National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for gases normal butane

  1. Normal butane/iso-butane separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Volles, W.K.; Cusher, N.A.

    1986-08-26

    This patent describes an improved pressure swing adsorption process for the separation of iso-butane from normal butane in an adsorption system having at least three adsorbent beds, each bed of which undergoes, on a cyclic basis and a processing sequence comprising: introducing a feed gas mixture of iso-butane and normal butane at an upper adsorption pressure to the feed end of the bed capable of selectively adsorbing normal butane as the more selectivity adsorbable component of the gas mixture. The iso-butane as the less readily adsorbable component passes through the bed and is discharged from the discharge end. The feed gas introduction is continued as a normal butane adsorption front is formed in the bed and passes through the bed from the feed end and breaks through at the discharge end of the bed, a portion of the iso-butane effluent stream thus discharged being diverted for passage as purge gas to another bed in the system; and countercurrently depressurizing the bed with release of gas from the feed end.

  2. Pressure and concentration dependences of the autoignition temperature for normal butane + air mixtures in a closed vessel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandraratna, M.R.; Griffiths, J.F. . School of Chemistry)

    1994-12-01

    The condition at which autoignition occurs in lean premixed n-butane + air mixtures over the composition range 0.2%--2.5% n-butane by volume (0.06 < [phi] < 0.66) were investigated experimentally. Total reactant pressure from 0.1 to 0.6 MPa (1--6 atm) were studied in a spherical, stainless-steel, closed vessel (0.5 dm[sup 3]). There is a critical transition from nonignition to ignition, at pressures above 0.1 MPa, as the mixture is enriched in the vicinity of 1% fuel vapor by volume. There is also a region of multiplicity, which exhibits three critical temperatures at a given composition. Chemical analyses show that partially oxygenated components,including many o-heterocyclic compounds, are important products of the lean combustion of butane at temperatures up to 800 K. The critical conditions for autoignition are discussed with regard to industrial ignition hazards, especially in the context of the autoignition temperature of alkanes given by ASTM or BS tests. The differences between the behavior of n-butane and the higher n-alkanes are explained. The experimental results are also used as a basis for testing a reduced kinetic model to represent the oxidation and autoignition of n-butane or other alkanes.

  3. Ignition properties of n-butane and iso-butane in a rapid compression machine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gersen, S.; Darmeveil, J.H.; Mokhov, A.V.; Levinsky, H.B.

    2010-02-15

    Autoignition delay times of n-butane and iso-butane have been measured in a Rapid Compression Machine in the temperature range 660-1010 K, at pressures varying from 14 to 36 bar and at equivalence ratios {phi} = 1.0 and {phi} = 0.5. Both butane isomers exhibit a negative-temperature-coefficient (NTC) region and, at low temperatures, two-stage ignition. At temperatures below {proportional_to}900 K, the delay times for iso-butane are longer than those for the normal isomer, while above this temperature both butanes give essentially the same results. At temperatures above {proportional_to}720 K the delay times of the lean mixtures are twice those for stoichiometric compositions; at T < 720 K, the equivalence ratio is seen to have little influence on the ignition behavior. Increasing the pressure from 15 bar to 30 bar decreases the amplitude of the NTC region, and reduces the ignition delay time for both isomers by roughly a factor of 3. In the region in which two-stage ignition is observed, 680-825 K, the duration of the first ignition stage decreases sharply in the range 680-770 K, but is essentially flat above 770 K. Good quantitative agreement is found between the measurements and calculations for n-butane using a comprehensive model for butane ignition, including both delay times in the two-stage region, with substantial differences being observed for iso-butane, particularly in the NTC region. (author)

  4. Emissions with butane/propane blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-11-01

    This article reports on various aspects of exhaust emissions from a light-duty car converted to operate on liquefied petroleum gas and equipped with an electrically heated catalyst. Butane and butane/propane blends have recently received attention as potentially useful alternative fuels. Butane has a road octane number of 92, a high blending vapor pressure, and has been used to upgrade octane levels of gasoline blends and improve winter cold starts. Due to reformulated gasoline requirements for fuel vapor pressure, however, industry has had to remove increasing amounts of butane form the gasoline pool. Paradoxically, butane is one of the cleanest burning components of gasoline.

  5. New butane isomerization unit is unvieled by Andrews Petroleum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McWilliams, H.

    1990-06-01

    This article discusses the development of a butane isomerization unit which will help reduce butane surplus by fractionating it into other LPG products. Other features of this California project increase on-site storage.

  6. Low temperature n-butane oxidation skeletal mechanism, based on multilevel approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strelkova, M.I.; Sukhanov, L.P.; Kirillov, I.A.; Safonov, A.A.; Umanskiy, S.Ya.; Potapkin, B.V.; Pasman, H.J.; Tentner, A.M.

    2010-04-15

    In order to reconcile an increasingly large deviation (order of magnitude) of the ignition delay time at decreasing initial temperature, computed using the prior art kinetic schemes, with the available experimental values, a new skeletal mechanism (54 species, 94 reactions) for low-temperature (500-800 K) ignition of n- butane in air based on ab initio calculations is developed. The skeletal mechanism obtained accurately reproduces n-butane combustion kinetics for the practically important ranges of pressure, temperature and fuel-air equivalence ratio, especially in the low-temperature range. The elaborated first principal skeletal chemical kinetic mechanism of n-butane oxidation was validated against available experimental results for normal and elevated initial pressure (1-15 atm) using the Chemical Work Bench code. A good agreement with experiments was shown. (author)

  7. Dynamics of Exchange at Gas-Zeolite Interfaces 1: Pure Component n-Butane and Isobutane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CHANDROSS,MICHAEL E.; WEBB III,EDMUND B.; GREST,GARY S.; MARTIN,MARCUS G.; THOMPSON,AIDAN P.; ROTH,M.W.

    2000-07-13

    The authors present the results of molecular dynamics simulations of n-butane and isobutane in silicalite. They begin with a comparison of the bulk adsorption and diffusion properties for two different parameterizations of the interaction potential between the hydrocarbon species, both of which have been shown to reproduce experimental gas-liquid coexistence curves. They examine diffusion as a function of the loading of the zeolite, as well as the temperature dependence of the diffusion constant at loading and for infinite dilution. They continue with simulations in which interfaces are formed between single component gases and the zeolite. After reaching equilibrium, they examine the dynamics of exchange between the bulk gas and the zeolite. Finally, they calculate the permeability of the zeolite for n-butane and isobutane as a function of pressure. Their simulations are performed for a number of different gas temperatures and pressures, covering a wide range of state points.

  8. Distillation efficiencies of an industrial-scale i-butane/n-butane fractionator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klemola, K.T.; Ilme, J.K.

    1996-12-01

    Rarely published industrial-scale distillation efficiency data are presented. The Murphree tray efficiencies are determined from the i-butane/n-butane fractionator performance data. Point efficiencies, numbers of overall vapor phase transfer units, numbers of vapor and liquid phase transfer units, and liquid phase resistances of mass transfer are backcalculated from the Murphree tray efficiencies. Various efficiency prediction and scale-up methods have been tested against experimental results. A new model for the prediction of the numbers of vapor and liquid phase transfer units has been developed. The model can be applied to hydrocarbon systems at high pressure. The influence of the mass-transfer coefficients, the interfacial area, and the vapor and liquid residence times on mass transfer has been analyzed separately, and as a result the NTU correlations for vapor and liquid phases are obtained. The constants of the model can be obtained by fitting the model to experimental efficiency data from a similar system.

  9. Coupling of oxidative dehydrogenation and aromatization reactions of butane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Wen-Qing; Suib, S.L. )

    1994-01-01

    Coupling of oxidative dehydrogenation and aromatization of butane by using a dual function catalyst has led to a significant enhancement of the yields (from 25 to 40%) and selectivities to aromatics (from 39 to 64%). Butane is converted to aromatics by using either zinc-promoted [Ga]-ZSM-5 or zinc and gallium copromoted [Fe]-ZSM-5 zeolite as a catalyst. However, the formation of aromatics is severely limited by hydrocracking of butane to methane, ethane, and propane due to the hydrogen formed during aromatization reactions. On the other hand, the oxidative dehydrogenation of butane to butene over molybdate catalysts is found to be accompanied by a concurrent undesirable reaction, i.e., total oxidation. When two of these reactions (oxidative dehydrogenation and aromatization of butane) are coupled by using a dual function catalyst they have shown to complement each other. It is believed that the rate-limiting step for aromatization (butane to butene) is increased by adding an oxidative dehydrogenation catalyst (Ga-Zn-Mg-Mo-O). The formation of methane, ethane, and propane was suppressed due to the removal of hydrogen initially formed as water. Studies of ammonia TPD show that the acidities of [Fe]-ZSM-5 are greatly affected by the existence of metal oxides such as Ga[sub 2]O[sub 3], MgO, ZnO, and MoO[sub 3]. 40 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Biofiltration control of VOC emissions: Butane and benzene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, E.R.

    1995-12-31

    Laboratory studies were conducted on the biological elimination of n-butane and benzene from air streams using activated sludge-treated compost biofilters. Four types of experimental biofilter systems were developed: a bench scale packed tower system used primarily for kinetic studies; a small scale column system used to study the effects of different filter media on n-butane removal; a three stage system used to study benzene elimination; and a static batch biofilter system used to study the effects of temperature, compost water content, compost pH, and initial benzene concentrations on benzene elimination. Removal efficiencies greater than 90% were obtained for n-butane. Removal followed first order kinetics at inlet concentrations less than 25 ppM n-butane and zero order kinetics above 100 ppM n-butane. Removal of benzene followed fractional order kinetics for inlet concentrations from 15 to 200 ppM benzene. Thus, the removal of benzene is both mass transfer and bioreaction limited for the concentration range studied. The removal efficiency of benzene was found to be highly dependent on compost water content, compost pH, and temperature. Compost showed a low capacity for benzene removal, which suggested that degradation of these hydrocarbons required different species of microorganisms.

  11. Kinetics and deactivation of sulfated zirconia catalysts for butane isomerization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fogash, K.B.; Larson, R.B.; Gonzalez, M.R.

    1996-09-15

    Reaction kinetics studies were conducted of n-butane and isobutane isomerization over sulfated zirconia at 423 K. The kinetic data can be described well by a rate expression based on a reversible, bimolecular surface reaction between two adsorbed n-C{sub 4} species, probably through a C{sub 8} intermediate, to produce one i-C{sub 4} species, as well as surface reaction between two adsorbed i-C{sub 4} species to produce one n-C{sub 4} species. This reaction sequence also describes well the rates of C{sub 4}-disproportionation reactions to produce C{sub 3} and C{sub 5} species. The initial rate of catalyst deactivation is faster during n-butane isomerization than during isobutane isomerization, and the longer-term rate of deactivation during n-butane isomerization increases with the pressures of n-butane. The more rapid catalyst deactivation during n-butane isomerization may be related to the formation of n-C{sub 4}-diene species. 25 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Transient FTIR studies of the reaction pathway for n-butane selective oxidation over vanadyl pyrophosphate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xue, Z.Y.; Schrader, G.L.

    1999-05-15

    New information has been provided about the reaction pathway for n-butane partial oxidation to maleic anhydride over vanadyl pyrophosphate (VPO) catalysts using FTIR spectroscopy under transient conditions. Adsorption studies of n-butane, 1,3-butadiene, and related oxygenates were performed to gain information about reaction intermediates. n-Butane was found to adsorb on the VPO catalyst to form olefinic species at low temperatures. Unsaturated, noncyclic carbonyl species were determined to be precursors to maleic anhydride.

  13. Carbonaceous adsorbent regeneration and halocarbon displacement by hydrocarbon gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Senum, Gunnar I.; Dietz, Russell N.

    1994-01-01

    This invention describes a process for regeneration of halocarbon bearing carbonaceous adsorbents through which a carbonaceous adsorbent is contacted with hydrocarbon gases, preferably propane, butane and pentane at near room temperatures and at atmospheric pressure. As the hydrocarbon gases come in contact with the adsorbent, the hydrocarbons displace the halocarbons by physical adsorption. As a result of using this process, the halocarbon concentration and the hydrocarbon eluant is increased thereby allowing for an easier recovery of pure halocarbons. By using the process of this invention, carbonaceous adsorbents can be regenerated by an inexpensive process which also allows for subsequent re-use of the recovered halocarbons.

  14. Carbonaceous adsorbent regeneration and halocarbon displacement by hydrocarbon gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Senum, G.I.; Dietz, R.N.

    1994-04-05

    This invention describes a process for regeneration of halocarbon bearing carbonaceous adsorbents through which a carbonaceous adsorbent is contacted with hydrocarbon gases, preferably propane, butane and pentane at near room temperatures and at atmospheric pressure. As the hydrocarbon gases come in contact with the adsorbent, the hydrocarbons displace the halocarbons by physical adsorption. As a result of using this process, the halocarbon concentration and the hydrocarbon eluant is increased thereby allowing for an easier recovery of pure halocarbons. By using the process of this invention, carbonaceous adsorbents can be regenerated by an inexpensive process which also allows for subsequent re-use of the recovered halocarbons. 8 figures.

  15. Availability of Canadian imports to meet U.S. demand for ethane, propane and butane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hawkins, D.J.

    1996-12-31

    Historically, Canada has had a surplus of ethane, propane and butane. Almost all of the available propane and butane in Canadian natural gas streams is recovered. While there is significant ethane recovery in Canada, ethane that cannot be economically sold is left in the gas streams. All of the surplus Canadian ethane and most of the Canadian surplus propane and butane is exported to the US. Some volumes of Canadian propane and butane have been moved offshore by marine exports to the Asia-Pacific region or South America, or directly to Mexico by rail. Essentially all of the Canadian ethane, 86% of the propane and 74% of the butane are recovered by gas processing. Canadian natural gas production has increased significantly over the last 10 years. Canadian gas resources in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin should permit further expansion of gas exports, and several gas pipeline projects are pending to expand the markets for Canadian gas in the US. The prospective increase in Canadian gas production will yield higher volumes of ethane, propane and butane. While there is a potential to expand domestic markets for ethane, propane and butane, a significant part of the incremental production will move to export markets. This paper provides a forecast of the expected level of ethane, propane and butane exports from Canada and discusses the supply, demand and logistical developments which may affect export availability from Canada.

  16. Experimental and DFT studies of initiation processes for butane isomerization over sulfated-zirconia catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Z.; Watwe, R.M.; Natal-Santiago, M.A.; Hill, J.M.; Dumesic, J.A.; Fogash, K.B.; Kim, B.; Masqueda-Jimenez, B.I.

    1998-09-10

    Reaction kinetics studies were conducted of isobutane and n-butane isomerization at 423 K over sulfated-zirconia, with the butane feeds purified of olefins. Dihydrogen evolution was observed during butane isomerization over fresh catalysts, as well as over catalysts selectively poisoned by preadsorbed ammonia. Butane isomerization over sulfated-zirconia can be viewed as a surface chain reaction comprised of initiation, propagation, and termination steps. The primary initiation step in the absence of feed olefins is considered to be the dehydrogenation of butane over sulfated-zirconia, generating butenes which adsorb onto acid sites to form protonated olefinic species associated with the conjugate base form of the acid sites. Quantum-chemical calculations, employing density-functional theory, suggest that the dissociative adsorption of dihydrogen, isobutylene hydrogenation, and dissociative adsorption of isobutane are feasible over the sulfated-zirconia cluster, and these reactions take place over Zr-O sites.

  17. Ionization of ethane, butane, and octane in strong laser fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palaniyappan, Sasi; Mitchell, Rob; Ekanayake, N.; Watts, A. M.; White, S. L.; Sauer, Rob; Howard, L. E.; Videtto, M.; Mancuso, C.; Wells, S. J.; Stanev, T.; Wen, B. L.; Decamp, M. F.; Walker, B. C.

    2010-10-15

    Strong-field photoionization of ethane, butane, and octane are reported at intensities from 10{sup 14} to 10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2}. The molecular fragment ions, C{sup +} and C{sup 2+}, are created in an intensity window from 10{sup 14} to 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2} and have intensity-dependent yields similar to the molecular fragments C{sub m}H{sub n}{sup +} and C{sub m}H{sub n}{sup 2+}. In the case of C{sup +}, the yield is independent of the molecular parent chain length. The ionization of more tightly bound valence electrons in carbon (C{sup 3+} and C{sup 4+}) has at least two contributing mechanisms, one influenced by the parent molecule size and one resulting from the tunneling ionization of the carbon ion.

  18. Promotion of n-Butane isomerization activity by hydration of sulfated zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez, M.R.; Kobe, J.M.; Fogash, K.B.; Dumesic, J.A.

    1996-05-01

    The effects of sulfated zirconia catalyst hydration on the activity for n-butane isomerization is reported. The catalytic activity of of a partially hydrated catalyst is enhanced. 66 refs., 11 figs.

  19. Improving the stability of H-mordenite for n-butane isomerization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asuquo, R.A.; Eder-Mirth, G.; Lercher, J.A.

    1997-06-01

    The conversion of n-butane over mordenite-based catalysts in the presence of hydrogen and water was investigated for reaction temperatures between 523 and 623 K. Special attention was given to the influence of Pt upon catalytic activity, selectivity, and stability. With parent mordenite the catalytic activity for n-butane conversion decreased markedly after a short time on stream. Deactivation can be minimized by hydrogen (in the presence of Pt) and water addition. Both measures are thought to reduce the concentration of intermediate olefins in the zeolite pores. The best results with respect to selective conversion of n-butane to isobutane were obtained for 0.25 wt% Pt on mordenite in the presence of hydrogen. Higher concentrations of Pt in the catalyst are shown to be detrimental for n-butane isomerization, because of increasing selectivity to hydrogenolysis. A detailed mechanistic scheme for n-butane conversion over Pt-containing mordenites is presented. n-Butane conversion is concluded to occur via a bimolecular mechanism involving a complex network of hydrogen transfer, oligomerization/cracking, isomerization, hydrogenation/dehydrogenation, and hydrogenolysis. 23 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Greenhouse Gases into Gold

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Turning Greenhouse Gases into Gold Greenhouse Gases into Gold NERSC simulations reveal reaction mechanism behind CO conversion into carbon-neutral fuels and chemicals November ...

  1. Alternative descriptions of catalyst deactivation in aromatization of propane and butane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koshelev, Yu.N.; Vorob`ev, B.L.; Khvorova, E.P.

    1995-08-20

    Deactivation of a zeolite-containing catalyst has been studied in aromatization of propane and butane. Various descriptions of the dependence of the alkane conversion on the coke concentration on the catalyst have been considered, and using a statistical method of estimating the model validity, the most preferable form of the deactivation function has been proposed.

  2. Influence of temperature and process duration on composition of products of butane aromatization on zeolitic catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vorob`ev, B.L.; Trishin, P.Yu.; Koshelev, Yu.N.

    1995-06-10

    A study has been made of the influence of catalyst deactivation in the course of its service. The composition of products of butane aromatization on zeolitic catalyst and on selectivity of formation of target products and by-products is reported.

  3. Vapor-liquid equilibria and densities for the system butane + hexacontane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nieuwoudt, I.

    1996-09-01

    Liquid and vapor phase compositions and densities have been measured with a variable volume cell for the binary system butane + hexacontane (n-C{sub 60}H{sub 122}). Data sets at 433.15 K, 438.15 K, and 453.15 K are presented and include measurements in the mixture critical region.

  4. Selective oxidation of n-butane and butenes over vanadium-containing catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nieto, J.M.L.; Concepcion, P.; Dejoz, A.; Knoezinger, H.; Melo, F.; Vazquez, M.I.

    2000-01-01

    The oxidative dehydrogenation (OXDH) of n-butane, 1-butene, and trans-2-butene on different vanadia catalysts has been compared. MgO, alumina, and Mg-Al mixed oxides with Mg/(Al + Mg) ratios of 0.25 and 0.75 were used as supports. The catalytic data indicate that the higher the acid character of catalysts the lower is both the selectivity to C{sub 4}-olefins from n-butane and the selectivity to butadiene from both 1-butene or trans-2-butene. Thus, OXDH reactions are mainly observed from n-butane and butenes on basic catalysts. The different catalytic performance of both types of catalysts is a consequence of the isomerization of olefins on acid sites, which appears to be a competitive reaction with the selective way, i.e., the oxydehydrogenation process by a redox mechanism. Infrared spectroscopy data of 1-butene adsorbed on supported vanadium oxide catalysts suggest the presence of different adsorbed species. O-containing species (carbonyl and alkoxide species) are observed on catalysts with acid sites while adsorbed butadiene species are observed on catalysts with basic sites. According to these results a reaction network for the oxydehydrogenation of n-butane is proposed with parallel and consecutive reactions.

  5. Cracking of n-butane catalyzed by iron- and maganese-promoted sulfated zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheung, T.K.; d`Itri, J.L.; Gates, B.C.

