S- 102 transfers and reported a net cumulative change of 19.95 in. This surface level increase is from an unknown source or is unacquainted for. Duke Engineering and Services Hanford (DASH) and Leached Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) are interested in determining the validity of the unexplained surface level changes reported in the 0611e Wallet Report based upon other corroborative sources of data. The purpose of this letter report is to assemble detailed surface level and waste addition data from daily tank records, logbooks, and other corroborative data that indicate surface levels, and to reconcile the cumulative unacquainted for surface level changes as shown in the Wallet Report from 1973 through 1980.

  5. SOLOX coke-oven gas desulfurization ppm levels -- No toxic waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Platts, M. (Thyssen Still Otto Technical Services, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)); Tippmer, K. (Thyssen Still Otto Anlagentechnik GmbH, Bochum (Germany))

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For sulfur removal from coke-oven gas, the reduction/oxidation processes such as Stretford are the most effective, capable of removing the H[sub 2]S down to ppm levels. However, these processes have, in the past, suffered from ecological problems with secondary pollutant formation resulting from side reactions with HCN and O[sub 2]. The SOLOX gas desulfurization system is a development of the Stretford process in which the toxic effluent problems are eliminated by installing a salt decomposition process operating according to the liquid-phase hydrolysis principle. In this process, the gaseous hydrolysis products H[sub 2]S, NH[sub 3] and CO[sub 2] are returned to the untreated gas, and the regenerated solution is recycled to the absorption process. The blowdown from the absorption circuit is fed into a tube reactor where the hydrolysis process takes place. The toxic salts react with water, producing as reaction products the gases H[sub 2]S, NH[sub 3] and CO[sub 2], and the nontoxic salt Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4]. From the hydrolysis reactor the liquid stream flows into a fractionating crystallization plant. This plant produces a recycle stream of regenerated absorption solution and a second stream containing most of the Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4]. This second stream comprises the net plant waste and can be disposed of with the excess ammonia liquor or sprayed onto the coal.

  6. Potential effects of clean coal technologies on acid precipitation, greenhouse gases, and solid waste disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blasing, T.J.; Miller, R.L.; McCold, L.N.

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) was initially funded by Congress to demonstrate more efficient, economically feasible, and environmentally acceptable coal technologies. Although the environmental focus at first was on sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) because their relationship to acid precipitation, the CCTDP may also lead to reductions in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions and in the volume of solid waste produced, compared with conventional technologies. The environmental effects of clean coal technologies (CCTs) depend upon which (if any) specific technologies eventually achieve high acceptance in the marketplace. In general, the repowering technologies and a small group of retrofit technologies show the most promise for reducing C0{sub 2} emissions and solid waste. These technologies also compare favorably with other CCTs in terms of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} reductions. The upper bound for CO{sup 2} reductions in the year 2010 is only enough to reduce global ``greenhouse`` warming potential by about 1%. However, CO{sub 2} emissions come from such variety of sources around the globe that no single technological innovation or national policy change could realistically be expected to reduce these emissions by more than a few percent. Particular CCTs can lead to either increases or decreases in the amount of solid waste produced. However, even if decreases are not achieved, much of the solid waste from clean coal technologies would be dry and therefore easier to dispose of than scrubber sludge.

  7. An improved method for the determination of the wellstream gas specific gravity for retrograde gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gold, David Keith

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    calculations. The wellstream gas specific gravity for a retrograde gas reservoir can be determined using two methods. The first method requires fluid samples of the primary separator liquid and gas to be obtained from the well, their respective compositions... the most accurate estimate of the wellstream gas specific gravity, but using the field production information can provide a very reliable estimate as well. The equation for calculating the wellstream gas specific gravity using production information...

  8. Roadmapping the Resolution of Gas Generation Issues in Packages Containing Radioactive Waste/Materials - A Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luke, D.E. (INEEL); Hamp, S. (DOE-Albuquerque Operations Office)

    2002-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas generation issues, particularly hydrogen, have been an area of concern for the transport and storage of radioactive materials and waste in the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. Potentially combustible gases can be generated through a variety of reactions, including chemical reactions and radiolytic decomposition of hydrogen-containing material. Since transportation regulations prohibit shipment of explosives and radioactive materials together, it was decided that hydrogen generation was a problem that warranted the execution of a high-level roadmapping effort. This paper discusses the major gas generation issues within the DOE Complex and the research that has been and is being conducted by the transuranic (TRU) waste, nuclear materials, and spent nuclear fuels (SNF) programs within DOE's Environmental Management (EM) organizations to address gas generation concerns. This paper presents a ''program level'' roadmap that links technology development to program needs and identifies the probability of success in an effort to understand the programmatic risk associated with the issue of gas generation. This paper also presents the status of the roadmap and follow-up activities.

  9. Roadmapping the Resolution of Gas Generation Issues in Packages Containing Radioactive Waste/Materials - A Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luke, Dale Elden; Hamp, S.

    2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas generation issues, particularly hydrogen, have been an area of concern for the transport and storage of radioactive materials and waste in the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. Potentially combustible gases can be generated through a variety of reactions, including chemical reactions and radiolytic decomposition of hydrogen- containing material. Since transportation regulations prohibit shipment of explosives and radioactive materials together, it was decided that hydrogen generation was a problem that warranted the execution of a high-level roadmapping effort. This paper discusses the major gas generation issues within the DOE Complex and the research that has been and is being conducted by the transuranic (TRU) waste, nuclear materials, and spent nuclear fuels (SNF) programs within DOE’s Environmental Management (EM) organizations to address gas generation concerns. This paper presents a "program level" roadmap that links technology development to program needs and identifies the probability of success in an effort to understand the programmatic risk associated with the issue of gas generation. This paper also presents the status of the roadmap and follow-up activities.

  10. Conversion of Waste CO2 and Shale Gas to High-Value Chemicals

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Conversion of Waste CO 2 and Shale Gas to High-Value Chemicals Enabling high-yield, low-cost, low- temperature production of chemical intermediates Chemical intermediates,...

  11. New York Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthrough 1996) inThousandWithdrawals (Million CubicYearNonhydrocarbon Gases

  12. Steam Production from Waste Stack Gases in a Carbon Black Plant 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Istre, R. I.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the boilers down in an orderly manner that would not upset the refinery operations. Cylinders of compressed air were connected to the new plant air dryer system to allow normal opera tion of the ignition interlock system and boiler control valves during... the emergency shutdown of the boi 1ers. The ignition interlock system has been used many times other than for Douer fa il ures. SVlitches \\~ere installed in the control room to allow the boiler control operator to shut dOl'in 42" YJaste gas dampers on each...

  13. METHODOLOGY & CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TU, T.A.

    2007-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Waste stored within tank farm double-shell tanks (DST) and single-shell tanks (SST) generates flammable gas (principally hydrogen) to varying degrees depending on the type, amount, geometry, and condition of the waste. The waste generates hydrogen through the radiolysis of water and organic compounds, thermolytic decomposition of organic compounds, and corrosion of a tank's carbon steel walls. Radiolysis and thermolytic decomposition also generates ammonia. Nonflammable gases, which act as dilutents (such as nitrous oxide), are also produced. Additional flammable gases (e.g., methane) are generated by chemical reactions between various degradation products of organic chemicals present in the tanks. Volatile and semi-volatile organic chemicals in tanks also produce organic vapors. The generated gases in tank waste are either released continuously to the tank headspace or are retained in the waste matrix. Retained gas may be released in a spontaneous or induced gas release event (GRE) that can significantly increase the flammable gas concentration in the tank headspace as described in RPP-7771, Flammable Gas Safety Isme Resolution. Appendices A through I provide supporting information. The document categorizes each of the large waste storage tanks into one of several categories based on each tank's waste and characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement event. Revision 6 is the annual update of the flammable gas Waste Groups for DSTs and SSTs.

  14. Methodology for flammable gas evaluations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hopkins, J.D., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    There are 177 radioactive waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site. The waste generates flammable gases. The waste releases gas continuously, but in some tanks the waste has shown a tendency to trap these flammable gases. When enough gas is trapped in a tank`s waste matrix, it may be released in a way that renders part or all of the tank atmosphere flammable for a period of time. Tanks must be evaluated against previously defined criteria to determine whether they can present a flammable gas hazard. This document presents the methodology for evaluating tanks in two areas of concern in the tank headspace:steady-state flammable-gas concentration resulting from continuous release, and concentration resulting from an episodic gas release.

  15. Removal of sulfur and nitrogen containing pollutants from discharge gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Joubert, James I. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxides of sulfur and of nitrogen are removed from waste gases by reaction with an unsupported copper oxide powder to form copper sulfate. The resulting copper sulfate is dissolved in water to effect separation from insoluble mineral ash and dried to form solid copper sulfate pentahydrate. This solid sulfate is thermally decomposed to finely divided copper oxide powder with high specific surface area. The copper oxide powder is recycled into contact with the waste gases requiring cleanup. A reducing gas can be introduced to convert the oxide of nitrogen pollutants to nitrogen.

  16. Chapter 46. Ultracold Quantum Gases Ultracold Quantum Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of strongly interacting Fermi gases is important for the modeling of neutron stars. Cold atomic gases allow potential of the gas. Away from resonance another length scale comes into play, the scattering length a

  17. Gas turbine cycles with solid oxide fuel cells. Part 1: Improved gas turbine power plant efficiency by use of recycled exhaust gases and fuel cell technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harvey, S.P.; Richter, H.J. (Dartmouth Coll., Hanover, NH (United States). Thayer School of Engineering)

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy conversion efficiency of the combustion process can be improved if immediate contact of fuel and oxygen is prevent4ed and an oxygen carrier is used. In a previous paper (Harvey et al., 1992), a gas turbine cycle was investigated in which part of the exhaust gases are recycled and used as oxygen-carrying components. For the optimized process, a theoretical thermal efficiency of 66.3% was achieved, based on the lower heating value (LHV) of the methane fuel. One means to further improve the exergetic efficiency of a power cycle is to utilize fuel cell technology. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) have many features that make them attractive for utility and industrial applications. In this paper, the authors will therefore consider SOFC technology. In view of their high operating temperatures and the incomplete nature of the fuel oxidation process, fuel cells must be combined with conventional power generation technology to develop power plant configurations that are both functional and efficient. In this paper, the authors will show how monolithic SOFC (MSOFC) technology may be integrated into the previously described gas turbine cycle using recycled exhaust gases as oxygen carriers. An optimized cycle configuration will be presented based upon a detailed cycle analysis performance using Aspen Plus[trademark] process simulation software and a MSOFC fuel cell simulator developed by Argonne National Labs. The optimized cycle achieves a theoretical thermal efficiency of 77.7%, based on the LHV of the fuel.

  18. Influence of mechanical-biological waste pre-treatment methods on the gas formation in landfills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bockreis, A. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Darmstadt University of Technology, Institute for Water Supply and Groundwater Protection, Wastewater Technology, Waste Management, Industrial Material Flows and Environmental Planning (Institute WAR), Chair of Waste Management and Waste Technology, Darmstadt (Germany)]. E-mail: a.bockreis@iwar.tu-darmstadt.de; Steinberg, I. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Darmstadt University of Technology, Institute for Water Supply and Groundwater Protection, Wastewater Technology, Waste Management, Industrial Material Flows and Environmental Planning (Institute WAR), Chair of Waste Management and Waste Technology, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to minimise emissions and environmental impacts, only pre-treated waste should be disposed of. For the last six years, a series of continuous experiments has been conducted at the Institute WAR, TU Darmstadt, in order to determine the emissions from pre-treated waste. Different kinds of pre-treated waste were incubated in several reactors and various data, including production and composition of the gas and the leachate, were collected. In this paper, the interim results of gas production and the gas composition from different types of waste after a running time of six years are presented and discussed.

  19. Application of Momentum Transfer Theory for Ion and Electron Transport in Pure Gases and in Gas Mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jovanovic, J.V. [Institute of Physics, P.O.Box 68, 11080 Zemun, Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro); Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro); Vrhovac, S. B. [Institute of Physics, P.O.Box 68, 11080 Zemun, Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro)

    2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we have presented two applications of Momentum Transfer Theory (MTT), which were both aimed at obtaining reliable data for modeling of non-equilibrium plasma. Transport properties of ion swarms in presence of Resonant Charge Transfer (RCT) collisions are studied using Momentum Transfer Theory (MTT). Using the developed MTT we tested a previously available anisotropic set of cross-sections for Ar++Ar collisions bay making the comparisons with the available data for the transverse diffusion coefficient. We also developed an anisotropic set of Ne++Ne integral cross-sections based on the available data for mobility, longitudinal and transverse diffusion. Anisotropic sets of cross-sections are needed for Monte Carlo simulations of ion transport and plasma models. Application of Blanc's Law for drift velocities of electrons and ions in gas mixtures at arbitrary reduced electric field strengths E/n0 was studied theoretically and by numerical examples. Corrections for Blanc's Law that include effects of inelastic collisions were derived. In addition we have derived the common mean energy procedure that was proposed by Chiflikian in a general case both for ions and electrons. Both corrected common E/n0 and common mean energy procedures provide excellent results even for electrons at moderate E/n0 where application of Blanc's Law was regarded as impossible. In mixtures of two gases that have negative differential conductivity (NDC) even when neither of the two pure gases show NDC the Blanc's Law procedure was able to give excellent predictions.

  20. Control of pollutants in flue gases and fuel gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 2.2 Flue gases and fuel gases: combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, incineration and other and gasification technologies for heat and power . . . . . . . . 2-3 2.4 Waste incineration and waste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3 3.3 Formation of sulphur compounds during combustion and gasification . 3-5 3.4 Emission

  1. METHODOLOGY & CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE GROUPS FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BARKER, S.A.

    2006-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Waste stored within tank farm double-shell tanks (DST) and single-shell tanks (SST) generates flammable gas (principally hydrogen) to varying degrees depending on the type, amount, geometry, and condition of the waste. The waste generates hydrogen through the radiolysis of water and organic compounds, thermolytic decomposition of organic compounds, and corrosion of a tank's carbon steel walls. Radiolysis and thermolytic decomposition also generates ammonia. Nonflammable gases, which act as dilutents (such as nitrous oxide), are also produced. Additional flammable gases (e.g., methane) are generated by chemical reactions between various degradation products of organic chemicals present in the tanks. Volatile and semi-volatile organic chemicals in tanks also produce organic vapors. The generated gases in tank waste are either released continuously to the tank headspace or are retained in the waste matrix. Retained gas may be released in a spontaneous or induced gas release event (GRE) that can significantly increase the flammable gas concentration in the tank headspace as described in RPP-7771. The document categorizes each of the large waste storage tanks into one of several categories based on each tank's waste characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement event. Revision 5 is the annual update of the methodology and calculations of the flammable gas Waste Groups for DSTs and SSTs.

  2. Analysis of potential for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in municipal solid waste in Brazil, in the state and city of Rio de Janeiro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loureiro, S.M., E-mail: saulo@lima.coppe.ufrj.br [Department of Energy Planning, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, C.P. 68565, CEP 21949-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rovere, E.L.L., E-mail: emilio@ppe.ufrj.br [Department of Energy Planning, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, C.P. 68565, CEP 21949-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mahler, C.F., E-mail: mahler0503@yahoo.com [Department of Civil Engineering, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, C.P. 68506, CEP 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: ? We constructed future scenarios of emissions of greenhouse gases in waste. ? Was used the IPCC methodology for calculating emission inventories. ? We calculated the costs of abatement for emissions reduction in landfill waste. ? The results were compared to Brazil, state and city of Rio de Janeiro. ? The higher the environmental passive, the greater the possibility of use of biogas. - Abstract: This paper examines potential changes in solid waste policies for the reduction in GHG for the country of Brazil and one of its major states and cities, Rio de Janeiro, from 2005 to 2030. To examine these policy options, trends in solid waste quantities and associated GHG emissions are derived. Three alternative policy scenarios are evaluated in terms of effectiveness, technology, and economics and conclusions posited regarding optimal strategies for Brazil to implement. These scenarios are been building on the guidelines for national inventories of GHG emissions (IPCC, 2006) and adapted to Brazilian states and municipalities’ boundaries. Based on the results, it is possible to say that the potential revenue from products of solid waste management is more than sufficient to transform the current scenario in this country into one of financial and environmental gains, where the negative impacts of climate change have created a huge opportunity to expand infrastructure for waste management.

  3. Laboratory Evaporation Testing Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adamson, Duane J.; Nash, Charles A.; McCabe, Daniel J.; Crawford, Charles L.; Wilmarth, William R.

    2014-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream, LAW Off-Gas Condensate, from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of canistered glass waste forms. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to be within acceptable concentration ranges in the LAW glass. Diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and investigates auxiliary evaporation to enable another disposition path. Unless an auxiliary evaporator is used, returning the stream to the tank farms would require evaporation in the 242-A evaporator. This stream is expected to be unusual because it will be very high in corrosive species that are volatile in the melter (chloride, fluoride, sulfur), will have high ammonia, and will contain carryover particulates of glass-former chemicals. These species have potential to cause corrosion of tanks and equipment, precipitation of solids, release of ammonia gas vapors, and scale in the tank farm evaporator. Routing this stream to the tank farms does not permanently divert it from recycling into the WTP, only temporarily stores it prior to reprocessing. Testing is normally performed to demonstrate acceptable conditions and limits for these compounds in wastes sent to the tank farms. The primary parameter of this phase of the test program was measuring the formation of solids during evaporation in order to assess the compatibility of the stream with the evaporator and transfer and storage equipment. The origin of this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream will be the liquids from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW facility melter offgas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover. The soluble components are expected to be mostly sodium and ammonium salts of nitrate, chloride, and fluoride. This stream has not been generated yet, and, thus, the composition will not be available until the WTP begins operation, but a simulant has been produced based on models, calculations, and comparison with pilot-scale tests. This report discusses results of evaporation testing of the simulant. Two conditions were tested, one with the simulant at near neutral pH, and a second at alkaline pH. The neutral pH test is comparable to the conditions in the Hanford Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) evaporator, although that evaporator operates at near atmospheric pressure and tests were done under vacuum. For the alkaline test, the target pH was based on the tank farm corrosion control program requirements, and the test protocol and equipment was comparable to that used for routine evaluation of feed compatibility studies for the 242-A evaporator. One of the

  4. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Analysis of Simulated Headspace Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlsbad Field Office

    2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for headspace gases distributes sample gases of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for analysis. Participating measurement facilities (i.e., fixed laboratories, mobile analysis systems, and on-line analytical systems) are located across the United States. Each sample distribution is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements performed for transuranic (TRU) waste characterization. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (DOE/CBFO-94-1012) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) contained in the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF) issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The WAP requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAP. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and the applicable requirements of the WAP for the Headspace Gas (HSG) PDP. Participating measurement facilities analyze blind audit samples of simulated TRU waste package headspace gases according to the criteria set by this PDP Plan. Blind audit samples (hereafter referred to as PDP samples) are used as an independent means to assess each measurement facility’s compliance with the WAP quality assurance objectives (QAOs). To the extent possible, the concentrations of VOC analytes in the PDP samples encompass the range of concentrations anticipated in actual TRU waste package headspace gas samples. Analyses of headspace gases are required by the WIPP to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements. These analyses must be performed by measurement facilities that have demonstrated acceptable performance in this PDP. These analyses are referred to as WIPP analyses and the TRU waste package headspace gas samples on which they are performed are referred to as WIPP samples in this document. Participating measurement facilities must analyze PDP samples using the same procedures used for routine waste characterization analyses of WIPP samples.

  5. Specifying Waste Heat Boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganapathy, V.

    or hydrochloric acid vapor should be mentioned upfront so the HRSG designer can take proper precauations while designing the unit.Material selection is also impacted by the presence of corrosive gases.If partial pressure of hydrogen is high in the gas stream...SPECIFYING WASTE HEAT BOILERS V.Ganapathy.ABCO Industries Abilene,Texas ABSTRACT Waste heat boilers or Heat Recovery Steam 'Generators(HRSGs) as they are often called are used to recover energy from waste gas streams in chemical plants...

  6. Cold End Inserts for Process Gas Waste Heat Boilers Air Products, operates hydrogen production plants, which utilize large waste heat boilers (WHB)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    Cold End Inserts for Process Gas Waste Heat Boilers Overview Air Products, operates hydrogen production plants, which utilize large waste heat boilers (WHB) to cool process syngas. The gas enters satisfies all 3 design criteria. · Correlations relating our experimental results to a waste heat boiler

  7. Development of hydrogen gas getters for TRU waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaszuba, J. P. (John P.); Mroz, E. J. (Eugene J.); Peterson, E. (Eric); Stone, M. (Mark); Haga, M. J. (Marc J.)

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Alpha radiolysis of hydrogenous waste and packaging materials generates hydrogen gas in radioactive storage containers. For this reason, the flammable gas (hydrogen) concentration in waste shipment containers (Transuranic Package Transporter-II or TP-II containers) is limited to the lower explosion limit of hydrogen in air (5 vol%). The use of hydrogen getters is being investigated to prevent the build up of hydrogen during storage and transport of the TP-II containers (up to 60 days). Preferred hydrogen getters are solid materials that scavenge hydrogen from the gas phase and chemically and irreversibly bind it in the solid state. One proven getter, 1,4-bis(phenylethynyl)benzene or DEB, belongs to a class of compounds called alkynes, which are characterized by the presence of carbon-carbon triple bonds. These carbon atoms will, in the presence of suitable catalysts such as palladium, irreversibly react with hydrogen to form the corresponding saturated alkane compounds. Because DEB contains two triple bonds, one mole of DEB reacts with 4 moles of hydrogen. The standard formulation for the 'DEB getter' is a mixture of 75% DEB and 25% carbon catalyst (5% palladium on carbon). Certain chemicals such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are known to 'poison' and reduce the activity of the catalyst. Therefore, in addition to the standard formulation, a semi-permeable barrier that encapsulates and protects the getter and its catalyst from poisons was also developed. The uncoated and polymer coated getter formulations were subjected to tests that determined the performance of the getters with regard to capacity, operating temperature range (with hydrogen in nitrogen and in air), hydrogen concentration, poisons, aging, pressure, reversibility, and radiation effects. This testing program was designed to address the following performance requirements: (1) Minimum rate for hydrogen removal of 1.2E-5 moles hydrogen per second for 60 days; (2) Sufficient getter material within the TP-II to ensure that no more than 50% of getter material is consumed during the 60 days; and (3) Adequate hydrogen removal rate from the getter reaction in the absence of the recombination reaction of hydrogen to produce water. This conservative approach provides a measure of safety for waste shipments by ensuring that sufficient getter material is present and by not taking credit for the recombination reaction. The rationale for measuring and reporting the hydrogen removal rate at 50% getter capacity is thus derived. All of the coated getters as well as the uncoated DEB performed well above the performance requirements. Coating the DEB with polymers did not significantly enhance getter performance in the presence of poisons relative to uncoated DEB. The next phase of the project is to evaluate a scaled-up getter package for performance under waste shipping conditions anticipated in the TP-II.

  8. Noble gases identify the mechanisms of fugitive gas contamination in drinking-water wells overlying the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Robert B.

    , Rochester, NY 14627 Edited by Thure E. Cerling, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, and approved August 12, 2014 (received for review November 27, 2013) Horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing have? Against a backdrop of naturally occur- ring salt- and gas-rich groundwater, we identified eight discrete

  9. Industrial Waste Heat Recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ward, M. E.; Solomon, N. G.; Tabb, E. S.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    INDUSTRIAL WASTE HEAT RECOVREY M. E. Ward and N. G. Solomon E. S. Tabb Solar Turbines International and Gas Research Institute San Diego, California Chicago, Illinois ABSTRACT i I One hundred fifty reports were reviewed along with interviews... tests, promising low temperature heat exchanger tube alloys and coated surfaces were identified. 1INTROUCTION of advanced technology heat recovery techniques 1_ Recovering waste heat from the flue gases of the pr~ary objective. Specific objectives...

  10. Setup for in situ investigation of gases and gas/solid interfaces by soft x-ray emission and absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benkert, A., E-mail: andreas.benkert@kit.edu, E-mail: l.weinhardt@kit.edu [Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-v.-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Universität Würzburg, Experimentelle Physik VII, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg (Germany); Gemeinschaftslabor für Nanoanalytik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Blum, M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), 4505 Maryland Parkway, Nevada 89154-4003 (United States) [Department of Chemistry, University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), 4505 Maryland Parkway, Nevada 89154-4003 (United States); Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Meyer, F. [Universität Würzburg, Experimentelle Physik VII, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg (Germany)] [Universität Würzburg, Experimentelle Physik VII, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg (Germany); Wilks, R. G. [Solar Energy Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany)] [Solar Energy Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Yang, W. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)] [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Bär, M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), 4505 Maryland Parkway, Nevada 89154-4003 (United States) [Department of Chemistry, University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), 4505 Maryland Parkway, Nevada 89154-4003 (United States); Solar Energy Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Insitut für Physik und Chemie, Brandenburgische Technische Universität Cottbus-Senftenberg, Konrad-Wachsmann-Allee 1, 03046 Cottbus (Germany); and others

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a novel gas cell designed to study the electronic structure of gases and gas/solid interfaces using soft x-ray emission and absorption spectroscopies. In this cell, the sample gas is separated from the vacuum of the analysis chamber by a thin window membrane, allowing in situ measurements under atmospheric pressure. The temperature of the gas can be regulated from room temperature up to approximately 600?°C. To avoid beam damage, a constant mass flow can be maintained to continuously refresh the gaseous sample. Furthermore, the gas cell provides space for solid-state samples, allowing to study the gas/solid interface for surface catalytic reactions at elevated temperatures. To demonstrate the capabilities of the cell, we have investigated a TiO{sub 2} sample behind a mixture of N{sub 2} and He gas at atmospheric pressure.

  11. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulprathipanja, S.

    1986-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases may be effected by passing a mixture of nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The porous support is pretreated prior to casting of the mixture thereon by contact with a polyhydric alcohol whereby the pores of the support are altered, thus adding to the increased permeability of the polar gas.

  12. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulprathipanja, Santi (Hoffman Estates, IL)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases may be effected by passing a mixture of nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The porous support is pretreated prior to casting of the mixture thereon by contact with a polyhydric alcohol whereby the pores of the support are altered, thus adding to the increased permeability of the polar gas.

  13. Microwave off-gas treatment apparatus and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schulz, Rebecca L. (Aiken, SC); Clark, David E. (Gainesville, FL); Wicks, George G. (North Aiken, SC)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention discloses a microwave off-gas system in which microwave energy is used to treat gaseous waste. A treatment chamber is used to remediate off-gases from an emission source by passing the off-gases through a susceptor matrix, the matrix being exposed to microwave radiation. The microwave radiation and elevated temperatures within the combustion chamber provide for significant reductions in the qualitative and quantitative emissions of the gas waste stream.

  14. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Analysis of Simulated Headspace Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlsbad Field Office

    2007-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for headspace gases distributes blind audit samples in a gas matrix for analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Participating measurement facilities (i.e., fixed laboratories, mobile analysis systems, and on-line analytical systems) are located across the United States. Each sample distribution is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements performed for transuranic (TRU) waste characterization. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (DOE/CBFO-94-1012) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) contained in the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF) issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The WAP requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAP. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and the applicable requirements of the WAP for the Headspace Gas (HSG) PDP. Participating measurement facilities analyze blind audit samples of simulated TRU waste package headspace gases according to the criteria set by this PDP Plan. Blind audit samples (hereafter referred to as PDP samples) are used as an independent means to assess each measurement facility’s compliance with the WAP quality assurance objectives (QAOs). To the extent possible, the concentrations of VOC analytes in the PDP samples encompass the range of concentrations anticipated in actual TRU waste package headspace gas samples. Analyses of headspace gases are required by the WIPP to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements. These analyses must be performed by measurement facilities that have demonstrated acceptable performance in this PDP. These analyses are referred to as WIPP analyses and the TRU waste package headspace gas samples on which they are performed are referred to as WIPP samples in this document. Participating measurement facilities must analyze PDP samples using the same procedures used for routine waste characterization analyses of WIPP samples.

  15. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Analysis of Simulated Headspace Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlsbad Field Office

    2007-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for headspace gases distributes blind audit samples in a gas matrix for analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Participating measurement facilities (i.e., fixed laboratories, mobile analysis systems, and on-line analytical systems) are located across the United States. Each sample distribution is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements performed for transuranic (TRU) waste characterization. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (DOE/CBFO-94-1012) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) contained in the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF) issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The WAP requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAP. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and the applicable requirements of the WAP for the Headspace Gas (HSG) PDP. Participating measurement facilities analyze blind audit samples of simulated TRU waste package headspace gases according to the criteria set by this PDP Plan. Blind audit samples (hereafter referred to as PDP samples) are used as an independent means to assess each measurement facility’s compliance with the WAP quality assurance objectives (QAOs). To the extent possible, the concentrations of VOC analytes in the PDP samples encompass the range of concentrations anticipated in actual TRU waste package headspace gas samples. Analyses of headspace gases are required by the WIPP to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements. These analyses must be performed by measurement facilities that have demonstrated acceptable performance in this PDP. These analyses are referred to as WIPP analyses and the TRU waste package headspace gas samples on which they are performed are referred to as WIPP samples in this document. Participating measurement facilities must analyze PDP samples using the same procedures used for routine waste characterization analyses of WIPP samples.

  16. Desulfurization of fuel gases in fluidized bed gasification and hot fuel gas cleanup systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, M.; Farber, G.; Pruzansky, J.; Yoo, H.J.; McGauley, P.

    1983-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A problem with the commercialization of fluidized bed gasification is that vast amounts of spent sorbent are generated if the sorbent is used on a once-through basis, especially if high sulfur coals are burned. The requirements of a sorbent for regenerative service in the FBG process are: (1) it must be capable of reducing the sulfur containing gas concentration of the FBG flue gas to within acceptable environmental standards; (2) it must not lose its reactivity on cyclic sulfidation and regeneration; (3) it must be capable of regeneration with elimination of substantially all of its sulfur content; (4) it must have good attrition resistance; and, (5) its cost must not be prohibitive. It has now been discovered that calcium silicate pellets, e.g., Portland cement type III pellets meet the criteria aforesaid. Calcium silicate removes COS and H/sub 2/S according to the reactions given to produce calcium sulfide silicate. The sulfur containing product can be regenerated using CO/sub 2/ as the regenerant. The sulfur dioxide can be conveniently reduced to sulfur with hydrogen or carbon for market or storage. The basic reactions in the process of this invention are the reactions with calcium silicate given in the patent. A convenient and inexpensive source of calcium silicate is Portland cement. Portland cement is a readily available, widely used construction meterial.

  17. ESTIMATION OF RADIOLYTIC GAS GENERATION RATE FOR CYLINDRICAL RADIOACTIVE WASTE PACKAGES - APPLICATION TO SPENT ION EXCHANGE RESIN CONTAINERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Husain, A.; Lewis, Brent J.

    2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioactive waste packages containing water and/or organic substances have the potential to radiolytically generate hydrogen and other combustible gases. Typically, the radiolytic gas generation rate is estimated from the energy deposition rate and the radiolytic gas yield. Estimation of the energy deposition rate must take into account the contributions from all radionuclides. While the contributions from non-gamma emitting radionuclides are relatively easy to estimate, an average geometry factor must be computed to determine the contribution from gamma emitters. Hitherto, no satisfactory method existed for estimating the geometry factors for a cylindrical package. In the present study, a formulation was developed taking into account the effect of photon buildup. A prototype code, called PC-CAGE, was developed to numerically solve the integrals involved. Based on the selected dimensions for a cylinder, the specified waste material, the photon energy of interest and a value for either the absorption or attenuation coefficient, the code outputs values for point and average geometry factors. These can then be used to estimate the internal dose rate to the material in the cylinder and hence to calculate the radiolytic gas generation rate. Besides the ability to estimate the rates of radiolytic gas generation, PC-CAGE can also estimate the dose received by the container material. This is based on values for the point geometry factors at the surface of the cylinder. PC-CAGE was used to calculate geometry factors for a number of cylindrical geometries. Estimates for the absorbed dose rate in container material were also obtained. The results for Ontario Power Generation's 3 m3 resin containers indicate that about 80% of the source gamma energy is deposited internally. In general, the fraction of gamma energy deposited internally depends on the dimensions of the cylinder, the material within it and the photon energy; the fraction deposited increases with increasing dimensions of the cylinder and decreases with increasing photon energy.

  18. Framework for managing wastes from oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) sites.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.; Puder, M. G.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil and gas companies operate in many countries around the world. Their exploration and production (E&P) operations generate many kinds of waste that must be carefully and appropriately managed. Some of these wastes are inherently part of the E&P process; examples are drilling wastes and produced water. Other wastes are generic industrial wastes that are not unique to E&P activities, such as painting wastes and scrap metal. Still other wastes are associated with the presence of workers at the site; these include trash, food waste, and laundry wash water. In some host countries, mature environmental regulatory programs are in place that provide for various waste management options on the basis of the characteristics of the wastes and the environmental settings of the sites. In other countries, the waste management requirements and authorized options are stringent, even though the infrastructure to meet the requirements may not be available yet. In some cases, regulations and/or waste management infrastructure do not exist at all. Companies operating in these countries can be confronted with limited and expensive waste management options.

  19. Modelling and Numerical Simulation of Gas Migration in a Nuclear Waste Repository

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bourgeat, Alain; Smai, Farid

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a compositional compressible two-phase, liquid and gas, flow model for numerical simulations of hydrogen migration in deep geological radioactive waste repository. This model includes capillary effects and the gas diffusivity. The choice of the main variables in this model, Total or Dissolved Hydrogen Mass Concentration and Liquid Pressure, leads to a unique and consistent formulation of the gas phase appearance and disappearance. After introducing this model, we show computational evidences of its adequacy to simulate gas phase appearance and disappearance in different situations typical of underground radioactive waste repository.

  20. Fluid Bed Waste Heat Boiler Operating Experience in Dirty Gas Streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kreeger, A. H.

    FLUID BED WASTE HEAT BOILER OPERATING EXPERIENCE IN DIRTY GAS STREAMS Alan H. Kreeger. Aerojet Energy Conversion Company. Sacramento. California ABSTRACT The first industrial fluid bed waste heat boiler in the U. S. is operating... on an aluminium melting furnace at the ALCOA Massena Integrated Aluminum Works in upstate New York. Waste heat from an aluminum melting furnace is captured for general plant use for the first time in this plant. It is accomplished with advanced fluid bed heat...

  1. Improved Hydrogen Gas Getters for TRU Waste -- Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Stone; Michael Benson; Christopher Orme; Thomas Luther; Eric Peterson

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Alpha radiolysis of hydrogenous waste and packaging materials generates hydrogen gas in radioactive storage containers. For that reason, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission limits the flammable gas (hydrogen) concentration in the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) containers to 5 vol% of hydrogen in air, which is the lower explosion limit. Consequently, a method is needed to prevent the build up of hydrogen to 5 vol% during the storage and transport of the TRUPACT-II containers (up to 60 days). One promising option is the use of hydrogen getters. These materials scavenge hydrogen from the gas phase and irreversibly bind it in the solid phase. One proven getter is a material called 1,4-bis (phenylethynyl) benzene, or DEB, characterized by the presence of carbon-carbon triple bonds. Carbon may, in the presence of suitable precious metal catalysts such as palladium, irreversibly react with and bind hydrogen. In the presence of oxygen, the precious metal may also eliminate hydrogen by catalyzing the formation of water. This reaction is called catalytic recombination. DEB has the needed binding rate and capacity for hydrogen that potentially could be generated in the TRUPACT II. Phases 1 and 2 of this project showed that uncoated DEB performed satisfactorily in lab scale tests. Based upon these results, Phase 3, the final project phase, included larger scale testing. Test vessels were scaled to replicate the ratio between void space in the inner containment vessel of a TRUPACT-II container and a payload of seven 55-gallon drums. The tests were run with an atmosphere of air for 63.9 days at ambient temperature (15-27°C) and a scaled hydrogen generation rate of 2.60E-07 moles per second (0.35 cc/min). A second type of getter known as VEI, a proprietary polymer hydrogen getter characterized by carbon-carbon double bonds, was also tested in Phase 3. Hydrogen was successfully “gettered” by both getter systems. Hydrogen concentrations remained below 5 vol% (in air) for the duration of the tests. However, catalytic reaction of hydrogen with carbon triple or double bonds in the getter materials did not take place. Instead, catalytic recombination was the predominant gettering mechanism in both getter materials as evidenced by (1) consumption of oxygen in the belljars, (2) production of free water in the belljars, and (3) absence of chemical changes in both getter materials as shown by nuclear magnetic resonance spectra.

  2. Comparing the greenhouse gas emissions from three alternative waste combustion concepts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vainikka, Pasi, E-mail: pasi.vainikka@vtt.fi [VTT, Koivurannantie 1, FIN 40101 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Tsupari, Eemeli; Sipilae, Kai [VTT, Koivurannantie 1, FIN 40101 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Hupa, Mikko [Aabo Akademi Process Chemistry Centre, Piispankatu 8, FIN 20500 Turku (Finland)

    2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Significant GHG reductions are possible by efficient WtE technologies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CHP and high power-to-heat ratio provide significant GHG savings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N{sub 2}O and coal mine type are important in LCA GHG emissions of FBC co-combustion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substituting coal and fuel oil by waste is beneficial in electricity and heat production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substituting natural gas by waste may not be reasonable in CHP generation. - Abstract: Three alternative condensing mode power and combined heat and power (CHP) waste-to-energy concepts were compared in terms of their impacts on the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a heat and power generation system. The concepts included (i) grate, (ii) bubbling fluidised bed (BFB) and (iii) circulating fluidised bed (CFB) combustion of waste. The BFB and CFB take advantage of advanced combustion technology which enabled them to reach electric efficiency up to 35% and 41% in condensing mode, respectively, whereas 28% (based on the lower heating value) was applied for the grate fired unit. A simple energy system model was applied in calculating the GHG emissions in different scenarios where coal or natural gas was substituted in power generation and mix of fuel oil and natural gas in heat generation by waste combustion. Landfilling and waste transportation were not considered in the model. GHG emissions were reduced significantly in all of the considered scenarios where the waste combustion concepts substituted coal based power generation. With the exception of condensing mode grate incinerator the different waste combustion scenarios resulted approximately in 1 Mton of fossil CO{sub 2}-eq. emission reduction per 1 Mton of municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerated. When natural gas based power generation was substituted by electricity from the waste combustion significant GHG emission reductions were not achieved.

