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1

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - High-GWP gases  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5. High-GWP gases 5. High-GWP gases 5.1. Total emissions Greenhouse gases with high global warming potential (high-GWP gases) are hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), which together represented 3 percent of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions in 2009. Emissions estimates for the high-GWP gases are provided to EIA by the EPA's Office of Air and Radiation. The estimates for emissions of HFCs not related to industrial processes or electric transmission are derived from the EPA Vintaging Model. Emissions from manufacturing and utilities are derived by the EPA from a mix of public and proprietary data, including from the EPA's voluntary emission reduction partnership programs. For this year's EIA inventory, 2008 values for HFC-23 from HCFC-22

2

Global Wind Power Ltd GWP | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

400 059 Sector: Wind energy Product: Mumbai-based firm involved in manufacturing of wind turbines. References: Global Wind Power Ltd. (GWP)1 This article is a stub. You can help...

3

"GREENHOUSE GAS NAME","GREENHOUSE GAS CODE","FORMULA","GWP"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Greenhouse Gases and Global Warming Potentials (GWP)" Greenhouse Gases and Global Warming Potentials (GWP)" "(From Appendix E of the instructions to Form EIA-1605)" "GREENHOUSE GAS NAME","GREENHOUSE GAS CODE","FORMULA","GWP" ,,,"TAR1","AR42" "(1) Carbon Dioxide","CO2","CO2",1,1 "(2) Methane","CH4","CH4",23,25 "(3) Nitrous Oxide","N2O","N2O",296,298 "(4) Hydroflourocarbons" "HFC-23 (trifluoromethane)",15,"CHF3",12000,14800 "HFC-32 (difluoromethane)",16,"CH2F2",550,675 "HFC-41 (monofluoromethane)",43,"CH3F",97,92 "HFC-125 (pentafluoroethane)",17,"CHF2CF3",3400,3500

4

Low-GWP Refrigerants Research Project | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Emerging Technologies » Low-GWP Refrigerants Research Project Emerging Technologies » Low-GWP Refrigerants Research Project Low-GWP Refrigerants Research Project The U.S. Department of Energy is currently conducting research into low global warming potential (GWP) refrigerants. As concerns about climate change intensify, it is becoming increasingly clear that suitable low-GWP refrigerants will be needed for both new and existing residential and commercial heating, ventilation, air conditioning, and refrigeration (HVAC&R) equipment. Project Description This project seeks to develop alternative refrigerants for HVAC&R equipment. The overall environmental impacts of alternative refrigerants will be assessed using a life cycle climate performance model that accounts for direct emissions associated with refrigerant leaks and indirect

5

Honeywell announces Solstice brand of low GWP materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Honeywell Specialty Materials has launched the Solstice brand name for its low-global-warming-potential (GWP) materials. The brand will be used for the family of stationary and mobile refrigerants, blowing agents, propellants and solvents that the company continues to develop and commercialize for its customers.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Greenhouse Gases and  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Greenhouse Gases and Global Warming Potentials (GWP) Greenhouse Gases and Global Warming Potentials (GWP) Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Greenhouse Gases and Global Warming Potentials (GWP) (From Appendix E of the instructions to Form EIA-1605) GREENHOUSE GAS NAME GREENHOUSE GAS CODE FORMULA GWP TAR1 AR42 (1) Carbon Dioxide CO2 CO2 1 1 (2) Methane CH4 CH4 23 25 (3) Nitrous Oxide N2O N2O 296 298 (4) Hydroflourocarbons HFC-23 (trifluoromethane) 15 CHF3 12000 14800 HFC-32 (difluoromethane) 16 CH2F2 550 675 HFC-41 (monofluoromethane) 43 CH3F 97 -3 HFC-125 (pentafluoroethane) 17 CHF2CF3 3400 3500 HFC-134 (1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane) 44 CHF2CHF2 1100 -3 HFC-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane) 18 CH2FCF3 1300 1430 HFC-143 (1,1,2-trifluorethane) 45 CHF2CH2F 330 -3 HFC-143a (1,1,1-trifluoroethane) 46 CF3CH3 4300 4470 HFC-152 (1,2-difluorethane) 47 CH2FCH2F

7

Global warming description using Daisyworld model with greenhouse gases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Daisyworld is an archetypal model of the earth that is able to describe the global regulation that can emerge from the interaction between life and environment. This article proposes a model based on the original Daisyworld considering greenhouse gases emission and absorption, allowing the description of the global warming phenomenon. Global and local analyses are discussed evaluating the influence of greenhouse gases in the planet dynamics. Numerical simulations are carried out showing the general qualitative behavior of the Daisyworld for different scenarios that includes solar luminosity variations and greenhouse gases effect. Nonlinear dynamics perspective is of concern discussing a way that helps the comprehension of the global warming phenomenon.

Susana L.D. Paiva; Marcelo A. Savi; Flavio M. Viola; Albino J.K. Leiroz

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Honeywell triples capacity for low GWP blowing agent  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Honeywell reports that it has tripled production capacity for its low global-warming-potential (GWP) product HFO-1234ze to meet the growing need for the material, which is used in multiple foam and aerosol applications. The production expansion was made at Honeywell's small-scale HFO-1234ze manufacturing facility at its Buffalo Research Lab in Buffalo, NY, USA, and was achieved through equipment upgrades and overall productivity improvements during the past 18 months.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases Jump to: navigation, search Name Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases Agency/Company /Organization United States Department of Agriculture Sector Land Focus Area Agriculture Topics GHG inventory, Policies/deployment programs Resource Type Guide/manual, Lessons learned/best practices Website http://globalresearchalliance. References Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases [1] Background "The Alliance is a bottom-up network, founded on the voluntary, collaborative efforts of countries. It will coordinate research on agricultural greenhouse gas emission reductions by linking up existing and new research efforts across a range of sub-sectors and work areas. It will

10

Predicting and mitigating the global warming potential of agro-ecosystems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Predicting and mitigating the global warming potential of agro-ecosystems S. Lehugera 1 , B and methane are the main biogenic greenhouse gases (GHG) con-2 tributing to the global warming potential (GWP to design productive16 agro-ecosystems with low global warming impact.17 Keywords18 Global warming potential

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

11

Honeywell developing low-GWP liquid blowing agent for foam insulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Honeywell reports that it is developing a new blowing agent with low global warming potential (GWP) for energy-efficient polyurethane foam insulation. The non-flammable liquid blowing agent will provide customers with an alternative to hydrocarbons and traditional hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and assist customers in reducing the overall environmental impact of foam, the company says.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Global warming potentials; Part 7 of 7 supporting documents. Sector-specific issues and reporting methodologies supporting the general guidelines for voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992; Public review draft  

SciTech Connect

This document provides methods to account for the different effects of different gases on the atmosphere. It discusses the rationale and uses for simplified measures to represent human-related effects on climate and provides a brief introduction to a major index, the global warming potential (GWP) index. Appendix 7.A analyzes the science underlying the development of indices for concerns about climate, which is still evolving, evaluates the usefulness of currently available indices, and presents the state of the art for numerical indices and their uncertainties. For concerns about climate, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has been instrumental in examining relative indices for comparing the radiative influences of greenhouse gases. The IPCC developed the concept of GWPs to provide a simple representation of the relative effects on climate resulting from a unit mass emission of a greenhouse gas. Alternative measures and variations on the definition of GWPs have also been considered and reported.

Not Available

1994-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

13

Climate change and trace gases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...possible to keep global temperature within...and capture at coal mines), as well...diseases. The global warming potential (GWP...in the case of coal, IPCC (2001...based on global surface air warming of GISS modelE...

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Low GWP Working Fluid for High Temperature Heat Pumps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Low GWP Working Fluid for High Temperature Heat Pumps: DR-2 Chemical Stability at High Temperatures Temp Heat Pumps: DR-2 Very Low GWP AND Non-Flammable HFC-245fa DR-2 Chemical Formula CF3CH2CHF2 HFO 171.3 Pcr [MPa] 3.65 2.9 Kontomaris-DuPont; European Heat Pump Summit, Nuremberg, October 15th, 2013

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

15

Comparing greenhouse gases for policy purposes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In order to derive optimal policies for greenhouse gas emissions control, the discounted marginal damages of emissions of different gases must be compared. The greenhouse warming potential (GWP) index, which is most often ...

Schmalensee, Richard

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Global Wind Power AS GWP | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

in the development, installation and administration of wind farms whose wind turbines are sold to investors. Coordinates: 56.955614, 8.691978 Show Map Loading...

17

An analytical inversion method for determining regional and global emissions of greenhouse gases: Sensitivity studies and application to halocarbons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new analytical inversion method has been developed to determine the regional and global emissions of long-lived atmospheric trace gases. It exploits in situ measurement data from three global networks and builds on ...

Stohl, A.

18

Global Warming Potential and Global Warming Commitment Concepts in the Assessment of Climate Radiative Forcing Effects  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Global Warming Potential (GWP) and Radiative Forcing (RF ... CS) and Individual (IS) schemes. The Global Warming Commitment (GWC) is calculated by the...

Igor L. Karol; Victor A. Frolkis

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

1988 Pilot Institute on Global Change on trace gases and the biosphere  

SciTech Connect

This proposal seeks multi-agency funding to conduct an international, multidisciplinary 1988 Pilot Institute on Global Change to take place from August 7 through 21, 1988, on the topic: Trace Gases and the Biosphere. The institute, to be held in Snowmass, Colorado, is envisioned as a pilot version of a continuing series of institutes on Global Change (IGC). This proposal seeks support for the 1988 pilot institute only. The concept and structure for the continuing series, and the definition of the 1988 pilot institute, were developed at an intensive and multidisciplinary Summer Institute Planning Meeting in Boulder, Colorado, on August 24--25, 1987. The theme for the 1988 PIGC, Trace Gases and the Biosphere, will focus a concerted, high-level multidisciplinary effort on a scientific problem central to the Global Change Program. Dramatic year-to-year increases in the global concentrations of radiatively-active trace gases such as methane and carbon dioxide are now well documented. The predicted climatic effects of these changes lend special urgency to efforts to study the biospheric sources and sinks of these gases and to clarify their interactions and role in the geosphere-biosphere system.

Eddy, J.A.; Moore, B. III

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

The greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs Danish consumption and emissions, 2007  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF6 Danish consumption and emissions, 2007 Tomas Sander Poulsen AND EMISSION OF F-GASES 7 1.1.1 Consumption 7 1.1.2 Emission 7 1.1.3 Trends in total GWP contribution from F 21 4 EMISSION OF F-GASES 23 4.1.1 Emissions of HFCs from refrigerants 23 4.1.2 Emissions of HFCs from

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gases gwp global" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

An investigation of the sub-grid variability of trace gases and aerosols for global climate modeling  

SciTech Connect

One fundamental property and limitation of grid based models is their inability to identify spatial details smaller than the grid cell size. While decades of work have gone into developing sub-grid treatments for clouds and land surface processes in climate models, the quantitative understanding of sub-grid processes and variability for aerosols and their precursors is much poorer. In this study, WRF-Chem is used to simulate the trace gases and aerosols over central Mexico during the 2006 MILAGRO field campaign, with multiple spatial resolutions and emission/terrain scenarios. Our analysis focuses on quantifying the sub-grid variability (SGV) of trace gases and aerosols within a typical global climate model grid cell, i.e. 75x75 km2. Our results suggest that a simulation with 3-km horizontal grid spacing adequately reproduces the overall transport and mixing of trace gases and aerosols downwind of Mexico City, while 75-km horizontal grid spacing is insufficient to represent local emission and terrain-induced flows along the mountain ridge, subsequently affecting the transport and mixing of plumes from nearby sources. Therefore, the coarse model grid cell average may not correctly represent aerosol properties measured over polluted areas. Probability density functions (PDFs) for trace gases and aerosols show that secondary trace gases and aerosols, such as O3, sulfate, ammonium, and nitrate, are more likely to have a relatively uniform probability distribution (i.e. smaller SGV) over a narrow range of concentration values. Mostly inert and long-lived trace gases and aerosols, such as CO and BC, are more likely to have broad and skewed distributions (i.e. larger SGV) over polluted regions. Over remote areas, all trace gases and aerosols are more uniformly distributed compared to polluted areas. Both CO and O3 SGV vertical profiles are nearly constant within the PBL during daytime, indicating that trace gases are very efficiently transported and mixed vertically by turbulence. But, simulated horizontal variability indicates that trace gases and aerosols are not well mixed horizontally in the PBL. During nighttime the SGV for trace gases is maximum at the surface, and quickly decreases with height. Unlike the trace gases, the SGV of BC and secondary aerosols reaches a maximum at the PBL top during the day. The SGV decreases with distance away from the polluted urban area, has a more rapid decrease for long-lived trace gases and aerosols than for secondary ones, and is greater during daytime than nighttime. The SGV of trace gases and aerosols is generally larger than for meteorological quantities. Emissions can account for up to 50% of the SGV over urban areas such as Mexico City during daytime for less-reactive trace gases and aerosols, such as CO and BC. The impact of emission spatial variability on SGV decays with altitude in the PBL and is insignificant in the free troposphere. The emission variability affects SGV more significantly during daytime (rather than nighttime) and over urban (rather than rural or remote) areas. The terrain, through its impact on meteorological fields such as wind and the PBL structure, affects dispersion and transport of trace gases and aerosols and their SGV.

Qian, Yun; Gustafson, William I.; Fast, Jerome D.

2010-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

22

Clarifying the Roles of Greenhouse Gases and ENSO in Recent Global Warming through Their Prediction Performance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is well known that natural external forcings and decadal-to-millennial variability drove changes in the climate system throughout the Holocene. Regarding recent times, attribution studies have shown that greenhouse gases (GHGs) determined the ...

Umberto Triacca; Antonello Pasini; Alessandro Attanasio; Alessandro Giovannelli; Marco Lippi

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ENE-47.153 Greenhouse gases andGreenhouse gases and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

distribution from US in 1990 & 1998distribution from US in 1990 & 1998 US 1998US 1998 GHG compound Global warming potential (GWP) % of US GHG emissions (1990) % of US GHG emissions (1998) Carbon dioxide, CO22 1 most important sources per GHG type3 most important sources per GHG type CO22 Fossil fuel combustion

Zevenhoven, Ron

24

The potential to mitigate global warming with no-tillage management is only realized when practised in the long term  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The potential to mitigate global warming with no-tillageNT adoption reduces the net global warming potential (GWP)soil for purposes of global warming mitigation. Our results

Six, J; Ogle, S M; Breidt, F J; Conant, R T; Mosier, A R; Paustian, K

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Use of PC-SAFT for Global Phase Diagrams in Binary Mixtures Relevant to Natural Gases. 2. n-Alkane + Other Hydrocarbons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Use of PC-SAFT for Global Phase Diagrams in Binary Mixtures Relevant to Natural Gases. ... In this work, we extend the previously reported study of global phase diagrams in binary mixtures relevant for the description of natural gases using the perturbed-chain statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT) model to systems containing n-alkanes + other nonlinear hydrocarbons. ... The PC-SAFT model usually describes properly the previously reported n-alkane + n-alkane binary mixtures, including their varied and complex phase behavior. ...

Santiago Aparicio-Martnez; Kenneth R. Hall

2006-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

26

Minimising the global warming potential of clay based geopolymers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Production of Portland cement (PC) binders contributes substantially to global CO2 production and various bodies including the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) have identified geopolymers as alternative binders with the potential to reduce these emissions. The hypothesis of this research is to investigate whether this is a realistic proposition in the light of limited waste materials such as fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag commonly used as geopolymer precursors. The effect of use of natural clay minerals as alternative precursors on global warming potential (GWP) is investigated. Methods of designing mixes with the lowest possible GWP are presented and these are compared to the GWP of PC and currently available metakaolin based geopolymer binders. It is concluded that it is possible to reduce the GWP by approximately 40%, but other impacts may increase.

Andrew Heath; Kevin Paine; Marcelle McManus

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Turning greenhouse gases into gold  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

gases, with carbon dioxide (CO2) often accused of being the primary instigator of global climate change. As a result, numerous efforts are under way to find ways to prevent,...

28

ARM - What are Greenhouse Gases?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

radiative forcing (which means they enhance global warming). Many of these gases are naturally occurring and are essential to life on earth by providing a blanket for marine and...

29

Global warming and end-use efficiency implications of replacing CFCs  

SciTech Connect

The direct contribution of CFCs to calculated global warming has been recognized for some time. As a result of the international agreement to phase out CFCs due to stratospheric ozone and the ensuing search for suitable alternatives, there has recently been increased attention on the DIRECT global warming potential (GWP) of the fluorocarbon alternatives as greenhouse gases. However, to date there has been little focus on the INDIRECT global warming effect arising from end-use efficiency changes and associated CO{sub 2} emissions. A study being conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) addresses this combined or total global warming impact of viable options to replace CFCs in their major energy-related applications. This paper reviews selected results for air-conditioning, refrigeration, and heat pump applications. The analysis indicates that the CFC user industries have made substantial progress in approaching near-equal energy efficiency with the HCFC/HFC alternative refrigerants. The findings also bring into question the relative importance of the DIRECT (chemical-related) effect in many applications. Replacing CFCs is an important step in reducing the total global warming impact, and at present the HCFC and HFCS appear to offer the best efficiency and lowest total impact of options available in the relatively short time period required for the transition away from CFCs.

Fairchild, P.D.; Fischer, S.K.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

30

EDDY RESOLVING NUTRIENT ECODYNAMICS IN THE GLOBAL PARALLEL OCEAN PROGRAM AND CONNECTIONS WITH TRACE GASES IN THE SULFUR, HALOGEN AND NMHC CYCLES  

SciTech Connect

Ecodynamics and the sea-air transfer of climate relevant trace gases are intimately coupled in the oceanic mixed layer. Ventilation of species such as dimethyl sulfide and methyl bromide constitutes a key linkage within the earth system. We are creating a research tool for the study of marine trace gas distributions by implementing coupled ecology-gas chemistry in the high resolution Parallel Ocean Program (POP). The fundamental circulation model is eddy resolving, with cell sizes averaging 0.15 degree (lat/long). Here we describe ecochemistry integration. Density dependent mortality and iron geochemistry have enhanced agreement with chlorophyll measurements. Indications are that dimethyl sulfide production rates must be adjusted for latitude dependence to match recent compilations. This may reflect the need for phytoplankton to conserve nitrogen by favoring sulfurous osmolytes. Global simulations are also available for carbonyl sulfide, the methyl halides and for nonmethane hydrocarbons. We discuss future applications including interaction with atmospheric chemistry models, high resolution biogeochemical snapshots and the study of open ocean fertilization.

S. CHU; S. ELLIOTT

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO): fine-grained, global-scale measurements of climatically important atmospheric gases and aerosols  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...emissions to human activity or natural processes, in a variety...new features of trace gas and aerosol emissions...surface fluxes of trace gases and aerosols. 2. HIAPER...sensor drift. The quantum cascade laser spectrometer (QCLS...CO2 sensor using an IR gas analyser (IRGA), which...

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Emission...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AP-42 Volume 2 mobile sources Global Warming Potentials The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) revised GWPs for certain greenhouse gases in 2007 for the Fourth...

33

Climate VISION: Greenhouse Gases Information  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

GHG Information GHG Information Greenhouse Gases, Global Climate Change, and Energy Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2001 [1605(a)] This report, required by Section 1605(a) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, provides estimates of U.S. emissions of greenhouse gases, as well as information on the methods used to develop the estimates. The estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors, not on measured or metered emissions monitoring. Available Energy Footprints Industry NAICS* All Manufacturing Alumina & Aluminum 3313 Cement 327310 Chemicals 325 Fabricated Metals 332 Food and Beverages 311, 312 Forest Products 321, 322 Foundries 3315 Glass & Glass Products, Fiber Glass 3272, 3296 Iron & Steel Mills 331111 Machinery & Equipment 333, 334, 335, 336

34

Decisions to reduce greenhouse gases from agriculture and product transport: LCA case study of organic and conventional wheat  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A streamlined hybrid life cycle assessment is conducted to compare the global warming potential (GWP) and primary energy use of conventional and organic wheat production and delivery in the US. Impact differences from agricultural inputs, grain farming, and transport processes are estimated. The GWP of a 1kg loaf of organic wheat bread is about 30g CO2-eq less than the conventional loaf. When organic wheat is shipped 420km farther to market, organic and conventional wheat systems have similar impacts. These results can change dramatically depending on soil carbon accumulation and nitrous oxide emissions from the two systems. Key parameters and their variability are discussed to provide producers, wholesale and retail consumers, and policymakers metrics to align their decisions with low-carbon objectives.

Kyle Meisterling; Constantine Samaras; Vanessa Schweizer

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Greenhouse Gases Converted to Fuel  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Greenhouse Greenhouse Gases Converted to Fuel Greenhouse Gases Converted to Fuel carbon-conversion-fig-1.jpg Key Challenges: An important strategy for reducing global CO2 emissions calls for capturing the greenhouse gas and converting it to fuels and chemicals. Although researchers working toward that goal demonstrated in 1992 such a reaction in the lab, a key outstanding scientific challenge was explaining the details of how the reaction took place - its "mechanism." Why it Matters: An important potential strategy for reducing global CO2 emissions calls for capturing the greenhouse gas and converting it electrochemically to fuels and chemicals. Accomplishments: Computation to explain how carbon dioxide can be converted to small organic molecules with little energy input. The

36

Cows Causing Global Warming  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Broadcast Transcript: Remember when President Reagan blamed trees for air pollution? Well now the Japanese are blaming cows for global warming. Apparently, the methane emissions from burping cows account for 5% of all global greenhouse gases. Simple...

Hacker, Randi

2008-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

37

Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Polar gases such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and ammonia may be separated from nonpolar gases such as methane, nitrogen, hydrogen or carbon dioxide by passing a mixture of polar and nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The use of such membranes as exemplified by polyethylene glycol and silicon rubber composited on polysulfone will permit greater selectivity accompanied by a high flux rate in the separation process.

Kulprathipanja, S.; Kulkarni, S.S.

1986-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

38

Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Polar gases such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and ammonia may be separated from nonpolar gases such as methane, nitrogen, hydrogen or carbon dioxide by passing a mixture of polar and nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The use of such membranes as exemplified by polyethylene glycol and silicon rubber composited on polysulfone will permit greater selectivity accompanied by a high flux rate in the separation process.

Kulprathipanja, Santi (Hoffman Estates, IL); Kulkarni, Sudhir S. (Hoffman Estates, IL)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Working Fluids Low GWP Working Fluids Low GWP Refrigerants - CRADA Ed Vineyard Oak Ridge National Laboratory vineyardea@ornl.gov (865) 574-0576 3 April 2013 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Problem Statement: - High GWP refrigerants increase CO 2 equivalent emissions for HVAC&R equipment - Low GWP alternatives may increase energy consumption, introduce safety risks, require significant modifications to equipment, and have higher costs

40

Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Working Fluids Low GWP Working Fluids Low GWP Refrigerants - CRADA Ed Vineyard Oak Ridge National Laboratory vineyardea@ornl.gov (865) 574-0576 3 April 2013 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Problem Statement: - High GWP refrigerants increase CO 2 equivalent emissions for HVAC&R equipment - Low GWP alternatives may increase energy consumption, introduce safety risks, require significant modifications to equipment, and have higher costs

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gases gwp global" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Strongly interacting Fermi gases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Strongly interacting gases of ultracold fermions have become an amazingly rich test-bed for many-body theories of fermionic matter. Here we present our recent experiments on these systems. Firstly, we discuss high-precision ...

Bakr, W.

42

Combined effects of nitrogen fertilization and biochar on the net global warming potential, greenhouse gas intensity and net ecosystem economic budget in intensive vegetable agriculture in southeastern China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Field experiments were conducted to determine the effects of nitrogen (N) fertilization and biochar addition on the net global warming potential (net GWP), greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) and net ecosystem economic budget (NEEB). These experiments were conducted in an intensive vegetable field with 4 consecutive vegetable crops in 2012 and 2013 in southeastern China. The experiment was conducted with a 32 factorial design in triplicate at N fertilizer rates of 0, 1475, 1967kgNha?1 and biochar rates of 0, 20, and 40tha?1. Although CH4 emissions were not obviously affected by N fertilization, N2O emissions increased by 27.2116.2% and the net GWP increased by 30.6307.2%. Consequently, the GHGI increased significantly, but vegetable yield and the NEEB did not improve. Furthermore, biochar amendments did not significantly influence CH4 emissions, but significantly decreased the N2O emissions by 1.725.4%, the net GWP by 89.6700.5%, and the GHGI by 89.5644.8%. In addition, vegetable yields significantly increased by 2.174.1%, which improved the NEEB. Thus, N fertilization did not increase vegetable yields or the NEEB. However, N fertilization did increase the net GWP and GHGI. In contrast, biochar additions resulted in lower N2O emissions and net GWP and GHGI, but increased vegetable yield and the NEEB in the intensive vegetable production system. Therefore, appropriate biochar amendment should be studied to combat changing climate and to improve the economic profits of vegetable production.

B. Li; C.H. Fan; H. Zhang; Z.Z. Chen; L.Y. Sun; Z.Q. Xiong

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1997  

SciTech Connect

This is the sixth annual report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases. It covers emissions over the period 1990--1996, with preliminary estimates of emissions for 1997. Chapter one summarizes some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect. Important recent developments in global climate change activities are discussed, especially the third Conference of the Parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change, which was held in December of 1997 in Kyoto, Japan. Chapters two through five cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons and related gases, respectively. Chapter six describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes. Six appendices are included in the report. 96 refs., 38 tabs.

NONE

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Control of pollutants in flue gases and fuel gases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and gasification technologies for heat and power . . . . . . . . 2-3 2.4 Waste incineration and waste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 2.2 Flue gases and fuel gases: combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, incineration and other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3 3.3 Formation of sulphur compounds during combustion and gasification . 3-5 3.4 Emission

Laughlin, Robert B.

45

Control of pollutants in flue gases and fuel gases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 2.2 Flue gases and fuel gases: combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, incineration and other and gasification technologies for heat and power . . . . . . . . 2-3 2.4 Waste incineration and waste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3 3.3 Formation of sulphur compounds during combustion and gasification . . 3-5 3.4 Emission

Zevenhoven, Ron

46

Federal Energy Management Program: Greenhouse Gases  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Greenhouse Gases Greenhouse Gases to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Greenhouse Gases on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program: Greenhouse Gases on Twitter Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Greenhouse Gases on Google Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Greenhouse Gases on Delicious Rank Federal Energy Management Program: Greenhouse Gases on Digg Find More places to share Federal Energy Management Program: Greenhouse Gases on AddThis.com... Sustainable Buildings & Campuses Operations & Maintenance Greenhouse Gases Basics Federal Requirements Guidance & Reporting Inventories & Performance Mitigation Planning Resources Contacts Water Efficiency Data Center Energy Efficiency Industrial Facilities Sustainable Federal Fleets

47

Quantifying emissions of greenhouse gases from South Asia through a targeted measurement campaign  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Methane (CH 4 ), nitrous oxide (N20) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) are powerful greenhouse gases with global budgets that are well-known but regional distributions that are not adequately constrained for the purposes of ...

Ganesan, Anita Lakshmi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program was suspended May 2011. It was a mechanism by which corporations, government agencies, individuals, voluntary organizations, etc., could report to the Energy Information Administration, any actions taken that have or are expected to reduce/avoid emissions of greenhouse gases or sequester carbon.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Greenhouse Gases | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Greenhouse Gases Greenhouse Gases Greenhouse Gases October 7, 2013 - 9:59am Addthis Executive Order 13514 requires Federal agencies to inventory and manage greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to meet Federal goals and mitigate climate change. Basics: Read an overview of greenhouse gases. Federal Requirements: Look up requirements for agency greenhouse gas management as outlined in Federal initiatives and executive orders. Guidance and Reporting: Find guidance documents and resources for greenhouse gas accounting and reporting. GHG Inventories and Performance: See detailed comprehensive GHG inventories by Federal agency and progress toward achieving Scope 1 and 2 GHG and Scope 3 GHG reduction targets. Mitigation Planning: Learn how Federal agencies can cost-effectively meet their GHG reduction goals.