    1995-05-01

    Fe- and Mn-promoted sulfated zirconia was used to catalyze the conversion of n-butane at atmospheric pressure and n-butane partial pressures in the range of 0.0025-0.01 atm. At temperatures <225{degrees}C, the significant reactions were isomerization and disproportionation; in the range of 225-300{degrees}C, these reactions were accompanied by cracking, and at temperatures >350{degrees}C, cracking and isomerization occurred. Catalyst deactivation, resulting at least in part from coke formation, was rapid. The primary cracking products were methane, ethane, ethylene, and propylene. The observation of these products along with an ethane/ethylene molar ratio of nearly 1 at 450{degrees}C is consistent with cracking occurring, at least in part, by the Haag-Dessau mechanism, whereby the strongly acidic catalyst protonates n-butane to give carbonium ions. The rate of methane formation from n-butane cracking catalyzed by Fe- and Mn-promoted sulfated zirconia at 450{degrees}C was about 3 x 10{sup {minus}9}mol/(g of catalyst {center_dot}s). This comparison suggests that the catalytic activity of the promoted sulfated zirconia at 450{degrees}C is about the same as that of the zeolite, although its activity for n-butane isomerization and disproportionation at temperatures <100{degrees}C is orders of magnitude greater than those of zeolites. Thus the indication of superacidity of the promoted sulfated zirconia does not extend to high temperatures. The results raise questions about the nature of the presumed superacidity: perhaps the low-temperature reactions may involve catalyst functions other than the acidic function responsible for high-temperature cracking reactions or perhaps superacidic sites may be very rapidly poisoned at cracking temperatures. 14 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Diamond/diamond-like thin film growth in a butane plasma on unetched, unheated, N-type Si(100) substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, E.S.; Richardson, J.S. Jr.; Anderson, D.; Starkey, K.

    1995-06-01

    Deposition of diamond/diamond-like thin films on unetched, unheated, n-type Si(100) substrates in a butane plasma is reported. An interconnection between values of index of refraction, hydrogen flow rate, butane flow rate and Rf power was determined. The H{sub 2} and C{sub 4}H{sub 10} molecules are disassociated by Rf energy to create a plasma. Carbon from the butane forms a thin diamond/diamond-like film on a suitable substrate, which in the current investigation, is n-type Si(100).

  7. EIA-817

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel 205 Other Renewable Fuels 207 Liquefied Petroleum and Refinery Gases: EthaneEthylene 108 PropanePropylene 246 Normal ButaneButylene 244 IsobutaneIsobutylene 245 ...

  8. Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Product: Total Crude Oil Liquefied Petroleum Gases PropanePropylene Normal ButaneButylene Other Liquids Oxygenates Fuel Ethanol MTBE Other Oxygenates Biomass-based Diesel Other ...

  9. Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Total Crude Oil Liquefied Petroleum Gases PropanePropylene Normal ButaneButylene Other Liquids Oxygenates Fuel Ethanol MTBE Other Oxygenates Biomass-based Diesel Fuel ...

  10. Low-temperature superacid catalysis: Reactions of n-butane catalyzed by iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheung, T.K.; D`Itri, J.L.; Gates, B.C.

    1995-02-01

    Environmental concerns are leading to the replacement of aromatic hydrocarbons in gasoline with high-octane-number branched paraffins and oxygenated compounds such as methyl t-butyl ether, which is produced from methanol and isobutylene. The latter can be formed from n-butane by isomerization followed by dehydrogenation. To meet the need for improved catalysts for isomerization of n-butane and other paraffins, researchers identified solid acids that are noncorrosive and active at low temperatures. Sulfated zirconia catalyzes the isomerization of n-butane even at 25{degrees}C, and the addition of Fe and Mn promoters increases its activity by three orders of magnitude. Little is known about this new catalyst. Here the authors provide evidence of its performance for n-butane conversion, demonstrating that isomerization is accompanied by disproportionation and other, less well understood, acid-catalyzed reactions and undergoes rapid deactivation associated with deposition of carbonaceous material. 10 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulprathipanja, S.; Kulkarni, S.S.

    1986-08-26

    Polar gases such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and ammonia may be separated from nonpolar gases such as methane, nitrogen, hydrogen or carbon dioxide by passing a mixture of polar and nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The use of such membranes as exemplified by polyethylene glycol and silicon rubber composited on polysulfone will permit greater selectivity accompanied by a high flux rate in the separation process.

  12. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulprathipanja, S.

    1986-08-19

    The separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases may be effected by passing a mixture of nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The porous support is pretreated prior to casting of the mixture thereon by contact with a polyhydric alcohol whereby the pores of the support are altered, thus adding to the increased permeability of the polar gas.

  13. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulprathipanja, Santi

    1986-01-01

    The separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases may be effected by passing a mixture of nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The porous support is pretreated prior to casting of the mixture thereon by contact with a polyhydric alcohol whereby the pores of the support are altered, thus adding to the increased permeability of the polar gas.

  14. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulprathipanja, Santi; Kulkarni, Sudhir S.

    1986-01-01

    Polar gases such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and ammonia may be separated from nonpolar gases such as methane, nitrogen, hydrogen or carbon dioxide by passing a mixture of polar and nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The use of such membranes as exemplified by polyethylene glycol and silicon rubber composited on polysulfone will permit greater selectivity accompanied by a high flux rate in the separation process.

  15. Formative time of breakdown modeled for the ignition of air and n-butane mixtures using effective ionization coefficients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kudryavtsev, A. A.; Popugaev, S. D.; Demidov, V. I.; Adams, S. F.; Jiao, C. Q.

    2008-12-15

    It is shown that simulations of ignition by electric arc discharge in n-butane and air mixtures have interesting features, which deviate from results obtained by simple extension of calculations based on methanelike fuels. In particular, it is demonstrated that lowering the temperature of the n-butane-air mixture before ignition under certain conditions will actually decrease the ignition stage time as well as the required electric field.

  16. Hydrogen effect on n-butane isomerization over sulfated zirconia-based catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sayari, A.; Yang, Yong; Song, Xuemin

    1997-04-15

    Iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia (SFMZ) has been tested as an n-butane isomerization catalyst in the temperature range of 35 to 180{degrees}C. The catalytic activity exhibits an induction period whose length is dependent on the reaction conditions. The presence of H{sub 2} in the feed stream strongly suppresses n-butane conversion over unprompted sulfated zirconia (SZ) and over Pt-containing SFMZ (PtSFMZ). However, hydrogen had no effect on n-butane isomerization over SFMZ. These findings were interpreted on the basis of a bimolecular mechanism where unsaturated intermediates (carbenium ions and/or butene) are formed during the break-in period. The role of promoters (Fe and Mn) is not only facilitating the formation of hydrogen-deficient intermediates and their accumulation on the catalyst surface, but also enhancing their stability. The negative effect of hydrogen over PtSFMZ is attributed to the occurrence of atomic hydrogen via the dissociative adsorption of H{sub 2} on Pt. 40 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Biofiltration control of VOC and air toxic emissions: n-Butane and benzene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, E.R.

    1996-12-31

    n-Butane and benzene vapors are routinely observed in urban atmospheres. Their presence in urban airsheds is of concern because of their ozone production potential as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and/or potential toxicity. Also, these saturated hydrocarbons are representative of airborne aliphatic and aromatic compounds. Separate laboratory studies have been conducted on the biological elimination of n-butane (n-C{sub 4}H{sub 10}) and benzene (C{sub 6}H{sub 6}) from airstreams using treated compost biofilters. The removal efficiencies were found to exceed 90% for a conditioned biofilter medium and pollutant low concentrations (< 25 ppm) and zeroth order kinetics at higher concentrations (> 100 ppm), whereas benzene vapor elimination followed zeroth order kinetics at concentrations up to 200 ppm. The maximum n-butane and benzene elimination capacities observed for the compost biofilters and conditions employed were 25 and 70 g pollutant m{sup -3} h{sup -1}, respectively. 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon formation in a laminar premixed n-butane flame

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marinov, N.M.; Pitz, W.J.; Westbrook, C.K.; Vincitore, A.M.; Castaldi, M.J.; Senkan, S.M.; Melius, C.F.

    1998-07-01

    Experimental and detailed chemical kinetic modeling work has been performed to investigate aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) formation pathways in a premixed, rich, sooting, n-butane-oxygen-argon burner stabilized flame. An atmospheric pressure, laminar flat flame operated at an equivalence ratio of 2.6 was used to acquire experimental data for model validation. Gas composition analysis was conducted by an on-line gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer technique. Measurements were made in the main reaction and post-reaction zones for a number of low molecular weight species, aliphatics, aromatics, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) ranging from two to five-fused aromatic rings. Reaction flux and sensitivity analysis were used to help identify the important reaction sequences leading to aromatic and PAH growth and destruction in the n-butane flame. Reaction flux analysis showed the propargyl recombination reaction was the dominant pathway to benzene formation. The consumption of propargyl by H atoms was shown to limit propargyl, benzene, and naphthalene formation in flames as exhibited by the large negative sensitivity coefficients. Naphthalene and phenanthrene production was shown to be plausibly formed through reactions involving resonantly stabilized cyclopentadienyl and indenyl radicals. Many of the low molecular weight aliphatics, combustion by-products, aromatics, branched aromatics, and PAHs were fairly well simulated by the model. Additional work is required to understand the formation mechanisms of phenyl acetylene, pyrene, and fluoranthene in the n-butane flame. 73 refs.

  19. Greenhouse Gases into Gold

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Turning Greenhouse Gases into Gold Greenhouse Gases into Gold NERSC simulations reveal reaction mechanism behind COâ‚‚ conversion into carbon-neutral fuels and chemicals November 6, 2013 Contact: Kathy Kincade, +1 510 495 2124, kkincade@lbl.gov Environmentalists have long lamented the destructive effects of greenhouse gases, with carbon dioxide (CO2) often accused of being the primary instigator of global climate change. As a result, numerous efforts are under way to find ways to prevent,

  20. Oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane and n-butane on VO{sub x}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blasco, T.; Galli, A.; Lopez Neito, J.M.; Trifiro, F.

    1997-07-01

    The catalytic properties of vanadium oxides/aluminium oxides were investigated in the dehydrogenation of ethane and n-butane. The importance of Lewis acid sites is described.

  1. Effect of Pt and H{sub 2} on n-butane isomerization over Fe and Mn promoted sulfated zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Xuemin; Reddy, K.R.; Sayari, A.

    1996-06-01

    The activity of a 0.4 wt% Pt-containing Fe and Mn promoted sulfated zirconia (PtSFMZ) catalyst in n-butane isomerization at 35{degrees}C was compared to that of a Pt-free catalyst (SFMZ). The maximum rate of n-butane conversion observed in helium over PtSFMZ was found to be 2.5 times higher than that over the SFMZ catalyst under the same conditions. It is believed that n-butane isomerization proceeds via a bimolecular mechanism in which the formation of hydrogen-deficient intermediates (carbenium ions and butenes), is necessary and the presence of transition metals such as Pt, Fe, and Mn on sulfated zirconia facilitates the formation/accumulation of these intermediates and increases their stability on the catalyst surface. The presence of H{sub 2} had a strong negative effect on n-butane conversion over PtSFMZ, but had no effect over SFMZ. The negative effect of H{sub 2} on PtSFMZ catalyst in n-butane isomerization reaction was attributed to the decreased concentration of butenes in the presence of hydrogen atoms which are formed by the dissociation of H{sub 2} on Pt. The ability of calcined Pt-containing catalysts to activate hydrogen at 35{degrees}C was demonstrated. Reduced SFMZ with or without Pt was not active at 35{degrees}C regardless of the nature of the carrier gas. 42 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Structure of an n-butane monolayer adsorbed on magnesium oxide (100)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnold, T.; Chanaa, S.; Cook, R. E.; Clarke, S. M.; Larese, J. Z.

    2006-08-15

    Neutron diffraction has been used to characterize the structure of the solid phase of the completed monolayer of n butane on the MgO(100) surface at low temperature. The monolayer is found to adopt a commensurate (7{radical}(2)x{radical}(2)R45 deg. ) structure with lattice constants a=29.47 A ring and b=4.21 A ring , P{sub 2gg} symmetry and four molecules in the unit cell. Excellent agreement with the experimental diffraction pattern is realized, using a Lorenztian profile to describe the line shape.

  3. Low-temperature superacid catalysis: Reactions of n - butane and propane catalyzed by iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsz-Keung, Cheung; d`Itri, J.L.; Lange, F.C.; Gates, B.C.

    1995-12-31

    The primary goal of this project is to evaluate the potential value of solid superacid catalysts of the sulfated zirconia type for light hydrocarbon conversion. The key experiments catalytic testing of the performance of such catalysts in a flow reactor fed with streams containing, for example, n-butane or propane. Fe- and Mn-promoted sulfated zirconia was used to catalyze the conversion of n-butane at atmospheric pressure, 225-450{degrees}C, and n-butane partial pressures in the range of 0.0025-0.01 atm. At temperatures <225{degrees}C, these reactions were accompanied by cracking; at temperatures >350{degrees}C, cracking and isomerization occurred. Catalyst deactivation, resulting at least in part from coke formation, was rapid. The primary cracking products were methane, ethane, ethylene, and propylene. The observation of these products along with an ethane/ethylene molar ratio of nearly 1 at 450{degrees}C is consistent with cracking occurring, at least in part, by the Haag-Dessau mechanism, whereby the strongly acidic catalyst protonates n-butane to give carbonium ions. The rate of methane formation from n-butane cracking catalyzed by Fe- and Mn-promoted sulfated zirconia at 450{degrees}C was about 3 x 10{sup -8} mol/(g of catalyst {center_dot}s). The observation of butanes, pentanes, and methane as products is consistent with Olah superacid chemistry, whereby propane is first protonated by a very strong acid to form a carbonium ion. The carbonium ion then decomposes into methane and an ethyl cation which undergoes oligocondensation reactions with propane to form higher molecular weight alkanes. The results are consistent with the identification of iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia as a superacid.

  4. n-Butane: Ignition delay measurements at high pressure and detailed chemical kinetic simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Healy, D.; Curran, H.J.; Donato, N.S.; Aul, C.J.; Petersen, E.L.; Zinner, C.M.; Bourque, G.

    2010-08-15

    Ignition delay time measurements were recorded at equivalence ratios of 0.3, 0.5, 1, and 2 for n-butane at pressures of approximately 1, 10, 20, 30 and 45 atm at temperatures from 690 to 1430 K in both a rapid compression machine and in a shock tube. A detailed chemical kinetic model consisting of 1328 reactions involving 230 species was constructed and used to validate the delay times. Moreover, this mechanism has been used to simulate previously published ignition delay times at atmospheric and higher pressure. Arrhenius-type ignition delay correlations were developed for temperatures greater than 1025 K which relate ignition delay time to temperature and concentration of the mixture. Furthermore, a detailed sensitivity analysis and a reaction pathway analysis were performed to give further insight to the chemistry at various conditions. When compared to existing data from the literature, the model performs quite well, and in several instances the conditions of earlier experiments were duplicated in the laboratory with overall good agreement. To the authors' knowledge, the present paper presents the most comprehensive set of ignition delay time experiments and kinetic model validation for n-butane oxidation in air. (author)

  5. Carbon Bearing Trace Gases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carbon bearing trace gases Carbon Bearing Trace Gases A critical scientific and policy oriented question is what are the present day sources and sinks of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the natural environment and how will these sinks evolve under rising CO2 concentrations and expected climate change and ecosystem response. Sources and sinks of carbon dioxide impart their signature on the distribution, concentration, and isotopic composition of CO2. Spatial and temporal trends (variability) provide

  6. Studies of n-butane conversion over silica-supported platinum, platinum-silver and platinum-copper catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Junhua

    1992-06-09

    The present work was undertaken to elucidate effect of adding silver and copper to silica-supported platinum catalyst on the activity and selectivity in the n-butane reactions. At the conditions of this study n-butane underwent both hydrogenolysis and structural isomerization. The catalytic activity and selectivities between hydrogenolysis and isomerization and within hydrogenolysis were measured at temperature varying from 330 C to 370 C. For platinum-silver catalysts, at lower temperatures studied the catalytic activity per surface platinum atom (turnover frequency) remained constant at lower silver content (between 0 at. % and 30 at. %) and decreased with further increased silver loading, suggesting that low- index planes could be dominant in the hydrogenolysis of n-butane. Moreover, increasing silver content resulted in an enhancement of the selectivity of isomerization products relative to hydrogenolysis products. At the higher temperature studied, no suppression in catalytic activity was observed. It is postulated that surface structure could change due to the mobility of surface silver atoms, leading to surface silver atoms forming islands or going to the bulk, and leaving large portions of basal planes exposed with active platinum atoms. It is also suggested that the presence of inert silver atoms results in weakening of the H-surface bond. This results in increased mobility of hydrogen atoms on the surface and hence, higher reactivity with other adsorbed species. For platinum copper catalysts, the mixed ensembles could play an active role in the hydrogenolysis of n-butane.

  7. Support shape effect in metal oxide catalysis: ceria nanoshapes supported vanadia catalysts for oxidative dehydrogenation of iso-butane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Zili; Schwartz, Viviane; Li, Meijun; Rondinone, Adam Justin; Overbury, Steven {Steve} H

    2012-01-01

    The activation energy of VOx/CeO2 catalysts in oxidative dehydrogenation of iso-butane was found dependent on the shape of ceria support: rods < octahedra, closely related to the surface oxygen vacancy formation energy and defects amount of the two ceria supports with different crystallographic surface planes.

  8. Adsorption of iso-/n-butane on an Anatase Thin Film: A Molecular Beam Scattering and TDS Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goering, J.; Kadossov, E.; Burghaus, Uwe; Yu, Zhongqing; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Saraf, Laxmikant V.

    2007-07-01

    Binding energies and adsorption probabilities have been determined for n/iso-butane adsorption on an anatase thin film grown on SrTiO3(001) by means of thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) and molecular beam scattering. The sample has been characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Auger electrons spectroscopy (AES).

  9. Greenhouse Gases Converted to Fuel

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Greenhouse Gases Converted to Fuel Greenhouse Gases Converted to Fuel carbon-conversion-fig-1.jpg Key Challenges: An important strategy for reducing global CO2 emissions calls for...

  10. Thermodynamic properties of liquefied petroleum gases (LPG). Interim report 15 Aug 75-31 Jan 77 (final)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sallet, D.W.; Wu, K.F.

    1980-04-01

    The thermodynamic properties of several liquefied petroleum gases (with particular emphasis on propane) are discussed in detail. It is concluded that the widely used propane data by Stearns and George are too inconsistent and too inaccurate to be used for mass flow calculations of propane and propane mixtures through safety valves of rail tank cars. Accordingly, the thermodynamic properties of propane, propylene, n-butane, and a mixture of 65% (by mole) propane, 25% propylene, and 10% n-butane are recalculated using equations of states proposed by Benedict-Webb-Rubin (BWR) and by Starling. It is shown that Starling's equation results in thermodynamic properties which are more consistent and compare better with measured values than the BWR equation. Thermodynamic data for the four liquefied petroleum gases discussed above are calculated and presented in tabular form. In addition, predictions of pure propane mass flow rates (based upon isentropic), homogeneous equilibrium flow) are given. The influence of the thermodynamic data upon the predicted mass flow rates is demonstrated.

  11. Skeletal isomerization of n-butane on zeolites and sulfated zirconium oxide promoted by platinum: Effect of reaction pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuei-jung Chao; Hung-chung Wu; Li-jen Leu

    1995-12-01

    The isomerization of n-butane catalyzed by sulfated zirconium oxide and H-form zeolites with the promotion of platinum has been studied by measurements of the conversion and product distribution at temperatures of between 240 and 390{degrees}C at atmospheric pressure and at 20.4 atm. The skeletal isomerization proceeds mainly via the bimolecular disproportionation mechanism on Pt/H-zeolite at 1 atm and via the monomolecular carbocation mechanism on Pt/SO{sub 4}{sup 2}-ZrO{sub 2} at temperatures of 300{degrees}C at both 1 and 20.4 atm. At 20.4 atm pressure, the monomolecular cracking and isomerization of butane can also occur on Pt/H-zeolite. Hydrogen molecules may be dissociated and converted to hydride and proton ions on Pt/SO{sub 4}{sup -2}--ZrO{sub 2}, promoting the desorption of surface carbenium ions and the cracking of butane molecules, which have been enhanced under high reaction pressures. 16 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  12. n-Alkanes on MgO(100). I: Coverage-Dependent Desorption Kinetics of n-Butane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tait, Steven L.; Dohnalek, Zdenek; Campbell, C T.; Kay, Bruce D.

    2005-04-22

    High quality temperature programmed desorption (TPD) measurements of n-butane from MgO(100) have been made for a large number of initial butane coverages (0-3.70 ML) and a wide range of heating ramp rates (0.3-10 K/s). We present a TPD analysis technique which allows the coverage-dependent desorption energy to be accurately determined by mathematical inversion of a TPD spectrum, assuming only that the prefactor is coverage-independent. A variational method is used to determine the prefactor that minimizes the difference between a set of simulated TPD spectra and corresponding experimental data. The best fit for butane desorption from MgO is obtained with a prefactor of 1015.7?1.6 s-1. The desorption energy is 34.9?3.4 kJ/mol at 0.5 ML coverage, and varies with coverage. Simulations based on these results can accurately reproduce TPD experiments for submonolayer initial coverages over a wide range of heating ramp rates (0.3-10 K/s). Advantages and limitations of this method are discussed.