  3. Investigation of feasibility of injecting power plant waste gases for enhanced coalbed methane recovery from low rank coals in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saugier, Luke Duncan

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) may be to blame for a gradual rise in the average global temperature. The state of Texas emits more CO2 than any other state in the U.S., and a large fraction of emissions are ...

  4. Kinetics of Cold-Cap Reactions for Vitrification of Nuclear Waste Glass Based on Simultaneous Differential Scanning Calorimetry - Thermogravimetry (DSC-TGA) and Evolved Gas Analysis (EGA)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, Carmen P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); ; Pierce, David A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); ; Schweiger, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); ; Kruger, Albert A. [USDOE Office of River Protection, Richland, WA (United States); Chun, Jaehun [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); ; Hrma, Pavel R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States);

    2013-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    For vitrifying nuclear waste glass, the feed, a mixture of waste with glass-forming and modifying additives, is charged onto the cold cap that covers 90-100% of the melt surface. The cold cap consists of a layer of reacting molten glass floating on the surface of the melt in an all-electric, continuous glass melter. As the feed moves through the cold cap, it undergoes chemical reactions and phase transitions through which it is converted to molten glass that moves from the cold cap into the melt pool. The process involves a series of reactions that generate multiple gases and subsequent mass loss and foaming significantly influence the mass and heat transfers. The rate of glass melting, which is greatly influenced by mass and heat transfers, affects the vitrification process and the efficiency of the immobilization of nuclear waste. We studied the cold-cap reactions of a representative waste glass feed using both the simultaneous differential scanning calorimetry thermogravimetry (DSC-TGA) and the thermogravimetry coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (TGA-GC-MS) as complementary tools to perform evolved gas analysis (EGA). Analyses from DSC-TGA and EGA on the cold-cap reactions provide a key element for the development of an advanced cold-cap model. It also helps to formulate melter feeds for higher production rate.

  5. The Beckett System Recovery and Utilization of Low Grade Waste Heat From Flue Gas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, W. R.; DeBiase, J. F.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Beckett Heat Recovery is a series of techniques for recovering low-grade waste heat from flue gas. Until the cost of fossil fuels began rising rapidly, flue gas below 600 F was considered economically unworthy of reclaim. This paper...

  6. HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ENE-47.153 Greenhouse gases andGreenhouse gases and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    in gas turbinecombustion in gas turbine HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ENE-47.153 Effect of COEffect-depleting gases ·· COCO22 removal for gas purificationremoval for gas purification ·· COCO22 removal for greenhouse gas emissions reductionremoval for greenhouse gas emissions reduction ·· Other greenhouse gases

  7. Assessment of natural gas technology opportunities in the treatment of selected metals containing wastes. Topical report, June 1994-August 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGervey, J.; Holmes, J.G.; Bluestein, J.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report analyzes the disposal of certain waste streams that contain heavy metals, as determined by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations. Generation of the wastes, the regulatory status of the wastes, and current treatment practices are characterized, and the role of natural gas is determined. The four hazardous metal waste streams addressed in this report are electric arc furnace (EAF) dust, electroplating sludge wastes, used and off-specification circuit boards and cathode ray tubes, and wastes from lead manufacturing. This report assesses research and development opportunities relevant to natural gas technologies that may result from current and future enviromental regulations.

  8. Characterization of oil and gas waste disposal practices and assessment of treatment costs. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bedient, P.B.

    1995-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This study examines wastes associated with the onshore exploration and production of crude oil and natural gas in the US. The objective of this study was to update and enhance the current state of knowledge with regard to oil and gas waste quantities, the potential environmental impact of these wastes, potential methods of treatment, and the costs associated with meeting various degrees of treatment. To meet this objective, the study consisted of three tasks: (1) the development of a production Environmental Database (PED) for the purpose of assessing current oil and gas waste volumes by state and for investigating the potential environmental impacts associated with current waste disposal practices on a local scale; (2) the evaluation of available and developing technologies for treating produced water waste streams and the identification of unit process configurations; and (3) the evaluation of the costs associated with various degrees of treatment achievable by different treatment configurations. The evaluation of feasible technologies for the treatment of produced water waste streams was handled in the context of comparing the level of treatment achievable with the associated cost of treatment. Treatment processes were evaluated for the removal of four categories of produced water contaminants: particulate material, volatile organic compounds, adsorbable organic compounds, and dissolved inorganic species. Results showed dissolved inorganic species to be the most costly to remove. The potential cost of treating all 18.3 billion barrels of produced water generated in a year amounts to some 15 billion dollars annually.

  9. Waste processing air cleaning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kriskovich, J.R.

    1998-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Waste processing and preparing waste to support waste processing relies heavily on ventilation. Ventilation is used at the Hanford Site on the waste storage tanks to provide confinement, cooling, and removal of flammable gases.

  10. Compact Ceramic Heat Exchangers for Corrosive Waste Gas Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laws, W. R.; Reed, G. R.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    developed for low temperature corrosive gas situations and have been applied to the pottery industry and are being developed for coal fired air heaters for the food industry....

  11. Critique of Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant off-gas sampling requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goles, R.W.

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Off-gas sampling and monitoring activities needed to support operations safety, process control, waste form qualification, and environmental protection requirements of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) have been evaluated. The locations of necessary sampling sites have been identified on the basis of plant requirements, and the applicability of Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) reference sampling equipment to these HWVP requirements has been assessed for all sampling sites. Equipment deficiencies, if present, have been described and the bases for modifications and/or alternative approaches have been developed.

  12. Gas generation from low-level radioactive waste: Concerns for disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siskind, B.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Advisory Committee on Nuclear Waste (ACNW) has urged the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to reexamine the topic of hydrogen gas generation from low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in closed spaces to ensure that the slow buildup of hydrogen from water-bearing wastes in sealed containers does not become a problem for long-term safe disposal. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has prepared a report, summarized in this paper, for the NRC to respond to these concerns. The paper discusses the range of values for G(H{sub 2}) reported for materials of relevance to LLW disposal; most of these values are in the range of 0.1 to 0.6. Most studies of radiolytic hydrogen generation indicate a leveling off of pressurization, probably because of chemical kinetics involving, in many cases, the radiolysis of water within the waste. Even if no leveling off occurs, realistic gas leakage rates (indicating poor closure by gaskets on drums and liners) will result in adequate relief of pressure for radiolytic gas generation from the majority of commercial sector LLW packages. Biodegradative gas generation, however, could pose a pressurization hazard even at realistic gas leakage rates. Recommendations include passive vents on LLW containers (as already specified for high integrity containers) and upper limits to the G values and/or the specific activity of the LLW.

  13. Gas generation from low-level radioactive waste: Concerns for disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siskind, B.

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Advisory Committee on Nuclear Waste (ACNW) has urged the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to reexamine the topic of hydrogen gas generation from low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in closed spaces to ensure that the slow buildup of hydrogen from water-bearing wastes in sealed containers does not become a problem for long-term safe disposal. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has prepared a report, summarized in this paper, for the NRC to respond to these concerns. The paper discusses the range of values for G(H{sub 2}) reported for materials of relevance to LLW disposal; most of these values are in the range of 0.1 to 0.6. Most studies of radiolytic hydrogen generation indicate a leveling off of pressurization, probably because of chemical kinetics involving, in many cases, the radiolysis of water within the waste. Even if no leveling off occurs, realistic gas leakage rates (indicating poor closure by gaskets on drums and liners) will result in adequate relief of pressure for radiolytic gas generation from the majority of commercial sector LLW packages. Biodegradative gas generation, however, could pose a pressurization hazard even at realistic gas leakage rates. Recommendations include passive vents on LLW containers (as already specified for high integrity containers) and upper limits to the G values and/or the specific activity of the LLW.

  14. LABORATORY OPTIMIZATION TESTS OF TECHNETIUM DECONTAMINATION OF HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT LOW ACTIVITY WASTE OFF-GAS CONDENSATE SIMULANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Nash, C.; McCabe, D.

    2014-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the potential treatment of this stream to remove radionuclides and subsequently disposition the decontaminated stream elsewhere, such as the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), for example. The treatment process envisioned is very similar to that used for the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) that has been operating for years at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and focuses on using mature radionuclide removal technologies that are also compatible with longterm tank storage and immobilization methods. For this new application, testing is needed to demonstrate acceptable treatment sorbents and precipitating agents and measure decontamination factors for additional radionuclides in this unique waste stream. The origin of this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream will be the liquids from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover. The soluble components are expected to be mostly sodium and ammonium salts of nitrate, chloride, and fluoride. This stream has not been generated yet and will not be available until the WTP begins operation, but a simulant has been produced based on models, calculations, and comparison with pilot-scale tests. One of the radionuclides that is volatile and expected to be in greatest abundance in this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream is Technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc). Technetium will not be removed from the aqueous waste in the Hanford WTP, and will primarily end up immobilized in the LAW glass by repeated recycle of the off-gas condensate into the LAW melter. Other radionuclides that are low but are also expected to be in measurable concentration in the LAW Off-Gas Condensate are {sup 129}I, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 241}Pu, and {sup 241}Am. These are present due to their partial volatility and some entrainment in the off-gas system. This report discusses results of optimized {sup 99}Tc decontamination testing of the simulant. Testing examined use of inorganic reducing agents for {sup 99}Tc. Testing focused on minimizing the quantity of sorbents/reactants added, and minimizing mixing time to reach the decontamination targets in this simulant formulation. Stannous chloride and ferrous sulfate were tested as reducing agents to determine the minimum needed to convert soluble pertechnetate to the insoluble technetium dioxide. The reducing agents were tried with and without sorbents.

  15. Microbial Gas Generation Under Expected Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Repository Conditions: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas generation from the microbial degradation of the organic constituents of transuranic (TRU) waste under conditions expected in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was investigated. The biodegradation of mixed cellulosic materials and electron-beam irradiated plastic and rubber materials (polyethylene, polyvinylchloride, hypalon, leaded hypalon, and neoprene) was examined. We evaluated the effects of environmental variables such as initial atmosphere (air or nitrogen), water content (humid ({approx}70% relative humidity, RH) and brine inundated), and nutrient amendments (nitogen phosphate, yeast extract, and excess nitrate) on microbial gas generation. Total gas production was determined by pressure measurement and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}) were analyzed by gas chromatography; cellulose degradation products in solution were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Microbial populations in the samples were determined by direct microscopy and molecular analysis. The results of this work are summarized.

  16. A study of tritium in municipal solid waste leachate and gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mutch Jr, R. D. [HydroQual, Inc., 1200 MacArthur Blvd., Mahwah, NJ 07430 (United States); Manhattan College, Riverdale, NY (United States); Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Mahony, J. D. [HydroQual, Inc., 1200 MacArthur Blvd., Mahwah, NJ 07430 (United States); Manhattan College, Riverdale, NY (United States)

    2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    It has become increasingly clear in the last few years that the vast majority of municipal solid waste landfills produce leachate that contains elevated levels of tritium. The authors recently conducted a study of landfills in New York and New Jersey and found that the mean concentration of tritium in the leachate from ten municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills was 33,800 pCi/L with a peak value of 192,000 pCi/L. A 2003 study in California reported a mean tritium concentration of 99,000 pCi/L with a peak value of 304,000 pCi/L. Studies in Pennsylvania and the UK produced similar results. The USEPA MCL for tritium is 20,000 pCi/L. Tritium is also manifesting itself as landfill gas and landfill gas condensate. Landfill gas condensate samples from landfills in the UK and California were found to have tritium concentrations as high as 54,400 and 513,000 pCi/L, respectively. The tritium found in MSW leachate is believed to derive principally from gaseous tritium lighting devices used in some emergency exit signs, compasses, watches, and even novelty items, such as 'glow stick' key chains. This study reports the findings of recent surveys of leachate from a number of municipal solid waste landfills, both open and closed, from throughout the United States and Europe. The study evaluates the human health and ecological risks posed by elevated tritium levels in municipal solid waste leachate and landfill gas and the implications to their safe management. We also assess the potential risks posed to solid waste management facility workers exposed to tritium-containing waste materials in transfer stations and other solid waste management facilities. (authors)

  17. The impact of municipal solid waste treatment methods on greenhouse gas emissions in Lahore, Pakistan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batool, Syeda Adila [Department of Space Science, Punjab University, Lahore 54600 (Pakistan)], E-mail: aadila_batool@yahoo.com; Chuadhry, Muhammad Nawaz [College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan)], E-mail: muhammadnawazchaudhry@yahoo.com

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The contribution of existing municipal solid waste management to emission of greenhouse gases and the alternative scenarios to reduce emissions were analyzed for Data Ganj Bukhsh Town (DGBT) in Lahore, Pakistan using the life cycle assessment methodology. DGBT has a population of 1,624,169 people living in 232,024 dwellings. Total waste generated is 500,000 tons per year with an average per capita rate of 0.84 kg per day. Alternative scenarios were developed and evaluated according to the environmental, economic, and social atmosphere of the study area. Solid waste management options considered include the collection and transportation of waste, collection of recyclables with single and mixed material bank container systems (SMBCS, MMBCS), material recovery facilities (MRF), composting, biogasification and landfilling. A life cycle inventory (LCI) of the six scenarios along with the baseline scenario was completed; this helped to quantify the CO{sub 2} equivalents, emitted and avoided, for energy consumption, production, fuel consumption, and methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions. LCI results showed that the contribution of the baseline scenario to the global warming potential as CO{sub 2} equivalents was a maximum of 838,116 tons. The sixth scenario had a maximum reduction of GHG emissions in terms of CO{sub 2} equivalents of -33,773 tons, but the most workable scenario for the current situation in the study area is scenario 5. It saves 25% in CO{sub 2} equivalents compared to the baseline scenario.

  18. Report on the handling of safety information concerning flammable gases and ferrocyanide at the Hanford waste tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses concerns safety issues, and management at Hanford Tank Farm. Concerns center on the issue of flammable gas generation which could ignite, and on possible exothermic reactions of ferrocyanide compounds which were added to single shell tanks in the 1950's. It is believed that information concerning these issues has been mis-handled and the problems poorly managed. (CBS)

  19. "Trace Analysis of Speciality and Electronic Gases," Chapter 4, "Emerging Infrared Laser Absorption Spectroscopic Techniques for Gas Analysis"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lascola, R.; McWhorter, S.; Tittel, F.; Lewicki, R.

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter covers Laser Absorption Spectroscopic Techniques and Applications of Semiconductor LAS Based Trace Gas Sensor Systems.

  20. Power plant including an exhaust gas recirculation system for injecting recirculated exhaust gases in the fuel and compressed air of a gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy; Shaffer, Jason Brian; York, William David

    2014-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A power plant is provided and includes a gas turbine engine having a combustor in which compressed gas and fuel are mixed and combusted, first and second supply lines respectively coupled to the combustor and respectively configured to supply the compressed gas and the fuel to the combustor and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system to re-circulate exhaust gas produced by the gas turbine engine toward the combustor. The EGR system is coupled to the first and second supply lines and configured to combine first and second portions of the re-circulated exhaust gas with the compressed gas and the fuel at the first and second supply lines, respectively.

  1. Gas Releases During Saltcake Dissolution for Retrieval of Single-Shell Tank Waste, Rev. 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, Charles W.

    2001-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    It is possible to retrieve a large fraction of soluble waste from the Hanford single-shell waste tanks (SSTs) by dissolving it with water. This retrieval method will be demonstrated in Tanks U-107 and S-112 in the next few years. If saltcake dissolution proves practical and effective, many of the saltcake SSTs may be retrieved by this method. Many of the SSTs retain flammable gas that will be released into the tank headspace as the waste dissolves. This report describes the physical processes that control dissolution and gas release. Calculation results are shown and describe how the headspace hydrogen concentration evolves during dissolution. The observed spontaneous and induced gas releases from SSTs are summarized, and the dissolution of the crust layer in SY-101 is discussed as a recent example of full-scale dissolution of saltcake containing a large volume of retained gas. The report concludes that the dissolution rate is self-limiting and that gas release rates are relatively low.

  2. Final Report - "Foaming and Antifoaming and Gas Entrainment in Radioactive Waste Pretreatment and Immobilization Processes"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wasan, Darsh T.

    2007-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) and Hanford site are in the process of stabilizing millions of gallons of radioactive waste slurries remaining from production of nuclear materials for the Department of Energy (DOE). The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at SRS is currently vitrifying the waste in borosilicate glass, while the facilities at the Hanford site are in the construction phase. Both processes utilize slurry-fed joule-heated melters to vitrify the waste slurries. The DWPF has experienced difficulty during operations. The cause of the operational problems has been attributed to foaming, gas entrainment and the rheological properties of the process slurries. The rheological properties of the waste slurries limit the total solids content that can be processed by the remote equipment during the pretreatment and meter feed processes. Highly viscous material can lead to air entrainment during agitation and difficulties with pump operations. Excessive foaming in waste evaporators can cause carryover of radionuclides and non-radioactive waste to the condensate system. Experimental and theoretical investigations of the surface phenomena, suspension rheology and bubble generation of interactions that lead to foaming and air entrainment problems in the DOE High Level and Low Activity Radioactive Waste separation and immobilization processes were pursued under this project. The first major task accomplished in the grant proposal involved development of a theoretical model of the phenomenon of foaming in a three-phase gas-liquid-solid slurry system. This work was presented in a recently completed Ph.D. thesis (9). The second major task involved the investigation of the inter-particle interaction and microstructure formation in a model slurry by the batch sedimentation method. Both experiments and modeling studies were carried out. The results were presented in a recently completed Ph.D. thesis. The third task involved the use of laser confocal microscopy to study the effectiveness of three slurry rheology modifiers. An effective modifier was identified which resulted in lowering the yield stress of the waste simulant. Therefore, the results of this research have led to the basic understanding of the foaming/antifoaming mechanism in waste slurries as well as identification of a rheology modifier, which enhances the processing throughput, and accelerates the DOE mission. The objectives of this research effort were to develop a fundamental understanding of the physico-chemical mechanisms that produced foaming and air entrainment in the DOE High Level (HLW) and Low Activity (LAW) radioactive waste separation and immobilization processes, and to develop and test advanced antifoam/defoaming/rheology modifier agents. Antifoams/rheology modifiers developed from this research ere tested using non-radioactive simulants of the radioactive wastes obtained from Hanford and the Savannah River Site (SRS).

  3. Capturing Waste Gas: Saves Energy, Lower Costs - Case Study, 2013 |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China U.S. Department ofJuneWaste To Wisdom: UtilizingDepartment62-LNG -First12Department

  4. Improved correlations for retrograde gases 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crogh, Arne

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three correlations for retrograde gases have been developed. First, a correlation was developed that relates the composition of a retrograde gas-condensate mixture at any depletion stage to the composition at its dew point ...

  5. Corrosion-induced gas generation in a nuclear waste repository: Reactive geochemistry and multiphase flow effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, T.; Senger, R.; Finsterle, S.

    2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Corrosion of steel canisters, stored in a repository for spent fuel and high-level nuclear wastes, leads to the generation and accumulation of hydrogen gas in the backfilled emplacement tunnels, which may significantly affect long-term repository safety. Previous studies used H{sub 2} generation rates based on the volume of the waste or canister material and the stoichiometry of the corrosion reaction. However, iron corrosion and H{sub 2} generation rates vary with time, depending on factors such as amount of iron, water availability, water contact area, and aqueous and solid chemistry. To account for these factors and feedback mechanisms, we developed a chemistry model related to iron corrosion, coupled with two-phase (liquid and gas) flow phenomena that are driven by gas-pressure buildup associated with H{sub 2} generation and water consumption. Results indicate that by dynamically calculating H{sub 2} generation rates based on a simple model of corrosion chemistry, and by coupling this corrosion reaction with two-phase flow processes, the degree and extent of gas pressure buildup could be much smaller compared to a model that neglects the coupling between flow and reactive transport mechanisms. By considering the feedback of corrosion chemistry, the gas pressure increases initially at the canister, but later decreases and eventually returns to a stabilized pressure that is slightly higher than the background pressure. The current study focuses on corrosion under anaerobic conditions for which the coupled hydrogeochemical model was used to examine the role of selected physical parameters on the H{sub 2} gas generation and corresponding pressure buildup in a nuclear waste repository. The developed model can be applied to evaluate the effect of water and mineral chemistry of the buffer and host rock on the corrosion reaction for future site-specific studies.

  6. Summary of flammable gas hazard and potential consequences in tank waste remediation system facility at the Hanford site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Vleet, R.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides a summary of the flammable gas program since 1992. It provides the best understanding of generation, retention, release of flammable gases. It gives a composition for each of the flammable gas tanks, calculates postulated concentrations in the event of a release, calculates the pressure obtained during a burn, and provides radiological and toxicological consequences. Controls from the analysis are found in WHC-SD-WM-SAR-067.

  7. Offsite commercial disposal of oil and gas exploration and production waste :availability, options, and cost.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puder, M. G.; Veil, J. A.

    2006-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A survey conducted in 1995 by the American Petroleum Institute (API) found that the U.S. exploration and production (E&P) segment of the oil and gas industry generated more than 149 million bbl of drilling wastes, almost 18 billion bbl of produced water, and 21 million bbl of associated wastes. The results of that survey, published in 2000, suggested that 3% of drilling wastes, less than 0.5% of produced water, and 15% of associated wastes are sent to offsite commercial facilities for disposal. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) collected information on commercial E&P waste disposal companies in different states in 1997. While the information is nearly a decade old, the report has proved useful. In 2005, Argonne began collecting current information to update and expand the data. This report describes the new 2005-2006 database and focuses on the availability of offsite commercial disposal companies, the prevailing disposal methods, and estimated disposal costs. The data were collected in two phases. In the first phase, state oil and gas regulatory officials in 31 states were contacted to determine whether their agency maintained a list of permitted commercial disposal companies dedicated to oil. In the second stage, individual commercial disposal companies were interviewed to determine disposal methods and costs. The availability of offsite commercial disposal companies and facilities falls into three categories. The states with high oil and gas production typically have a dedicated network of offsite commercial disposal companies and facilities in place. In other states, such an infrastructure does not exist and very often, commercial disposal companies focus on produced water services. About half of the states do not have any industry-specific offsite commercial disposal infrastructure. In those states, operators take their wastes to local municipal landfills if permitted or haul the wastes to other states. This report provides state-by-state summaries of the types of offsite commercial disposal facilities that are found in each state. In later sections, data are presented by waste type and then by disposal method.

  8. Quantification of greenhouse gas emissions from waste management processes for municipalities - A comparative review focusing on Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedrich, Elena, E-mail: Friedriche@ukzn.ac.za [CRECHE Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Surveying and Construction, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban (South Africa); Trois, Cristina [CRECHE Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Surveying and Construction, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban (South Africa)

    2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The amount of greenhouse gases (GHG) emitted due to waste management in the cities of developing countries is predicted to rise considerably in the near future; however, these countries have a series of problems in accounting and reporting these gases. Some of these problems are related to the status quo of waste management in the developing world and some to the lack of a coherent framework for accounting and reporting of greenhouse gases from waste at municipal level. This review summarizes and compares GHG emissions from individual waste management processes which make up a municipal waste management system, with an emphasis on developing countries and, in particular, Africa. It should be seen as a first step towards developing a more holistic GHG accounting model for municipalities. The comparison between these emissions from developed and developing countries at process level, reveals that there is agreement on the magnitude of the emissions expected from each process (generation of waste, collection and transport, disposal and recycling). The highest GHG savings are achieved through recycling, and these savings would be even higher in developing countries which rely on coal for energy production (e.g. South Africa, India and China) and where non-motorized collection and transport is used. The highest emissions are due to the methane released by dumpsites and landfills, and these emissions are predicted to increase significantly, unless more of the methane is captured and either flared or used for energy generation. The clean development mechanism (CDM) projects implemented in the developing world have made some progress in this field; however, African countries lag behind.

  9. Improved Hydrogen Gas Getters for TRU Waste Transuranic and Mixed Waste Focus Area - Phase 2 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stone, Mark Lee

    2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Alpha radiolysis of hydrogenous waste and packaging materials generates hydrogen gas in radioactive storage containers. For that reason, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) limits the flammable gas (hydrogen) concentration in the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) containers to 5 vol% of hydrogen in air, which is the lower explosion limit. Consequently, a method is needed to prevent the build up of hydrogen to 5 vol% during the storage and transport of the TRUPACT-II containers (up to 60 days). One promising option is the use of hydrogen getters. These materials scavenge hydrogen from the gas phase and irreversibly bind it in the solid phase. One proven getter is a material called 1,4-bis (phenylethynyl) benzene, or DEB. It has the needed binding rate and capacity, but some of the chemical species that might be present in the containers could interfere with its ability to remove hydrogen. This project is focused upon developing a protective polymeric membrane coating for the DEB getter material, which comes in the form of small, irregularly shaped particles. This report summarizes the experimental results of the second phase of the development of the materials.

  10. Potential application of microsensor technology in radioactive waste management with emphasis on headspace gas detection.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, Chad Edward; Thomas, Michael Loren; Wright, Jerome L.; Pohl, Phillip Isabio; Hughes, Robert Clark; Wang, Yifeng; McGrath, Lucas K.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Gao, Huizhen

    2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Waste characterization is probably the most costly part of radioactive waste management. An important part of this characterization is the measurements of headspace gas in waste containers in order to demonstrate the compliance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) or transportation requirements. The traditional chemical analysis methods, which include all steps of gas sampling, sample shipment and laboratory analysis, are expensive and time-consuming as well as increasing worker's exposure to hazardous environments. Therefore, an alternative technique that can provide quick, in-situ, and real-time detections of headspace gas compositions is highly desirable. This report summarizes the results obtained from a Laboratory Directed Research & Development (LDRD) project entitled 'Potential Application of Microsensor Technology in Radioactive Waste Management with Emphasis on Headspace Gas Detection'. The objective of this project is to bridge the technical gap between the current status of microsensor development and the intended applications of these sensors in nuclear waste management. The major results are summarized below: {sm_bullet} A literature review was conducted on the regulatory requirements for headspace gas sampling/analysis in waste characterization and monitoring. The most relevant gaseous species and the related physiochemical environments were identified. It was found that preconcentrators might be needed in order for chemiresistor sensors to meet desired detection {sm_bullet} A long-term stability test was conducted for a polymer-based chemresistor sensor array. Significant drifts were observed over the time duration of one month. Such drifts should be taken into account for long-term in-situ monitoring. {sm_bullet} Several techniques were explored to improve the performance of sensor polymers. It has been demonstrated that freeze deposition of black carbon (CB)-polymer composite can effectively eliminate the so-called 'coffee ring' effect and lead to a desirable uniform distribution of CB particles in sensing polymer films. The optimal ratio of CB/polymer has been determined. UV irradiation has been shown to improve sensor sensitivity. {sm_bullet} From a large set of commercially available polymers, five polymers were selected to form a sensor array that was able to provide optimal responses to six target-volatile organic compounds (VOCs). A series of tests on the response of sensor array to various VOC concentrations have been performed. Linear sensor responses have been observed over the tested concentration ranges, although the responses over a whole concentration range are generally nonlinear. {sm_bullet} Inverse models have been developed for identifying individual VOCs based on sensor array responses. A linear solvation energy model is particularly promising for identifying an unknown VOC in a single-component system. It has been demonstrated that a sensor array as such we developed is able to discriminate waste containers for their total VOC concentrations and therefore can be used as screening tool for reducing the existing headspace gas sampling rate. {sm_bullet} Various VOC preconcentrators have been fabricated using Carboxen 1000 as an absorbent. Extensive tests have been conducted in order to obtain optimal configurations and parameter ranges for preconcentrator performance. It has been shown that use of preconcentrators can reduce the detection limits of chemiresistors by two orders of magnitude. The life span of preconcentrators under various physiochemical conditions has also been evaluated. {sm_bullet} The performance of Pd film-based H2 sensors in the presence of VOCs has been evaluated. The interference of sensor readings by VOC has been observed, which can be attributed to the interference of VOC with the H2-O2 reaction on the Pd alloy surface. This interference can be eliminated by coating a layer of silicon dioxide on sensing film surface. Our work has demonstrated a wide range of applications of gas microsensors in radioactive waste management. Such applications can poten

  11. Laboratory Scoping Tests Of Decontamination Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.; Nash, Charles A.; Crawford, Charles L.; McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.

    2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the potential treatment of this stream to remove radionuclides and subsequently disposition the decontaminated stream elsewhere, such as the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), for example. The treatment process envisioned is very similar to that used for the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) that has been operating for years at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and focuses on using mature radionuclide removal technologies that are also compatible with longterm tank storage and immobilization methods. For this new application, testing is needed to demonstrate acceptable treatment sorbents and precipitating agents and measure decontamination factors for additional radionuclides in this unique waste stream. The origin of this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream will be the liquids from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover. The soluble components are expected to be mostly sodium and ammonium salts of nitrate, chloride, and fluoride. This stream has not been generated yet and will not be available until the WTP begins operation, but a simulant has been produced based on models, calculations, and comparison with pilot-scale tests. One of the radionuclides that is volatile and expected to be in high concentration in this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream is Technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc). Technetium will not be removed from the aqueous waste in the Hanford WTP, and will primarily end up immobilized in the LAW glass by repeated recycle of the off-gas condensate into the LAW melter. Other radionuclides that are also expected to be in appreciable concentration in the LAW Off-Gas Condensate are {sup 129}I, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 241}Am. This report discusses results of preliminary radionuclide decontamination testing of the simulant. Testing examined use of Monosodium Titanate (MST) to remove {sup 90}Sr and actinides, inorganic reducing agents for {sup 99}Tc, and zeolites for {sup 137}Cs. Test results indicate that excellent removal of {sup 99}Tc was achieved using Sn(II)Cl{sub 2} as a reductant, coupled with sorption onto hydroxyapatite, even in the presence of air and at room temperature. This process was very effective at neutral pH, with a Decontamination Factor (DF) >577 in two hours. It was less effective at alkaline pH. Conversely, removal of the cesium was more effective at alka

  12. Characterization of landfill gas composition at the Fresh Kills municipal solid-waste landfill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eklund, B.; Anderson, E.P.; Walker, B.L.; Burrows, D.B. [Radian International, LLC, Austin, TX (United States)] [Radian International, LLC, Austin, TX (United States)

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The most common disposal method in the US for municipal solid waste (MSW) is burial in landfills. Until recently, air emissions from these landfills were not regulated. Under the New Source Performance Standards and Emission Guidelines for MSW landfills, MSW operators are required to determine the nonmethane organic gas generation rate of their landfill through modeling and/or measurements. This paper summarizes speciated nonmethane organic compound (NMOC) measurement data collected during an intensive, short-term field program. Over 250 separate landfill gas samples were collected from emission sources at the Fresh Kills landfill in New York City and analyzed for approximately 150 different analytes. The average total NMOC value for the landfill was 438 ppmv (as hexane) versus the regulatory default value of 4,000 ppmv (as hexane). Over 70 individual volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected and quantified in the landfill gas samples. The typical gas composition for this landfill was determined as well as estimates of the spatial, temporal, and measurement variability in the gas composition. The data for NMOC show that the gas composition within the landfill is equivalent to the composition of the gas exiting the landfill through passive vents and through the soil cover.

  13. Lead Isotopic Composition of Fly Ash and Flue Gas Residues from Municipal Solid Waste Combustors in France: Implications for Atmospheric Lead Source Tracing.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Lead Isotopic Composition of Fly Ash and Flue Gas Residues from Municipal Solid Waste Combustors@crpg.cnrs-nancy.fr _______________________________________________________________________________________ Fly ash and flue gas residues from eight municipal solid waste combusters (MSWC) in France (1992 of "industrial Pb" is not an easy task because of its possible extreme heterogeneity. Municipal solid waste

  14. Bioelectrochemical Integration of Waste Heat Recovery, Waste...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bioelectrochemical Integration of Waste Heat Recovery, Waste-to-Energy Conversion, and Waste-to-Chemical Conversion with Industrial Gas and Chemical Manufacturing Processes...

  15. Molybdenum-based additives to mixed-metal oxides for use in hot gas cleanup sorbents for the catalytic decomposition of ammonia in coal gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ayala, Raul E. (Clifton Park, NY)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to additives to mixed-metal oxides that act simultaneously as sorbents and catalysts in cleanup systems for hot coal gases. Such additives of this type, generally, act as a sorbent to remove sulfur from the coal gases while substantially simultaneously, catalytically decomposing appreciable amounts of ammonia from the coal gases.

  16. Recovery Act: Brea California Combined Cycle Electric Generating Plant Fueled by Waste Landfill Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galowitz, Stephen

    2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of the Project was to maximize the productive use of the substantial quantities of waste landfill gas generated and collected at the Olinda Landfill near Brea, California. An extensive analysis was conducted and it was determined that utilization of the waste gas for power generation in a combustion turbine combined cycle facility was the highest and best use. The resulting Project reflected a cost effective balance of the following specific sub-objectives: • Meeting the environmental and regulatory requirements, particularly the compliance obligations imposed on the landfill to collect, process and destroy landfill gas • Utilizing proven and reliable technology and equipment • Maximizing electrical efficiency • Maximizing electric generating capacity, consistent with the anticipated quantities of landfill gas generated and collected at the Olinda Landfill • Maximizing equipment uptime • Minimizing water consumption • Minimizing post-combustion emissions • The Project produced and will produce a myriad of beneficial impacts. o The Project created 360 FTE construction and manufacturing jobs and 15 FTE permanent jobs associated with the operation and maintenance of the plant and equipment. o By combining state-of-the-art gas clean up systems with post combustion emissions control systems, the Project established new national standards for best available control technology (BACT). o The Project will annually produce 280,320 MWh’s of clean energy o By destroying the methane in the landfill gas, the Project will generate CO2 equivalent reductions of 164,938 tons annually. The completed facility produces 27.4 MWnet and operates 24 hours a day, seven days a week.

  17. Gas release during salt well pumping: model predictions and comparisons to laboratory experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peurrung, L.M.; Caley, S.M.; Bian, E.Y.; Gauglitz, P.A.

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Site has 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) containing radioactive wastes that are complex mixes of radioactive and chemical products. Some of these wastes are known to generate mixtures of flammable gases, including hydrogen, nitrous oxide, and ammonia. Nineteen of these SSTs have been placed on the Flammable Gas Watch List (FGWL) because they are known or suspected, in all but one case, to retain these flammable gases. Salt well pumping to remove the interstitial liquid from SSTs is expected to cause the release of much of the retained gas, posing a number of safety concerns. Research at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has sought to quantify the release of flammable gases during salt well pumping operations. This study is being conducted for Westinghouse Hanford Company as part of the PNNL Flammable Gas Project. Understanding and quantifying the physical mechanisms and waste properties that govern gas release during salt well pumping will help to resolve the associated safety issues.

  18. Thermal and chemical remediation of mixed waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, P.A.; Swift, W.M.

    1994-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and system for treating organic waste materials without venting gaseous emissions to the atmosphere. A fluidized bed including lime particles is operated at a temperature of at least 500 C by blowing gas having 20%/70% oxygen upwardly through the bed particles at a rate sufficient to fluidize same. A toxic organic waste material is fed into the fluidized bed where the organic waste material reacts with the lime forming CaCO[sub 3]. The off gases are filtered and cooled to condense water which is separated. A portion of the calcium carbonate formed during operation of the fluidized bed is replaced with lime particles. The off gases from the fluidized bed after drying are recirculated until the toxic organic waste material in the bed is destroyed. 3 figs.

  19. Thermal and chemical remediation of mixed waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL); Swift, William M. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and system for treating organic waste materials without venting gaseous emissions to the atmosphere. A fluidized bed including lime particles is operated at a temperature of at least 500.degree. C. by blowing gas having 20%/70% oxygen upwardly through the bed particles at a rate sufficient to fluidize same. A toxic organic waste material is fed into the fluidized bed where the organic waste material reacts with the lime forming CaCO.sub.3. The off gases are filtered and cooled to condense water which is separated. A portion of the calcium carbonate formed during operation of the fluidized bed is replaced with lime particles. The off gases from the fluidized bed after drying are recirculated until the toxic organic waste material in the bed is destroyed.

  20. Install Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces (English/Chinese) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chinese translation of ITP fact sheet about installing Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces. For most fuel-fired heating equipment, a large amount of the heat supplied is wasted as exhaust or flue gases. In furnaces, air and fuel are mixed and burned to generate heat, some of which is transferred to the heating device and its load. When the heat transfer reaches its practical limit, the spent combustion gases are removed from the furnace via a flue or stack. At this point, these gases still hold considerable thermal energy. In many systems, this is the greatest single heat loss. The energy efficiency can often be increased by using waste heat gas recovery systems to capture and use some of the energy in the flue gas. For natural gas-based systems, the amount of heat contained in the flue gases as a percentage of the heat input in a heating system can be estimated by using Figure 1. Exhaust gas loss or waste heat depends on flue gas temperature and its mass flow, or in practical terms, excess air resulting from combustion air supply and air leakage into the furnace. The excess air can be estimated by measuring oxygen percentage in the flue gases.

  1. Recovery Act: Johnston Rhode Island Combined Cycle Electric Generating Plant Fueled by Waste Landfill Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galowitz, Stephen

    2013-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of the Project was to maximize the productive use of the substantial quantities of waste landfill gas generated and collected at the Central Landfill in Johnston, Rhode Island. An extensive analysis was conducted and it was determined that utilization of the waste gas for power generation in a combustion turbine combined cycle facility was the highest and best use. The resulting project reflected a cost effective balance of the following specific sub-objectives. 1) Meet environmental and regulatory requirements, particularly the compliance obligations imposed on the landfill to collect, process and destroy landfill gas. 2) Utilize proven and reliable technology and equipment. 3) Maximize electrical efficiency. 4) Maximize electric generating capacity, consistent with the anticipated quantities of landfill gas generated and collected at the Central Landfill. 5) Maximize equipment uptime. 6) Minimize water consumption. 7) Minimize post-combustion emissions. To achieve the Project Objective the project consisted of several components. 1) The landfill gas collection system was modified and upgraded. 2) A State-of-the Art gas clean up and compression facility was constructed. 3) A high pressure pipeline was constructed to convey cleaned landfill gas from the clean-up and compression facility to the power plant. 4) A combined cycle electric generating facility was constructed consisting of combustion turbine generator sets, heat recovery steam generators and a steam turbine. 5) The voltage of the electricity produced was increased at a newly constructed transformer/substation and the electricity was delivered to the local transmission system. The Project produced a myriad of beneficial impacts. 1) The Project created 453 FTE construction and manufacturing jobs and 25 FTE permanent jobs associated with the operation and maintenance of the plant and equipment. 2) By combining state-of-the-art gas clean up systems with post combustion emissions control systems, the Project established new national standards for best available control technology (BACT). 3) The Project will annually produce 365,292 MWh?s of clean energy. 4) By destroying the methane in the landfill gas, the Project will generate CO{sub 2} equivalent reductions of 164,938 tons annually. The completed facility produces 28.3 MWnet and operates 24 hours a day, seven days a week.