50

Degenerate quantum gases of strontium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Degenerate quantum gases of alkaline-earth-like elements open new opportunities in research areas ranging from molecular physics to the study of strongly correlated systems. These experiments exploit the rich electronic structure of these elements, which is markedly different from the one of other species for which quantum degeneracy has been attained. Specifically, alkaline-earth-like atoms, such as strontium, feature metastable triplet states, narrow intercombination lines, and a non-magnetic, closed-shell ground state. This review covers the creation of quantum degenerate gases of strontium and the first experiments performed with this new system. It focuses on laser-cooling and evaporation schemes, which enable the creation of Bose-Einstein condensates and degenerate Fermi gases of all strontium isotopes, and shows how they are used for the investigation of optical Feshbach resonances, the study of degenerate gases loaded into an optical lattice, as well as the coherent creation of Sr_2 molecules.

Stellmer, Simon; Killian, Thomas C

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Greenhouse Gases and Emissions Trading  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases have grown rapidly since the beginning of this century. Unless emissions are controlled, the world could face rapid climate changes, incl...

Alice LeBlanc; Daniel J. Dudek

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Comparing the effects of greenhouse gas emissions on global warming  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Policies dealing with global warming require a measure of the effects of the emissions of greenhouse gases that create different magnitudes of instantaneous radiative forcing and have different lifetimes. The Global Warming ...

Eckaus, Richard S.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Optimal Estimation of the Surface Fluxes of Chloromethanes Using a 3-D Global Atmospheric  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(CH2Cl2), chloroform (CHCl3), and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), are chlorine-containing gases concentrations of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. The Center for Global Change Science at MIT

54

PPPL wins Department of Energy award for reducing greenhouse gases |  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

PPPL wins Department of Energy award for reducing greenhouse gases PPPL wins Department of Energy award for reducing greenhouse gases By Jeanne Jackson DeVoe October 2, 2012 Tweet Widget Facebook Like Google Plus One PPPL engineer Tim Stevenson checks for possible leaks of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), the gas used to insulate electronic equipment that has the potential to cause global warming at many times the rate of carbon dioxide. PPPL reduced leaks of SF6 by 65 percent over three years - reducing overall greenhouse gas emissions by 48 percent between 2008 and 2011. (Photo by Elle Starkman/PPPL Office of Communications) PPPL engineer Tim Stevenson checks for possible leaks of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), the gas used to insulate electronic equipment that has the potential to cause global warming at many times the rate of carbon

55

Analysis of greenhouse gases trading system using conversations among stakeholders  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction agreement makes up the targeted reduction of a legally binding GHG for each country or region. It enables us to buy and sell some GHG with other countries; it is the GHG trading system. But now, some free riders, ... Keywords: GHG emissions, GHG trading systems, MAS, agent-based modelling, agent-based systems, consumer behaviour, emissions reduction, free riders, genetic algorithms, global warming, greenhouse gases, multi-agent simulation, multi-agent systems

Setsuya Kurahashi; Masato Ohori

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Investigating and Using Biomass Gases  

K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

Students will be introduced to biomass gasification and will generate their own biomass gases. Students generate these everyday on their own and find it quite amusing, but this time theyll do it by heating wood pellets or wood splints in a test tube. They will collect the resulting gases and use the gas to roast a marshmallow. Students will also evaluate which biomass fuel is the best according to their own criteria or by examining the volume of gas produced by each type of fuel.

57

How the choice of multi-gas equivalency metrics affects mitigation options: The case of CO2 capture in a Brazilian coal-fired power plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This study shows how the assessment of emissions reductions from CO2 capture is critically dependent on the choice of multi-gas equivalency metric and climate impact time horizon. This has implications for time-sensitive mitigation policies, in particular when considering relative impact of short-lifetime gases. CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions from a coal-fired power plant in Brazil are used to estimate and compare the CO2-equivalent emissions based on standard practice global warming potentials GWP-100 with the less common GWP-50 and variable GWP for impact target years 2050 and 2100. Emission reductions appear lower for the variable metric, when the choice of target year is critical: 73% in 2100 and 60% in 2050. Reductions appear more favorable using a metric with a fixed time horizon, where the choice of time horizon is important: 77% for GWP-100 and 71% for GWP-50. Since CH4 emissions from mining have a larger contribution in the total emission of a plant with capture compared to one without, different perspectives on the impact of CH4 are analyzed. Use of variable GWP implies that CH4 emissions appear 39% greater in 2100 than with use of fixed GWP and 91% greater in 2050.

Maria Cecilia P. Moura; David A. Castelo Branco; Glen P. Peters; Alexandre Salem Szklo; Roberto Schaeffer

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Clean Gases for Gas Chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......to purchase such clean gases. Even research grades...no maintenance, at the cost of 500 watts of electrical...Exploration and Production Research Division, Hous...hour. The maintenance cost of the cold trap is only...displaces the contaminated gas which has passed into......

B. Osborne Prescott; Harold L. Wise

1966-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Atmospheric Trace Gases from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, models, etc. and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication, Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. The collections under the CDIAC heading of Atmospheric Trace Gases include: Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide, Atmospheric Methane, Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide, Atmospheric Hydrogen, Isotopes in Greenhouse Gases, Radionuclides, Aerosols, and Other Trace Gases.

60

Industrial Gases as a Vehicle for Competitiveness  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the diversity and options available to enable cost savings and environmentally driven process improvements. Industrial gases have come of age during the last fifteen years. Engineers and scientists have looked beyond the paradigms of their operations...INDUSTRIAL GASES AS A VEHICLE FOR COMPETITIVENESS James R. Dale, Director, Technology Programs, Airco Industrial Gases Division, The BOC Group, Inc., Murray Hill, New Jersey ABSTRACT Industrial gases are produced using compressed air...

Dale, J. R.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gases gwp global" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Globalization: Ecological Consequences of Global-Scale Connectivity in People,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, 2005; Rial et al., 2004). For example, increasing atmospheric CO2 and other greenhouse gases of Agriculture ­ Agricultural Research Service, Las Cruces, New Mexico USA 1. Introduction Globalization). Movement of humans through improved transportation is leading to spread of pests and pathogens

62

Hydrothermal venting of greenhouse gases triggering Early Jurassic global warming  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to the Toarcian atmosphere. Mass balance calculations constrained by new aureole data show that up to 1800 Gt

Svensen, Henrik

63

SUBTASK 7.2 GLOBAL WARMING AND GREEHOUSE GASES  

SciTech Connect

Evaluation of current climatic trends and reconstruction of paleoclimatic conditions for Devils Lake have been conducted based on diatom-inferred salinity for the last 2000 years. The 3-year cross-disciplinary research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) was carried out by the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) and St. Croix Watershed Research Station (SCWRS) at the Science Museum of Minnesota. The results indicate that frequent climatic fluctuations resulting in alternating periods of drought and wet conditions are typical for the northern Great Plains and suggest that the severity and length of extremes exceeded those on modern record. Devils Lake has experienced five fresh periods and two minor freshening periods in the last 2000 years. Transitions between fresh and saline periods have been relatively fast, representing lake level changes that have been similar to those observed in the last 150 years. From 0 to 1070 A.D., Devils Lake showed more variable behavior, with fresh phases centered at 200, 500, 700, and 1000 A.D. From 1070 A.D. to present, Devils Lake was generally saline, experiencing two minor freshening periods at 1305-1315 and 1800-1820 A.D and the major current freshening from 1960 A.D. to present.

Jaroslav Solc; Kurt Eylands; Jaroslav Solc Jr.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

The Viscosity of Compressed Gases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

New data and a new theory for the viscosity of compressed gases are presented. Data for nitrogen, hydrogen and a mixture of these gases are given, in the calculation of which, the "end effects" are not neglected as has been done in the past. Previous viscosity data are of doubtful validity owing to neglect of this factor. The theory is based on an analogy between the kinetic pressure and viscosity of a gas and is derived using an equation of state of the Lorentz type. Allowance is made for the difference between the viscosity and compressibility covolumes. The theory is substantiated experimentally and further confirmed by the recalculation of other data on the variation of Reynolds' criterion with the pressure, which is here shown to be constant. The mixture data offer a direct opportunity of comparing the Lorentz and linear rules for the calculation of the covolume of a mixture from the covolumes of the components and such comparison indicates that the Lorentz rule is not to be preferred. The substantiation of the new theory is the first direct proof of the validity of the separate treatment of the kinetic and cohesive pressures in the equation of state.

James H. Boyd; Jr.

1930-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

65

ARM - Lesson Plans: Dissolved Gases in Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

released into the air, additional CO2 Would intensify an already-problematic greenhouse effect. Preparation Demonstrate that water contains invisible gases. Collect and cover...

66

2 - What Is Global Warming?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this chapter, we introduce students to the basic notion of global warming. We begin with a discussion of the historical ordinariness of global temperature swings, reviewing patterns of temperature changes across glaciations in the most recent glacial period. This is followed by a discussion of the nature of greenhouse gases, how they heat the planet, and the centrality of CO2 in the production of weather. The earths energy budget is presented as a chart that illustrates how various elements of the planet and its atmosphere interact to arrive at average temperatures. Following this is a discussion of human-created sources of greenhouse gases heating the planet, and here we introduce the concept of climate forcings, or external variables that are responsible for causing global temperature increases (or decreases). Primary and secondary feedbacks are shown as mechanisms in which warming, once it reaches a certain level, tends to become self-fulfilling, increasing the rate and level of heating beyond human capacity to intervene. Critical tipping points, or points at which fundamental changes in the climate will occur, are followed by a discussion of climate sensitivity, which is the assessment of the amount of temperature increase associated with increments of greenhouse gases. Finally, we ask how hot will it get, and close with a discussion of overall heating capacity for short- and long-term periods and a discussion of the duration of greenhouse gases, once introduced into the atmosphere.

John P. Crank; Linda S. Jacoby

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Granular gases under extreme driving  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study inelastic gases in two dimensions using event-driven molecular dynamics simulations. Our focus is the nature of the stationary state attained by rare injection of large amounts of energy to balance the dissipation due to collisions. We find that under such extreme driving, with the injection rate much smaller than the collision rate, the velocity distribution has a power-law high energy tail. The numerically measured exponent characterizing this tail is in excellent agreement with predictions of kinetic theory over a wide range of system parameters. We conclude that driving by rare but powerful energy injection leads to a well-mixed gas and constitutes an alternative mechanism for agitating granular matter. In this distinct nonequilibrium steady-state, energy cascades from large to small scales. Our simulations also show that when the injection rate is comparable with the collision rate, the velocity distribution has a stretched exponential tail.

W. Kang; J. Machta; E. Ben-Naim

2010-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

68

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States, 1985--1990  

SciTech Connect

The Earth`s capacity to support life depends on the moderating influences of gases that envelop the planet and warm its surface and protect it from harmful radiation. These gases are referred to as ``greenhouse gases.`` Their warming capacity, called ``the greenhouse effect,`` is essential to maintaining a climate hospitable to all plant, animal, and human life. In recent years, however, there has been increasing concern that human activity may be affecting the intricate balance between the Earth`s absorption of heat from the sun and its capacity to reradiate excess heat back into space. Emissions of greenhouse gases from human activities may be an important mechanism that affects global climate. Thus, research is intensifying to improve our understanding of the role human activities might play in influencing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. On the basis of scientific findings of the past few decades, the US Government and the international community at large are now taking steps toward stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions. This report contributes to that process. Mandated by Congress this report provides estimates of US emissions of the principal greenhouse gases--carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorcarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and nonmethane volatile organic compounds. Estimates are for the period 1985 to 1990. Preliminary estimates for 1991 have also been included, whenever data were available.

Not Available

1993-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

69

Raman Spectra of Polyatomic Gases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Raman spectra of gaseous CO2, N2O, NH3, CH4 and C2H4 have been photographed using the line ?2536 of mercury as the exciting radiation. Vibrational transitions have been observed in all the gases investigated, and rotational transitions in the cases of NH3 and CH4. For the frequency shifts due to the vibrational transitions, the following numerical values (in cm-1) have been found: CO2: 1264.5; 1285.1; 1387.7; 1408.4.CH4: 2914.8; 3022.1; 3071.5.N2O: 1281.8C2H4: 1342.4; 1623.3; 2880.1; 3019.3; 3240.3; 3272.3.NH3: 3333.6 Raman spectra of liquid NH3 have been photographed and found to give the two frequency shifts: 3298.4 and 3214.5. In the case of gaseous NH3, pure rotational transitions lead to a moment of inertia having the value I0=2.7910-40. In the case of methane, the positive and negative branches of the 3022.1 band lead to the value I0=5.1710-40. The relations between these data and infra-red absorption data are discussed.

R. G. Dickinson, R. T. Dillon, and F. Rasetti

1929-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

70

Emissions Of Greenhouse Gases From Rice Agriculture  

SciTech Connect

This project produced detailed data on the processes that affect methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice agriculture and their inter-relationships. It defines the shifting roles and potential future of these gases in causing global warming and the benefits and tradeoffs of reducing emissions. The major results include: 1). Mechanisms and Processes Leading to Methane Emissions are Delineated. Our experiments have tested the standard model of methane emissions from rice fields and found new results on the processes that control the flux. A mathematical mass balance model was used to unravel the production, oxidation and transport of methane from rice. The results suggested that when large amounts of organic matter are applied, the additional flux that is observed is due to both greater production and reduced oxidation of methane. 2). Methane Emissions From China Have Been Decreasing Over the Last Two Decades. We have calculated that methane emissions from rice fields have been falling in recent decades. This decrease is particularly large in China. While some of this is due to reduced area of rice agriculture, the bigger effect is from the reduction in the emission factor which is the annual amount of methane emitted per hectare of rice. The two most important changes that cause this decreasing emission from China are the reduced use of organic amendments which have been replaced by commercial nitrogen fertilizers, and the increased practice of intermittent flooding as greater demands are placed on water resources. 3). Global Methane Emissions Have Been Constant For More Than 20 Years. While the concentrations of methane in the atmosphere have been leveling off in recent years, our studies show that this is caused by a near constant total global source of methane for the last 20 years or more. This is probably because as some anthropogenic sources have increased, others, such as the rice agriculture source, have fallen. Changes in natural emissions appear small. 4). Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Rice Fields Increase as Methane Emissions Drop. Inundated conditions favor anaerobic methane production with high emission rates and de-nitrification resulting in modest nitrous oxide emissions. Under drier conditions such as intermittent flooding, methane emissions fall and nitrous oxide emissions increase. Increased nitrogen fertilizer use increases nitrous oxide emissions and is usually accompanied by reduced organic matter applications which decreases methane emissions. These mechanisms cause a generally inverse relationship between methane and nitrous oxide emissions. Reduction of methane from rice agriculture to control global warming comes with tradeoffs with increased nitrous oxide emissions. 5). High Spatial Resolution Maps of Emissions Produced. Maps of methane and nitrous oxide emissions at a resolution of 5 min 5 min have been produced based on the composite results of this research. These maps are necessary for both scientific and policy uses.

M. Aslam K. Khalil

2009-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

71

The effect of fertilizer practices on N balance and global warming potential of maizesoybeanwheat rotations in Northeastern China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Long-term agronomic studies are useful to determine cropping system nitrogen (N) use efficiency and the fate of applied fertilizers. We used a subtractive fertilizer experiment incorporating N, phosphorous (P), potassium (K) and swine manure to determine long-term changes in grain yield, soil organic carbon (SOC), total soil nitrogen (N), as well as carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. The experiment was conducted on a 22-year maizesoybeanwheat rotation in Northeastern China. Crop residues were removed for cooking fuel and forage according to local practices. Five fertilizer treatments were applied annually: control (no fertilizer), NK, NP, NPK, and NPKOM (N, P, K and manure). The NPKOM treatment increased SOC and total soil N by 4.59 and 0.45Mgha?1, respectively. In contrast, SOC decreased by 10.6 and 6.64Mgha?1 in the control and NK treatments, respectively. The NPKOM treatment had an average of 2.9 times more N2O emissions than the other fertilizer treatments. The cropping system balances for N and SOC, together with fuel use for farming practices and manure handling, were used to calculate the global warming potential (GWP) of the different fertilizer treatments. Due to SOC sequestration, the GWP of the NPKOM treatment (6.77MgCequivalentha?1) was significantly lower than that of both the control (14.4MgCequivalentha?1) and the NK treatment (12.8MgCequivalentha?1). The results suggest that in rainfed agricultural systems in Northeastern China, the application of manure supplemented with NPK can simultaneously achieve higher grain yield and lower GWP compared to mineral fertilizers alone.

Yunfa Qiao; Shujie Miao; Xiaozeng Han; Mengyang You; Xia Zhu; William R. Horwath

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

73

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - What are...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

gases such as hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride). The Greenhouse Effect Concentrations of several important greenhouse gases have increased by about 33...

74

Study of Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants in Heat Pump System for Residential Applications.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??R410A is one of the major refrigerants used for air conditioning and heat pump systems in residential applications. It has zero ODP but its GWP (more)

Barve, Atharva

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Voluntary Reporting Program for greenhouse gases is part of an attempt by the U.S. Government to develop innovative, low-cost, and nonregulatory approaches to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. It is one element in an array of such programs introduced in recent years as part of the effort being made by the United States to comply with its national commitment to stabilize emissions of greenhouse gases under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions of greenhouse gases.

NONE

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

NETL: Global Environmental Benefits  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Global Environmental Benefits Global Environmental Benefits Gasification Systems Global Environmental Benefits Environmental performance for future energy production systems is a much greater factor as emission standards tighten in the United States and worldwide. The outstanding environmental performance of gasification systems makes it an excellent technology for the clean production of electricity and other products. In addition, the reduction of CO2 emissions is one of the major challenges facing industry in response to global climate change. Other countries with coal reserves might potentially import technologies developed in the United States to enable low-cost gasification with carbon capture and EOR or sequestration. Not only will this benefit the U.S. gasification technology industry, but it will also result in a global environmental benefit through more affordable control of greenhouse gases (GHGs). See the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) link below for a summary of the impact of fossil fuels without carbon capture on CO2 emissions, on the GHG contributions of different countries, and of the projected impact of developing countries to 2030:

77

Gases for an SSC muon detector  

SciTech Connect

Recent measurements of electron drift velocities as a function of the density-reduced electric field E/N are reported for a number of unitary gases and the mixtures CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} and NH{sub 3}/CF{sub 4}/Ar. Calculated values of the mean electron energy as a function of E/N are also reported for unitary gases and mixtures of CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4}. 7 refs., 5 figs.

Christophorou, L.G.; Datskos, P.G.; Carter, J.G. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA) Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

THE FUTURE OF ENERGY GASES David G. Howell, Editor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

totally independent of oil. Methane is found in association with coal; it is a byproduct of metabolic the term "energy gases" to distinguish those natural gases, primarily methane, that have utility for energy consequences associated with an expanded role of energy gases? Energy gases, particularly methane, are commonly

79

Measuring the Isotopic Composition of Solar Wind Noble Gases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

noble gases. #12;Exploring the Solar Wind94 Light solar wind noble gases were directly measured by mass of the light gases are known to vary with energy, so none of these provided solar isotopic and elemental5 Measuring the Isotopic Composition of Solar Wind Noble Gases Alex Meshik, Charles Hohenberg, Olga

80

Global Security  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Applications Global Security science-innovationassetsimagesicon-science.jpg Global Security National security depends on science and technology. The United States relies on...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gases gwp global" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Global Atmospheric Change and Animal Populations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, which are increasing in frequency, also produce large amounts of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2; methane to increase dramatically (Withgott & Brennan, 2009; Figure 2). Burning of fossil fuels, such as coal, gasoline by 2100 (IPCC 2007). (Approximate contribution to global warming: 33%; Hansen & Sato 2001). Methane (CH4

82

Purchase, Delivery, and Storage of Gases  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Purchase, Delivery, and Storage of Gases Print Purchase, Delivery, and Storage of Gases Print ALS users should follow Berkeley Lab policy, as described below, for the purchase, delivery, storage, and use of all gases at the ALS. See Shipping and Receiving for information on any non-gas deliveries. Contacts: Gas purchase or delivery: ALS Receiving, 510-486-4494 Gas use and storage: Experiment Coordination, 510-486-7222, This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it Gas Storage: Berkeley Lab Chemical Inventory All gas bottles and cylinders at the ALS must be identified with bar code and logged into the Berkeley Lab Chemical Inventory by ALS staff. The inventory will be updated periodically; for more information contact Experiment Coordination. Gases are stored either in the racks between buildings 6 and 7; toxic and corrosive gases are stored in Building 6, room 6C across the walkway from beamline 10.0.

83

Global CO/sub 2/ buildup and possible climate modification  

SciTech Connect

The non-local effects of fossil fuel power production due to the release of trace gases to the atmosphere are likely to be on a global scale. The eventual social and economic impacts of such global effects can be understood only after we have developed a detailed understanding of how the release of these gases influences the natural system. For CO/sub 2/, the impacts will likely be large if the resulting climatic changes seriously modify the amount of water contained in continental ice sheets. While there is considerable attention currently focussed on the CO/sub 2/ problem, the release of other trace gases, such as CO, may also have global consequences. The key to understanding these global changes and how and when they might occur, may well rest on our ability to characterize the history of the chemical composition of the atmosphere and successfully model those changes.

Stokes, G.M.

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory The Joint Global Change  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Pacific Northwest Pacific Northwest National Laboratory The Joint Global Change The Joint Global Change Research Institute Research Institute Nuclear Power and Stabilizing CO 2 Concentrations Jae Edmonds and Sonny Kim Nuclear Energy Research Advisory Committee Meeting April 15 and 16, 2002 Alexandria, VA Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 2 The Joint Global Change The Joint Global Change Research Institute Research Institute CLIMATE CHANGE Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 3 The Joint Global Change The Joint Global Change Research Institute Research Institute CLIMATE CHANGE Multiple gases * CO 2 (fossil fuel, land-use) * CH 4 (rice paddies, ruminant livestock, landfills, coal mining, oil and gas production, incomplete combustion) * N 2 O (nitrogen fertilizers, industrial processes, other??)

85

Research & Development Roadmap for Next-Generation Low Global...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

on the key R&D needs that have the potential to reduce barriers to greater market penetration of next-generation low- GWP refrigerants. The output was a list of potential...

86

Research & Development Roadmap: Next-Generation Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This research and development (R&D) roadmap for next-generation low-GWP refrigerants provides recommendations to the Building Technologies Office (BTO) on R&D activities that will help accelerate the transition to low-GWP refrigerants across the entire HVAC&R industry.

87

Chemical Properties of the Rare Gases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... of argon of about 100 atm. I have already shown by an independent method1 that radon, too, forms a hydrate which is much more stable than those of other rare ... , forms a hydrate which is much more stable than those of other rare gases. Radon is easily held by crystals of sulphur dioxide hydrates, when they are formed from ...

B. A. NIKITIN

1937-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

88

New instruments for measuring landfill gases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

New instruments for measuring landfill gases ... The legislation mandates that landfill operators monitor more than 1200 active sites for specific pollution products. ... According to Varian, the instrumentation systems can be adapted easily to meet landfill testing requirements that might be enacted in states other than California. ...

RUDY BAUM

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Global warming potential for CF[sub 4  

SciTech Connect

With sufficient emissions, fluorinated gases such as CF[sub 4] could contribute significantly to the concerns about global warming because they are greenhouse gases, are chemically very inert, and have long accumulation lifetimes in the atmosphere. At this time, the only significant known source of CF[sub 4] is primary aluminum smelting (Abrahamson, 1992). While current emissions are small, additional sources could make CF[sub 4] an important contribution to climate forcing in the future.

Wuebbles, D J; Grossman, A S

1992-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

90

Global climate feedbacks  

SciTech Connect

The important physical, chemical, and biological events that affect global climate change occur on a mesoscale -- requiring high spatial resolution for their analysis. The Department of Energy has formulated two major initiatives under the US Global Change Program: ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurements), and CHAMMP (Computer Hardware Advanced Mathematics and Model Physics). ARM is designed to use ground and air-craft based observations to document profiles of atmospheric composition, clouds, and radiative fluxes. With research and models of important physical processes, ARM will delineate the relationships between trace gases, aerosol and cloud structure, and radiative transfer in the atmosphere, and will improve the parameterization of global circulation models. The present GCMs do not model important feedbacks, including those from clouds, oceans, and land processes. The purpose of this workshop is to identify such potential feedbacks, to evaluate the uncertainties in the feedback processes (and, if possible, to parameterize the feedback processes so that they can be treated in a GCM), and to recommend research programs that will reduce the uncertainties in important feedback processes. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.

Manowitz, B.

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Advertising, economic development, and global warming  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Advertising is tied to global warming through an endogenous growth model. The model allows for the possibility that the environment can become a source rather than a sink for greenhouse gases. Optimal control analysis of the model shows that a feasible steady state is possible for which the environment remains a sink, and identifies a sufficient condition for such to be the case. Comparative-static analysis shows that, for sufficiently small values of steady-state anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentration, global surface temperature and advertising in steady state are negative functions of parameters that measure the damaging effects of global warming.

Gary M. Erickson

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Gas Cleaning Methods for Ambient Air and Compressed Gases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cleaning air or compressed gases in cleanroom installations requires removal of particulate and/or ... The technology used for cleaning gases for the cleanroom is derived from processes long used in ... fossil fu...

Alvin Lieberman

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Perdido LF-Gase to Electricity | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Perdido LF-Gase to Electricity Perdido LF-Gase to Electricity This presentation was given at the July 17, 2012, Community Renewable Energy Deployment webinar on successful landfill...

94

BOC Lienhwa Industrial Gases BOCLH | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

BOC Lienhwa Industrial Gases BOCLH BOC Lienhwa Industrial Gases BOCLH Jump to: navigation, search Name BOC Lienhwa Industrial Gases (BOCLH) Place Taipei, Taiwan Sector Solar Product BOCLH is a joint venture between the Lien Hwa Industrial Corporation and the BOC Group in the United Kingdom and produces high-purity gases used in solar component production. References BOC Lienhwa Industrial Gases (BOCLH)[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. BOC Lienhwa Industrial Gases (BOCLH) is a company located in Taipei, Taiwan . References ↑ "BOC Lienhwa Industrial Gases (BOCLH)" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=BOC_Lienhwa_Industrial_Gases_BOCLH&oldid=342956

95

Method for enhancing microbial utilization rates of gases using perfluorocarbons  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of enhancing the bacterial reduction of industrial gases using perfluorocarbons (PFCs) is disclosed. Because perfluorocarbons (PFCs) allow for a much greater solubility of gases than water does, PFCs have the potential to deliver gases in higher concentrations to microorganisms when used as an additive to microbial growth media thereby increasing the rate of the industrial gas conversion to economically viable chemicals and gases.

Turick, Charles E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States, 1987--1994  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to prepare a report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases for the period 1987--1992, with annual updates thereafter. This is the third annual update report,covering national emissions over the period 1987--1993, with preliminary estimates of US carbon dioxide and halocarbon emissions for 1994. Calculating national aggregate emissions(or ``national inventories``) of greenhouse gases is a recently developed form of intellectual endeavor. Greenhouse gas emissions are rarely measured directly or reported to statistical agencies. Thus, to prepare emissions inventories usually requires inferring emissions indirectly from information collected for other purposes. Both the available information and the inferences drawn may be of varying reliability. Chapter 1 of this report briefly recapitulates some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect and discusses important recent developments in global climate change activities. Chapters 2 through 6 cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons, and criteria pollutants, respectively. Chapter 7 describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes.

NONE

1995-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

97

Global Security  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

nonpartisan organization with a mission to strengthen global security by reducing the risk of use and preventing the spread of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons and to...