  13. The kinetic significance of V{sup 5+} in n-butane oxidation catalyzed by vanadium phosphates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coulston, G.W.; Harlow, R.; Herron, N.

    1997-01-10

    Maleic anhydride, a precursor to polyester resins, is made by oxidation of n-butane over vanadium phosphate catalysts. This system is of general interest because it is the only heterogeneously catalyzed, alkane-selective oxidation reaction in commercial use. Time-resolved in situ x-ray absorption spectroscopy shows that when either {alpha}{sub 1}-VOPO{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2} or (VO){sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}/SiO{sub 2} catalysts are exposed to n-butane, the rate of maleic anhydride formation is proportional to the rate of decay of V{sup 5+} species in the catalyst. Thus V{sup 5+} species are kinetically significant for the production of maleic anhydride and not just for the production of by-products. The results also suggest that V{sup 5+} species in the catalyst. Thus V{sup 5+} species are kinetically significant for the production of maleic anhydride and not just for the production of by-products. The results also suggest that V{sup 5+} species may play a role in the initial hydrogen abstraction from n-butane, the rate-determining step in the reaction sequence. V{sup 4+} sites appear to be responsible for by-product formation.

  14. Kinetic study of the oxidation of n-butane on vanadium oxide supported on Al/Mg mixed oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dejoz, A.; Vazquez, I.; Nieto, J.M.L.; Melo, F.

    1997-07-01

    The reaction kinetics of the oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) of n-butane over vanadia supported on a heat-treated Mg/Al hydrotalcite (37.3 wt % of V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) was investigated by both linear and nonlinear regression techniques. A reaction network including the formation of butenes (1-, 2-cis-, and 2-trans-butene), butadiene, and carbon oxides by parallel and consecutive reactions, at low and high n-butane conversions, has been proposed. Langmuir-Hinshelwood (LH) models can be used as suitable models which allows reproduction of the global kinetic behavior, although differences between oxydehydrogenation and deep oxidation reactions have been observed. Thus, the formation of oxydehydrogenation products can be described by a LH equation considering a dissociative adsorption of oxygen while the formation of carbon oxides is described by a LH equation with a nondissociative adsorption of oxygen. Two different mechanisms operate on the catalyst: (i) a redox mechanism responsible of the formation of olefins and diolefins and associated to vanadium species, which is initiated by a hydrogen abstraction; (ii) a radical mechanism responsible of the formation of carbon oxides from n-butane and butenes and associated to vanadium-free sites of the support. On the other hand, the selectivity to oxydehydrogenation products increases with the reaction temperature. This catalytic performance can be explained taking into account the low reducibility of V{sup 5+}-sites and the higher apparent activation energies of the oxydehydrogenation reactions with respect to deep oxidation reactions.

  15. ARM - What are Greenhouse Gases?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans What are Greenhouse Gases? Carbon Dioxide Methane Gas Oxides of Nitrogen Halocarbons Ozone Water Vapor Greenhouse gases are atmospheric gases that trap infrared radiation emitted from the earth, lower atmosphere, or clouds or aerosols and, as

  16. Investigating and Using Biomass Gases

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Investigating and Using Biomass Gases Grades: 9-12 Topic: Biomass Authors: Eric Benson and Melissa Highfill Owner: National Renewable Energy Laboratory This educational material is...

  17. A study of the kinetics and mechanism of the adsorption and anaerobic partial oxidation of n-butane over a vanadyl pyrophosphate catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakakini, B.H.; Taufiq-Yap, Y.H.; Waugh, K.C.

    2000-01-25

    The interaction of n-butane with a ((VO){sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}) catalyst has been investigated by temperature-programmed desorption and anaerobic temperature-programmed reaction. n-Butane has been shown to adsorb on the (VO){sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} to as a butyl-hydroxyl pair. When adsorption is carried out at 223 K, upon temperature programming some of the butyl-hydroxyl species recombine resulting in butane desorption at 260 K. However, when adsorption is carried out at 423 K, the hydroxyl species of the butyl-hydroxyl pair migrate away from the butyl species during the adsorption, forming water which is detected in the gas phase. Butane therefore is not observed to desorb at 260 K after the authors lowered the temperature to 223 K under the butane/helium from the adsorption temperature of 423 K prior to temperature programming from that temperature to 1100 K under a helium stream. Anaerobic temperature-programmed oxidation of n-butane produces butene and butadiene at a peak maximum temperature of 1000 K; this is exactly the temperature at which, upon temperature programming, oxygen evolves from the lattice and desorbs as O{sub 2}. This, and the fact that the amount of oxygen desorbing from the (VO){sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} at {approximately}1000 K is the same as that required for the oxidation of the n-butane to butene and butadiene, strongly suggests (1) that lattice oxygen as it emerges at the surface is the selective oxidant and (2) that its appearance at the surface is the rate-determining step in the selective oxidation of n-butane. The surface of the (VO){sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} catalyst on which this selective oxidation takes place has had approximately two monolayers of oxygen removed from it by unselective oxidation of the n-butane to CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O between 550 and 950 K and has had approximately one monolayer of carbon deposited on it at {approximately}1000 K. It is apparent, therefore, that the original crystallography of the (VO){sub 2}P

  18. Ignition of ethane, propane, and butane in counterflow jets of cold fuel versus hot air under variable pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fotache, C.G.; Wang, H.; Law, C.K.

    1999-06-01

    This study investigates experimentally the nonpremixed ignition of ethane, propane, n-butane, and isobutane in a configuration of opposed fuel versus heated air jets. For each of these fuels the authors explore the effects of inert dilution, system pressure, and flow strain rate, for fuel concentrations ranging between 3--100% by volume, pressures between 0.2 and 8 atm, and strain rates of 100--600 s{sup {minus}1}. Qualitatively, these fuels share a number of characteristics. First, flame ignition typically occurs after an interval of mild oxidation, characterized by minimal heat release, fuel conversion, and weak light emission. The temperature extent of this regime decreases with increasing the fuel concentration, the ambient pressure, or the flow residence time. Second, the response to strain rate, pressure, and fuel concentration is similar for all investigated fuels, in that the ignition temperatures monotonically decrease with increasing fuel content, decreasing flow strain, and increasing ambient pressure. The C{sub 4} alkanes, however, exhibit three distinct p-T ignition regimes, similar to the homogeneous explosion limits. Finally, at 1 atm, 100% fuel, and a fixed flow strain rate the ignition temperature increases in the order of ethane < propane < n-butane < i-butane. Numerical simulation was conducted for ethane ignition using detailed reaction kinetics and transport descriptions. The modeling results suggest that ignition for all fuels studied at pressures below 5 atm is initiated by fuel oxidation following the high-temperature mechanism of radical chain branching and with little contribution by low-to-intermediate temperature chemistry.

  19. Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2011-01-01

    The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program was suspended May 2011. It was a mechanism by which corporations, government agencies, individuals, voluntary organizations, etc., could report to the Energy Information Administration, any actions taken that have or are expected to reduce/avoid emissions of greenhouse gases or sequester carbon.

  20. Method of producing pyrolysis gases from carbon-containing materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mudge, Lyle K.; Brown, Michael D.; Wilcox, Wayne A.; Baker, Eddie G.

    1989-01-01

    A gasification process of improved efficiency is disclosed. A dual bed reactor system is used in which carbon-containing feedstock materials are first treated in a gasification reactor to form pyrolysis gases. The pyrolysis gases are then directed into a catalytic reactor for the destruction of residual tars/oils in the gases. Temperatures are maintained within the catalytic reactor at a level sufficient to crack the tars/oils in the gases, while avoiding thermal breakdown of the catalysts. In order to minimize problems associated with the deposition of carbon-containing materials on the catalysts during cracking, a gaseous oxidizing agent preferably consisting of air, oxygen, steam, and/or mixtures thereof is introduced into the catalytic reactor at a high flow rate in a direction perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the reactor. This oxidizes any carbon deposits on the catalysts, which would normally cause catalyst deactivation.

  1. Selective aromatization of C[sub 3]- and C[sub 4]-paraffins over modified encilite catalysts: 2. Kinetics of n-butane aromatization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jana, A.K.; Rao, M.S. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-11-01

    The kinetics of the aromatization of n-butane over Zn-encilite catalyst was studied in a fixed bed reactor under steady-state conditions at atmospheric pressure and in the temperature range of 480--540 C. The experimental data were analyzed, and a dual-site mechanism was proposed. Six rate equations of the Langmuir-Hinshelwood type were tested. The unknown parameters in the rate equations were estimated by a nonlinear regression method. A kinetic equation for n-butane aromatization is proposed.

  2. Toward Understanding the Nature of Internal Rotation Barriers with a New Energy Partition Scheme: Ethane and n-Butane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Shubin; Govind, Niri

    2008-07-24

    Based on an alternative energy partition scheme where density-based quantification of the steric effect was proposed [S.B. Liu, J. Chem. Phys. 126, 244103 (2007)], the origin of the internal rotation barrier between the eclipsed and staggered conformers of ethane and n-butane is systematically investigated in this work. The new definition is repulsive, exclusive, and extensive, and is intrinsically related to Bader’s atoms in molecules approach. Two kinds of differences, adiabatic (with optimal structure) and vertical (with fixed geometry), are considered in this work. We find that in the adiabatic case the eclipsed conformer possesses a larger steric repulsion than the staggered conformer for both molecules, but in the vertical cases the staggered conformer retains a larger steric repulsion. For ethane, a strong correlation between the total energy difference and the fermionic quantum energy difference is discovered. This linear relationship, however, does not hold for n-butane, whose behaviors in energy component differences are found to be more complicated. The impact of basis set and density functional choices on energy components from the new energy partition scheme has been investigated, as has its comparison with another definition of the steric effect in the literature in terms of the natural bond orbital analysis through the Pauli Exclusion Principle. Profiles of conceptual DFT reactivity indices as a function of dihedral angle changes have also been examined. Put together, these results suggest that the new energy partition scheme provides insights from a different perspective of internal rotation barriers.

  3. Solvent vapor recovery by pressure swing adsorption. 1: Experimental transient and periodic dynamics of the butane-activated carbon system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Y.; Holland, C.E.; Ritter, J.A.

    1998-11-01

    An experimental investigation was carried out for the separation and recovery of butane vapor (10 to 40 vol%) from nitrogen using Westvaco BAX activated carbon in a twin-bed pressure swing adsorption (PSA) system utilizing a 4-step Skarstrom-type cycle. Twenty-four runs, covering a broad range of process and initial column conditions, were performed to investigate the transient and period process dynamics. In all cases the approach to the periodic state was very slow, taking up to 160 cycles depending on the initial condition of the beds; and peak bed temperatures of up to 105 C were observed depending on both the initial condition of the beds and the process conditions. Also, the periodic state of each run was unique when approaching a new periodic state from less contaminated beds. The uniqueness of the periodic states, together with the exceedingly high peak temperatures, inferred much about the practice of preconditioning beds to avoid high temperature excursions. The periodic enriched butane vapor concentration histories also gave considerable insight into new cycle designs for improved solvent vapor enrichment.

  4. ,"Virginia Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Virginia Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ... 2:52:09 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Virginia Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ...

  5. Investigating and Using Biomass Gases

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    Students will be introduced to biomass gasification and will generate their own biomass gases. Students generate these everyday on their own and find it quite amusing, but this time they’ll do it by heating wood pellets or wood splints in a test tube. They will collect the resulting gases and use the gas to roast a marshmallow. Students will also evaluate which biomass fuel is the best according to their own criteria or by examining the volume of gas produced by each type of fuel.

  6. Purchase, Delivery, and Storage of Gases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Purchase, Delivery, and Storage of Gases Print ALS users should follow Berkeley Lab policy, as described below, for the purchase, delivery, storage, and use of all gases at the...

  7. Purchase, Delivery, and Storage of Gases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coordination. Gases are stored either in the racks between buildings 6 and 7; toxic and corrosive gases are stored in Building 6, room 6C across the walkway from beamline...

  8. Green House Gases | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Green House Gases Did You Know? If it were not for naturally occurring greenhouse gases, the Earth would be too cold to support life as we know it. Without the greenhouse effect,...

  9. Ethane and n-butane oxidation over supported vanadium oxide catalysts: An in situ UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopic investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, X.; Banares, M.A.; Wachs, I.E.

    1999-12-10

    The coordination/oxidation states of surface vanadium oxide species on several oxide supports (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ZrO{sub 2}, SiO{sub 2}) during ethane and n-butane oxidation were examined by in situ UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). Only a small amount of the surface V(V)cations are reduced to V(IV)/V(III) cations under present steady-state reaction conditions. The extents of reduction of the surface V(V) species are a strong function of the specific oxide support, V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/ZrO{sub 2} {gt} V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} {gt} V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2}, and also correlate with their reactivities (turnover frequencies) for ethane and n-butane oxidation reactions. For ZrO{sub 2}-supported samples, the polymerized surface vanadia species were found to be more easily reduced than the isolated surface vanadia species in reducing environments (i.e., ethane or n-butane in He), but no significant differences in the extents of reduction were observed under present steady-state reaction conditions (i.e., ethane/O{sub 2}/He or n-butane/O{sub 2}/He). This observation is also consistent with the ethane oxidation catalytic study, which revealed that the polymerization degree, the domain size, of the surface vanadia species does not appear to significantly affect the reactivity of the supported vanadia catalysts for ethane oxidation.

  10. Initial activity of reduced chromia/alumina catalyst in n-butane dehydrogenation monitored by on-line FT-IR gas analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hakuli, A.; Kytoekivi, A.; Suntola, T.

    1996-06-01

    The initial activity of chromia/alumina catalyst (13 wt% Cr) in n-butane dehydrogenation was studied in a flow reactor at 853 K. The initial activity was determined by on-line FT-IR gas analysis, which enabled sampling of the gaseous product mixture at a time resolution of seconds. The catalysts were processed in repeated cycles of oxidation, reduction, and dehydrogenation using n-butane, methane, hydrogen, or carbon monoxide as reducing agents. With n-butane, methane, and hydrogen and dehydrogenation activity was associated with Cr{sup 3+} species apparently formed in the reduction of high-valence Cr species. The catalyst reduced with carbon monoxide at 853 K showed poor initial selectivity for butenes and, relative to the other catalysts. Simultaneous data relating the initial activity, coke content, and some of the physicochemical properties of the catalyst indicated that the surfaces of all catalysts were modified to some extent by the successive reaction cycles. 33 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of Greenhouse Gases Program Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program ***THE VOLUNTARY REPORTING OF GREENHOUSE GASES ("1605(b)") PROGRAM HAS BEEN SUSPENDED.*** This affects ...

  12. EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - What are...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    What are Greenhouse Gases? Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program What are Greenhouse Gases? Many chemical compounds found in the Earth's atmosphere act as "greenhouse ...

  13. Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gases | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gases Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gases Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gases Mission The team establishes an energy conservation program, as ...

  14. Autoignited laminar lifted flames of methane, ethylene, ethane, and n-butane jets in coflow air with elevated temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, B.C.; Chung, S.H.

    2010-12-15

    The autoignition characteristics of laminar lifted flames of methane, ethylene, ethane, and n-butane fuels have been investigated experimentally in coflow air with elevated temperature over 800 K. The lifted flames were categorized into three regimes depending on the initial temperature and fuel mole fraction: (1) non-autoignited lifted flame, (2) autoignited lifted flame with tribrachial (or triple) edge, and (3) autoignited lifted flame with mild combustion. For the non-autoignited lifted flames at relatively low temperature, the existence of lifted flame depended on the Schmidt number of fuel, such that only the fuels with Sc > 1 exhibited stationary lifted flames. The balance mechanism between the propagation speed of tribrachial flame and local flow velocity stabilized the lifted flames. At relatively high initial temperatures, either autoignited lifted flames having tribrachial edge or autoignited lifted flames with mild combustion existed regardless of the Schmidt number of fuel. The adiabatic ignition delay time played a crucial role for the stabilization of autoignited flames. Especially, heat loss during the ignition process should be accounted for, such that the characteristic convection time, defined by the autoignition height divided by jet velocity was correlated well with the square of the adiabatic ignition delay time for the critical autoignition conditions. The liftoff height was also correlated well with the square of the adiabatic ignition delay time. (author)

  15. Role of metal-support interactions on the activity of Pt and Rh catalysts for reforming methane and butane.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rossignol, C.; Krause, T.; Krumpelt, M.

    2002-01-11

    For residential fuel cell systems, reforming of natural gas is one option being considered for providing the H{sub 2} necessary for the fuel cell to operate. Industrially, natural gas is reformed using Ni-based catalysts supported on an alumina substrate, which has been modified to inhibit coke formation. At Argonne National Laboratory, we have developed a new family of catalysts derived from solid oxide fuel cell technology for reforming hydrocarbon fuels to generate H{sub 2}. These catalysts consist of a transition metal supported on an oxide-ion-conducting substrate, such as ceria, that has been doped with a small amount of a non-reducible element, such as gadolinium, samarium, or zirconium. Unlike alumina, the oxide-ion-conducting substrate has been shown to induce strong metal-support interactions. Metal-support interactions are known to play an important role in influencing the catalytic activity of many metals supported on oxide supports. Based on results from temperature-programmed reduction/oxidation and kinetic reaction studies, this paper discusses the role of the metal and the substrate in the metal-support interactions, and how these interactions influence the activity and the selectivity of the catalyst in reforming methane and butane to hydrogen for use in fuel cell power systems.

  16. APPARATUS FOR CATALYTICALLY COMBINING GASES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Busey, H.M.

    1958-08-12

    A convection type recombiner is described for catalytically recombining hydrogen and oxygen which have been radiolytically decomposed in an aqueous homogeneous nuclear reactor. The device is so designed that the energy of recombination is used to circulate the gas mixture over the catalyst. The device consists of a vertical cylinder having baffles at its lower enda above these coarse screens having platinum and alumina pellets cemented thereon, and an annular passage for the return of recombined, condensed water to the reactor moderator system. This devicea having no moving parts, provides a simple and efficient means of removing the danger of accumulated hot radioactive, explosive gases, and restoring them to the moderator system for reuse.

  17. Carbon nanotube-induced preparation of vanadium oxide nanorods: Application as a catalyst for the partial oxidation of n-butane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Xiaowei; Zhu Zhenping; Haevecker, Michael; Su Dangsheng . E-mail: dangsheng@fhi-berlin.mpg.de; Schloegl, Robert

    2007-02-15

    A vanadium oxide-carbon nanotube composite was prepared by solution-based hydrolysis of NH{sub 4}VO{sub 3} in the presence of carbon nanotubes. The carbon nanotubes induce the nucleation of the 1D vanadium oxide nanostructures, with the nuclei growing into long freestanding nanorods. The vanadium oxide nanorods with the lengths up to 20 {mu}m and the widths of 5-15 nm exhibit a well-ordered crystalline structure. Catalytic tests show that the composite with nanostructured vanadium oxide is active for the partial oxidation of n-butane to maleic anhydride at 300 deg. C.

  18. Refinery & Blender Net Production of Total Finished Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Total Finished Petroleum Products Liquefied Refinery Gases Ethane/Ethylene Ethane Ethylene Propane/Propylene Propane Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Normal Butane Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Isobutane Isobutylene Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Reformulated Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Reformulated Other Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 and Lower Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Greater than

  19. Refinery Net Production of Total Finished Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Total Finished Petroleum Products Liquefied Refinery Gases Ethane/Ethylene Ethane Ethylene Propane/Propylene Propane Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Normal Butane Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Isobutane Isobutylene Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Reformulated Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Reformulated Other Conventional Gasoline Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 and Lower Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Greater than Ed55

  20. Nonperturbative Predictions for Cold Atom Bose Gases with Tunable Interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, Fred; Chien, Chih-Chun; Mihaila, Bogdan; Timmermans, Eddy; Dawson, John F.

    2010-12-10

    We derive a theoretical description for dilute Bose gases as a loop expansion in terms of composite-field propagators by rewriting the Lagrangian in terms of auxiliary fields related to the normal and anomalous densities. We demonstrate that already in leading order this nonperturbative approach describes a large interval of coupling-constant values, satisfies Goldstone's theorem, yields a Bose-Einstein transition that is second order, and is consistent with the critical temperature predicted in the weak-coupling limit by the next-to-leading-order large-N expansion.

  1. Method of concurrently filtering particles and collecting gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, Mark A; Meike, Annemarie; Anderson, Brian L

    2015-04-28

    A system for concurrently filtering particles and collecting gases. Materials are be added (e.g., via coating the ceramic substrate, use of loose powder(s), or other means) to a HEPA filter (ceramic, metal, or otherwise) to collect gases (e.g., radioactive gases such as iodine). The gases could be radioactive, hazardous, or valuable gases.

  2. Light Collection in Liquid Noble Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKinsey, Dan [Yale University

    2013-05-29

    Liquid noble gases are increasingly used as active detector materials in particle and nuclear physics. Applications include calorimeters and neutrino oscillation experiments as well as searches for neutrinoless double beta decay, direct dark matter, muon electron conversion, and the neutron electric dipole moment. One of the great advantages of liquid noble gases is their copious production of ultraviolet scintillation light, which contains information about event energy and particle type. I will review the scintillation properties of the various liquid noble gases and the means used to collect their scintillation light, including recent advances in photomultiplier technology and wavelength shifters.