  2. Use of sulfide-containing liquors for removing mercury from flue gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nolan, Paul S. (North Canton, OH); Downs, William (Alliance, OH); Bailey, Ralph T. (Uniontown, OH); Vecci, Stanley J. (Alliance, OH)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for reducing and removing mercury in industrial gases, such as a flue gas, produced by the combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, adds sulfide ions to the flue gas as it passes through a scrubber. Ideally, the source of these sulfide ions may include at least one of: sulfidic waste water, kraft caustic liquor, kraft carbonate liquor, potassium sulfide, sodium sulfide, and thioacetamide. The sulfide ion source is introduced into the scrubbing liquor as an aqueous sulfide species. The scrubber may be either a wet or dry scrubber for flue gas desulfurization systems.

  3. Use of sulfide-containing liquors for removing mercury from flue gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nolan, Paul S.; Downs, William; Bailey, Ralph T.; Vecci, Stanley J.

    2006-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for reducing and removing mercury in industrial gases, such as a flue gas, produced by the combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, adds sulfide ions to the flue gas as it passes through a scrubber. Ideally, the source of these sulfide ions may include at least one of: sulfidic waste water, kraft caustic liquor, kraft carbonate liquor, potassium sulfide, sodium sulfide, and thioacetamide. The sulfide ion source is introduced into the scrubbing liquor as an aqueous sulfide species. The scrubber may be either a wet or dry scrubber for flue gas desulfurization systems.

  4. Greenhouse Gases

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Federal agencies are required to inventory and manage greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to meet Federal goals and mitigate climate change.

  5. Water-Steel Canister Interaction and H2 Gas Pressure Buildup in a Nuclear Waste Repository

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Tianfu; Senger, Rainer; Finstele, Stefan

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear Waste Repository T. Xu & S. Finsteiie Earth Sciencesdeep lying repositories for nuclear waste. Nagra Techni­ calthe system state in a nuclear waste re­ pository. 2 PROCESS

  6. Fuel gas production by microwave plasma in liquid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nomura, Shinfuku; Toyota, Hiromichi; Tawara, Michinaga; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Kenya [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, 3 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan); Shikoku Industry and Technology Promotion Center, 2-5 Marunouchi, Takamatsu, Kagawa 760-0033 (Japan)

    2006-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose to apply plasma in liquid to replace gas-phase plasma because we expect much higher reaction rates for the chemical deposition of plasma in liquid than for chemical vapor deposition. A reactor for producing microwave plasma in a liquid could produce plasma in hydrocarbon liquids and waste oils. Generated gases consist of up to 81% hydrogen by volume. We confirmed that fuel gases such as methane and ethylene can be produced by microwave plasma in liquid.

  7. PEGASUS, a European research project on the effects of gas in underground storage facilities for radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haijtink, B.; McMenamin, T. [Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Whereas the subject of gas generation and possible gas release from radioactive waste repositories has gained in interest on the international scene, the Commission of the European Communities has increased its research efforts on this issue. In particular in the 4th five year R and D program on Management and Storage of Radioactive Waste (1990--1994), a framework has been set up in which research efforts on the subject of gas generation and migration, supported by the CEC, are brought together and coordinated. In this project, called PEGASUS, Project on the Effects of GAS in Underground Storage facilities for radioactive waste, about 20 organizations and research institutes from 7 European countries are involved. The project covers both experimental and theoretical studies of the processes of gas formation and possible gas release from the different waste types, LLW, ILW and HLW, under typical repository conditions in suitable geological formations as clay, salt and granite. In this paper an overview is given of the various studies undertaken in the project as well as some first results presented.

  8. Flammable gas tank safety program: Technical basis for gas analysis and monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherwood, D.J.

    1995-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Flammable gases generated in radioactive liquids. Twenty-five high level radioactive liquid waste storage tanks located underground at the Hanford Site are on a Flammable Gas Watch List because they contain waste which tends to retain the gases generated in it until rather large quantities are available for sudden release to the tank head space; if a tank is full it has little dome space, and a flammable concentration of gases could be produced--even if the tank is ventilated. If the waste has no tendency to retain gas generated in it then a continual flammable gas concentration in the tank dome space is established by the gas production rate and the tank ventilation rate (or breathing rate for unventilated tanks); this is also a potential problem for Flammable Gas Watch List tanks, and perhaps other Hanford tanks too. All Flammable Gas Watch List tanks will be fitted with Standard Hydorgen Monitoring Systems so that their behavior can be observed. In some cases, such as tank 241-SY-101, the data gathered from such observations will indicate that tank conditions need to be mitigated so that gas release events are either eliminated or rendered harmless. For example, a mixer pump was installed in tank 241-SY-101; operating the pump stirs the waste, replacing the large gas release events with small releases of gas that are kept below twenty-five percent of the lower flammability limit by the ventilation system. The concentration of hydrogen measured in Hanford waste tanks is greater than that of any other flammable gas. Hydrogen levels measured with a Standard Hydrogen Monitoring System in excess of 0.6 volume percent will cause Westinghouse Hanford Company to consider actions which will decrease the amount of flammable gas in the tank

  9. Combination gas-producing and waste-water disposal well. [DOE patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Malinchak, R.M.

    1981-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a waste-water disposal system for use in a gas recovery well penetrating a subterranean water-containing and methane gas-bearing coal formation. A cased bore hole penetrates the coal formation and extends downwardly therefrom into a further earth formation which has sufficient permeability to absorb the waste water entering the borehole from the coal formation. Pump means are disposed in the casing below the coal formation for pumping the water through a main conduit towards the water-absorbing earth formation. A barrier or water plug is disposed about the main conduit to prevent water flow through the casing except for through the main conduit. Bypass conduits disposed above the barrier communicate with the main conduit to provide an unpumped flow of water to the water-absorbing earth formation. One-way valves are in the main conduit and in the bypass conduits to provide flow of water therethrough only in the direction towards the water-absorbing earth formation.

  10. METHODOLOGY AND CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE GROUPS FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WEBER RA

    2009-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Site contains 177 large underground radioactive waste storage tanks (28 double-shell tanks and 149 single-shell tanks). These tanks are categorized into one of three waste groups (A, B, and C) based on their waste and tank characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement gas release event. Assignments of waste groups to the 177 double-shell tanks and single-shell tanks, as reported in this document, are based on a Monte Carlo analysis of three criteria. The first criterion is the headspace flammable gas concentration following release of retained gas. This criterion determines whether the tank contains sufficient retained gas such that the well-mixed headspace flammable gas concentration would reach 100% of the lower flammability limit if the entire tank's retained gas were released. If the volume of retained gas is not sufficient to reach 100% of the lower flammability limit, then flammable conditions cannot be reached and the tank is classified as a waste group C tank independent of the method the gas is released. The second criterion is the energy ratio and considers whether there is sufficient supernatant on top of the saturated solids such that gas-bearing solids have the potential energy required to break up the material and release gas. Tanks that are not waste group C tanks and that have an energy ratio < 3.0 do not have sufficient potential energy to break up material and release gas and are assigned to waste group B. These tanks are considered to represent a potential induced flammable gas release hazard, but no spontaneous buoyant displacement flammable gas release hazard. Tanks that are not waste group C tanks and have an energy ratio {ge} 3.0, but that pass the third criterion (buoyancy ratio < 1.0, see below) are also assigned to waste group B. Even though the designation as a waste group B (or A) tank identifies the potential for an induced flammable gas release hazard, the hazard only exists for specific operations that can release the retained gas in the tank at a rate and quantity that results in reaching 100% of the lower flammability limit in the tank headspace. The identification and evaluation of tank farm operations that could cause an induced flammable gas release hazard in a waste group B (or A) tank are included in other documents. The third criterion is the buoyancy ratio. This criterion addresses tanks that are not waste group C double-shell tanks and have an energy ratio {ge} 3.0. For these double-shell tanks, the buoyancy ratio considers whether the saturated solids can retain sufficient gas to exceed neutral buoyancy relative to the supernatant layer and therefore have buoyant displacement gas release events. If the buoyancy ratio is {ge} 1.0, that double-shell tank is assigned to waste group A. These tanks are considered to have a potential spontaneous buoyant displacement flammable gas release hazard in addition to a potential induced flammable gas release hazard. This document categorizes each of the large waste storage tanks into one of several categories based on each tank's waste characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement event. Revision 8 is the annual update of the calculations of the flammable gas Waste Groups for DSTs and SSTs.

  11. METHODOLOGY AND CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE GROUPS FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FOWLER KD

    2007-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This document categorizes each of the large waste storage tanks into one of several categories based on each tank's waste characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement event. Revision 7 is the annual update of the calculations of the flammable gas Waste Groups for DSTs and SSTs. The Hanford Site contains 177 large underground radioactive waste storage tanks (28 double-shell tanks and 149 single-shell tanks). These tanks are categorized into one of three waste groups (A, B, and C) based on their waste and tank characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement gas release event. Assignments of waste groups to the 177 double-shell tanks and single-shell tanks, as reported in this document, are based on a Monte Carlo analysis of three criteria. The first criterion is the headspace flammable gas concentration following release of retained gas. This criterion determines whether the tank contains sufficient retained gas such that the well-mixed headspace flammable gas concentration would reach 100% of the lower flammability limit if the entire tank's retained gas were released. If the volume of retained gas is not sufficient to reach 100% of the lower flammability limit, then flammable conditions cannot be reached and the tank is classified as a waste group C tank independent of the method the gas is released. The second criterion is the energy ratio and considers whether there is sufficient supernatant on top of the saturated solids such that gas-bearing solids have the potential energy required to break up the material and release gas. Tanks that are not waste group C tanks and that have an energy ratio < 3.0 do not have sufficient potential energy to break up material and release gas and are assigned to waste group B. These tanks are considered to represent a potential induced flammable gas release hazard, but no spontaneous buoyant displacement flammable gas release hazard. Tanks that are not waste group C tanks and have an energy ratio {ge} 3.0, but that pass the third criterion (buoyancy ratio < 1.0, see below) are also assigned to waste group B. Even though the designation as a waste group B (or A) tank identifies the potential for an induced flammable gas release hazard, the hazard only exists for specific operations that can release the retained gas in the tank at a rate and quantity that results in reaching 100% of the lower flammability limit in the tank headspace. The identification and evaluation of tank farm operations that could cause an induced flammable gas release hazard in a waste group B (or A) tank are included in other documents. The third criterion is the buoyancy ratio. This criterion addresses tanks that are not waste group C double-shell tanks and have an energy ratio {ge} 3.0. For these double-shell tanks, the buoyancy ratio considers whether the saturated solids can retain sufficient gas to exceed neutral buoyancy relative to the supernatant layer and therefore have buoyant displacement gas release events. If the buoyancy ratio is {ge} 1.0, that double-shell tank is assigned to waste group A. These tanks are considered to have a potential spontaneous buoyant displacement flammable gas release hazard in addition to a potential induced flammable gas release hazard.

  12. Two phase partially miscible flow and transport modeling in porous media: application to gas migration in a nuclear waste repository

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bourgeat, Alain; Smaï, Farid

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive a compositional compressible two-phase, liquid and gas, flow model for numerical simulations of hydrogen migration in deep geological repository for radioactive waste. This model includes capillary effects and the gas high diffusivity. Moreover, it is written in variables (total hydrogen mass density and liquid pressure) chosen in order to be consistent with gas appearance or disappearance. We discuss the well possedness of this model and give some computational evidences of its adequacy to simulate gas generation in a water saturated repository.

  13. Two phase partially miscible flow and transport modeling in porous media: application to gas migration in a nuclear waste repository

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alain Bourgeat; Mladen Jurak; Farid Smaï

    2008-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive a compositional compressible two-phase, liquid and gas, flow model for numerical simulations of hydrogen migration in deep geological repository for radioactive waste. This model includes capillary effects and the gas high diffusivity. Moreover, it is written in variables (total hydrogen mass density and liquid pressure) chosen in order to be consistent with gas appearance or disappearance. We discuss the well possedness of this model and give some computational evidences of its adequacy to simulate gas generation in a water saturated repository.

  14. Greenhouse gas emissions from MSW incineration in China: Impacts of waste characteristics and energy recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Na [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhang Hua, E-mail: zhanghua_tj@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Chen Miao; Shao Liming [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); He Pinjing, E-mail: xhpjk@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Determination of the amount of greenhouse gas (GHG) emitted during municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is complex because both contributions and savings of GHGs exist in the process. To identify the critical factors influencing GHG emissions from MSWI in China, a GHG accounting model was established and applied to six Chinese cities located in different regions. The results showed that MSWI in most of the cities was the source of GHGs, with emissions of 25-207 kg CO{sub 2}-eq t{sup -1} rw. Within all process stages, the emission of fossil CO{sub 2} from the combustion of MSW was the main contributor (111-254 kg CO{sub 2}-eq t{sup -1} rw), while the substitution of electricity reduced the GHG emissions by 150-247 kg CO{sub 2}-eq t{sup -1} rw. By affecting the fossil carbon content and the lower heating value of the waste, the contents of plastic and food waste in the MSW were the critical factors influencing GHG emissions of MSWI. Decreasing food waste content in MSW by half will significantly reduce the GHG emissions from MSWI, and such a reduction will convert MSWI in Urumqi and Tianjin from GHG sources to GHG sinks. Comparison of the GHG emissions in the six Chinese cities with those in European countries revealed that higher energy recovery efficiency in Europe induced much greater reductions in GHG emissions. Recovering the excess heat after generation of electricity would be a good measure to convert MSWI in all the six cities evaluated herein into sinks of GHGs.

  15. Industrial Gases as a Vehicle for Competitiveness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dale, J. R.

    -based separation technology was developing to offer an alternative to cryogenic separation for those instances when neither high purity or cryogenic properties were required by the application. It resulted in gas of lower than 99.9995%, "five-nines", purity...INDUSTRIAL GASES AS A VEHICLE FOR COMPETITIVENESS James R. Dale, Director, Technology Programs, Airco Industrial Gases Division, The BOC Group, Inc., Murray Hill, New Jersey ABSTRACT Industrial gases are produced using compressed air...

  16. Flammable gas project topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, G.D.

    1997-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The flammable gas safety issue was recognized in 1990 with the declaration of an unreviewed safety question (USQ) by the U. S. Department of Energy as a result of the behavior of the Hanford Site high-level waste tank 241-SY-101. This tank exhibited episodic releases of flammable gas that on a couple of occasions exceeded the lower flammability limit of hydrogen in air. Over the past six years there has been a considerable amount of knowledge gained about the chemical and physical processes that govern the behavior of tank 241-SY-1 01 and other tanks associated with the flammable gas safety issue. This report was prepared to provide an overview of that knowledge and to provide a description of the key information still needed to resolve the issue. Items covered by this report include summaries of the understanding of gas generation, retention and release mechanisms, the composition and flammability behavior of the gas mixture, the amounts of stored gas, and estimated gas release fractions for spontaneous releases. `Me report also discusses methods being developed for evaluating the 177 tanks at the Hanford Site and the problems associated with these methods. Means for measuring the gases emitted from the waste are described along with laboratory experiments designed to gain more information regarding rates of generation, species of gases emitted and modes of gas storage and release. Finally, the process for closing the USQ is outlined as are the information requirements to understand and resolve the flammable gas issue.

  17. Using Waste Heat for External Processes (English/Chinese) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chinese translation of the Using Waste Heat for External Processes fact sheet. Provides suggestions on how to use waste heat in industrial applications. The temperature of exhaust gases from fuel-fired industrial processes depends mainly on the process temperature and the waste heat recovery method. Figure 1 shows the heat lost in exhaust gases at various exhaust gas temperatures and percentages of excess air. Energy from gases exhausted from higher temperature processes (primary processes) can be recovered and used for lower temperature processes (secondary processes). One example is to generate steam using waste heat boilers for the fluid heaters used in petroleum crude processing. In addition, many companies install heat exchangers on the exhaust stacks of furnaces and ovens to produce hot water or to generate hot air for space heating.

  18. Thermal Analysis of Waste Glass Batches: Effect of Batch Makeup on Gas-Evolving Reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, David A.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Marcial, Jose

    2013-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Batches made with a variety of precursors were subjected to thermo-gravimetric analysis. The baseline modifications included all-nitrate batch with sucrose addition, all-carbonate batch, and batches with different sources of alumina. All batches were formulated for a single glass composition (a vitrified simulated high-alumina high-level waste). Batch samples were heated from the ambient temperature to 1200°C at constant heating rates ranging from 1 K/min to 50 K/min. Major gas evolving reactions began at temperatures just above 100°C and were virtually complete by 650°C. Activation energies for major reactions were obtained with the Kissinger’s method. A rough model for the overall kinetics of the batch-conversion was developed to be eventually applied to a mathematical model of the cold cap.

  19. Carbonation of alkaline paper mill waste to reduce CO2 greenhouse gas1 emissions into the atmosphere2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    dioxide sequestration process. The overall carbonation reaction includes the following steps: (1)23 CaCarbonation of alkaline paper mill waste to reduce CO2 greenhouse gas1 emissions change.20 This study investigates experimentally the aqueous carbonation mechanisms of an alkaline paper

  20. Digital Gas Joins Asian Waste-to-Energy Consortium: To Eliminate Coal as a Power Plant Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Energy's patented technology produces a clean-burning by-product from the widest variety of processed-efficient technology represented by the coal-substitute technology. The same technology will be deployed by DIGGDigital Gas Joins Asian Waste-to-Energy Consortium: To Eliminate Coal as a Power Plant Fuel Digital

  1. Deflagration studies on waste Tank 101-SY: Test plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cashdollar, K.L.; Zlochower, I.A.; Hertzberg, M.

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Waste slurries produced during the recovery of plutonium and uranium from irradiated fuel are stored in underground storage tanks. While a variety of waste types have been generated, of particular concern are the wastes stored in Tank 101-SY. A slurry growth-gas evolution cycle has been observed since 1981. The waste consists of a thick slurry, consisting of a solution high in NaOH, NaNO{sub 3}, NaAlO{sub 2}, dissolved organic complexants (EDTA, HEDTA, NTA, and degradation products), other salts (sulfates and phosphates), and radionuclides (primarily cesium and strontium). During a gas release the major gaseous species identified include: hydrogen and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O). Significant amounts of nitrogen may also be present. Traces of ammonia, carbon oxides, and other nitrogen oxides are also detected. Air and water vapor are also present in the tank vapor space. The purpose of the deflagration study is to determine risks of the hydrogen, nitrous oxide, nitrogen, and oxygen system. To be determined are pressure and temperature as a function of composition of reacting gases and the concentration of gases before and after the combustion event. Analyses of gases after the combustion event will be restricted to those tests that had an initial concentration of {le}8% hydrogen. This information will be used to evaluate safety issues related to periodic slurry growth and flammable gas releases from Tank 101-SY. the conditions to be evaluated will simulate gases in the vapor space above the salt cake as well as gases that potentially are trapped in pockets within/under the waste. The deflagration study will relate experimental laboratory results to conditions in the existing tanks.

  2. E-Print Network 3.0 - actinide waste forms Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    separated into a high-level radioactive stream and a fission product gases waste stream... Nuclear Waste Assessment System for Technical ... Source: U.S. Nuclear Waste...

  3. Method for enhancing microbial utilization rates of gases using perfluorocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turick, Charles E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of enhancing the bacterial reduction of industrial gases using perfluorocarbons (PFCs) is disclosed. Because perfluorocarbons (PFCs) allow for a much greater solubility of gases than water does, PFCs have the potential to deliver gases in higher concentrations to microorganisms when used as an additive to microbial growth media thereby increasing the rate of the industrial gas conversion to economically viable chemicals and gases.

  4. Method for enhancing microbial utilization rates of gases using perfluorocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turick, C.E.

    1997-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of enhancing the bacterial reduction of industrial gases using perfluorocarbons (PFCs) is disclosed. Because perfluorocarbons (PFCs) allow for a much greater solubility of gases than water does, PFCs have the potential to deliver gases in higher concentrations to microorganisms when used as an additive to microbial growth media thereby increasing the rate of the industrial gas conversion to economically viable chemicals and gases. 3 figs.

  5. Water-Steel Canister Interaction and H2 Gas Pressure Buildup in aNuclear Waste Repository

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Tianfu; Senger, Rainer; Finstele, Stefan

    2007-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Corrosion of steel canisters, stored in a repository forspent fuel and high-level waste, leads to hydrogen gas generation in thebackfilled emplacement tunnels, which may significantly affect long-termrepository safety. Previous modeling studies used a constant H2generation rate. However, iron corrosion and H2 generation rates varywith time, depending on factors such as water chemistry, wateravailability, and water contact area. To account for these factors andfeedback mechanisms, we developed a chemistry model related to ironcorrosion, coupled with two-phase (liquid and gas) flow phenomena thatare driven by gas pressure buildup and water consumption. Resultsindicate that if H2 generation rates are dynamically calculated based ona chemistry model, the degree and extent of gas pressure buildup are muchsmaller compared to a simulation in which the coupling between flow andreactive transport mechansism is neglected.

  6. Biodegradation and flushing of MBT wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siddiqui, A.A., E-mail: aasiddiqui.cv@amu.ac.in [Department of Civil Engineering, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India); Richards, D.J.; Powrie, W. [Waste Management Research Group, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • Stabilization was achieved for MBT wastes of different degrees of pretreatment. • About 92% reduction in the gas generation compared with raw MSW. • Pretreatment resulted in reduced TOC, nitrogen and heavy metals in leachate. • A large proportion of carbon and nitrogen remained in the waste material. - Abstract: Mechanical–biological treatment (MBT) processes are increasingly being adopted as a means of diverting biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) from landfill, for example to comply with the EU Landfill Directive. However, there is considerable uncertainty concerning the residual pollution potential of such wastes. This paper presents the results of laboratory experiments on two different MBT waste residues, carried out to investigate the remaining potential for the generation of greenhouse gases and the flushing of contaminants from these materials when landfilled. The potential for gas generation was found to be between 8% and 20% of that for raw MSW. Pretreatment of the waste reduced the potential for the release of organic carbon, ammoniacal nitrogen, and heavy metal contents into the leachate; and reduced the residual carbon remaining in the waste after final degradation from ?320 g/kg dry matter for raw MSW to between 183 and 195 g/kg dry matter for the MBT wastes.

  7. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION AND LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MEACHAM JE

    2009-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This report assesses the steady state flammability level under off normal ventilation conditions in the tank headspace for 28 double-shell tanks (DST) and 149 single shell-tanks (SST) at the Hanford Site. Flammability was calculated using estimated gas release rates, Le Chatelier's rule, and lower flammability limits of fuels in an air mixture. This revision updates the hydrogen generation rate input data for all 177 tanks using waste composition information from the Best Basis Inventory Detail Report (data effective as of August 4,2008). Assuming only barometric breathing, the shortest time to reach 25% of the lower flammability limit is 11 days for DSTs (i.e., tank 241-AZ-10l) and 36 days for SSTs (i.e., tank 241-B-203). Assuming zero ventilation, the shortest time to reach 25% of the lower flammability limit is 10 days for DSTs (i.e., tank 241-AZ-101) and 34 days for SSTs (i.e., tank 241-B-203).

  8. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION AND LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MEACHAM JE

    2008-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This report assesses the steady state flammability level under off normal ventilation conditions in the tank headspace for 28 double-shell tanks (DST) and 149 single shell-tanks (SST) at the Hanford Site. Flammability was calculated using estimated gas release rates, Le Chatelier's rule, and lower flammability limits of fuels in an air mixture. This revision updates the hydrogen generation rate input data for al1 177 tanks using waste composition information from the Best Basis Inventory Detail Report (data effective as of August 4,2008). Assuming only barometric breathing, the shortest time to reach 25% of the lower flammability limit is 13 days for DSTs (i.e., tank 241-AZ-102) and 36 days for SSTs (i.e., tank 241-B-203). Assuming zero ventilation, the shortest time to reach 25% of the lower flammability limit is 12 days for DSTs (i.e., tank 241-AZ-102) and 34 days for SSTs (i.e., tank 241-B-203).

  9. STEADY-STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION AND LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HU TA

    2007-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions. The methodology of flammability analysis for Hanford tank waste is developed. The hydrogen generation rate model was applied to calculate the gas generation rate for 177 tanks. Flammability concentrations and the time to reach 25% and 100% of the lower flammability limit, and the minimum ventilation rate to keep from 100 of the LFL are calculated for 177 tanks at various scenarios.

  10. Thermal and Radiolytic Gas Generation Tests on Material from Tanks 241-U-103, 241-AW-101, 241-S-106, and 241-S-102: Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, C.M.; Bryan, S.A.

    1999-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes progress in evaluating thermal and radiolytic flammable gas generation in actual Hanford single-shell tank wastes. The work described was conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Flammable Gas Safety Project, whose purpose is to develop information to support DE&S Hanford (DESH) and Project Management Hanford Contract (PHMC) subcontractors in their efforts to ensure the safe interim storage of wastes at the Hanford Site. This work is related to gas generation studies performed by Numatec Hanford Corporation (formerly Westinghouse Hanford Company). This report describes the results of laboratory tests of gas generation from actual convective layer wastes from Tank 241-U-103 under thermal and radiolytic conditions. Accurate measurements of gas generation rates from highly radioactive tank wastes are needed to assess the potential for producing and storing flammable gases within the tanks. The gas generation capacity of the waste in Tank 241-U-103 is a high priority for the Flammable Gas Safety Program due to its potential for accumulating gases above the flammability limit (Johnson et al, 1997). The objective of this work was to establish the composition of gaseous degradation products formed in actual tank wastes by thermal and radiolytic processes as a function of temperature. The gas generation tests on Tank 241-U-103 samples focused first on the effect of temperature on the composition and rate of gas generation Generation rates of nitrogen, nitrous oxide, methane, and hydrogen increased with temperature, and the composition of the product gas mixture varied with temperature.

  11. Biological Removal of Siloxanes from Landfill and Digester Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biological Removal of Siloxanes from Landfill and Digester Gases: Opportunities and Challenges S U) presents challenges for using landfill and digester gases as energy fuels because of the formation volatilize from waste at landfills and wastewater treatment plants (1). As a result, biogas produced

  12. Ethane enrichment and propane depletion in subsurface gases indicate gas hydrate occurrence in marine sediments at southern Hydrate Ridge offshore Oregon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milkov, Alexei V.; Claypool, G E.; Lee, Young-Joo; Torres, Marta E.; Borowski, W S.; Tomaru, H; Sassen, Roger; Long, Philip E.

    2004-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The recognition of finely disseminated gas hydrate in deep marine sediments heavily depends on various indirect techniques because this mineral quickly decomposes upon recovery from in situ pressure and temperature conditions. Here, we discuss molecular properties of closely spaced gas voids (formed as a result of core recovery) and gas hydrates from an area of relatively low gas flux at the flanks of the southern Hydrate Ridge Offshore Oregon (ODP Sites 1244, 1245 and 1247).

  13. Apparatus for incinerating hazardous waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, R.C.W.

    1994-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus is described for incinerating wastes, including an incinerator having a combustion chamber, a fluid-tight shell enclosing the combustion chamber, an afterburner, an off-gas particulate removal system and an emergency off-gas cooling system. The region between the inner surface of the shell and the outer surface of the combustion chamber forms a cavity. Air is supplied to the cavity and heated as it passes over the outer surface of the combustion chamber. Heated air is drawn from the cavity and mixed with fuel for input into the combustion chamber. The pressure in the cavity is maintained at least approximately 2.5 cm WC higher than the pressure in the combustion chamber. Gases cannot leak from the combustion chamber since the pressure outside the chamber (inside the cavity) is higher than the pressure inside the chamber. The apparatus can be used to treat any combustible wastes, including biological wastes, toxic materials, low level radioactive wastes, and mixed hazardous and low level transuranic wastes. 1 figure.

  14. Apparatus for incinerating hazardous waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Robert C. W. (Martinez, GA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for incinerating wastes, including an incinerator having a combustion chamber, a fluidtight shell enclosing the combustion chamber, an afterburner, an off-gas particulate removal system and an emergency off-gas cooling system. The region between the inner surface of the shell and the outer surface of the combustion chamber forms a cavity. Air is supplied to the cavity and heated as it passes over the outer surface of the combustion chamber. Heated air is drawn from the cavity and mixed with fuel for input into the combustion chamber. The pressure in the cavity is maintained at least approximately 2.5 cm WC (about 1" WC) higher than the pressure in the combustion chamber. Gases cannot leak from the combustion chamber since the pressure outside the chamber (inside the cavity) is higher than the pressure inside the chamber. The apparatus can be used to treat any combustible wastes, including biological wastes, toxic materials, low level radioactive wastes, and mixed hazardous and low level transuranic wastes.

  15. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulprathipanja, Santi (Hoffman Estates, IL); Kulkarni, Sudhir S. (Hoffman Estates, IL)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polar gases such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and ammonia may be separated from nonpolar gases such as methane, nitrogen, hydrogen or carbon dioxide by passing a mixture of polar and nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The use of such membranes as exemplified by polyethylene glycol and silicon rubber composited on polysulfone will permit greater selectivity accompanied by a high flux rate in the separation process.

  16. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulprathipanja, S.; Kulkarni, S.S.

    1986-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Polar gases such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and ammonia may be separated from nonpolar gases such as methane, nitrogen, hydrogen or carbon dioxide by passing a mixture of polar and nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The use of such membranes as exemplified by polyethylene glycol and silicon rubber composited on polysulfone will permit greater selectivity accompanied by a high flux rate in the separation process.

  17. Final Report - Gas Generation Testing of Uranium Metal in Simulated K Basin Sludge and in Grouted Sludge Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Sell, Rachel L.; Sinkov, Sergei I.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Gano, Sue; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2004-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is being considered for the disposal of K Basin sludge as RH-TRU. Because the hydrogen gas concentration in the 55-gallon RH-TRU sealed drums to be transported to WIPP is limited by flammability safety, the number of containers and shipments likely will be driven by the rate of hydrogen generated by the uranium metal-water reaction (U + 2 H{sub 2}O {yields} UO{sub 2} + 2 H{sub 2}) in combination with the hydrogen generated from water and organic radiolysis. Gas generation testing was conducted with uranium metal particles of known surface area, in simulated K West (KW) Basin canister sludge and immobilized in candidate grout solidification matrices. This study evaluated potential for Portland cement and magnesium phosphate grouts to inhibit the reaction of water with uranium metal in the sludge and thereby permit higher sludge loading to the disposed waste form. The best of the grouted waste forms decreased the uranium metal-water reaction by a factor of four.

  18. Glass Membrane For Controlled Diffusion Of Gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shelby, James E. (Alfred Station, NY); Kenyon, Brian E. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2001-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A glass structure for controlled permeability of gases includes a glass vessel. The glass vessel has walls and a hollow center for receiving a gas. The glass vessel contains a metal oxide dopant formed with at least one metal selected from the group consisting of transition metals and rare earth metals for controlling diffusion of the gas through the walls of the glass vessel. The vessel releases the gas through its walls upon exposure to a radiation source.

  19. Beneficial reuse of oilfield waste outside of the oil and gas industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marinello, S.A.; Herbert, B.F.; Lillo, H. [and others

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    If a beneficial reuse of an oilfield waste can be found, that specific byproduct is no longer a waste, but a product. With such downstream use, the environmental liabilities of the former waste are, except for any packaging or transportation requirements, potentially eliminated. There is a problem, however, with the lack of an active infrastructure to implement the process. Some states have limited programs, but participation is a problem. It is apparent that a {open_quotes}Waste Clearinghouse{close_quotes} addressing oilfield waste in conjunction with major industrial waste and feed streams is needed, but implementation remains in the future. An active network of participating suppliers and users would be the goal of such action. The benefits for industry would be a reduction in waste disposal and associated liabilities and {open_quotes}virgin{close_quotes} feedstock requirements. From the operators viewpoint, this scenario would require a compilation of the different waste/byproduct streams and their characteristics and a prioritizing of those wastes by characteristics that might affect their reuse potential. These might include: (1) the greatest likelihood of finding a market; (2) the highest potential waste volume reduction; (3) the highest cost of disposal and (4) the greatest associated hazards. For the industry as a whole, an inventorying of these byproducts and characteristics would be tied to the identification of consumers/outlets for specific byproducts. This might be accomplished through the funding of consultants/contractors specializing in clearinghouse activities and/or research into potential applications and uses. The industry needs to change it`s view of waste/byproduct streams in order to be more aware of potential downstream uses. Existing examples of reuse can be used as models for further efforts.

  20. Where do California's greenhouse gases come from?

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Fischer, Marc

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Last March, more than two years after California passed legislation to slash greenhouse gas emissions 25 percent by 2020, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory scientist Marc Fischer boarded a Cessna loaded with air monitoring equipment and crisscrossed the skies above Sacramento and the Bay Area. Instruments aboard the aircraft measured a cocktail of greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide from fossil fuel use, methane from livestock and landfills, CO2 from refineries and power plants, traces of nitrous oxide from agriculture and fuel use, and industrially produced other gases like refrigerants. The flight was part of the Airborne Greenhouse Gas Emissions Survey, a collaboration between Berkeley Lab, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the University of California, and UC Davis to pinpoint the sources of greenhouse gases in central California. The survey is intended to improve inventories of the states greenhouse gas emissions, which in turn will help scientists verify the emission reductions mandated by AB-32, the legislation enacted by California in 2006.

  1. Winery waste makes fuel Electricity, bacteria break organics in wastewater into hydrogen gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    from agricultural wastes." Napa Wine Company's wastewater comes from grape disposal, wine makingMSNBC.com Winery waste makes fuel Electricity, bacteria break organics in wastewater into hydrogen method for generating hydrogen fuel from wastewater is now operating at a California winery

  2. Fluid Bed Waste Heat Boiler Operating Experience in Dirty Gas Streams 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kreeger, A. H.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The first industrial fluid bed waste heat boiler in the U. S. is operating on an aluminium melting furnace at the ALCOA Massena Integrated Aluminum Works in upstate New York. Waste heat from an aluminum melting furnace is captured for general plant...

  3. Overview of Hanford Site High-Level Waste Tank Gas and Vapor Dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huckaby, James L.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Droppo, James G.; Meacham, Joseph E.

    2004-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Hanford Site processes associated with the chemical separation of plutonium from uranium and other fission products produced a variety of volatile, semivolatile, and nonvolatile organic and inorganic waste chemicals that were sent to high-level waste tanks. These chemicals have undergone and continue to undergo radiolytic and thermal reactions in the tanks to produce a wide variety of degradation reaction products. The origins of the organic wastes, the chemical reactions they undergo, and their reaction products have recently been examined by Stock (2004). Stock gives particular attention to explaining the presence of various types of volatile and semivolatile organic species identified in headspace air samples. This report complements the Stock report by examining the storage of volatile and semivolatile species in the waste, their transport through any overburden of waste to the tank headspaces, the physical phenomena affecting their concentrations in the headspaces, and their eventual release into the atmosphere above the tanks.

  4. Novel selective surface flow (SSF{sup TM}) membranes for the recovery of hydrogren from waste gas streams. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anand, M. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The waste streams are off-gas streams from various chemical/refinery operations. In Phase I, the architecture of the membrane and the separation device were defined and demonstrated. The system consists of a shell-and-tube separator in which the gas to be separated is fed to the tube side, the product is collected as high pressure effluent and the permeate constitutes the waste/fuel stream. Each tube, which has the membrane coated on the interior, does the separation. A multi- tube separator device containing 1 ft{sup 2} membrane area was built and tested. The engineering data were used for designing a process for hydrogen recovery from a fluid catalytic cracker off-gas stream. First-pass economics showed that overall cost for hydrogen production is reduced by 35% vs on-purpose production of hydrogen by steam- methane reforming. The hydrogen recovery process using the SSF membrane results in at least 15% energy reduction and significant decrease in CO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions.

  5. natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery+ water creation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery+ water creation+ CO2 reduction+ cool exhaust gases+ Energy efficiency+ commercial building energy efficiency+ industrial energy...

  6. The Beckett System Recovery and Utilization of Low Grade Waste Heat From Flue Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, W. R.; DeBiase, J. F.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . During low demand periods, the unit is gas-fired and produces 150 psi steam at high efficiency. In the fall, the heat exchanger is converted to accept flue gas from the large original water tube boilers. The flue gas heats water, which preheats make...

  7. Numerical modeling of gas migration at a proposed repository for low and intermediate level nuclear wastes at Oberbauenstock, Switzerland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruess, K.

    1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrologic impacts of corrosive gas release from a hypothetical L/ILW nuclear waste repository at Oberbauenstock are explored by means of numerical simulation. A schematic two dimensional vertical section through the mountain is modeled with the simulator TOUGH, which describes two-phase flow of water and gas in porous and fractured media. Two reference cases are considered which represent the formations as a porous and as a fractured-porous (dual permeability) medium, respectively. Both cases predict similar and rather modest pressure increases, from ambient 10 bars to near 25 bars at the repository level. These results are to be considered preliminary because important parameters affecting two-phase flow, such as relative permeabilities of a fractured medium, are not well known at present. 24 refs., 15 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. The utilization of flue gas desulfurization waste by-products in construction brick

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berryman, Charles Wayne

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    APPENDIX D. TEST PROCEDURES APPENDIX E. CONVERSION TABLES VITA 85 90 93 96 99 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page Model for FGD Waste By-Product Research Unconfined Compressive Strength for Fly Ash Mixed with Various Inductions of Portland Cement 15... properties such as weight, durability, strength, density, etc. Varying mixes of bottom ash, fly ash, portland cement, and sand will be tested for possible enhancement of the hemihydrate. Also, a mix design that best utilizes all the waste by...

  9. An investigation into the feasibility of an external combustion, steam injected gas turbine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ford, David Bruce

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Brayton Cycle Temperature-Entropy Relationship isentropic and the ycle is usually open, in that the gases are exhaused into the atomsphere. Additionally, the heat addition phase (2a-3a) in most gas turbines, is usually accomplished via burning a fuel... output of the turbine without increasing the work required for compression. Second, the steam may be generated with waste 15 heat from the combustion process. In an internal combustion gas turbine, this would result in an increased work output per...

  10. Development And Initial Testing Of Off-Gas Recycle Liquid From The WTP Low Activity Waste Vitrification Process - 14333

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.; Nash, Charles A.; Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.; Adamson, Duane J.; Crawford, Charles L.; Morse, Megan M.