98

ARM - PI Product - ARM-LBNL-NOAA Flask Sampler for Carbon Cycle Gases  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ProductsARM-LBNL-NOAA Flask Sampler for Carbon Cycle ProductsARM-LBNL-NOAA Flask Sampler for Carbon Cycle Gases Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : ARM-LBNL-NOAA Flask Sampler for Carbon Cycle Gases Site(s) SGP General Description Data from ccg-flasks are sampled at the ARM SGP site and analyzed by the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) as part of the NOAA Cooperative Global Air Sampling Network. Surface samples are collected from a 60m tower at the SGP Central Facility, usually once per week on one afternoon. The aircraft samples are collected approximately weekly from a chartered aircraft, and the collection flight path is centered over the tower where the surface samples are collected. Samples are collected by the ARM/LBNL Carbon Project. CO2 flask data contains measurements of CO2

99

An Evaluation of the Environmental Impact of Different Commercial Supermarket Refrigeration Systems Using Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants  

SciTech Connect

Commercial refrigeration systems consumed 1.21 Quads of primary energy in 2010 and are known to be a major source for refrigerant charge leakage into the environment. Thus, it is important to study the environmental impact of commercial supermarket refrigeration systems and improve their design to minimize any adverse impacts. The system s Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) was presented as a comprehensive metric with the aim of calculating the equivalent mass of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere throughout its lifetime, from construction to operation and destruction. In this paper, an open source tool for the evaluation of the LCCP of different air-conditioning and refrigeration systems is presented and used to compare the environmental impact of a typical multiplex direct expansion (DX) supermarket refrigeration systems based on three different refrigerants as follows: two hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants (R-404A, and R-407F), and a low global warming potential (GWP) refrigerant (N-40). The comparison is performed in 8 US cities representing different climates. The hourly energy consumption of the refrigeration system, required for the calculation of the indirect emissions, is calculated using a widely used building energy modeling tool (EnergyPlus). A sensitivity analysis is performed to determine the impact of system charge and power plant emission factor on the LCCP results. Finally, we performed an uncertainty analysis to determine the uncertainty in total emissions for both R-404A and N-40 operated systems. We found that using low GWP refrigerants causes a considerable drop in the impact of uncertainty in the inputs related to direct emissions on the uncertainty of the total emissions of the system.

Beshr, Mohamed [University of Maryland, College Park; Aute, Vikrant [University of Maryland, College Park; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Radermacher, Reinhard [University of Maryland, College Park

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

PNNL: Atmospheric Sciences & Global Change - Frontiers in Global Change  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Frontiers in Global Change Frontiers in Global Change Dr. Thanos Nenes Dr. Thanos Nenes Aerosol-Cloud Interactions: The Elusive Component of Climate Change Dr. Thanos Nenes Professor & Georgia Power Faculty Scholar, School of Earth & Atmospheric Sciences, School of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA Thursday, August 1, 2013 EMSL Auditorium 10:00AM The effect of human activities on climate is one of the most important issues facing society. Humans influence climate in many ways. Emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) tend to warm climate, by reducing the amount of infrared radiation that is emitted to space. Increased levels of suspended atmospheric particles ("aerosols") exert a net cooling effect by directly scattering and absorption of solar radiation (the "aerosol direct climatic

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gases gwp global" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Efficieny handling effluent gases through chemical scrubbing  

SciTech Connect

This paper is presented as an information source for efficiencies of chemical scrubbing. In it, we will discuss the specific problems of scrubbing silane, disilane, diborane, phosphine, hydrogen selenide and arsine. We will explain the scrubber dynamics, gases and flow rates used along with liquid mediums. The equipment and procedures used for testing, as well as the determination of the results, will be discussed. We intend to give examples of possible reactions and documentation of our efficiencies. Installation and maintenance will be touched, as well as our experiments into accidental catastrophic releases. From all of this we will derive conclusions as to the best possible means of wet chemical scrubbing.

Herman, T.; Soden, S.

1988-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

102

Heat conduction in relativistic neutral gases revisited  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The kinetic theory of dilute gases to first order in the gradients yields linear relations between forces and fluxes. The heat flux for the relativistic gas has been shown to be related not only to the temperature gradient but also to the density gradient in the representation where number density, temperature and hydrodynamic velocity are the independent state variables. In this work we show the calculation of the corresponding transport coefficients from the full Boltzmann equation and compare the magnitude of the relativistic correction.

A. L. Garcia-Perciante; A. R. Mendez

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

103

On surface temperature, greenhouse gases, and aerosols: models and observations  

SciTech Connect

The effect of changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and sulphate aerosols on near-surface temperature is investigated using a version of the Hadley Centre atmospheric model coupled to a mixed layer ocean. The scattering of sunlight by sulphate aerosols is represented by appropriately enhancing the surface albedo. On doubling atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, the global mean temperature increases by 5.2 K. An integration with a 39% increase in CO{sub 2}, giving the estimated change in radiative heating due to increases in greenhouse gases since 1900, produced an equilibrium warming of 2.3 K, which, even allowing for oceanic inertia, is significantly higher than the observed warming over the same period. Furthermore, the simulation suggests a substantial warming everywhere, whereas the observations indicate isolated regions of cooling, including parts of the northern midlatitude continents. The addition of an estimate of the effect of scattering by current industrial aerosols (uncertain by a factor of at least 3) leads to improved agreement with the observed pattern of changes over the northern continents and reduces the global mean warming by about 30%. Doubling the aerosol forcing produces patterns that are still compatible with the observations, but further increase leads to unrealistically extensive cooling in the midlatitudes. The diurnal range of surface temperature decreases over most of the northern extratropics on increasing CO{sub 2}, in agreement with recent observations. The addition of the current industrial aerosol had little detectable effect on the diurnal range in the model because the direct effect of reduced solar heating at the surface is approximately balanced by the indirect effects of cooling. Thus, the ratio of the reduction in diurnal range to the mean warming is increased, in closer agreement with observations. Results from further sensitivity experiments with larger increases in aerosol and CO{sub 2} are presented.

Mitchell, J.F.B.; Davis, R.A.; Ingram, W.J.; Senior, C.A. [Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Berkshire (United Kingdom)] [Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Berkshire (United Kingdom)

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Asia-wide emissions of greenhouse gases  

SciTech Connect

Emissions of principal greenhouse gases (GHGs) from Asia are increasing faster than those from any other continent. This is a result of rapid economic growth, as well as the fact that almost half of the world`s population lives in Asian countries. In this paper, the author provides estimates of emissions of the two principal greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}), from individual countries and areas. Recent literature has been reviewed for emission estimates for individual sources, such as carbon dioxide from cement manufacture, and methane from rice fields. There are very large uncertainties in many of these estimates, so several estimates are provided, where available. The largest anthropogenic source of CO{sub 2} emissions is the use of fossil fuels. Energy consumption data from 1992 have been used to calculate estimated emissions of CO{sub 2} from this source. In view of the ongoing negotiations to limit future greenhouse gas emissions, estimates of projected CO{sub 2} emissions from the developing countries of Asia are also provided. These are likely to be 3 times their 1986 levels by 2010, under business as usual scenarios. Even with the implementation of energy efficiency measures and fuel switching where feasible, the emissions of CO{sub 2} are likely to double within the same time period.

Siddiqi, T.A. [East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States). Program on Environment

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Suspended two-dimensional electron and hole gases  

SciTech Connect

We report on the fabrication of fully suspended two-dimensional electron and hole gases in III-V heterostructures. Low temperature transport measurements verify that the properties of the suspended gases are only slightly degraded with respect to the non-suspended gases. Focused ion beam technology is used to pattern suspended nanostructures with minimum damage from the ion beam, due to the small width of the suspended membrane.

Kazazis, D.; Bourhis, E.; Gierak, J.; Gennser, U. [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, CNRS-LPN, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Bourgeois, O. [Institut Nel, CNRS-UJF, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Antoni, T. [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, CNRS-LPN, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis, France and Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Universit Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France)

2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

106

Energetic Materials for EGS Well Stimulation (solids, liquids, gases)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Energetic Materials for EGS Well Stimulation (solids, liquids, gases) presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado.

107

Trend analysis from 1970 to 2008 and model evaluation of EDGARv4 global gridded anthropogenic mercury emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) provides a time-series of man-made emissions of greenhouse gases and short-lived atmospheric pollutants from 1970 to 2008. Mercury is included in EDGARv4.tox1, ...

Muntean, Marilena

108

Global Carbon Pricing Among Countries With Different Economic Prospects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of greenhouse gases (ghg). The United States, which accounts for around a quarter of global ghg emissions (IEA change problem and argue that ghg cuts could imperil their economic growth, which they expect to lift have less capacity for ghg miti- gation, but also from the fact that, given their economic growth

109

FLAMMABILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF COMBUSTIBLE GASES AND VAPORS  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Bulletin 627 Bulletin 627 BUREAU o b MINES FLAMMABILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF COMBUSTIBLE GASES AND VAPORS By Michael G. Zabetakis DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency Thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement,

110

Refinery Yield of Liquefied Refinery Gases  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Refinery Yield Refinery Yield (Percent) Product: Liquefied Refinery Gases Finished Motor Gasoline Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Residual Fuel Oil Naphtha for Petrochemical Feedstock Use Other Oils for Petrochemical Feedstock Use Special Naphthas Lubricants Waxes Petroleum Coke Asphalt and Road Oil Still Gas Miscellaneous Products Processing Gain(-) or Loss(+) Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Area Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History U.S. 5.3 5.4 5.2 5.2 5.1 3.9 1993-2013 PADD 1 4.4 5.1 4.9 4.9 4.6 2.1 1993-2013 East Coast 4.4 5.3 5.1 5.1 4.9 2.2 1993-2013

111

Shortcuts to adiabaticity for trapped ultracold gases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study, experimentally and theoretically, the controlled transfer of harmonically trapped ultracold gases between different quantum states. In particular we experimentally demonstrate a fast decompression and displacement of both a non-interacting gas and an interacting Bose-Einstein condensate which are initially at equilibrium. The decompression parameters are engineered such that the final state is identical to that obtained after a perfectly adiabatic transformation despite the fact that the fast decompression is performed in the strongly non-adiabatic regime. During the transfer the atomic sample goes through strongly out-of-equilibrium states while the external confinement is modified until the system reaches the desired stationary state. The scheme is theoretically based on the invariants of motion and scaling equations techniques and can be generalized to decompression trajectories including an arbitrary deformation of the trap. It is also directly applicable to arbitrary initial non-equilibrium sta...

Schaff, Jean-Franois; Labeyrie, Guillaume; Vignolo, Patrizia

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Shortcuts to adiabaticity for trapped ultracold gases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study, experimentally and theoretically, the controlled transfer of harmonically trapped ultracold gases between different quantum states. In particular we experimentally demonstrate a fast decompression and displacement of both a non-interacting gas and an interacting Bose-Einstein condensate which are initially at equilibrium. The decompression parameters are engineered such that the final state is identical to that obtained after a perfectly adiabatic transformation despite the fact that the fast decompression is performed in the strongly non-adiabatic regime. During the transfer the atomic sample goes through strongly out-of-equilibrium states while the external confinement is modified until the system reaches the desired stationary state. The scheme is theoretically based on the invariants of motion and scaling equations techniques and can be generalized to decompression trajectories including an arbitrary deformation of the trap. It is also directly applicable to arbitrary initial non-equilibrium states.

Jean-Franois Schaff; Pablo Capuzzi; Guillaume Labeyrie; Patrizia Vignolo

2011-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

113

Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program, required by Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, records the results of voluntary measures to reduce, avoid, or sequester greenhouse gas emissions. In 1998, 156 US companies and other organizations reported to the Energy information Administration that, during 1997, they had achieved greenhouse gas emission reductions and carbon sequestration equivalent to 166 million tons of carbon dioxide, or about 2.5% of total US emissions for the year. For the 1,229 emission reduction projects reported, reductions usually were measured by comparing an estimate of actual emissions with an estimate of what emissions would have been had the project not been implemented.

NONE

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Bogoliubov spectrum of interacting Bose gases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the large-N limit of a system of N bosons interacting with a potential of intensity 1/N. When the ground state energy is to the first order given by Hartree's theory, we study the next order, predicted by Bogoliubov's theory. We show the convergence of the lower eigenvalues and eigenfunctions towards that of the Bogoliubov Hamiltonian (up to a convenient unitary transform). We also prove the convergence of the free energy when the system is sufficiently trapped. Our results are valid in an abstract setting, our main assumptions being that the Hartree ground state is unique and non-degenerate, and that there is complete Bose-Einstein condensation on this state. Using our method we then treat two applications: atoms with ''bosonic'' electrons on one hand, and trapped 2D and 3D Coulomb gases on the other hand.

Mathieu Lewin; Phan Thnh Nam; Sylvia Serfaty; Jan Philip Solovej

2014-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

115

Method of converting environmentally pollutant waste gases to methanol  

SciTech Connect

A continuous flow method is described of converting environmentally pollutant by-product gases emitted during the manufacture of silicon carbide to methanol comprising: (a) operating a plurality of batch furnaces of a silicon carbide manufacturing plant thereby producing silicon carbide and emitting by-product gases during the operation of the furnaces; (b) staggering the operation of the batch furnaces to achieve a continuous emission of the by-product gases; (c) continuously flowing the by-product gases as emitted from the batch furnaces directly to a methanol manufacturing plant; (d) cleansing the by-product gases of particulate matter, including removing the element sulfur from the by-product gases, as they are flowed to the methanol manufacturing plant, sufficiently for use of the by-product gases in producing methanol; and (e) immediately producing methanol from the by-product gases at the methanol manufacturing plant whereby the producing of silicon carbide is joined with the producing of methanol as a unified process.

Pfingstl, H.; Martyniuk, W.; Hennepin, A. Ill; McNally, T.; Myers, R.; Eberle, L.

1993-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

116

OBTAINING LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS FOR IDEAL GASES USING ELASTIC COLLISIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

OBTAINING LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS FOR IDEAL GASES USING ELASTIC COLLISIONS STEPHEN MONTGOMERY law of expansion of ideal gases. 1. The Second Law of Thermodynamics A thermally isolated container-SMITH AND HANNAH MORGAN Abstract. The purpose of this note is to see to what extent ideal gas laws can be obtained

Montgomery-Smith, Stephen

117

Continuous cryopump with a method for removal of solidified gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved cryopump for the removal of gases from a high vacuum, comprising a cryopanel incorporating honeycomb structure, refrigerant means thermally connected to the cryopanel, and a rotatable channel moving azimuthally around an axis located near the center of the cryopanel, removing gases adsorbed within the honeycomb structure by subliming them and conducting them outside the vacuum vessel. 4 figs.

Carlson, L.W.; Herman, H.

1988-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

118

The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation Model (GREET) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation Model (GREET Fleet) Agency/Company /Organization: Argonne National Laboratory Sector: Energy Focus Area: Greenhouse Gas, Transportation Phase: Determine Baseline, Evaluate Options Topics: Baseline projection, GHG inventory Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Spreadsheet Website: greet.es.anl.gov/main Cost: Free OpenEI Keyword(s): EERE tool, The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation Model, GREET References: GREET Fleet Main Page[1] Logo: The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation Model (GREET Fleet)

119

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

of Greenhouse Gases Program of Greenhouse Gases Program Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program ***THE VOLUNTARY REPORTING OF GREENHOUSE GASES ("1605(b)") PROGRAM HAS BEEN SUSPENDED.*** This affects all survey respondents. Please visit the What's New page for full details. What Is the Voluntary Reporting Program? logo Established by Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, the Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program encourages corporations, government agencies, non-profit organizations, households, and other private and public entities to submit annual reports of their greenhouse gas emissions, emission reductions, and sequestration activities. The Program provides a means for voluntary reporting that is complete, reliable, and consistent. More information on the program...

120

Next Generation Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants R&D...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

accelerate the transition to low-GWP refrigerants across the entire heating, ventilation, air-conditioning and refrigeration (HVAC&R) industry. The schedule of R&D activities...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gases gwp global" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Greenhouse gases, climate change and the transition from coal to low-carbon electricity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A transition from the global system of coal-based electricity generation to low-greenhouse-gas-emission energy technologies is required to mitigate climate change in the long term. The use of current infrastructure to build this new low-emission system necessitates additional emissions of greenhouse gases, and the coal-based infrastructure will continue to emit substantial amounts of greenhouse gases as it is phased out. Furthermore, ocean thermal inertia delays the climate benefits of emissions reductions. By constructing a quantitative model of energy system transitions that includes life-cycle emissions and the central physics of greenhouse warming, we estimate the global warming expected to occur as a result of build-outs of new energy technologies ranging from 100GWe to 10TWe in size and 1100yr in duration. We show that rapid deployment of low-emission energy systems can do little to diminish the climate impacts in the first half of this century. Conservation, wind, solar, nuclear power, and possibly carbon capture and storage appear to be able to achieve substantial climate benefits in the second half of this century; however, natural gas cannot.

N P Myhrvold; K Caldeira

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Global Paradox  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

From the Publisher:In the tradition of his bestselling Megatrends books, John Naisbitt explores the new wave of global economic change predicted as a result of the breaking apart of the Soviet empire--and the opportunities and challenges for nations, ...

John Naisbitt

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Measuring non-condensable gases in steam  

SciTech Connect

In surgery, medical devices that are used should be sterilized. To obtain surface steam sterilization conditions, not only in the sterilizer chamber itself but also in the loads to be sterilized, the amount of non-condensable gases (NCGs), for instance air, should be very low. Even rather small fractions of NCGs (below 1%) seriously hamper steam penetration in porous materials or devices with hollow channels (e.g., endoscopes). A recently developed instrument which might detect the presence of residual NCGs in a reliable and reproducible way is the 3M{sup TM} Electronic Test System (ETS). In this paper, a physical model is presented that describes the behavior of this instrument. This model has been validated by experiments in which known fractions of NCGs were introduced in a sterilizer chamber in which an ETS was placed. Despite several approximations made in the model, a good agreement is found between the model predictions and the experimental results. The basic principle of the ETS, measuring the heat transfer by condensation on a cooled surface, permits a very sensitive detection of NCGs in harsh environments like water vapor at high temperatures and pressures. Our model may serve to develop adapted and optimized versions of this instrument for use outside the field of sterilization, e.g., in heat exchangers based on steam condensation.

Doornmalen, J. P. C. M. van; Kopinga, K., E-mail: k.kopinga@tue.nl [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

124

1 - Solubility of Atmospheric Gases in Freshwater  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This chapter presents tabular information on the standard air saturation concentration (moist air at 1atm) for oxygen, nitrogen, argon, and carbon dioxide gas in terms of ?mol/kg, mg/L, and mL/L; and in terms of Bunsen coefficients L real gas/(Latm); mg real gas/(LmmHg); and mg real gas/(LkPa) for 040C and freshwater conditions. Because the mole fraction of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is changing, solubility information is provided for 2010 (390?atm) and for 2030 (440?atm) based on projected atmospheric values. Tabular information is also provided to allow computation of standard air saturation concentrations of carbon dioxide gas directly as a function of atmospheric mole fraction. Conversion factors are presented to convert these concentrations to other commonly used units. Equations and tabular information are provided to compute air saturation concentration for moist air at local barometric pressure for the four atmospheric gases. Because of the importance of dissolved oxygen in biological processes, the air solubility concentration is also presented as a function of elevation for both metric and English elevations. Equations and tabular information are provided to allow conversion of concentrations in mg/L to partial pressures in mmHg. Sample problems are included for representative examples. Keywords gas solubility, freshwater, oxygen, nitrogen, argon, carbon dioxide, standard air solubility, air solubility, Bunsen coefficients, partial pressures

John Colt

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Global Health Research | 2 Global Health Research  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Global Health Research | 2 Global Health Research Supporting researchers in low- and middle-income countries to carry out health- related research within their own countries. Gl bal Health #12;3 | Global Health Research #12;Global Health Research | 4 We are a global charitable foundation dedicated

Rambaut, Andrew

126

Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gases | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energy Efficiency Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gases Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gases Mission The team establishes an energy conservation program as defined in Executive Order (EO) 13423, Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management, and (EO) 13514, Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance, and DOE Order 436.1, Departmental Sustainability, and approved by LM. The team incorporates requirements for energy efficiency and reductions in greenhouse gases, and it advocates conserving environmental resources and improving operational capabilities and mission sustainability. Scope The team evaluates how to maintain and operate its buildings and facilities in a resource-efficient, sustainable, and economically viable manner. The

127

Unified Theory of Lattice Boltzmann Models for Nonideal Gases  

SciTech Connect

A nonideal gas lattice Boltzmann model is directly derived, in an {ital a priori} fashion, from the Enskog equation for dense gases. The model is rigorously obtained by a systematic procedure to discretize the Enskog equation (in the presence of an external force) in both phase space and time. The lattice Boltzmann model derived here is thermodynamically consistent and is free of the defects which exist in previous lattice Boltzmann models for nonideal gases. The existing lattice Boltzmann models for nonideal gases are analyzed and compared with the model derived here. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

Luo, L. [ICASE, MS 403, NASA Langley Research Center, 6 North Dryden Street, Building 1298, Hampton, Virginia 23681-0001 (United States)] [ICASE, MS 403, NASA Langley Research Center, 6 North Dryden Street, Building 1298, Hampton, Virginia 23681-0001 (United States)

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Geoengineering: Plan B Remedy for Global Warming Andrew A. Lacis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Geoengineering: Plan B Remedy for Global Warming Geoengineering: Plan B Remedy for Global Warming Andrew A. Lacis NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies Accelerated melting of Greenland ice is a clear indication that consequences of global warming are real and impending. The underlying causes of global warming are well enough understood, but the necessary reduction of greenhouse gases to prevent irreversible climate change is unlikely to happen before the point of no return is reached. To reverse the impending sea level rise, geoengineering counter- measures may be required to counter the current global energy imbalance due to global warming. Of the many proposed remedies, deploying aerosols within the stratosphere offers realistic prospects. Sulfur injections in the lower stratosphere would have the cooling effect of naturally occurring volcanic aerosols. Soot at

129

Global Predictions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

created every day by the lab and used by the forest service, county commissioners and others. Using computer technology and satellites, the lab currently focuses on three core spatial technologies? GIS, global positioning systems (GPS) and remote...,? said Srinivasan. The lab also uses GPS, a satellite navigation system useful for surveying property boundaries and fields. GPS uses satellites to locate and track any feature on Earth at any given time. The lab is using GPS in identifying the Corps...

Swyden, Courtney

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Integrated Global Background Monitoring Network  

SciTech Connect

One of the more significant problems when trying to determine what impact is having on global cycles is not knowing what ''natural'' levels should be for both abiotic (gases, trace elements) and biotic (ecosystem functions) processes. The authors believe that a well designed, coordinated network of baseline stations in remote areas around the world can provide a data base will allow best current estimates to be made of biotic and abiotic baseline conditions. These baseline conditions will then help us make better comparisons with more impacted areas, and thus help us more fully understand the impact man is having on his world. This paper examines the history of background pollution monitoring at the international level, describes current activities in the field of ''integrated'' background monitoring, and proposes criteria for the development of a global network of baseline stations to coordinate background monitoring for the presence, accumulation and behavior of pollutants in remote ecosystems. In this paper, this network is called the Integrated Global Background Monitoring Network.

Wiersma, G.B.; Franklin, J.F.; Kohler, A.; Croze, H.; Boelcke, C.

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Review: Global Climate Change  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

introduction to global climate change, the greenhouseReview: Global Climate Change: A Primer By Orrin H PilkeyPilkey, Keith C. Global Climate Change: a primer. Durham,

Smith, Jennifer

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Sorption of organic gases in residential rooms  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

residential rooms residential rooms Title Sorption of organic gases in residential rooms Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-59303 Year of Publication 2007 Authors Singer, Brett C., Alfred T. Hodgson, Toshifumi Hotchi, Katherine Y. Ming, Richard G. Sextro, Emily E. Wood, and Nancy J. Brown Journal Atmospheric Environment Volume 41 Start Page Chapter Pagination 3251-3265 Keywords adsorption, hazardous air pollutants, nerve agents, sink effect, volatile organic compounds Abstract Experiments were conducted to characterize organic gas sorption in residential rooms studied ''as-is'' with furnishings and material surfaces unaltered and in a furnished chamber designed to simulate a residential room. Results are presented for 10 rooms (five bedrooms, two bathrooms, a home office, and two multi-function spaces) and the chamber. Exposed materials were characterized and areas quantified. A mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was rapidly volatilized within each room as it was closed and sealed for a 5-h Adsorb phase; this was followed by 30-min Flush and 2-h closed-room Desorb phases. Included were alkane, aromatic, and oxygenated VOCs representing a range of ambient and indoor air pollutants. Three organophosphorus compounds served as surrogates for Sarin-like nerve agents. Measured gas-phase concentrations were fit to three variations of a mathematical model that considers sorption occurring at a surface sink and potentially a second, embedded sink. The 3-parameter sink-diffusion model provided acceptable fits for most compounds and the 4-parameter two-sink model provided acceptable fits for the others. Initial adsorption rates and sorptive partitioning increased with decreasing vapor pressure for the alkanes, aromatics and oxygenated VOCs. Best-fit sorption parameters obtained from experimental data from the chamber produced best-fit sorption parameters similar to those obtained from the residential rooms

133

Analysis of air pollution and greenhouse gases  

SciTech Connect

The current objective of the project Analysis of Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gases'' is to develop a study of emissions and emission sources that could easily be linked to models of economic activity. Initial studies were conducted to evaluate data currently available linking activity rates and emissions estimates. The emissions inventory developed for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) presents one of the most comprehensive data sets, and was chosen for our initial studies, which are described in this report. Over 99% of the SO{sub 2} emissions, 98% of the NO{sub x} emission and 57% of the VOC emissions from area sources are related to fuel combustion. The majority of emission from these sources are generated by the transportation sector. Activity rates for area sources are not archived with the NAPAP inventory; alternative derivations of these data will be part of the future activities of this project. The availability and completeness of the fuel heat content data in the NAPAP inventory were also studied. Approximately 10% of the SO{sub 2} emissions, 13% of the NO{sub x} emissions and 46% of the VOC emissions are generated by sources with unavailable data for fuel heat content. Initial estimates of pollutant emission rate per unit fuel heat content. Initial estimates of pollutant emission rate per unit fuel heat content were generated. Future studies for this project include the derivation of activity rates for area sources, improved explanations for the default fuel parameters defined in the NAPAP inventory and the development of links to data bases of economic activity.

Benkovitz, C.M.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Semi-Continuous Detection of Mercury in Gases  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Continuous Detection of Mercury in Gases Continuous Detection of Mercury in Gases Opportunity Research is currently active on the patented technology "Semi-Continuous Detection of Mercury in Gases." The technology, which is a spinoff of the National Energy Technology Laboratory's (NETL) GP-254 Process (U.S. patent 6,576,092), is available for licensing and/or further collaborative research from the U.S. Department of Energy's NETL. Overview This invention discloses a method for the quantitative detection of heavy metals, especially mercury, in effluent gas streams. The method employs photo-deposition and an array of surface acoustic wave sensors where each sensor monitors a specific metal. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued a national regulation for mercury removal from coal-derived flue and fuel gases in December 2011,

135

Method of producing pyrolysis gases from carbon-containing materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gasification process of improved efficiency is disclosed. A dual bed reactor system is used in which carbon-containing feedstock materials are first treated in a gasification reactor to form pyrolysis gases. The pyrolysis gases are then directed into a catalytic reactor for the destruction of residual tars/oils in the gases. Temperatures are maintained within the catalytic reactor at a level sufficient to crack the tars/oils in the gases, while avoiding thermal breakdown of the catalysts. In order to minimize problems associated with the deposition of carbon-containing materials on the catalysts during cracking, a gaseous oxidizing agent preferably consisting of air, oxygen, steam, and/or mixtures thereof is introduced into the catalytic reactor at a high flow rate in a direction perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the reactor. This oxidizes any carbon deposits on the catalysts, which would normally cause catalyst deactivation.