  3. Method of concurrently filtering particles and collecting gases (Patent) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Patent: Method of concurrently filtering particles and collecting gases Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Method of concurrently filtering particles and collecting gases A system for concurrently filtering particles and collecting gases. Materials are be added (e.g., via coating the ceramic substrate, use of loose powder(s), or other means) to a HEPA filter (ceramic, metal, or otherwise) to collect gases (e.g., radioactive gases such as iodine). The gases could be

  4. New model more accurately tracks gases for underground nuclear...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Model tracks gases for underground nuclear explosion detection New model more accurately tracks gases for underground nuclear explosion detection Scientists have developed a new, ...

  5. EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - About the...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of Greenhouse Gases Program About the 1605(b) Program History Established by Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, the Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases ...

  6. EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Under Constructi...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of Greenhouse Gases Program This Page is Currently Under Construction Please check back at a later time For more information on the Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases ...

  7. EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program -Data and...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data and Reports Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Data and Reports The first reporting cycle under the revised Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program closed ...

  8. EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Getting...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Getting Started Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Getting Started Form ... The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program suggests that prospective reporters ...

  9. EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Contact

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Contact Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Contact For more information on the Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program, contact us via e-mail, phone, fax, or ...

  10. Method and apparatus for separating mixtures of gases using an...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Method and apparatus for separating mixtures of gases using an acoustic wave Title: Method and apparatus for separating mixtures of gases using an acoustic wave A thermoacoustic ...

  11. EPA's Recent Advance Notice on Greenhouse Gases | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EPA's Recent Advance Notice on Greenhouse Gases EPA's Recent Advance Notice on Greenhouse Gases Summary EPA's advanced notice of proposed rulemaking on mobile sources of greenhouse ...

  12. OSTIblog Articles in the greenhouse gases Topic | OSTI, US Dept...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    greenhouse gases Topic Carbon Sequestration - Helping to Save Our Beautiful World by Kathy ... Related Topics: carbon dioxide, carbon sequestration, climate change, greenhouse gases

  13. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-07-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program for greenhouse gases is part of an attempt by the U.S. Government to develop innovative, low-cost, and nonregulatory approaches to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. It is one element in an array of such programs introduced in recent years as part of the effort being made by the United States to comply with its national commitment to stabilize emissions of greenhouse gases under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions of greenhouse gases.

  14. Denitrification of combustion gases. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, R.T.

    1980-10-09

    A method for treating waste combustion gas to remove the nitrogen oxygen gases therefrom is disclosed wherein the waste gas is first contacted with calcium oxide which absorbs and chemically reacts with the nitrogen oxide gases therein at a temperature from about 100/sup 0/ to 430/sup 0/C. The thus reacted calcium oxide (now calcium nitrate) is then heated at a temperature range between about 430/sup 0/ and 900/sup 0/C, resulting in regeneration of the calcium oxide and production of the decomposition gas composed of nitrogen and nitrogen oxide gas. The decomposition gases can be recycled to the calcium oxide contacting step to minimize the amount of nitrogen oxide gases in the final product gas.

  15. Biological production of products from waste gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, James L.

    2002-01-22

    A method and apparatus are designed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, and carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various products, such as organic acids, alcohols, hydrogen, single cell protein, and salts of organic acids by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified.

  16. Host cells and methods for producing 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol, 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol, and 3-methyl-butan-1-ol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chou, Howard H.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2011-07-26

    The invention provides for a method for producing a 5-carbon alcohol in a genetically modified host cell. In one embodiment, the method comprises culturing a genetically modified host cell which expresses a first enzyme capable of catalyzing the dephosphorylation of an isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) or dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP), such as a Bacillus subtilis phosphatase (YhfR), under a suitable condition so that 5-carbon alcohol is 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol and/or 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol is produced. Optionally, the host cell may further comprise a second enzyme capable of reducing a 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol to 3-methyl-butan-1-ol, such as a reductase.

  17. Where do California's greenhouse gases come from?

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Fischer, Marc

    2013-05-29

    Last March, more than two years after California passed legislation to slash greenhouse gas emissions 25 percent by 2020, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory scientist Marc Fischer boarded a Cessna loaded with air monitoring equipment and crisscrossed the skies above Sacramento and the Bay Area. Instruments aboard the aircraft measured a cocktail of greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide from fossil fuel use, methane from livestock and landfills, CO2 from refineries and power plants, traces of nitrous oxide from agriculture and fuel use, and industrially produced other gases like refrigerants. The flight was part of the Airborne Greenhouse Gas Emissions Survey, a collaboration between Berkeley Lab, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the University of California, and UC Davis to pinpoint the sources of greenhouse gases in central California. The survey is intended to improve inventories of the states greenhouse gas emissions, which in turn will help scientists verify the emission reductions mandated by AB-32, the legislation enacted by California in 2006.

  18. Where do California's greenhouse gases come from?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Last March, more than two years after California passed legislation to slash greenhouse gas emissions 25 percent by 2020, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory scientist Marc Fischer boarded a Cessna loaded with air monitoring equipment and crisscrossed the skies above Sacramento and the Bay Area. Instruments aboard the aircraft measured a cocktail of greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide from fossil fuel use, methane from livestock and landfills, CO2 from refineries and power plants, traces of nitrous oxide from agriculture and fuel use, and industrially produced other gases like refrigerants. The flight was part of the Airborne Greenhouse Gas Emissions Survey, a collaboration between Berkeley Lab, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the University of California, and UC Davis to pinpoint the sources of greenhouse gases in central California. The survey is intended to improve inventories of the states greenhouse gas emissions, which in turn will help scientists verify the emission reductions mandated by AB-32, the legislation enacted by California in 2006.

  19. Purchase, Delivery, and Storage of Gases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Purchase, Delivery, and Storage of Gases Print ALS users should follow Berkeley Lab policy, as described below, for the purchase, delivery, storage, and use of all gases at the ALS. See Shipping and Receiving for information on any non-gas deliveries. Contacts: Gas purchase or delivery: ALS Receiving, 510-486-4494 Gas use and storage: Experiment Coordination, 510-486-7222, This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it Gas Storage: Berkeley Lab

  20. Managing biogeochemical cycles to reduce greenhouse gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Post, Wilfred M; Venterea, Rodney

    2012-01-01

    This special issue focuses on terrestrial biogeochemical cycles as they relate to North America-wide budgeting and future projection of biogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs). Understanding the current magnitude and providing guidance on the future trajectories of atmospheric concentrations of these gases requires investigation of their (i) biogeochemical origins, (ii) response to climate feedbacks and other environmental factors, and (iii) susceptibility to management practices. This special issue provides a group of articles that present the current state of continental scale sources and sinks of biogenic GHGs and the potential to better manage them in the future.

  1. Oxidation of ultrathin GaSe

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Thomas Edwin Beechem; McDonald, Anthony E.; Ohta, Taisuke; Howell, Stephen W.; Kalugin, Nikolai G.; Kowalski, Brian M.; Brumbach, Michael T.; Spataru, Catalin D.; Pask, Jesse A.

    2015-10-26

    Oxidation of exfoliated gallium selenide (GaSe) is investigated through Raman, photoluminescence, Auger, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. Photoluminescence and Raman intensity reductions associated with spectral features of GaSe are shown to coincide with the emergence of signatures emanating from the by-products of the oxidation reaction, namely, Ga2Se3 and amorphous Se. Furthermore, photoinduced oxidation is initiated over a portion of a flake highlighting the potential for laser based patterning of two-dimensional heterostructures via selective oxidation.

  2. Oxidation of ultrathin GaSe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Edwin Beechem; McDonald, Anthony E.; Ohta, Taisuke; Howell, Stephen W.; Kalugin, Nikolai G.; Kowalski, Brian M.; Brumbach, Michael T.; Spataru, Catalin D.; Pask, Jesse A.

    2015-10-26

    Oxidation of exfoliated gallium selenide (GaSe) is investigated through Raman, photoluminescence, Auger, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. Photoluminescence and Raman intensity reductions associated with spectral features of GaSe are shown to coincide with the emergence of signatures emanating from the by-products of the oxidation reaction, namely, Ga2Se3 and amorphous Se. Furthermore, photoinduced oxidation is initiated over a portion of a flake highlighting the potential for laser based patterning of two-dimensional heterostructures via selective oxidation.

  3. Purchase, Delivery, and Storage of Gases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Purchase, Delivery, and Storage of Gases Print ALS users should follow Berkeley Lab policy, as described below, for the purchase, delivery, storage, and use of all gases at the ALS. See Shipping and Receiving for information on any non-gas deliveries. Contacts: Gas purchase or delivery: ALS Receiving, 510-486-4494 Gas use and storage: Experiment Coordination, 510-486-7222, This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it Gas Storage: Berkeley Lab

  4. Purchase, Delivery, and Storage of Gases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Purchase, Delivery, and Storage of Gases Print ALS users should follow Berkeley Lab policy, as described below, for the purchase, delivery, storage, and use of all gases at the ALS. See Shipping and Receiving for information on any non-gas deliveries. Contacts: Gas purchase or delivery: ALS Receiving, 510-486-4494 Gas use and storage: Experiment Coordination, 510-486-7222, This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it Gas Storage: Berkeley Lab

  5. Purchase, Delivery, and Storage of Gases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Purchase, Delivery, and Storage of Gases Print ALS users should follow Berkeley Lab policy, as described below, for the purchase, delivery, storage, and use of all gases at the ALS. See Shipping and Receiving for information on any non-gas deliveries. Contacts: Gas purchase or delivery: ALS Receiving, 510-486-4494 Gas use and storage: Experiment Coordination, 510-486-7222, This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it Gas Storage: Berkeley Lab

  6. The V{sup 4}+/V{sup 5+} balance as a criterion of selection of vanadium phosphorus oxide catalysts for n-butane oxidation to maleic anhydride: A proposal to explain the role of Co and Fe dopants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sananes-Schulz, M.T.; Tuel, A.; Volta, J.C.; Hutchings, G.J.

    1997-03-01

    Vanadium phosphorous oxide catalysts (VPO) are well known for the oxidation of n-butane to maleic anhydride, and many papers and patents have been published in the literature on this catalytic system. Concerning the valence state of vanadium in the active surface, a V{sup 4+}/V{sup 5+} equilibrium on the surface of a vanadyl pyrophosphate during n-butane oxidation has been demonstrated which is dependent on the time of activation. In the present note, we study the modifications, as determined by {sup 31}P NMR by spin echo mapping, which are induced in the physicochemical characteristics of VPO catalysts which have major differences in their morphologies when doped with iron and cobalt at a low percentage (1%) and the correlation with their catalytic performances. 21 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Method for enhancing microbial utilization rates of gases using perfluorocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turick, C.E.

    1997-06-10

    A method of enhancing the bacterial reduction of industrial gases using perfluorocarbons (PFCs) is disclosed. Because perfluorocarbons (PFCs) allow for a much greater solubility of gases than water does, PFCs have the potential to deliver gases in higher concentrations to microorganisms when used as an additive to microbial growth media thereby increasing the rate of the industrial gas conversion to economically viable chemicals and gases. 3 figs.

  8. Method for enhancing microbial utilization rates of gases using perfluorocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turick, Charles E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1997-01-01

    A method of enhancing the bacterial reduction of industrial gases using perfluorocarbons (PFCs) is disclosed. Because perfluorocarbons (PFCs) allow for a much greater solubility of gases than water does, PFCs have the potential to deliver gases in higher concentrations to microorganisms when used as an additive to microbial growth media thereby increasing the rate of the industrial gas conversion to economically viable chemicals and gases.

  9. Bimetallic Ni-Rh catalysts with low amounts of Rh for the steam and autothermal reforming of n-butane for fuel-cell applications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrandon, M.; Kropf, A. J.; Krause, T.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division

    2010-05-15

    Mono-metallic nickel and rhodium catalysts and bimetallic Ni-Rh catalysts supported on La-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CeZrO{sub 2} and CeMgOx were prepared and evaluated for catalyzing the steam and autothermal reforming of n-butane. The binary Ni-Rh supported on La-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts with low weight loading of rhodium exhibited higher H{sub 2} yields than Ni or Rh alone. The Ni-Rh/CeZrO{sub 2} catalyst exhibited higher performance and no coke formation, compared to the same metals on other supports. A NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel phase was obtained on all Ni and Ni-Rh catalysts supported on La-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The presence of rhodium stabilized the spinel phase as well as NiOx species upon reforming while Ni alone was mostly reduced into metallic species. Extended X-ray absorption fine-structure analysis showed evidence of Ni-Rh alloy during preparation and even further after an accelerated aging at 900C in a H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O atmosphere.

  10. Glass Membrane For Controlled Diffusion Of Gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shelby, James E.; Kenyon, Brian E.

    2001-05-15

    A glass structure for controlled permeability of gases includes a glass vessel. The glass vessel has walls and a hollow center for receiving a gas. The glass vessel contains a metal oxide dopant formed with at least one metal selected from the group consisting of transition metals and rare earth metals for controlling diffusion of the gas through the walls of the glass vessel. The vessel releases the gas through its walls upon exposure to a radiation source.

  11. Method for introduction of gases into microspheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hendricks, Charles D.; Koo, Jackson C.; Rosencwaig, Allan

    1981-01-01

    A method for producing small hollow glass spheres filled with a gas by introduction of the gas during formation of the hollow glass spheres. Hollow glass microspheres having a diameter up to about 500.mu. with both thin walls (0.5 to 4.mu.) and thick walls (5 to 20.mu.) that contain various fill gases, such as Ar, Kr, Xe, Br, DT, H.sub.2, D.sub.2, He, N.sub.2, Ne, CO.sub.2, etc. in the interior thereof, can be produced by the diffusion of the fill gas or gases into the microsphere during the formation thereof from a liquid droplet of glass-forming solution. This is accomplished by filling at least a portion of the multiple-zone drop-furnace used in producing hollow microspheres with the gas or gases of interest, and then taking advantage of the high rate of gaseous diffusion of the fill gas through the wall of the gel membrane before it transforms into a glass microsphere as it is processed in the multiple-zone furnace. Almost any gas can be introduced into the inner cavity of a glass microsphere by this method during the formation of the microsphere provided that the gas is diffused into the gel membrane or microsphere prior to its transformation into glass. The process of this invention provides a significant savings of time and related expense of filling glass microspheres with various gases. For example, the time for filling a glass microballoon with 1 atmosphere of DT is reduced from about two hours to a few seconds.

  12. Refinery Yield of Liquefied Refinery Gases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Liquefied Refinery Gases Finished Motor Gasoline Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Residual Fuel Oil Naphtha for Petrochemical Feedstock Use Other Oils for Petrochemical Feedstock Use Special Naphthas Lubricants Waxes Petroleum Coke Asphalt and Road Oil Still Gas Miscellaneous Products Processing Gain(-) or Loss(+) Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources

  13. Method for introduction of gases into microspheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hendricks, C.D.; Koo, J.C.; Rosencwaig, A.

    A method is described for producing small hollow glass spheres filled with a gas by introduction of the gas during formation of the hollow glass spheres. Hollow glass microspheres having a diameter up to about 500..mu.. with both thin walls (0.5 to 4/sub ..mu../) and thick walls (5 to 20/sub ..mu../) that contain various fill gases, such as Ar, Kr, Xe, Br, D, H/sub 2/, DT, He, N/sub 2/, Ne, CO/sub 2/, etc., in the interior thereof, can be produced by the diffusion of the fill gas or gases into the microsphere during the formation thereof from a liquid droplet of glass-form-forming solution. This is accomplished by filling at least a portion of the multiple-zone drop-furnace used in producing hollow microspheres with the gas or gases of interest, and then taking advantage of the high rate of gaseous diffusion of the fill gas through the wall of the gel membrane before it transforms into a glass microsphere as it is processed in the multiple-zone furnace.

  14. Method for detecting trace impurities in gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Freund, Samuel M.; Maier, II, William B.; Holland, Redus F.; Beattie, Willard H.

    1981-01-01

    A technique for considerably improving the sensitivity and specificity of infrared spectrometry as applied to quantitative determination of trace impurities in various carrier or solvent gases is presented. A gas to be examined for impurities is liquefied and infrared absorption spectra of the liquid are obtained. Spectral simplification and number densities of impurities in the optical path are substantially higher than are obtainable in similar gas-phase analyses. Carbon dioxide impurity (.about.2 ppm) present in commercial Xe and ppm levels of Freon 12 and vinyl chloride added to liquefied air are used to illustrate the method.

  15. Traveling dark solitons in superfluid Fermi gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liao Renyuan; Brand, Joachim

    2011-04-15

    Families of dark solitons exist in superfluid Fermi gases. The energy-velocity dispersion and number of depleted particles completely determine the dynamics of dark solitons on a slowly varying background density. For the unitary Fermi gas, we determine these relations from general scaling arguments and conservation of local particle number. We find solitons to oscillate sinusoidally at the trap frequency reduced by a factor of 1/{radical}(3). Numerical integration of the time-dependent Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation determines spatial profiles and soliton-dispersion relations across the BEC-BCS crossover, and proves consistent with the scaling relations at unitarity.

  16. Method for detecting trace impurities in gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Freund, S.M.; Maier, W.B. II; Holland, R.F.; Beattie, W.H.

    A technique for considerably improving the sensitivity and specificity of infrared spectrometry as applied to quantitative determination of trace impurities in various carrier or solvent gases is presented. A gas to be examined for impurities is liquefied and infrared absorption spectra of the liquid are obtained. Spectral simplification and number densities of impurities in the optical path are substantially higher than are obtainable in similar gas-phase analyses. Carbon dioxide impurity (approx. 2 ppM) present in commercial Xe and ppM levels of Freon 12 and vinyl chloride added to liquefied air are used to illustrate the method.

  17. Study of electron transport in hydrocarbon gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasegawa, H.; Date, H.

    2015-04-07

    The drift velocity and the effective ionization coefficient of electrons in the organic gases, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, CH{sub 3}OH, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH, C{sub 6}H{sub 6}, and C{sub 6}H{sub 5}CH{sub 3}, have been measured over relatively wide ranges of density-reduced electric fields (E/N) at room temperature (around 300?K). The drift velocity was measured, based on the arrival-time spectra of electrons by using a double-shutter drift tube over the E/N range from 300 to 2800 Td, and the effective ionization coefficient (?????) was determined by the steady-state Townsend method from 150 to 3000 Td. Whenever possible, these parameters were compared with those available in the literature. It has been shown that the swarm parameters for these gases have specific tendencies, depending on their molecular configurations.

  18. Greenhouse Gases - Energy Explained, Your Guide To Understanding Energy -

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Information Administration Environment > Greenhouse Gases Energy Explained - Home What Is Energy? Forms of Energy Sources of Energy Laws of Energy Units and Calculators Energy Conversion Calculators British Thermal Units (Btu) Degree-Days U.S. Energy Facts State and U.S. Territory Data Use of Energy In Industry For Transportation In Homes In Commercial Buildings Efficiency and Conservation Energy and the Environment Greenhouse Gases Effect on the Climate Where Greenhouse Gases Come

  19. Method for controlling corrosion in thermal vapor injection gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sperry, John S.; Krajicek, Richard W.

    1981-01-01

    An improvement in the method for producing high pressure thermal vapor streams from combustion gases for injection into subterranean oil producing formations to stimulate the production of viscous minerals is described. The improvement involves controlling corrosion in such thermal vapor gases by injecting water near the flame in the combustion zone and injecting ammonia into a vapor producing vessel to contact the combustion gases exiting the combustion chamber.

  20. Device for accurately measuring mass flow of gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hylton, J.O.; Remenyik, C.J.

    1994-08-09

    A device for measuring mass flow of gases which utilizes a substantially buoyant pressure vessel suspended within a fluid/liquid in an enclosure is disclosed. The pressure vessel is connected to a weighing device for continuously determining weight change of the vessel as a function of the amount of gas within the pressure vessel. In the preferred embodiment, this pressure vessel is formed from inner and outer right circular cylindrical hulls, with a volume between the hulls being vented to the atmosphere external the enclosure. The fluid/liquid, normally in the form of water typically with an added detergent, is contained within an enclosure with the fluid/liquid being at a level such that the pressure vessel is suspended beneath this level but above a bottom of the enclosure. The buoyant pressure vessel can be interconnected with selected valves to an auxiliary pressure vessel so that initial flow can be established to or from the auxiliary pressure vessel prior to flow to or from the buoyant pressure vessel. 5 figs.

  1. Device for accurately measuring mass flow of gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hylton, James O.; Remenyik, Carl J.

    1994-01-01

    A device for measuring mass flow of gases which utilizes a substantially buoyant pressure vessel suspended within a fluid/liquid in an enclosure. The pressure vessel is connected to a weighing device for continuously determining weight change of the vessel as a function of the amount of gas within the pressure vessel. In the preferred embodiment, this pressure vessel is formed from inner and outer right circular cylindrical hulls, with a volume between the hulls being vented to the atmosphere external the enclosure. The fluid/liquid, normally in the form of water typically with an added detergent, is contained within an enclosure with the fluid/liquid being at a level such that the pressure vessel is suspended beneath this level but above a bottom of the enclosure. The buoyant pressure vessel can be interconnected with selected valves to an auxiliary pressure vessel so that initial flow can be established to or from the auxiliary pressure vessel prior to flow to or from the buoyant pressure vessel.