    2014-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process flow was designed to pre-treat feed from the Hanford tank farms, separate it into a High Level Waste (HLW) and Low Activity Waste (LAW) fraction and vitrify each fraction in separate facilities. Vitrification of the waste generates an aqueous condensate stream from the off-gas processes. This stream originates from two off-gas treatment unit operations, the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrospray Precipitator (WESP). Currently, the baseline plan for disposition of the stream from the LAW melter is to recycle it to the Pretreatment facility where it gets evaporated and processed into the LAW melter again. If the Pretreatment facility is not available, the baseline disposition pathway is not viable. Additionally, some components in the stream are volatile at melter temperatures, thereby accumulating to high concentrations in the scrubbed stream. It would be highly beneficial to divert this stream to an alternate disposition path to alleviate the close-coupled operation of the LAW vitrification and Pretreatment facilities, and to improve long-term throughput and efficiency of the WTP system. In order to determine an alternate disposition path for the LAW SBS/WESP Recycle stream, a range of options are being studied. A simulant of the LAW Off-Gas Condensate was developed, based on the projected composition of this stream, and comparison with pilot-scale testing. The primary radionuclide that vaporizes and accumulates in the stream is Tc-99, but small amounts of several other radionuclides are also projected to be present in this stream. The processes being investigated for managing this stream includes evaporation and radionuclide removal via precipitation and adsorption. During evaporation, it is of interest to investigate the formation of insoluble solids to avoid scaling and plugging of equipment. Key parameters for radionuclide removal include identifying effective precipitation or ion adsorption chemicals, solid-liquid separation methods, and achievable decontamination factors. Results of the radionuclide removal testing indicate that the radionuclides, including Tc-99, can be removed with inorganic sorbents and precipitating agents. Evaporation test results indicate that the simulant can be evaporated to fairly high concentration prior to formation of appreciable solids, but corrosion has not yet been examined.

  11. Comparative Performance Analysis of IADR Operating in Natural Gas-Fired and Waste-Heat CHP Modes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrov, Andrei Y [ORNL; Sand, James R [ORNL; Zaltash, Abdolreza [ORNL

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuel utilization can be dramatically improved through effective recycle of 'waste' heat produced as a by-product of on-site or near-site power generation technologies. Development of modular compact cooling, heating, and power (CHP) systems for end-use applications in commercial and institutional buildings is a key part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) energy policy. To effectively use the thermal energy from a wide variety of sources which is normally discarded to the ambient, many components such as heat exchangers, boilers, absorption chillers, and desiccant dehumidification systems must be further developed. Recently a compact, cost-effective, and energy-efficient integrated active-desiccant vapor-compression hybrid rooftop (IADR) unit has been introduced in the market. It combines the advantages of an advanced direct-expansion cooling system with the dehumidification capability of an active desiccant wheel. The aim of this study is to compare the efficiency of the IADR operation in baseline mode, when desiccant wheel regeneration is driven by a natural gas burner, and in CHP mode, when the waste heat recovered from microturbine exhaust gas is used for desiccant regeneration. Comparative analysis shows an excellent potential for more efficient use of the desiccant dehumidification as part of a CHP system and the importance of proper sizing of the CHP components. The most crucial factor in exploiting the efficiency of this application is the maximum use of thermal energy recovered for heating of regeneration air.

  12. Eco-efficiency for greenhouse gas emissions mitigation of municipal solid waste management: A case study of Tianjin, China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao Wei, E-mail: zhaowei.tju@gmail.com [College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Liaoning University of Technology, 121000 Jinzhou (China); Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300RA Leiden (Netherlands); Huppes, Gjalt, E-mail: huppes@cml.leidenuniv.nl [Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300RA Leiden (Netherlands); Voet, Ester van der, E-mail: Voet@cml.leidenuniv.nl [Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The issue of municipal solid waste (MSW) management has been highlighted in China due to the continually increasing MSW volumes being generated and the limited capacity of waste treatment facilities. This article presents a quantitative eco-efficiency (E/E) analysis on MSW management in terms of greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. A methodology for E/E analysis has been proposed, with an emphasis on the consistent integration of life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC). The environmental and economic impacts derived from LCA and LCC have been normalized and defined as a quantitative E/E indicator. The proposed method was applied in a case study of Tianjin, China. The study assessed the current MSW management system, as well as a set of alternative scenarios, to investigate trade-offs between economy and GHG emissions mitigation. Additionally, contribution analysis was conducted on both LCA and LCC to identify key issues driving environmental and economic impacts. The results show that the current Tianjin's MSW management system emits the highest GHG and costs the least, whereas the situation reverses in the integrated scenario. The key issues identified by the contribution analysis show no linear relationship between the global warming impact and the cost impact in MSW management system. The landfill gas utilization scenario is indicated as a potential optimum scenario by the proposed E/E analysis, given the characteristics of MSW, technology levels, and chosen methodologies. The E/E analysis provides an attractive direction towards sustainable waste management, though some questions with respect to uncertainty need to be discussed further.

  13. Performance and gas cleanup criterion for a cotton gin waste fluidized-bed gasifier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Craig, Joe David

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    feedstock, preferably used with very little preprocessing; however, the design should be able to handle other biomass feedstocks with little or no modification. The design heating value of gin waste is 16. 3 MJ/Kg. 2) It should be a fluidized bed type...

  14. Electrochemical cell and membrane for continuous NOx removal from natural gas-combustion exhaust gases. Final report, October 1, 1990-September 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, J.H.; Burt, J.; Cook, R.L.; Sammells, A.F.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This program investigated the utility of electrochemically promoted NOx decomposition under conditions appropriate to those found in natural gas prime mover exhaust. In addition, the utility of mixed ionic and electronic conducting membranes for the spontaneous decomposition of NOx were investigated using catalytic sites identified during the electrochemical study. The program was conducted by initially evaluating perovskite related cathode electrocatalysts using high NOx concentrations. This was followed by investigations at NOx concentrations consistent with those encountered in natural gas prime mover exhausts. Preferred electrocatalysts were then incorporated into mixed conducting membranes for promoting NOx decomposition. Work showed that cobalt based electrocatalysts were active towards promoting NOx decomposition at high concentrations. At lower NOx concentrations initial activation, by passage of a large cathodic current, was required which probably resulted in producing a distinct population of surface oxygen vacancies before the subject decomposition reaction could proceed. This study showed that electrochemically promoted decomposition is feasible under conditions appropriate to those found in prime mover exhausts.

  15. Method for introduction of gases into microspheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hendricks, Charles D. (Livermore, CA); Koo, Jackson C. (San Ramon, CA); Rosencwaig, Allan (Danville, CA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing small hollow glass spheres filled with a gas by introduction of the gas during formation of the hollow glass spheres. Hollow glass microspheres having a diameter up to about 500.mu. with both thin walls (0.5 to 4.mu.) and thick walls (5 to 20.mu.) that contain various fill gases, such as Ar, Kr, Xe, Br, DT, H.sub.2, D.sub.2, He, N.sub.2, Ne, CO.sub.2, etc. in the interior thereof, can be produced by the diffusion of the fill gas or gases into the microsphere during the formation thereof from a liquid droplet of glass-forming solution. This is accomplished by filling at least a portion of the multiple-zone drop-furnace used in producing hollow microspheres with the gas or gases of interest, and then taking advantage of the high rate of gaseous diffusion of the fill gas through the wall of the gel membrane before it transforms into a glass microsphere as it is processed in the multiple-zone furnace. Almost any gas can be introduced into the inner cavity of a glass microsphere by this method during the formation of the microsphere provided that the gas is diffused into the gel membrane or microsphere prior to its transformation into glass. The process of this invention provides a significant savings of time and related expense of filling glass microspheres with various gases. For example, the time for filling a glass microballoon with 1 atmosphere of DT is reduced from about two hours to a few seconds.

  16. Integration of a Process Waste Gas into a Site's Energy Concept 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peterson, J.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1996, the BASF Corporation's Geismar, Louisiana site determined that the increased steam demands of their aggressive investment program would require them to expand their steam generation capacity. The site had operated a gas turbine based...

  17. Integration of a Process Waste Gas into a Site's Energy Concept

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peterson, J.

    In 1996, the BASF Corporation's Geismar, Louisiana site determined that the increased steam demands of their aggressive investment program would require them to expand their steam generation capacity. The site had operated a gas turbine based...

  18. Using a multiphase flow code to model the coupled effects of repository consolidation and multiphase brine and gas flow at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeze, G.A. [INTERA Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Larson, K.W.; Davies, P.B.; Webb, S.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Long-term repository assessment must consider the processes of (1) gas generation, (2) room closure and expansions due to salt creep, and (3) multiphase (brine and gas) fluid flow, as well as the complex coupling between these three processes. The mechanical creep closure code SANCHO was used to simulate the closure of a single, perfectly sealed disposal room filled with water and backfill. SANCHO uses constitutive models to describe salt creep, waste consolidation, and backfill consolidation, Five different gas-generation rate histories were simulated, differentiated by a rate multiplier, f, which ranged from 0.0 (no gas generation) to 1.0 (expected gas generation under brine-dominated conditions). The results of the SANCHO f-series simulations provide a relationship between gas generation, room closure, and room pressure for a perfectly sealed room. Several methods for coupling this relationship with multiphase fluid flow into and out of a room were examined. Two of the methods are described.

  19. Low-Level waste phase 1 melter testing off gas and mass balance evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, C.N.

    1996-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercially available melter technologies were tested during 1994-95 as part of a multiphase program to test candidate technologies for vitrification of the low-level waste (LLW) stream to be derived from retrieval and pretreatment of Hanford Site tank wastes. Seven vendors were selected for Phase 1 testing to demonstrate vitrification of a high sodium content liquid LLW simulant. The tested melter technologies included four Joule-heated melters, a carbon electrode melter, a combustion melter, and a plasma melter. Various dry and slurry melter feed preparation processes were also tested. Various feed material samples, product glass samples, and process offgas streams were characterized to provide data for evaluation of process decontamination factors and material mass balances for each vitrification technology. This report describes the melter mass balance evaluations and results for six of the Phase 1 LLW melter vendor demonstration tests.

  20. Evaluation of a gas chromatograph with a novel surface acoustic wave detector (SAW GC) for screening of volatile organic compounds in Hanford waste tank samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lockrem, L.L.

    1998-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel instrument, a gas chromatograph with a Surface Acoustic Wave Detector (SAW GC), was evaluated for the screening of organic compounds in Hanford tank headspace vapors. Calibration data were developed for the most common organic compounds, and the accuracy and precision were measured with a certified standard. The instrument was tested with headspace samples collected from seven Hanford waste tanks.

  1. Modeling gas and brine migration for assessing compliance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vaughn, P. [Applied Physics, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Butcher, B. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Helton, J. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Swift, P. [Tech. Reps., Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At the request of the WIPP Project Integration Office (WPIO) of the DOE, the WIPP Performance Assessment (PA) Department of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has completed preliminary uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of gas and brine migration away from the undisturbed repository. This paper contains descriptions of the numerical model and simulations, including model geometries and parameter values, and a summary of major conclusions from sensitivity analyses. Because significant transport of contaminants can only occur in a fluid (gas or brine) medium, two-phase flow modeling can provide an estimate of the distance to which contaminants can migrate. Migration of gas or brine beyond the RCRA ``disposal-unit boundary`` or the Standard`s accessible environment constitutes a potential, but not certain, violation and may require additional evaluations of contaminant concentrations.

  2. Waste-to-wheel analysis of anaerobic-digestion-based renewable natural gas pathways with the GREET model.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, J.; Mintz, M.; Wang, M. (Energy Systems)

    2011-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2009, manure management accounted for 2,356 Gg or 107 billion standard cubic ft of methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions in the United States, equivalent to 0.5% of U.S. natural gas (NG) consumption. Owing to the high global warming potential of methane, capturing and utilizing this methane source could reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The extent of that reduction depends on several factors - most notably, how much of this manure-based methane can be captured, how much GHG is produced in the course of converting it to vehicular fuel, and how much GHG was produced by the fossil fuel it might displace. A life-cycle analysis was conducted to quantify these factors and, in so doing, assess the impact of converting methane from animal manure into renewable NG (RNG) and utilizing the gas in vehicles. Several manure-based RNG pathways were characterized in the GREET (Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation) model, and their fuel-cycle energy use and GHG emissions were compared to petroleum-based pathways as well as to conventional fossil NG pathways. Results show that despite increased total energy use, both fossil fuel use and GHG emissions decline for most RNG pathways as compared with fossil NG and petroleum. However, GHG emissions for RNG pathways are highly dependent on the specifics of the reference case, as well as on the process energy emissions and methane conversion factors assumed for the RNG pathways. The most critical factors are the share of flared controllable CH{sub 4} and the quantity of CH{sub 4} lost during NG extraction in the reference case, the magnitude of N{sub 2}O lost in the anaerobic digestion (AD) process and in AD residue, and the amount of carbon sequestered in AD residue. In many cases, data for these parameters are limited and uncertain. Therefore, more research is needed to gain a better understanding of the range and magnitude of environmental benefits from converting animal manure to RNG via AD.

  3. Fluid clathrate system for continuous removal of heavy noble gases from mixtures of lighter gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, Kenneth C. (Bolingbrook, IL); Markun, Francis (Joliet, IL); Zawadzki, Mary T. (South Bend, IN)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for separation of heavy noble gas in a gas volume. An apparatus and method have been devised which includes a reservoir containing an oil exhibiting a clathrate effect for heavy noble gases with a reservoir input port and the reservoir is designed to enable the input gas volume to bubble through the oil with the heavy noble gas being absorbed by the oil exhibiting a clathrate effect. The gas having reduced amounts of heavy noble gas is output from the oil reservoir, and the oil having absorbed heavy noble gas can be treated by mechanical agitation and/or heating to desorb the heavy noble gas for analysis and/or containment and allow recycling of the oil to the reservoir.

  4. Fluid clathrate system for continuous removal of heavy noble gases from mixtures of lighter gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, K.C.; Markun, F.; Zawadzki, M.T.

    1998-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for separation of heavy noble gas in a gas volume. An apparatus and method have been devised which includes a reservoir containing an oil exhibiting a clathrate effect for heavy noble gases with a reservoir input port and the reservoir is designed to enable the input gas volume to bubble through the oil with the heavy noble gas being absorbed by the oil exhibiting a clathrate effect. The gas having reduced amounts of heavy noble gas is output from the oil reservoir, and the oil having absorbed heavy noble gas can be treated by mechanical agitation and/or heating to desorb the heavy noble gas for analysis and/or containment and allow recycling of the oil to the reservoir. 6 figs.

  5. Granular gases under extreme driving

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. Kang; J. Machta; E. Ben-Naim

    2010-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We study inelastic gases in two dimensions using event-driven molecular dynamics simulations. Our focus is the nature of the stationary state attained by rare injection of large amounts of energy to balance the dissipation due to collisions. We find that under such extreme driving, with the injection rate much smaller than the collision rate, the velocity distribution has a power-law high energy tail. The numerically measured exponent characterizing this tail is in excellent agreement with predictions of kinetic theory over a wide range of system parameters. We conclude that driving by rare but powerful energy injection leads to a well-mixed gas and constitutes an alternative mechanism for agitating granular matter. In this distinct nonequilibrium steady-state, energy cascades from large to small scales. Our simulations also show that when the injection rate is comparable with the collision rate, the velocity distribution has a stretched exponential tail.

  6. Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Skutterudite Thermoelectric Generator For Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Thermoelectric Conversion of Exhaust Gas Waste Heat into Usable...

  7. Biological sweetening of energy gases mimics in biotrickling filters Marc Fortuny a,c

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in energy-rich gases such as biogas from anaerobic digesters which may contain H2S concentrations exceeding: Hydrogen sulfide; Gas sweetening; Biotrickling filter; Desulfurization; Fuel gas; Biogas 1. Introduction

  8. Pyrolysis of waste tyres: A review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Paul T., E-mail: p.t.williams@leeds.ac.uk

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Pyrolysis of waste tyres produces oil, gas and char, and recovered steel. • Batch, screw kiln, rotary kiln, vacuum and fluidised-bed are main reactor types. • Product yields are influenced by reactor type, temperature and heating rate. • Pyrolysis oils are complex and can be used as chemical feedstock or fuel. • Research into higher value products from the tyre pyrolysis process is reviewed. - Abstract: Approximately 1.5 billion tyres are produced each year which will eventually enter the waste stream representing a major potential waste and environmental problem. However, there is growing interest in pyrolysis as a technology to treat tyres to produce valuable oil, char and gas products. The most common reactors used are fixed-bed (batch), screw kiln, rotary kiln, vacuum and fluidised-bed. The key influence on the product yield, and gas and oil composition, is the type of reactor used which in turn determines the temperature and heating rate. Tyre pyrolysis oil is chemically very complex containing aliphatic, aromatic, hetero-atom and polar fractions. The fuel characteristics of the tyre oil shows that it is similar to a gas oil or light fuel oil and has been successfully combusted in test furnaces and engines. The main gases produced from the pyrolysis of waste tyres are H{sub 2}, C{sub 1}–C{sub 4} hydrocarbons, CO{sub 2}, CO and H{sub 2}S. Upgrading tyre pyrolysis products to high value products has concentrated on char upgrading to higher quality carbon black and to activated carbon. The use of catalysts to upgrade the oil to a aromatic-rich chemical feedstock or the production of hydrogen from waste tyres has also been reported. Examples of commercial and semi-commercial scale tyre pyrolysis systems show that small scale batch reactors and continuous rotary kiln reactors have been developed to commercial scale.

  9. Localization of Bogoliubov quasiparticles in interacting Bose gases with correlated disorder P. Lugan1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ) in a weakly interacting Bose gas of chemical potential µ subjected to a disordered potential V . We introduce-Einstein condensates [40­48], interacting Bose gases at equilibrium [26, 49­72], strongly interacting Fermi gases [73 behaviors can be found in various situa- tions. For instance, weak repulsive interactions in a Bose gas

  10. Use of low temperature blowers for recirculation of hot gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maru, H.C.; Forooque, M.

    1982-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus is described for maintaining motors at low operating temperatures during recirculation of hot gases in fuel cell operations and chemical processes such as fluidized bed coal gasification. The apparatus includes a means for separating the hot process gas from the motor using a secondary lower temperature gas, thereby minimizing the temperature increase of the motor and associated accessories.

  11. Separating hydrogen from coal gasification gases with alumina membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egan, B.Z. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Fain, D.E.; Roettger, G.E.; White, D.E. (Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (USA))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Synthesis gas produced in coal gasification processes contains hydrogen, along with carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, water, nitrogen, and other gases, depending on the particular gasification process. Development of membrane technology to separate the hydrogen from the raw gas at the high operating temperatures and pressures near exit gas conditions would improve the efficiency of the process. Tubular porous alumina membranes with mean pore radii ranging from about 9 to 22 {Angstrom} have been fabricated and characterized. Based on hydrostatic tests, the burst strength of the membranes ranged from 800 to 1600 psig, with a mean value of about 1300 psig. These membranes were evaluated for separating hydrogen and other gases. Tests of membrane permeabilities were made with helium, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide. Measurements were made at room temperature in the pressure range of 15 to 589 psi. Selected membranes were tested further with mixed gases simulating a coal gasification product gas. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  12. An Integrated Hydrogen Vision for California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    biomass, natural gas, landfill gas, oil, and coal, as wellmunicipal solid waste “landfill gas” and waste gases from

  13. alkaline phosphate wastes: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Geosciences Websites Summary: -solid waste for CO2 mitigation and reduction of greenhouse effect gases into the atmosphere. ? 2008 ElsevierCarbonation of alkaline paper mill...

  14. alkaline tank waste: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Geosciences Websites Summary: -solid waste for CO2 mitigation and reduction of greenhouse effect gases into the atmosphere. ? 2008 ElsevierCarbonation of alkaline paper mill...

  15. alkaline waste solutions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Geosciences Websites Summary: -solid waste for CO2 mitigation and reduction of greenhouse effect gases into the atmosphere. ? 2008 ElsevierCarbonation of alkaline paper mill...

  16. alkaline nuclear wastes: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Geosciences Websites Summary: -solid waste for CO2 mitigation and reduction of greenhouse effect gases into the atmosphere. ? 2008 ElsevierCarbonation of alkaline paper mill...

  17. alkaline nuclear waste: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Geosciences Websites Summary: -solid waste for CO2 mitigation and reduction of greenhouse effect gases into the atmosphere. ? 2008 ElsevierCarbonation of alkaline paper mill...

  18. Gas Separations using Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul KT Liu

    2005-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This project has been oriented toward the development of a commercially viable ceramic membrane for high temperature gas separations. A technically and commercially viable high temperature gas separation membrane and process has been developed under this project. The lab and field tests have demonstrated the operational stability, both performance and material, of the gas separation thin film, deposited upon the ceramic membrane developed. This performance reliability is built upon the ceramic membrane developed under this project as a substrate for elevated temperature operation. A comprehensive product development approach has been taken to produce an economically viable ceramic substrate, gas selective thin film and the module required to house the innovative membranes for the elevated temperature operation. Field tests have been performed to demonstrate the technical and commercial viability for (i) energy and water recovery from boiler flue gases, and (ii) hydrogen recovery from refinery waste streams using the membrane/module product developed under this project. Active commercializations effort teaming with key industrial OEMs and end users is currently underway for these applications. In addition, the gas separation membrane developed under this project has demonstrated its economical viability for the CO2 removal from subquality natural gas and landfill gas, although performance stability at the elevated temperature remains to be confirmed in the field.

  19. An integrated analytical framework for quantifying the LCOE of waste-to-energy facilities for a range of greenhouse gas emissions policy and technical factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Townsend, Aaron K., E-mail: aarontownsend@utexas.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C2200, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Webber, Michael E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C2200, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This study presents a novel integrated method for considering the economics of waste-to-energy (WTE) facilities with priced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions based upon technical and economic characteristics of the WTE facility, MSW stream, landfill alternative, and GHG emissions policy. The study demonstrates use of the formulation for six different policy scenarios and explores sensitivity of the results to ranges of certain technical parameters as found in existing literature. The study shows that details of the GHG emissions regulations have large impact on the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of WTE and that GHG regulations can either increase or decrease the LCOE of WTE depending on policy choices regarding biogenic fractions from combusted waste and emissions from landfills. Important policy considerations are the fraction of the carbon emissions that are priced (i.e. all emissions versus only non-biogenic emissions), whether emissions credits are allowed due to reducing fugitive landfill gas emissions, whether biogenic carbon sequestration in landfills is credited against landfill emissions, and the effectiveness of the landfill gas recovery system where waste would otherwise have been buried. The default landfill gas recovery system effectiveness assumed by much of the industry yields GHG offsets that are very close to the direct non-biogenic GHG emissions from a WTE facility, meaning that small changes in the recovery effectiveness cause relatively larger changes in the emissions factor of the WTE facility. Finally, the economics of WTE are dependent on the MSW stream composition, with paper and wood being advantageous, metal and glass being disadvantageous, and plastics, food, and yard waste being either advantageous or disadvantageous depending upon the avoided tipping fee and the GHG emissions price.

  20. Control of pollutants in flue gases and fuel gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    and gasification technologies for heat and power . . . . . . . . 2-3 2.4 Waste incineration and waste

  1. Chapter 4 The Gaseous State Chemistry of Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ihee, Hyotcherl

    .15 V = V0[1+(t/273.15oC)] Kelvin T = 273.15 + t(Celsius) #12;Boyle's Law · The stirling engine, a heatChapter 4 The Gaseous State NO2 #12;AIR #12;Chemistry of Gases SO3 .. corrosive gas SO2...burning) ~1760 Charle The definition of the Temperature All gases expand with increasing temperature by the same

  2. Phase I: the pipeline-gas demonstration plant. Demonstration plant engineering and design. Volume 18. Plant Section 2700 - Waste Water Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Contract No. EF-77-C-01-2542 between Conoco Inc. and the US Department of Energy provides for the design, construction, and operation of a demonstration plant capable of processing bituminous caking coals into clean pipeline quality gas. The project is currently in the design phase (Phase I). This phase is scheduled to be completed in June 1981. One of the major efforts of Phase I is the process and project engineering design of the Demonstration Plant. The design has been completed and is being reported in 24 volumes. This is Volume 18 which reports the design of Plant Section 2700 - Waste Water Treatment. The objective of the Waste Water Treatment system is to collect and treat all plant liquid effluent streams. The system is designed to permit recycle and reuse of the treated waste water. Plant Section 2700 is composed of primary, secondary, and tertiary waste water treatment methods plus an evaporation system which eliminates liquid discharge from the plant. The Waste Water Treatment Section is designed to produce 130 pounds per hour of sludge that is buried in a landfill on the plant site. The evaporated water is condensed and provides a portion of the make-up water to Plant Section 2400 - Cooling Water.

  3. Process for the elimination of waste water produced upon the desulfurization of coking oven gas by means of wash solution containing organic oxygen-carrier, with simultaneous recovery of elemental sulfur

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diemer, P.; Brake, W.; Dittmer, R.

    1985-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is disclosed for the elimination of waste water falling out with the desulfurization of coking oven gas by means of an organic oxygen carrier-containing washing solution with simultaneous recovery of elemental sulfur. The waste water is decomposed in a combustion chamber in a reducing atmosphere at temperatures between about 1000/sup 0/ and 1100/sup 0/ C. under such conditions that the mole ratio of H/sub 2/S:SO/sub 2/ in the exhaust gas of the combustion chamber amounts to at least 2:1. Sulfur falling out is separated and the sensible heat of the exhaust gas is utilized for steam generation. The cooled and desulfurized exhaust gas is added to the coking oven gas before the pre-cooling. Sulfur falling out from the washing solution in the oxidizer is separated out and lead into the combustion chamber together with the part of the washing solution discharged as waste water from the washing solution circulation. Preferred embodiments include that the sulfur loading of the waste water can amount to up to about 370 kg sulfur per m/sup 3/ waste water; having the cooling of sulfur-containing exhaust gas leaving the combustion chamber follow in a waste heat boiler and a sulfur condenser heated by pre-heated boiler feed water, from which condenser sulfur is discharged in liquid state.

  4. Finite Temperature Gases of Fermionic Strings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyamoli Chaudhuri

    2005-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that in the absence of a Ramond-Ramond sector both the type IIA and type IIB free string gases have a thermal instability due to low temperature tachyon modes. The gas of free IIA strings undergoes a thermal duality transition into a gas of free IIB strings at the self-dual temperature. The free heterotic string gas is a tachyon-free ensemble with gauge symmetry SO(16)$\\times$SO(16) in the presence of a timelike Wilson line background. It exhibits a holographic duality relation undergoing a self-dual phase transition with positive free energy and positive specific heat. The type IB open and closed string ensemble is related by thermal duality to the type I' string ensemble. We identify the order parameter for the Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition from a low temperature gas of short open strings to a high temperature long string phase at or below T_C. Note Added (Sep 2005).

  5. Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site. IfProved(Million Barrels)21 4.65 2013 Next1.878 2.358 -

  6. Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Summary)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site. IfProved(Million Barrels)21 4.65 2013 Next1.878 2.358 -NA NA

  7. Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthrough 1996) inThousandWithdrawals (MillionNine8 2.415 -CubicYear Jan

  8. Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Summary)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthrough 1996) inThousandWithdrawals (MillionNine8 2.415 -CubicYear Jan8

  9. Ternary gas mixture for diffuse discharge switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christophorou, Loucas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hunter, Scott R. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new diffuse discharge gas switch wherein a mixture of gases is used to take advantage of desirable properties of the respective gases. There is a conducting gas, an insulating gas, and a third gas that has low ionization energy resulting in a net increase in the number of electrons available to produce a current.

  10. Greenhouse gases and agriculture. Book chapter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, R.B.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Agriculture ranks third in its contribution to Earth's anthropogenically enhanced greenhouse effect. (Energy use and production and chlorofluorocarbons are ranked first and second, respectively.) Specifically, greenhouse gas sources and sinks are increased, and sinks are decreased, by conversion of land to agricultural use, using fertilizers, cultivating paddy rice, producing other plant and animal crops, and by creating and managing animal and plant wastes. However, some of these same activities increase greenhouse gas sinks and decrease greenhouse gas sources so the net effects are not obvious. The paper identifies the agricultural inputs, outputs, and wastes that alter atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxides, and discusses agriculture's net impact on greenhouse gas fluxes.

  11. Characterization of oil and gas waste disposal practices and assessment of treatment costs. Yearly report, July 1, 1992--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bedient, P.B.

    1993-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The project consists of 3 tasks: (1) Developing a Production Environmental Database (PED) with the purpose of investigating the current industry waste storage and disposal practices by different regions, states and types of waste and investigating the environmental impacts associated with these practices; (2) Evaluating the suitability of available and developing technologies for treating produced water and identifying applicable unit process configurations; and (3) Evaluating the costs associated with various degrees of treatment achievable by different configurations. Records of wells drilled during the years 1986 through 1991 were compiled from industry reports. Overall, drilling has decreased from an average of 60,000 wells/yr for the period 1981 through 1985 to 20,000/yr during 1986 through 1991. A produced water database was developed from data and information provided by the various state and federal agencies. Currently, the database has information on the production of oil, gas and brines from 24 states. The data from the produced water database indicate that for the most part, Class II Injection seemed to be the common disposal method. Other methods included evaporation, surface disposal via NPDES permit, road spreading, hauling out-of-state, and annular disposal. A survey of oil and gas operators has been developed, reviewed and edited. The survey is divided-by topic into three sections. (1) drilling wastes; (2) associated wastes; and (3) produced water. The objective of the survey is to develop more current information on the waste volumes and disposal methods used during 1986 through 1991. The possible treatment scenarios for produced water have been identified. Organic and inorganic contaminant removal, liquid/solid separation and liquid/emulsified oil separation have been identified as the main objectives of the treatment of produced water.

  12. “Hard probes” of strongly-interacting atomic gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishida, Yusuke [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate properties of an energetic atom propagating through strongly interacting atomic gases. The operator product expansion is used to systematically compute a quasiparticle energy and its scattering rate both in a spin-1/2 Fermi gas and in a spinless Bose gas. Reasonable agreement with recent quantum Monte Carlo simulations even at a relatively small momentum k/kF > 1.5 indicates that our large-momentum expansions are valid in a wide range of momentum. We also study a differential scattering rate when a probe atom is shot into atomic gases. Because the number density and current density of the target atomic gas contribute to the forward scattering only, its contact density (measure of short-range pair correlation) gives the leading contribution to the backward scattering. Therefore, such an experiment can be used to measure the contact density and thus provides a new local probe of strongly interacting atomic gases.

  13. A Discussion of SY-101 Crust Gas Retention and Release Mechanisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SD Rassat; PA Gauglitz; SM Caley; LA Mahoney; DP Mendoza

    1999-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The flammable gas hazard in Hanford waste tanks was made an issue by the behavior of double-shell Tank (DST) 241-SY-101 (SY-101). Shortly after SY-101 was filled in 1980, the waste level began rising periodically, due to the generation and retention of gases within the slurry, and then suddenly dropping as the gases were released. An intensive study of the tank's behavior revealed that these episodic releases posed a safety hazard because the released gas was flammable, and, in some cases, the volume of gas released was sufficient to exceed the lower flammability limit (LFL) in the tank headspace (Allemann et al. 1993). A mixer pump was installed in SY-101 in late 1993 to prevent gases from building up in the settled solids layer, and the large episodic gas releases have since ceased (Allemann et al. 1994; Stewart et al. 1994; Brewster et al. 1995). However, the surface level of SY-101 has been increasing since at least 1995, and in recent months the level growth has shown significant and unexpected acceleration. Based on a number of observations and measurements, including data from the void fraction instrument (VFI), we have concluded that the level growth is caused largely by increased gas retention in the floating crust. In September 1998, the crust contained between about 21 and 43% void based on VFI measurements (Stewart et al. 1998). Accordingly, it is important to understand the dominant mechanisms of gas retention, why the gas retention is increasing, and whether the accelerating level increase will continue, diminish or even reverse. It is expected that the retained gas in the crust is flammable, with hydrogen as a major constituent. This gas inventory would pose a flammable gas hazard if it were to release suddenly. In May 1997, the mechanisms of bubble retention and release from crust material were the subject of a workshop. The evaluation of the crust and potential hazards assumed a more typical void of roughly 15% gas. It could be similar to percolati on in single-shell tank (SST) waste forms. The much higher void being currently observed in SY-101 represents essentially a new crust configuration, and the mechanisms for sudden gas release need to be evaluated. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the situation of gas bubbles in crust based on the previous work on gas bubble retention, migration, and release in simulants and actual waste. We have also conducted some visual observations of bubble migration through simulated crusts to help understand the interaction of the various mechanisms.

  14. Synthesis and development of processes for the recovery of sulfur from acid gases. Part 1, Development of a high-temperature process for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gas using limestone -- thermodynamic and kinetic considerations; Part 2, Development of a zero-emissions process for recovery of sulfur from acid gas streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Towler, G.P.; Lynn, S.

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Limestone can be used more effectively as a sorbent for H{sub 2}S in high-temperature gas-cleaning applications if it is prevented from undergoing calcination. Sorption of H{sub 2}S by limestone is impeded by sintering of the product CaS layer. Sintering of CaS is catalyzed by CO{sub 2}, but is not affected by N{sub 2} or H{sub 2}. The kinetics of CaS sintering was determined for the temperature range 750--900{degrees}C. When hydrogen sulfide is heated above 600{degrees}C in the presence of carbon dioxide elemental sulfur is formed. The rate-limiting step of elemental sulfur formation is thermal decomposition of H{sub 2}S. Part of the hydrogen thereby produced reacts with CO{sub 2}, forming CO via the water-gas-shift reaction. The equilibrium of H{sub 2}S decomposition is therefore shifted to favor the formation of elemental sulfur. The main byproduct is COS, formed by a reaction between CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S that is analogous to the water-gas-shift reaction. Smaller amounts of SO{sub 2} and CS{sub 2} also form. Molybdenum disulfide is a strong catalyst for H{sub 2}S decomposition in the presence of CO{sub 2}. A process for recovery of sulfur from H{sub 2}S using this chemistry is as follows: Hydrogen sulfide is heated in a high-temperature reactor in the presence of CO{sub 2} and a suitable catalyst. The primary products of the overall reaction are S{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. Rapid quenching of the reaction mixture to roughly 600{degrees}C prevents loss Of S{sub 2} during cooling. Carbonyl sulfide is removed from the product gas by hydrolysis back to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S. Unreacted CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S are removed from the product gas and recycled to the reactor, leaving a gas consisting chiefly of H{sub 2} and CO, which recovers the hydrogen value from the H{sub 2}S. This process is economically favorable compared to the existing sulfur-recovery technology and allows emissions of sulfur-containing gases to be controlled to very low levels.

  15. New fluorescence techniques for detecting noble gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitaker, T.J.; Cannon, B.D.; Bushaw, B.A.

    1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two new concepts for detecting noble gases are reported. Both techniques involve formation of the long-lived 1s/sup 5/ metastable state of noble gases. The first technique utilizes the photon-burst method and should be capable of isotopically selective detection at extremely small relative abundances. The second concept incorporates a shelving technique that stores noble gas atoms in the metastable state and then pumps these atoms to a higher excited state that radiatively cascades to the ground state, emitting vacuum ultraviolet (vuv) photons. A significant advantage is that AlGaAs diode lasers can be used for the techniques rather than continuous wave cw dye lasers. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  16. Experiment Hazard Class 5.4 - Compressed Gas Cylinders

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    compressed flammable gas and pyrophoric gases. Consultation with EQO Industrial Hygiene when planning experiments that involve toxic gas, oxygen deficiency hazards or other...

  17. Method for monitoring stack gases for uranium activity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beverly, C.R.; Ernstberger, E.G.

    1985-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for monitoring the stack gases of a purge cascade of gaseous diffusion plant for uranium activity. A sample stream is taken from the stack gases and contacted with a volume of moisture-laden air for converting trace levels of uranium hexafluoride, if any, in the stack gases into particulate uranyl fluoride. A continuous strip of filter paper from a supply roll is passed through this sampling stream to intercept and gather any uranyl fluoride in the sampling stream. This filter paper is then passed by an alpha scintillation counting device where any radioactivity on the filter paper is sensed so as to provide a continuous monitoring of the gas stream for activity indicative of the uranium content in the stack gases. 1 fig.

  18. Method for monitoring stack gases for uranium activity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beverly, Claude R. (Paducah, KY); Ernstberger, Harold G. (Paducah, KY)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for monitoring the stack gases of a purge cascade of a gaseous diffusion plant for uranium activity. A sample stream is taken from the stack gases and contacted with a volume of moisture-laden air for converting trace levels of uranium hexafluoride, if any, in the stack gases into particulate uranyl fluoride. A continuous strip of filter paper from a supply roll is passed through this sampling stream to intercept and gather any uranyl fluoride in the sampling stream. This filter paper is then passed by an alpha scintillation counting device where any radioactivity on the filter paper is sensed so as to provide a continuous monitoring of the gas stream for activity indicative of the uranium content in the stack gases.

  19. Experimental and life cycle assessment analysis of gas emission from mechanically–biologically pretreated waste in a landfill with energy recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Di Maria, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.dimaria@unipg.it; Sordi, Alessio; Micale, Caterina

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • Bio-methane landfill emissions from different period (0, 4, 8, 16 weeks) MTB waste have been evaluated. • Electrical energy recoverable from landfill gas ranges from 11 to about 90 kW h/tonne. • Correlation between oxygen uptake, energy recovery and anaerobic gas production shows R{sup 2} ranging from 0.78 to 0.98. • LCA demonstrate that global impact related to gaseous emissions achieve minimum for 4 week of MBT. - Abstract: The global gaseous emissions produced by landfilling the Mechanically Sorted Organic Fraction (MSOF) with different weeks of Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT) was evaluated for an existing waste management system. One MBT facility and a landfill with internal combustion engines fuelled by the landfill gas for electrical energy production operate in the waste management system considered. An experimental apparatus was used to simulate 0, 4, 8 and 16 weeks of aerobic stabilization and the consequent biogas potential (Nl/kg) of a large sample of MSOF withdrawn from the full-scale MBT. Stabilization achieved by the waste was evaluated by dynamic oxygen uptake and fermentation tests. Good correlation coefficients (R{sup 2}), ranging from 0.7668 to 0.9772, were found between oxygen uptake, fermentation and anaerobic test values. On the basis of the results of several anaerobic tests, the methane production rate k (year{sup ?1}) was evaluated. k ranged from 0.436 to 0.308 year{sup ?1} and the bio-methane potential from 37 to 12 N m{sup 3}/tonne, respectively, for the MSOF with 0 and 16 weeks of treatment. Energy recovery from landfill gas ranged from about 11 to 90 kW h per tonne of disposed MSOF depending on the different scenario investigated. Life cycle analysis showed that the scenario with 0 weeks of pre-treatment has the highest weighted global impact even if opposite results were obtained with respect to the single impact criteria. MSOF pre-treatment periods longer than 4 weeks showed rather negligible variation in the global impact of system emissions.