Mudge, Lyle K. (Richland, WA); Brown, Michael D. (West Richland, WA); Wilcox, Wayne A. (Kennewick, WA); Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

BIOSIGNATURE GASES IN H?-DOMINATED ATMOSPHERES ON ROCKY EXOPLANETS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Super-Earth exoplanets are being discovered with increasing frequency and some will be able to retain stable H2-dominated atmospheres. We study biosignature gases on exoplanets with thin H2 atmospheres and habitable surface ...

Seager, Sara

137

Spontaneous detonation of a mixture of two odd electron gases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Spontaneous detonation of a mixture of two odd electron gases ... Instructions for safe detonation of ClO2 and NO (the fastest known reaction between two stable molecules at room temperature). ...

Thomas S. Briggs

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Suitability of Non-Energy Greenhouse Gases for Emissions Trading  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper assesses the suitability of different sources of non-energy greenhouse gases for emissions trading. Different forms of emissions trading are defined and criteria for determining whether a source is sui...

Erik Haites; Angelo Proestos

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Studying coherence in ultra-cold atomic gases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis will discuss the study of coherence properties of ultra-cold atomic gases. The atomic systems investigated include a thermal cloud of atoms, a Bose-Einstein condensate and a fermion pair condensate. In each ...

Miller, Daniel E. (Daniel Edward)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

global warming's six indias  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

global warming's six indias: An Audience Segmentation Analysis #12;Global Warming's Six Indias 1............................................................................................................................................20 2. Global Warming Beliefs and Attitudes................................................................................ 21 Knowledge about global warming varies widely by group

Haller, Gary L.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gases gwp global" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Effects of 20002050 changes in climate and emissions on global tropospheric ozone and the policy-relevant background surface ozone  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) project major changes in anthro- pogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and ozone precur- sors over the 2Effects of 2000­2050 changes in climate and emissions on global tropospheric ozone and the policy; published 27 September 2008. [1] We use a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) driven by a general

Mickley, Loretta J.

142

Energy loss characteristics of heavy ions in nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon, hydrocarbon gases and tradescantia tissue  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy loss characteristics of heavy ions in nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon, hydrocarbon gases and tradescantia tissue

Dennis, J A

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Fluid clathrate system for continuous removal of heavy noble gases from mixtures of lighter gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for separation of heavy noble gas in a gas volume. An apparatus and method have been devised which includes a reservoir containing an oil exhibiting a clathrate effect for heavy noble gases with a reservoir input port and the reservoir is designed to enable the input gas volume to bubble through the oil with the heavy noble gas being absorbed by the oil exhibiting a clathrate effect. The gas having reduced amounts of heavy noble gas is output from the oil reservoir, and the oil having absorbed heavy noble gas can be treated by mechanical agitation and/or heating to desorb the heavy noble gas for analysis and/or containment and allow recycling of the oil to the reservoir.

Gross, Kenneth C. (Bolingbrook, IL); Markun, Francis (Joliet, IL); Zawadzki, Mary T. (South Bend, IN)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Fluid clathrate system for continuous removal of heavy noble gases from mixtures of lighter gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method are disclosed for separation of heavy noble gas in a gas volume. An apparatus and method have been devised which includes a reservoir containing an oil exhibiting a clathrate effect for heavy noble gases with a reservoir input port and the reservoir is designed to enable the input gas volume to bubble through the oil with the heavy noble gas being absorbed by the oil exhibiting a clathrate effect. The gas having reduced amounts of heavy noble gas is output from the oil reservoir, and the oil having absorbed heavy noble gas can be treated by mechanical agitation and/or heating to desorb the heavy noble gas for analysis and/or containment and allow recycling of the oil to the reservoir. 6 figs.

Gross, K.C.; Markun, F.; Zawadzki, M.T.

1998-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

145

Global Warming Is Driven by Anthropogenic Emissions: A Time Series Analysis Approach  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The solar influence on global climate is nonstationary. Processes such as the Schwabe and Gleissberg cycles of the Sun, or the many intrinsic atmospheric oscillation modes, yield a complex pattern of interaction with multiple time scales. In addition, emissions of greenhouse gases, aerosols, or volcanic dust perturb the dynamics of this coupled system to different and still uncertain extents. Here we show, using two independent driving force reconstruction techniques, that the combined effect of greenhouse gases and aerosol emissions has been the main external driver of global climate during the past decades.

Pablo F. Verdes

2007-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

146

R&D for technology to solve global warming  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Global warming is a problem in which the combustion of coal, oil, and other fossil fuels causes the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), to increase. This results in mounting global air temperatures that lead to climatic change. Specifically, global warming will cause a rise in sea levels, changes in the rain-fall patterns, and other problems. In order to secure the route to solutions for global warming that requires new responses in ways that are compatible with economic growth, it is essential to achieve breakthroughs with innovative technologies. In addition to energ-related R&D, also important are R&D for CO2 absorption and fixation for fundamental solution to global warming. Japan has started the development of innovative environmental technologies, such as technologies for CO2 fixation and utilization.

K. Honjo

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

June 1998 GPS WORLD 33 Global warming and greenhouse gases are  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and scope of climate research, scientists must obtain a broad range of measurements. These observations may. This reference frame is commonly called Lagrangian after the inventor, French mathe- matician Joseph Louis is an electric

Businger, Steven

148

Advanced Technology for the Capture of Carbon Dioxide from Flue Gases  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Technology for the Capture of Carbon Dioxide Technology for the Capture of Carbon Dioxide from Flue Gases by Shrikar Chakravarti (shrikar_chakravarti@praxair.com; 716-879-4760) Amitabh Gupta (ami_gupta@praxair.com; 716-879-2194) Balazs Hunek (balazs_hunek@praxair.com; 716-879-2250) Praxair, Inc. Process & Systems R&D, CO 2 Technology 175 East Park Drive, P.O. Box 44 Tonawanda, NY 14150 USA key words: flue gas, carbon dioxide, separation, amine absorption, oxygen tolerant process, amine blends First National Conference on Carbon Sequestration Washington, DC, May 15-17, 2001 Copyright 2001, Praxair Technology, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1 Abstract Cost effective carbon sequestration schemes have been identified as a key need for dealing with carbon dioxide's (CO 2 ) impact on global climate change. Two main

149

Stabilization and Global Climate Policy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Academic and political debates over long-run climate policy often invoke stabilization of atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs), but only rarely are non-CO2 greenhouse gases addressed explicitly. Even ...

Sarofim, Marcus C.

150

Rising Sea Levels Due to Global Warming Are Unstoppable  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Rising Sea Levels Rising Sea Levels Due to Global Warming Are Unstoppable Rising Sea Levels Due to Global Warming Are Unstoppable Mitigation can slow down but not prevent sea level rise for centuries to come August 5, 2013 Contact: Linda Vu, Lvu@lbl.gov, +1 510 495 2402 washington.jpg Because seawater absorbs heat more slowly than the atmosphere above it, our oceans won't feel the full impact of the greenhouse gases already in the air for hundreds of years. Warm water expands, raising sea levels. (Courtesy W. Washington) Select to enlarge. A reduction in greenhouse gas emissions could greatly lessen the impacts of climate change. However, the gases already added to the atmosphere ensure a certain amount of sea level rise to come, even if future emissions are reduced. A study by National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)

151

Finalize Historic National Program to Reduce Greenhouse Gases and Improve  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Finalize Historic National Program to Reduce Greenhouse Gases and Improve Finalize Historic National Program to Reduce Greenhouse Gases and Improve Fuel Economy for Cars and Trucks Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Finalize Historic National Program to Reduce Greenhouse Gases and Improve Fuel Economy for Cars and Trucks Agency/Company /Organization: EPA and NHTSA Focus Area: Standards - Incentives - Policies - Regulations Topics: Policy Impacts Resource Type: Reports, Journal Articles, & Tools Website: www.epa.gov/oms/climate/regulations/420f10014.pdf This document establish a national program consisting of new standards for model year 2012 through 2016 light-duty vehicles that will reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve fuel economy. EPA is finalizing the first-ever national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions standards under the

152

Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Electricity Factors  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Voluntary Reporting Program > Coefficients Voluntary Reporting Program > Coefficients Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program (Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Fuel Carbon Dioxide Emission Coefficients) Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Fuel Emission Coefficients Table 1: Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Stationary Combustion Table 2: Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Transportation Fuels Table 3: Generic Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emission Factors for Stationary Fuel Combustion Table 4: Specific Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emission Factors for Biogenic Fuel Sources Table 5: Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emissions Factors for Highway Vehicles Table 6: Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emission Factors for Alternative Fuel Vehicles Table 7: Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emission Factors for Non-Highway Mobile Combustion

153

Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) Model Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) Model Agency/Company /Organization: Argonne National Laboratory Focus Area: GHG Inventory Development Topics: Analysis Tools Website: greet.es.anl.gov/ This full life-cycle model evaluates the energy and emission impacts of advanced vehicle technologies and new transportation fuels. The model allows users to evaluate various vehicle and fuel combinations. How to Use This Tool This tool is most helpful when using these strategies: Shift - Change to low-carbon modes Improve - Enhance infrastructure & policies Learn more about the avoid, shift, improve framework for limiting air

154

Lattice vibrations of pure and doped GaSe  

SciTech Connect

The Bridgman method is used to grow especially undoped and doped single crystals of GaSe. Composition and impurity content of the grown crystals were determined using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) method. X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering, photoluminescence (PL), and IR transmission measurements were performed at room temperature. The long wavelength lattice vibrations of four modifications of GaSe were described in the framework of modified one-layer linear-chain model which also takes into consideration the interaction of the selenium (Se) atom with the second nearest neighbor gallium (Ga) atom in the same layer. The existence of an eight-layer modification of GaSe is suggested and the vibrational frequencies of this modification are explained in the framework of a lattice dynamical model considered in the present work. Frequencies and the type of vibrations (gap, local, or resonance) for the impurity atoms were calculated and compared with the experimental results.

Allakhverdiev, K. [Materials Institute, Marmara Research Center, TUBITAK, Gebze/Kocaeli 41470 (Turkey) and Institute of Physics, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku AZ1143 (Azerbaijan)]. E-mail: kerim.allahverdi@mam.gov.tr; Baykara, T. [Materials Institute, Marmara Research Center, TUBITAK, Gebze/Kocaeli 41470 (Turkey); Ellialtioglu, S. [Department of Physics, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06531 (Turkey); Hashimzade, F. [Institute of Physics, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku AZ1143 (Azerbaijan); Huseinova, D. [Institute of Physics, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku AZ1143 (Azerbaijan); Kawamura, K. [Institute of Materials Science, University of Tsukuba 305-8573 (Japan); Kaya, A.A. [Materials Institute, Marmara Research Center, TUBITAK, Gebze/Kocaeli 41470 (Turkey); Kulibekov, A.M. [Department of Physics, Mugla University, Mugla 48000 (Turkey); Onari, S. [Institute of Materials Science, University of Tsukuba 305-8573 (Japan)

2006-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

155

Other States Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Other States Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1997 513 491 515 539 557 534 541 579 574 585 558 573 1998 578 536 591 581 517 456 486 486 471 477 457 468 1999 466 438 489 495 499 510 547 557 544 555 541 579 2000 587 539 605 587 615 570 653 629 591 627 609 611 2001 658 591 677 690 718 694 692 679 686 697 688 700 2002 639 591 587 621 622 605 654 639 649 650 623 638 2003 689 624 649 676 702 691 733 732 704 734 719 748 2004 741 697 727 692 692 688 718 729 706 723 711 718

156

Assess Potential Agency Size Changes to Reduce Greenhouse Gases Using  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Assess Potential Agency Size Changes to Reduce Greenhouse Gases Assess Potential Agency Size Changes to Reduce Greenhouse Gases Using Renewable Energy in Buildings Assess Potential Agency Size Changes to Reduce Greenhouse Gases Using Renewable Energy in Buildings October 7, 2013 - 11:15am Addthis To support planning for using renewable energy to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at the Federal agency or program-level, it is important to consider what changes to the agencies building or land-holding portfolio may have on opportunities for renewable energy. Changes to consider include: Addition of new buildings or sites to the agencies portfolio Major renovations to existing buildings Office moves into or out of agency-owned or leased space. As is the case with planning energy efficiency measures, planning for renewable energy in new construction can be more cost-effective than

157

Raman/FTIR spectroscopy of oil shale retort gases  

SciTech Connect

A Raman facility was assembled in order to aid in the evaluation of the feasibility of using Raman or FTIR spectroscopy for analyzing gas mixtures of interest in oil shale. Applications considered in oil shale research included both retort monitoring and laboratory kinetic studies. Both techniques gave limits of detection between 10 and 1000 ppM for ten representative pertinent gases. Both techniques are inferior as a general analytical technique for oil shale gas analysis in comparison with mass spectroscopy, which had detection limits between 1 and 50 ppM for the same gases. The conclusion of the feasibility study was to recommend that mass spectroscopic techniques be used for analyzing gases of interest to oil shale.

Richardson, J H; Monaco, S B; Sanborn, R H; Hirschfeld, T B; Taylor, J R

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

QUESTIONS ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

QUESTIONS ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING ¥IS IT REAL? ¥IS IT IMPORTANT? ¥WHAT IS IT DUE TO? ¥HOW MUCH MORE in the atmosphere, giving Earth its temperate climate. Global Atmosphere, Global Warming GLOBAL TEMPERATURE TREND?t a cure for global warming! Aerosols only last a short while in the atmosphere, they would have

159

Hazardous Gases VASILIS M. FTHENAKIS Department of Applied Science  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Mitigation Options for Mitigation Options for Accidental Releases of Hazardous Gases VASILIS M. FTHENAKIS Department of Applied Science Brookhaven National Laboratory Upton, N Y 11973 ABSTRACT The objective of this paper is to review and compare technologies available for mitigation of unconfined releases of toxic and flammable gases. These technologies indude: secondary confinement, de- inventory, vapor barriers, foam spraying, and water sprays/monitors. Guidelines for the design and/or operation of effective post-release mitigation systems and case studies involving actual industrial mitigation systems are also presented. 1. ACCIDENT PREVENTION & MITIGATION OPTIONS Accident prevention and mitigation in the process industries is based on the military concept of defense in

160

Dissipative dynamics of a Josephson junction in the Bose gases  

SciTech Connect

The dissipative dynamics of a Josephson junction in Bose gases is considered within the framework of the model of a tunneling Hamiltonian. The effective action that describes the dynamics of the phase difference across the junction is derived using the functional integration method. The dynamic equation obtained for the phase difference across the junction is analyzed for the finite temperatures in the low-frequency limit involving the radiation terms. The asymmetric case of the Bose gases with the different order parameters is calculated as well.

Barankov, R.A. [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Burmistrov, S.N. [RRC 'Kurchatov Institute', Kurchatov Sq.1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gases gwp global" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Carbonaceous adsorbent regeneration and halocarbon displacement by hydrocarbon gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention describes a process for regeneration of halocarbon bearing carbonaceous adsorbents through which a carbonaceous adsorbent is contacted with hydrocarbon gases, preferably propane, butane and pentane at near room temperatures and at atmospheric pressure. As the hydrocarbon gases come in contact with the adsorbent, the hydrocarbons displace the halocarbons by physical adsorption. As a result of using this process, the halocarbon concentration and the hydrocarbon eluant is increased thereby allowing for an easier recovery of pure halocarbons. By using the process of this invention, carbonaceous adsorbents can be regenerated by an inexpensive process which also allows for subsequent re-use of the recovered halocarbons. 8 figures.

Senum, G.I.; Dietz, R.N.

1994-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

162

Carbonaceous adsorbent regeneration and halocarbon displacement by hydrocarbon gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention describes a process for regeneration of halocarbon bearing carbonaceous adsorbents through which a carbonaceous adsorbent is contacted with hydrocarbon gases, preferably propane, butane and pentane at near room temperatures and at atmospheric pressure. As the hydrocarbon gases come in contact with the adsorbent, the hydrocarbons displace the halocarbons by physical adsorption. As a result of using this process, the halocarbon concentration and the hydrocarbon eluant is increased thereby allowing for an easier recovery of pure halocarbons. By using the process of this invention, carbonaceous adsorbents can be regenerated by an inexpensive process which also allows for subsequent re-use of the recovered halocarbons.

Senum, Gunnar I. (Patchogue, NY); Dietz, Russell N. (Patchogue, NY)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Removal of sulfur and nitrogen containing pollutants from discharge gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Oxides of sulfur and of nitrogen are removed from waste gases by reaction with an unsupported copper oxide powder to form copper sulfate. The resulting copper sulfate is dissolved in water to effect separation from insoluble mineral ash and dried to form solid copper sulfate pentahydrate. This solid sulfate is thermally decomposed to finely divided copper oxide powder with high specific surface area. The copper oxide powder is recycled into contact with the waste gases requiring cleanup. A reducing gas can be introduced to convert the oxide of nitrogen pollutants to nitrogen.

Joubert, James I. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Building | GE Global Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Scientists at GE Global Research get into the holiday spirit by bringing high-tech additive manufacturing techniques to Christmas... Read More Global Research and GE...

165

Timeline | GE Global Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Global Research Over Time From our earliest days, we've been changing the landscape in commercial science and technology. Explore our inventions' evolution. Home > Global Research...

166

Use of low temperature blowers for recirculation of hot gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus is described for maintaining motors at low operating temperatures during recirculation of hot gases in fuel cell operations and chemical processes such as fluidized bed coal gasification. The apparatus includes a means for separating the hot process gas from the motor using a secondary lower temperature gas, thereby minimizing the temperature increase of the motor and associated accessories.

Maru, H.C.; Forooque, M.

1982-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

167

AER1301: KINETIC THEORY OF GASES Assignment #2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AER1301: KINETIC THEORY OF GASES Assignment #2 1. Using the formalism of the text book is as follows. Assume that the particle number density is a slowly varying function of the z coordinate #27; ? is a constant. 3. Show that if the potential function, U(r), varies as 1=r 4

Groth, Clinton P. T.

168

AER1301: KINETIC THEORY OF GASES Assignment #2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AER1301: KINETIC THEORY OF GASES Assignment #2 1. Using the formalism of the text book the particle number density and temperature are both slowly varying functions of the z coordinate of the previous problem is as follows. Assume that the particle number density is a slowly varying function

Groth, Clinton P. T.

169

OPTIONS FOR ABATING GREENHOUSE GASES FROM EXHAUST STREAMS.  

SciTech Connect

This report examines different alternatives for replacing, treating, and recycling greenhouse gases. It is concluded that treatment (abatement) is the only viable short-term option. Three options for abatement that were tested for use in semiconductor facilities are reviewed, and their performance and costs compared. This study shows that effective abatement options are available to the photovoltaic (PV) industry, at reasonable cost.

FTHENAKIS,V.

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT RISING GREENHOUSE GASES AND CLIMATE CHANGE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, methane, and nitrous oxides. The sun's energy passes through these gases, like light passing through risen by almost 40 percent. This is attributed primarily to the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil, gasoline). Methane and nitrous oxides are also increasing rapidly, due in part to the expansion

171

Automatic Process Chromatographs for the Analysis of Corrosive Fluoride Gases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......hexaflu- oride matrix gas by a trapping procedure...the disadvantage of high cost and require skilled and...lacked reliability in gases of high halocarbon coolant...the uranium hexafluoride gas; impurities have a direct effect on production efficiency. Coolant-114......

J. G. Million; W. S. Pappas; C. W. Weber

1969-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Optical Third-Harmonic Coefficients for Inert Gases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Optical third-harmonic coefficients ?zzzz(3?) for the inert gases have been calculated taking the LS coupling scheme for helium and Jj and jl coupling schemes for neon, argon, and krypton. Our calculated values agree reasonably well with the experimental values of set (i) of Ward and New.

B. P. Tripathi; R. K. Laloraya; S. L. Srivastava

1971-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Mitigation options for accidental releases of hazardous gases  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this paper is to review and compare technologies available for mitigation of unconfined releases of toxic and flammable gases. These technologies include: secondary confinement, deinventory, vapor barriers, foam spraying, and water sprays/monitors. Guidelines for the design and/or operation of effective post-release mitigation systems and case studies involving actual industrial mitigation systems are also presented.

Fthenakis, V.M.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

SAFT Modeling of the Solubility of Gases in Perfluoroalkanes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

SAFT Modeling of the Solubility of Gases in Perfluoroalkanes ... A molecular model within a SAFT context for quantitatively predicting the solubility of xenon and oxygen in n-perfluoroalkanes is presented and discussed here. ... Free-Volume Theory Coupled with Soft-SAFT for Viscosity Calculations: Comparison with Molecular Simulation and Experimental Data ...

Ana M. A. Dias; Josep C. Pmies; Joo A. P. Coutinho; Isabel M. Marrucho; Lourdes F. Vega

2003-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

175

Relative outcomes of climate change mitigation related to global  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Relative outcomes of climate change mitigation related to global Relative outcomes of climate change mitigation related to global temperature versus sea-level rise Submitted by mkaczmar on February 8, 2013 - 15:19 Authors: Gerald A. Meehl, Aixue Hu, Claudia Tebaldi, Julie M. Arblaster, Warren M. Washington, Haiyan Teng, Benjamin M. Sanderson, Toby Ault, Warren G. Strand & James B. White III There is a common perception that, if human societies make the significant adjustments necessary to substantively cut emissions of greenhouse gases, global temperature increases could be stabilized, and the most dangerous consequences of climate change could be avoided. Here we show results from global coupled climate model simulations with the new representative concentration pathway mitigation scenarios to 2300 to illustrate that, with

176

Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

global warming potential (GWP100a) CML2001 kg CO 2 -eq AP Acidification Potential air pollution acidification potential CML2001 kg SO 2 -eq POCP Photochemical Ozone...

177

Effects of long-term straw incorporation on the net global warming potential and the net economic benefit in a ricewheat cropping system in China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Straw incorporation has multiple effects on greenhouse gas emissions and soil productivity. However, few studies have comprehensively evaluated the effects of long-term straw incorporation. An ongoing long-term straw incorporation experiment in a ricewheat cropping system in China was established in 1990 and was used in the present study to evaluate the net global warming potential (NGWP) and the net economic benefit (NEB) of the straw return. The following four field treatments were included: a control (CK); N, P and K fertilization (NPK); fertilization plus a moderate rate of straw application (NPKS1); and fertilization plus a high rate of straw application (NPKS2). We calculated the increase in the soil organic carbon (SOC) and the straw-induced emissions of CH4 and N2O, which were expressed as the global warming potential (GWP) in units of CO2-equivalent (CO2-eq) at the 100-year scale. The straw-induced NEB was defined as the difference between the economic income, which was calculated by multiplying the increase in straw-induced crop grain yield by the grain price, and the economic loss was computed by multiplying the increase in straw-induced CO2-eq emissions by the carbon price. The results showed that long-term straw incorporation significantly increased the CH4 emissions and the topsoil SOC density. The GWP of the straw-induced CH4 emissions was 3.213.92 times that of the straw-induced SOC sequestration rate, suggesting that long-term direct straw incorporation in the ricewheat systems worsens rather than mitigates the climate change. Additionally, continuous straw incorporation slightly enhanced the rice and wheat grain yields, contributing to the production of the NEB. We determined that under the current carbon price, ranging from 2.55 to 31.71 EUR per ton CO2-eq, the direct straw incorporation will produce a positive NEB, ranging from 156 to 658 RMBha?1year?1, if the grain yield prices do not fluctuate, which does not provide a significant incentive for farmers to change from their traditional direct straw incorporation pattern. Considering the other benefits that the straw application produced, such as improving soil fertility and the water retention capacity, we recommend that the government should establish an incentive for ecological compensation to encourage farmers to implement proper straw incorporation, such as composting straw under aerobic conditions before application.

Longlong Xia; Shuwei Wang; Xiaoyuan Yan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Strongly interacting Fermi gases : non-equilibrium dynamics and dimensional crossover  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Experiments using ultracold atomic gases address fundamental problems in many-body physics. This thesis describes experiments on strongly-interacting gases of fermionic atoms, with a focus on non-equilibrium physics and ...

Sommer, Ariel T. (Ariel Tjodolv)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Heat Transfer at Low Temperatures between Tube Walls and Gases in Turbulent Flow  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...September 1947 research-article Heat Transfer at Low Temperatures between Tube...counter-flow system to study heat transfer between tube walls and gases at...Determinations on friction accompanying heat transfer with gases in turbulent flow at...

1947-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Greenhouse Gases (GHG) Emissions from Gas Field Water in Southern Gas Field, Sichuan Basin, China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In order to assess correctly the gases emissions from oil/gas field water and its contributions to the source of greenhouse gases (GHG) at the atmospheric temperature and pressure, ... first developed to study th...

Guojun Chen; Wei Yang; Xuan Fang; Jiaai Zhong

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gases gwp global" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Simultaneous Gas Chromatographic Determination of Four Toxic Gases Generally Present in Combustion Atmospheres  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......determining these gases in mixtures...dioxide, nitrogen, water vapor, and...determining these gases in mixtures...dioxide, nitrogen, water vapor, and...to the solubility of A HCN in water, which was...thevariationin gas con- centrations......

Boyd R. Endecott; Donald C. Sanders; Arvind K. Chaturvedi

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric gases final Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

on Climate and Planets http:icp.giss.nasa.gov The Role of the Atmosphere and Greenhouse Effect in Summary: gases, and scenario 3 - an atmosphere and greenhouse gases. Use...

183

Global Health Seminar Series  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bay Area Global Health Seminar Series Moving beyond millennium targets in global health: The challenges of investing in health and universal health coverage Although targets can help to focus global health efforts, they can also detract attention from deeper underlying challenges in global health

Klein, Ophir

184

System for trapping and storing gases for subsequent chemical reduction to solids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for quantitatively reducing oxide gases. A pre-selected amount of zinc is provided in a vial. A tube is provided in the vial. The zinc and the tube are separated. A pre-selected amount of a catalyst is provided in the tube. Oxide gases are injected into the vial. The vial, tube, zinc, catalyst, and the oxide gases are cryogenically cooled. At least a portion of the vial, tube, zinc, catalyst, and oxide gases are heated.

Vogel, John S. (San Jose, CA); Ognibene, Ted J. (Oakland, CA); Bench, Graham S. (Livermore, CA); Peaslee, Graham F. (Holland, MI)

2009-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

185

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric greenhouse gases Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to longwave radiation 12;Greenhouse Gases Polyatomic molecules... the greenhouse effect ... Source: Frierson, Dargan - Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of...