  2. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - High-GWP gases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5. High-GWP gases 5.1. Total emissions Greenhouse gases with high global warming potential (high-GWP gases) are hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), which together represented 3 percent of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions in 2009. Emissions estimates for the high-GWP gases are provided to EIA by the EPA's Office of Air and Radiation. The estimates for emissions of HFCs not related to industrial processes or electric transmission are derived from the EPA

  3. Deviation from the Knudsen law on quantum gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babac, Gulru

    2014-12-09

    Gas flow in micro/nano scale systems has been generally studied for the Maxwell gases. In the limits of very low temperature and very confined domains, the Maxwellian approximation can break down and the quantum character of the gases becomes important. In these cases, Knudsen law, which is one of the important equations to analyze rarefied gas flows is invalid and should be reanalyzed for quantum gases. In this work, the availability of quantum gas conditions in the high Knudsen number cases is discussed and Knudsen law is analyzed for quantum gases.

  4. Test Results For Physical Separation Of Tritium From Noble Gases...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Test Results For Physical Separation Of Tritium From Noble Gases And It's Implications For Sensitivity And Accuracy In Air And Stack Monitoring Test Results For Physical Separation ...

  5. BOC Lienhwa Industrial Gases BOCLH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Lienhwa Industrial Gases (BOCLH) Place: Taipei, Taiwan Sector: Solar Product: BOCLH is a joint venture between the Lien Hwa Industrial Corporation and the BOC Group in the United...

  6. Federal Offshore--Gulf of Mexico Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Release Date: 06302016 Next Release Date: 07292016 Referring Pages: Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas Federal Offshore Gulf of Mexico Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals ...

  7. EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Original...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Schedule Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Revised Launch Schedule EIA will begin accepting both Start Year and Reporting Year reports using the Workbook Form on ...

  8. EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Section...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Section 1605 Text Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Section 1605 Text Energy ... national aggregate emissions of each greenhouse gas for each calendar year of the ...

  9. EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Original...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Program Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Original 1605(b) Program Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 established the Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse ...

  10. EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Emission...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Emission Factors Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Emission Factors and Global Warming Potentials The greenhouse gas emission factors and global warming potentials ...

  11. EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Original...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of Greenhouse Gases Program Original 1605(b) Program Calculation Tools The workbooks below were developed to assist participants in the original Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse ...

  12. Energetic Materials for EGS Well Stimulation (solids, liquids, gases)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energetic Materials for EGS Well Stimulation (solids, liquids, gases) presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado.

  13. Removal of mercury from waste gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muster, U.; Marr, R.; Pichler, G.; Kremshofer, S.; Wilferl, R.; Draxler, J.

    1996-12-31

    Waste and process gases from thermal power, incineration and metallurgical plants or those from cement and alkali chloride industries contain metallic, inorganic and organic mercury. Widespread processes to remove the major amount of mercury are absorption and adsorption. Caused by the lowering of the emission limit from 200 to 50 {mu}g/m{sup 3} [STP] by national and European legislators, considerable efforts were made to enhance the efficiency of the main separation units of flue gas cleaning plants. Specially impregnated ceramic carriers can be used for the selective separation of metallic, inorganic and organic mercury. Using the ceramic reactor removal rates lower than 5 {mu}g/m{sup 3} [STP] of gaseous mercury and its compounds can be achieved. The ceramic reactor is active, regenerable and stable for a long term operation. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  14. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-05-01

    The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program, required by Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, records the results of voluntary measures to reduce, avoid, or sequester greenhouse gas emissions. In 1998, 156 US companies and other organizations reported to the Energy information Administration that, during 1997, they had achieved greenhouse gas emission reductions and carbon sequestration equivalent to 166 million tons of carbon dioxide, or about 2.5% of total US emissions for the year. For the 1,229 emission reduction projects reported, reductions usually were measured by comparing an estimate of actual emissions with an estimate of what emissions would have been had the project not been implemented.

  15. PSA Vol 1 Tables Revised Ver 2 Print.xls

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Pentanes Plus 30 - 1 -17 - 0 6 1 6 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 172 4 9 -141 - 0 9 1 34 EthaneEthylene 82 0 0 -76 - 0 0 0 6 PropanePropylene 57 8 7 -39 - 0 0 0 33 Normal Butane...

  16. Continuous cryopump with a method for removal of solidified gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Larry W.; Herman, Harold

    1989-01-01

    An improved cryopump for the removal of gases from a high vacuum, comprising a cryopanel incorporating honeycomb structure, refrigerant means thermally connected to the cryopanel, and a rotatable channel moving azimuthally around an axis located near the center of the cryopanel, removing gases absorbed within the honeycomb structure by subliming them and conducting them outside the vacuum vessel.

  17. Continuous cryopump with a method for removal of solidified gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, L.W.; Herman, H.

    1988-05-05

    An improved cryopump for the removal of gases from a high vacuum, comprising a cryopanel incorporating honeycomb structure, refrigerant means thermally connected to the cryopanel, and a rotatable channel moving azimuthally around an axis located near the center of the cryopanel, removing gases adsorbed within the honeycomb structure by subliming them and conducting them outside the vacuum vessel. 4 figs.

  18. Single particle density of trapped interacting quantum gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bala, Renu; Bosse, J.; Pathak, K. N.

    2015-05-15

    An expression for single particle density for trapped interacting gases has been obtained in first order of interaction using Green’s function method. Results are easily simplified for homogeneous quantum gases and are found to agree with famous results obtained by Huang-Yang-Luttinger and Lee-Yang.

  19. Greenhouse gases: What is their role in climate change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edmonds, J.A.; Chandler, W.U. ); Wuebbles, D. )

    1990-12-01

    This paper summarizes information relevant to understanding the role of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It examines the nature of the greenhouse effect, the Earth's radiation budget, the concentrations of these gases in the atmosphere, how these concentrations have been changing, natural processes which regulate these concentrations of greenhouse gases, residence times of these gases in the atmosphere, and the rate of release of gases affecting atmospheric composition by human activities. We address the issue of the greenhouse effect itself in the first section. In the second section we examine trends in atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases and emissions sources. In the third section, we examine the natural carbon cycle and its role in determining the atmospheric residence time of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). In the fourth section, we examine the role atmospheric chemistry plays in the determining the concentrations of greenhouse gases. This paper is not intended to be an exhaustive treatment of these issues. Exhaustive treatments can be found in other volumes, many of which are cited throughout this paper. Rather, this paper is intended to summarize some of the major findings, unknowns, and uncertainties associated with the current state of knowledge regarding the role of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. 57 refs., 11 figs., 11 tabs.

  20. Raman Scattering Sensor for On-Line Monitoring of Amines and Acid Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uibel, Rory; Smith, Lee

    2010-05-20

    Sulfur and CO2 removal from hydrocarbon streams and power plant effluents are a major problem. The sulfur is normally in the form of H2S. These two acid gases are scrubbed using aqueous amine solutions that are difficult to control with conventional technology. Process Instruments Inc. developed Raman scattering technology for on-line, real-time monitoring of amine streams to improve their efficiency in scrubbing H2S and CO2 from hydrocarbon streams and power plant effluents. Improved control of amine and acid gas concentrations will allow refineries, natural gas processes and power plants to more efficiently scrub Sulfur and CO2, saving energy, time and financial resources.

  1. Regional respiratory tract absorption of inhaled reactive gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, F.J.; Overton, J.H.; Kimbell, J.S.; Russell, M.L.

    1992-06-29

    Highly reactive gases present unique problems due to the number of factors which must be taken into account to determine regional respiratory tract uptake. The authors reviewed some of the physical, chemical, and biological factors that affect dose and that must be understood to interpret toxicological data, to evaluate experimental dosimetry studies, and to develop dosimetry models. Selected dosimetry experiments involving laboratory animals and humans were discussed, showing the variability and uptake according to animal species and respiratory tract region for various reactive gases. New experimental dosimetry approaches, such as those involving isotope ratio mass spectroscopy and cyclotron generation reactive gases, were discussed that offer great promise for improving the ability to study regional respiratory tract absorption of reactive gases. Various dosimetry modeling applications were discussed which demonstrate: the importance of airflow patterns for site-specific dosimetry in the upper respiratory tract, the influence of the anatomical model used to make inter- and intraspecies dosimetric comparisons, the influence of tracheobronchial path length on predicted dose curves, and the implications of ventilatory unit structure and volume on dosimetry and response. Collectively, these examples illustrate important aspects of regional respiratory tract absorption of inhaled reactive gases. Given the complex nature of extent and pattern of injury in the respiratory tract from exposure to reactive gases, understanding interspecies differences in the absorption of reactive gases will continue to be an important area for study.

  2. Cryogenic method for measuring nuclides and fission gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perdue, P.T.; Haywood, F.F.

    1980-05-02

    A cryogenic method is provided for determining airborne gases and particulates from which gamma rays are emitted. A special dewar counting vessel is filled with the contents of the sampling flask which is immersed in liquid nitrogen. A vertically placed sodium-iodide or germanium-lithium gamma-ray detector is used. The device and method are of particular use in measuring and identifying the radioactive noble gases including emissions from coal-fired power plants, as well as fission gases released or escaping from nuclear power plants.

  3. Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Exports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Biomass-Based Diesel Unfinished Oils Naphthas and Lighter Kerosene and

  4. Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Imports by Area of Entry

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane Ethylene Propane Propylene Normal Butane Butylene Isobutane Isobutylene Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Biomass-Based Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable

  5. Refinery & Blenders Net Input of Crude Oil

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Total Crude Oil & Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane Normal Butane Isobutane Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Hydrogen Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) All Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Other Hydrocarbons Unfinished Oils (net) Unfinished Oils,

  6. Normal Conducting CLIC Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, Erk

    2006-01-03

    The CLIC (Compact Linear Collider) multi-lateral study group based at CERN is studying the technology for an electron-positron linear collider with a centre-of-mass energy up to 5 TeV. In contrast to the International Linear Collider (ILC) study which has chosen to use super-conducting cavities with accelerating gradients in the range of 30-40 MV/m to obtain centre-of-mass collision energies of 0.5-1 TeV, the CLIC study aims to use a normal-conducting system based on two-beam technology with gradients of 150 MV/m. It is generally accepted that this change in technology is not only necessary but the only viable choice for a cost-effective multi-TeV collider. The CLIC study group is studying the technology issues of such a machine, and is in particular developing state-of-the-art 30 GHz molybdenum-iris accelerating structures and power extraction and transfer structures (PETS). The accelerating structure has a new geometry which includes fully-profiled RF surfaces optimised to minimize surface fields, and hybrid damping using both iris slots and radial waveguides. A newly-developed structure-optimisation procedure has been used to simultaneously balance surface fields, power flow, short and long-range transverse wakefields, RF-to-beam efficiency and the ratio of luminosity to input power. The slotted irises allow a simple structure fabrication by high-precision high-speed 3D milling of just four pieces, and an even easier bolted assembly in a vacuum chamber.

  7. Process for the removal of acid forming gases from exhaust gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Shih-Ger; Liu, David K.

    1992-01-01

    Exhaust gases are treated to remove NO or NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2 by contacting the gases with an aqueous emulsion or suspension of yellow phosphorus preferably in a wet scrubber. The pressure is not critical, and ambient pressures are used. Hot water temperatures are best, but economics suggest about 50.degree. C. are attractive. The amount of yellow phosphorus used will vary with the composition of the exhaust gas, less than 3% for small concentrations of NO, and 10% or higher for concentrations above say 1000 ppm. Similarly, the pH will vary with the composition being treated, and it is adjusted with a suitable alkali. For mixtures of NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, alkalis that are used for flue gas desulfurization are preferred. With this process, 100% of the by-products created are usable, and close to 100% of the NO or NO and SO.sub.2 can be removed in an economic fashion.

  8. Process for the removal of acid forming gases from exhaust gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, S.G.; Liu, D.K.

    1992-11-17

    Exhaust gases are treated to remove NO or NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2] by contacting the gases with an aqueous emulsion or suspension of yellow phosphorus preferably in a wet scrubber. The pressure is not critical, and ambient pressures are used. Hot water temperatures are best, but economics suggest about 50 C is attractive. The amount of yellow phosphorus used will vary with the composition of the exhaust gas, less than 3% for small concentrations of NO, and 10% or higher for concentrations above say 1000 ppm. Similarly, the pH will vary with the composition being treated, and it is adjusted with a suitable alkali. For mixtures of NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2], alkalis that are used for flue gas desulfurization are preferred. With this process, 100% of the by-products created are usable, and close to 100% of the NO or NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2] can be removed in an economic fashion. 9 figs.

  9. METHOD FOR PUMPING GASES AT LOW VACUUM PRESSURES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Milleron, N.

    1962-06-01

    A method is given for pumping overpressure "pulses" or "bursts" of gases without a significant rise in base pressure within a "gettering-type" vacuum pump having surfaces within the pumping cavity coated with or comprising clean gettering metal, e.g., Mo or Ta. The cavity is first pumped down by any convenient means to an equilibrium base pressure in the range desired, generally below 10/sup -6/ mm Hg. At this pressure, the metal immediately adsorbs overpressures or "bursts" of gases striking same with thermal motion without raising the base pressure significantiy. Desorption takes place at an equilibrium rate which, of course, is dependent upon the equilibrium pressure, and such desorbed gases are continuously removed by diffuaion pump or other pumping, whereby said overpressures or "bursts" of gases are removed without a rise in the equilibrium pressure and/or back diffusion of the gaseous pulse from the pumping cavity. (AEC)

  10. World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: Greenhouse Gases Model

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) Greenhouse Gases Model. It also catalogues and describes critical assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  11. Method for monitoring stack gases for uranium activity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beverly, Claude R.; Ernstberger, Harold G.

    1988-01-01

    A method for monitoring the stack gases of a purge cascade of a gaseous diffusion plant for uranium activity. A sample stream is taken from the stack gases and contacted with a volume of moisture-laden air for converting trace levels of uranium hexafluoride, if any, in the stack gases into particulate uranyl fluoride. A continuous strip of filter paper from a supply roll is passed through this sampling stream to intercept and gather any uranyl fluoride in the sampling stream. This filter paper is then passed by an alpha scintillation counting device where any radioactivity on the filter paper is sensed so as to provide a continuous monitoring of the gas stream for activity indicative of the uranium content in the stack gases.

  12. Method for monitoring stack gases for uranium activity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beverly, C.R.; Ernstberger, E.G.

    1985-07-03

    A method for monitoring the stack gases of a purge cascade of gaseous diffusion plant for uranium activity. A sample stream is taken from the stack gases and contacted with a volume of moisture-laden air for converting trace levels of uranium hexafluoride, if any, in the stack gases into particulate uranyl fluoride. A continuous strip of filter paper from a supply roll is passed through this sampling stream to intercept and gather any uranyl fluoride in the sampling stream. This filter paper is then passed by an alpha scintillation counting device where any radioactivity on the filter paper is sensed so as to provide a continuous monitoring of the gas stream for activity indicative of the uranium content in the stack gases. 1 fig.

  13. Helium Isotopes In Geothermal And Volcanic Gases Of The Western...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    isotope ratios in gases of thirty hot springs and geothermal wells and of five natural gas wells in the western United States show no relationship to regional conductive heat...

  14. Geochemical Data on Waters, Gases, Scales, and Rocks from the...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Geochemical Data on Waters, Gases, Scales, and Rocks from the Dixie Valley Region, Nevada (1996-1999)...

  15. EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Why Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Why Report What Is the Purpose of Form EIA-1605? Form EIA-1605 provides the means for the voluntary reporting of greenhouse gas emissions, ...

  16. New model more accurately tracks gases for underground nuclear explosion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    detection Model tracks gases for underground nuclear explosion detection New model more accurately tracks gases for underground nuclear explosion detection Scientists have developed a new, more thorough method for detecting underground nuclear explosions by coupling two fundamental elements-seismic models with gas-flow models. December 17, 2015 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and

  17. EIA - Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2009

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ‹ Environment Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the U. S. Release Date: March 31, 2011 | Next Release Date: Report Discontinued | Report Number: DOE/EIA-0573(2009) This report-the eighteenth annual report-presents the U.S. Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. Download the GHG Report Introduction For this report, activity data on coal and natural gas consumption and electricity sales and losses

  18. Where Greenhouse Gases Come From | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Where Greenhouse Gases Come From In the United States, greenhouse gas emissions come primarily from the burning of fossil fuels in energy use. Carbon Dioxide Carbon Dioxide is the main greenhouse gas. In 2013, 82% of human-caused greenhouse gas emissions were carbon dioxide emissions, resulting from the burning of fossil fuels, solid waste, trees, wood, and other chemical reactions. Methane and Other Gases Another greenhouse gas, methane, comes from landfills, coal mines, oil and natural gas

  19. Biological production of ethanol from waste gases with Clostridium ljungdahlii

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, James L.

    2000-01-01

    A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products is disclosed. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various product, such as organic acids, alcohols H.sub.2, SCP, and salts of organic acids by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified.

  20. EIA - Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2009

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ‹ Environment Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the U. S. Release Date: March 31, 2011 | Next Release Date: Report Discontinued | Report Number: DOE/EIA-0573(2009) This report-the eighteenth annual report-presents the U.S. Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. Download the GHG Report Introduction For this report, activity data on coal and natural gas consumption and electricity sales and losses

  1. Role of the reaction intermediates in determining PHIP (parahydrogen induced polarization) effect in the hydrogenation of acetylene dicarboxylic acid with the complex [Rh (dppb)]{sup +} (dppb: 1,4-bis(diphenylphosphino)butane)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reineri, F.; Aime, S.; Gobetto, R.; Nervi, C.

    2014-03-07

    This study deals with the parahydrogenation of the symmetric substrate acetylene dicarboxylic acid catalyzed by a Rh(I) complex bearing the chelating diphosphine dppb (1,4-bis(diphenylphosphino)butane). The two magnetically equivalent protons of the product yield a hyperpolarized emission signal in the {sup 1}H-NMR spectrum. Their polarization intensity varies upon changing the reaction solvent from methanol to acetone. A detailed analysis of the hydrogenation pathway is carried out by means of density functional theory calculations to assess the structure of hydrogenation intermediates and their stability in the two solvents. The observed polarization effects have been accounted on the basis of the obtained structures. Insights into the lifetime of a short-lived reaction intermediate are also obtained.

  2. Pt3Ru6 Clusters Supported on gamma-Al2O3: Synthesis from Pt3Ru6(Cu)21(u3-H)(u-H)3, Structural Characterization, and Catalysis of Ethylene Hydrogenation and n-Butane Hydrogenolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chotisuwan,S.; Wittayakun, J.; Gates, B.

    2006-01-01

    The supported clusters Pt-Ru/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were prepared by adsorption of the bimetallic precursor Pt{sub 3}Ru{sub 6}(Cu){sub 21}({mu}{sub 3}-H)({mu}-H){sub 3} from CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} solution onto {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} followed by decarbonylation in He at 300 C. The resultant supported clusters were characterized by infrared (IR) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopies and as catalysts for ethylene hydrogenation and n-butane hydrogenolysis. After adsorption, the {nu}{sub CO} peaks characterizing the precursor shifted to lower wavenumbers, and some of the hydroxyl bands of the support disappeared or changed, indicating that the CO ligands of the precursor interacted with support hydroxyl groups. The EXAFS results show that the metal core of the precursor remained essentially unchanged upon adsorption, but there were distortions of the metal core indicated by changes in the metal-metal distances. After decarbonylation of the supported clusters, the EXAFS data indicated that Pt and Ru atoms interacted with support oxygen atoms and that about half of the Pt-Ru bonds were maintained, with the composition of the metal frame remaining almost unchanged. The decarbonylated supported bimetallic clusters reported here are the first having essentially the same metal core composition as that of a precursor metal carbonyl, and they appear to be the best-defined supported bimetallic clusters. The material was found to be an active catalyst for ethylene hydrogenation and n-butane hydrogenolysis under conditions mild enough to prevent substantial cluster disruption.

  3. Fluid clathrate system for continuous removal of heavy noble gases from mixtures of lighter gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, K.C.; Markun, F.; Zawadzki, M.T.

    1998-04-28

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for separation of heavy noble gas in a gas volume. An apparatus and method have been devised which includes a reservoir containing an oil exhibiting a clathrate effect for heavy noble gases with a reservoir input port and the reservoir is designed to enable the input gas volume to bubble through the oil with the heavy noble gas being absorbed by the oil exhibiting a clathrate effect. The gas having reduced amounts of heavy noble gas is output from the oil reservoir, and the oil having absorbed heavy noble gas can be treated by mechanical agitation and/or heating to desorb the heavy noble gas for analysis and/or containment and allow recycling of the oil to the reservoir. 6 figs.

  4. Fluid clathrate system for continuous removal of heavy noble gases from mixtures of lighter gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Markun, Francis; Zawadzki, Mary T.