  20. atmospheric gas annual: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Geosciences Websites Summary: -solid waste for CO2 mitigation and reduction of greenhouse effect gases into the atmosphere. ? 2008 ElsevierCarbonation of alkaline paper mill...

  1. atmospheric gas analyzer: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Geosciences Websites Summary: -solid waste for CO2 mitigation and reduction of greenhouse effect gases into the atmosphere. ? 2008 ElsevierCarbonation of alkaline paper mill...

  2. atmospheric tritium gas: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Geosciences Websites Summary: -solid waste for CO2 mitigation and reduction of greenhouse effect gases into the atmosphere. ? 2008 ElsevierCarbonation of alkaline paper mill...

  3. Oilfield Flare Gas Electricity Systems (OFFGASES Project)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rachel Henderson; Robert Fickes

    2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Oilfield Flare Gas Electricity Systems (OFFGASES) project was developed in response to a cooperative agreement offering by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under Preferred Upstream Management Projects (PUMP III). Project partners included the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) as lead agency working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) and the California Oil Producers Electric Cooperative (COPE). The project was designed to demonstrate that the entire range of oilfield 'stranded gases' (gas production that can not be delivered to a commercial market because it is poor quality, or the quantity is too small to be economically sold, or there are no pipeline facilities to transport it to market) can be cost-effectively harnessed to make electricity. The utilization of existing, proven distribution generation (DG) technologies to generate electricity was field-tested successfully at four marginal well sites, selected to cover a variety of potential scenarios: high Btu, medium Btu, ultra-low Btu gas, as well as a 'harsh', or high contaminant, gas. Two of the four sites for the OFFGASES project were idle wells that were shut in because of a lack of viable solutions for the stranded noncommercial gas that they produced. Converting stranded gas to useable electrical energy eliminates a waste stream that has potential negative environmental impacts to the oil production operation. The electricity produced will offset that which normally would be purchased from an electric utility, potentially lowering operating costs and extending the economic life of the oil wells. Of the piloted sites, the most promising technologies to handle the range were microturbines that have very low emissions. One recently developed product, the Flex-Microturbine, has the potential to handle the entire range of oilfield gases. It is deployed at an oilfield near Santa Barbara to run on waste gas that is only 4% the strength of natural gas. The cost of producing oil is to a large extent the cost of electric power used to extract and deliver the oil. Researchers have identified stranded and flared gas in California that could generate 400 megawatts of power, and believe that there is at least an additional 2,000 megawatts that have not been identified. Since California accounts for about 14.5% of the total domestic oil production, it is reasonable to assume that about 16,500 megawatts could be generated throughout the United States. This power could restore the cost-effectiveness of thousands of oil wells, increasing oil production by millions of barrels a year, while reducing emissions and greenhouse gas emissions by burning the gas in clean distributed generators rather than flaring or venting the stranded gases. Most turbines and engines are designed for standardized, high-quality gas. However, emerging technologies such as microturbines have increased the options for a broader range of fuels. By demonstrating practical means to consume the four gas streams, the project showed that any gases whose properties are between the extreme conditions also could be utilized. The economics of doing so depends on factors such as the value of additional oil recovered, the price of electricity produced, and the alternate costs to dispose of stranded gas.

  4. Method for removing acid gases from a gaseous stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorin, Everett (San Rafael, CA); Zielke, Clyde W. (McMurray, PA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a process for hydrocracking a heavy aromatic polynuclear carbonaceous feedstock containing reactive alkaline constituents to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels boiling below about 475.degree. C. at atmospheric pressure by contacting the feedstock with hydrogen in the presence of a molten metal halide catalyst, thereafter separating a gaseous stream containing hydrogen, at least a portion of the hydrocarbon fuels and acid gases from the molten metal halide and regenerating the molten metal halide, thereby producing a purified molten metal halide stream for recycle to the hydrocracking zone, an improvement comprising; contacting the gaseous acid gas, hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuels-containing stream with the feedstock containing reactive alkaline constituents to remove acid gases from the acid gas containing stream. Optionally at least a portion of the hydrocarbon fuels are separated from gaseous stream containing hydrogen, hydrocarbon fuels and acid gases prior to contacting the gaseous stream with the feedstock.

  5. Realization of effective super Tonks-Girardeau gases via strongly attractive one-dimensional Fermi gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Shu; Yin Xiangguo; Guan Liming [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Guan Xiwen [Department of Theoretical Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Batchelor, M. T. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Mathematical Sciences Institute, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A significant feature of the one-dimensional super Tonks-Girardeau gas is its metastable gas-like state with a stronger Fermi-like pressure than for free fermions which prevents a collapse of atoms. This naturally suggests a way to search for such strongly correlated behavior in systems of interacting fermions in one dimension. We thus show that the strongly attractive Fermi gas without polarization can be effectively described by a super Tonks-Girardeau gas composed of bosonic Fermi pairs with attractive pair-pair interaction. A natural description of such super Tonks-Girardeau gases is provided by Haldane generalized exclusion statistics. In particular, they are equivalent to ideal particles obeying more exclusive statistics than Fermi-Dirac statistics.

  6. Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program was suspended May 2011. It was a mechanism by which corporations, government agencies, individuals, voluntary organizations, etc., could report to the Energy Information Administration, any actions taken that have or are expected to reduce/avoid emissions of greenhouse gases or sequester carbon.

  7. Preserving noble gases in a convecting mantle Helge M. Gonnermann1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy

    of a processed and out- gassed lower-mantle source, residues of mantle melting10,11 , depleted in uranium and mixing of noble-gas-depleted slabs dilutes the concentrations of noble gases in the mantle, thereby melt, which forms the ocean crust and leaves the residual mantle severely depleted of noble gases

  8. AER1301: KINETIC THEORY OF GASES Assignment #1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Groth, Clinton P. T.

    AER1301: KINETIC THEORY OF GASES Assignment #1 1. A hypersonic wind tunnel is contructed so such that the mean free path, , is given by the expression = 16µ 5 1 2RT , where R is the ideal gas constant and p space and the length of each side of the cube is 4v. (a) Obtain an expression for the normalized

  9. AER1301: KINETIC THEORY OF GASES Assignment #4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Groth, Clinton P. T.

    - equilibrium cases, up to second order. (b) Derive an expression for the non-conservative form of the kineticAER1301: KINETIC THEORY OF GASES Assignment #4 1. Consider a monatomic gas with one translational by the relaxation time approx- imation. Neglecting external forces, the conserved form of the kinetic equation

  10. AER1301: KINETIC THEORY OF GASES Assignment #4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Groth, Clinton P. T.

    AER1301: KINETIC THEORY OF GASES Assignment #4 1. Consider a monatomic gas with one translational by the relaxation time approx- imation. Neglecting external forces, the conserved form of the kinetic equation function, in both the equilibrium and non- equilibrium cases, up to second order. (b) Derive an expression

  11. INTRODUCTION Insects exchange respiratory gases through a complex network of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Socha, Jake

    3409 INTRODUCTION Insects exchange respiratory gases through a complex network of tracheal tubes through the tracheal system using diffusion alone (Krogh, 1920a; Weis-Fogh, 1964), many species are known to augment gas exchange using convection (Buck, 1962; Miller, 1966a). Two general mechanisms are recognized

  12. Numerical Modeling of Gas Migration at a Proposed Repository for Low and Intermediate Level Nuclear Wastes at Oberbauenstock, Switzerland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pruess editor, K.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    grid Thermophysical properties of hydrogen Total hydrogen4. Thermophysical properties of hydrogen density at P = 1hydrogen. This is modeled as an ideal gas; the thennophysical properties

  13. Quantum coherence and magnetism in bosonic and fermionic gases of ultracold atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jo, Gyu-Boong

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, two sets of experimental studies in bosonic and fermionic gases are described. In the first part of the thesis, itinerant ferromagnetism was studied in a strongly interacting Fermi gas of ultracold atoms. ...

  14. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program, required by Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, records the results of voluntary measures to reduce, avoid, or sequester greenhouse gas emissions. In 1998, 156 US companies and other organizations reported to the Energy information Administration that, during 1997, they had achieved greenhouse gas emission reductions and carbon sequestration equivalent to 166 million tons of carbon dioxide, or about 2.5% of total US emissions for the year. For the 1,229 emission reduction projects reported, reductions usually were measured by comparing an estimate of actual emissions with an estimate of what emissions would have been had the project not been implemented.

  15. Ignition Delay Times of Natural Gas/Hydrogen Blends at Elevated Pressures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brower, Marissa

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Applications of natural gases that contain high levels of hydrogen have become a primary interest in the gas turbine market. For reheat gas turbines, understanding of the ignition delay times of high-hydrogen natural gases is important for two...

  16. Theory of ultracold atomic Fermi gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giorgini, Stefano; Pitaevskii, Lev P.; Stringari, Sandro [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento and CNR-INFM BEC Center, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento and CNR-INFM BEC Center, I-38050 Povo, Trento, Italy and Kapitza Institute for Physical Problems, ul. Kosygina 2, 117334 Moscow (Russian Federation); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento and CNR-INFM BEC Center, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy)

    2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The physics of quantum degenerate atomic Fermi gases in uniform as well as in harmonically trapped configurations is reviewed from a theoretical perspective. Emphasis is given to the effect of interactions that play a crucial role, bringing the gas into a superfluid phase at low temperature. In these dilute systems, interactions are characterized by a single parameter, the s-wave scattering length, whose value can be tuned using an external magnetic field near a broad Feshbach resonance. The BCS limit of ordinary Fermi superfluidity, the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of dimers, and the unitary limit of large scattering length are important regimes exhibited by interacting Fermi gases. In particular, the BEC and the unitary regimes are characterized by a high value of the superfluid critical temperature, on the order of the Fermi temperature. Different physical properties are discussed, including the density profiles and the energy of the ground-state configurations, the momentum distribution, the fraction of condensed pairs, collective oscillations and pair-breaking effects, the expansion of the gas, the main thermodynamic properties, the behavior in the presence of optical lattices, and the signatures of superfluidity, such as the existence of quantized vortices, the quenching of the moment of inertia, and the consequences of spin polarization. Various theoretical approaches are considered, ranging from the mean-field description of the BCS-BEC crossover to nonperturbative methods based on quantum Monte Carlo techniques. A major goal of the review is to compare theoretical predictions with available experimental results.

  17. Identifying Hazardous Waste In Your Laboratory EPA Compliance Fact Sheet: Revision 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wikswo, John

    Identifying Hazardous Waste In Your Laboratory EPA Compliance Fact Sheet: Revision 1 Vanderbilt.safety.vanderbilt.edu IDENTIFYING HAZARDOUS WASTES IN YOUR LAB Laboratory personnel should treat all waste chemical solids, liquids, or containerized gases as hazardous wastes unless a specific chemical waste has been confirmed to be a non-hazardous

  18. alkaline high-level waste: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the atmosphere Geosciences Websites Summary: -solid waste for CO2 mitigation and reduction of greenhouse effect gases into the atmosphere. ? 2008 ElsevierCarbonation of...

  19. Methods, systems, and devices for deep desulfurization of fuel gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Liyu (Richland, WA); King, David L. (Richland, WA); Liu, Jun (Richland, WA); Huo, Qisheng (Richland, WA)

    2012-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A highly effective and regenerable method, system and device that enables the desulfurization of warm fuel gases by passing these warm gasses over metal-based sorbents arranged in a mesoporous substrate. This technology will protect Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysts and other sulfur sensitive catalysts, without drastic cooling of the fuel gases. This invention can be utilized in a process either alone or alongside other separation processes, and allows the total sulfur in such a gas to be reduced to less than 500 ppb and in some instances as low as 50 ppb.

  20. Welcome to Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology: Editorial

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenburg, C.M.; Maroto-Valer, M.M.

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This editorial introduces readers and contributors to a new online journal. Through the publication of articles ranging from peer-reviewed research papers and short communications, to editorials and interviews on greenhouse gas emissions science and technology, this journal will disseminate research results and information that address the global crisis of anthropogenic climate change. The scope of the journal includes the full spectrum of research areas from capture and separation of greenhouse gases from flue gases and ambient air, to beneficial utilization, and to sequestration in deep geologic formations and terrestrial (plant and soil) systems, as well as policy and technoeconomic analyses of these approaches.

  1. Guidance Document CompressedGases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    electricity. Oxygen by itself does not burn, but it will support or accelerate combustion of flammable the regulator is completely closed. 3. When possible use flammable and reactive gases in a fume hood. Certain

  2. Possibilities and limitations of life cycle assessment (LCA) in the development of waste utilization systems - Applied examples for a region in Northern Germany

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wittmaier, M. [Institute for Recycling and Environmental Protection at Bremen University of Applied Sciences GmbH, Neustadtswall 30, 28199 Bremen (Germany)], E-mail: wittmaier@hs-bremen.de; Langer, S.; Sawilla, B. [Institute for Recycling and Environmental Protection at Bremen University of Applied Sciences GmbH, Neustadtswall 30, 28199 Bremen (Germany)

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Against the background of increasing concerns about climate change, the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions has become an integral part of processes in both the waste management and the energy industries. This is reflected in the development of new waste treatment concepts, in which domestic and commercial waste is treated with the aim of utilizing its energy content, while at the same time recycling as much of its material content as possible. Life cycle assessment (LCA) represents a method of assessing the environmental relevance of a waste management system, the basis of which is a material flow analysis of the system in question. GHG emissions from different options for thermal treatment and energy recovery from waste as applied to a region in Northern Germany have been analyzed by the LCA approach and an indicative LCA, which only considers those emissions resulting from operating stages of the system. Operating stages have the main share of emissions compared to pre-processing stages. Results show that through specific separation of waste material flows and highly efficient energy recovery, thermal treatment and energy generation from waste can be optimized resulting in reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases. There are also other areas of waste utilization, currently given little attention, such as the solar drying of sewage sludge, which can considerably contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.

  3. Infrared Optical Imaging Techniques for Gas Visualization and Measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Safitri, Anisa

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Advancement in infrared imaging technology has allowed the thermal imaging to detect and visualize several gases, mostly hydrocarbon gases. In addition, infrared cameras could potentially be used as a non-contact temperature measurement for gas...

  4. Progress in resolving Hanford Site high-level waste tank safety issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babad, H.; Eberlein, S.J.; Johnson, G.D.; Meacham, J.E.; Osborne, J.W.; Payne, M.A.; Turner, D.A.

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Interim storage of alkaline, high-level radioactive waste, from two generations of spent fuel reprocessing and waste management activities, has resulted in the accumulation of 238 million liters of waste in Hanford Site single and double-shell tanks. Before the 1990`s, the stored waste was believed to be: (1) chemically unreactive under its existing storage conditions and plausible accident scenarios; and (2) chemically stable. This paradigm was proven incorrect when detailed evaluation of tank contents and behavior revealed a number of safety issues and that the waste was generating flammable and noxious gases. In 1990, the Waste Tank Safety Program was formed to focus on identifying safety issues and resolving the ferrocyanide, flammable gas, organic, high heat, noxious vapor, and criticality issues. The tanks of concern were placed on Watch Lists by safety issue. This paper summarizes recent progress toward resolving Hanford Site high-level radioactive waste tank safety issues, including modeling, and analyses, laboratory experiments, monitoring upgrades, mitigation equipment, and developing a strategy to screen tanks for safety issues.

  5. Advanced Sorbents as a Versatile Platform for Gas Separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neil Stephenson

    2003-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The program objective was to develop materials and processes for industrial gas separations to reduce energy use and enable waste reduction. The approach chosen combined novel oxygen selective adsorbents and pressure swing adsorption (PSA) processes. Preliminary materials development and process simulation results indicated that oxygen selective adsorbents could provide a versatile platform for industrial gas separations. If fully successful, this new technology offered the potential for reducing the cost of producing nitrogen/oxygen co-products, high purity nitrogen, argon, and possibly oxygen. The potential energy savings for the gas separations are appreciable, but the end users are the main beneficiaries. Lowering the cost of industrial gases expands their use in applications that can employ them for reducing energy consumption and emissions.

  6. Mitigation of Hydrogen Gas Generation from the Reaction of Uranium Metal with Water in K Basin Sludge and Sludge Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinkov, Sergey I.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2011-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Prior laboratory testing identified sodium nitrate and nitrite to be the most promising agents to minimize hydrogen generation from uranium metal aqueous corrosion in Hanford Site K Basin sludge. Of the two, nitrate was determined to be better because of higher chemical capacity, lower toxicity, more reliable efficacy, and fewer side reactions than nitrite. The present lab tests were run to determine if nitrate’s beneficial effects to lower H2 generation in simulated and genuine sludge continued for simulated sludge mixed with agents to immobilize water to help meet the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) waste acceptance drainable liquid criterion. Tests were run at ~60°C, 80°C, and 95°C using near spherical high-purity uranium metal beads and simulated sludge to emulate uranium-rich KW containerized sludge currently residing in engineered containers KW-210 and KW-220. Immobilization agents tested were Portland cement (PC), a commercial blend of PC with sepiolite clay (Aquaset II H), granulated sepiolite clay (Aquaset II G), and sepiolite clay powder (Aquaset II). In all cases except tests with Aquaset II G, the simulated sludge was mixed intimately with the immobilization agent before testing commenced. For the granulated Aquaset II G clay was added to the top of the settled sludge/solution mixture according to manufacturer application directions. The gas volumes and compositions, uranium metal corrosion mass losses, and nitrite, ammonia, and hydroxide concentrations in the interstitial solutions were measured. Uranium metal corrosion rates were compared with rates forecast from the known uranium metal anoxic water corrosion rate law. The ratios of the forecast to the observed rates were calculated to find the corrosion rate attenuation factors. Hydrogen quantities also were measured and compared with quantities expected based on non-attenuated H2 generation at the full forecast anoxic corrosion rate to arrive at H2 attenuation factors. The uranium metal corrosion rates in water alone and in simulated sludge were near or slightly below the metal-in-water rate while nitrate-free sludge/Aquaset II decreased rates by about a factor of 3. Addition of 1 M nitrate to simulated sludge decreased the corrosion rate by a factor of ~5 while 1 M nitrate in sludge/Aquaset II mixtures decreased the corrosion rate by ~2.5 compared with the nitrate-free analogues. Mixtures of simulated sludge with Aquaset II treated with 1 M nitrate had uranium corrosion rates about a factor of 8 to 10 lower than the water-only rate law. Nitrate was found to provide substantial hydrogen mitigation for immobilized simulant sludge waste forms containing Aquaset II or Aquaset II G clay. Hydrogen attenuation factors of 1000 or greater were determined at 60°C for sludge-clay mixtures at 1 M nitrate. Hydrogen mitigation for tests with PC and Aquaset II H (which contains PC) were inconclusive because of suspected failure to overcome induction times and fully enter into anoxic corrosion. Lessening of hydrogen attenuation at ~80°C and ~95°C for simulated sludge and Aquaset II was observed with attenuation factors around 100 to 200 at 1 M nitrate. Valuable additional information has been obtained on the ability of nitrate to attenuate hydrogen gas generation from solution, simulant K Basin sludge, and simulant sludge with immobilization agents. Details on characteristics of the associated reactions were also obtained. The present testing confirms prior work which indicates that nitrate is an effective agent to attenuate hydrogen from uranium metal corrosion in water and simulated K Basin sludge to show that it is also effective in potential candidate solidified K Basin waste forms for WIPP disposal. The hydrogen mitigation afforded by nitrate appears to be sufficient to meet the hydrogen generation limits for shipping various sludge waste streams based on uranium metal concentrations and assumed waste form loadings.

  7. Process for treatment of residual gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nolden, K.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is disclosed for the treatment of the residual gases which are produced when hydrogen sulfide is reduced, by combustion, to elementary sulfur by the Claus process. The residual gases are fed through a heated conduit and gas scrubber, wherein the temperature of those residual gases are maintained above the melting point of sulfur. A portion of the raw coke oven gas condensate is admitted to the gas scrubber to be returned to the coke oven battery main from the flushing liquid separator as flushing liquor. The residual gases are then conducted through the coke oven gas purification process equipment along with the raw coke oven gas where the residual gases are intermixed with the raw coke oven gas prior to tar separation.

  8. Characterization of oil and gas waste disposal practices and assessment of treatment costs. Technical progress report, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bedient, P.B.

    1994-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This report covers work completed during the sixth quarter for the project. The project consists of three tasks: the first relates to developing a database of waste volumes and disposal methods used by the industry; the second and third tasks are aimed at investigating technologies that could be used for the treatment of produced waters and developing cost estimates for those technologies. The remainder of this report describes progress related to the three tasks in the project. Overall, construction of the Production Environmental Database (PED) is ongoing. While much of the data has been collected and entered into the database, a few data categories are still missing, for example, soils and geology and geohydrology. Work is currently under way to collect these data. In addition, a detailed data analysis has begun in order to develop relationships between oil and gas activities and environmental characteristics. In terms of the treatment of produced water, much of the work in the past quarter was focused on analyzing the costs associated with the treatment and disposal of waste residuals such as sludges.

  9. CHARACTERIZATION OF DWPF MELTER OFF-GAS QUENCHER SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newell, J.

    2011-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) recently received a deposit sample from the Melter Primary Off Gas System (POG) of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). This sample was composed of material that had been collected while the quencher was in operation January 27, 2011 through March 31, 2011. DWPF requested, through a technical assistance request, characterization of the melter off-gas deposits by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and chemical analysis. The purpose of the Melter Off-Gas System is to reduce the amount of radioactive particles and mercury in the gases vented to the atmosphere. Gases emitted from the melter pass through the primary film cooler, quencher, Off-Gas Condensate Tank (OGCT), Steam Atomized Scrubbers (SAS), a condenser, a high efficiency mist eliminator, and a high efficiency particulate air filter, before being vented to the Process Vessel Vent System. The film coolers cool the gases leaving the melter vapor space from {approx}750 C to {approx}375 C, by introducing air and steam to the flow. In the next step, the quencher cools the gas to about 60 C by bringing the condensate from the OGCT in contact with the effluent (Figure 1). Most of the steam in the effluent is then condensed and the melter vapor space pressure is reduced. The purpose of the OGCT is to collect and store the condensate formed during the melter operation. Condensate from the OGCT is circulated to the SAS and atomized with steam. This atomized condensate is mixed with the off-gas to wet and join the particulate which is then removed in the cyclone. The next stage incorporates a chilled water condenser which separates the vapors and elemental mercury from the off-gas steam. Primary off-gas deposit samples from the DWPF melter have previously been analyzed. In 2003, samples from just past the film cooler, from the inlet of the quencher and inside the quencher were analyzed at SRNL. It was determined that the samples were a mixture of sludge and glass frit. The major component was Si along with Fe, Al, and other elements in the radioactive waste being processed. The deposits analyzed also contained U-235 fission products and actinide elements. Prior to that, deposits in the off-gas system in the DWPF nonradioactive half scale melter and the one-tenth scale integrated DWPF melter system were analyzed and determined to be mixtures of alkali rich chlorides, sulfates, borates, and fluorides entrained with iron oxides, spinels and frit particles formed by vapor-phase transport and condensation. Additional work was performed in 2007 in which researchers similarly found the deposits to be a combination of sludge and frit particles.

  10. Impacts of Imported Liquefied Natural Gas on Residential Appliance Components: Literature Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fundamentals of Gas Combustion. 2001: Washington, DC. 131Components A gas appliance combustion system accomplishestransfers energy from hot combustion gases to water or air

  11. Oil and Gas Production (Missouri)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A State Oil and Gas Council regulates and oversees oil and gas production in Missouri, and conducts a biennial review of relevant rules and regulations. The waste of oil and gas is prohibited. This...

  12. acid waste forms: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    described in this guide may be useful diagnostic methods to determine incinerator off-gas composition and concentrations. The characterization of the waste(s) recommended in...

  13. Evaluation of exposures of hospital employees to anesthetic gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambeth, J.D.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hospital employees who work in hospital operating and recovery rooms are often exposed to a number of anesthetic gases. There is evidence to support the belief that such exposures have led to higher rates of miscarriages and spontaneous abortions of pregnancies among women directly exposed to these gases than among women not exposed. Most of the studies assessing exposure levels were conducted prior to the widespread use of scavenging systems. Air sampling was conducted in hospital operatories and recovery rooms of three large hospitals to assess the current exposure levels in these areas and determine the effectiveness of these systems in reducing exposures to fluoride-containing anesthetic gases. It was determined that recovery-room personnel are exposed to levels of anesthesia gases that often approach and exceed the recommended Threshold Limit Value-Time Weighted Average (TLV-TWA) of 2.0 ppm. Recovery-room personnel do not have the protection from exposure provided by scavenging systems in operating rooms. Operating-room personnel were exposed to anesthesia gas levels above the TLV-TWA only when patients were masked, or connected and disconnected from the scavenging systems. Recovery-room personnel also need to be protected from exposure to anesthesia gases by a scavenging system.

  14. Chemical production from industrial by-product gases: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyke, S.E.; Moore, R.H.

    1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential for conservation of natural gas is studied and the technical and economic feasibility and the implementation of ventures to produce such chemicals using carbon monoxide and hydrogen from byproduct gases are determined. A survey was performed of potential chemical products and byproduct gas sources. Byproduct gases from the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries were selected for detailed study. Gas sampling, preliminary design, market surveys, and economic analyses were performed for specific sources in the selected industries. The study showed that production of methanol or ammonia from byproduct gas at the sites studied in the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries is technically feasible but not economically viable under current conditions. Several other applications are identified as having the potential for better economics. The survey performed identified a need for an improved method of recovering carbon monoxide from dilute gases. A modest experimental program was directed toward the development of a permselective membrane to fulfill that need. A practical membrane was not developed but further investigation along the same lines is recommended. (MCW)

  15. Gas Companies Right-of-Way (Maryland)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Corporations engaged in the business of transmitting or supplying natural gas, artificial gas, or a mixture of natural and artificial gases may acquire by condemnation the rights-of-way or...

  16. Hanford high level waste (HLW) tank mixer pump safe operating envelope reliability assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, S.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Clark, J. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy and its contractor, Westinghouse Corp., are responsible for the management and safe storage of waste accumulated from processing defense reactor irradiated fuels for plutonium recovery at the Hanford Site. These wastes, which consist of liquids and precipitated solids, are stored in underground storage tanks pending final disposition. Currently, 23 waste tanks have been placed on a safety watch list because of their potential for generating, storing, and periodically releasing various quantities of hydrogen and other gases. Tank 101-SY in the Hanford SY Tank Farm has been found to release hydrogen concentrations greater than the lower flammable limit (LFL) during periodic gas release events. In the unlikely event that an ignition source is present during a hydrogen release, a hydrogen burn could occur with a potential to release nuclear waste materials. To mitigate the periodic gas releases occurring from Tank 101-SY, a large mixer pump currently is being installed in the tank to promote a sustained release of hydrogen gas to the tank dome space. An extensive safety analysis (SA) effort was undertaken and documented to ensure the safe operation of the mixer pump after it is installed in Tank 101-SY.1 The SA identified a need for detailed operating, alarm, and abort limits to ensure that analyzed safety limits were not exceeded during pump operations.

  17. Radioactive Waste Radioactive Waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slatton, Clint

    form · Separate liquid from solid · Radionuclide · Separate all but H3/C14 #12;#12;Radioactive Waste;Radioactive Waste H3/C14 solids Type B (non-incinerable) metal glass hazardous materials #12;#12;Radioactive#12;Radioactive Waste at UF Bldg 831 392-8400 #12;Radioactive Waste · Program is designed to

  18. Interaction with thermal radiation in the free expansion and mixing of ideal gases and Gibbs' paradox in classical thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Paglietti

    2009-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The standard theory of ideal gases ignores the interaction of the gas particles with the thermal radiation (photon gas) that fills the otherwise vacuum space between them. This is an unphysical feature of the theory since every material in this universe, and hence also the particles of a gas, absorbs and radiates thermal energy. The interaction with the thermal radiation that is contained within the volume of the body may be important in gases since the latter, unlike solids and liquids, are capable of undergoing conspicuous volume changes. Taking this interaction into account makes the behaviour of the ideal gases more realistic and removes Gibbs' paradox.

  19. Method of prevention of deposits in the pipes of waste heat boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gettert, H.; Kaempfer, K.

    1983-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is disclosed for preventing deposits in the pipes of waste heat boilers employed for cooling gases in the partial autothermal oxidation of fossil fuels to prepare hydrogen or synthesis gases, wherein the pipes are flushed, at the operating temperature, with hydrogen-containing gases which contain little or no H/sub 2/S.

  20. Process for removing hydrogen sulfide from gases particularly coal pyrolysis gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ritter, H.; Herpers, E.T.

    1985-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen sulfide is first removed by ammoniacal liquor from coke oven gas in the bottom part of a gas scrubber. In the top part of the scrubber, two consecutively-arranged fine scrubbing stages remove hydrogen sulfide by treating the gases, in the upper stage, with a caustic soda solution or a caustic potash solution. Beneath the upper scrubbing stage is the second fine scrubbing stage fed with a subflow of an aqueous carbonate solution collecting at the outlet of the upper fine scrubbing stage and a subflow of cooled, regenerated carbonate solution discharged from the hydrogen-sulfide/hydrogen-cyanide stripper. From the hydrogen-sulfide/hydrogen-cyanide stripper, a second subflow is admixed with coal liquor for removing fixed ammonia therefrom in a separator. The separator produces water vapor with carbon dioxide vapors that are delivered to the hydrogen-sulfide/hydrogen-cyanide stripper for regenerating the aqueous carbonate washing solution.

  1. Chemical tailoring of steam to remediate underground mixed waste contaminents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA); Udell, Kent S. (Berkeley, CA); Bruton, Carol J. (Livermore, CA); Carrigan, Charles R. (Tracy, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method to simultaneously remediate mixed-waste underground contamination, such as organic liquids, metals, and radionuclides involves chemical tailoring of steam for underground injection. Gases or chemicals are injected into a high pressure steam flow being injected via one or more injection wells to contaminated soil located beyond a depth where excavation is possible. The injection of the steam with gases or chemicals mobilizes contaminants, such as metals and organics, as the steam pushes the waste through the ground toward an extraction well having subatmospheric pressure (vacuum). The steam and mobilized contaminants are drawn in a substantially horizontal direction to the extraction well and withdrawn to a treatment point above ground. The heat and boiling action of the front of the steam flow enhance the mobilizing effects of the chemical or gas additives. The method may also be utilized for immobilization of metals by using an additive in the steam which causes precipitation of the metals into clusters large enough to limit their future migration, while removing any organic contaminants.

  2. The extreme nonlinear optics of gases and femtosecond optical filamentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milchberg, H. M.; Chen, Y.-H.; Cheng, Y.-H.; Jhajj, N.; Palastro, J. P.; Rosenthal, E. W.; Varma, S.; Wahlstrand, J. K.; Zahedpour, S. [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Under certain conditions, powerful ultrashort laser pulses can form greatly extended, propagating filaments of concentrated high intensity in gases, leaving behind a very long trail of plasma. Such filaments can be much longer than the longitudinal scale over which a laser beam typically diverges by diffraction, with possible applications ranging from laser-guided electrical discharges to high power laser propagation in the atmosphere. Understanding in detail the microscopic processes leading to filamentation requires ultrafast measurements of the strong field nonlinear response of gas phase atoms and molecules, including absolute measurements of nonlinear laser-induced polarization and high field ionization. Such measurements enable the assessment of filamentation models and make possible the design of experiments pursuing applications. In this paper, we review filamentation in gases and some applications, and discuss results from diagnostics developed at Maryland for ultrafast measurements of laser-gas interactions.

  3. Coolside waste management research. Quarterly report, October 1 - December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research is to produce sufficient information on the physical and chemical nature of Coolside waste to design and construct physically stable and environmentally safe landfills. This quarterly report consists of three monthly progress reports. The first is on an ongoing field test where additional data obtained during this reporting period support earlier results indicating that mineralogical transformations continue in the field lysimeters as a function of available moisture, aging and static loading of the Coolside materials. The second report presents results from an ongoing laboratory testing which support earlier data that mineralogical transformations cause swell in the FBC ash samples. The objectives of this part of study focuses on long-term changes in permeability of clay liners caused by water leaching through FGD- materials into compacted clay liners. The third report summarizes results from an ongoing investigation of the capacity of dry FGD wastes to absorb acidic gases. This work is part of a continuing effort to identify and evaluate potential commercial applications for FGD waste materials. Results from an investigation of CO{sub 2} absorption in which waste samples were evaluated in both hydrated- solid and aqueous-slurry forms were previously reported. In that study, emphasis was placed on the removal of CO{sub 2} from multi- component gas streams, particularly, natural-gas streams. The current probe is an expansion of the CO{sub 2} absorption study and includes results from testing of H{sub 2}S, SO{sub 2}, NO, CH{sub 4}, and NO{sub 2} absorption. The relative affinity of the dry FGD wastes for the gases examined thus far was found to be SO{sub 2} > CO{sub 2} > H{sub 2}S. CH{sub 4} and NO are not absorbed and NO{sub 2} apparently decomposes on contact with surface water to NO and HNO{sub 3}.

  4. Process for the removal of acid forming gases from exhaust gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA); Liu, David K. (San Pablo, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Exhaust gases are treated to remove NO or NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2 by contacting the gases with an aqueous emulsion or suspension of yellow phosphorus preferably in a wet scrubber. The pressure is not critical, and ambient pressures are used. Hot water temperatures are best, but economics suggest about 50.degree. C. are attractive. The amount of yellow phosphorus used will vary with the composition of the exhaust gas, less than 3% for small concentrations of NO, and 10% or higher for concentrations above say 1000 ppm. Similarly, the pH will vary with the composition being treated, and it is adjusted with a suitable alkali. For mixtures of NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, alkalis that are used for flue gas desulfurization are preferred. With this process, 100% of the by-products created are usable, and close to 100% of the NO or NO and SO.sub.2 can be removed in an economic fashion.

  5. Process for the removal of acid forming gases from exhaust gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, S.G.; Liu, D.K.

    1992-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Exhaust gases are treated to remove NO or NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2] by contacting the gases with an aqueous emulsion or suspension of yellow phosphorus preferably in a wet scrubber. The pressure is not critical, and ambient pressures are used. Hot water temperatures are best, but economics suggest about 50 C is attractive. The amount of yellow phosphorus used will vary with the composition of the exhaust gas, less than 3% for small concentrations of NO, and 10% or higher for concentrations above say 1000 ppm. Similarly, the pH will vary with the composition being treated, and it is adjusted with a suitable alkali. For mixtures of NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2], alkalis that are used for flue gas desulfurization are preferred. With this process, 100% of the by-products created are usable, and close to 100% of the NO or NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2] can be removed in an economic fashion. 9 figs.

  6. A conceptual design of a Reactive Ion Etch back end system for the direct reuse of process gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tiner, Paul Alan

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of these gases have proven to be detrimental to the environment. Because of the low percentage of utilization of the gas in a plasma process, these effects are a major concern. Few methods exist in industry today to dispose of unused gases, and all of the known...

  7. Method of recovering sulfur from the hydrogen sulfide contained in coke oven gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laufhutte, D.

    1985-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Ammonia and hydrogen sulfide are washed out of the coke oven gas and stripped from the wash liquor in the form of gases and fumes or vapors. The ammonia is decomposed in a nickel catalyzer and a small part of the decomposition gases is supplied directly to a combustion furnace, while the larger part of the combustion gases is first cooled and freed from condensate, and only then supplied to the combustion furnace. In the combustion furnace, the proportion of H/sub 2/S/SO/sub 2/ needed for the Claus process is adjusted by a partial combustion of the decomposition gases. The gases from the combustion furnace are then processed in the Claus plant to sulfur.

  8. Measurement and Analysis of the Relationship between Ammonia, Acid Gases, and Fine Particles in Eastern North

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aneja, Viney P.

    ).2­4 Gas-to-particle conversion can be accomplished by condensation, which adds mass onto preMeasurement and Analysis of the Relationship between Ammonia, Acid Gases, and Fine Particles acid gas con- centrations of 0.23 g/m3 hydrochloric acid (standard deviation [SD] 0.2 g/m3 ); 1.14 g/m3

  9. Atmospheric Environment 42 (2008) 30763086 Scavenging of soluble gases by evaporating and growing cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elperin, Tov

    and condensation of a cloud droplet in the presence of soluble gases. It is assumed that gas absorption we performed numerical analysis of simultaneous heat and mass transfer during evaporation into account thermal effect of gas absorption. It was shown that nonlinear behavior of different parameters

  10. Method and apparatus for separating mixtures of gases using an acoustic wave

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Geller, Drew A.; Swift, Gregory W.; Backhaus, Scott N.

    2004-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermoacoustic device separates a mixture of gases. An elongated duct is provided with first and second ends and has a length that is greater than the wavelength of sound in the mixture of gases at a selected frequency, and a diameter that is greater than a thermal penetration depth in the mixture of gases. A first acoustic source is located at the first end of the duct to generate acoustic power at the selected frequency. A plurality of side branch acoustic sources are spaced along the length of the duct and are configured to introduce acoustic power into the mixture of gases so that a first gas is concentrated at the first end of the duct and a second gas is concentrated at the second end of the duct.

  11. ESTABoues, a decision tool to assess greenhouse gases of sewage sludge treatment and di

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ORBIT2012 G ESTABoues, a decision tool to assess greenhouse gases of sewage sludge treatment and di-laure.reverdy@irstea.fr EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Sewage sludge production increases continuously reaching almost 20% (946 700 t 1 118 795% was incinerated (with or without household wastes) or landfilled. Nowadays, sludge reduction is a major concern

  12. Fluidized-bed waste-heat recovery system development: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patch, K.D.; Cole, W.E.

    1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A major energy loss in industry is the heat content of the flue gases from industrial process heaters. One effective way to utilize the energy, which is applicable to all processes, is to preheat the combustion air for the process heater. Although recuperators are available to preheat this air when the flue gases are clean, recuperators to recover the heat from dirty and corrosive flue gases do not exist. The Fluidized-Bed Waste-Heat Recovery (FBWHR) system is designed to preheat this combustion air using the heat available in dirty flue gas streams. In this system, recirculating alumina particles are heated by the flue gas in a raining bed. The hot particles are then removed from the bed and placed in a fluidized bed where they are fluidized by the combustion air. Through this process, the combustion air is preheated. The cooled particles are then returned to the raining bed. Initial development of this concept is for the aluminum smelting industry. In this final report, the design, development, fabrication, and installation of a full-scale FBWHR system is detailed.