186

What are greenhouse gases? Many chemical compounds in the atmosphere act as  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

back into space. However, greenhouse gases will not let all the infrared light pass throughWhat are greenhouse gases? Many chemical compounds in the atmosphere act as greenhouse gases the land and oceans. The warmed Earth releases this heat in the form of infrared light (longwave radiation

187

Agricultural Mitigation of Greenhouse Gases: Science and Policy Options  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Agricultural Mitigation of Greenhouse Gases: Science and Policy Options Agricultural Mitigation of Greenhouse Gases: Science and Policy Options Keith Paustian (keithp@nrel.colostate.edu; 970-491-1547) Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory Colorado State University Ft. Collins, CO 80523 Bruce Babcock (babcock@iastate.edu; 515-294-6785) Cathy Kling (ckling@iastate.edu; 515-294-5767) Center for Agriculture and Rural Development Iowa State University Ames, IA 50011-1070 Jerry Hatfield (hatfield@nstl.gov; 515-294-5723) USDA - National Soil Tilth Laboratory Ames, IA 50011 Rattan Lal (lal.1@osu.edu; 614-292-9069) School of Natural Resources The Ohio State University Columbus, OH 43210-1085 Bruce McCarl (mccarl@tamu.edu; 979-845-1706) Department of Agricultural Economics Texas A&M University College Station, TX 77843-2124 Sandy McLaughlin (un4@ornl.gov; 865-574-7358)

188

CO2 Separation from Low-Temperature Flue Gases  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

partners interested in implementing United States Patent Number 7,842,126 entitled "Co 2 Separation from Low-Temperature Flue Gases." Disclosed in this patent are novel methods for processing carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from combustion gas streams. Researchers at NETL are focused on the development of novel sorbent systems that can effectively remove CO 2 and other gases in an economically feasible manner with limited impact on energy production cost. The current invention will help in reducing greenhouse gas emissions by using an improved, regenerable aqueous amine and soluble potassium carbonate sorbent system. This novel solvent system may be capable of achieving CO 2 capture from larger emission streams at lower overall cost. Overview Sequestration of CO

189

EIA - Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2009  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Environment Environment Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the U. S. Release Date: March 31, 2011 | Next Release Date: Report Discontinued | Report Number: DOE/EIA-0573(2009) This report-the eighteenth annual report-presents the U.S. Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. Download the GHG Report Introduction For this report, activity data on coal and natural gas consumption and electricity sales and losses by sector were obtained from the January 2011 Monthly Energy Review (MER). In keeping with current international practice, this report presents data on greenhouse gas emissions in million metric tons carbon dioxide equivalent. The data can be converted to carbon equivalent units by

190

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Getting Started  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Getting Started Getting Started Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Getting Started Form EIA-1605 may seem daunting at first, even for entities that have reported under the original program. That's why EIA has developed the Getting Started page to help entities take a systematic approach to reporting their emissions and reductions. The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program suggests that prospective reporters familiarize themselves with the specific requirements for reporting their entity's inventory and reductions by answering the questions embodied in the 10 steps below. In addition, EIA has prepared the interactive Getting Started tool to help reporters determine what parts of Form EIA-1605 they need to complete. Getting Started Tool Getting Started PDF Tables

191

Transporting & Shipping Hazardous Materials at LBNL: Compressed Gases  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Compressed Gases Compressed Gases Self-Transport by Hand & Foot Self-Transport by Vehicle Ship by Common Carrier Conduct Field Work Return Cylinders Self-Transport by Hand & Foot Staff may personally move (self-transport) compressed gas cylinders by hand & foot between buildings and in connecting spaces (i.e., hallways, elevators, etc.) within buildings provided it can be done safely. The following safety precautions apply: Use standard cylinder dollies to transport compressed gas cylinders. While dollies are preferred, cylinders weighing 11 Kg (25 lbs) or less may be hand-carried. Never move a cylinder with a regulator connected to it. Cylinder valve-protection caps and valve-opening caps must be in place when moving cylinders. Lecture bottles and other cylinders that are

192

Recovery of CO2 from Flue Gases: Commercial Trends  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CO CO 2 from Flue Gases: Commercial Trends Originally presented at the Canadian Society of Chemical Engineers annual meeting October 4-6, 1999, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada Authors: Dan G. Chapel (dan.chapel@fluor.com; 949-349-7530) Carl L. Mariz (carl.mariz@fluor.com; 949-349-7530) FluorDaniel One Fluor Drive Aliso Viejo CA, 92698 John Ernest (john.ernest@minimed.com; 818-576-4293) Advanced Quality Services Inc 11024 Balboa Blvd. PMB154, Granada Hills, CA 91344-5007 1 Recovery of CO 2 from Flue Gases: Commercial Trends Originally presented at the Canadian Society of Chemical Engineers annual meeting October 4-6, 1999, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada Authors: Dan Chapel - Fluor Daniel Inc., Senior Vice President Technology; Oil, Gas & Power John Ernest - Advanced Quality Services Inc., Validation Engineer

193

Reading Comprehension - Properties of Solids, Liquids, and Gases  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Properties of Solids, Liquids, and Gases Properties of Solids, Liquids, and Gases A solid has a definite _________ mass texture volume and a _________ 3D irregular definite shape. The particles in a solid are _________ free to move around motionless packed tightly together . Particles in a solid move by _________ sliding past one another vibrating back and forth slightly jiggling around . _________ Viscosity Amorphous Crystalline solids soften before melting. The particles in this type of solid are not arranged in regular pattern. Amorphous solids _________ do don't have a distinct melting point. Crystalline solids have a _________ distinct color and shape distinct pattern and melting point . Liquids have no _________ volume mass shape of their own. A liquid takes the shape of its container. Without a container liquids spread into a wide,

194

PPPL Wins Department of Energy Award For Reducing Greenhouse Gases |  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Wins Department of Energy Award For Reducing Greenhouse Gases Wins Department of Energy Award For Reducing Greenhouse Gases By Jeanne Jackson DeVoe October 2, 2012 Tweet Widget Facebook Like Google Plus One PPPL's Tim Stevenson takes inventory of the SF6 levels at a power supply tank for NSTX. (Photo by Elle Starkman, PPPL Office of Communications) PPPL's Tim Stevenson takes inventory of the SF6 levels at a power supply tank for NSTX. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) has received a federal Sustainability Award for reducing overall greenhouse gas emissions 48 percent since 2008 - far exceeding the U.S. government's goal of a 28 percent reduction. Members of the PPPL staff were among the 20 recipients of the Sustainability Awards in a ceremony in Washington, D.C., on Thursday, Sept.

195

The extreme nonlinear optics of gases and femtosecond optical filamentation  

SciTech Connect

Under certain conditions, powerful ultrashort laser pulses can form greatly extended, propagating filaments of concentrated high intensity in gases, leaving behind a very long trail of plasma. Such filaments can be much longer than the longitudinal scale over which a laser beam typically diverges by diffraction, with possible applications ranging from laser-guided electrical discharges to high power laser propagation in the atmosphere. Understanding in detail the microscopic processes leading to filamentation requires ultrafast measurements of the strong field nonlinear response of gas phase atoms and molecules, including absolute measurements of nonlinear laser-induced polarization and high field ionization. Such measurements enable the assessment of filamentation models and make possible the design of experiments pursuing applications. In this paper, we review filamentation in gases and some applications, and discuss results from diagnostics developed at Maryland for ultrafast measurements of laser-gas interactions.

Milchberg, H. M.; Chen, Y.-H.; Cheng, Y.-H.; Jhajj, N.; Palastro, J. P.; Rosenthal, E. W.; Varma, S.; Wahlstrand, J. K.; Zahedpour, S. [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

196

Apparatus for the plasma destruction of hazardous gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A plasma cell for destroying hazardous gases. An electric-discharge cell having an electrically conducting electrode onto which an alternating high-voltage waveform is impressed and a dielectric barrier adjacent thereto, together forming a high-voltage electrode, generates self-terminating discharges throughout a volume formed between this electrode and a grounded conducting liquid electrode. The gas to be transformed is passed through this volume. The liquid may be flowed, generating thereby a renewable surface. Moreover, since hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids may be formed from destruction of various chlorofluorocarbons in the presence of water, a conducting liquid may be selected which will neutralize these corrosive compounds. The gases exiting the discharge region may be further scrubbed if additional purification is required.

Kang, Michael (Los Alamos, NM)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Apparatus for the plasma destruction of hazardous gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A plasma cell for destroying hazardous gases is described. An electric-discharge cell having an electrically conducting electrode onto which an alternating high-voltage waveform is impressed and a dielectric barrier adjacent thereto, together forming a high-voltage electrode, generates self-terminating discharges throughout a volume formed between this electrode and a grounded conducting liquid electrode. The gas to be transformed is passed through this volume. The liquid may be flowed, generating thereby a renewable surface. Moreover, since hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids may be formed from destruction of various chlorofluorocarbons in the presence of water, a conducting liquid may be selected which will neutralize these corrosive compounds. The gases exiting the discharge region may be further scrubbed if additional purification is required. 4 figs.

Kang, M.

1995-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

198

Decontamination of combustion gases in fluidized bed incinerators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Sulfur-containing atmospheric pollutants are effectively removed from exit gas streams produced in a fluidized bed combustion system by providing a fluidized bed of particulate material, i.e. limestone and/or dolomite wherein a concentration gradient is maintained in the vertical direction. Countercurrent contacting between upwardly directed sulfur containing combustion gases and descending sorbent particulate material creates a concentration gradient across the vertical extent of the bed characterized in progressively decreasing concentration of sulfur, sulfur dioxide and like contaminants upwardly and decreasing concentration of e.g. calcium oxide, downwardly. In this manner, gases having progressively decreasing sulfur contents contact correspondingly atmospheres having progressively increasing concentrations of calcium oxide thus assuring optimum sulfur removal.

Leon, Albert M. (Mamaroneck, NY)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Reduction of greenhouse gases using renewable energies in Mexico 2025  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study presents three scenarios relating to the environmental futures of Mexico up to the year 2025. The first scenario emphasizes the use of oil products, particularly fueloil, and represents the energy policy path that was in effect until 1990. The second scenario prioritizes the use of natural gas, reflecting the energy consumption pattern that arose in the mid-1990s as a result of reforms in the energy sector. In the third scenario, the high participation of renewable sources of energy, in particular renewable hydrogen, is considered feasible from a technical and economic point of view. The three scenarios are evaluated up to the year 2025 in terms of greenhouse gases (GHG), acid rain precursor gases (ARPG), and environmentenergy intensity factors.

F Manzini; J Islas; M Mart??nez

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Evaluacin de la generacin de gases de efecto invernadero asociados al ciclo de vida de los biocombustibles colombianos = Assessment of greenhouse gases emissions associated to colombian biofuels lifecycle.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Valencia Botero, Monica Julieth (2012) Evaluacin de la generacin de gases de efecto invernadero asociados al ciclo de vida de los biocombustibles colombianos = Assessment (more)

Valencia Botero, Monica Julieth

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gases gwp global" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Comparative Analysis of Alternative Means for Removing Noncondensable Gases  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Comparative Analysis of Alternative Means for Removing Noncondensable Gases Comparative Analysis of Alternative Means for Removing Noncondensable Gases from Flashed-Steam Geothermal Power Plants:April 1999 - March 2000 Dataset Summary Description This dataset corresponds to the final report on a screening study to compare six methods of removing noncondensable gases from direct-use geo-thermal steam power plants. This report defines the study methodologies and compares the performance and economics of selected gas-removal systems. Recommendations are presented for follow-up investigations and implementation of some of the technologies discussed. The specific gas-removal methods include five vacuum system configurations using the conventional approach of evacuating gas/vapor mixtures from the power plant condenser system and a system for physical separation of steam and gases upstream of the power turbine. The study focused on flashed-steam applications, but the results apply equally well to flashed-steam and dry-steam geothermal power plant configurations. Two gas-removal options appear to offer profitable economic potential. The hybrid vacuum system configurations and the reboiler process yield positive net present value results over wide-ranging gas concentrations. The hybrid options look favorable for both low-temperature and high-temperature resource applications. The reboiler looks profitable for low-temperature resource applications for gas levels above about 20,000 parts per million by volume. A vacuum system configuration using a three-stage turbocompressor battery may be profitable for low-temperature resources, but results show that the hybrid system is more profitable. The biphase eductor alternative cannot be recommended for commercialization at this time. The report is available from NREL's publication database.

202

Extraction of uranium from spent fuels using liquefied gases  

SciTech Connect

For reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels, a novel method to extract actinides from spent fuel using highly compressed gases, nitrogen dioxide and carbon dioxide was proposed. As a fundamental study, the nitrate conversion with liquefied nitrogen dioxide and the nitrate extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide were demonstrated by using uranium dioxide powder, uranyl nitrate and tri-n-butylphosphate complex in the present study. (authors)

Sawada, Kayo; Hirabayashi, Daisuke; Enokida, Youichi [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, 464-8603 (Japan)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Analysis of Simulated Headspace Gases  

SciTech Connect

The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for headspace gases distributes sample gases of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for analysis. Participating measurement facilities (i.e., fixed laboratories, mobile analysis systems, and on-line analytical systems) are located across the United States. Each sample distribution is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements performed for transuranic (TRU) waste characterization. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (DOE/CBFO-94-1012) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) contained in the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF) issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The WAP requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAP. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and the applicable requirements of the WAP for the Headspace Gas (HSG) PDP. Participating measurement facilities analyze blind audit samples of simulated TRU waste package headspace gases according to the criteria set by this PDP Plan. Blind audit samples (hereafter referred to as PDP samples) are used as an independent means to assess each measurement facilitys compliance with the WAP quality assurance objectives (QAOs). To the extent possible, the concentrations of VOC analytes in the PDP samples encompass the range of concentrations anticipated in actual TRU waste package headspace gas samples. Analyses of headspace gases are required by the WIPP to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements. These analyses must be performed by measurement facilities that have demonstrated acceptable performance in this PDP. These analyses are referred to as WIPP analyses and the TRU waste package headspace gas samples on which they are performed are referred to as WIPP samples in this document. Participating measurement facilities must analyze PDP samples using the same procedures used for routine waste characterization analyses of WIPP samples.

Carlsbad Field Office

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Chemical production from industrial by-product gases: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The potential for conservation of natural gas is studied and the technical and economic feasibility and the implementation of ventures to produce such chemicals using carbon monoxide and hydrogen from byproduct gases are determined. A survey was performed of potential chemical products and byproduct gas sources. Byproduct gases from the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries were selected for detailed study. Gas sampling, preliminary design, market surveys, and economic analyses were performed for specific sources in the selected industries. The study showed that production of methanol or ammonia from byproduct gas at the sites studied in the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries is technically feasible but not economically viable under current conditions. Several other applications are identified as having the potential for better economics. The survey performed identified a need for an improved method of recovering carbon monoxide from dilute gases. A modest experimental program was directed toward the development of a permselective membrane to fulfill that need. A practical membrane was not developed but further investigation along the same lines is recommended. (MCW)

Lyke, S.E.; Moore, R.H.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Production of quantum degenerate strontium gases: Larger, better, faster, colder  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on an improved scheme to generate Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) and degenerate Fermi gases of strontium. This scheme allows us to create quantum gases with higher atom number, a shorter time of the experimental cycle, or deeper quantum degeneracy than before. We create a BEC of 84-Sr exceeding 10^7 atoms, which is a 30-fold improvement over previously reported experiments. We increase the atom number of 86-Sr BECs to 2.5x10^4 (a fivefold improvement), and refine the generation of attractively interacting 88-Sr BECs. We present a scheme to generate 84-Sr BECs with a cycle time of 2s, which, to the best of our knowledge, is the shortest cycle time of BEC experiments ever reported. We create deeply-degenerate 87-Sr Fermi gases with T/T_F as low as 0.10(1), where the number of populated nuclear spin states can be set to any value between one and ten. Furthermore, we report on a total of five different double-degenerate Bose-Bose and Bose-Fermi mixtures. These studies prepare an excellent starting poi...

Stellmer, Simon; Schreck, Florian

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - What's New  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Environment > Voluntary Reporting Program > What's New Environment > Voluntary Reporting Program > What's New Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program What's New Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Suspended May 2011 The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases ("1605(b)") Program has been suspended. The suspension is due to recent reductions in budget appropriations and is effective immediately. Survey respondents may still submit data to the 1605(b) Program using the program's Workbook Form via EIA's Secure File Transfer mechanism. However, EIA will not be able to process and review submitted data or offer respondent support on the submitted data. Should a respondant submit data under the current collection cycle to EIA, the data will be retained in our electronic records. If the 1605(b) Program resumes normal operations, your submitted data will be reviewed and processed at that time. You will be notified in the future if the 1605(b) Program resumes normal operation. If you have any questions, please contact the survey manager, Paul McArdle, at paul.mcardle@eia.gov

207

Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Thermodynamic Evaluation of Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-GWP Refrigerants Mark O. McLinden National Institute of Standards and Technology markm@boulder.nist.gov; 303-497-3580 April 3, 2013 Optimization Fluid Modeling Cycle Modeling Final Candidates Optimum Thermo Parameters 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Problem Statement: HFC refrigerants face restrictions: U.S./Canada/Mexico proposal to Montreal Protocol (85 % cut) EU regulations likely on all application areas (79 % cut)

208

Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Thermodynamic Evaluation of Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-GWP Refrigerants Mark O. McLinden National Institute of Standards and Technology markm@boulder.nist.gov; 303-497-3580 April 3, 2013 Optimization Fluid Modeling Cycle Modeling Final Candidates Optimum Thermo Parameters 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Problem Statement: HFC refrigerants face restrictions: U.S./Canada/Mexico proposal to Montreal Protocol (85 % cut) EU regulations likely on all application areas (79 % cut)

209

Curing | GE Global Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

this paper-based instrument, the size of a deck of playing cards, enables... Read More Additive Manufacturing Demonstration at GE Global Research See how GE Global Research is...

210

Global Environmental Course Title  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Department Global Environmental Studies Room Course Title Frontier of Sustainability Science Instructor Akihisa MORI, Global Environmental Studies Satoshi KONISHI, Institute of Advanced consisting from a variety of academic field, including philosophy, politics, economics, energy, architecture

Takada, Shoji

211

NASA/Ames Global Emissions Data Set (GLEMIS) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

NASA/Ames Global Emissions Data Set (GLEMIS) NASA/Ames Global Emissions Data Set (GLEMIS) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: NASA/Ames Global Emissions Data Set (GLEMIS) Agency/Company /Organization: National Aeronautics and Space Administration Sector: Land Focus Area: Forestry, Agriculture Topics: GHG inventory Resource Type: Dataset, Maps Website: gcmd.nasa.gov/records/GCMD_NASA_AMES_GLEMIS.html NASA/Ames Global Emissions Data Set (GLEMIS) Screenshot References: NASA/Ames Global Emissions Data Set (GLEMIS)[1] "NASA-CASA data sets include global maps for predicted fluxes of soil nitrogen gases (N2O and NO), methane (CH4), and carbon monoxide (CO), plus predictions of net primary production (NPP) and carbon storage in leaf, wood, root, litter, and surface soil pools. Others data sets will follow.

212

Computer modeling of the global warming effect  

SciTech Connect

The state of knowledge of global warming will be presented and two aspects examined: observational evidence and a review of the state of computer modeling of climate change due to anthropogenic increases in greenhouse gases. Observational evidence, indeed, shows global warming, but it is difficult to prove that the changes are unequivocally due to the greenhouse-gas effect. Although observational measurements of global warming are subject to ``correction,`` researchers are showing consistent patterns in their interpretation of the data. Since the 1960s, climate scientists have been making their computer models of the climate system more realistic. Models started as atmospheric models and, through the addition of oceans, surface hydrology, and sea-ice components, they then became climate-system models. Because of computer limitations and the limited understanding of the degree of interaction of the various components, present models require substantial simplification. Nevertheless, in their present state of development climate models can reproduce most of the observed large-scale features of the real system, such as wind, temperature, precipitation, ocean current, and sea-ice distribution. The use of supercomputers to advance the spatial resolution and realism of earth-system models will also be discussed.

Washington, W.M. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

213

DOING SOMETHING ABOUT THE CLIMATE: GREENHOUSE GASES, AEROSOLS,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and its uncertainty Concluding remarks #12;#12;GLOBAL ENERGY BALANCE Global and annual average energy, modified from Ramanathan, 1987 #12;ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION Energy per area per time Power per area Unit: Watt flux at top of atmosphere, W m-2 Emitted thermal infrared Reflected shortwave 100 150 200 250 300 0 50

Schwartz, Stephen E.

214

Local effects of global warming.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Currently, global warming is a focus of attention. In order to scientifically evaluate evidence about global warming, and prove the existence of global warming, this (more)

Lu, Jun

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Sorption of organic gases in residential bedrooms and bathrooms  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sorption of organic gases in residential bedrooms and bathrooms Sorption of organic gases in residential bedrooms and bathrooms Title Sorption of organic gases in residential bedrooms and bathrooms Publication Type Conference Paper LBNL Report Number LBNL-56787 Year of Publication 2005 Authors Singer, Brett C., Alfred T. Hodgson, Toshifumi Hotchi, Katherine Y. Ming, Richard G. Sextro, Emily E. Wood, and Nancy J. Brown Conference Name Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate - Indoor Air 2005 Volume 2(9) Publisher Tsinghua University Press Conference Location Beijing, China Abstract Experiments were conducted to characterize organic gas sorption in residential bedrooms (n=4), bathrooms (n=2), and a furnished test chamber. Rooms were studied "as-is" with material surfaces and furnishings unaltered. Surface materials were characterized and areas quantified. Experiments included rapid volatilization of a volatile organic compound (VOC) mixture with the room closed and sealed for a 5-h Adsorb phase, followed by 30-min Flush and 2-h closed-room Desorb phases. The mixture included n-alkanes, aromatics, glycol ethers, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, dichlorobenzene, and organophosphorus compounds. Measured gas-phase concentrations were fit to three variations of a mathematical model that considers sorption occurring at one surface sink and one potential embedded sink. The 2-parameter sink model tracked measurements for most compounds, but improved fits were obtained for some VOCs with a 3-parameter sink-diffusion or a 4-parameter two-sink model. Sorptive partitioning and initial adsorption rates increased with decreasing vapour pressure within each chemical class.

216

Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Analysis of Simulated Headspace Gases  

SciTech Connect

The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for headspace gases distributes blind audit samples in a gas matrix for analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Participating measurement facilities (i.e., fixed laboratories, mobile analysis systems, and on-line analytical systems) are located across the United States. Each sample distribution is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements performed for transuranic (TRU) waste characterization. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (DOE/CBFO-94-1012) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) contained in the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF) issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The WAP requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAP. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and the applicable requirements of the WAP for the Headspace Gas (HSG) PDP. Participating measurement facilities analyze blind audit samples of simulated TRU waste package headspace gases according to the criteria set by this PDP Plan. Blind audit samples (hereafter referred to as PDP samples) are used as an independent means to assess each measurement facilitys compliance with the WAP quality assurance objectives (QAOs). To the extent possible, the concentrations of VOC analytes in the PDP samples encompass the range of concentrations anticipated in actual TRU waste package headspace gas samples. Analyses of headspace gases are required by the WIPP to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements. These analyses must be performed by measurement facilities that have demonstrated acceptable performance in this PDP. These analyses are referred to as WIPP analyses and the TRU waste package headspace gas samples on which they are performed are referred to as WIPP samples in this document. Participating measurement facilities must analyze PDP samples using the same procedures used for routine waste characterization analyses of WIPP samples.

Carlsbad Field Office

2007-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

217

Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Analysis of Simulated Headspace Gases  

SciTech Connect

The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for headspace gases distributes blind audit samples in a gas matrix for analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Participating measurement facilities (i.e., fixed laboratories, mobile analysis systems, and on-line analytical systems) are located across the United States. Each sample distribution is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements performed for transuranic (TRU) waste characterization. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (DOE/CBFO-94-1012) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) contained in the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF) issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The WAP requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAP. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and the applicable requirements of the WAP for the Headspace Gas (HSG) PDP. Participating measurement facilities analyze blind audit samples of simulated TRU waste package headspace gases according to the criteria set by this PDP Plan. Blind audit samples (hereafter referred to as PDP samples) are used as an independent means to assess each measurement facilitys compliance with the WAP quality assurance objectives (QAOs). To the extent possible, the concentrations of VOC analytes in the PDP samples encompass the range of concentrations anticipated in actual TRU waste package headspace gas samples. Analyses of headspace gases are required by the WIPP to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements. These analyses must be performed by measurement facilities that have demonstrated acceptable performance in this PDP. These analyses are referred to as WIPP analyses and the TRU waste package headspace gas samples on which they are performed are referred to as WIPP samples in this document. Participating measurement facilities must analyze PDP samples using the same procedures used for routine waste characterization analyses of WIPP samples.

Carlsbad Field Office

2007-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

218

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Reporting Guidelines  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Reporting Guidelines Reporting Guidelines Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Reporting Guidelines The purpose of the guidelines is to establish the procedures and requirements for filing voluntary reports, and to ensure that the annual reports of greenhouse gas emissions, emission reductions, and sequestration activities submitted by corporations, government agencies, non-profit organizations, households, and other private and public entities to submit are complete, reliable, and consistent. Over time, it is anticipated that these reports will provide a reliable record of the contributions reporting entities have made toward reducing their greenhouse gas emissions. General Guidelines General Guidelines Technical Guidelines Technical Guidelines Appendices to the Technical Guidelines:

219

Prospecting by sampling and analysis of airborne particulates and gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is claimed for prospecting by sampling airborne particulates or gases at a ground position and recording wind direction values at the time of sampling. The samples are subsequently analyzed to determine the concentrations of a desired material or the ratios of the desired material to other identifiable materials in the collected samples. By comparing the measured concentrations or ratios to expected background data in the vicinity sampled, one can select recorded wind directions indicative of the upwind position of the land-based source of the desired material.

Sehmel, G.A.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Coherence Length of Cold Exciton Gases in Coupled Quantum Wells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A Mach-Zehnder interferometer with spatial and spectral resolution was used to probe spontaneous coherence in cold exciton gases, which are implemented experimentally in the ring of indirect excitons in coupled quantum wells. A strong enhancement of the exciton coherence length is observed at temperatures below a few Kelvin. The increase of the coherence length is correlated with the macroscopic spatial ordering of excitons. The coherence length at the lowest temperature corresponds to a very narrow spread of the exciton momentum distribution, much smaller than that for a classical exciton gas.

Sen Yang, A. T. Hammack, M. M. Fogler, L. V. Butov, and A. C. Gossard

2006-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gases gwp global" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Zero sound modes of dilute Fermi gases with arbitrary spin  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Motivated by the recent success of optical trapping of alkali-metal bosons, we have studied the zero sound modes of dilute Fermi gases with arbitrary spin-f, which are spin-S excitations (0<~S<~2f). The dispersion of the mode (S) depends on a single Landau parameter F(S), which is related to the scattering lengths of the system through a simple formula. Measurement of (even a subset of) these modes in finite magnetic fields will enable one to determine all the interaction parameters of the system.

S.-K. Yip and Tin-Lun Ho

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Global Climate Change Links  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Global Climate Change Links Global Climate Change Links This page provides links to web pages that we at CDIAC feel do a responsible job of presenting information and discussion pertinent to the science behind the global climate change ("global warming") debate. These sites include those on both sides of the debate; some asserting that global warming is a clear and present danger, and others that might be labeled global warming "skeptics." Some of these sites don't take a position per se; they exist to offer the public objective scientific information and results on our present understanding of the climate system. The list is not intended to be comprehensive, by any means. We hope it will be especially helpful for those who may be just beginning their research into global

223

Instantaneous and efficient surface wave excitation of a low pressure gas or gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for instantaneously ionizing and continuously delivering energy in the form of surface waves to a low pressure gas or mixture of low pressure gases, comprising a source of rf energy, a discharge container, (such as a fluorescent lamp discharge tube), an rf shield, and a coupling device responsive to rf energy from the source to couple rf energy directly and efficiently to the gas or mixture of gases to ionize at least a portion of the gas or gases and to provide energy to the gas or gases in the form of surface waves. The majority of the rf power is transferred to the gas or gases near the inner surface of the discharge container to efficiently transfer rf energy as excitation energy for at least one of the gases. The most important use of the invention is to provide more efficient fluorescent and/or ultraviolet lamps.

Levy, Donald J. (Berkeley, CA); Berman, Samuel M. (San Francisco, CA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Illinois Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

225

Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2008 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2011 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

226

Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2008 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2011 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

227

Synthetic Lorentz force in classical atomic gases via Doppler effect and radiation pressure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We theoretically predict a novel type of synthetic Lorentz force for classical (cold) atomic gases, which is based on the Doppler effect and radiation pressure. A fairly uniform and strong force can be constructed for gases in macroscopic volumes of several cubic millimeters and more. This opens the possibility to mimic classical charged gases in magnetic fields, such as those in a tokamak, in cold atom experiments.

Dub?ek, T; Juki?, D; Aumiler, D; Ban, T; Buljan, H

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

E-Print Network 3.0 - automobile exhaust gases Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

exhaust gases Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Ability of Catalytic Converters to Reduce Air Pollution Summary: Air Pollution MEASUREMENT OF SELECTED AIR POLLUTANTS IN CAR EXHAUST...

229

E-Print Network 3.0 - aircraft exhaust gases Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

gases FAA, 2005. Water in the aircraft exhaust at altitude may have a greenhouse effect... . Aircraft ... Source: Ecole Polytechnique, Centre de mathmatiques...