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus and method for separation of heavy noble gas in a gas volume. An apparatus and method have been devised which includes a reservoir containing an oil exhibiting a clathrate effect for heavy noble gases with a reservoir input port and the reservoir is designed to enable the input gas volume to bubble through the oil with the heavy noble gas being absorbed by the oil exhibiting a clathrate effect. The gas having reduced amounts of heavy noble gas is output from the oil reservoir, and the oil having absorbed heavy noble gas can be treated by mechanical agitation and/or heating to desorb the heavy noble gas for analysis and/or containment and allow recycling of the oil to the reservoir.

  5. Process for removal of carbonyl sulfide in liquified hydrocarbon gases with absorption of acid gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beavon, D.K.; Mackles, M.

    1980-11-11

    Liquified hydrocarbon gases containing at least carbonyl sulfide as an impurity are purified by intimately mixing the liquified hydrocarbon gas with an aqueous absorbent for hydrogen sulfide in a hydrolysis zone maintained at a temperature and a pressure sufficient to maintain the liquified hydrocarbon gas in the liquid state and hydrolyze the carbonyl sulfide to hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide. The liquified hydrocarbon gas containing at least a portion of the formed carbonyl sulfide and carbon dioxide is separated from the liquid absorbent and passed to an absorption zone where it is contacted with a liquid hydrogen sulfide absorbent where at least the formed hydrogen sulfide is separated from the liquified petroleum gas. A stage of absorption of at least hydrogen sulfide may proceed mixing of the liquified hydrocarbon gas with the absorbent in the hydrolysis reaction zone. The absorbent employed does not combine irreversibly with carbonyl sulfide, hydrogen sulfide, and carbon dioxide, and preferably is an aqueous solution of diethanolamine.

  6. Process for the removal of acid forming gases from exhaust gases and production of phosphoric acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Shih-Ger; Liu, David K.

    1992-01-01

    Exhaust gases are treated to remove NO or NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2 by contacting the gases with an aqueous emulsion or suspension of yellow phosphorous preferably in a wet scrubber. The addition of yellow phosphorous in the system induces the production of O.sub.3 which subsequently oxidizes NO to NO.sub.2. The resulting NO.sub.2 dissolves readily and can be reduced to form ammonium ions by dissolved SO.sub.2 under appropriate conditions. In a 20 acfm system, yellow phosphorous is oxidized to yield P.sub.2 O.sub.5 which picks up water to form H.sub.3 PO.sub.4 mists and can be collected as a valuable product. The pressure is not critical, and ambient pressures are used. Hot water temperatures are best, but economics suggest about 50.degree. C. The amount of yellow phosphorus used will vary with the composition of the exhaust gas, less than 3% for small concentrations of NO, and 10% or higher for concentrations above say 1000 ppm. Similarly, the pH will vary with the composition being treated, and it is adjusted with a suitable alkali. For mixtures of NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, alkalis that are used for flue gas desulfurization are preferred. With this process, better than 90% of SO.sub.2 and NO in simulated flue gas can be removed. Stoichiometric ratios (P/NO) ranging between 0.6 and 1.5 were obtained.

  7. Emissions Of Greenhouse Gases From Rice Agriculture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Aslam K. Khalil

    2009-07-16

    This project produced detailed data on the processes that affect methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice agriculture and their inter-relationships. It defines the shifting roles and potential future of these gases in causing global warming and the benefits and tradeoffs of reducing emissions. The major results include: 1). Mechanisms and Processes Leading to Methane Emissions are Delineated. Our experiments have tested the standard model of methane emissions from rice fields and found new results on the processes that control the flux. A mathematical mass balance model was used to unravel the production, oxidation and transport of methane from rice. The results suggested that when large amounts of organic matter are applied, the additional flux that is observed is due to both greater production and reduced oxidation of methane. 2). Methane Emissions From China Have Been Decreasing Over the Last Two Decades. We have calculated that methane emissions from rice fields have been falling in recent decades. This decrease is particularly large in China. While some of this is due to reduced area of rice agriculture, the bigger effect is from the reduction in the emission factor which is the annual amount of methane emitted per hectare of rice. The two most important changes that cause this decreasing emission from China are the reduced use of organic amendments which have been replaced by commercial nitrogen fertilizers, and the increased practice of intermittent flooding as greater demands are placed on water resources. 3). Global Methane Emissions Have Been Constant For More Than 20 Years. While the concentrations of methane in the atmosphere have been leveling off in recent years, our studies show that this is caused by a near constant total global source of methane for the last 20 years or more. This is probably because as some anthropogenic sources have increased, others, such as the rice agriculture source, have fallen. Changes in natural emissions appear small

  8. Modelling of noble anaesthetic gases and high hydrostatic pressure effects in lipid bilayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moskovitz, Yevgeny; Yang, Hui

    2015-01-08

    Our objective was to study molecular processes that might be responsible for inert gas narcosis and high-pressure nervous syndrome. The classical molecular dynamics trajectories (200 ns-long) of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) bilayers simulated by the Berger force field were evaluated for water and the atomic distribution of noble gases around DOPC molecules at a pressure range of 1 - 1000 bar and temperature of 310 Kelvin. Xenon and argon have been tested as model gases for general anesthetics, and neon has been investigated for distortions that are potentially responsible for neurological tremor at hyperbaric conditions. The analysis of stacked radial pair distribution functions of DOPC headgroup atoms revealed the explicit solvation potential of gas molecules, which correlates with their dimensions. The orientational dynamics of water molecules at the biomolecular interface should be considered as an influential factor; while excessive solvation effects appearing in the lumen of membrane-embedded ion channels could be a possible cause of inert gas narcosis. All the noble gases tested exhibit similar patterns of the order parameter for both DOPC acyl chains, which is opposite to the patterns found for the order parameter curve at high hydrostatic pressures in intact bilayers. This finding supports the ‘critical volume’ hypothesis of anesthesia pressure reversal. The irregular lipid headgroup-water boundary observed in DOPC bilayers saturated with neon in the pressure range of 1 - 100 bar could be associated with the possible manifestation of neurological tremor at the atomic scale. The non-immobilizer neon also demonstrated the highest momentum impact on the normal component of the DOPC diffusion coefficient representing monolayers undulations rate, which indicates enhanced diffusivity, rather than atom size, as the key factor.

  9. Modelling of noble anaesthetic gases and high hydrostatic pressure effects in lipid bilayers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Moskovitz, Yevgeny; Yang, Hui

    2015-01-08

    Our objective was to study molecular processes that might be responsible for inert gas narcosis and high-pressure nervous syndrome. The classical molecular dynamics trajectories (200 ns-long) of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) bilayers simulated by the Berger force field were evaluated for water and the atomic distribution of noble gases around DOPC molecules at a pressure range of 1 - 1000 bar and temperature of 310 Kelvin. Xenon and argon have been tested as model gases for general anesthetics, and neon has been investigated for distortions that are potentially responsible for neurological tremor at hyperbaric conditions. The analysis of stacked radial pair distributionmore » functions of DOPC headgroup atoms revealed the explicit solvation potential of gas molecules, which correlates with their dimensions. The orientational dynamics of water molecules at the biomolecular interface should be considered as an influential factor; while excessive solvation effects appearing in the lumen of membrane-embedded ion channels could be a possible cause of inert gas narcosis. All the noble gases tested exhibit similar patterns of the order parameter for both DOPC acyl chains, which is opposite to the patterns found for the order parameter curve at high hydrostatic pressures in intact bilayers. This finding supports the ‘critical volume’ hypothesis of anesthesia pressure reversal. The irregular lipid headgroup-water boundary observed in DOPC bilayers saturated with neon in the pressure range of 1 - 100 bar could be associated with the possible manifestation of neurological tremor at the atomic scale. The non-immobilizer neon also demonstrated the highest momentum impact on the normal component of the DOPC diffusion coefficient representing monolayers undulations rate, which indicates enhanced diffusivity, rather than atom size, as the key factor.« less

  10. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-10-01

    This is the sixth annual report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases. It covers emissions over the period 1990--1996, with preliminary estimates of emissions for 1997. Chapter one summarizes some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect. Important recent developments in global climate change activities are discussed, especially the third Conference of the Parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change, which was held in December of 1997 in Kyoto, Japan. Chapters two through five cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons and related gases, respectively. Chapter six describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes. Six appendices are included in the report. 96 refs., 38 tabs.

  11. “Hard probes” of strongly-interacting atomic gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishida, Yusuke

    2012-06-18

    We investigate properties of an energetic atom propagating through strongly interacting atomic gases. The operator product expansion is used to systematically compute a quasiparticle energy and its scattering rate both in a spin-1/2 Fermi gas and in a spinless Bose gas. Reasonable agreement with recent quantum Monte Carlo simulations even at a relatively small momentum k/kF > 1.5 indicates that our large-momentum expansions are valid in a wide range of momentum. We also study a differential scattering rate when a probe atom is shot into atomic gases. Because the number density and current density of the target atomic gas contribute to the forward scattering only, its contact density (measure of short-range pair correlation) gives the leading contribution to the backward scattering. Therefore, such an experiment can be used to measure the contact density and thus provides a new local probe of strongly interacting atomic gases.

  12. Method for removing acid gases from a gaseous stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorin, Everett; Zielke, Clyde W.

    1981-01-01

    In a process for hydrocracking a heavy aromatic polynuclear carbonaceous feedstock containing reactive alkaline constituents to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels boiling below about 475.degree. C. at atmospheric pressure by contacting the feedstock with hydrogen in the presence of a molten metal halide catalyst, thereafter separating a gaseous stream containing hydrogen, at least a portion of the hydrocarbon fuels and acid gases from the molten metal halide and regenerating the molten metal halide, thereby producing a purified molten metal halide stream for recycle to the hydrocracking zone, an improvement comprising; contacting the gaseous acid gas, hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuels-containing stream with the feedstock containing reactive alkaline constituents to remove acid gases from the acid gas containing stream. Optionally at least a portion of the hydrocarbon fuels are separated from gaseous stream containing hydrogen, hydrocarbon fuels and acid gases prior to contacting the gaseous stream with the feedstock.

  13. Radiolytic and thermal generation of gases from Hanford grout samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meisel, D.; Jonah, C.D.; Kapoor, S.; Matheson, M.S.; Mulac, W.A.

    1993-10-01

    Gamma irradiation of WHC-supplied samples of grouted Tank 102-AP simulated nonradioactive waste has been carried out at three dose rates, 0.25, 0.63, and 130 krad/hr. The low dose rate corresponds to that in the actual grout vaults; with the high dose rate, doses equivalent to more than 40 years in the grout vault were achieved. An average G(H{sub 2}) = 0.047 molecules/100 eV was found, independent of dose rate. The rate of H2 production decreases above 80 Mrad. For other gases, G(N{sub 2}) = 0.12, G(O{sub 2}) = 0.026, G(N{sub 2}O) = 0.011 and G(CO) = 0.0042 at 130 krad/hr were determined. At lower dose rates, N{sub 2} and O{sub 2} could not be measured because of interference by trapped air. The value of G(H{sub 2}) is higher than expected, suggesting segregation of water from nitrate and nitrite salts in the grout. The total pressure generated by the radiolysis at 130 krad/h has been independently measured, and total amounts of gases generated were calculated from this measurement. Good agreement between this measurement and the sum of all the gases that were independently determined was obtained. Therefore, the individual gas measurements account for most of the major components that are generated by the radiolysis. At 90 {degree}C, H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, and N{sub 2}O were generated at a rate that could be described by exponential formation of each of the gases. Gases measured at the lower temperatures were probably residual trapped gases. An as yet unknown product interfered with oxygen determinations at temperatures above ambient. The thermal results do not affect the radiolytic findings.

  14. Michigan Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's - 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016 Referring Pages: Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas Michigan Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production

  15. Removal of sulfur and nitrogen containing pollutants from discharge gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Joubert, James I.

    1986-01-01

    Oxides of sulfur and of nitrogen are removed from waste gases by reaction with an unsupported copper oxide powder to form copper sulfate. The resulting copper sulfate is dissolved in water to effect separation from insoluble mineral ash and dried to form solid copper sulfate pentahydrate. This solid sulfate is thermally decomposed to finely divided copper oxide powder with high specific surface area. The copper oxide powder is recycled into contact with the waste gases requiring cleanup. A reducing gas can be introduced to convert the oxide of nitrogen pollutants to nitrogen.

  16. Oklahoma Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's - 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016 Referring Pages: Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas Oklahoma Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production

  17. Other States Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Other States Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1997 513 491 515 539 557 534 541 579 574 585 558 573 1998 578 536 591 581 517 456 486 486 471 477 457 468 1999 466 438 489 495 499 510 547 557 544 555 541 579 2000 587 539 605 587 615 570 653 629 591 627 609 611 2001 658 591 677 690 718 694 692 679

  18. Welcome to Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology: Editorial

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenburg, C.M.; Maroto-Valer, M.M.

    2011-02-01

    This editorial introduces readers and contributors to a new online journal. Through the publication of articles ranging from peer-reviewed research papers and short communications, to editorials and interviews on greenhouse gas emissions science and technology, this journal will disseminate research results and information that address the global crisis of anthropogenic climate change. The scope of the journal includes the full spectrum of research areas from capture and separation of greenhouse gases from flue gases and ambient air, to beneficial utilization, and to sequestration in deep geologic formations and terrestrial (plant and soil) systems, as well as policy and technoeconomic analyses of these approaches.

  19. Methods, systems, and devices for deep desulfurization of fuel gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Liyu; King, David L.; Liu, Jun; Huo, Qisheng

    2012-04-17

    A highly effective and regenerable method, system and device that enables the desulfurization of warm fuel gases by passing these warm gasses over metal-based sorbents arranged in a mesoporous substrate. This technology will protect Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysts and other sulfur sensitive catalysts, without drastic cooling of the fuel gases. This invention can be utilized in a process either alone or alongside other separation processes, and allows the total sulfur in such a gas to be reduced to less than 500 ppb and in some instances as low as 50 ppb.

  20. Analytical limits for cold-atom Bose gases with tunable interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mihaila, Bogdan; Chien, Chih-Chun; Timmermans, Eddy; Cooper, Fred; Dawson, John F.

    2011-08-15

    We discuss the equilibrium properties of dilute Bose gases using a nonperturbative formalism based on auxiliary fields related to the normal and anomalous densities. We show analytically that for a dilute Bose gas of weakly interacting particles at zero temperature, the leading-order auxiliary field (LOAF) approximation leads to well-known analytical results. Close to the critical point the LOAF predictions are the same as those obtained using an effective field theory in the large-N approximation. We also report analytical approximations for the LOAF results in the unitarity limit, which compare favorably with our numerical results. LOAF predicts that the equation of state for the Bose gas in the unitarity limit is E/(pV)=1, unlike the case of the Fermi gas when E/(pV)=3/2.

  1. OPTIONS FOR ABATING GREENHOUSE GASES FROM EXHAUST STREAMS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FTHENAKIS,V.

    2001-12-01

    This report examines different alternatives for replacing, treating, and recycling greenhouse gases. It is concluded that treatment (abatement) is the only viable short-term option. Three options for abatement that were tested for use in semiconductor facilities are reviewed, and their performance and costs compared. This study shows that effective abatement options are available to the photovoltaic (PV) industry, at reasonable cost.

  2. Use of low temperature blowers for recirculation of hot gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maru, H.C.; Forooque, M.

    1982-08-19

    An apparatus is described for maintaining motors at low operating temperatures during recirculation of hot gases in fuel cell operations and chemical processes such as fluidized bed coal gasification. The apparatus includes a means for separating the hot process gas from the motor using a secondary lower temperature gas, thereby minimizing the temperature increase of the motor and associated accessories.

  3. Habitat of natural gases in Papua New Guinea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoell, M.; Beeunas, M.A. Baskin, D.K.; Monnier, F. ); Eisenberg, L.I.; Valenti, G.L. )

    1996-01-01

    Thermogenic natural gases in Papua New Guinea occur in hanging wall anticlines and related structures along a 160 mile section of the Papuan fold and thrust belt between S.E. Hedinia in the SE and Pnyang in the NW. Isotopic compositions of the oil associated gases in the SE between Hedinia and Mananda varies little ([delta][sup l3]C[sub CH4]=-44[+-]2[per thousand] and [delta]D[sub CH4]=-200[+-]20[per thousand]). However, subtle isotopic and compositional patterns in these gases are structurally controlled and indicate primary differences in the filling history of the individual structures. In addition, secondary redistribution of the gases between the Agogo and Iagifu structure can be traced through isotopic similarities. In S.E. Mananda, however, gas isotope patterns are affected by bacterial degradation of the gas. Tire concentration of CO[sub 2] in the oil associated gases in the SE is low (0.6-3.0 %) and the carbon isotope values ([delta][sup 13]C[sub CO2]=-10 to -19[per thousand]) suggest an organic origin with minor inorganic contributions. Gas in the Juha structure ([delta][sup 13]C[sub CH4]=-36.8[per thousand]) is likely from a more mature source and has a CO[sub 2] concentration of 9.6% with a [delta][sup 13]C[sub CO2]=-5.9[per thousand], indicating additional CO[sub 2] generating processes in this area, likely related to magmatic activity in the vicinity of the Juha structure. The Pnyang structure in the NW of the area holds a gas ([delta][sup 13]C[sub CH4]-40.5[per thousand]) which is isotopically intermediate between the Juha gas and the oil associated gases in the SE. The low CO[sub 2] concentration of 0.2% suggests that Pnyang is sourced from a gas kitchen similar to, but more mature than, the kitchen for the oil associated gases in the SE of the province. This is consistent with the high GOR in this structure and the association of the gas with a high API gravity condensate.

  4. Habitat of natural gases in Papua New Guinea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoell, M.; Beeunas, M.A. Baskin, D.K.; Monnier, F.; Eisenberg, L.I.; Valenti, G.L.

    1996-12-31

    Thermogenic natural gases in Papua New Guinea occur in hanging wall anticlines and related structures along a 160 mile section of the Papuan fold and thrust belt between S.E. Hedinia in the SE and Pnyang in the NW. Isotopic compositions of the oil associated gases in the SE between Hedinia and Mananda varies little ({delta}{sup l3}C{sub CH4}=-44{+-}2{per_thousand} and {delta}D{sub CH4}=-200{+-}20{per_thousand}). However, subtle isotopic and compositional patterns in these gases are structurally controlled and indicate primary differences in the filling history of the individual structures. In addition, secondary redistribution of the gases between the Agogo and Iagifu structure can be traced through isotopic similarities. In S.E. Mananda, however, gas isotope patterns are affected by bacterial degradation of the gas. Tire concentration of CO{sub 2} in the oil associated gases in the SE is low (0.6-3.0 %) and the carbon isotope values ({delta}{sup 13}C{sub CO2}=-10 to -19{per_thousand}) suggest an organic origin with minor inorganic contributions. Gas in the Juha structure ({delta}{sup 13}C{sub CH4}=-36.8{per_thousand}) is likely from a more mature source and has a CO{sub 2} concentration of 9.6% with a {delta}{sup 13}C{sub CO2}=-5.9{per_thousand}, indicating additional CO{sub 2} generating processes in this area, likely related to magmatic activity in the vicinity of the Juha structure. The Pnyang structure in the NW of the area holds a gas ({delta}{sup 13}C{sub CH4}-40.5{per_thousand}) which is isotopically intermediate between the Juha gas and the oil associated gases in the SE. The low CO{sub 2} concentration of 0.2% suggests that Pnyang is sourced from a gas kitchen similar to, but more mature than, the kitchen for the oil associated gases in the SE of the province. This is consistent with the high GOR in this structure and the association of the gas with a high API gravity condensate.

  5. α -cluster asymptotic normalization coefficients for nuclear...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    -cluster asymptotic normalization coefficients for nuclear astrophysics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: -cluster asymptotic normalization coefficients for nuclear ...

  6. Rhenium Complexes and Clusters Supported on c-Al2O3: Effects of Rhenium Oxidation State and Rhenium Cluster Size on Catalytic Activity for n-butane Hydrogenolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lobo Lapidus, R.; Gates, B

    2009-01-01

    Supported metals prepared from H{sub 3}Re{sub 3}(CO){sub 12} on {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were treated under conditions that led to various rhenium structures on the support and were tested as catalysts for n-butane conversion in the presence of H{sub 2} in a flow reactor at 533 K and 1 atm. After use, two samples were characterized by X-ray absorption edge positions of approximately 5.6 eV (relative to rhenium metal), indicating that the rhenium was cationic and essentially in the same average oxidation state in each. But the Re-Re coordination numbers found by extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (2.2 and 5.1) show that the clusters in the two samples were significantly different in average nuclearity despite their indistinguishable rhenium oxidation states. Spectra of a third sample after catalysis indicate approximately Re{sub 3} clusters, on average, and an edge position of 4.5 eV. Thus, two samples contained clusters approximated as Re{sub 3} (on the basis of the Re-Re coordination number), on average, with different average rhenium oxidation states. The data allow resolution of the effects of rhenium oxidation state and cluster size, both of which affect the catalytic activity; larger clusters and a greater degree of reduction lead to increased activity.

  7. Normalized cDNA libraries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soares, M.B.; Efstratiadis, A.

    1997-06-10

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3{prime} noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to moderate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library. 4 figs.

  8. Normalized cDNA libraries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soares, Marcelo B.; Efstratiadis, Argiris

    1997-01-01

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3' noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to moderate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library.