  13. Life Cycle Assessment of Hydrogen Production via Natural Gas...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    gas steam reforming was performed to examine the net emissions of greenhouse gases as well as other major environmental consequences. 27637.pdf More Documents & Publications...

  14. The determination of PCBs in Rocky Flats Type IV waste sludge by gas chromatography/electron capture detection. Part 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parish, K.J.; Applegate, D.V.; Postlethwait, P.D.; Boparai, A.S.; Reedy, G.T.

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Before disposal, radioactive sludge (Type IV) from Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) must be evaluated for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) content. The Type IV sludge consists of organic solvents, degreasers, cutting oils, and transuranic (TRU) waste mixed with calcium silicate (MicroCel E{reg_sign} and Oil Dri{reg_sign} to form a grease or paste-like material. For laboratory testing, a nonradioactive simulated Type 17V RFP sludge was prepared at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E). This sludge has a composition similar to that expected from field samples. In an earlier effort, a simplified method was developed for extraction, cleanup of extract, and determination of PCBs in samples of simulated sludge spiked with Aroclors 1254 and 1260. The simplified method has now been used to determine the presence and quantities of other Aroclors in the simulated sludge, namely, Aroclors 10 1 6, 1221, 1232, 1242, and 1248. The accuracy and precision of the data for these Aroclors were found to be similar to the data for sludges spiked with Aroclors 1254 and 1260. Since actual sludges may vary in composition, the method was also verified by analyzing another source of Type IV simulated sludge, prepared by Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W).

  15. Process for the removal of acid forming gases from exhaust gases and production of phosphoric acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA); Liu, David K. (San Pablo, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Exhaust gases are treated to remove NO or NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2 by contacting the gases with an aqueous emulsion or suspension of yellow phosphorous preferably in a wet scrubber. The addition of yellow phosphorous in the system induces the production of O.sub.3 which subsequently oxidizes NO to NO.sub.2. The resulting NO.sub.2 dissolves readily and can be reduced to form ammonium ions by dissolved SO.sub.2 under appropriate conditions. In a 20 acfm system, yellow phosphorous is oxidized to yield P.sub.2 O.sub.5 which picks up water to form H.sub.3 PO.sub.4 mists and can be collected as a valuable product. The pressure is not critical, and ambient pressures are used. Hot water temperatures are best, but economics suggest about 50.degree. C. The amount of yellow phosphorus used will vary with the composition of the exhaust gas, less than 3% for small concentrations of NO, and 10% or higher for concentrations above say 1000 ppm. Similarly, the pH will vary with the composition being treated, and it is adjusted with a suitable alkali. For mixtures of NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, alkalis that are used for flue gas desulfurization are preferred. With this process, better than 90% of SO.sub.2 and NO in simulated flue gas can be removed. Stoichiometric ratios (P/NO) ranging between 0.6 and 1.5 were obtained.

  16. Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in California: The California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenblatt, Jeffery B.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    decision support tool for landfill gas-to energy projects,”component of landfills to 100% HGWP gases a. HFC phase-out:

  17. Gas pump with movable gas pumping panels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Osher, John E. (Alamo, CA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for pumping gas continuously a plurality of articulated panels of getter material, each of which absorbs gases on one side while another of its sides is simultaneously reactivated in a zone isolated by the panels themselves from a working space being pumped.

  18. Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Turbocompound...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Utilizing Electric Trubocompound Technology Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Turbocompound Technology Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines (ARES) -...

  19. Waste Heat Boilers for Incineration Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganapathy, V.

    Incineration is a widely used process for disposing of solid, liquid and gaseous wastes generated in various types of industries. In addition to destroying pollutants, energy may also be recovered from the waste gas streams in the form of steam...

  20. renewable energy from waste 1730 RHODE ISLAND AVENUE, NW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    greenhouse gas emissions Waste-to-energy achieves the reduction of greenhouse gas emission through three separate mechanisms: 1) by generating electrical power or steam, waste-to-energy avoids carbon dioxide (CO2 mechanisms provide a true accounting of the greenhouse gas emission reduction potential of waste

  1. Gas Release During Saltwell Pumping: Interpretation of Operational Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.L. Huckaby; L.M. Peurrung; P.A. Gauglitz

    1999-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Site has 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) containing radioactive waste that is a complex mix of radioactive and chemical products. Of these, 67 are known or suspected to have leaked liquid into the surrounding soil, while 82 are considered sound (Hanlon 1999). To minimize the amount of material that potentially could leak into the surrounding soil, all of the SSTs are scheduled to have drainable liquid removed and to be designated as interim stabilized. Of the SSTs, 119 have been declared stabilized, and only 30 require further processing (Hanlon 1999). Many of the tanks have been declared stabilized administratively, with only 45 tanks having had drainable liquid removed. The pending consent decree between the Washington State Department of Ecology and the Office of River Protection. (U.S. District Court Eastern District of Washington, 1999) sets a milestone to complete interim stabilization by September 2004. While process equipment exists for removing drainable liquid, and its operation is well known from previous pumping campaigns, a number of safety issues associated with the release and potential ignition of flammable gases within the tanks needs to be addressed. The safety concerns associated with flammable gases stem from the observation that some of the waste in the SSTs generates and retains hazardous quantities of flammable gases, including hydrogen, nitrous oxide, and ammonia. Of the 30 SSTs remaining to be declared interim stabilized, 29 need to have drainable liquid removed by saltwell pumping (waste in tank 241-C-106 will be removed by sluicing), and 16 of these are on the Flammable Gas Watch List (FGWL) (Hopkins 1995; Hanlon 1999). Most of these tanks are in Facility Group 2 (Noorani 1997); that is, it is believed that tank operations may induce the release of significant quantities of flammable gas, but gas release does not occur spontaneously. In particular, saltwell pumping to remove the interstitial liquid from SSTs is expected to cause the release of much of the retained gas, both insoluble (principally hydrogen) and soluble (principally ammonia), posing a number of safety concerns (Peurrung et al. 1997; Meader 1996).

  2. Shipment and Disposal of Solidified Organic Waste (Waste Type IV) to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D'Amico, E. L [Washington TRU Solutions (United States); Edmiston, D. R. [John Hart and Associates (United States); O'Leary, G. A. [CH2M-WG Idaho, LLC (United States); Rivera, M. A. [Aspen Resources Ltd., Inc. (United States); Steward, D. M. [Boulder Research Enterprises, LLC (United States)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In April of 2005, the last shipment of transuranic (TRU) waste from the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site to the WIPP was completed. With the completion of this shipment, all transuranic waste generated and stored at Rocky Flats was successfully removed from the site and shipped to and disposed of at the WIPP. Some of the last waste to be shipped and disposed of at the WIPP was waste consisting of solidified organic liquids that is identified as Waste Type IV in the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC) document. Waste Type IV waste typically has a composition, and associated characteristics, that make it significantly more difficult to ship and dispose of than other Waste Types, especially with respect to gas generation. This paper provides an overview of the experience gained at Rocky Flats for management, transportation and disposal of Type IV waste at WIPP, particularly with respect to gas generation testing. (authors)

  3. Environmental sustainability comparison of a hypothetical pneumatic waste collection system and a door-to-door system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Punkkinen, Henna, E-mail: henna.punkkinen@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Biologinkuja 7, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland); Merta, Elina, E-mail: elina.merta@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Biologinkuja 7, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland); Teerioja, Nea, E-mail: nea.teerioja@helsinki.fi [University of Helsinki, Department of Economics and Management, Latokartanonkaari 9, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 HY (Finland); Moliis, Katja, E-mail: katja.moliis@helsinki.fi [University of Helsinki, Department of Economics and Management, Latokartanonkaari 9, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 HY (Finland); Kuvaja, Eveliina, E-mail: eveliina.kuvaja@helsinki.fi [University of Helsinki, Department of Economics and Management, Latokartanonkaari 9, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 HY (Finland)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We compare the environmental sustainability of two MSW collection systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We evaluate pneumatic and door-to-door collection systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The greenhouse gas emissions of pneumatic collection are around three times higher. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer System components are decisive but assumptions on electricity use are also important. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pneumatic collection could provide other benefits over door-to-door system. - Abstract: Waste collection is one of the life cycle phases that influence the environmental sustainability of waste management. Pneumatic waste collection systems represent a new way of arranging waste collection in densely populated urban areas. However, limited information is available on the environmental impacts of this system. In this study, we compare the environmental sustainability of conventional door-to-door waste collection with its hypothetical pneumatic alternative. Furthermore, we analyse whether the size of the hypothetical pneumatic system, or the number of waste fractions included, have an impact on the results. Environmental loads are calculated for a hypothetical pneumatic waste collection system modelled on an existing dense urban area in Helsinki, Finland, and the results are compared to those of the prevailing, container-based, door-to-door waste collection system. The evaluation method used is the life-cycle inventory (LCI). In this study, we report the atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. The results indicate that replacing the prevailing system with stationary pneumatic waste collection in an existing urban infrastructure would increase total air emissions. Locally, in the waste collection area, emissions would nonetheless diminish, as collection traffic decreases. While the electricity consumption of the hypothetical pneumatic system and the origin of electricity have a significant bearing on the results, emissions due to manufacturing the system's components prove decisive.

  4. Emissions of greenhouse gases from the use of transportation fuels and electricity. Volume 2: Appendixes A--S

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeLuchi, M.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Inst. of Transportation Studies

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This volume contains the appendices to the report on Emission of Greenhouse Gases from the Use of Transportation Fuels and Electricity. Emissions of methane, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, and other greenhouse gases are discussed. Sources of emission including vehicles, natural gas operations, oil production, coal mines, and power plants are covered. The various energy industries are examined in terms of greenhouse gas production and emissions. Those industries include electricity generation, transport of goods via trains, trucks, ships and pipelines, coal, natural gas and natural gas liquids, petroleum, nuclear energy, and biofuels.

  5. Apparatus for the plasma destruction of hazardous gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kang, Michael (Los Alamos, NM)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A plasma cell for destroying hazardous gases. An electric-discharge cell having an electrically conducting electrode onto which an alternating high-voltage waveform is impressed and a dielectric barrier adjacent thereto, together forming a high-voltage electrode, generates self-terminating discharges throughout a volume formed between this electrode and a grounded conducting liquid electrode. The gas to be transformed is passed through this volume. The liquid may be flowed, generating thereby a renewable surface. Moreover, since hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids may be formed from destruction of various chlorofluorocarbons in the presence of water, a conducting liquid may be selected which will neutralize these corrosive compounds. The gases exiting the discharge region may be further scrubbed if additional purification is required.

  6. Apparatus for the plasma destruction of hazardous gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kang, M.

    1995-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A plasma cell for destroying hazardous gases is described. An electric-discharge cell having an electrically conducting electrode onto which an alternating high-voltage waveform is impressed and a dielectric barrier adjacent thereto, together forming a high-voltage electrode, generates self-terminating discharges throughout a volume formed between this electrode and a grounded conducting liquid electrode. The gas to be transformed is passed through this volume. The liquid may be flowed, generating thereby a renewable surface. Moreover, since hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids may be formed from destruction of various chlorofluorocarbons in the presence of water, a conducting liquid may be selected which will neutralize these corrosive compounds. The gases exiting the discharge region may be further scrubbed if additional purification is required. 4 figs.

  7. Decontamination of combustion gases in fluidized bed incinerators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leon, Albert M. (Mamaroneck, NY)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sulfur-containing atmospheric pollutants are effectively removed from exit gas streams produced in a fluidized bed combustion system by providing a fluidized bed of particulate material, i.e. limestone and/or dolomite wherein a concentration gradient is maintained in the vertical direction. Countercurrent contacting between upwardly directed sulfur containing combustion gases and descending sorbent particulate material creates a concentration gradient across the vertical extent of the bed characterized in progressively decreasing concentration of sulfur, sulfur dioxide and like contaminants upwardly and decreasing concentration of e.g. calcium oxide, downwardly. In this manner, gases having progressively decreasing sulfur contents contact correspondingly atmospheres having progressively increasing concentrations of calcium oxide thus assuring optimum sulfur removal.

  8. Conserving Energy by Recovering Heat from Hot Waste Gases 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magnuson, E. E.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -04-08 Proceedings from the First Industrial Energy Technology Conference Houston, TX, April 22-25, 1979 the boiler, ductwork and a low tempera Fig. No. 21 ture boiler control valve; or all or part PRESENT WORTH FACTORS (PWF) LIFETIME goes through duct work.... 528 1.440 1. 317 low temperature exhaust or boiler control 3 2.723 2.487 2.283 2.106 1. 952 1. 742 valve is in the open or partly open posi 4 3.546 3.170 2.855 2.589 2.362 2.061 5 4.329 3.791 3.352 2.991 2.689 2.302 tion and the high...

  9. Conserving Energy by Recovering Heat from Hot Waste Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magnuson, E. E.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    supply, and 1150?1500 Cement kiln (wet process) 8oo~1100 isn't a shortage of energy then at least somewhat of a Copper reverberatory furnace 2000?~.'500 crisis? Diesel engine exhaust 1000?1200 Forge and billet.heating furnaces 1700?~ZOO... Temp. F aren't they really agreeing that there is going to be Ammonia oxidation process 1350?1475 an energy crisis? Steep price increases occur when Annealing furnace 1100?2000 Cement kiln (dry process) there are shortages, when demand exceeds...

  10. Improved correlations for retrograde gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crogh, Arne

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for the Niemstschik et al. Correlation. Initial Gas Gravity is 0. 92. Worst case, 42. 3 % absolute average error. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. 10 Measured versus Calculated Composition for New Correlation. Initial Gas 16 16 17 17 20 20 Gravity is 0. 96.... Best case, 0. 5 % absolute average error. . . . 2. 11 Measured versus Calculated Composition for New Correlation. Initial Gas Gravity is 0. 93. Worst case, 35. 6 % absolute average error. . . . . 3. 1 Calculated and Measured C7+ Molecular...

  11. Characterization of lagoon gases by an electronic nose

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woodcock, Jane Catherine

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the decomposition of livestock wastes, the need for accurate and reliable devices for field monitoring of emissions exists. Studies were undertaken into the use of an array of chemical gas sensors for the detection and characterization of lagoon biogas. The sensors...

  12. Mixed Waste Treatment Using the ChemChar Thermolytic Detoxification Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuchynka, D.J.

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This R and D program addresses the treatment of mixed waste employing the ChemChar Thermolytic Detoxification process. Surrogate mixed waste streams will be treated in a four inch diameter, continuous feed, adiabatic reactor with the goal of meeting all regulatory treatment levels for the contaminants in the surrogates with the concomitant production of contaminant free by-products. Successful completion of this program will show that organic contaminants in mixed waste surrogates will be converted to a clean, energy rich synthesis gas capable of being used, without further processing, for power or heat generation. The inorganic components in the surrogates will be found to be adsorbed on a macroporous coal char activated carbon substrate which is mixed with the waste prior to treatment. These contaminants include radioactive metal surrogate species, RCRA hazardous metals and any acid gases formed during the treatment process. The program has three main tasks that will be performed to meet the above objectives. The first task is the design and construction of the four inch reactor at Mirage Systems in Sunnyvale, CA. The second task is production and procurement of the activated carbon char employed in the ChemChartest runs and identification of two surrogate mixed wastes. The last task is testing and operation of the reactor on char/surrogate waste mixtures to be performed at the University of Missouri. The deliverables for the project are a Design Review Report, Operational Test Plan, Topical Report and Final Report. This report contains only the results of the design and construction carbon production-surrogate waste identification tasks.Treatment of the surrogate mixed wastes has just begun and will not be reported in this version of the Final Report. The latter will be reported in the final version of the Final Report.

  13. MODELING THE IMPACT OF ELEVATED MERCURY IN DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY MELTER FEED ON THE MELTER OFF-GAS SYSTEM-PRELIMINARY REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zamecnik, J.; Choi, A.

    2010-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is currently evaluating an alternative Chemical Process Cell (CPC) flowsheet to increase throughput. It includes removal of the steam-stripping step, which would significantly reduce the CPC processing time and lessen the sampling needs. However, its downside would be to send 100% of the mercury that comes in with the sludge straight to the melter. For example, the new mercury content in the Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) melter feed is projected to be 25 times higher than that in the SB4 with nominal steam stripping of mercury. This task was initiated to study the impact of the worst-case scenario of zero-mercury-removal in the CPC on the DWPF melter offgas system. It is stressed that this study is intended to be scoping in nature, so the results presented in this report are preliminary. In order to study the impact of elevated mercury levels in the feed, it is necessary to be able to predict how mercury would speciate in the melter exhaust under varying melter operating conditions. A homogeneous gas-phase oxidation model of mercury by chloride was developed to do just that. The model contains two critical parameters pertaining to the partitioning of chloride among HCl, Cl, Cl{sub 2}, and chloride salts in the melter vapor space. The values for these parameters were determined at two different melter vapor space temperatures by matching the calculated molar ratio of HgCl (or Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}) to HgCl{sub 2} with those measured during the Experimental-Scale Ceramic Melter (ESCM) tests run at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The calibrated model was then applied to the SB5 simulant used in the earlier flowsheet study with an assumed mercury stripping efficiency of zero; the molar ratio of Cl-to-Hg in the resulting melter feed was only 0.4, compared to 12 for the ESCM feeds. The results of the model run at the indicated melter vapor space temperature of 650 C (TI4085D) showed that due to excessive shortage of chloride, only 6% of the mercury fed is expected to get oxidized, mostly as HgCl, while the remaining mercury would exist either as elemental mercury vapor (90%) or HgO (4%). Noting that the measured chloride level in the SB5 qualification sample was an order of magnitude lower than that used in the SB5 simulant, the degree of chloride shortage will be even greater. As a result, the projected level of HgCl in the actual SB5 melter exhaust will be even lower than 6% of the total mercury fed, while that of elemental mercury is likely to be greater than 90%. The homogeneous oxidation of mercury in the off-gas was deemed to be of primary importance based on the postulation that mercury and other volatile salts form submicron sized aerosols upon condensation and thus remain largely in the gas stream downstream of the quencher where they can deposit in the off-gas lines, Steam-Atomized Scrubbers (SAS), and High-Efficiency Mist Eliminator (HEME). Formation of these submicron semi-volatile salts in the condensate liquid is considered to be unlikely, so the liquid phase reactions were considered to be less important. However, subsequent oxidation of mercury in the liquid phase in the off-gas system was examined in a simplified model of the off-gas condensate. It was found that the condensate chemistry was consistent with further oxidation of elemental mercury to Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} and conversion of HgO to chlorides. The results were consistent with the available experimental data. It should also be noted that the model predictions presented in this report do not include any physically entrained solids, which typically account for much of the off-gas carryover on a mass basis. The high elemental mercury vapor content predicted at the DWPF Quencher inlet means that physically entrained solids could provide the necessary surface onto which elemental mercury vapor could condense, thereby coating the solids as well as the internal surfaces of the off-gas system with mercury. Clearly, there are many process benefits to be gained by removing the steam-stripping step from the CPC c

  14. Regulation of Natural Gas (Texas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This legislation provides for the protection of public and private interests with regards to natural gas production, prohibits waste, and compels ratable production to enable owners of gas in a...

  15. Mixed waste characterization reference document

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Waste characterization and monitoring are major activities in the management of waste from generation through storage and treatment to disposal. Adequate waste characterization is necessary to ensure safe storage, selection of appropriate and effective treatment, and adherence to disposal standards. For some wastes characterization objectives can be difficult and costly to achieve. The purpose of this document is to evaluate costs of characterizing one such waste type, mixed (hazardous and radioactive) waste. For the purpose of this document, waste characterization includes treatment system monitoring, where monitoring is a supplement or substitute for waste characterization. This document establishes a cost baseline for mixed waste characterization and treatment system monitoring requirements from which to evaluate alternatives. The cost baseline established as part of this work includes costs for a thermal treatment technology (i.e., a rotary kiln incinerator), a nonthermal treatment process (i.e., waste sorting, macronencapsulation, and catalytic wet oxidation), and no treatment (i.e., disposal of waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)). The analysis of improvement over the baseline includes assessment of promising areas for technology development in front-end waste characterization, process equipment, off gas controls, and monitoring. Based on this assessment, an ideal characterization and monitoring configuration is described that minimizes costs and optimizes resources required for waste characterization.

  16. Renewable Hydrogen: Technology Review and Policy Recommendations for State-Level Sustainable Energy Futures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipman, Timothy; Edwards, Jennifer Lynn; Brooks, Cameron

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    municipal solid waste “landfill gas” and waste gases fromin Israel, a solar and landfill gas demonstration in Canada,23. Solar-Powered Landfill Gas Conversion in Saskatoon,

  17. Oxygen buffering of Kilauea volcanic gases and the oxygen fugacity of Kilauea basalt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerlach, T.M. (Geological Survey, Vancouver, WA (United States))

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Volcanic gases collected during episode 1 of the Puu Oo eruption along the east rift zone of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, have uniform C-O-H-S-Cl-F compositions that are sharply depleted in CO[sub 2]. The CO[sub 2]-poor gases are typical of Type II volcanic gases (GERLACH and GRAEBER, 1985) and were emitted from evolved magma stored for a prolonged period of time in the east rift zone after releasing CO[sub 2]-rich gases during an earlier period of temporary residence in the summit magma chamber. The samples are remarkably free of contamination by atmospheric gases and meteoric water. Thermodynamic evaluation of the analytical data shows that the episode 1 gases have equilibrium compositions appropriate for temperatures between 935 and 1032[degrees]C. Open- and closed-system equilibrium models of species distributions for the episode 1 gases show unequivocally that coexisting lavas buffered the gas oxygen fugacities during cooling. These models indicate that the F[sub o[sub 2

  18. A Biomass-based Model to Estimate the Plausibility of Exoplanet Biosignature Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seager, S; Hu, R

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biosignature gas detection is one of the ultimate future goals for exoplanet atmosphere studies. We have created a framework for linking biosignature gas detectability to biomass estimates, including atmospheric photochemistry and biological thermodynamics. The new framework is intended to liberate predictive atmosphere models from requiring fixed, Earth-like biosignature gas source fluxes. New biosignature gases can be considered with a check that the biomass estimate is physically plausible. We have validated the models on terrestrial production of NO, H2S, CH4, CH3Cl, and DMS. We have applied the models to propose NH3 as a biosignature gas on a "cold Haber World," a planet with a N2-H2 atmosphere, and to demonstrate why gases such as CH3Cl must have too large of a biomass to be a plausible biosignature gas on planets with Earth or early-Earth-like atmospheres orbiting a Sun-like star. To construct the biomass models, we developed a functional classification of biosignature gases, and found that gases (such...

  19. Gas phase 129Xe NMR imaging and spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Lana G.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    5 l l Dynamic NMR microscopy of gas phase Poiseuille flowmetal vapors and noble gases can be used to efficientlypolarize the nuclei ofthe noble-gas atoms. As a result, the

  20. Emissions from US waste collection vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maimoun, Mousa A., E-mail: mousamaimoun@gmail.com [Department of Civil, Environmental, and Construction Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); Reinhart, Debra R. [Department of Civil, Environmental, and Construction Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); Gammoh, Fatina T. [Quality Department, Airport International Group, Amman (Jordan); McCauley Bush, Pamela [Department of Industrial Engineering and Management Systems, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States)

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: ? Life-cycle emissions for alternative fuel technologies. ? Fuel consumption of alternative fuels for waste collection vehicles. ? Actual driving cycle of waste collection vehicles. ? Diesel-fueled waste collection vehicle emissions. - Abstract: This research is an in-depth environmental analysis of potential alternative fuel technologies for waste collection vehicles. Life-cycle emissions, cost, fuel and energy consumption were evaluated for a wide range of fossil and bio-fuel technologies. Emission factors were calculated for a typical waste collection driving cycle as well as constant speed. In brief, natural gas waste collection vehicles (compressed and liquid) fueled with North-American natural gas had 6–10% higher well-to-wheel (WTW) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to diesel-fueled vehicles; however the pump-to-wheel (PTW) GHG emissions of natural gas waste collection vehicles averaged 6% less than diesel-fueled vehicles. Landfill gas had about 80% lower WTW GHG emissions relative to diesel. Biodiesel waste collection vehicles had between 12% and 75% lower WTW GHG emissions relative to diesel depending on the fuel source and the blend. In 2011, natural gas waste collection vehicles had the lowest fuel cost per collection vehicle kilometer travel. Finally, the actual driving cycle of waste collection vehicles consists of repetitive stops and starts during waste collection; this generates more emissions than constant speed driving.

  1. Hanford Site Secondary Waste Roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westsik, Joseph H.

    2009-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Summary The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is making plans to dispose of 54 million gallons of radioactive tank wastes at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The high-level wastes and low-activity wastes will be vitrified and placed in permanent disposal sites. Processing of the tank wastes will generate secondary wastes, including routine solid wastes and liquid process effluents, and these need to be processed and disposed of also. The Department of Energy Office of Waste Processing sponsored a meeting to develop a roadmap to outline the steps necessary to design the secondary waste forms. Representatives from DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Washington State Department of Ecology, the Oregon Department of Energy, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, technical experts from the DOE national laboratories, academia, and private consultants convened in Richland, Washington, during the week of July 21-23, 2008, to participate in a workshop to identify the risks and uncertainties associated with the treatment and disposal of the secondary wastes and to develop a roadmap for addressing those risks and uncertainties. This report describes the results of the roadmap meeting in Richland. Processing of the tank wastes will generate secondary wastes, including routine solid wastes and liquid process effluents. The secondary waste roadmap workshop focused on the waste streams that contained the largest fractions of the 129I and 99Tc that the Integrated Disposal Facility risk assessment analyses were showing to have the largest contribution to the estimated IDF disposal impacts to groundwater. Thus, the roadmapping effort was to focus on the scrubber/off-gas treatment liquids with 99Tc to be sent to the Effluent Treatment Facility for treatment and solidification and the silver mordenite and carbon beds with the captured 129I to be packaged and sent to the IDF. At the highest level, the secondary waste roadmap includes elements addressing regulatory and performance requirements, waste composition, preliminary waste form screening, waste form development, process design and support, and validation. The regulatory and performance requirements activity will provide the secondary waste-form performance requirements. The waste-composition activity will provide workable ranges of secondary waste compositions and formulations for simulants and surrogates. Preliminary waste form screening will identify candidate waste forms for immobilizing the secondary wastes. The waste form development activity will mature the waste forms, leading to a selected waste form(s) with a defensible understanding of the long-term release rate and input into the critical decision process for a secondary waste treatment process/facility. The process and design support activity will provide a reliable process flowsheet and input to support a robust facility design. The validation effort will confirm that the selected waste form meets regulatory requirements. The final outcome of the implementation of the secondary waste roadmap is the compliant, effective, timely, and cost-effective disposal of the secondary wastes. The work necessary to address the programmatic, regulatory, and technical risks and uncertainties identified through the Secondary Waste Roadmap Workshop are assembled into several program needs elements. Programmatic/Regulatory needs include: • Select and deploy Hanford tank waste supplemental treatment technology • Provide treatment capability for secondary waste streams from tank waste treatment • Develop consensus on secondary waste form acceptance. Technology needs include: • Define secondary waste composition ranges and uncertainties • Identify and develop waste forms for secondary waste immobilization and disposal • Develop test methods to characterize secondary waste form performance. Details for each of these program elements are provided.

  2. Case Study of Optimal Byproduct Gas Distribution in Integrated Steel Mill Using Multi-Period Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Makinen, K.; Kymalainen, T.; Junttila, J.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    byproduct gases at varying rates. The differences between gas generation and consumption rates are compensated with gas holders. However, under certain circumstances the imbalances can lead to the flaring of excessive gas or require the purchase...

  3. Medical waste treatment and decontamination system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wicks, George G. (Aiken, SC); Schulz, Rebecca L. (Aiken, SC); Clark, David E. (Gainesville, FL)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention discloses a tandem microwave system consisting of a primary chamber in which hybrid microwave energy is used for the controlled combustion of materials. A second chamber is used to further treat the off-gases from the primary chamber by passage through a susceptor matrix subjected to additional hybrid microwave energy. The direct microwave radiation and elevated temperatures provide for significant reductions in the qualitative and quantitative emissions of the treated off gases. The tandem microwave system can be utilized for disinfecting wastes, sterilizing materials, and/or modifying the form of wastes to solidify organic or inorganic materials. The simple design allows on-site treatment of waste by small volume waste generators.

  4. Tandem microwave waste remediation and decontamination system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wicks, George G. (North Aiken, SC); Clark, David E. (Gainesville, FL); Schulz, Rebecca L. (Gainesville, FL)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention discloses a tandem microwave system consisting of a primary chamber in which microwave energy is used for the controlled combustion of materials. A second chamber is used to further treat the off-gases from the primary chamber by passage through a susceptor matrix subjected to additional microwave energy. The direct microwave radiation and elevated temperatures provide for significant reductions in the qualitative and quantitative emissions of the treated off gases. The tandem microwave system can be utilized for disinfecting wastes, sterilizing materials, and/or modifying the form of wastes to solidify organic or inorganic materials. The simple design allows on-site treatment of waste by small volume waste generators.

  5. Process for recovery of sulfur from acid gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Towler, Gavin P. (Kirkbymoorside, GB2); Lynn, Scott (Pleasant Hill, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Elemental sulfur is recovered from the H.sub.2 S present in gases derived from fossil fuels by heating the H.sub.2 S with CO.sub.2 in a high-temperature reactor in the presence of a catalyst selected as one which enhances the thermal dissociation of H.sub.2 S to H.sub.2 and S.sub.2. The equilibrium of the thermal decomposition of H.sub.2 S is shifted by the equilibration of the water-gas-shift reaction so as to favor elemental sulfur formation. The primary products of the overall reaction are S.sub.2, CO, H.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O. Small amounts of COS, SO.sub.2 and CS.sub.2 may also form. Rapid quenching of the reaction mixture results in a substantial increase in the efficiency of the conversion of H.sub.2 S to elemental sulfur. Plant economy is further advanced by treating the product gases to remove byproduct carbonyl sulfide by hydrolysis, which converts the COS back to CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 S. Unreacted CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 S are removed from the product gas and recycled to the reactor, leaving a gas consisting chiefly of H.sub.2 and CO, which has value either as a fuel or as a chemical feedstock and recovers the hydrogen value from the H.sub.2 S.

  6. Transport Membrane Condenser for Water and Energy Recovery from Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dexin Wang

    2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The new waste heat and water recovery technology based on a nanoporous ceramic membrane vapor separation mechanism has been developed for power plant flue gas application. The recovered water vapor and its latent heat from the flue gas can increase the power plant boiler efficiency and reduce water consumption. This report describes the development of the Transport Membrane Condenser (TMC) technology in details for power plant flue gas application. The two-stage TMC design can achieve maximum heat and water recovery based on practical power plant flue gas and cooling water stream conditions. And the report includes: Two-stage TMC water and heat recovery system design based on potential host power plant coal fired flue gas conditions; Membrane performance optimization process based on the flue gas conditions, heat sink conditions, and water and heat transport rate requirement; Pilot-Scale Unit design, fabrication and performance validation test results. Laboratory test results showed the TMC system can exact significant amount of vapor and heat from the flue gases. The recovered water has been tested and proved of good quality, and the impact of SO{sub 2} in the flue gas on the membrane has been evaluated. The TMC pilot-scale system has been field tested with a slip stream of flue gas in a power plant to prove its long term real world operation performance. A TMC scale-up design approach has been investigated and an economic analysis of applying the technology has been performed.

  7. Bioconversion of waste biomass to useful products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grady, J.L.; Chen, G.J.

    1998-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is provided for converting waste biomass to useful products by gasifying the biomass to produce synthesis gas and converting the synthesis gas substrate to one or more useful products. The present invention is directed to the conversion of biomass wastes including municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, plastic, tires, agricultural residues and the like, as well as coal, to useful products such as hydrogen, ethanol and acetic acid. The overall process includes the steps of gasifying the waste biomass to produce raw synthesis gas, cooling the synthesis gas, converting the synthesis gas to the desired product or products using anaerobic bioconversion, and then recovering the product or products. In accordance with a particular embodiment of the present invention, waste biomass is converted to synthesis gas containing carbon monoxide and, then, the carbon monoxide is converted to hydrogen by an anaerobic microorganism ERIH2, Bacillus smithii ATCC No. 55404. 82 figs.

  8. Bioconversion of waste biomass to useful products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grady, James L. (Fayetteville, AR); Chen, Guang Jiong (Fayetteville, AR)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is provided for converting waste biomass to useful products by gasifying the biomass to produce synthesis gas and converting the synthesis gas substrate to one or more useful products. The present invention is directed to the conversion of biomass wastes including municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, plastic, tires, agricultural residues and the like, as well as coal, to useful products such as hydrogen, ethanol and acetic acid. The overall process includes the steps of gasifying the waste biomass to produce raw synthesis gas, cooling the synthesis gas, converting the synthesis gas to the desired product or products using anaerobic bioconversion, and then recovering the product or products. In accordance with a particular embodiment of the present invention, waste biomass is converted to synthesis gas containing carbon monoxide and, then, the carbon monoxide is converted to hydrogen by an anaerobic microorganism ERIH2, bacillus smithii ATCC No. 55404.

  9. Advanced Fluidized Bed Waste Heat Recovery Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peterson, G. R.

    ADVANCED FLUIDIZED BED WASTE HEAT RECOVERY SYSTEMS G. R. PETERSON Project Manager U.S. Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office Idaho Falls, Idaho ABSTRACT The U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Industri al Programs, has sponsored... the development of a Fluidized Bed Waste Heat Recovery System (FBWHRS) and a higher temperature variant, the Ceramic Tubular Distributor Plate (CTOP) Fluidized Bed Heat Exchanger (FBHX) system. Both systems recover energy from high-temperature flue gases...

  10. Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaplan, R.D.; Foral, M.J.

    1992-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Amoco oil Company, has investigated the direct, non-catalytic conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuels (particularly methanol) via partial oxidation. The primary hydrocarbon feed used in these studies was natural gas. This report describes work completed in the course of our two-year project. In general we determined that the methanol yields delivered by this system were not high enough to make it economically attractive. Process variables studied included hydrocarbon feed composition, oxygen concentration, temperature and pressure effects, residence time, reactor design, and reactor recycle.

  11. Superfund record of decison (EPA Region 4): USDOE Paducah Gas Diffusion Plant, Solid Waste Management Units 2 and 3 of Waste Area Group 22, Paducah, KY, August 22, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This decision document presents the selected interim remedial action for Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) 2 and 3 of Waste Area Group (WAG) 22 at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) near Paducah, Kentucky. The primary objective of this interim remedial action, or corrective measure, is to reduce the infiltration of precipitation into buried waste and mitigate any leaching of chemicals of concern from the wastes while the DOE collects additional data to support evaluation of a final remedial action. The prinicipal threat associated with SWMU 2 is the potential for transport of contaminants to the ground water operable unit and subsequent threats associated with the potential contamination of an aquifer and transport of contaminants beyond DOE property.

  12. Greenhouse Gas Abatement with Distributed Generation in California's Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fired natural gas chillers, waste heat or solar heat; • hot-with HX can utilize waste heat for heating or coolingto utilize all the waste heat just reduces overall energy

  13. Exhaust gas treatment in testing nuclear rocket engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zweig, H.R.; Fischler, S.; Wagner, W.R. (Rocketdyne Division, Rockwell International Corporation, 6633 Canoga Avenue, P.O. Box 7922, Canoga Park, California 91309-7922 (United States))

    1993-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    With the exception of the last test series of the Rover program, Nuclear Furnace 1, test-reactor and rocket engine hydrogen gas exhaust generated during the Rover/NERVA program was released directly to the atmosphere, without removal of the associated fission products and other radioactive debris. Current rules for nuclear facilities (DOE Order 5480.6) are far more protective of the general environment; even with the remoteness of the Nevada Test Site, introduction of potentially hazardous quantities of radioactive waste into the atmosphere must be scrupulously avoided. The Rocketdyne treatment concept features a diffuser to provide altitude simulation and pressure recovery, a series of heat exchangers to gradually cool the exhaust gas stream to 100 K, and an activated charcoal bed for adsorption of inert gases. A hydrogen-gas fed ejector provides auxiliary pumping for startup and shutdown of the engine. Supplemental filtration to remove particulates and condensed phases may be added at appropriate locations in the system. The clean hydrogen may be exhausted to the atmosphere and flared, or the gas may be condensed and stored for reuse in testing. The latter approach totally isolates the working gas from the environment.

  14. Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , such as high global warming potential gases, waste treatment, agriculture and forestry) in varying degrees and gaseous hydrocarbon fuels, electricity and hydrogen), and finally calculated emissions of GHGs and three

  15. Particle entanglement in rotating gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Zhao; Fan Heng [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we investigate the particle entanglement in two-dimensional (2D) weakly interacting rotating Bose and Fermi gases. We find that both particle localization and vortex localization can be indicated by particle entanglement. We also use particle entanglement to show the occurrence of edge reconstruction of rotating fermions. The different properties of condensate phase and vortex liquid phase of bosons can be reflected by particle entanglement and in vortex liquid phase we construct the same trial wave function with that in [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 120405 (2001)] from the viewpoint of entanglement to relate the ground state with quantum Hall state. Finally, the relation between particle entanglement and interaction strength is studied.

  16. Lyapunov spectrum of granular gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNamara, Sean; Mareschal, Michel

    2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculate and study the Lyapunov spectrum of a granular gas maintained in a steady state by an isokinetic thermostat. Considering restitution coefficients greater than unity allows us to show that the spectra change smoothly and continuously at equilibrium. The shearing instability of the granular gas, however, provokes an abrupt change in the structure of the spectrum. The relationship between various physically relevant quantities and the energy dissipation rate differs from previously studied nonequilibrium steady states.

  17. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to prepare a report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases for the period 1987--1990, with annual updates thereafter. This report is the fifth annual update, covering national emissions over the period 1989--1995, with preliminary estimates of emissions for 1996. The estimates contained in this report have been revised from those in last year`s report. Emissions estimates for carbon dioxide are reported in metric tons of carbon; estimates for other gases are reported in metric tons of gas. Chapter 1 of this report briefly recapitulates some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect and discusses important recent developments in global climate change activities. Chapter 2 through 6 cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons, and criteria pollutants, respectively. Chapter 7 describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes. Five appendixes are included with this report. 216 refs., 11 figs., 38 tabs.

  18. A safety assessment of rotary mode core sampling in flammable gas single shell tanks: Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raymond, R.E.