230

Fact #825: June 16, 2014 Tier 3 Non-Methane Organic Gases Plus...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

organic gases (NMOG) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) that new light vehicles with gasoline engines are allowed to produce for model years 2017 to 2025. These standards apply to...

231

2013 Global Carbon Project  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2013 Global Carbon Project 2013 Global Carbon Project DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/GCP_2013_V1.1 image 2013 Budget v1.1 (November 2013) image 2013 Budget v1.3 (December 2013, contains typographical corrections to 2011 Australia emissions from v1.1 and corrections to the 2011 Australia transfer and consumption emissions from v1.2) image image image image Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions to Reach 36 Billion Tonnes in 2013 Global emissions of carbon dioxide from the combustion of fossil fuels will reach 36 billion tonnes for the year 2013. "This is a level unprecedented in human history," says CSIRO's Dr Pep Canadell, Executive-Director of the Global Carbon Project (GCP) and co-author of a new report. Global emissions due to fossil fuel alone are set to grow this year at a slightly lower pace of 2.1% than the average 3.1% since 2000, reaching 36

232

Cleantech Professional Resource Global Limited CPR Global | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Professional Resource Global Limited CPR Global Professional Resource Global Limited CPR Global Jump to: navigation, search Name Cleantech Professional Resource Global Limited (CPR Global) Place London, United Kingdom Zip EC4M 9DN Product Cleantech Professional Resource is a resource management consultancy focusing on the cleantech sector in the UK and Europe. References Cleantech Professional Resource Global Limited (CPR Global)[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Cleantech Professional Resource Global Limited (CPR Global) is a company located in London, United Kingdom . References ↑ "Cleantech Professional Resource Global Limited (CPR Global)" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Cleantech_Professional_Resource_Global_Limited_CPR_Global&oldid=343687

233

Powering | GE Global Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Trials GE Global Research is advancing technology that will make the inspection of wind turbines faster and more reliable for customers.... Read More Brilliant(tm) Wind...

234

Subsidizing Global Solar Power.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? With national cuts on solar PV subsidies and the current oversupply of panels, the global solar market is clearly threatened by a contraction. Yet, (more)

Arnesson, Daniel

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Assess Potential Agency Size Changes that Impact Greenhouse Gases from  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Vehicles and Mobile Equipment Vehicles and Mobile Equipment Assess Potential Agency Size Changes that Impact Greenhouse Gases from Vehicles and Mobile Equipment October 7, 2013 - 11:31am Addthis YOU ARE HERE Step 1 Planned changes in a Federal agency's size, missions, transportation needs, and vehicle inventory all impact the strategic portfolio planning efforts that target greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions mitigation for vehicles and mobile equipment. Under Section 142 of the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) and Section 8 of Executive Order (E.O.) 13514, agencies are required to develop a plan that will reduce fleet GHG emissions to meet Federally mandated petroleum reduction and alternative fuel increase targets. Agencies can use these plans as a basis for determining potential changes in fleet size and

236

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Why Report  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Why Report Why Report Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Why Report What Is the Purpose of Form EIA-1605? Form EIA-1605 provides the means for the voluntary reporting of greenhouse gas emissions, reductions, and sequestration under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. The purpose of the Voluntary Reporting Program is to encourage corporations, government agencies, non-profit organizations, households, and other private and public entities to submit annual reports of their greenhouse gas emissions, emission reductions, and sequestration activities. Form EIA-1605 provides a means for voluntary reporting that is complete, reliable, and consistent. How Will My Entity Benefit From Reporting? There are a number of ways for your entity to benefit from reporting, including:

237

Simulations of Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition in Reactive Gases |  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

numerically generated pseudo-schlieren image numerically generated pseudo-schlieren image Weak ignition behind a reflected Mach=1.5 shock in a stoichiometric hydrogen-oxygen mixture at 0.1 atm initial pressure. Picture shows a numerically generated pseudo-schlieren image of the onset of a detonation in a turbulent boundary layer. Alexei Khokhlov, University of Chicago; Charles Bacon, Argonne National Laboratory, Joanna Austin, Andrew Knisely, University of Illinois at Urbanna-Champaign Simulations of Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition in Reactive Gases PI Name: Alexei Khokhlov PI Email: ajk@oddjob.uchicago.edu Institution: The University of Chicago Allocation Program: INCITE Allocation Hours at ALCF: 130 Million Year: 2013 Research Domain: Chemistry Hydrogen is an abundant, environmentally friendly fuel with the potential

238

Assess Potential Agency Size Changes that Impact Greenhouse Gases from  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Employee Commuting Employee Commuting Assess Potential Agency Size Changes that Impact Greenhouse Gases from Employee Commuting October 7, 2013 - 1:42pm Addthis YOU ARE HERE Step 1 For employee commuting, it is important to account for any planned or expected changes in a Federal agency's size when estimating the greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction potential for different operating units or worksites. Considerations include: Are employment levels expected to change in the next decade at specific facilities or agency-wide? Are there any planned facility moves at major worksites? Employee commute coordinators may want to engage human resources and strategic planners in this effort to establish likely changes in employment numbers. Facility planners may be engaged to understand changes in commutes

239

The Breakdown of Gases in High Frequency Electrical Fields  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A theory is proposed to explain the mechanism of breakdown of gases in high frequency electrical fields. It is assumed that breakdown occurs when the electrical field and the frequency are such that an electron acquires the ionizing energy at the end of one mean free path. The field for breakdown is thus a function of the frequency of the applied potential and the ionization potential and pressure of the gas. The fields for breakdown of argon and xenon are calculated and expressed as functions of the frequency and the gas pressure. The calculated potentials are compared with experimental data, and good agreement is found for frequencies greater than 10106 c.p.s.

Donald H. Hale

1948-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

WIMP Dark Matter Direct-Detection Searches in Noble Gases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cosmological observations and the dynamics of the Milky Way provide ample evidence for an invisible and dominant mass component. This so-called dark matter could be made of new, colour and charge neutral particles, which were non-relativistic when they decoupled from ordinary matter in the early universe. Such weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are predicted to have a non-zero coupling to baryons and could be detected via their collisions with atomic nuclei in ultra-low background, deep underground detectors. Among these, detectors based on liquefied noble gases have demonstrated tremendous discovery potential over the last decade. After briefly introducing the phenomenology of direct dark matter detection, I will review the main properties of liquefied argon and xenon as WIMP targets and discuss sources of background. I will then describe existing and planned argon and xenon detectors that employ the so-called single- and dual-phase detection techniques, addressing their complementarity and science...

Baudis, Laura

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gases gwp global" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

WIMP Dark Matter Direct-Detection Searches in Noble Gases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cosmological observations and the dynamics of the Milky Way provide ample evidence for an invisible and dominant mass component. This so-called dark matter could be made of new, colour and charge neutral particles, which were non-relativistic when they decoupled from ordinary matter in the early universe. Such weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are predicted to have a non-zero coupling to baryons and could be detected via their collisions with atomic nuclei in ultra-low background, deep underground detectors. Among these, detectors based on liquefied noble gases have demonstrated tremendous discovery potential over the last decade. After briefly introducing the phenomenology of direct dark matter detection, I will review the main properties of liquefied argon and xenon as WIMP targets and discuss sources of background. I will then describe existing and planned argon and xenon detectors that employ the so-called single- and dual-phase detection techniques, addressing their complementarity and science reach.

Laura Baudis

2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

242

Trace gases, CO2, climate, and the greenhouse effect  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Weather is driven by the suns energy input and the difference between insolation per unit area of the poles and the equator. The energy flux of the Earth is in long?term balanceas much is radiated away by the Earth as is absorbed or the mean temperature would have to increase or decrease steadily (and of course this is not observed). CO2 and other trace gases can cause the Earths mean temperature to rise through the Greenhouse Effect. The mean temperature in the Little Ice Age was only 1?C cooler but large effects were felt especially toward the poles. The CO2 which stays in the atmosphere will raise Earths mean temperature with effects which are relatively certain: a lot of warming at the poles and a very small amount of warming at the equator.

Gordon J. Aubrecht II

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Highly polarized Fermi gases across a narrow Feshbach resonance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We address the phase of a highly polarized Fermi gases across a narrow Feshbach resonance starting from the problem of a single down-spin fermion immersed in a Fermi sea of up spins. Both polaron and pairing states are considered using the variational wave function approach, and we find that the polaron-to-pairing transition will take place on the BCS side of the resonance, strongly in contrast to a wide resonance where the transition is located at the BEC side. For the pairing phase, we find the critical strength of the repulsive interaction between pairs above which the mixture of pairs and fermions will not phase separate. Therefore, nearby a narrow resonance, it is quite likely that magnetism can coexist with s-wave BCS superfluidity at large Zeeman fields, which is a remarkable property absent in conventional BCS superconductors (or fermion-pair superfluids).

Ran Qi and Hui Zhai

2012-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

244

Finite-size energy of non-interacting Fermi gases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We prove the asymptotics of the difference of the ground-state energies of two non-interacting $N$-particle Fermi gases on the half line of length $L$ in the thermodynamic limit up to order $1/L$. We are particularly interested in subdominant terms proportional to $1/L$, called finite-size energy. In the nineties Affleck and co-authors [Aff97, ZA97, AL94] claimed that the finite-size energy equals the decay exponent occuring in Anderson's orthogonality catastrophe. It turns out that the finite-size energy depends on the details of the thermodynamic limit and typically also includes a linear term in the scattering phase shift.

Martin Gebert

2014-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

245

Granular Gases of Rod-Shaped Grains in Microgravity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Granular gases are convenient model systems to investigate the statistical physics of nonequilibrium systems. In the literature, one finds numerous theoretical predictions, but only few experiments. We study a weakly excited dilute gas of rods, confined in a cuboid container in microgravity during a suborbital rocket flight. With respect to a gas of spherical grains at comparable filling fraction, the mean free path is considerably reduced. This guarantees a dominance of grain-grain collisions over grain-wall collisions. No clustering was observed, unlike in similar experiments with spherical grains. Rod positions and orientations were determined and tracked. Translational and rotational velocity distributions are non-Gaussian. Equipartition of kinetic energy between translations and rotations is violated.

K. Harth; U. Kornek; T. Trittel; U. Strachauer; S. Hme; K. Will; R. Stannarius

2013-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

246

Carrier cooling and exciton formation in GaSe  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The initial cooling of hot carriers and the subsequent exciton formation in GaSe are studied by time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) using femtosecond up-conversion techniques. From the time-resolved PL spectra of this layered III-VI semiconductor two different energy relaxation channels are derived. After an initial subpicosecond cooling due to Frhlich-type interaction of carriers with longitudinal optical E?(22) phonons a slower regime follows, which is dominated by deformation potential interaction with the nonpolar optical A1?(12) phonons. The coupling constant for nonpolar optical phonon scattering is derived. The subsequent formation of excitons is studied at different carrier densities and detection energies. A cross section for the free-exciton formation is determined based on a rate equation model.

S. Nsse; P. Haring Bolivar; H. Kurz; V. Klimov; F. Levy

1997-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

247

Kovacs-like memory effect in driven granular gases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

While memory effects have been reported for dense enough disordered systems such as glasses, we show here by a combination of analytical and simulation techniques that they are also intrinsic to the dynamics of dilute granular gases. By means of a certain driving protocol, we prepare the gas in a state where the granular temperature $T$ coincides with its long time limit. However, $T$ does not subsequently remain constant, but exhibits a non-monotonic evolution before reaching its non-equilibrium steady value. The corresponding so-called Kovacs hump displays a normal behavior for weak dissipation (as observed in molecular systems), but is reversed under strong dissipation, where it thus becomes anomalous.

A. Prados; E. Trizac

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

248

Sorption of organic gases in a furnished room  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

a furnished room a furnished room Title Sorption of organic gases in a furnished room Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-53943 Year of Publication 2004 Authors Singer, Brett C., Kenneth L. Revzan, Toshifumi Hotchi, Alfred T. Hodgson, and Nancy J. Brown Journal Atmospheric Environment Volume 38 Start Page Chapter Issue 16 Pagination 2483-2494 Abstract We present experimental data and semi-empirical models describing the sorption of organic gases in a simulated indoor residential environment. Two replicate experiments were conducted with 20 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a 50-m3 room finished with painted wallboard, carpet and cushion, draperies and furnishings. The VOCs span a wide volatility range and include ten Hazardous Air Pollutants. VOCs were introduced to the static chamber as a pulse and their gas-phase concentrations were measured during a net adsorption period and a subsequent net desorption period. Three sorption models were fit to the measured concentrations for each compound to determine the simplest formulation needed to adequately describe the observed behavior. Sorption parameter values were determined by fitting the models to adsorption period data then checked by comparing measured and predicted behavior during desorption. The adequacy of each model was evaluated using a goodness of fit parameter calculated for each period. Results indicate that sorption usually does not greatly affect indoor concentrations of methyl-tert-butyl ether, 2-butanone, isoprene and benzene. In contrast, sorption appears to be a relevant indoor process for many of the VOCs studied, including C8-C10 aromatic hydrocarbons (HC), terpenes, and pyridine. These compounds sorbed at rates close to typical residential air change rates and exhibited substantial sorptive partitioning at equilibrium. Polycyclic aromatic HCs, aromatic alcohols, ethenylpyridine and nicotine initially adsorbed to surfaces at rates of 1.5 to >6 h-1 and partitioned 95 to >99% in the sorbed phase at equilibrium

249

ALS Global Agroecosystems -Draft 1 Global Agroecosystems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

following class or by appointment PREREQUISITES Introduction to Soils (SWS 3022), Soils for Environmental. This course will emphasize greater understanding of this triple bottom line in agricultural production and timely global issue in agroecology and effectively communicate in video format. CLASS FORMAT Three 50

Ma, Lena

250

Global Development Our Responsibility  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of expertise cover urgent global issues such as food production, energy supply, climate change, biodiversity e ort to address urgent global issues particularly a ecting developing countries e.g. climate change of Communication, 2012 · Project Leader: Karin Nilsson · Graphic Design: Viktor Wrange & Michael Kvick Cover Photo

251

Theory of the lattice Boltzmann method: Lattice Boltzmann models for nonideal gases Li-Shi Luo*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Theory of the lattice Boltzmann method: Lattice Boltzmann models for nonideal gases Li-Shi Luo is presented. This treat- ment provides a unified theory of lattice Boltzmann models for nonideal gases. The lattice Boltzmann equation is systematically obtained by discretizing the Enskog equation in phase space

Luo, Li-Shi

252

Preserving noble gases in a convecting mantle Helge M. Gonnermann1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of a processed and out- gassed lower-mantle source, residues of mantle melting10,11 , depleted in uranium and mixing of noble-gas-depleted slabs dilutes the concentrations of noble gases in the mantle, thereby melt, which forms the ocean crust and leaves the residual mantle severely depleted of noble gases

Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy

253

US-China cooperation for global environmental protection  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Dramatic economic changes are taking place in China, increasing China's effect on global climate, and creating opportunities for US-Chin~ cooperation in energy efficiency. China's tremendous economic growth, low energy efficiency and heavy reliance on coal have made it the world's second largest emitter of energy-related greenhouse gases. US technical and economic cooperation with China has been relatively meager, particularly since the events in Tiananmen Square in 1989. A new approach to China that recognizes our common interests as well as areas of conflict can include providing increased support for energy efficiency projects and lifting restrictions on trade programs in China. Promoting energy efficiency will not only reduce the risk of global warming, but will expand the market for US technology and expertise, and will accelerate social progress and the development of a market economy in China.

William U. Chandler; Zhou Dadi; Jessica Hamburger

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Status of fossil energy resources: A global perspective  

SciTech Connect

This article deals with recently status of global fossil energy sources. Fossil energy sources have been split into three categories: oil,coal, and natural gas. Fossil fuels are highly efficient and cheap. Currently oil is the fastest primary energy source in the world (39% of world energy consumption). Coal will be a major source of energy for the world for the foreseeable future (24% of world energy consumption). In 2030, coal covers 45% of world energy needs. Natural gas is expected to be the fastest growing component of world energy consumption (23% of world energy consumption). Fossil fuel extraction and conversion to usable energy has several environmental impacts. They could be a major contributor to global warming and greenhouse gases and a cause of acid rain; therefore, expensive air pollution controls are required.

Balat, M. [SILA Science, Trabzon (Turkey)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Global Change and the Terrestrial Biosphere (449th Brookhaven Lecture)  

SciTech Connect

Since the Industrial Revolution, the increased use of fossil fuels has resulted in a dramatic and unprecedented rise in the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Most scientists agree that increasing levels of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases have raised Earth's temperature and, without a reduction in emissions, will continue to do so. Terrestrial ecosystems sustain life on Earth through the production of food, fuel, fiber, clean air, and naturally purified water. But how will agriculture and ecosystems be affected by global change? Rogers will describe the impact of projected climate change on the terrestrial biosphere and explain why plants are not just passive respondents to global change, but play an important role in determining the rate of change.

Rogers, Alistair (Ph.D., Environmental Sciences Department) [Ph.D., Environmental Sciences Department

2009-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

256

The Short-Term Cooling but Long-Term Global Warming Due to Biomass Burning  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Biomass burning releases gases (e.g., CO2, CO, CH4, NOx, SO2, C2H6, C2H4, C3H8, C3H6) and aerosol particle components (e.g., black carbon, organic matter, K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, NH4+, H+, Cl?, H2SO4, HSO4?, SO42?, NO3?). To date, the global-scale climate response of ...

Mark Z. Jacobson

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Helium Isotopes In Geothermal And Volcanic Gases Of The Western United  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Helium Isotopes In Geothermal And Volcanic Gases Of The Western United Helium Isotopes In Geothermal And Volcanic Gases Of The Western United States, I, Regional Variability And Magmatic Origin Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Helium Isotopes In Geothermal And Volcanic Gases Of The Western United States, I, Regional Variability And Magmatic Origin Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Helium isotope ratios in gases of thirty hot springs and geothermal wells and of five natural gas wells in the western United States show no relationship to regional conductive heat flow, but do show a correlation with magma-based thermal activity and reservoir fluid temperature (or total convective heat discharge). Gases from high-T (> 200°C) reservoirs have 3He/4He > 2 _ the atmospheric value, with high He

258

The Global Grid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper puts forward the vision that a natural future stage of the electricity network could be a grid spanning the whole planet and connecting most of the large power plants in the world: this is the Global Grid. The main driving force behind the Global Grid will be the harvesting of remote renewable sources, and its key infrastructure element will be the high capacity long transmission lines. Wind farms and solar power plants will supply load centers with green power over long distances. This paper focuses on the introduction of the concept, showing that a globally interconnected network can be technologically feasible and economically competitive. We further highlight the multiple opportunities emerging from a global electricity network such as smoothing the renewable energy supply and electricity demand, reducing the need for bulk storage, and reducing the volatility of the energy prices. We also discuss possible investment mechanisms and operating schemes. Among others, we envision in such a system a global power market and the establishment of two new coordinating bodies, the Global Regulator and the Global System Operator.

Spyros Chatzivasileiadis; Damien Ernst; Gran Andersson

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Predicting the pressure driven flow of gases through micro-capillaries and micro-orifices  

SciTech Connect

A large body of experimentally measured gas flow rates were obtained from the literature and then compared to the predictions obtained with constitutive flow equations. This was done to determine whether the equations apply to the predictions of gas flow rates from leaking containment vessels used to transport radioactive materials. The experiments consisted of measuring the volumetric pressure-driven flow of gases through micro-capillaries and micro-orifices. The experimental results were compared to the predictions obtained with the equations given in ANSI N14.5 the American National Standard for Radioactive Materials-Leakage Tests on Package for Shipment. The equations were applied to both (1) the data set according to the recommendations given in ANSI N14.5 and (2) globally to the complete data set. It was found that: The continuum and molecular flow equation provided good agreement between the experimental and calculated flow rates for flow rates less than about 1 atm{center_dot}cm{sup 3}/s. The choked flow equation resulted in over-prediction of the flow rates for flow rates less than about 1 atm-cm{sup 3}/s. For flow rates higher than 1 atm{center_dot}cm{sup 3}/s, the molecular and continuum flow equation over-predicted the measured flow rates and the predictions obtained with the choked flow equation agreed well with the experimental values. Since the flow rates of interest for packages used to transport radioactive materials are almost always less than 1 atm{center_dot}cm{sup 3}/s, it is suggested that the continuum and molecular flow equation be used for gas flow rate predictions related to these applications.

Anderson, B.L.; Carlson, R.W.; Fischer, L.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Forecasting phenology under global warming  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Forrest Forecasting phenology under global warming Ines Ibanez 1 * Richard B. Primack...and site-specific responses to global warming. We found that for most species...climate change|East Asia, global warming|growing season, hierarchical...

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gases gwp global" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Regional and Global Data  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Products > Regional/Global Products > Regional/Global Regional and Global Data Biogeochemical Dynamics Data Regional and global biogeochemical dynamics data can be used to improve our understanding of the structure and function of various ecosystems; to enable prediction across spatial and temporal scales; and to parameterize and validate terrestrial ecosystem models. The ORNL DAAC compiles, archives, and distributes more than 150 products from the following projects: Climate Collections Hydroclimatology Collections ISLSCP II Project Net Primary Productivity (NPP) River Discharge (RIVDIS) Russian Land Cover (RLC) Soil Collections Vegetation Collections Vegetation-Ecosystem Modeling (VEMAP) Climate Collections Climate collections include measured and modeled values for variables such as temperature, precipitation, humidity, radiation, wind velocity, and

262

Pax Global, Inc.,  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Pax Global, Inc., Pax Global, Inc., (freezers) Issued: April 2, 2013 BEFORE THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Washington, D.C. 20585 ) ) ) ) ) Case Number: 2013-SE-L413 NOTICE OF NONCOMPLIANCE DETERMINATION Manufacturers and private labelers are prohibited from distributing covered products in the United States that do not comply with applicable federal energy conservation standards. 10 C.F.R. § 429.102; 42 U.S.C. § 6302. Pax Global, Inc. ("Pax Global") is a private labeler and uses the "Crosley" and "Daewoo" brands to distribute freezers in the United States. TESTING l. The U.S. Department of Energy ("DOE") tested four privately labeled units o basic model numbe , manufactured , 1 that had been distributed in the United States by a third-pa1iy private labeler.

263

KRFTWRK Global Human Electricity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Power Network 2.1.1 Virtual Power Plants The Global Powernetwork, based on "Virtual Power Plants", called "VPP". A "participant runs a virtual human power plant. Per every "

Prohaska, Rainer

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Impacts of Global Warming  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The 2001 Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Report provides not merely 1, but 19 separate chapters on the impacts of global warming, comprising over 1,000 pages of descriptions...

Donald Rapp

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Global New Product Development  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the age of ubiquitous internet bandwidth, the development of a global market, coupled with rapid development of what once were underdeveloped countries and regions has led to many companies thinking and act...

Russell Watt

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Mobile Means Global  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

mHealth is rapidly expanding globally, in both volume ... questions developers and users must ask is whether mHealth can be scaled and sustained for the ... governments, foundations, entrepreneurs, and businesses...

Donna Malvey; Donna J. Slovensky

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Global Biomass Energy Potential  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The intensive use of renewable energy is one of the options to stabilize...2...atmospheric concentration at levels of 350 to 550ppm. A recent evaluation of the global potential of primary renewable energy carried...

Jos#X00C9; Roberto Moreira

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Earth's Global Energy Budget  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An update is provided on the Earth's global annual mean energy budget in the light of new observations and analyses. In 1997, Kiehl and Trenberth provided a review of past estimates and performed a number of radiative computations to better ...

Kevin E. Trenberth; John T. Fasullo; Jeffrey Kiehl

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Use of hollow core fibers, fiber lasers, and photonic crystal fibers for spark delivery and laser ignition in gases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The fiber-optic delivery of sparks in gases is challenging as the output beam must be refocused to high

Joshi, Sachin; Yalin, Azer P; Galvanauskas, Almantas

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

ARM - Lesson Plans: Global Warming  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Plans: Global Warming Objective The objective is to understand the enhanced greenhouse effect and the effects of global warming. Important Points to Understand If the...

271

Rapid?sampling system for dusts and gases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Bureau of Mines has developed a system for the rapid grab sampling of heterogeneous mixtures of gases and dusts during the preignition and postignition stages of dust explosions. The combustion chamber in which the explosion occurs is first fitted with a hypodermic sampling needle with its inlet end at the desired sampling point within the chamber and its sharp injecting end protruding outside of the chamber. Rapid sampling (approximately 25 to 50 ms) is achieved with a double?acting air?pressure?actuated cylinder. The forward stroke of the cylinder thrusts the rubber septum seal of an evacuated glass sampling tube onto the protruding needle which punctures the septum filling the tube with gas and dust from the combustion chamber. The return stroke of the cylinder reseals the sampling tube by returning the mechanism to its original position. The initial time of sampling and the duration of sampling are independently variable and controlled by a microprocessor. Results obtained with a trimodal distribution of coal dust show no significant size discrimination at least up to 70 ?m. Data obtained from laboratory?scale coal dust explosion tests are also presented. Such data provide valuable insights into the basic phenomena involved in explosions.

R. S. Conti; M. Hertzberg; F. T. Duda; K. L. Cashdollar

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Impact of the Global Forest Industry on Atmospheric Greenhouse Gas | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Impact of the Global Forest Industry on Atmospheric Greenhouse Gas Impact of the Global Forest Industry on Atmospheric Greenhouse Gas Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Impact of the Global Forest Industry on Atmospheric Greenhouse Gas Agency/Company /Organization: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Sector: Land Focus Area: Industry, Forestry Topics: GHG inventory, Co-benefits assessment, - Environmental and Biodiversity Resource Type: Publications Website: www.fao.org/docrep/012/i1580e/i1580e00.pdf Impact of the Global Forest Industry on Atmospheric Greenhouse Gas Screenshot References: Forestry Industry Impacts[1] "This book examines the influence of the forest products (roundwood, processed wood products and pulp and paper) value chain on atmospheric greenhouse gases. Forests managed for natural conservation, for protection

273

Global Emissions of Trace Gases, Particulate Matter, and Hazardous Air Pollutants from Open Burning of Domestic Waste  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For each country, the amount of waste burned (WB) is estimated using the general guidelines from section 5.3.2 in the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National GHG Inventories:(4)(2)where P is the national population, Pfrac is the fraction of the population assumed to burn some of their waste, MSWP is the mass of annual per capita waste production, and Bfrac is the fraction of waste available to be burned that is actually burned. ... In urban areas, waste that is not collected is assumed to be burnable. ... Among the most important sources, open fires in agriculture/forests as well as open burning of wastes have been identified as the major sources of PCDD/PCDF. ...