  9. Fact #825: June 16, 2014 Tier 3 Non-Methane Organic Gases Plus...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Gases Plus Nitrogen Oxide Emission Standards, Model Years 2017-2025 Fact 825: June 16, 2014 Tier 3 Non-Methane Organic Gases Plus Nitrogen Oxide Emission Standards, Model Years ...

  10. Changing the Way We Fly: Biofuels Made from Waste Gases Reaching...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Changing the Way We Fly: Biofuels Made from Waste Gases Reaching New Heights with Airline Industry Changing the Way We Fly: Biofuels Made from Waste Gases Reaching New Heights with ...

  11. ARM Carbon Cycle Gases Flasks at SGP Site (Dataset) | Data Explorer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Carbon Cycle Gases Flasks at SGP Site Title: ARM Carbon Cycle Gases Flasks at SGP Site Data from flasks are sampled at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program ARM, Southern ...

  12. Normalized Elution Time Prediction Utility

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2011-02-17

    This program is used to compute the predicted normalized elution time (NET) for a list of peptide sequences. It includes the Kangas/Petritis neural network trained model, the Krokhin hydrophobicity model, and the Mant hydrophobicity model. In addition, it can compute the predicted strong cation exchange (SCX) fraction (on a 0 to 1 scale) in which a given peptide will appear.

  13. System for trapping and storing gases for subsequent chemical reduction to solids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogel, John S.; Ognibene, Ted J.; Bench, Graham S.; Peaslee, Graham F.

    2009-11-03

    A system for quantitatively reducing oxide gases. A pre-selected amount of zinc is provided in a vial. A tube is provided in the vial. The zinc and the tube are separated. A pre-selected amount of a catalyst is provided in the tube. Oxide gases are injected into the vial. The vial, tube, zinc, catalyst, and the oxide gases are cryogenically cooled. At least a portion of the vial, tube, zinc, catalyst, and oxide gases are heated.

  14. Photoelectron spectrometer for attosecond spectroscopy of liquids and gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, I.; Huppert, M.; Wörner, H. J.; Brown, M. A.; Bokhoven, J. A. van

    2015-12-15

    A new apparatus for attosecond time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of liquids and gases is described. It combines a liquid microjet source with a magnetic-bottle photoelectron spectrometer and an actively stabilized attosecond beamline. The photoelectron spectrometer permits venting and pumping of the interaction chamber without affecting the low pressure in the flight tube. This pressure separation has been realized through a sliding skimmer plate, which effectively seals the flight tube in its closed position and functions as a differential pumping stage in its open position. A high-harmonic photon spectrometer, attached to the photoelectron spectrometer, exit port is used to acquire photon spectra for calibration purposes. Attosecond pulse trains have been used to record photoelectron spectra of noble gases, water in the gas and liquid states as well as solvated species. RABBIT scans demonstrate the attosecond resolution of this setup.

  15. Clostridium strain which produces acetic acid from waste gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, J.L.

    1997-01-14

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration. 4 figs.

  16. Apparatus for the plasma destruction of hazardous gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kang, M.

    1995-02-07

    A plasma cell for destroying hazardous gases is described. An electric-discharge cell having an electrically conducting electrode onto which an alternating high-voltage waveform is impressed and a dielectric barrier adjacent thereto, together forming a high-voltage electrode, generates self-terminating discharges throughout a volume formed between this electrode and a grounded conducting liquid electrode. The gas to be transformed is passed through this volume. The liquid may be flowed, generating thereby a renewable surface. Moreover, since hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids may be formed from destruction of various chlorofluorocarbons in the presence of water, a conducting liquid may be selected which will neutralize these corrosive compounds. The gases exiting the discharge region may be further scrubbed if additional purification is required. 4 figs.

  17. Apparatus for the plasma destruction of hazardous gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kang, Michael

    1995-01-01

    A plasma cell for destroying hazardous gases. An electric-discharge cell having an electrically conducting electrode onto which an alternating high-voltage waveform is impressed and a dielectric barrier adjacent thereto, together forming a high-voltage electrode, generates self-terminating discharges throughout a volume formed between this electrode and a grounded conducting liquid electrode. The gas to be transformed is passed through this volume. The liquid may be flowed, generating thereby a renewable surface. Moreover, since hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids may be formed from destruction of various chlorofluorocarbons in the presence of water, a conducting liquid may be selected which will neutralize these corrosive compounds. The gases exiting the discharge region may be further scrubbed if additional purification is required.

  18. Decontamination of combustion gases in fluidized bed incinerators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leon, Albert M.

    1982-01-01

    Sulfur-containing atmospheric pollutants are effectively removed from exit gas streams produced in a fluidized bed combustion system by providing a fluidized bed of particulate material, i.e. limestone and/or dolomite wherein a concentration gradient is maintained in the vertical direction. Countercurrent contacting between upwardly directed sulfur containing combustion gases and descending sorbent particulate material creates a concentration gradient across the vertical extent of the bed characterized in progressively decreasing concentration of sulfur, sulfur dioxide and like contaminants upwardly and decreasing concentration of e.g. calcium oxide, downwardly. In this manner, gases having progressively decreasing sulfur contents contact correspondingly atmospheres having progressively increasing concentrations of calcium oxide thus assuring optimum sulfur removal.

  19. Nanostructured carbon materials for adsorption of methane and other gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stadie, Nicholas P.; Fultz, Brent T.; Ahn, Channing; Murialdo, Maxwell

    2015-06-30

    Provided are methods for storing gases on porous adsorbents, methods for optimizing the storage of gases on porous adsorbents, methods of making porous adsorbents, and methods of gas storage of optimized compositions, as in systems containing porous adsorbents and gas adsorbed on the surface of the porous adsorbent. The disclosed methods and systems feature a constant or increasing isosteric enthalpy of adsorption as a function of uptake of the gas onto the exposed surface of a porous adsorbent. Adsorbents with a porous geometry and surface dimensions suited to a particular adsorbate are exposed to the gas at elevated pressures in the specific regime where n/V (density) is larger than predicted by the ideal gas law by more than several percent.

  20. Clostridium stain which produces acetic acid from waste gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, James L.

    1997-01-01

    A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration.

  1. Flash pyrolysis of biomass with reactive and nonreactive gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sundaram, M.S.; Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.

    1982-10-01

    Studies were done on the flash pyrolysis of Douglas fir wood in the presence of reactive and nonreactive gases including hydrogen, methane, and helium. Pyrolysis and gasification of the wood particles was done in one step, without catalysts. Almost complete (98%) gasification of the carbon in Douglas fir wood was achieved at 1000/sup 0/C and 500-psi hydrogen pressure. The reaction products were methane, ethane, ethylene, carbon monoxide, BTX, and water. Flash hydropyrolysis produced a large yield of hydrocarbon gases (up to 78% C) comprising methane and ethane. High yields of ethylene (up to 21% C) and BTX (up to 12% C) were obtained via methane pyrolysis of fir wood; a free-radical mechanism is proposed to explain the enhanced yield of ethylene in a methane atmosphere.

  2. Apparatus for hot-gas desulfurization of fuel gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bissett, Larry A. (Morgantown, WV)

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for removing sulfur values from a hot fuel gas stream in a fdized bed contactor containing particulate sorbent material by employing a riser tube regeneration arrangement. Sulfur-laden sorbent is continuously removed from the fluidized bed through a stand pipe to the riser tube and is rapidly regenerated in the riser tube during transport of the sorbent therethrough by employing an oxygen-containing sorbent regenerating gas stream. The riser tube extends from a location below the fluidized bed to an elevation above the fluidized bed where a gas-solid separating mechanism is utilized to separate the regenerated particulate sorbent from the regeneration gases and reaction gases so that the regenerated sorbent can be returned to the fluidized bed for reuse.

  3. Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 2,813 3,440 3,591 7,549 6,265 8,763 9,872 18,776 13,652 9,971 1990's 9,981 - 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date:

  4. Flask Samplers for Carbon Cycle Gases and Isotopes (FLASK) Handbook

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Flask Samplers for Carbon Cycle Gases and Isotopes (FLASK) Handbook S Biraud March 2016 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not

  5. APPARATUS FOR CLEANING GASES WITH ELECTROSTATICALLY CHARGED PARTICLES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnstone, H.F.

    1960-02-01

    An apparatus is described for cleaning gases with the help of electrostatically charged pellets. The pellets are blown past baffles in a conduit and into the center of a rotuting body of the gas to be cleaned. The pellets are charged electrostatically by impinging on the baffles. The pellets collect the particles suspended in the gas in their passage from the center of the rotating body to its edge.

  6. Simulations of Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition in Reactive Gases |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne Leadership Computing Facility Simulations of Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition in Reactive Gases PI Name: Alexei Khokhlov PI Email: ajk@oddjob.uchicago.edu Institution: University of Chicago Allocation Program: INCITE Allocation Hours at ALCF: 20,000,000 Year: 2012 Research Domain: Chemistry First-principles direct numerical simulations explain and predict high-speed combustion and deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) in hydrogen-oxygen gaseous mixtures. DDT and the

  7. Extraction of uranium from spent fuels using liquefied gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sawada, Kayo; Hirabayashi, Daisuke; Enokida, Youichi

    2007-07-01

    For reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels, a novel method to extract actinides from spent fuel using highly compressed gases, nitrogen dioxide and carbon dioxide was proposed. As a fundamental study, the nitrate conversion with liquefied nitrogen dioxide and the nitrate extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide were demonstrated by using uranium dioxide powder, uranyl nitrate and tri-n-butylphosphate complex in the present study. (authors)

  8. Chemical production from industrial by-product gases: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyke, S.E.; Moore, R.H.

    1981-04-01

    The potential for conservation of natural gas is studied and the technical and economic feasibility and the implementation of ventures to produce such chemicals using carbon monoxide and hydrogen from byproduct gases are determined. A survey was performed of potential chemical products and byproduct gas sources. Byproduct gases from the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries were selected for detailed study. Gas sampling, preliminary design, market surveys, and economic analyses were performed for specific sources in the selected industries. The study showed that production of methanol or ammonia from byproduct gas at the sites studied in the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries is technically feasible but not economically viable under current conditions. Several other applications are identified as having the potential for better economics. The survey performed identified a need for an improved method of recovering carbon monoxide from dilute gases. A modest experimental program was directed toward the development of a permselective membrane to fulfill that need. A practical membrane was not developed but further investigation along the same lines is recommended. (MCW)

  9. Greenhouse gases mitigation options and strategies for Tanzania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mwandosya, M.J.; Meena, H.E.

    1996-12-31

    Tanzania became a party to the United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UN FCCC) when she ratified the Convention in March, 1996. Now that Tanzania and other developing countries are Parties to the UN FCCC, compliance with its provisions is mandatory. The legal requirements therefore provide a basis for their participation in climate change studies and policy formulation. All parties to the Convention are required by Article 4.1 of the United Nations Convention on Climate Change (UN FCCC) to develop, periodically update, publish, and make available national inventories of anthropogenic emissions and removal of greenhouse gases that are not controlled by the Montreal Protocol. This study on possible options for the mitigation of greenhouse gases in Tanzania is a preliminary effort towards the fulfilment of the obligation. In order to fulfil their obligations under the UN FCCC and have a meaningful mitigation assessment, identification and quantification of anthropogenic sources of atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases in the country was undertaken. In this respect, the study of anthropogenic emissions by source and removals by sink of GHGs in Tanzania was done with the main objective of increasing the quantity and quality of base-line data available in order to further scientific understanding of the relationship of greenhouse gas emissions to climate change. Furthermore, the study facilitated identification of national policy and technological options that could reduce the level of emissions in the country.

  10. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-10-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to prepare a report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases for the period 1987--1990, with annual updates thereafter. This report is the fifth annual update, covering national emissions over the period 1989--1995, with preliminary estimates of emissions for 1996. The estimates contained in this report have been revised from those in last year`s report. Emissions estimates for carbon dioxide are reported in metric tons of carbon; estimates for other gases are reported in metric tons of gas. Chapter 1 of this report briefly recapitulates some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect and discusses important recent developments in global climate change activities. Chapter 2 through 6 cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons, and criteria pollutants, respectively. Chapter 7 describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes. Five appendixes are included with this report. 216 refs., 11 figs., 38 tabs.

  11. Emission of reduced malodorous sulfur gases from wastewater treatment plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devai, I.; DeLaune, R.D.

    1999-03-01

    The emission of malodorous gaseous compounds from wastewater collection and treatment facilities is a growing maintenance and environmental problem. Numerous gaseous compounds with low odor detection thresholds are emitted from these facilities. Sulfur-bearing gases represent compounds with the lowest odor detection threshold. Using solid adsorbent preconcentration and gas chromatographic methods, the quantity and composition of reduced malodorous sulfur gases emitted from various steps of the treatment process were determined in wastewater treatment plants in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Hydrogen sulfide, which is a malodorous, corrosive, and potentially toxic gas, was the most dominant volatile reduced sulfur (S) compound measured. Concentrations were not only more than the odor detection threshold of hydrogen sulfide, but above levels that may affect health during long-term exposure. The concentrations of methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and carbonyl sulfide were significantly less than hydrogen sulfide. However, even though emissions of reduced sulfur gases other than hydrogen sulfide were low, previous studies suggested that long-term exposure to such levels may cause respiratory problems and other symptoms.

  12. Two-band description of resonant superfluidity in atomic Fermi gases

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    He, Lianyi; Hu, Hui; Liu, Xia -Ji

    2015-02-23

    Fermionic superfluidity in atomic Fermi gases across a Feshbach resonance is normally described by the atom-molecule theory, which treats the closed channel as a noninteracting point boson. In this work we present a theoretical description of the resonant superfluidity in analogy to the two-band superconductors. We employ the underlying two-channel scattering model of Feshbach resonance where the closed channel is treated as a composite boson with binding energy ε0 and the resonance is triggered by the microscopic interchannel coupling U12. The binding energy ε0 naturally serves as an energy scale of the system, which has been sent to infinity inmore » the atom-molecule theory. We show that the atom-molecule theory can be viewed as a leading-order low-energy effective theory of the underlying fermionic theory in the limit ε0→∞ and U12→0, while keeping the phenomenological atom-molecule coupling finite. The resulting two-band description of the superfluid state is in analogy to the BCS theory of two-band superconductors. In the dilute limit ε0→∞, the two-band description recovers precisely the atom-molecule theory. The two-band theory provides a natural approach to study the corrections because of a finite binding energy ε0 in realistic experimental systems. For broad and moderate resonances, the correction is not important for current experimental densities. However, for extremely narrow resonance, we find that the correction becomes significant. Lastly, the finite binding energy correction could be important for the stability of homogeneous polarized superfluid against phase separation in imbalanced Fermi gases across a narrow Feshbach resonance.« less

  13. Cascaded target normal sheath acceleration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, W. P.; Shen, B. F.; Zhang, X. M.; Wang, X. F.; Xu, J. C.; Zhao, X. Y.; Yu, Y. H.; Yi, L. Q.; Shi, Y.; Zhang, L. G.; Xu, T. J.; Xu, Z. Z.

    2013-11-15

    A cascaded target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) scheme is proposed to simultaneously increase energy and improve energy spread of a laser-produced mono-energetic proton beam. An optimum condition that uses the maximum sheath field to accelerate the center of the proton beam is theoretically found and verified by two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. An initial 10 MeV proton beam is accelerated to 21 MeV with energy spread decreased from 5% to 2% under the optimum condition during the process of the cascaded TNSA. The scheme opens a way to scale proton energy lineally with laser energy.

  14. Solubilities of heavy fossil fuels in compressed gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monge, A. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Design of processes for upgrading heavy fossil fuels such as coal-derived liquids, heavy petroleum fractions, tar sands, and shale oil, requires quantitative information for equilibrium properties of the fossil fuel in the presence of compressed light gases at elevated temperatures. Presented here are methods to predict and measure solubilities of heavy fossil fuels in compressed gases in the region ambient to 100 bar and 600 K. A molecular-thermodynamic model is used to predict heavy fossil-fuel solubilities. The heavy fuel is fractionated ina spinning-band column at low pressure and high reflux; each fraction is considered to be a pseudo-component. Each fraction is characterized by one vapor-pressure datum (obtained during fractionation), elemental analysis, and proton-NMR spectra (to determine aromaticity). Liquid-phase properties are obtained from the SWAP equation for vapor pressure and from a density correlation. Vapor-phase properties are obtained using the virial equation of state with virial coefficients from Kaul's correlation. The molecular-thermodynamic model has been used to establish a design-oriented computer program for calculating heavy, fossil-fuel solubility for general application in process design and, in particular, for isobaric condensation as a function of temperature as required for design of a continuous-flow heat exchanger. A total-vaporization technique is used to measure the solubilities of narrow-boiling, heavy fossil-fuel fractions in compressed gases. The solubility of a heavy fraction is determined from the volume of gas required to vaporize completely a small, measured mass of fossil-fuel sample. To test the molecular-thermodynamic model, the total-vaporization technique has been used to measure the solubilities of two Lurgi coal-tar fractions in compressed methane. Predicted and experimental solubilities agree well.

  15. MAGNETIC METHOD FOR PRODUCING HIGH VELOCITY SHOCK WAVES IN GASES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Josephson, V.

    1960-01-26

    A device is described for producing high-energy plasmas comprising a tapered shock tube of dielectric material and having a closed small end, an exceedingly low-inductance coll supported about and axially aligned with the small end of the tapered tube. an elongated multiturn coil supported upon the remninder of the exterior wall of the shock tube. a potential source and switch connected in series with the low-inductance coil, a potential source and switch connected in series with the elongated coil, means for hermetically sealing the large end of the tube, means for purging the tube of gases, and means for admitting a selected gas into the shock tube.

  16. Separation of gases through gas enrichment membrane composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swedo, Raymond J.; Kurek, Paul R.

    1988-01-01

    Thin film composite membranes having as a permselective layer a film of a homopolymer of certain vinyl alkyl ethers are useful in the separation of various gases. Such homopolymers have a molecular weight of greater than 30,000 and the alkyl group of the vinyl alkyl monomer has from 4 to 20 carbon atoms with branching within the alkyl moiety at least at the carbon atom bonded to the ether oxygen or at the next adjacent carbon atom. These membranes show excellent hydrolytic stability, especially in the presence of acidic or basic gaseous components.

  17. Separation of gases through gas enrichment membrane composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swedo, R.J.; Kurek, P.R.

    1988-07-19

    Thin film composite membranes having as a permselective layer a film of a homopolymer of certain vinyl alkyl ethers are useful in the separation of various gases. Such homopolymers have a molecular weight of greater than 30,000 and the alkyl group of the vinyl alkyl monomer has from 4 to 20 carbon atoms with branching within the alkyl moiety at least at the carbon atom bonded to the ether oxygen or at the next adjacent carbon atom. These membranes show excellent hydrolytic stability, especially in the presence of acidic or basic gaseous components.

  18. Liquefaction and storage of thermal treatment off-gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stull, D.M. . Rocky Flats Plant); Golden, J.O. )

    1992-09-08

    A fluidized bed catalytic oxidation unit is being developed for use in the destruction of mixed waste at the Rocky Flats Plant. Cyclones, filters, in situ neutralization of acid gases, and a catalytic converter are used to meet emission standards. Because there is concern by the public that these measures may not be adequate, two off-gas capture systems were evaluated. Both systems involve liquefaction of carbon dioxide produced in the oxidation process. The carbon dioxide would be released only after analysis proved that all appropriate emission standards are met.

  19. Prospecting by sampling and analysis of airborne particulates and gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1984-05-01

    A method is claimed for prospecting by sampling airborne particulates or gases at a ground position and recording wind direction values at the time of sampling. The samples are subsequently analyzed to determine the concentrations of a desired material or the ratios of the desired material to other identifiable materials in the collected samples. By comparing the measured concentrations or ratios to expected background data in the vicinity sampled, one can select recorded wind directions indicative of the upwind position of the land-based source of the desired material.