    1996-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This safety assessment (SA) addresses each of the required elements associated with the installation, operation, and removal of a rotary-mode core sampling (RMCS) device in flammable-gas single-shell tanks (SSTs). The RMCS operations are needed in order to retrieve waste samples from SSTs with hard layers of waste for which push-mode sampling is not adequate for sampling. In this SA, potential hazards associated with the proposed action were identified and evaluated systematically. Several potential accident cases that could result in radiological or toxicological gas releases were identified and analyzed and their consequences assessed. Administrative controls, procedures and design changes required to eliminate or reduce the potential of hazards were identified. The accidents were analyzed under nine categories, four of which were burn scenarios. In SSTS, burn accidents result in unacceptable consequences because of a potential dome collapse. The accidents in which an aboveground burn propagates into the dome space were shown to be in the ``beyond extremely unlikely`` frequency category. Given the unknown nature of the gas-release behavior in the SSTS, a number of design changes and administrative controls were implemented to achieve these low frequencies. Likewise, drill string fires and dome space fires were shown to be very low frequency accidents by taking credit for the design changes, controls, and available experimental and analytical data. However, a number of Bureau of Mines (BOM) tests must be completed before some of the burn accidents can be dismissed with high confidence. Under the category of waste fires, the possibility of igniting the entrapped gases and the waste itself were analyzed. Experiments are being conducted at the BOM to demonstrate that the drill bit is not capable of igniting the trapped gas in the waste. Laboratory testing and thermal analysis demonstrated that, under normal operating conditions, the drill bit will not create high enough temperatures to initiate a propagating reaction in the waste. However, system failure that coincides in a waste layer with high organic content and low moisture may initiate an exothermic reaction in the waste. Consequently, a conservative approach based on the current state of the knowledge resulted in limiting the drilling process to a subset of the flammable-gas tanks. Accidents from the chemical reactions and criticality category are shown to result in acceptable risk. A number of accidents are shown to potentially result in containment (tank liner) breach below the waste level. Mitigative features are provided for these accidents. Gas-release events without burn also are analyzed, and radiological and toxicological consequences are shown to be within risk guidelines. Finally, the consequences of potential spills are shown to be within the risk guidelines.

  19. Removal of oxides of nitrogen from gases in multi-stage coal combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mollot, D.J.; Bonk, D.L.; Dowdy, T.E.

    1998-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Polluting NO{sub x} gas values are removed from off-gas of a multi-stage coal combustion process which includes an initial carbonizing reaction, firing of char from this reaction in a fluidized bed reactor, and burning of gases from the carbonizing and fluidized bed reactions in a topping combustor having a first, fuel-rich zone and a second, fuel-lean zone. The improvement by means of which NO{sub x} gases are removed is directed to introducing NO{sub x}-free oxidizing gas such as compressor air into the second, fuel-lean zone and completing combustion with this source of oxidizing gas. Excess air fed to the fluidized bed reactor is also controlled to obtain desired stoichiometry in the first, fuel-rich zone of the topping combustor. 2 figs.

  20. Removal of oxides of nitrogen from gases in multi-stage coal combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mollot, Darren J. (Morgantown, WV); Bonk, Donald L. (Louisville, OH); Dowdy, Thomas E. (Orlando, FL)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polluting NO.sub.x gas values are removed from off-gas of a multi-stage coal combustion process which includes an initial carbonizing reaction, firing of char from this reaction in a fluidized bed reactor, and burning of gases from the carbonizing and fluidized bed reactions in a topping combustor having a first, fuel-rich zone and a second, fuel-lean zone. The improvement by means of which NO.sub.x gases are removed is directed to introducing NO.sub.x -free oxidizing gas such as compressor air into the second, fuel-lean zone and completing combustion with this source of oxidizing gas. Excess air fed to the fluidized bed reactor is also controlled to obtain desired stoichiometry in the first, fuel-rich zone of the topping combustor.

  1. Processes to remove acid forming gases from exhaust gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, S.G.

    1994-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a process for reducing the concentration of NO in a gas, which process comprises: (A) contacting a gas sample containing NO with a gaseous oxidizing agent to oxidize the NO to NO[sub 2]; (B) contacting the gas sample of step (A) comprising NO[sub 2] with an aqueous reagent of bisulfite/sulfite and a compound selected from urea, sulfamic acid, hydrazinium ion, hydrazoic acid, nitroaniline, sulfanilamide, sulfanilic acid, mercaptopropanoic acid, mercaptosuccinic acid, cysteine or combinations thereof at between about 0 and 100 C at a pH of between about 1 and 7 for between about 0.01 and 60 sec; and (C) optionally contacting the reaction product of step (A) with conventional chemical reagents to reduce the concentrations of the organic products of the reaction in step (B) to environmentally acceptable levels. Urea or sulfamic acid are preferred, especially sulfamic acid, and step (C) is not necessary or performed. 16 figs.

  2. A New Technique for Studying the Fano Factor And the Mean Energy Per Ion Pair in Counting Gases

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Panksky, A.; Breskin, A.; Chechik, R.

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new method is presented for deriving the Fano factor and the mean energy per ion pair in the ultrasoft x-ray energy range. It is based on counting electrons deposited by a photon in a low-pressure gas, and is applicable for all counting gases. The energy dependence of these parameters for several hydrocarbons and gas mixtures is presented.

  3. Ultracold Fermi gas with repulsive interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Ye-Ryoung

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents results from experiments of ultracold atomic Fermi gases with repulsive interaction. Itinerant ferromagnetism was studied by simulating the Stoner model with a strongly interacting Fermi gas of ultracold ...

  4. The origins and concentrations of water, carbon, nitrogen and noble gases on Earth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 The origins and concentrations of water, carbon, nitrogen and noble gases on Earth Bernard Marty (PSN) are still present in the mantle, presumably signing the sequestration of PSN gas at an early), and up to ~500 ppm C, both largely sequestrated in the solid Earth. This volatile content is equivalent

  5. Kolstad: EKC Dec 2005 Interpreting Estimated Environmental Kuznets Curves for Greenhouse Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolstad, Charles

    Kolstad: EKC Dec 2005 Interpreting Estimated Environmental Kuznets Curves for Greenhouse Gases to interpret a relationship between income and carbon emissions in a country (the environmental Kuznets curve), it was primarily concerned with Environmental Kuznets Curves (EKC) for greenhouse gas emissions. The EKC literature

  6. Centre for Business History to study development of industrial gases industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Zaoyang

    be overestimated and the study - funded by German-based gas and engineering company, the Linde Group - aims to give. Wolfgang Reitzle, Chief Executive Officer of Linde AG said: "Over time, industrial gases have changed fellow, also funded by Linde AG, and co-ordinating the project board monitoring progress on the project

  7. Intercomparison of tritium and noble gases analyses, 3 and derived parameters excess air and recharge temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Intercomparison of tritium and noble gases analyses, 3 H/3 He ages and derived parameters excess with the tritium­helium (3 H/3 He) method has become a powerful tool for hydrogeologists. The uncertainty in the inter- comparison for tritium analyses and ten laboratories participated in the noble gas

  8. Internal structure and expansion dynamics of laser ablation plumes into ambient gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    Internal structure and expansion dynamics of laser ablation plumes into ambient gases S. S. Harilal 13 December 2002 The effect of ambient gas on the expansion dynamics of the plasma generated by laser together with time resolved emission diagnostics, a triple structure of the plume was observed

  9. Natural gas leak mapper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reichardt, Thomas A. (Livermore, CA); Luong, Amy Khai (Dublin, CA); Kulp, Thomas J. (Livermore, CA); Devdas, Sanjay (Albany, CA)

    2008-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A system is described that is suitable for use in determining the location of leaks of gases having a background concentration. The system is a point-wise backscatter absorption gas measurement system that measures absorption and distance to each point of an image. The absorption measurement provides an indication of the total amount of a gas of interest, and the distance provides an estimate of the background concentration of gas. The distance is measured from the time-of-flight of laser pulse that is generated along with the absorption measurement light. The measurements are formated into an image of the presence of gas in excess of the background. Alternatively, an image of the scene is superimosed on the image of the gas to aid in locating leaks. By further modeling excess gas as a plume having a known concentration profile, the present system provides an estimate of the maximum concentration of the gas of interest.

  10. Olefin Recovery from Chemical Industry Waste Streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.R. Da Costa; R. Daniels; A. Jariwala; Z. He; A. Morisato; I. Pinnau; J.G. Wijmans

    2003-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to develop a membrane process to separate olefins from paraffins in waste gas streams as an alternative to flaring or distillation. Flaring these streams wastes their chemical feedstock value; distillation is energy and capital cost intensive, particularly for small waste streams.

  11. Zero Waste Program 2011 Recycling Benefits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delgado, Mauricio

    Rutgers Zero Waste Program 2011 Recycling Benefits Through WM's Recycling Program, our company saved energy and reduced Greenhouse Gases through recycling. Recycling uses less energy, preserves from recycled material than from virgin, raw material. RESOURCE SAVINGS 4203 Metric Tons (MTCO2E

  12. Process for removal of ammonia and acid gases from contaminated waters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, C.J.; Mackenzie, P.D.

    1982-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Contaminating basic gases, i.e., ammonia and acid gases, e.g., carbon dioxide, are removed from process waters or waste waters in a combined extraction and stripping process. Ammonia in the form of ammonium ion is extracted by an immiscible organic phase comprising a liquid cation exchange component, especially an organic phosphoric acid derivative, and preferably di-2-ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid, dissolved in an alkyl hydrocarbon, aryl hydrocarbon, higher alcohol, oxygenated hydrocarbon, halogenated hydrocarbon, and mixtures thereof. Concurrently, the acidic gaseous contaminants are stripped from the process or waste waters by stripping with stream, air, nitrogen, or the like. The liquid cation exchange component has the ammonia stripped therefrom by heating, and the component may be recycled to extract additional amounts of ammonia.

  13. Process for removal of ammonia and acid gases from contaminated waters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, C. Judson (Kensington, CA); MacKenzie, Patricia D. (Berkeley, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Contaminating basic gases, i.e., ammonia, and acid gases, e.g., carbon dioxide, are removed from process waters or waste waters in a combined extraction and stripping process. Ammonia in the form of ammonium ion is extracted by an immiscible organic phase comprising a liquid cation exchange component, especially an organic phosphoric acid derivative, and preferably di-2-ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid, dissolved in an alkyl hydrocarbon, aryl hydrocarbon, higher alcohol, oxygenated hydrocarbon, halogenated hydrocarbon, and mixtures thereof. Concurrently, the acidic gaseous contaminants are stripped from the process or waste waters by stripping with steam, air, nitrogen, or the like. The liquid cation exchange component has the ammonia stripped therefrom by heating, and the component may be recycled to extract additional amounts of ammonia.

  14. Energy or compost from green waste? - A CO{sub 2} - Based assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kranert, Martin, E-mail: martin.kranert@iswa.uni-stuttgart.d [Universitaet Stuttgart, Institute for Sanitary Engineering, Water Quality and Solid Waste Management, Bandtaele 2, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Gottschall, Ralf; Bruns, Christian [Humus and Erden Kontor GmbH, Karlsbrunnenstrasse 11, D-37249 Neu-Eichenberg (Germany); Hafner, Gerold [Universitaet Stuttgart, Institute for Sanitary Engineering, Water Quality and Solid Waste Management, Bandtaele 2, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Green waste is increasingly extracted from the material recycling chain and, as a result of the financial subsidy arising from the German renewable energy law for the generation of energy from renewable raw materials; it is fed into the energy recovery process in biomass power stations. A reduction in climate relevant gases is also linked to the material recovery of green waste - in particular when using composts gained from the process as a new raw material in different types of potting compost and plant culture media as a replacement for peat. Unlike energy recovery, material valorisation is not currently subsidised. Through the analysis of material and energy valorisation methods for green waste, with particular emphasis on primary resource consumption and CO{sub 2}-balance, it could be determined that the use of green waste for energy generation and its recovery for material and peat replacement purposes can be considered to be on a par. Based on energy recovery or material oriented scenarios, it can be further deduced that no method on its own will achieve the desired outcome and that a combination of recycling processes is more likely to lead to a significant decrease of greenhouse gas emissions.

  15. Development of the fluidized bed thermal treatment process for treating mixed waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Semones, G.B.; Williams, P.M.; Stiefvater, S.P.; Mitchell, D.L.; Roecker, B.D.

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fluidized bed system is being developed at Rocky Flats for the treatment of mixed waste (a mixture of radioactive and chemically hazardous waste). The current program builds on experience gained in the 1970`s and 1980`s in tests with bench-scale, pilot-scale, and demonstration-scale fluidized bed systems. The system operates at low temperatures ({approx} 525--600{degree}C) which eliminates many of the disadvantages associated with high temperature thermal treatment processes. The process has shown the ability to destroy polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB`s) with 99.9999% (``six-nines``) destruction efficiency in tests monitored by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The bed makes use of in situ neutralization of acidic off-gases by incorporating sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) in the bed media. This eliminates using wet scrubbers to treat the off-gas; these produce a high volume of secondary waste. Once in operation, it is expected that the fluidized bed process will yield up to a 40:1 reduction in the volume of the waste.

  16. Free Energies of Dilute Bose gases: upper bound

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jun Yin

    2010-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive a upper bound on the free energy of a Bose gas system at density $\\rho$ and temperature $T$. In combination with the lower bound derived previously by Seiringer \\cite{RS1}, our result proves that in the low density limit, i.e., when $a^3\\rho\\ll 1$, where $a$ denotes the scattering length of the pair-interaction potential, the leading term of $\\Delta f$ the free energy difference per volume between interacting and ideal Bose gases is equal to $4\\pi a (2\\rho^2-[\\rho-\\rhoc]^2_+)$. Here, $\\rhoc(T)$ denotes the critical density for Bose-Einstein condensation (for the ideal gas), and $[\\cdot ]_+$ $=$ $\\max\\{\\cdot, 0\\}$ denotes the positive part.

  17. Greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels, Improving Life Cycle Assessments by taking into

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels, Improving Life Cycle Assessments by taking into account local.......................................................................................................................................................14 Chapter 1 Biofuels, greenhouse gases and climate change 1 Introduction

  18. An Infrared Spectral Database for Detection of Gases Emitted...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Database for Detection of Gases Emitted by Biomass Burning. An Infrared Spectral Database for Detection of Gases Emitted by Biomass Burning. Abstract: We report the construction of...

  19. atmospheric greenhouse gases: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    GASES BACKGROUND CiteSeer Summary: The Earths climate depends on the amount of solar radiation received and the atmospheric abundance of clouds and greenhouse gases. The...

  20. aerosol precursor gases: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    sunlight 11 GREENHOUSE GASES GREENHOUSE GASES BACKGROUND CiteSeer Summary: The Earths climate depends on the amount of solar radiation received and the atmospheric abundance of...

  1. Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gases | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gases Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gases Mission The team establishes an energy conservation program, as deemed appropriate for LM operations...

  2. Surface interactions involved in flashover with high density electronegative gases.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodge, Keith Conquest; Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Wallace, Zachariah Red; Lehr, Jane Marie

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report examines the interactions involved with flashover along a surface in high density electronegative gases. The focus is on fast ionization processes rather than the later time ionic drift or thermalization of the discharge. A kinetic simulation of the gas and surface is used to examine electron multiplication and includes gas collision, excitation and ionization, and attachment processes, gas photoionization and surface photoemission processes, as well as surface attachment. These rates are then used in a 1.5D fluid ionization wave (streamer) model to study streamer propagation with and without the surface in air and in SF6. The 1.5D model therefore includes rates for all these processes. To get a better estimate for the behavior of the radius we have studied radial expansion of the streamer in air and in SF6. The focus of the modeling is on voltage and field level changes (with and without a surface) rather than secondary effects, such as, velocities or changes in discharge path. An experiment has been set up to carry out measurements of threshold voltages, streamer velocities, and other discharge characteristics. This setup includes both electrical and photographic diagnostics (streak and framing cameras). We have observed little change in critical field levels (where avalanche multiplication sets in) in the gas alone versus with the surface. Comparisons between model calculations and experimental measurements are in agreement with this. We have examined streamer sustaining fields (field which maintains ionization wave propagation) in the gas and on the surface. Agreement of the gas levels with available literature is good and agreement between experiment and calculation is good also. Model calculations do not indicate much difference between the gas alone versus the surface levels. Experiments have identified differences in velocity between streamers on the surface and in the gas alone (the surface values being larger).

  3. Conservation of Oil and Gas (Texas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This legislation prohibits the production, storage, or transportation of oil or gas in a manner, in an amount, or under conditions that constitute waste. Actions which may lead to the waste of oil...

  4. Light Collection in Liquid Noble Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKinsey, Dan [Yale University

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid noble gases are increasingly used as active detector materials in particle and nuclear physics. Applications include calorimeters and neutrino oscillation experiments as well as searches for neutrinoless double beta decay, direct dark matter, muon electron conversion, and the neutron electric dipole moment. One of the great advantages of liquid noble gases is their copious production of ultraviolet scintillation light, which contains information about event energy and particle type. I will review the scintillation properties of the various liquid noble gases and the means used to collect their scintillation light, including recent advances in photomultiplier technology and wavelength shifters.

  5. Gas ampoule-syringe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gay, Don D. (Aiken, SC)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas ampoule for the shipment and delivery of radioactive gases. The gas ampoule having a glass tube with serum bottle stopper on one end and a plunger tip in the opposite end all fitting in a larger plastic tube threaded on each end with absorbent between the tubes, is seated onto the internal needle assembly via a bushing associated with the plunger and locked into the syringe barrel via barrel-bushing locking caps. The design practically eliminates the possibility of personnel contamination due to an inadvertent exposure of such personnel to the contained radioactive gas.

  6. Gas ampoule-syringe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gay, D.D.

    1985-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas ampoule for the shipment and delivery of radioactive gases. The gas ampoule having a glass tube with serum bottle stopper on one and a plunger tip in the opposite end all fitting in a larger plastic tube threaded on each end with absorbent between the tubes, is seated onto the internal needle assembly via a bushing associated with the plunger and locked into the syringe barrel via barrel-bushing locking caps. The design practically eliminates the possibility of personnel contamination due to an inadvertent exposure of such personnel to the contained radioactive gas.

  7. An overview of the sustainability of solid waste management at military installations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borglin, S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    variety of waste streams and released heat can be convertedmatter in wastes produces gas products with heat and fuelvarious types of waste. MSW has an average heat value of 8

  8. Kansas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Building FloorspaceThousandWithdrawals0.0DecadeYearDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2

  9. Kansas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Building FloorspaceThousandWithdrawals0.0DecadeYearDecade Year-0 Year-1

  10. Kentucky Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million Cubic Feet) Kenai,Feet)YearSeparation

  11. Kentucky Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million Cubic Feet) Kenai,Feet)YearSeparationYear Jan

  12. Louisiana Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million Cubic Feet) 3 0 0 0 1569Decade Year-0SameFeet)

  13. Louisiana Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million Cubic Feet) 3 0 0 0 1569Decade

  14. Maryland Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million Cubic Feet) 3 00.0 0.0 0.05.03 5.68YearYearSameDecade

  15. Maryland Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million Cubic Feet) 3 00.0 0.0 0.05.03

  16. Michigan Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million Cubic Feet) 3Exports (NoYearDecadeSeparation

  17. Michigan Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million Cubic Feet) 3Exports (NoYearDecadeSeparationYear

  18. Mississippi Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million CubicCubic Feet)Same Month PreviousFeet)

  19. Mississippi Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million CubicCubic Feet)Same Month

  20. Missouri Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million CubicCubic Feet)SameThousandYearBase

  1. Missouri Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million CubicCubic Feet)SameThousandYearBaseYear Jan Feb

  2. Montana Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million CubicCubic32,876 10,889Decade03Decade Year-0 Year-1

  3. Montana Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million CubicCubic32,876 10,889Decade03Decade Year-0

  4. Arkansas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0 Year-1Year%UndergroundReservesYear Jan Feb

  5. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - High-GWP gases

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688 760,877 951,322 1,381,127byForms What'sAnnual2 EIA372.5.

  6. California Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,128 2,469 2,321 2,590FuelDecade Year-0 Year-1SameFeet)

  7. California Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,128 2,469 2,321 2,590FuelDecade Year-0

  8. Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,128 2,469 2,321Spain (MillionFeet)2008YearNonhydrocarbon

  9. Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,128 2,469 2,321Spain

  10. Alabama Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at Commercial andSeptember 25,9,1996Feet)4.32WellheadDecade

  11. Alabama Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at Commercial andSeptember 25,9,1996Feet)4.32WellheadDecadeYear

  12. Alaska Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3Reserves

  13. Alaska Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3ReservesYear Jan Feb

  14. Arizona Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0 Year-1Year JanDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2

  15. Arizona Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0 Year-1Year JanDecade Year-0 Year-1

  16. Arkansas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0 Year-1Year%UndergroundReserves

  17. West Virginia Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial602 1,397 125 Q 69 (Million Cubic58(MillionYear Jan Feb Marfrom

  18. West Virginia Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial602 1,397 125 Q 69 (Million Cubic58(MillionYear Jan Feb MarfromFeet)

  19. Wyoming Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial602 1,397 125 Q 69 (MillionAdjustments (MillionYear

  20. Wyoming Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial602 1,397 125 Q 69 (MillionAdjustments (MillionYearYear Jan Feb Mar Apr

  1. Texas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul AugDecadeDecade Year-0 Year-1

  2. Texas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul AugDecadeDecade Year-0

  3. Utah Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan FebIncreases (Billion CubicYearDecadeYear6,393

  4. Utah Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan FebIncreases (Billion CubicYearDecadeYear6,393Year

  5. Illinois Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803 TableTotal Consumption (MillionTotalVentedNonhydrocarbon

  6. Nebraska Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803andYearWithdrawals (MillionYear Jan Feb MarDecade Year-0

  7. Nebraska Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803andYearWithdrawals (MillionYear Jan Feb MarDecade

  8. Nevada Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803andYearWithdrawalsYear Jan Feb Mar Apr MayYear Jan

  9. Nevada Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803andYearWithdrawalsYear Jan Feb Mar Apr MayYear JanYear

  10. New Mexico Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) New MexicoFeet) Working

  11. New Mexico Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) New MexicoFeet) WorkingFeet) Year

  12. North Dakota Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct NovSeparation

  13. North Dakota Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct

  14. Oklahoma Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May

  15. Oklahoma Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar Apr MayYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep

  16. Oregon Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar Apr MayYear Jan FebYear Jan FebYear

  17. Oregon Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar Apr MayYear Jan FebYear Jan FebYearYear Jan Feb

  18. Other States Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar Apr MayYear Jan

  19. http://wmr.sagepub.com Waste Management & Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    . Barton and Efstratios Kalogirou Municipal solid waste management scenarios for Attica://www.sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav Municipal solid waste management scenarios for Attica and their greenhouse gas emission impact Asterios SYNERGIA, Greece Disposal of municipal solid waste in sanitary landfills is still the main waste management

  20. Sorption Mechanisms for Mercury Capture in Warm Post-Gasification Gas Clean-Up Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jost Wendt; Sung Jun Lee; Paul Blowers

    2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The research was directed towards a sorbent injection/particle removal process where a sorbent may be injected upstream of the warm gas cleanup system to scavenge Hg and other trace metals, and removed (with the metals) within the warm gas cleanup process. The specific objectives of this project were to understand and quantify, through fundamentally based models, mechanisms of interaction between mercury vapor compounds and novel paper waste derived (kaolinite + calcium based) sorbents (currently marketed under the trade name MinPlus). The portion of the research described first is the experimental portion, in which sorbent effectiveness to scavenge metallic mercury (Hg{sup 0}) at high temperatures (>600 C) is determined as a function of temperature, sorbent loading, gas composition, and other important parameters. Levels of Hg{sup 0} investigated were in an industrially relevant range ({approx} 25 {micro}g/m{sup 3}) although contaminants were contained in synthetic gases and not in actual flue gases. A later section of this report contains the results of the complementary computational results.

  1. Vit Plant receives and sets key air filtration equipment for Low Activity Waste Facility

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    WTP lifted a nearly 100-ton carbon bed absorber into the Low-Activity Waste Facility. This key piece of air-filtration equipment will remove mercury and acidic gases before air is channeled through...

  2. Construction and testing of a flue-gas corrosion probe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Federer, J.I.; McEvers, J.A.

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The selection of suitable materials for industrial, waste-heat- recovery systems requires assessment of corrosion of materials in various flue-gas environments. Such assessments involve exposing candidate materials to high-temperature flue gases and analyzing the effects of the exposure conditions. Because corrosion is related to flue-gas chemical composition and temperature, variations in temperature complicate the determination of corrosion rates and corrosion mechanisms. Conversely, a relatively constant temperature allows a more accurate determination of the effects of exposure conditions. For this reason, controlled-temperature flue-gas corrosion probes were constructed and tested for exposure tests of materials. A prototype probe consisted of a silicon carbide tube specimen, supporting hardware, and instrumentation for controlling temperature by internal heating and cooling. An advanced probe included other tubular specimens. Testing of the probes in an industrial-type furnace at a nominal flue-gas temperature of 1200{degree}C revealed that temperature control was inadequate. The cooling mode imposed a substantial axial-temperature gradient on the specimens; while the heating mode imposed a smaller gradient, the heating capacity was very limited. 10 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Tritium waste package

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rossmassler, R.; Ciebiera, L.; Tulipano, F.J.; Vinson, S.; Walters, R.T.

    1995-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A containment and waste package system for processing and shipping tritium oxide waste received from a process gas includes an outer drum and an inner drum containing a disposable molecular sieve bed (DMSB) seated within the outer drum. The DMSB includes an inlet diffuser assembly, an outlet diffuser assembly, and a hydrogen catalytic recombiner. The DMSB absorbs tritium oxide from the process gas and converts it to a solid form so that the tritium is contained during shipment to a disposal site. The DMSB is filled with type 4A molecular sieve pellets capable of adsorbing up to 1000 curies of tritium. The recombiner contains a sufficient amount of catalyst to cause any hydrogen and oxygen present in the process gas to recombine to form water vapor, which is then adsorbed onto the DMSB. 1 fig.

  4. Tritium waste package

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rossmassler, Rich (Cranbury, NJ); Ciebiera, Lloyd (Titusville, NJ); Tulipano, Francis J. (Teaneck, NJ); Vinson, Sylvester (Ewing, NJ); Walters, R. Thomas (Lawrenceville, NJ)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A containment and waste package system for processing and shipping tritium xide waste received from a process gas includes an outer drum and an inner drum containing a disposable molecular sieve bed (DMSB) seated within outer drum. The DMSB includes an inlet diffuser assembly, an outlet diffuser assembly, and a hydrogen catalytic recombiner. The DMSB absorbs tritium oxide from the process gas and converts it to a solid form so that the tritium is contained during shipment to a disposal site. The DMSB is filled with type 4A molecular sieve pellets capable of adsorbing up to 1000 curies of tritium. The recombiner contains a sufficient amount of catalyst to cause any hydrogen add oxygen present in the process gas to recombine to form water vapor, which is then adsorbed onto the DMSB.

  5. Method for detecting toxic gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stetter, J.R.; Zaromb, S.; Findlay, M.W. Jr.

    1991-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is disclosed which is capable of detecting low concentrations of a pollutant or other component in air or other gas. This method utilizes a combination of a heating filament having a catalytic surface of a noble metal for exposure to the gas and producing a derivative chemical product from the component. An electrochemical sensor responds to the derivative chemical product for providing a signal indicative of the product. At concentrations in the order of about 1-100 ppm of tetrachloroethylene, neither the heating filament nor the electrochemical sensor is individually capable of sensing the pollutant. In the combination, the heating filament converts the benzyl chloride to one or more derivative chemical products which may be detected by the electrochemical sensor. 6 figures.

  6. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Voluntary Reporting Program for greenhouse gases is part of an attempt by the U.S. Government to develop innovative, low-cost, and nonregulatory approaches to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. It is one element in an array of such programs introduced in recent years as part of the effort being made by the United States to comply with its national commitment to stabilize emissions of greenhouse gases under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions of greenhouse gases.

  7. Method and apparatus for treating gaseous effluents from waste treatment systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flannery, Philip A. (Ramsey, MT); Kujawa, Stephan T. (Butte, MT)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Effluents from a waste treatment operation are incinerated and oxidized by passing the gases through an inductively coupled plasmas arc torch. The effluents are transformed into plasma within the torch. At extremely high plasma temperatures, the effluents quickly oxidize. The process results in high temperature oxidation of the gases without addition of any mass flow for introduction of energy.

  8. Improved helium exchange gas cryostat and sample tube designs for automated gas sampling and cryopumping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Severinghaus, Jeffrey P.

    Improved helium exchange gas cryostat and sample tube designs for automated gas sampling, California 92093-0244, USA [1] In order to eliminate the use of liquid helium for the extraction of atmospheric gases from polar ice cores, two units of a redesigned top load helium exchange gas cryostat were

  9. DETECTION OF ALUMINUM WASTE REACTIONS AND WASTE FIRES Jeffrey W. Martin, M.S., P.G., R.S.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    combustion of the surrounding solid waste. The landfill liner and explosive gas extraction and leachate, landfill, leachate, leachate recirculation, salt cake, slope stability, smoldering, solid waste, Subtitle DDETECTION OF ALUMINUM WASTE REACTIONS AND WASTE FIRES Jeffrey W. Martin, M.S., P.G., R

  10. Seventh State of the Environment Report 3.11 Waste Management 3.11 WASTE MANAGEMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    at underground waste storage sites for residual matter from flue gas clean- ing. New developments in the field.11.2 ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY TARGETS The essential environmental policy targets in the field of waste management as on the environmental effects of measures in the field of waste management, must be sufficiently precise and up

  11. Minor actinide waste disposal in deep geological boreholes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sizer, Calvin Gregory

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate a waste canister design suitable for the disposal of vitrified minor actinide waste in deep geological boreholes using conventional oil/gas/geothermal drilling technology. ...

  12. UPGRADING OF WASTE-TO-ENERGY PLANT IN BRESCIA, ITALY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    and district heating, gas supply, waste collection, treatment and disposal, and wastewa- ter treatment. Brescia was one of the first cities to have a well-established district heating net- work. Today, the waste

  13. Apparatus and process for the refrigeration, liquefaction and separation of gases with varying levels of purity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bingham, Dennis N. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wilding, Bruce M. (Idaho Falls, ID); McKellar, Michael G. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the separation and liquefaction of component gasses from a pressurized mix gas stream is disclosed. The process involves cooling the pressurized mixed gas stream in a heat exchanger so as to condense one or more of the gas components having the highest condensation point; separating the condensed components from the remaining mixed gas stream in a gas-liquid separator; cooling the separated condensed component stream by passing it through an expander; and passing the cooled component stream back through the heat exchanger such that the cooled component stream functions as the refrigerant for the heat exchanger. The cycle is then repeated for the remaining mixed gas stream so as to draw off the next component gas and further cool the remaining mixed gas stream. The process continues until all of the component gases are separated from the desired gas stream. The final gas stream is then passed through a final heat exchanger and expander. The expander decreases the pressure on the gas stream, thereby cooling the stream and causing a portion of the gas stream to liquify within a tank. The portion of the gas which is not liquefied is passed back through each of the heat exchanges where it functions as a refrigerant.

  14. Apparatus and process for the refrigeration, liquefaction and separation of gases with varying levels of purity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bingham, Dennis N. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wilding, Bruce M. (Idaho Falls, ID); McKellar, Michael G. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the separation and liquefaction of component gasses from a pressurized mix gas stream is disclosed. The process involves cooling the pressurized mixed gas stream in a heat exchanger so as to condensing one or more of the gas components having the highest condensation point; separating the condensed components from the remaining mixed gas stream in a gas-liquid separator; cooling the separated condensed component stream by passing it through an expander; and passing the cooled component stream back through the heat exchanger such that the cooled component stream functions as the refrigerant for the heat exchanger. The cycle is then repeated for the remaining mixed gas stream so as to draw off the next component gas and further cool the remaining mixed gas stream. The process continues until all of the component gases are separated from the desired gas stream. The final gas stream is then passed through a final heat exchanger and expander. The expander decreases the pressure on the gas stream, thereby cooling the stream and causing a portion of the gas stream to liquify within a tank. The portion of the gas which is hot liquefied is passed back through each of the heat exchanges where it functions as a refrigerant.

  15. Disposal of NORM waste in salt caverns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J.A.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Blunt, D.; Williams, G.P.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, there are no fatal flaws that would prevent a state regulatory agency from approving cavern disposal of NORM. On the basis of the costs charged by caverns currently used for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal caverns could be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

  16. Digital Gas Notified That Entropic Consortium Has Approval to Commercialize a Waste-to-Energy Plant in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    technology produces a clean-burning by-product from the widest variety of processed waste. The product has represented by the coal-substitute technology and the utilization of its advanced farming and other to a final design, technology and administrative review by the Ho Chi Minh City Environmental Protection

  17. Treatment of halogen-containing waste and other waste materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.

    1997-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for treating a halogen-containing waste material. The process provides a bath of molten glass containing a sacrificial metal oxide capable of reacting with a halogen in the waste material. The sacrificial metal oxide is present in the molten glass in at least a stoichiometric amount with respect to the halogen in the waste material. The waste material is introduced into the bath of molten glass to cause a reaction between the halogen in the waste material and the sacrificial metal oxide to yield a metal halide. The metal halide is a gas at the temperature of the molten glass. The gaseous metal halide is separated from the molten glass and contacted with an aqueous scrubber solution of an alkali metal hydroxide to yield a metal hydroxide or metal oxide-containing precipitate and a soluble alkali metal halide. The precipitate is then separated from the aqueous scrubber solution. The molten glass containing the treated waste material is removed from the bath as a waste glass. The process of the invention can be used to treat all types of waste material including radioactive wastes. The process is particularly suited for separating halogens from halogen-containing wastes. 3 figs.

  18. Treatment of halogen-containing waste and other waste materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, Charles W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Beahm, Edward C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Parker, George W. (Concord, TN)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for treating a halogen-containing waste material. The process provides a bath of molten glass containing a sacrificial metal oxide capable of reacting with a halogen in the waste material. The sacrificial metal oxide is present in the molten glass in at least a stoichiometric amount with respect to the halogen in the waste material. The waste material is introduced into the bath of molten glass to cause a reaction between the halogen in the waste material and the sacrificial metal oxide to yield a metal halide. The metal halide is a gas at the temperature of the molten glass. The gaseous metal halide is separated from the molten glass and contacted with an aqueous scrubber solution of an alkali metal hydroxide to yield a metal hydroxide or metal oxide-containing precipitate and a soluble alkali metal halide. The precipitate is then separated from the aqueous scrubber solution. The molten glass containing the treated waste material is removed from the bath as a waste glass. The process of the invention can be used to treat all types of waste material including radioactive wastes. The process is particularly suited for separating halogens from halogen-containing wastes.

  19. Development of a tool dedicated to the evaluation of hydrogen term source for technological Wastes: assumptions, physical models, and validation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamouroux, C. [CEA Saclay, Nuclear Energy Division /DANS, Department of physico-chemistry, 91191 Gif sur yvette (France); Esnouf, S. [CEA Saclay, DSM/IRAMIS/SIS2M/Radiolysis Laboratory , 91191 Gif sur yvette (France); Cochin, F. [Areva NC,recycling BU, DIRP/RDP tour Areva, 92084 Paris La Defense (France)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In radioactive waste packages hydrogen is generated, in one hand, from the radiolysis of wastes (mainly organic materials) and, in the other hand, from the radiolysis of water content in the cement matrix. In order to assess hydrogen generation 2 tools based on operational models have been developed. One is dedicated to the determination of the hydrogen source term issues from the radiolysis of the wastes: the STORAGE tool (Simulation Tool Of Emission Radiolysis Gas), the other deals with the hydrogen source term gas, produced by radiolysis of the cement matrices (the Damar tool). The approach used by the STORAGE tool for assessing the production rate of radiolysis gases is divided into five steps: 1) Specification of the data packages, in particular, inventories and radiological materials defined for a package medium; 2) Determination of radiochemical yields for the different constituents and the laws of behavior associated, this determination of radiochemical yields is made from the PRELOG database in which radiochemical yields in different irradiation conditions have been compiled; 3) Definition of hypothesis concerning the composition and the distribution of contamination inside the package to allow assessment of the power absorbed by the constituents; 4) Sum-up of all the contributions; And finally, 5) validation calculations by comparison with a reduced sampling of packages. Comparisons with measured values confirm the conservative character of the methodology and give confidence in the safety margins for safety analysis report.

  20. Gas storage and separation by electric field swing adsorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Currier, Robert P; Obrey, Stephen J; Devlin, David J; Sansinena, Jose Maria

    2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Gases are stored, separated, and/or concentrated. An electric field is applied across a porous dielectric adsorbent material. A gas component from a gas mixture may be selectively separated inside the energized dielectric. Gas is stored in the energized dielectric for as long as the dielectric is energized. The energized dielectric selectively separates, or concentrates, a gas component of the gas mixture. When the potential is removed, gas from inside the dielectric is released.

  1. Advanced Energy and Water Recovery Technology from Low Grade Waste Heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dexin Wang

    2011-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The project has developed a nanoporous membrane based water vapor separation technology that can be used for recovering energy and water from low-temperature industrial waste gas streams with high moisture contents. This kind of exhaust stream is widely present in many industrial processes including the forest products and paper industry, food industry, chemical industry, cement industry, metal industry, and petroleum industry. The technology can recover not only the sensible heat but also high-purity water along with its considerable latent heat. Waste heats from such streams are considered very difficult to recover by conventional technology because of poor heat transfer performance of heat-exchanger type equipment at low temperature and moisture-related corrosion issues. During the one-year Concept Definition stage of the project, the goal was to prove the concept and technology in the laboratory and identify any issues that need to be addressed in future development of this technology. In this project, computational modeling and simulation have been conducted to investigate the performance of a nanoporous material based technology, transport membrane condenser (TMC), for waste heat and water recovery from low grade industrial flue gases. A series of theoretical and computational analyses have provided insight and support in advanced TMC design and experiments. Experimental study revealed condensation and convection through the porous membrane bundle was greatly improved over an impermeable tube bundle, because of the membrane capillary condensation mechanism and the continuous evacuation of the condensate film or droplets through the membrane pores. Convection Nusselt number in flue gas side for the porous membrane tube bundle is 50% to 80% higher than those for the impermeable stainless steel tube bundle. The condensation rates for the porous membrane tube bundle also increase 60% to 80%. Parametric study for the porous membrane tube bundle heat transfer performance was also done, which shows this heat transfer enhancement approach works well in a wide parameters range for typical flue gas conditions. Better understanding of condensing heat transfer mechanism for porous membrane heat transfer surfaces, shows higher condensation and heat transfer rates than non-permeable tubes, due to existence of the porous membrane walls. Laboratory testing has documented increased TMC performance with increased exhaust gas moisture content levels, which has exponentially increased potential markets for the product. The TMC technology can uniquely enhance waste heat recovery in tandem with water vapor recovery for many other industrial processes such as drying, wet and dry scrubber exhaust gases, dewatering, and water chilling. A new metallic substrate membrane tube development and molded TMC part fabrication method, provides an economical way to expand this technology for scaled up applications with less than 3 year payback expectation. A detailed market study shows a broad application area for this advanced waste heat and water recovery technology. A commercialization partner has been lined up to expand this technology to this big market. This research work led to new findings on the TMC working mechanism to improve its performance, better scale up design approaches, and economical part fabrication methods. Field evaluation work needs to be done to verify the TMC real world performance, and get acceptance from the industry, and pave the way for our commercial partner to put it into a much larger waste heat and waste water recovery market. This project is addressing the priority areas specified for DOE Industrial Technologies Program's (ITP's): Energy Intensive Processes (EIP) Portfolio - Waste Heat Minimization and Recovery platform.