Christine Wiedinmyer; Robert J. Yokelson; Brian K. Gullett

2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

274

GLOBAL GOVERNANCE FIGHTING POVERTY 26 GLOBAL AGENDA 2003  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, they would discover a nearly total disparity between global commitments and domestic politics. Bush hasGLOBAL GOVERNANCE FIGHTING POVERTY 26 GLOBAL AGENDA 2003 the world promised to put real resources credible document spelling out the US role in a global war against AIDS. The planned US financial

275

Honeywell fully commercializes eco-friendly blowing agent  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Honeywell Specialty Materials has fully commercialized a novel low-global-warming-potential (GWP) blowing agent for one-component foam and aerosol applications in Europe. Hydrofluoroolefin HFO-1234ze has zero ozone-depletion potential and meets European Union regulatory requirements for reducing the use of high GWP substances, the company says.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

The Tourism Global Value Chain  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Tourism Global Value Chain ECONOMIC UPGRADING AND WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT Michelle Christian 2011 CENTER on GLOBALIZATION, GOVERNANCE & COMPETITIVENESS #12;The Tourism Global Value Chain: Economic: November 17, 2011 #12;The Tourism Global Value Chain: Economic Upgrading and Workforce Development i Table

Richardson, David

277

Original article Predicted global warming  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Original article Predicted global warming and Douglas-fir chilling requirements DD McCreary1 DP to predicted global warming. Douglas-fir / chilling / global warming / bud burst / reforestation Résumé offer evidence that mean global warming of 3-4 °C could occur within the next century, particularly

Boyer, Edmond

278

Gases as Working Fluid in Parabolic Trough CSP Plants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The energetic dimension of actual economy is massively oriented towards the use of fossil fuels: they cover a share of 87% of the energy needs and the trend of this share is increasing, in spite of the commitments adopted by almost all the Countries in the World. Most crucial concern is CO2 levels in the atmosphere and the positive feedback between Earth's temperature increase and carbon. Actual technologies which make use of renewable sources seem to be not fully suitable to invert this continuous increase of fossil fuels. Concentrated Solar Power plants (CSP) have had, recently, a huge attention as a technology able to give, in the mean future, a strong contribution to the electrical energy generation. CSP technology has an intrinsic superiority with respect to the other renewable plants but actual plants suffer of many drawbacks which slow down a massive diffusion: these aspects increase costs and do not insure the reliability levels required to make the investments profitable. Gas as heat transfer fluid inside solar receiver in a CSP Parabolic Trough (PT) type plant is discussed in this paper: this would simplify actual technology in the conversion section, downstream the solar energy collecting phase. The use of gases calls for a new conversion section discussed in this paper based on a direct expansion in gas turbine plants. The success of this concept is related to the possibility to increase the fluid (gas) temperature above the actual operating maximum values. The paper discusses the performances of a new gas cycle, the performances of actual receivers when fed with gas and introduces and discusses an optimization design parameter which allows a cost decrease and industrial reliability improvement.

Roberto Cipollone; Andrea Cinocca; Angelo Gualtieri

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Excitation spectrum and quasiparticles in quantum gases. A rigorous approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis is devoted to a rigorous study of interacting quantum gases. The main objects of interest are the closely related concepts of excitation spectrum and quasiparticles. The immediate motivation of this work is to propose a spectral point of view concerning these two concepts. In the first part of this thesis we discuss the concepts of excitation spectrum and quasiparticles. We provide an overview of physical motivations and based on that we propose a spectral and Hamiltonian-based approach towards these terms. Based on that, we formulate definitions and propositions related to these concepts. In the second part we recall the Bogoliubov and Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approximations, which in the physics literature are used to obtain the quasiparticle picture. We show how these two approaches fit into a universal scheme which allows us to arrive at a quasiparticle picture in a more general setup. This scheme is based on the minimization of Hamiltonians over the so-called Gaussian states. Its abstract formulation is the content of Beliaev's Theorem. In the last part we present a rigorous result concerning the justification of the Bogoliubov approximation. This justification employs the concept of the mean-field and infinite-volume limit. We show that for a large number of particles, a large volume and a sufficiently high density, the low-lying energy-momentum spectrum of the homogeneous Bose gas is well described by the Bogoliubov approximation. This result, which is formulated in the form of a theorem, can be seen as the main result of this thesis.

Marcin Napirkowski

2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

280

Principal Associate Director - Global Security  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Principal Associate Director - Global Security Principal Associate Director - Global Security As Principal Associate Director for Global Security, Wallace leads Laboratory programs with special focus on developing and applying the scientific and engineering capabilities to address complex national and global security threats. Contact Operator Los Alamos National Laboratory (505 667-5061 Wallace's expertise is forensic seismology, a highly specialized discipline focusing on detection and quantification of nuclear tests. Terry C. Wallace, Jr. Principal Associate Director for Global Security Terry C. Wallace, Jr., Principal Associate Director for Global Security As Principal Associate Director for Global Security, Wallace leads Laboratory programs with a focus on applying scientific and engineering capabilities

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gases gwp global" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Geochemical Data on Waters, Gases, Scales, and Rocks from the Dixie Valley  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Geochemical Data on Waters, Gases, Scales, and Rocks from the Dixie Valley Geochemical Data on Waters, Gases, Scales, and Rocks from the Dixie Valley Region, Nevada (1996-1999) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Geochemical Data on Waters, Gases, Scales, and Rocks from the Dixie Valley Region, Nevada (1996-1999) Abstract This report tabulates an extensive geochemical database on waters, gases, scales,rocks, and hot-spring deposits from the Dixie Valley region, Nevada. The samples fromwhich the data were obtained were collected and analyzed during 1996 to 1999. Thesedata provide useful information for ongoing and future investigations on geothermalenergy, volcanism, ore deposits, environmental issues, and groundwater quality in thisregion. Authors Los Alamos National Laboratory and NM Published

282

Intensive Sampling Of Noble Gases In Fluids At Yellowstone- I, Early  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Intensive Sampling Of Noble Gases In Fluids At Yellowstone- I, Early Intensive Sampling Of Noble Gases In Fluids At Yellowstone- I, Early Overview Of The Data, Regional Patterns Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Intensive Sampling Of Noble Gases In Fluids At Yellowstone- I, Early Overview Of The Data, Regional Patterns Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: The Roving Automated Rare Gas Analysis (RARGA) lab of Berkeley's Physics Department was deployed in Yellowstone National Park for a 19 week period commencing in June, 1983. During this time 66 gas and water samples representing 19 different regions of hydrothermal activity within and around the Yellowstone caldera were analyzed on site. Routinely, the abundances of five stable noble gases and the isotopic compositions of He,

283

Eddy covariance flux measurements of pollutant gases in urban Mexico City  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements of the atmosphere/surface exchange of gases over an urban area are a direct way to improve and evaluate emissions inventories, and, in turn, to better understand urban atmospheric ...

Velasco, Erik

284

Characteristic parameters of geigermller counter gases. Propane-argon and propane-helium mixtures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The combination of the Wilkinson and the Diethorn-Kohman expressions of counter operation was tested under conditions in which different rare gases were used with the same quench gas as Geiger-Mller counter f...

Richard G. Pannbacker; Robert W. Kiser

1962-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Cosmogenic and trapped rare gases in Luna-24 drill core samples  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The elemental and isotopic composition of noble gases in six samples from different depths of the Luna-24 drill core soil column, obtained by mass spectrometric analyses, are presented and the results are comp...

J. T. Padia; M. N. Rao; T. R. Venkatesan

1979-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Adsorption Modeling of Coalbed Gases and the Effects of Water on Their Adsorption Behavior.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The simplified local-density/Peng-Robinson (SLD-PR) adsorption model was utilized to investigate the adsorption behavior of coalbed gases on coals of varying rank. The model parameters were (more)

Mohammad, Sayeed Ahmed

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Load Preheating Using Flue Gases from a Fuel-Fired Heating System  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This tip sheet discusses how the thermal efficiency of a process heating system can be improved significantly by using heat contained in furnace flue gases to preheat the furnace load.

288

global | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

global global Dataset Summary Description GIS data for offshore wind speed (meters/second). Specified to Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ).Wind resource based on NOAA blended sea winds and monthly wind speed at 30km resolution, using a 0.11 wind sheer to extrapolate 10m - 90m. Annual average >= 10 months of data, no nulls. Source National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Date Released Unknown Date Updated Unknown Keywords GIS global NOAA NREL offshore wind wind speed Data application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 18.5 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period License License Other or unspecified, see optional comment below Comment Please cite NREL and NOAA Rate this dataset Usefulness of the metadata

289

Iron-based alloys with corrosion resistance to oxygen-sulfur mixed gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An iron-based alloy with improved performance with exposure to oxygen-sulfur mixed gases with the alloy containing about 9--30 wt. % Cr and a small amount of Nb and/or Zr implanted on the surface of the alloy to diffuse a depth into the surface portion, with the alloy exhibiting corrosion resistance to the corrosive gases without bulk addition of Nb and/or Zr and without heat treatment at temperatures of 1000--1100 C. 7 figs.

Natesan, K.

1992-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

290

Iron-based alloys with corrosion resistance to oxygen-sulfur mixed gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An iron-based alloy with improved performance with exposure to oxygen-sulfur mixed gases with the alloy containing about 9-30 wt. % Cr and a small amount of Nb and/or Zr implanted on the surface of the alloy to diffuse a depth into the surface portion, with the alloy exhibiting corrosion resistance to the corrosive gases without bulk addition of Nb and/or Zr and without heat treatment at temperatures of 1000.degree.-1100.degree. C.

Natesan, Krishnamurti (Naperville, IL)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Factors affecting the recovery of petroleum in projects involving the injection of liquefied petroleum gases (LPG)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FACTORS AFFECTING THE RECOVERY OF PETROLEUM IN PROJECTS INVOLVING THE INJECTION OF LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GASES (LPG) A Thesis By GERRY A. GRAHAM Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August, 1961 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering GERRY A. GRAHAM FACTORS AFFECTING THE RECOVERY OF PETROLEUM IN PROJECTS INVOLVING THE INJECTION OF LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GASES (LPG) A...

Graham, Gerry A

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

292

Explicit global integrators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

be advantageous. For this purpose, forward interpolation utilizing Radau Quadrature will be employed. An explicit method of global integration has been developed to estimate a solution to a differential equation. A set of functions P (x), P (x), , P (x) and a... set of points n+1 x , x , , x can be found such that n+1 r x n+1 f(u)du = g P. (x)i'(x. ) 0 i=1 for all x when f(u) is a polynomial of degree n or less. The above process is described by Axelsson as global integration. In . th the cases...

Merriam, Robert Stevens

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

293

Energy Department Releases Roadmaps on HVAC Technologies, Water Heating, Appliances, and Low-GWP Refrigerants  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

In Fall 2014, the Emerging Technologies Program released four roadmaps, providing BTO with recommendations for R&D activities to pursue and help aid in achieving BTOs energy savings goals.

294

Research and Development Roadmap For Next-Generation Low-GWP...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

expansion systems D: Near-Term CO 2 Applications * Small commercial refrigeration * Heat pumps * Supermarket refrigeration * Transport refrigeration E: Longer-Term CO 2...

295

PhD student in Energy Technology, specifically in New low GWP refrigerants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

processes in a sustainable fashion as concerns technical management, financial profitability for applying refrigeration and heat pump technology and systems studies of buildings and complete neighborhoods include the following documents: 1. Curriculum vitae, 2. Transcripts of college/university degrees 3

Kazachkov, Ivan

296

White House Conference on Global Climate Change  

SciTech Connect

President Clinton has directed the White House office on Environmental Policy to coordinate an interagency process to develop a plan to fulfill the commitment he made in his Earth Day address on April 21, 1993. This plan will become the cornerstone of the Climate Change Plan that will be completed shortly after the Rio Accord enters into force. The Office on Environmental Policy established the Interagency Climate Change Mitigation Group to draw on the expertise of federal agencies including the National Economic Council; the Council of Economic Advisors; the Office of Science and Technology Policy; the Office of Management and Budget; the National Security Council; the Domestic Policy Council; the Environmental Protection Agency; and the Departments of Energy, Transportation, Agriculture, Interior, Treasury, Commerce, and State. Working groups have been established to examine six key policy areas: energy demand, energy supply, joint implementation, methane and other gases, sinks, and transportation. The purpose of the White House Conference on Global Climate Change was to ``tap the real-world experiences`` of diverse participants and seek ideas and information for meeting the President`s goals. During the opening session, senior administration officials defined the challenge ahead and encouraged open and frank conversation about the best possible ways to meet it.

Not Available

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Global climate change and the mitigation challenge  

SciTech Connect

Anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), have led to increasing atmospheric concentrations, very likely the primary cause of the 0.8{sup o}C warming the Earth has experienced since the Industrial Revolution. With industrial activity and population expected to increase for the rest of the century, large increases in greenhouse gas emissions are projected, with substantial global additional warming predicted. This paper examines forces driving CO{sub 2} emissions, a concise sector-by-sector summary of mitigation options, and research and development (R&D) priorities. To constrain warming to below approximately 2.5{sup o}C in 2100, the recent annual 3% CO{sub 2} emission growth rate needs to transform rapidly to an annual decrease rate of from 1 to 3% for decades. Furthermore, the current generation of energy generation and end-use technologies are capable of achieving less than half of the emission reduction needed for such a major mitigation program. New technologies will have to be developed and deployed at a rapid rate, especially for the key power generation and transportation sectors. Current energy technology research, development, demonstration, and deployment (RDD&D) programs fall far short of what is required. 20 refs., 18 figs., 4 tabs.

Frank Princiotta [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

298

Global Biodiversity Conservation Priorities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Global Biodiversity Conservation Priorities T. M. Brooks,1,2,3 * R. A. Mittermeier,1 G. A. B. da is essential to minimize biodiversity loss. To address this need, biodiversity conservation organizations have conservation funding. H uman actions are causing a biodiversity crisis, with species extinction rates up

Wilmers, Chris

299

Global Lightning Observations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Flash Rate Global distribution of lightning from a combined nine years of observations of the NASA OTDGlobal Lightning Observations #12;Optical Transient Detector ( launched April, 1995 ) Lightning Imaging Sensor ( launched November, 1997 ) Lightning Detection from Low Earth Orbit #12;LIS on TRMM #12

California at Berkeley, University of

300

global warming's six americas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Vehicles & Solar Panels 23 Regulating CO2 as a Pollutant 24 A 20 Percent National Renewable Energy Standard the spring and fall of 2012. Perceived Benefits and Costs of Reducing Fossil Fuel Use and Global Warming Introduction 5 The Six Americas Audience Segments 6 Changes in the Size of Segments 7 Perceived Benefits

Haller, Gary L.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gases gwp global" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Patterns in Global Hydrothermal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Patterns in Global Hydrothermal Activity noaa ocean exploration Presenter: Edward T. Baker #12) High-T vents High = hydrothermal discharge Low = active or inactive discharge sites B. Davy, GNS NZ #12 Lc(km) #12;Future Directions Quantify processes: ·Employ or develop new technologies (AUVs, solid

302

Vaccines and global health  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...been an appropriate, rational process for global priority setting...recs/acip/downloads/mtg-slides-oct10/02-3-mening-CostEffect...comparing choices is found, the process of new vaccine introduction...antigen through the complicated process from first identification to...

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Global Health Seminar Series  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bay Area Global Health Seminar Series Monday, January 27, 2014 2:30pm ­ 4:00pm (Reception to follow at the Center for Health Policy and the Woods Institute for the Environment. He studies how economic, political, and natural environments affect population health in developing countries using a mix of experimental

Klein, Ophir

304

What CO2 well gases tell us about the origin of noble gases in the mantle and their relationship to the atmosphere  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...mantle-rich CO2 well gases, with samples lying on the air-solar mixing line. The most solar-rich gas, from Bravo Dome in New Mexico, had a 10 per cent excess above air value. Since solar and Q-Xe are so similar in composition, it is not possible...

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Fast non-explosive gases for drift chambers  

SciTech Connect

Typical gases which are stock at Fermilab are Ar:C/sub 2/H/sub 6/(50:50) and Ar:CO/sub 2/ (80:20). Argon:Ethane has the virtue of high gas gain and a saturated drift velocity. In fact, parametrizing the drift velocity as a function of electric field we find v/sub d/(E) = v/sub o/(1/minus/e/sup -E/E/o) with v/sub o/ approx. = 5.4 cm/..mu..sec and E/sub o/ = 160 V/cm. However, safety considerations make this gas somewhat inconvenient. The addition of alcohol as quencher also raises the saturation field to, for example, E/sub o/ approx. = 500 V/cm for 1.5% added alcohol. This gas also tends to break up in a high-beam flux environment and leave carbon deposits. The addition of alcohol to avoid such aging often takes a unit cell out of saturation over its entire volume. Finally, for collider applications it is useful to exclude free protons from the gas in order to reduce the sensitivity to the sea of slow neutrons which are present in the collider environment. In contrast, Ar:CO/sub 2/ (80:20) is a gas with more moderate gas gain. The drift velocity at high field is v/sub d/(E > 1.5 kV/cm) approx. = 5.8 cm/..mu..sec. For most field configurations this gas does not saturate, causing a long tail in the drift time distrubtion due to low field regions in the unit cell. The virtues of this gas mixture are that it is cheap, not flammable, and stable under high-beam flux. However as the Collider Upgrade progresses, we wish to find a gas which is faster than 5.0 cm/..mu..sec since the time separation between collisions will at some point be less than drift time of 1..mu..sec for drift distance of 5 cm. 3 refs., 5 figs.

Green, D.; Haggerty, H.; Oshima, N.; Yamada, R.

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

A Theory of the Electric Discharge Through Gases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Three general differential equations are set up which determine the average behavior of a discharge of electricity through a gas. Approximate solutions, giving the electric field E and the concentration of electrons and positive ions, n1 and n2, at any distance x from the cathode, are found for several ranges of value of E.When E is large, the solution corresponds to the conditions in the cathode and anode fall spaces in a glow discharge. Equations are obtained for the potential drop V across the fall space; the current density at the electrode divided by the square of the gas pressure, jp2; and the thickness of the fall space times the pressure, pd.These equations indicate that for the cathode fall space there is a certain minimum value of V, called Vn; and for jp2, called jnp2; and a corresponding maximum value of pd, pdn, beyond which values the discharge ceases. These stationary values are shown to be constants, dependent only on the nature of the gas used and of the cathode material, and correspond to the normal cathode fall space. The equation determining Vn is shown to be of the right from by comparison with the experimentally determined values. From these values of Vn, values of jnp2 and of pdn are calculated for four gases and four cathode materials, and the calculated values check with the experimental data. The corresponding equations for the anode fall space show why there is no corresponding normal anode fall.A consideration of the discharge when E is large throughout the distance between electrodes indicates that there is another stationary value of the cathode fall space when the current density at the cathode reaches its maximum possible value. The V in this case is much smaller than the Vn for the glow discharge, and the form of the equations indicate that they describe the conditions in an electric arc.Another approximate equation is obtained when E is constant, which is the case in the positive column of a glow discharge. This solution indicates that within certain limits of pressure and current density, small sinusoidal variations about the average value Ep, are possible in E. These correspond to the striations sometimes observed in the positive column. The equations determining Ep and those determining the distance between striations check with the known empirical laws relating these amounts to the pressure, the radius of the discharge tube and the critical potentials of the gas used. A general discussion is given of the Faraday dark space and reasons are given why it should be near the cathode rather than the anode.

Philip M. Morse

1928-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

PHASE BEHAVIOR OF LIGHT GASES IN HYDROCARBON AND AQUEOUS SOLVENTS  

SciTech Connect

Under previous support from the Department of Energy, an experimental facility has been established and operated to measure valuable vapor-liquid equilibrium data for systems of interest in the production and processing of coal fluids. To facilitate the development and testing of models for prediction of the phase behavior for such systems, we have acquired substantial amounts of data on the equilibrium phase compositions for binary mixtures of heavy hydrocarbon solvents with a variety of supercritical solutes, including hydrogen, methane, ethane, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. The present project focuses on measuring the phase behavior of light gases and water in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) type solvents at conditions encountered in indirect liquefaction processes and evaluating and developing theoretically-based correlating frameworks to predict the phase behavior of such systems. Specific goals of the proposed work include (a) developing a state-of-the-art experimental facility to permit highly accurate measurements of equilibrium phase compositions (solubilities) of challenging F-T systems, (b) measuring these properties for systematically-selected binary, ternary and molten F-T wax mixtures to provide critically needed input data for correlation development, (c) developing and testing models suitable for describing the phase behavior of such mixtures, and (d) presenting the modeling results in generalized, practical formats suitable for use in process engineering calculations. During the present period, the Park-Gasem-Robinson (PGR) equation of state (EOS) has been modified to improve its volumetric and equilibrium predictions. Specifically, the attractive term of the PGR equation was modified to enhance the flexibility of the model, and a new expression was developed for the temperature dependence of the attractive term in this segment-segment interaction model. The predictive capability of the modified PGR EOS for vapor pressure, and saturated liquid and vapor densities was evaluated for selected normal paraffins, normal alkenes, cyclo-paraffins, light aromatics, argon, carbon dioxide and water. The generalized EOS constants and substance-specific characteristic parameters in the modified PGR EOS were obtained from the pure component vapor pressures, and saturated liquid and vapor molar volumes. The calculated phase properties were compared to those of the Peng-Robinson (PR), the simplified-perturbed-hard-chain theory (SPHCT) and the original PGR equations. Generally, the performance of the proposed EOS was better than the PR, SPHCT and original PGR equations in predicting the pure fluid properties (%AAD of 1.3, 2.8 and 3.7 for vapor pressure, saturated liquid and vapor densities, respectively).

KHALED A.M. GASEM; ROBERT L. ROBINSON, JR.

1998-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

308

The relative contribution of waste heat from power plants to global warming  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Evidence on global climate change, being caused primarily by rising levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, is perceived as fairly conclusive. It is generally attributed to the enhanced greenhouse effect, resulting from higher levels of trapped heat radiation by increasing atmospheric concentrations of gases such as CO2 (carbon dioxide). Much of these gases originate from power plants and fossil fuel combustion. However, the fate of vast amounts of waste heat rejected into the environment has evaded serious scholarly research. While 1kWh electricity generation in a typical condensing coal-fired power plant emits around 1kg of CO2, it also puts about 2kWh energy into the environment as low grade heat. For nuclear (fission) electricity the waste heat release per kWh is somewhat higher despite much lower CO2 releases. This paper evaluates the impact of waste heat rejection combined with CO2 emissions using Finland and California as case examples. The immediate effects of waste heat release from power production and radiative forcing by CO2 are shown to be similar. However, the long-term (hundred years) global warming by CO2-caused radiative forcing is about twenty-five times stronger than the immediate effects, being responsible for around 92% of the heat-up caused by electricity production.

R. Zevenhoven; A. Beyene

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

ARM-LBNL-NOAA Flask Sampler for Carbon Cycle Gases  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

Data from ccg-flasks are sampled at the ARM SGP site and analyzed by the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) as part of the NOAA Cooperative Global Air Sampling Network. Surface samples are collected from a 60m tower at the SGP Central Facility, usually once per week on one afternoon. The aircraft samples are collected approximately weekly from a chartered aircraft, and the collection flight path is centered over the tower where the surface samples are collected. Samples are collected by the ARM/LBNL Carbon Project. CO2 flask data contains measurements of CO2 concentration and CO2 stable isotope ratios (13CO2 and C18OO) from flasks collected at the SGP site. The flask samples are collected at 2m, 4m, 25m, and 60m along the 60m tower.

Torn, Margaret

310

Pulsed Laser Deposition of Photoresponsive Two-Dimensional GaSe Nanosheet Networks  

SciTech Connect

Here we explore pulsed laser deposition (PLD), a well known and versatile synthesis method principally used for epitaxial oxide thin film growth, for the synthesis of functional metal chalcogenide (GaSe) nanosheet networks by stoichiometric transfer of laser vaporized material from bulk GaSe targets in Ar background gas. Uniform coverage of interconnected, crystalline, few-layer, photoresponsive GaSe nanosheets in both in-plane and out-of-plane orientations were achieved under different ablation plume conditions over ~1.5 cm2 areas. Plume propagation was characterized by in situ ICCD-imaging. High (1 Torr) Ar background gas pressures were found to be crucial for the stoichiometric growth of GaSe nanosheet networks. Individual 1-3 layer GaSe triangular nanosheets of ~ 200 nm domain size were formed within 30 laser pulses, coalescing to form nanosheet networks in as few as 100 laser pulses. The thickness of the deposited networks increased linearly with pulse number, adding layers in a two-dimensional (2D) growth mode while maintaining a surface roughness of 2 GaSe layers for increasing overall thickness. Field effect transistors using these interconnected crystalline GaSe networks showed p-type semiconducting characteristics with mobilities reaching as high as 0.1 cm2V-1s-1. Spectrally-resolved photoresponsivities and external quantum efficiencies ranged from 0.4 AW-1 and 100% at 700 nm, to 1.4 AW-1 and 600 % at 240 nm, respectively. Pulsed laser deposition under these conditions appears to provide a versatile and rapid approach to stoichiometrically transfer and deposit photoresponsive networks of 2D nanosheets with digital thickness control and substrate-scale uniformity for a variety of applications.

Mahjouri-Samani, Masoud [ORNL; Gresback, Ryan G [ORNL; Tian, Mengkun [ORNL; Puretzky, Alexander A [ORNL; Rouleau, Christopher M [ORNL; Eres, Gyula [ORNL; Ivanov, Ilia N [ORNL; Xiao, Kai [ORNL; McGuire, Michael A [ORNL; Duscher, Gerd [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Geohegan, David B [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

A BIOMASS-BASED MODEL TO ESTIMATE THE PLAUSIBILITY OF EXOPLANET BIOSIGNATURE GASES  

SciTech Connect

Biosignature gas detection is one of the ultimate future goals for exoplanet atmosphere studies. We have created a framework for linking biosignature gas detectability to biomass estimates, including atmospheric photochemistry and biological thermodynamics. The new framework is intended to liberate predictive atmosphere models from requiring fixed, Earth-like biosignature gas source fluxes. New biosignature gases can be considered with a check that the biomass estimate is physically plausible. We have validated the models on terrestrial production of NO, H{sub 2}S, CH{sub 4}, CH{sub 3}Cl, and DMS. We have applied the models to propose NH{sub 3} as a biosignature gas on a 'cold Haber World', a planet with a N{sub 2}-H{sub 2} atmosphere, and to demonstrate why gases such as CH{sub 3}Cl must have too large of a biomass to be a plausible biosignature gas on planets with Earth or early-Earth-like atmospheres orbiting a Sun-like star. To construct the biomass models, we developed a functional classification of biosignature gases, and found that gases (such as CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}S, and N{sub 2}O) produced from life that extracts energy from chemical potential energy gradients will always have false positives because geochemistry has the same gases to work with as life does, and gases (such as DMS and CH{sub 3}Cl) produced for secondary metabolic reasons are far less likely to have false positives but because of their highly specialized origin are more likely to be produced in small quantities. The biomass model estimates are valid to one or two orders of magnitude; the goal is an independent approach to testing whether a biosignature gas is plausible rather than a precise quantification of atmospheric biosignature gases and their corresponding biomasses.

Seager, S.; Bains, W.; Hu, R. [Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

A Biomass-based Model to Estimate the Plausibility of Exoplanet Biosignature Gases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Biosignature gas detection is one of the ultimate future goals for exoplanet atmosphere studies. We have created a framework for linking biosignature gas detectability to biomass estimates, including atmospheric photochemistry and biological thermodynamics. The new framework is intended to liberate predictive atmosphere models from requiring fixed, Earth-like biosignature gas source fluxes. New biosignature gases can be considered with a check that the biomass estimate is physically plausible. We have validated the models on terrestrial production of NO, H2S, CH4, CH3Cl, and DMS. We have applied the models to propose NH3 as a biosignature gas on a "cold Haber World," a planet with a N2-H2 atmosphere, and to demonstrate why gases such as CH3Cl must have too large of a biomass to be a plausible biosignature gas on planets with Earth or early-Earth-like atmospheres orbiting a Sun-like star. To construct the biomass models, we developed a functional classification of biosignature gases, and found that gases (such as CH4, H2S, and N2O) produced from life that extracts energy from chemical potential energy gradients will always have false positives because geochemistry has the same gases to work with as life does, and gases (such as DMS and CH3Cl) produced for secondary metabolic reasons are far less likely to have false positives but because of their highly specialized origin are more likely to be produced in small quantities. The biomass model estimates are valid to one or two orders of magnitude; the goal is an independent approach to testing whether a biosignature gas is plausible rather than a precise quantification of atmospheric biosignature gases and their corresponding biomasses.