  20. PPPL wins Department of Energy award for reducing greenhouse gases |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Princeton Plasma Physics Lab wins Department of Energy award for reducing greenhouse gases By Jeanne Jackson DeVoe October 2, 2012 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook PPPL engineer Tim Stevenson checks for possible leaks of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), the gas used to insulate electronic equipment that has the potential to cause global warming at many times the rate of carbon dioxide. PPPL reduced leaks of SF6 by 65 percent over three years - reducing overall greenhouse gas

  1. table07.chp:Corel VENTURA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    558 - 893 -73 1,935 -111 0 3,387 38 0 Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs ....... 283 89 116 - 9 -210 - 123 24 558 Pentanes Plus .................................. 37 - 1 - 17 7 - 25 15 9 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .............. 246 89 115 - -8 -217 - 98 10 550 Ethane/Ethylene ........................... 94 0 (s) - -71 -4 - 0 0 26 Propane/Propylene ....................... 100 116 86 - 31 -155 - 0 3 485 Normal Butane/Butylene .............. 37 -27 16 - 18 -48 - 74 6 12 Isobutane/Isobutylene

  2. Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Movements by Pipeline between PAD

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Districts Product: Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Petroleum Products Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Normal Butane/Butylene Motor Gasoline Blend. Comp. (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated RBOB MGBC - RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol* MGBC - Conventional MGBC - CBOB MGBC - Conventional GTAB MGBC - Conventional Other Renewable Fuels Renewable Diesel Fuel Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Conventional

  3. Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Total Stocks Stocks by Type

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil All Oils (Excluding Crude Oil) Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Butylene Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excluding Fuel Ethanol) MTBE Other Oxygenates Renewables (including Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Unfinished Oils Unfinished Oils, Naphthas & Lighter Unfinished Oils, Kerosene & Light Gas Unfinished Oils, Heavy Gas Oils

  4. East Coast (PADD 1) Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Net Receipts by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Pipeline, Tanker, Barge and Rail Product: Total Crude Oil and Products Crude Oil Petroleum Products Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Unfinished Oils Motor Gasoline Blend. Comp. (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated RBOB MGBC - RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol* MGBC - RBOB for Blending w/ Ether* MGBC - Reformulated GTAB* MGBC - Conventional MGBC - CBOB MGBC - Conventional GTAB MGBC - Conventional Other

  5. Product Supplied for Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Unfinished Oils Motor Gasoline Blend. Comp. (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Conventional Aviation Gasoline Blend. Comp. Finished Petroleum Products Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Finished

  6. Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, as of Dec. 31

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Districts Product: Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Petroleum Products Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Normal Butane/Butylene Motor Gasoline Blend. Comp. (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated RBOB MGBC - RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol* MGBC - Conventional MGBC - CBOB MGBC - Conventional GTAB MGBC - Conventional Other Renewable Fuels Renewable Diesel Fuel Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Conventional

  7. Prompt-Month Energy Futures

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Product: Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Unfinished Oils Motor Gasoline Blend. Comp. (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Conventional Aviation Gasoline Blend. Comp. Finished Petroleum Products Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Finished

  8. Environment/Health/Safety (EHS)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ethyl ketone, lacquer thinner. Ignitable compressed gases: hydrogen, methane, acetylene, propane, butane, spray-paint cans. Oxidizers: ammonium persulfate, sodium nitrate,...

  9. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-10-01

    This is the fourth Energy Information Administration (EIA) annual report on US emissions of greenhouse gases. This report presents estimates of US anthropogenic (human-caused) emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and several other greenhouse gases for 1988 through 1994. Estimates of 1995 carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and halocarbon emissions are also provided, although complete 1995 estimates for methane are not yet available. Emissions of carbon dioxide increased by 1.9% from 1993 to 1994 and by an additional 0.8% from 1994 to 1995. Most carbon dioxide emissions are caused by the burning of fossil fuels for energy consumption, which is strongly related to economic growth, energy prices, and weather. The US economy grew rapidly in 1994 and slowed in 1995. Estimated emissions of methane increased slightly in 1994, as a result of a rise in emissions from energy and agricultural sources. Estimated nitrous oxide emissions increased by 1.8% in 1995, primarily due to increased use of nitrogen fertilizers and higher output of chemicals linked to nitrous oxide emissions. Estimated emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs), which are known to contribute to global warming, increased by nearly 11% in 1995, primarily as a result of increasing substitution for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). With the exception of methane, the historical emissions estimates presented in this report are only slightly revised from those in last year`s report.

  10. Process for recovery of sulfur from acid gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Towler, Gavin P.; Lynn, Scott

    1995-01-01

    Elemental sulfur is recovered from the H.sub.2 S present in gases derived from fossil fuels by heating the H.sub.2 S with CO.sub.2 in a high-temperature reactor in the presence of a catalyst selected as one which enhances the thermal dissociation of H.sub.2 S to H.sub.2 and S.sub.2. The equilibrium of the thermal decomposition of H.sub.2 S is shifted by the equilibration of the water-gas-shift reaction so as to favor elemental sulfur formation. The primary products of the overall reaction are S.sub.2, CO, H.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O. Small amounts of COS, SO.sub.2 and CS.sub.2 may also form. Rapid quenching of the reaction mixture results in a substantial increase in the efficiency of the conversion of H.sub.2 S to elemental sulfur. Plant economy is further advanced by treating the product gases to remove byproduct carbonyl sulfide by hydrolysis, which converts the COS back to CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 S. Unreacted CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 S are removed from the product gas and recycled to the reactor, leaving a gas consisting chiefly of H.sub.2 and CO, which has value either as a fuel or as a chemical feedstock and recovers the hydrogen value from the H.sub.2 S.

  11. Influence of impurity gases and operating conditions on PAFC performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirai, K.; Iwasa, N.; Suzuki, M.; Okada, O.

    1996-12-31

    On-site Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) Cogeneration system is installed at various test sites, such as at underground parking lot, within chemical plant premises and near urban streets. Since in the current PAFC system, cathode air is supplied to the cell with no particular pretreatment, impurity gases in the air might influence on cell performance. We have investigated the influence of various impurity gases in the cathode gas, on sub-scale single cells, and have found that NO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and toluene affect negatively on cell performance. The results of these experiments and the conceivable mechanism of these effects on cell degradation are reported. We have also investigated the influence of other operating parameters, such as temperature, current density, fuel utilization on cell performance. From these experiments, we have found that operating temperature is a significant factor, which mainly determines cell voltage decline rate. The results of sub-scale single cell tests and a short-stack verification test are also reported.

  12. Instantaneous and efficient surface wave excitation of a low pressure gas or gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levy, Donald J.; Berman, Samuel M.

    1988-01-01

    A system for instantaneously ionizing and continuously delivering energy in the form of surface waves to a low pressure gas or mixture of low pressure gases, comprising a source of rf energy, a discharge container, (such as a fluorescent lamp discharge tube), an rf shield, and a coupling device responsive to rf energy from the source to couple rf energy directly and efficiently to the gas or mixture of gases to ionize at least a portion of the gas or gases and to provide energy to the gas or gases in the form of surface waves. The majority of the rf power is transferred to the gas or gases near the inner surface of the discharge container to efficiently transfer rf energy as excitation energy for at least one of the gases. The most important use of the invention is to provide more efficient fluorescent and/or ultraviolet lamps.

  13. Process for the cooling and separating of small particle-containing gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mink, B.H.

    1984-11-13

    Process for the cooling and separating of small particle-containing gases comprising fine, very fine and coarser particles and having a temperature in the range of from 800/sup 0/-1400/sup 0/ C. and a pressure in the range of from 3-60 bar in which the gases are first cooled in a heat exchanger for producing superheated steam, and then the coarser particles are separated from the gases in a cyclone whereafter the gases are further cooled by passing them into a helically coiled tube(s) which is (are) cooled with a cooling medium.

  14. Wave speeds in the macroscopic extended model for ultrarelativistic gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borghero, F.; Demontis, F.; Pennisi, S.

    2013-11-15

    Equations determining wave speeds for a model of ultrarelativistic gases are investigated. This model is already present in literature; it deals with an arbitrary number of moments and it was proposed in the context of exact macroscopic approaches in Extended Thermodynamics. We find these results: the whole system for the determination of the wave speeds can be divided into independent subsystems which are expressed by linear combinations, through scalar coefficients, of tensors all of the same order; some wave speeds, but not all of them, are expressed by square roots of rational numbers; finally, we prove that these wave speeds for the macroscopic model are the same of those furnished by the kinetic model.

  15. Fuel cell stack with internal manifolds for reactant gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schnacke, Arthur W. (Schenectady, NY)

    1985-01-01

    A fuel cell stack includes a plurality of plate-like fuel cells arranged along an axis generally parallel to cell thickness with electrically conductive separator plates between each pair of cells. A plurality of axial manifolds are provided at opposite sides of the stack in outer marginal portions beyond the edges of electrodes and electrolyte tiles. Sealing rings prevent cross-leakage of oxidant fuel gases through use of pairs of outwardly extending lips from opposite tile surfaces bonded to first and second electrode frames respectively. The frames provide transition between electrode edges and manifold perimeters. The pairs of extension lips are sealingly bonded together through an electrically insulative sealing ring with wedge shaped fastening members.

  16. Loschmidt echo in one-dimensional interacting Bose gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lelas, K.; Seva, T.; Buljan, H.

    2011-12-15

    We explore Loschmidt echo in two regimes of one-dimensional interacting Bose gases: the strongly interacting Tonks-Girardeau (TG) regime, and the weakly interacting mean-field regime. We find that the Loschmidt echo of a TG gas decays as a Gaussian when small (random and time independent) perturbations are added to the Hamiltonian. The exponent is proportional to the number of particles and the magnitude of a small perturbation squared. In the mean-field regime the Loschmidt echo shows richer behavior: it decays faster for larger nonlinearity, and the decay becomes more abrupt as the nonlinearity increases; it can be very sensitive to the particular realization of the noise potential, especially for relatively small nonlinearities.

  17. Noble gases and cosmogenic radionuclides in the Eltanin Pacific meteorite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogard, D D; Garrison, D H; Caffee, M W; Kyte, F; Nishiizumi, K

    2000-01-14

    A 1.5 cm long, 1.2 g specimen of the Eltanin meteorite was found at 10.97 m depth in Polarstern piston core PS2704-1. The early studies indicated that the small fragments of the Eltanin meteorite was debris from a km-sized asteroid which impacted into the deep-ocean basin. In this study, the authors measured {sup 39}Ar-{sup 40}Ar age, noble gases, and cosmogenic radionuclides in splits of specimen as a part of consortium studies of Eltanin meteorite. They concluded that the specimen was about 3 m deep from the asteroid surface. The exposure age of the Eltanin asteroid was about 20 Myr.

  18. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging with hyper-polarized noble gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, D.M.; George, J.S.; Penttila, S.I.; Caprihan, A.

    1997-10-01

    This is the final report of a six-month, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The nuclei of noble gases can be hyper polarized through a laser-driven spin exchange to a degree many orders of magnitude larger than that attainable by thermal polarization without requiring a strong magnetic field. The increased polarization from the laser pumping enables a good nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal from a gas. The main goal of this project was to demonstrate diffusion-weighted imaging of such hyper-polarized noble gas with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Possible applications include characterizing porosity of materials and dynamically imaging pressure distributions in biological or acoustical systems.

  19. Fuel cell stack with internal manifolds for reactant gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schnacke, A.W.

    1983-10-12

    A fuel cell stack includes a plurality of plate-like fuel cells arranged along an axis generally parallel to cell thickness with electrically conductive separator plates between each pair of cells. A plurality of axial manifolds are provided at opposite sides of the stack in outer marginal portions beyond the edges of electrodes and electrolyte tiles. Sealing rings prevent cross-leakage of oxidant fuel gases through use of pairs of outwardly extending lips from opposite tile surfaces bonded to first and second electrode frames respectively. The frames provide transition between electrode edges and manifold perimeters. The pairs of extension lips are sealingly bonded together through an electrically insulative sealing ring with wedge shaped fastening members.

  20. Catalytic process for removing toxic gases from gas streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baglio, J.A.; Gaudet, G.G.; Palilla, F.C.

    1983-02-22

    A multi-stage process for reducing the content of sulfurcontaining gases-notably hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, carbonyl sulfide and carbon disulfide-in waste gas streams is provided. In the first stage, the gas stream is passed through a reaction zone at a temperature between about 150 and 350/sup 0/C in the presence of a pretreated novel catalyst of the formula xLn/sub 2/O/sub 3/ in which Ln is yttrium or a rare earth element and T is cobalt, iron or nickel, and each of x and y is independently a number from 0 to 3, said catalyst being substantially non-crystalline and having a surface area of from about 10 m/sup 2//g to about 40 m/sup 2//g. The preferred catalyst is one in which Ln is lanthanum, T is cobalt, and x and y range from 1 to 3, including non-integers. The first stage yields a product stream having a reduced content of sulfur-containing gases, including specifically, substantial reduction of carbonyl sulfide and virtual elimination of carbon disulfide. An intermediate stage is a claus reaction, which may take place in one or more reaction zones, at temperatures less than about 130/sup 0/ C, in the presence of known catalysts such as bauxite, alumina or cobalt molybdates. The final stage is the air oxidation of hydrogen sulfide at a temperature between about 150 and 300/sup 0/ C in the presence of a catalyst usable in first stage.

  1. MAN or FA from n-butane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Di Cio, A.; Verde, L.

    1985-08-01

    Unsaturated polyester resins were first produced mostly from fumaric acid (FA) rather than from maleic anhydride (MAN). This is perfectly understandable if we consider that, using fumaric acid as raw material, polycondensates with a more homogeneous (less branched) structure are obtained, thus producing resins characterized by a more uniform and reproducible chemical and mechanical properties. Presently, for economical reasons, fumaric acid is used marginally as a MAN substitute in the production of polyester resins. These resins account for a major share (50%) of the overall MAN consumption in the U.S. and in Western Europe.

  2. First-principles binary diffusion coefficients for H, H2 and four normal alkanes + N2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jasper, Ahren W.; Kamarchik, Eugene; Miller, James A.; Klippenstein, Stephen J.

    2014-09-30

    Collision integrals related to binary (dilute gas) diffusion are calculated classically for six species colliding with N2. The most detailed calculations make no assumptions regarding the complexity of the potential energy surface, and the resulting classical collision integrals are in excellent agreement with previous semiclassical results for H + N2 and H2 + N2 and with recent experimental results for C n H2n+2 + N2, n = 2–4. The detailed classical results are used to test the accuracy of three simplifying assumptions typically made when calculating collision integrals: (1) approximating the intermolecular potential as isotropic, (2) neglecting the internal structuremore » of the colliders (i.e., neglecting inelasticity), and (3) employing unphysical R–12 repulsive interactions. The effect of anisotropy is found to be negligible for H + N2 and H2 + N2 (in agreement with previous quantum mechanical and semiclassical results for systems involving atomic and diatomic species) but is more significant for larger species at low temperatures. For example, the neglect of anisotropy decreases the diffusion coefficient for butane + N2 by 15% at 300 K. The neglect of inelasticity, in contrast, introduces only very small errors. Approximating the repulsive wall as an unphysical R–12 interaction is a significant source of error at all temperatures for the weakly interacting systems H + N2 and H2 + N2, with errors as large as 40%. For the normal alkanes in N2, which feature stronger interactions, the 12/6 Lennard–Jones approximation is found to be accurate, particularly at temperatures above –700 K where it predicts the full-dimensional result to within 5% (although with somewhat different temperature dependence). Overall, the typical practical approach of assuming isotropic 12/6 Lennard–Jones interactions is confirmed to be suitable for combustion applications except for weakly interacting systems, such as H + N2. For these systems, anisotropy and inelasticity

  3. Glass surface deactivants for sulfur-containing gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farwell, S.O.; Gluck, S.J.

    1980-10-01

    In gas chromatographic technique for measuring reduced sulfur-containing gases in biogenic air fluxes, the major problem seemed to be the irreversible adsorption of the polar sulfur compounds on the glass surfaces of the cryogenic sampling traps. This article discusses the comparative degrees of Pyrex glass surface passivation for over 25 chemical deactivants and their related pretreatment procedures. Since H/sub 2/S was discovered to be the sulfur compound with a consistently lower recovery efficiency than COS, CH/sub 3/SH, CH/sub 3/SCH, CS/sub 2/ or CH/sub 3/SSCH/sub 3/, the percent recovery for H/sub 2/S was employed as the indicator of effectiveness for the various deactivation treatments. Tables are presented summarizing the mean H/sub 2/S recoveries for chlorosilane deactivants and for the mean H/sub 2/S recoveries for different pyrex surface pretreatments with an octadecyltrialkoxysilane deactivation. The general conclusion of this investigation is that the relative degree of passivation for glass surfaces by present deactivation techniques is dependent on the types of analyzed compounds and the nature of the glass surface.

  4. In-Situ Microbial Conversion of Sequestered Greenhouse Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, A R; Mukhopadhyay, M; Balin, D F

    2012-09-06

    The objectives of the project are to use microbiological in situ bioconversion technology to convert sequestered or naturally-occurring greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, into methane and other useful organic compounds. The key factors affecting coal bioconversion identified in this research include (1) coal properties, (2) thermal maturation and coalification process, (3) microbial population dynamics, (4) hydrodynamics (5) reservoir conditions, and (6) the methodology of getting the nutrients into the coal seams. While nearly all cultures produced methane, we were unable to confirm sustained methane production from the enrichments. We believe that the methane generation may have been derived from readily metabolized organic matter in the coal samples and/or biosoluble organic material in the coal formation water. This raises the intriguing possibility that pretreatment of the coal in the subsurface to bioactivate the coal prior to the injection of microbes and nutrients might be possible. We determined that it would be more cost effective to inject nutrients into coal seams to stimulate indigenous microbes in the coal seams, than to grow microbes in fermentation vats and transport them to the well site. If the coal bioconversion process can be developed on a larger scale, then the cost to generate methane could be less than $1 per Mcf

  5. Process for removal of sulfur compounds from fuel gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Raymond H.; Stegen, Gary E.

    1978-01-01

    Fuel gases such as those produced in the gasification of coal are stripped of sulfur compounds and particulate matter by contact with molten metal salt. The fuel gas and salt are intimately mixed by passage through a venturi or other constriction in which the fuel gas entrains the molten salt as dispersed droplets to a gas-liquid separator. The separated molten salt is divided into a major and a minor flow portion with the minor flow portion passing on to a regenerator in which it is contacted with steam and carbon dioxide as strip gas to remove sulfur compounds. The strip gas is further processed to recover sulfur. The depleted, minor flow portion of salt is passed again into contact with the fuel gas for further sulfur removal from the gas. The sulfur depleted, fuel gas then flows through a solid absorbent for removal of salt droplets. The minor flow portion of the molten salt is then recombined with the major flow portion for feed to the venturi.

  6. On flame kernel formation and propagation in premixed gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eisazadeh-Far, Kian; Metghalchi, Hameed [Northeastern University, Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Parsinejad, Farzan [Chevron Oronite Company LLC, Richmond, CA 94801 (United States); Keck, James C. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Flame kernel formation and propagation in premixed gases have been studied experimentally and theoretically. The experiments have been carried out at constant pressure and temperature in a constant volume vessel located in a high speed shadowgraph system. The formation and propagation of the hot plasma kernel has been simulated for inert gas mixtures using a thermodynamic model. The effects of various parameters including the discharge energy, radiation losses, initial temperature and initial volume of the plasma have been studied in detail. The experiments have been extended to flame kernel formation and propagation of methane/air mixtures. The effect of energy terms including spark energy, chemical energy and energy losses on flame kernel formation and propagation have been investigated. The inputs for this model are the initial conditions of the mixture and experimental data for flame radii. It is concluded that these are the most important parameters effecting plasma kernel growth. The results of laminar burning speeds have been compared with previously published results and are in good agreement. (author)

  7. Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2008 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

  8. Sorption of atmospheric gases by bulk lithium metal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, C. A.; Skinner, C. H.; Capece, A. M.; Koel, B. E.

    2016-01-01

    Lithium conditioning of plasma facing components has enhanced the performance of several fusion devices. Elemental lithium will react with air during maintenance activities and with residual gases (H2O, CO, CO2) in the vacuum vessel during operations. We have used a mass balance (microgram sensitivity) to measure the mass gain of lithium samples during exposure of a similar to 1 cm(2) surface to ambient and dry synthetic air. For ambient air, we found an initial mass gain of several mg/h declining to less than 1 mg/h after an hour and decreasing by an order of magnitude after 24 h. A 9 mg sample achieved a final mass gain corresponding to complete conversion to Li2CO3 after 5 days. Exposure to dry air resulted in a 30 times lower initial rate of mass gain. The results have implications for the chemical state of lithium plasma facing surfaces and for safe handling of lithium coated components. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Sorption of atmospheric gases by bulk lithium metal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, C. A.; Skinner, C. H.; Capece, A. M.; Koel, B. E.

    2016-01-01

    Lithium conditioning of plasma facing components has enhanced the performance of several fusion devices. Elemental lithium will react with air during maintenance activities and with residual gases (H2O, CO, CO2) in the vacuum vessel during operations. We have used a mass balance (microgram sensitivity) to measure the mass gain of lithium samples during exposure of a ~1 cm2 surface to ambient and dry synthetic air. For ambient air, we found an initial mass gain of several mg/h declining to less than 1 mg/h after an hour and decreasing by an order of magnitude after 24 h. A 9 mg sample achieved a final mass gain corresponding to complete conversion to Li2CO3 after 5 days. Exposure to dry air resulted in a 30 times lower initial rate of mass gain. The results have implications for the chemical state of lithium plasma facing surfaces and for safe handling of lithium coated components.

  10. Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    374 33 4,092 2,128 3,351 69 54 4,048 479 5,465 Crude Oil 45 - - - - 900 191 70 -38 1,126 119 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 329 -1 55 28 -81 - - 11 14 90 215 Pentanes Plus 34 -1 - - - 0 - - 0 - 4 29 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 295 - - 55 28 -82 - - 11 14 86 186 Ethane/Ethylene 135 - - 0 - -119 - - 2 - 17 -3 Propane/Propylene 110 - - 37 24 38 - - 3 - 62 144 Normal Butane/Butylene 34 - - 17 2 0 - - 6 1 6 40 Isobutane/Isobutylene 16 - - 0 2 0 - - -1 13 0 5 Other Liquids - -