  2. Regulation of Oil and Gas Resources (Florida)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    It is the public policy of the state to conserve and control the natural resources of oil and gas, and their products; to prevent waste of oil and gas; to provide for the protection and adjustment...

  3. Screening the Hanford tanks for trapped gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitney, P.

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Site is home to 177 large, underground nuclear waste storage tanks. Hydrogen gas is generated within the waste in these tanks. This document presents the results of a screening of Hanford`s nuclear waste storage tanks for the presence of gas trapped in the waste. The method used for the screening is to look for an inverse correlation between waste level measurements and ambient atmospheric pressure. If the waste level in a tank decreases with an increase in ambient atmospheric pressure, then the compressibility may be attributed to gas trapped within the waste. In this report, this methodology is not used to estimate the volume of gas trapped in the waste. The waste level measurements used in this study were made primarily to monitor the tanks for leaks and intrusions. Four measurement devices are widely used in these tanks. Three of these measure the level of the waste surface. The remaining device measures from within a well embedded in the waste, thereby monitoring the liquid level even if the liquid level is below a dry waste crust. In the past, a steady rise in waste level has been taken as an indicator of trapped gas. This indicator is not part of the screening calculation described in this report; however, a possible explanation for the rise is given by the mathematical relation between atmospheric pressure and waste level used to support the screening calculation. The screening was applied to data from each measurement device in each tank. If any of these data for a single tank indicated trapped gas, that tank was flagged by this screening process. A total of 58 of the 177 Hanford tanks were flagged as containing trapped gas, including 21 of the 25 tanks currently on the flammable gas watch list.

  4. Phosphazene membranes for gas separations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stewart, Frederick F.; Harrup, Mason K.; Orme, Christopher J.; Luther, Thomas A.

    2006-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A polyphosphazene having a glass transition temperature ("Tg") of approximately -20.degree. C. or less. The polyphosphazene has at least one pendant group attached to a backbone of the polyphosphazene, wherein the pendant group has no halogen atoms. In addition, no aromatic groups are attached to an oxygen atom that is bound to a phosphorus atom of the backbone. The polyphosphazene may have a Tg ranging from approximately -100.degree. C. to approximately -20.degree. C. The polyphosphazene may be selected from the group consisting of poly[bis-3-phenyl-1-propoxy)phosphazene], poly[bis-(2-phenyl-1-ethoxy)phosphazene], poly[bis-(dodecanoxypolyethoxy)-phosphazene], and poly[bis-(2-(2-(2-.omega.-undecylenyloxyethoxy)ethoxy)ethoxy)phosphazene]. The polyphosphazene may be used in a separation membrane to selectively separate individual gases from a gas mixture, such as to separate polar gases from nonpolar gases in the gas mixture.

  5. Self-pulsing of hollow cathode discharge in various gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qin, Y.; He, F., E-mail: hefeng@bit.edu.cn; Jiang, X. X.; Ouyang, J. T., E-mail: jtouyang@bit.edu.cn [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Xie, K. [School of Aerospace Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we investigate the self-pulsing phenomenon of cavity discharge in a cylindrical hollow cathode in various gases including argon, helium, nitrogen, oxygen, and air. The current-voltage characteristics of the cavity discharge, the waveforms of the self-pulsing current and voltage as well as the repetition frequency were measured. The results show that the pulsing frequency ranges from a few to tens kilohertz and depends on the averaged current and the pressure in all gases. The pulsing frequency will increase with the averaged current and decrease with the pressure. The rising time of the current pulse is nearly constant in a given gas or mixture. The self-pulsing does not depend on the external ballast but is affected significantly by the external capacitor in parallel with the discharge cell. The low-current self-pulsing in hollow cathode discharge is the mode transition between Townsend and glow discharges. It can be described by the charging-discharging process of an equivalent circuit consisting of capacitors and resistors.

  6. Dark resonances for ground state transfer of molecular quantum gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manfred J. Mark; Johann G. Danzl; Elmar Haller; Mattias Gustavsson; Nadia Bouloufa; Olivier Dulieu; Houssam Salami; Tom Bergeman; Helmut Ritsch; Russell Hart; Hanns-Christoph Nägerl

    2008-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    One possible way to produce ultracold, high-phase-space-density quantum gases of molecules in the rovibronic ground state is given by molecule association from quantum-degenerate atomic gases on a Feshbach resonance and subsequent coherent optical multi-photon transfer into the rovibronic ground state. In ultracold samples of Cs_2 molecules, we observe two-photon dark resonances that connect the intermediate rovibrational level |v=73,J=2> with the rovibrational ground state |v=0,J=0> of the singlet $X^1\\Sigma_g^+$ ground state potential. For precise dark resonance spectroscopy we exploit the fact that it is possible to efficiently populate the level |v=73,J=2> by two-photon transfer from the dissociation threshold with the stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) technique. We find that at least one of the two-photon resonances is sufficiently strong to allow future implementation of coherent STIRAP transfer of a molecular quantum gas to the rovibrational ground state |v=0,J=0>.

  7. Gas-driven microturbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sniegowski, J.J.; Rodgers, M.S.; McWhorter, P.J.; Aeschliman, D.P.; Miller, W.M.

    1996-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes an invention which relates to microtechnology and the fabrication process for developing microelectrical systems. It describes a means for fabricating a gas-driven microturbine capable of providing autonomous propulsion in which the rapidly moving gases are directed through a micromachined turbine to power devices by direct linkage or turbo-electric generators components in a domain ranging from tenths of micrometers to thousands of micrometers.

  8. Optimization of Combustion Efficiency for Supplementally Fired Gas Turbine Cogenerator Exhaust Heat Receptors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waterland, A. F.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A broad range of unique cogeneration schemes are being installed or considered for application in the process industries involving gas turbines with heat recovery from the exhaust gas. Depending on the turbine design, exhaust gases will range from...

  9. Optimization of Combustion Efficiency for Supplementally Fired Gas Turbine Cogenerator Exhaust Heat Receptors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waterland, A. F.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A broad range of unique cogeneration schemes are being installed or considered for application in the process industries involving gas turbines with heat recovery from the exhaust gas. Depending on the turbine design, exhaust gases will range from...

  10. Probabilistic safety assessment for Hanford high-level waste tank 241-SY-101

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacFarlane, D.R.; Bott, T.F.; Brown, L.F.; Stack, D.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Kindinger, J.; Deremer, R.K.; Medhekar, S.R.; Mikschl, T.J. [PLG, Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States)] [PLG, Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States)

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) is performing a comprehensive probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), which will include consideration of external events for the 18 tank farms at the Hanford Site. This effort is sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE/EM, EM-36). Even though the methodology described herein will be applied to the entire tank farm, this report focuses only on the risk from the weapons-production wastes stored in tank number 241-SY-101, commonly known as Tank 101-SY, as configured in December 1992. This tank, which periodically releases ({open_quotes}burps{close_quotes}) a gaseous mixture of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, ammonia, and nitrogen, was analyzed first because of public safety concerns associated with the potential for release of radioactive tank contents should this gas mixture be ignited during one of the burps. In an effort to mitigate the burping phenomenon, an experiment is being conducted in which a large pump has been inserted into the tank to determine if pump-induced circulation of the tank contents will promote a slow, controlled release of the gases. At the Hanford Site there are 177 underground tanks in 18 separate tank farms containing accumulated liquid/sludge/salt cake radioactive wastes from 50 yr of weapons materials production activities. The total waste volume is about 60 million gal., which contains approximately 120 million Ci of radioactivity.

  11. Biohazardous Waste Disposal Guidelines Sharps Waste Solid Lab Waste Liquid Waste Animals Pathological Waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsien, Roger Y.

    Biohazardous Waste Disposal Guidelines Sharps Waste Solid Lab Waste Liquid Waste Animals Pathological Waste Description Biohazard symbol Address: UCSD 9500 Gilman Drive La Jolla, CA 92093 (858) 534) and identity of liquid waste Biohazard symbol Address: UCSD 9500 Gilman Drive La Jolla, CA 92093 (858) 534

  12. Biohazardous Waste Disposal Guidelines Sharps Waste Solid Lab Waste Liquid Waste Animals Pathological Waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsien, Roger Y.

    2/2009 Biohazardous Waste Disposal Guidelines Sharps Waste Solid Lab Waste Liquid Waste Animals Pathological Waste Description Biohazard symbol Address: UCSD 200 West Arbor Dr. San Diego, CA 92103 (619 (9:1) OR Biohazard symbol (if untreated) and identity of liquid waste Biohazard symbol Address

  13. Loschmidt echo in one-dimensional interacting Bose gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lelas, K.; Seva, T.; Buljan, H. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Split, Rudjera Boskovica BB, 21000 Split (Croatia); Department of Physics, University of Zagreb, Bijenicka c. 32, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We explore Loschmidt echo in two regimes of one-dimensional interacting Bose gases: the strongly interacting Tonks-Girardeau (TG) regime, and the weakly interacting mean-field regime. We find that the Loschmidt echo of a TG gas decays as a Gaussian when small (random and time independent) perturbations are added to the Hamiltonian. The exponent is proportional to the number of particles and the magnitude of a small perturbation squared. In the mean-field regime the Loschmidt echo shows richer behavior: it decays faster for larger nonlinearity, and the decay becomes more abrupt as the nonlinearity increases; it can be very sensitive to the particular realization of the noise potential, especially for relatively small nonlinearities.

  14. BIZKAIA WASTE TO ENERGY PLANT PROJECT February, 2005 SUMMARY REPORT Page 1 of 7

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Gas turbine generator with 43 MW power output. e) 1 Heat recovery steam generator at 100 bars. #12 a) Thermal power exhaust gases from the gas turbine. b) Superheated steam (538 ºC 100 bar) to the steam turbine. c) Natural gas burners using fresh air to replace thermal energy in case of a gas turbine

  15. Properties of potential eco-friendly gas replacements for particle detectors in high-energy physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benussi, L; Piccolo, D; Saviano, G; Colafranceschi, S; Kjølbro, J; Sharma, A; Yang, D; Chen, G; Ban, Y; Li, Q

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Modern gas detectors for detection of particles require F-based gases for optimal performance. Recent regulations demand the use of environmentally unfriendly F-based gases to be limited or banned. This review studies properties of potential eco-friendly gas candidate replacements.

  16. Properties of potential eco-friendly gas replacements for particle detectors in high-energy physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benussi, L; Piccolo, D; Saviano, G; Colafranceschi, S; Kjølbro, J; Yang, D; Chen, G; Ban, Y; Li, Q; Sharma, A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Modern gas detectors for detection of particles require F-based gases for op- timal performance. Recent regulations demand the use of environmentally un- friendly Freon-based gases to be limited or banned. This review studies properties of potential eco-friendly gas candidate replacements.

  17. High-pressure gas hydrates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loveday, J. S.; Nelmes, R. J.

    It has long been known that crystalline hydrates are formed by many simple gases that do not interact strongly with water, and in most cases the gas molecules or atoms occupy 'cages' formed by a framework of water molecules. The majority...

  18. High potential recovery -- Gas repressurization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madden, M.P.

    1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate that small independent oil producers can use existing gas injection technologies, scaled to their operations, to repressurize petroleum reservoirs and increase their economic oil production. This report gives background information for gas repressurization technologies, the results of workshops held to inform small independent producers about gas repressurization, and the results of four gas repressurization field demonstration projects. Much of the material in this report is based on annual reports (BDM-Oklahoma 1995, BDM-Oklahoma 1996, BDM-Oklahoma 1997), a report describing the results of the workshops (Olsen 1995), and the four final reports for the field demonstration projects which are reproduced in the Appendix. This project was designed to demonstrate that repressurization of reservoirs with gas (natural gas, enriched gas, nitrogen, flue gas, or air) can be used by small independent operators in selected reservoirs to increase production and/or decrease premature abandonment of the resource. The project excluded carbon dioxide because of other DOE-sponsored projects that address carbon dioxide processes directly. Two of the demonstration projects, one using flue gas and the other involving natural gas from a deeper coal zone, were both technical and economic successes. The two major lessons learned from the projects are the importance of (1) adequate infrastructure (piping, wells, compressors, etc.) and (2) adequate planning including testing compatibility between injected gases and fluids, and reservoir gases, fluids, and rocks.

  19. Gas chemistry and thermometry of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nehring, N.L. (US Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA); D'Amore, F.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Geothermal gases at Cerro Prieto are derived from high temperature reactions within the reservoir or are introduced with recharge water. Gases collected from geothermal wells should, therefore, reflect reservoir conditions. Interpretation of gas compositions of wells indicates reservoir temperatures, controls of oxygen and sulfur fugacities, and recharge source and direction.

  20. Stationary light in cold atomic gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gor Nikoghosyan; Michael Fleischhauer

    2009-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss stationary light created by a pair of counter-propagating control fields in Lambda-type atomic gases with electromagnetically induced transparency for the case of negligible Doppler broadening. In this case the secular approximation used in the discussion of stationary light in hot vapors is no longer valid. We discuss the quality of the effective light-trapping system and show that in contrast to previous claims it is finite even for vanishing ground-state dephasing. The dynamics of the photon loss is in general non exponential and can be faster or slower than in hot gases.

  1. Remediation of oil field wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, R.W.; Wentz, C.A.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Treatment and disposal of drilling muds and hazardous wastes has become a growing concern in the oil and gas industry. Further, past practices involving improper disposal require considerable research and cost to effectively remediate contaminated soils. This paper investigates two case histories describing the treatments employed to handle the liquid wastes involved. Both case histories describe the environmentally safe cleanup operations that were employed. 1 ref., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  2. Retained Gas Sampling Results for the Flammable Gas Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.M. Bates; L.A. Mahoney; M.E. Dahl; Z.I. Antoniak

    1999-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The key phenomena of the Flammable Gas Safety Issue are generation of the gas mixture, the modes of gas retention, and the mechanisms causing release of the gas. An understanding of the mechanisms of these processes is required for final resolution of the safety issue. Central to understanding is gathering information from such sources as historical records, tank sampling data, tank process data (temperatures, ventilation rates, etc.), and laboratory evaluations conducted on tank waste samples.

  3. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Hazardous Waste Facility Permit...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, Waste Analysis Plan The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, Waste Analysis Plan This...

  4. Oil and Gas Conservation (Nebraska)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This section establishes the state's interest in encouraging the development, production, and utilization of natural gas and oil resources in a manner which will prevent waste and lead to the...

  5. Isotopic measurements of solar noble gases in individual micrometeorites from Greenland and Antarctica

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olinger, C.T.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Noble gases are studied in individual 100 micron-size particles selected from Greenland and Antarctic glacial sediments. Noble gas isotopic and elemental patterns confirm the extraterrestrial origin of 81 out of 302 particles studied. Micrometeorites in this size range are particularly interesting because they correspond to the peak of the meteoritic mass flux distribution. Many particles studied are compositionally and morphologically similar to known meteoritic materials.

  6. Temperature jump in degenerate quantum gases in the presence of a Bose - Einstein condensate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. V. Latyshev; A. A. Yushkanov

    2010-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct a kinetic equation modeling the behavior of degenerate quantum Bose gases whose collision rate depends on the momentum of elementary excitations. We consider the case where the phonon component is the decisive factor in the elementary excitations. We analytically solve the half-space boundary value problem of the temperature jump at the boundary of the degenerate Bose gas in the presence of a Bose -- Einstein condensate.

  7. Zevenhoven & Kilpinen FLUE GASES and FUEL GASES 19.6.2001 2-1 Chapter 2 Flue gases and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    .1 Introduction Combustion processes for heat and power generation and the incineration of household waste are actually unwanted by-products from a power plant or a waste incinerator, since the first has the objective to convert hydrocarbon fuels (CxHy) into CO2, H2O plus heat and power, whilst the second aims at reducing

  8. GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTION POTENTIAL WITH COMBINED HEAT AND POWER WITH DISTRIBUTED GENERATION PRIME MOVERS - ASME 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curran, Scott [ORNL; Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL; Bunce, Michael [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pending or recently enacted greenhouse gas regulations and mandates are leading to the need for current and feasible GHG reduction solutions including combined heat and power (CHP). Distributed generation using advanced reciprocating engines, gas turbines, microturbines and fuel cells has been shown to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) compared to the U.S. electrical generation mix due to the use of natural gas and high electrical generation efficiencies of these prime movers. Many of these prime movers are also well suited for use in CHP systems which recover heat generated during combustion or energy conversion. CHP increases the total efficiency of the prime mover by recovering waste heat for generating electricity, replacing process steam, hot water for buildings or even cooling via absorption chilling. The increased efficiency of CHP systems further reduces GHG emissions compared to systems which do not recover waste thermal energy. Current GHG mandates within the U.S Federal sector and looming GHG legislation for states puts an emphasis on understanding the GHG reduction potential of such systems. This study compares the GHG savings from various state-of-the- art prime movers. GHG reductions from commercially available prime movers in the 1-5 MW class including, various industrial fuel cells, large and small gas turbines, micro turbines and reciprocating gas engines with and without CHP are compared to centralized electricity generation including the U.S. mix and the best available technology with natural gas combined cycle power plants. The findings show significant GHG saving potential with the use of CHP. Also provided is an exploration of the accounting methodology for GHG reductions with CHP and the sensitivity of such analyses to electrical generation efficiency, emissions factors and most importantly recoverable heat and thermal recovery efficiency from the CHP system.

  9. Hazardous Waste Program (Alabama)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This rule states criteria for identifying the characteristics of hazardous waste and for listing hazardous waste, lists of hazardous wastes, standards for the management of hazardous waste and...

  10. Surface detection of retort gases from an underground coal gasification reactor in steeply dipping beds near Rawlins, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, V.T.; Thune, H.W.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A near-surface soil-gas geochemical survey was executed at the North Knobs, Wyoming, GR and DC-DOE underground coal gasification (UCG) facility in 1981. The soil-gas detection method offers a new technique for locating potential gas leakage areas before any significant migration avenues can develop. The survey demonstrates that residual gases from the phase 1 burn are still present in the near surface, and product gases generated during the phase II burn clearly were evident. Casing leakage explains most anomalies located in the rock sequence stratigraphically below the coal. It is concluded that a properly designed and operated UCG facility would not experience adverse product gas leakage and would pose no hazard.

  11. Tunable, self-powered integrated arc plasma-melter vitrification system for waste treatment and resource recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Titus, Charles H. (Newtown Square, PA); Cohn, Daniel R. (Chestnuthill, MA); Surma, Jeffrey E. (Kennewick, WA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a relatively compact self-powered, tunable waste conversion system and apparatus which has the advantage of highly robust operation which provides complete or substantially complete conversion of a wide range of waste streams into useful gas and a stable, nonleachable solid product at a single location with greatly reduced air pollution to meet air quality standards. The system provides the capability for highly efficient conversion of waste into high quality combustible gas and for high efficiency conversion of the gas into electricity by utilizing a high efficiency gas turbine or by an internal combustion engine. The solid product can be suitable for various commercial applications. Alternatively, the solid product stream, which is a safe, stable material, may be disposed of without special considerations as hazardous material. In the preferred embodiment of the invention, the arc plasma furnace and joule heated melter are formed as a fully integrated unit with a common melt pool having circuit arrangements for the simultaneous independently controllable operation of both the arc plasma and the joule heated portions of the unit without interference with one another. The preferred configuration of this embodiment of the invention utilizes two arc plasma electrodes with an elongated chamber for the molten pool such that the molten pool is capable of providing conducting paths between electrodes. The apparatus may additionally be employed with reduced or without further use of the gases generated by the conversion process. The apparatus may be employed as a self-powered or net electricity producing unit where use of an auxiliary fuel provides the required level of electricity production.

  12. Vitrification of high sulfate wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merrill, R.A.; Whittington, K.F.; Peters, R.D.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) through the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) is investigating the application of vitrification technology to mixed wastes within the DOE system This work involves identifying waste streams, laboratory testing to identify glass formulations and characterize the vitrified product, and demonstration testing with the actual waste in a pilot-scale system. Part of this program is investigating process limits for various waste components, specifically those components that typically create problems for the application of vitrification, such as sulfate, chloride, and phosphate. This work describes results from vitrification testing for a high-sulfate waste, the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basin waste at Hanford. A low melting phosphate glass formulation has been developed for a waste stream high in sodium and sulfate. At melt temperatures in the range of 1,000 C to 1,200 C, sulfate in the waste is decomposed to gaseous oxides and driven off during melting, while the remainder of the oxides stay in the melt. Decomposition of the sulfates eliminates the processing problems typically encountered in vitrification of sulfate-containing wastes, resulting in separation of the sulfate from the remainder of the waste and allowing the sulfate to be collected in the off-gas system and treated as a secondary waste stream. Both the vitreous product and intentionally devitrified samples are durable when compared to reference glasses by TCLP and DI water leach tests. Simple, short tests to evaluate the compatibility of the glasses with potential melter materials found minimal corrosion with most materials.

  13. Trace water vapor determination in nitrogen and corrosive gases using infrared spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Espinoza, L.H.; Niemczyk, T.M. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Stallard, B.R.; Garcia, M.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The generation of particles in gas handling systems as a result of corrosion is a major concern in the microelectronics industry. The corrosion can be caused by the presence of trace quantities of water in corrosive gases such as HCl or HBr. FTIR spectroscopy has been shown to be a method that can be made compatible with corrosive gases and is capable of detecting low ppb levels of water vapor. In this report, the application of FTIR spectroscopy combined with classical least squares multivariate calibration to detect trace H{sub 2}O in N{sub 2}, HCl and HBr is discussed. Chapter 2 discusses the gas handling system and instrumentation required to handle corrosive gases. A method of generating a background spectrum useful to the measurements discussed in this report, as well as in other application areas such as gas phase environmental monitoring, is discussed in Chapter 3. Experimental results obtained with the first system are presented in Chapter 4. Those results made it possible to optimize the design options for the construction of a dedicate system for low ppb water vapor determination. These designs options are discussed in Chapter 5. An FTIR prototype accessory was built. In addition, a commercially available evacuable FTIR system was obtained for evaluation. Test results obtained with both systems are discussed in Chapter 6. Experiments dealing with the interaction between H{sub 2}O-HCl and potential improvements to the detection system are discussed in Chapter 7.

  14. High- and low-temperature-stable thermite composition for producing high-pressure, high-velocity gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Halcomb, Danny L. (Camden, OH); Mohler, Jonathan H. (Spring Valley, OH)

    1990-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A high- and low-temperature-stable thermite composition for producing high-pressure and high-velocity gases comprises an oxidizable metal, an oxidizing reagent, and a high-temperature-stable gas-producing additive selected from the group consisting of metal carbides and metal nitrides.

  15. Liquid absorbent solutions for separating nitrogen from natural gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR); Babcock, Walter C. (Bend, OR); Edlund, David J. (Redmond, OR); Lyon, David K. (Bend, OR); Miller, Warren K. (Bend, OR)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrogen-absorbing and -desorbing compositions, novel ligands and transition metal complexes, and methods of using the same, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas.

  16. Improving UK greenhouse gas emission estimates using tall tower observations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howie, James Edward

    2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Greenhouse gases in the Earth’s atmosphere play an important role in regulating surface temperatures. The UK is signatory to international agreements that legally commit the UK to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions, and ...

  17. atomic fermi gas: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    atomic Fermi gases. G. M. Bruun 2002-10-29 4 Fermi excitations in a trapped atomic Fermi gas with a molecular Bose condensate Condensed Matter (arXiv) Summary: We discuss the...

  18. Predicting flammable gas mixtures in Hanford double-contained receiver tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hedengren, D.C.

    1998-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This study presents a methodology to estimate the maximum concentrations of flammable gases (ammonia, hydrogen, and methane) which could exist in the vapor space of a double-contained receiver tank (DCRT). DCRTs are temporary storage tanks which receive highly radioactive liquid wastes from salt well pumping of Hanford single-shell tanks (SST). The methodology of this study could be used in other applications involving the storage and transfer of radioactive liquid wastes which generate or contain various dissolved flammable gases.

  19. Bioelectrochemical Integration of Waste Heat Recovery, Waste...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    MHRC System Concept ADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE Bioelectrochemical Integration of Waste Heat Recovery, Waste-to-Energy Conversion, and Waste-to-Chemical Conversion with...

  20. The Conversion of Waste to Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John, T.; Cheek, L.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    quent slagging of cyclones and boilers. (3) Large fan power requirements. The gasification of solid wastes may be advantageous especially when converting equipment designed to burn oil or gas. Fixed bed gasifiers have been found to be a problem... costing $78,000 and saving $33,000/year. Fluidized beds are used for a variety of combustion applications including wood and agricultural wastes, waste treatment sludge, and chemical incineration. A fluidized bed can be used to recover non...

  1. Enhancement of NMR and MRI in the presence of hyperpolarized noble gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pines, Alexander; Budinger, Thomas; Navon, Gil; Song, Yi-Qiao; Appelt, Stephan; Bifone, Angelo; Taylor, Rebecca; Goodson, Boyd; Seydoux, Roberto; Room, Toomas; Pietrass, Tanja

    2004-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates generally to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques for both spectroscopy and imaging. More particularly, the present invention relates to methods in which hyperpolarized noble gases (e.g., Xe and He) are used to enhance and improve NMR and MRI. Additionally, the hyperpolarized gas solutions of the invention are useful both in vitro and in vivo to study the dynamics or structure of a system. When used with biological systems, either in vivo or in vitro, it is within the scope of the invention to target the hyperpolarized gas and deliver it to specific regions within the system.

  2. Greenhouse Gas Basics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Greenhouse gases are trace gases in the lower atmosphere that trap heat through a natural process called the "greenhouse effect."

  3. The safe use of low temperature liquefied gases 1. Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Ralph R.

    dioxide TABLE 1 Property Oxygen (O2) Nitrogen (N2) Argon (Ar) Helium (He) Carbon dioxide (CO2) Molecular.1 Objective 1.2 Gases considered and typical uses 2. Properties of low temperature liquefied atmospheric gases of BOC low temperature liquefied gases information on their properties, the hazards associated

  4. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions: Voluntary reporting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report on their emissions of greenhouse gases, and on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions or sequestered carbon, to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). This, the second annual report of the Voluntary Reporting Program, describes information provided by the participating organizations on their aggregate emissions and emissions reductions, as well as their emissions reduction or avoidance projects, through 1995. This information has been compiled into a database that includes reports from 142 organizations and descriptions of 967 projects that either reduced greenhouse gas emissions or sequestered carbon. Fifty-one reporters also provided estimates of emissions, and emissions reductions achieved, for their entire organizations. The projects described actions taken to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide from energy production and use; to reduce methane and nitrous oxide emissions from energy use, waste management, and agricultural processes; to reduce emissions of halocarbons, such as CFCs and their replacements; and to increase carbon sequestration.

  5. Gas distributor for fluidized bed coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Worley, Arthur C. (Mt. Tabor, NJ); Zboray, James A. (Irvine, CA)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas distributor for distributing high temperature reaction gases to a fluidized bed of coal particles in a coal gasification process. The distributor includes a pipe with a refractory reinforced lining and a plurality of openings in the lining through which gas is fed into the bed. These feed openings have an expanding tapered shape in the downstream or exhaust direction which aids in reducing the velocity of the gas jets as they enter the bed.

  6. Modular exhaust gas steam generator with common boiler casing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kidaloski, R.G.; Olinger, H.S.; Bryk, S.A.

    1987-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A modular exhaust gas steam generator is described wherein each module comprises: (a) an open box frame through which hot exhaust gases travel, a portion of the frame being in contact with the gases; (b) casing means fixedly secured to selected perimeter surfaces of the box frame thereby forming an integral part of the box frame for sealably closing the surface of the box frame and for retaining the gases within the box frame; (c) tubing means extending within and nearly the height of the box frame, the tubing means being in contact with the hot gases for generating steam in the steam generator; (d) header means within the box frame and connected to the tubing means for distributing fluid thereto, and; (e) connecting means secured to an upper region of the box frame for top supporting the header and the tubing means; whereby adjacent modules are sealably secured together forming a unitary gas tight enclosure through which exhaust gases travel.

  7. Hanford Waste Transfer Planning and Control - 13465

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirch, N.W.; Uytioco, E.M.; Jo, J. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, Washington (United States)] [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, Washington (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hanford tank waste cleanup requires efficient use of double-shell tank space to support single-shell tank retrievals and future waste feed delivery to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Every waste transfer, including single-shell tank retrievals and evaporator campaign, is evaluated via the Waste Transfer Compatibility Program for compliance with safety basis, environmental compliance, operational limits and controls to enhance future waste treatment. Mixed radioactive and hazardous wastes are stored at the Hanford Site on an interim basis until they can be treated, as necessary, for final disposal. Implementation of the Tank Farms Waste Transfer Compatibility Program helps to ensure continued safe and prudent storage and handling of these wastes within the Tank Farms Facility. The Tank Farms Waste Transfer Compatibility Program is a Safety Management Program that is a formal process for evaluating waste transfers and chemical additions through the preparation of documented Waste Compatibility Assessments (WCA). The primary purpose of the program is to ensure that sufficient controls are in place to prevent the formation of incompatible mixtures as the result of waste transfer operations. The program defines a consistent means of evaluating compliance with certain administrative controls, safety, operational, regulatory, and programmatic criteria and specifies considerations necessary to assess waste transfers and chemical additions. Current operations are most limited by staying within compliance with the safety basis controls to prevent flammable gas build up in the tank headspace. The depth of solids, the depth of supernatant, the total waste depth and the waste temperature are monitored and controlled to stay within the Compatibility Program rules. Also, transfer planning includes a preliminary evaluation against the Compatibility Program to assure that operating plans will comply with the Waste Transfer Compatibility Program. (authors)

  8. Quantum cascade laser investigations of CH4 and C2H2 interconversion in hydrocarbon/H2 gas mixtures during microwave plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bristol, University of

    described in Mankelevich et al. J. Appl. Phys. 104, 113304 2008 . The gas temperature distribution within source gases investigated methane, acetylene, ethane, propyne, propane, and butane are converted

  9. Camargo Waste to Energy Power Plant Hamed Zamenian1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    are discarded in landfills. The Camargo Waste to Energy (WTE) power station is an opportunity to continue pyrolysis technology to convert organic-based wastes into valuable products like pyro-gas, pyro products. This facility provides a nearly zero-landfill carbon neutral solution to the waste management

  10. California's AB 1493: Trendsetting or Setting Ourselves up to Fail?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2002 UCLA Law Symposium on AB 1493, Edited Panelist Commentary

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gases, meth- anol and landfill gas . Hydrogen fuel cellswhile something like landfill gas is wasted, it willbiomass and landfill created methanol gas-fuel cells are

  11. Waste Energy Analysis Recovery for a Typical Food Processing Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, P. H.; Mann, L., Jr.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An energy analysis made for the Joan of Arc Food Processing Plant in St. Francisville, Louisiana indicated that a significant quantity of waste heat energy was being released to the atmosphere in the forms of low quality steam and hot flue gases...

  12. MUSHROOM WASTE MANAGEMENT PROJECT LIQUID WASTE MANAGEMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of solid and liquid wastes generated at mushroom producing facilities. Environmental guidelines#12;MUSHROOM WASTE MANAGEMENT PROJECT LIQUID WASTE MANAGEMENT PHASE I: AUDIT OF CURRENT PRACTICE The Mushroom Waste Management Project (MWMP) was initiated by Environment Canada, the BC Ministry

  13. Clathrate hydrates as a sink of noble gases in Titan's atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, C; Ballenegger, V; Picaud, Sylvain

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We use a statistical thermodynamic approach to determine the composition of clathrate hydrates which may form from a multiple compound gas whose composition is similar to that of Titan's atmosphere. Assuming that noble gases are initially present in this gas phase, we calculate the ratios of xenon, krypton and argon to species trapped in clathrate hydrates. We find that these ratios calculated for xenon and krypton are several orders of magnitude higher than in the coexisting gas at temperature and pressure conditions close to those of Titan's present atmosphere at ground level. Furthermore we show that, by contrast, argon is poorly trapped in these ices. This trapping mechanism implies that the gas-phase is progressively depleted in xenon and krypton when the coexisting clathrate hydrates form whereas the initial abundance of argon remains almost constant. Our results are thus compatible with the deficiency of Titan's atmosphere in xenon and krypton measured by the {\\it Huygens} probe during its descent on J...

  14. On a Link between Classical Phenomenological Laws of Gases and Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yarman, Tolga; Korfali, Onder

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we find a connection between the macroscopic classical laws of gases and the quantum mechanical description of molecules, composing an ideal gas. In such a gas, the motion of each individual molecule can be considered independently on all other molecules, and thus the macroscopic parameters of ideal gas, like pressure P and temperature T, can be introduced as a result of simple averaging over all individual motions of molecules. It is shown that for an ideal gas enclosed in a macroscopic cubic box of volume V, the constant, in the classical law of adiabatic expansion, i.e.PV^5/3=const, can be derived, based on quantum mechanics. Physical implications of the result we disclose are discussed. In any case, our finding proves, seemingly for the first time, a macroscopic manifestation of a quantum mechanical behavior, and this in relation to classical thermodynamics.

  15. On a Link between Classical Phenomenological Laws of Gases and Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolga Yarman; Alexander Kholmetskii; Onder Korfali

    2008-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we find a connection between the macroscopic classical laws of gases and the quantum mechanical description of molecules, composing an ideal gas. In such a gas, the motion of each individual molecule can be considered independently on all other molecules, and thus the macroscopic parameters of ideal gas, like pressure P and temperature T, can be introduced as a result of simple averaging over all individual motions of molecules. It is shown that for an ideal gas enclosed in a macroscopic cubic box of volume V, the constant, in the classical law of adiabatic expansion, i.e.PV^5/3=const, can be derived, based on quantum mechanics. Physical implications of the result we disclose are discussed. In any case, our finding proves, seemingly for the first time, a macroscopic manifestation of a quantum mechanical behavior, and this in relation to classical thermodynamics.

  16. Accelerated carbonation treatment of industrial wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunning, Peter J., E-mail: gunning_peter@hotmail.co [Centre for Contaminated Land Remediation, University of Greenwich, Chatham Maritime (United Kingdom); Hills, Colin D.; Carey, Paula J. [Centre for Contaminated Land Remediation, University of Greenwich, Chatham Maritime (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The disposal of industrial waste presents major logistical, financial and environmental issues. Technologies that can reduce the hazardous properties of wastes are urgently required. In the present work, a number of industrial wastes arising from the cement, metallurgical, paper, waste disposal and energy industries were treated with accelerated carbonation. In this process carbonation was effected by exposing the waste to pure carbon dioxide gas. The paper and cement wastes chemically combined with up to 25% by weight of gas. The reactivity of the wastes to carbon dioxide was controlled by their constituent minerals, and not by their elemental composition, as previously postulated. Similarly, microstructural alteration upon carbonation was primarily influenced by mineralogy. Many of the thermal wastes tested were classified as hazardous, based upon regulated metal content and pH. Treatment by accelerated carbonation reduced the leaching of certain metals, aiding the disposal of many as stable non-reactive wastes. Significant volumes of carbon dioxide were sequestrated into the accelerated carbonated treated wastes.

  17. Scanning electron microscopy of cold gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santra, Bodhaditya

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultracold quantum gases offer unique possibilities to study interacting many-body quantum systems. Probing and manipulating such systems with ever increasing degree of control requires novel experimental techniques. Scanning electron microscopy is a high resolution technique which can be used for in situ imaging, single site addressing in optical lattices and precision density engineering. Here, we review recent advances and achievements obtained with this technique and discuss future perspectives.

  18. Seeded optical breakdown of molecular and noble gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polynkin, Pavel; Scheller, Maik; Moloney, Jerome V. [College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona 1630 E. University Blvd., Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States)

    2012-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We report experimental results on the dual laser-pulse plasma excitation in various gases at atmospheric pressure. Dilute plasma channels generated through filamentation of ultraintense femtosecond laser pulses in air, argon, and helium are densified through the application of multi-Joule nanosecond heater pulses. Optical breakdown in atomic gases can be achieved for considerably longer delays between femtosecond and nanosecond pulses compared to that in molecular gases. The densification of the seed channel in molecular gases is always accompanied by its fragmentation into discrete bubbles, while in atomic gases the densified channel remains smooth and continuous.

  19. Why Condensing Steam Turbines are More Efficient than Gas Turbines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, K. E.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with gas in a combustion chamber. The gas burns and the hot combustion gases are expanded through a turbine. generating electricity. The gases exit at about 1000oF. slightly above atmospheric pressure. They enter a heat recovery unit. which is a series... statement. however, is relevant to value. GAS TURBINE CYCLE Figure :> shows the enthalpy analysis for a gas turbine cycle employing a heat recovery unit for steam generation. Air enters the compressor where it's boosted to about 190 psi and mixed...

  20. Nuclear waste management. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chikalla, T.D.; Powell, J.A.

    1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reports and summaries are presented for the following: high-level waste process development; alternative waste forms; TMI zeolite vitrification demonstration program; nuclear waste materials characterization center; TRU waste immobilization; TRU waste decontamination; krypton implantation; thermal outgassing; iodine-129 fixation; NWVP off-gas analysis; monitoring and physical characterization of unsaturated zone transport; well-logging instrumentation development; verification instrument development; mobility of organic complexes of radionuclides in soils; handbook of methods to decrease the generation of low-level waste; waste management system studies; waste management safety studies; assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems; waste/rock interactions technology program; high-level waste form preparation; development of backfill materials; development of structural engineered barriers; disposal charge analysis; and analysis of spent fuel policy implementation.