S. Seager; W. Bains; R. Hu

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Waste Heat Recovery from High Temperature Off-Gases from Electric Arc Furnace  

SciTech Connect

This article presents a study and review of available waste heat in high temperature Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) off gases and heat recovery techniques/methods from these gases. It gives details of the quality and quantity of the sensible and chemical waste heat in typical EAF off gases, energy savings potential by recovering part of this heat, a comprehensive review of currently used waste heat recovery methods and potential for use of advanced designs to achieve a much higher level of heat recovery including scrap preheating, steam production and electric power generation. Based on our preliminary analysis, currently, for all electric arc furnaces used in the US steel industry, the energy savings potential is equivalent to approximately 31 trillion Btu per year or 32.7 peta Joules per year (approximately $182 million US dollars/year). This article describes the EAF off-gas enthalpy model developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to calculate available and recoverable heat energy for a given stream of exhaust gases coming out of one or multiple EAF furnaces. This Excel based model calculates sensible and chemical enthalpy of the EAF off-gases during tap to tap time accounting for variation in quantity and quality of off gases. The model can be used to estimate energy saved through scrap preheating and other possible uses such as steam generation and electric power generation using off gas waste heat. This article includes a review of the historical development of existing waste heat recovery methods, their operations, and advantages/limitations of these methods. This paper also describes a program to develop and test advanced concepts for scrap preheating, steam production and electricity generation through use of waste heat recovery from the chemical and sensible heat contained in the EAF off gases with addition of minimum amount of dilution or cooling air upstream of pollution control equipment such as bag houses.

Nimbalkar, Sachin U [ORNL; Thekdi, Arvind [E3M Inc; Keiser, James R [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

An introduction to global warming  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The physics of climate and of climate changes associated with increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere are briefly presented. Construction of a toy model of the climate is discussed. Possibilities for reducing carbon dioxide emissions are indicated. Degrees of uncertainty characterizing predictions of climate responses to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are presented.

John R. Barker; Marc H. Ross

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Annual and Seasonal Global Variation in Total Ozone and Layer-Mean Ozone,  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Trace Gases » Ozone » Total Ozone and Layer-Mean Ozone Atmospheric Trace Gases » Ozone » Total Ozone and Layer-Mean Ozone Annual and Seasonal Global Variation in Total Ozone and Layer-Mean Ozone, 1958-1987 (1991) DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/atg.ndp023 data Data Investigators J. K. Angell, J. Korshover, and W. G. Planet Description For 1958 through 1987, this data base presents total ozone variations and layer mean ozone variations expressed as percent deviations from the 1958 to 1977 mean. The total ozone variations were derived from mean monthly ozone values published in Ozone Data for the World by the Atmospheric Environment Service in cooperation with the World Meteorological Organization. The layer mean ozone variations are derived from ozonesonde and Umkehr observations. The data records include year, seasonal and annual

316

Global Climate Data  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Data Data The climate data at the ORNL DAAC are used primarily as driving variables in terrestrial biogeochemistry models. These models typically use data on temperature (min,max), precipitation, humidity (relative humidity, vapor pressure deficit, dew point), radiation (PFD in PAR, shortwave, direct/diffuse, and UV radiation, daylength), and wind velocity. Climate / meteorology data are required at hourly to monthly time scales, either point or gridded, at spatial scales ranging from regional to continental to global. The ORNL DAAC currently distributes climate data from several related projects: VEMAP-1 Hydroclimatology, and Global Historical Climatology Network. We are also now distributing climate data developed at the East Anglia Climate Research Unit and the Potsdam Institute for Climate Research.

317

Global Insight Energy Group  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Outlook Outlook Mary Novak Managing Director IHS Global Insight Copyright © 2010 IHS Global Insight, Inc. Overview: Energy Sector Transformation Underway * The recession has hit energy demand hard, and aggregate energy demand is not expected to return to 2007 levels until 2018. * Oil and natural gas prices will both rise over the long-term, but the price trends will diverge with natural gas prices rising slowly due to the development of shale gas. * This forecast does not include a GHG cap-and-trade program. However, it is assumed that there will be continued improvement in equipment, appliance and building efficiencies that will reduce carbon emissions relative to past projections. * The forecast also includes the more than 30 state- level programs to increase efficiency and reduce

318

International Health Global Health Policy--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

50 International Health Global Health Policy-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- http://www.ghp.m.u-tokyo.ac.jp Our mission is to improve population health by enhancing accountability and improving evidence base of global (both domestic and international) health programmes through the provision

Miyashita, Yasushi

319

PHASE BEHAVIOR OF LIGHT GASES IN HYDROGEN AND AQUEOUS SOLVENTS  

SciTech Connect

Under previous support from the US Department of Energy, an experimental facility has been established and operated to measure valuable vapor-liquid equilibrium data for systems of interest in the production and processing of coal fluids. To facilitate the development and testing of models for prediction of the phase behavior for such systems, we have acquired substantial amounts of data on the equilibrium phase compositions for binary mixtures of heavy hydrocarbon solvents with a variety of supercritical solutes, including hydrogen, methane, ethane, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. The present project focuses on measuring the phase behavior of light gases and water in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) type solvents at conditions encountered in indirect liquefaction processes and evaluating and developing theoretically-based correlating frameworks to predict the phase behavior of such systems. Specific goals of the proposed work include (a) developing a state-of-the-art experimental facility to permit highly accurate measurements of equilibrium phase compositions (solubilities) of challenging F-T systems, (b) measuring these properties for systematically-selected binary, ternary and molten F-T wax mixtures to provide critically needed input data for correlation development, (c) developing and testing models suitable for describing the phase behavior of such mixtures, and (d) presenting the modeling results in generalized, practical formats suitable for use in process engineering calculations. During the present reporting period, the solubilities of hydrogen in n-hexane, carbon monoxide in cyclohexane, and nitrogen in phenanthrene and pyrene were measured using a static equilibrium cell over the temperature range from 344.3 to 433.2 K and pressures to 22.8 MPa. The uncertainty in these new solubility measurements is estimated to be less than 0.001 in mole fraction. The data were analyzed using the Peng-Robinson (PR) equation of state (EOS). In general, the PR EOS represents the experimental data well when a single interaction parameter (C{sub ij}) is used for each isotherm. In addition, the predictive capability of the modified Park-Gasem-Robinson (PGR) equation of state (EOS) was evaluated for selected carbon dioxide + normal paraffins, ethane + normal paraffins, and hydrogen + normal paraffins. A set of mixing rules was proposed for the modified EOS to extend its predictive capabilities to mixtures. The predicted bubble point pressures for the ethane + n-paraffin and carbon dioxide + n-paraffin binaries were compared to those of the Peng-Robinson (PR), simplified-perturbed-hard-chain theory (SPHCT) and original PGR equations. The predictive capability of the proposed equation is better or comparable to the PR, SPHCT and original PGR equations of state for the ethane binaries (%AAD of 1.9) and carbon dioxide binaries (%AAD of 2.0). For the hydrogen binaries, the modified PGR EOS showed much better performance (%AAD of 1.7) than the original PGR equation and comparable to the PR equation.

KHALED A.M. GASEM; ROBERT L. ROBINSON, JR.

1999-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

320

Phase Behavior of Light Gases in Hydrocarbon and Aqueous Solvents  

SciTech Connect

Under previous support from the Department of Energy, an experimental facility has been established and operated to measure valuable vapor-liquid equilibrium data for systems of interest in the production and processing of coal fluids. To facilitate the development and testing of models for prediction of the phase behavior for such systems, we have acquired substantial amounts of data on the equilibrium phase compositions for binary mixtures of heavy hydrocarbon solvents with a variety of supercritical solutes, including hydrogen, methane, ethane, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. The present project focuses on measuring the phase behavior of light gases and water in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) type solvents at conditions encountered in indirect liquefaction processes and evaluating and developing theoretically-based correlating frameworks to predict the phase behavior of such systems. Specific goals of the proposed work include (a) developing a state-of-the-art experimental facility to permit highly accurate measurements of equilibrium phase compositions (solubilities) of challenging F-T systems, (b) measuring these properties for systematically-selected binary, ternary and molten F-T wax mixtures to provide critically needed input data for correlation development, (c) developing and testing models suitable for describing the phase behavior of such mixtures, and (d) presenting the modeling results in generalized, practical formats suitable for use in process engineering calculations. During the present reporting period, our solubility apparatus was refurbished and restored to full service. To test the experimental apparatus and procedures used, measurements were obtained for the solubility Of C0{sub 2} in benzene at 160{degrees}F. Having confirmed the accuracy of the newly acquired data in comparison with our previous measurements and data reported in the literature for this test system, we have begun to measure the solubility of hydrogen in hexane. The measurements for this system will cover the temperature range from 160 to 280{degrees}F at pressures to 2,500 psia. As part of our model evaluation efforts, we examined the predictive abilities of an alternative approach we have proposed for calculating the phase behavior properties of highly non-ideal systems. Using this approach, the liquid phase fugacities generated from an equation of state (EOS) are augmented by a fugacity deviation function correction. The correlative abilities of this approach are compared with those of an EOS equipped with the recently introduced Wong-Sandler (MWS) mixing rules. These two approaches are compared with the current methods for vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) calculations, i.e., the EOS (0/0) approach with the van der Waals mixing rules and the split (y/0) approach. The evaluations were conducted on a database comprised of non-ideal low pressure binary systems as well as asymmetric high pressure binary systems. These systems are of interest in the coal liquefaction and utilization processes. The Peng-Robinson EOS was selected for the purposes of this evaluation.

Gasem, K.A.M.; Robinson, R.L., Jr.; Trvedi, N.J., Gao, W.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gases gwp global" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Global Health: Disease Eradication  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...have been considered as potential candidates for eradication, but the World Health Organization (WHO) has targeted only two other diseases for global eradication after smallpox. In 1986, WHO's policymaking body, the World Health Assembly, adopted the elimination of dracunculiasis (guinea worm disease)... The most cost-effective intervention for certain infectious diseases is to eliminate them entirely. This article reviews the characteristics of potentially eradicable diseases and surveys current eradication methods.

Hopkins D.R.

2013-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

322

Is an Alternative Globalization Possible?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Global Democracy. 94. Amartya Sen, Development as Freedom (trump card. Recently, Amartya Sens capability approach 94

Evans, Peter

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Combustion behavior of a spark ignition engine fueled with synthetic gases derived from biogas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Combustion results obtained from a spark ignition engine fueled with two synthetic gases obtained from catalytic decomposition of biogas are presented in this paper. These results are compared with those obtained when the engine was fueled with gasoline, methane and with the biogas from which synthetic gases are extracted. Experimental tests were performed under a wide range of speeds and at three equivalence ratios. Results showed that fractions of hydrogen in synthetic gases increased maximum pressures inside cylinder. Moreover, peak pressures were detected closer to top dead center than methane and biogas. Despite the fraction of diluents in the composition of synthetic gases, high speeds and lean conditions resulted in higher indicated efficiencies than those obtained with gasoline. Moreover, combustion speed and heat release rate were strongly influenced by the proportion of diluents and hydrogen in gaseous blends. CO and CO2 content in the composition of synthetic gases contributed to increase the exhaust concentrations of these pollutants compared with the other fuels, while HC decreased because of the small fraction of methane which remained unburned. Although \\{NOx\\} emissions were mitigated by diluents, like CO2 and air excess, high hydrogen fraction in composition of syngas involved elevated \\{NOx\\} emissions due to the increase in flame temperature that hydrogen produces.

J. Arroyo; F. Moreno; M. Muoz; C. Monn; N. Bernal

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

2, 183201, 2005 Global terrestrial  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, 1997). According to Watts (2000) and Kettle et al. (2002) total global sources and sinks are balancedBGD 2, 183­201, 2005 Global terrestrial COS sink strength L. Sandoval-Soto et al. Title Page Discussions is the access reviewed discussion forum of Biogeosciences Global uptake of carbonyl sulfide (COS

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

325

4, 10591092, 2007 Global warming  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BGD 4, 1059­1092, 2007 Global warming potential of agro-ecosystems S. Lehuger et al. Title Page Predicting the global warming potential of agro-ecosystems S. Lehuger, B. Gabrielle, E. Larmanou, P. Laville Correspondence to: S. Lehuger (simon.lehuger@grignon.inra.fr) 1059 #12;BGD 4, 1059­1092, 2007 Global warming

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

326

GLOBAL WARMING THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

GLOBAL WARMING THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT AND YOUR FAMILY'S CONTRIBUTION TO IT Stephen E. Schwartz GREENHOUSE EFFECT #12;GLOBAL ENERGY BALANCE Global and annual average energy fluxes in watts per square meter about it.But nobody does anything about it. ­ Mark Twain­ Mark Twain Now with the greenhouse effect, we

Schwartz, Stephen E.

327

Thinking about global climate change  

SciTech Connect

Opinions regarding issues related to global climate change are presented. The focus is on socioeconomic and historical aspects. World War II is discussed as an intellectual and emotional turning point in global issues, and global climate change is identified as a possible turning point of similar significance. Political, scientific, and public points of view regarding the issue are discussed.

Russell, M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

328

Global warming and transport in Brazil - ethanol alternative  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper deals with the risk of global warming as intensified by the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions of the transport sector, particularly in gasoline-powered vehicles in Brazil. Car ownership and use are increasing rapidly partly because of very poor public transport quality, which, in turn, is causing higher emission levels of CO2. In this connection, the use of ethanol in Brazil for the transport sector may prove to be an important alternative, furthering the efforts to stabilise the actual level of gases in the atmosphere. The energy derived from biomass, and in this case, from a renewable, ''clean'' source, i.e., from sugar-cane, has the unquestionable advantage of permitting the almost complete reabsorption of CO2 emitted through the combustion of fuel alcohol. This closed cycle allows, in principle, the increase of the energy supply, essential for economic development, with fewer hazards to the environment.

Suzana Kahn Ribeiro; Pauline Staib Younes-Ibrahim

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Heat Waves, Global Warming, and Mitigation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Heat Waves, Global Warming, and Mitigation Ann E. Carlson*2008]HEAT WAVES, GLOBAL WARMING, AND MITIGATION 175 stroke2001). 2008]HEAT WAVES, GLOBAL WARMING, AND MITIGATION 177

Carlson, Ann E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Global Warming, endogenous risk and irreversibility  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The economics of global warming, Institute for InternationalEconomic Models of Global Warming, Cambridge, Mass. MITstochastic losses from global warming, Risk Analysis 16(2):

Fisher, Anthony C.; Narain, Urvashi

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Solubility Coefficients for Solar Liquids, a New Method to Quantify Undissolved Gases and Practical Recommendations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Solubility of nitrogen in propylene glycol/water mixtures (25%, 41.84% and 100% glycol by weight) have been determined in a temperature range from 10C to 110C using a static isochoric measuring method and are compared to the solubility of a typical solar liquid. To evaluate the amount of gas in a solar system it is necessary to measure the part of gases dissolved in the solar liquid, but also to consider the fraction of free gases (gas bubbles or gas cushions) in the system. Measuring this part was either not possible or only possible with a big technical effort until now. Therefore a new method was developed, which easily and fast identifies the volume of undissolved gases (Gas Bubble Test). The method was validated in extensive investigations in real solar systems.

Martin Heymann; Felix Panitz; Karin Rhling; Clemens Felsmann

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Small Interannual Variability of Global Atmospheric Hydroxyl  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Nicosia 1645, Cyprus. The oxidizing capacity...air pollution and natural influences. We show...methane and other trace gases oxidized primarily...observations of additional gases oxidized primarily...from a variety of natural and anthropogenic...changes in trace-gas emissions with smoothed...

S. A. Montzka; M. Krol; E. Dlugokencky; B. Hall; P. Jckel; J. Lelieveld

2011-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

333

Study Climate and Global Change  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

What We Study How We Study Prepare The Nation For Change Assess the U.S. Climate Make Our Science Accessible Link Climate Change & Health Provide Data and Tools Coordinate Internationally Study Climate and Global Change Print E-mail Deforestation What is global change? "Global change" refers to changes in the global environment that may alter the capacity of the Earth to sustain life. This includes alterations in: Climate Land productivity Oceans or other water resources Atmospheric chemistry Ecological systems Demographic and socioeconomic trends What is global change research? According to the Global Change Research Act of 1990, "Global change research" refers to the study, monitoring, assessment, prediction, and information management activities used to describe and understand the:

334

Global Scratch Upgrade in Progress  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Global Scratch Gets Global Scratch Gets an Upgrade Global Scratch Gets an Upgrade Improvements Will Include Higher Data Output Rates, Connection to PDSF October 29, 2013 The most used file system at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC)-global scratch-just got an upgrade. As a result, some users may see their data output to global scratch reach up to 80 gigabytes per second. Although users will probably not see their 20-terabyte storage quotas increase, the upgrade ensures that global scratch remains flexible and paves the way for PDSF to eventually use the file system Because of the upgrade, users will also be able to better access their temporary data files or "scratch data" from any NERSC system, not just the one that generated it. Prior to the upgrade, Global scratch typically

335

The Global Energy Challenge  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

The expected doubling of global energy demand by 2050 challenges our traditional patterns of energy production, distribution and use. The continued use of fossil fuels raises concerns about supply, security, environment and climate. New routes are needed for the efficient conversion of energy from chemical fuel, sunlight, and heat to electricity or hydrogen as an energy carrier and finally to end uses like transportation, lighting, and heating. Opportunities for efficient new energy conversion routes based on nanoscale materials will be presented, with emphasis on the sustainable energy technologies they enable.

George Crabtree

2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

336

The Global Energy Challenge  

SciTech Connect

The expected doubling of global energy demand by 2050 challenges our traditional patterns of energy production, distribution and use. The continued use of fossil fuels raises concerns about supply, security, environment and climate. New routes are needed for the efficient conversion of energy from chemical fuel, sunlight, and heat to electricity or hydrogen as an energy carrier and finally to end uses like transportation, lighting, and heating. Opportunities for efficient new energy conversion routes based on nanoscale materials will be presented, with emphasis on the sustainable energy technologies they enable.

George Crabtree

2007-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

337

GEI 41040G - Specification for Fuel Gases for COmbustion in Heavy-Duty Gas Turbines  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gas Turbine Gas Turbine Revised, January 2002 GEI 41040G These instructions do not purport to cover all details or variations in equipment nor to provide for every possible contingency to be met in connection with installation, operation or maintenance. Should further information be desired or should particular problems arise which are not covered sufficiently for the purchaser's purposes the matter should be referred to the GE Company. © 1999 GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY Specification for Fuel Gases for Combustion in Heavy-Duty Gas Turbines GEI 41040G Specification for Fuel Gases for Combustion in Heavy-Duty Gas Turbines 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

338

Dissipative Dynamics of a Josephson Junction In the Bose-Gases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The dissipative dynamics of a Josephson junction in the Bose-gases is considered within the framework of the model of a tunneling Hamiltonian. The effective action which describes the dynamics of the phase difference across the junction is derived using functional integration method. The dynamic equation obtained for the phase difference across the junction is analyzed for the finite temperatures in the low frequency limit involving the radiation terms. The asymmetric case of the Bose-gases with the different order parameters is calculated as well.

R. A. Barankov; S. N. Burmistrov

2003-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

339

Spin noise spectroscopy to probe quantum states of ultracold fermionic atom gases  

SciTech Connect

We theoretically demonstrate that optical measurements of electron spin noise can be a spectroscopic probe of the entangled quantum states of ultracold fermionic atom gases and unambiguously reveal the detailed nature of the underlying interatomic correlations. Different models of the effective interatomic interactions predict entirely new sets of resonances in the spin noise spectrum. Once the correct effective interatomic interaction model is identified, the detailed noise line shapes of the spin noise can be used to constrain this model. We estimate the magnitude of spin noise signals expected in ultracold fermionic atom gases via noise measurements in classical alkali vapors, which demonstrate the feasibility of this approach.

Mihaila, Bogdan; Blagoev, Krastan B.; Smith, Darryl L. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Crooker, Scott A.; Rickel, Dwight G. [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Littlewood, Peter B. [Cavendish Laboratory, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

340

High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur containing gases from gaseous mixtures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorption capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

Young, John E. (Woodridge, IL); Jalan, Vinod M. (Concord, MA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gases gwp global" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur-containing gases from gaseous mixtures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorbtion capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

Young, J.E.; Jalan, V.M.

1982-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

342

High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur containing gases from gaseous mixtures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorption capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

Young, J.E.; Jalan, V.M.

1984-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

343

Global Biogeochemistry Models and Global Carbon Cycle Research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The climate modeling community has long envisioned an evolution from physical climate models to ''earth system'' models that include the effects of biology and chemistry, particularly those processes related to the global carbon cycle. The widely reproduced Box 3, Figure 1 from the 2001 IPCC Scientific Assessment schematically describes that evolution. The community generally accepts the premise that understanding and predicting global and regional climate change requires the inclusion of carbon cycle processes in models to fully simulate the feedbacks between the climate system and the carbon cycle. Moreover, models will ultimately be employed to predict atmospheric concentrations of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases as a function of anthropogenic and natural processes, such as industrial emissions, terrestrial carbon fixation, sequestration, land use patterns, etc. Nevertheless, the development of coupled climate-carbon models with demonstrable quantitative skill will require a significant amount of effort and time to understand and validate their behavior at both the process level and as integrated systems. It is important to consider objectively whether the currently proposed strategies to develop and validate earth system models are optimal, or even sufficient, and whether alternative strategies should be pursued. Carbon-climate models are going to be complex, with the carbon cycle strongly interacting with many other components. Off-line process validation will be insufficient. As was found in coupled atmosphere-ocean GCMs, feedbacks between model components can amplify small errors and uncertainties in one process to produce large biases in the simulated climate. The persistent tropical western Pacific Ocean ''double ITCZ'' and upper troposphere ''cold pole'' problems are examples. Finding and fixing similar types of problems in coupled carbon-climate models especially will be difficult, given the lack of observations required for diagnosis and validation of biogeochemical processes.

Covey, C; Caldeira, K; Guilderson, T; Cameron-Smith, P; Govindasamy, B; Swanston, C; Wickett, M; Mirin, A; Bader, D

2005-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

344

Fuel saving, carbon dioxide emission avoidance, and syngas production by tri-reforming of flue gases from coal- and gas-fired power stations, and by the carbothermic reduction of iron oxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Flue gases from coal, gas, or oil-fired power stations, as well as from several heavy industries, such as the production of iron, lime and cement, are major anthropogenic sources of global CO2 emissions. The newly proposed process for syngas production based on the tri-reforming of such flue gases with natural gas could be an important route for CO2 emission avoidance. In addition, by combining the carbothermic reduction of iron oxide with the partial oxidation of the carbon source, an overall thermoneutral process can be designed for the co-production of iron and syngas rich in CO. Water-gas shift (WGS) of CO to H2 enables the production of useful syngas. The reaction process heat, or the conditions for thermoneutrality, are derived by thermochemical equilibrium calculations. The thermodynamic constraints are determined for the production of syngas suitable for methanol, hydrogen, or ammonia synthesis. The environmental and economic consequences are assessed for large-scale commercial production of these chemical commodities. Preliminary evaluations with natural gas, coke, or coal as carbon source indicate that such combined processes should be economically competitive, as well as promising significant fuel saving and CO2 emission avoidance. The production of ammonia in the above processes seems particularly attractive, as it consumes the nitrogen in the flue gases.

M. Halmann; A. Steinfeld

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

The draft paper "Global Surface Temperature Change" by Hansen, Ruedy, Sato and Lo is available at http://data.giss.nasa.gov/gistemp/paper/gistemp2010_draft0601.pdf. This is an  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

interesting charts are collected on two PowerPoint posters available at http://www.columbia.edu/~jeh1 importance to humanity, and global warming is the first order manifestation of increasing greenhouse gases be alleviated by stressing the need to focus on the frequency and magnitude of warm and cold anomalies, which

Hansen, James E.

346

Problem free nuclear power and global change  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear fission power reactors represent a solution-in-principle to all aspects of global change possibly induced by inputting of either particulate or carbon or sulfur oxides into the Earth`s atmosphere. Of proven technological feasibility, they presently produce high- grade heat for electricity generation, space heating and industrial process-driving around the world, without emitting greenhouse gases or atmospheric particulates. However, a substantial number of major issues currently stand between nuclear power implemented with light- water reactors and widespread substitution for large stationary fossil fuel-fired systems, including long-term fuel supply, adverse public perceptions regarding both long-term and acute operational safety, plant decommissioning, fuel reprocessing, radwaste disposal, fissile materials diversion to military purposes and - perhaps more seriously - cost. We describe a GW-scale, high-temperature nuclear reactor heat source that can operate with no human intervention for a few decades and that may be widely acceptable, since its safety features are simple, inexpensive and easily understood. We provide first-level details of a reactor system designed to satisfy these requirements. Such a back-solving approach to realizing large-scale nuclear fission power systems potentially leads to an energy source capable of meeting all large-scale stationary demands for high- temperature heat. If widely employed to support such demands, it could, for example, directly reduce present-day world-wide CO{sub 2} emissions by two-fold; by using it to produce non-carbonaceous fuels for small mobile demands, a second two-fold reduction could be attained. Even the first such reduction would permit continued slow power-demand growth in the First World and rapid development of the Third World, both without any governmental suppression of fossil fuel usage.

Teller, E.; Wood, L.; Nuckolls, J.; Ishikawa, M.; Hyde, R.

1997-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

347

Exploiting coalbed methane and protecting the global environment  

SciTech Connect

The global climate change caused by greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission has received wide attention from all countries in the world. Global environmental protection as a common problem has confronted the human being. As a main component of coalbed methane, methane is an important factor influencing the production safety of coal mine and threatens the lives of miners. The recent research on environment science shows that methane is a very harmful GHG. Although methane gas has very little proportion in the GHGs emission and its stayed period is also very short, it has very obvious impact on the climate change. From the estimation, methane emission in the coal-mining process is only 10% of the total emission from human`s activities. As a clean energy, Methane has mature recovery technique before, during and after the process of mining. Thus, coalbed methane is the sole GHG generated in the human`s activities and being possible to be reclaimed and utilized. Compared with the global greenhouse effect of other GHGs emission abatement, coalbed methane emission abatement can be done in very low cost with many other benefits: (1) to protect global environment; (2) to improve obviously the safety of coal mine; and (3) to obtain a new kind of clean energy. Coal is the main energy in China, and coalbed contains very rich methane. According to the exploration result in recent years, about 30000{approximately}35000 billion m{sup 2} methane is contained in the coalbed below 2000 m in depth. China has formed a good development base in the field of reclamation and utilization of coalbed methane. The author hopes that wider international technical exchange and cooperation in the field will be carried out.

Yuheng, Gao

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

348

Detection of Irradiated Frozen Deboned Seafood with the Level of Radiolytic H2 and CO Gases as a Probe  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A method to detect irradiated frozen shrimp without cuticle, cod slices, and deshelled oyster has been developed based on the fact that radiolytic H2 and CO gases are retained in the irradiated samples for a certain period during the storage. These gases ...

Masakazu Furuta; Takaaki Dohmaru; Tadashi Katayama; Hirokazu Toratani; Atsuhiko Takeda

1997-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

349

Method and apparatus for separating gases based on electrically and magnetically enhanced monolithic carbon fiber composite sorbents  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for separating gases or other fluids involves placing a magnetic field on a monolithic carbon fiber composite sorption material to more preferentially attract certain gases or other fluids to the sorption material to which a magnetic field is applied. This technique may be combined with the known pressure swing adsorption'' technique utilizing the same sorption material. 1 fig.

Judkins, R.R.; Burchell, T.D.

1999-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

350

Method and apparatus for separating gases based on electrically and magnetically enhanced monolithic carbon fiber composite sorbents  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for separating gases or other fluids involves placing a magnetic field on a monolithic carbon fiber composite sorption material to more preferentially attract certain gases or other fluids to the sorption material to which a magnetic field is applied. This technique may be combined with the known "pressure swing adsorption" technique utilizing the same sorption material.

Judkins, Roddie R. (9917 Rainbow Dr., Knoxville, TN 37922); Burchell, Timothy D. (109 Greywood Pl., Oak Ridge, TN 37830)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Theoretical Gas Phase Mass Transfer Coefficients for Endogenous Gases in the Lungs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Theoretical Gas Phase Mass Transfer Coefficients for Endogenous Gases in the Lungs PETER CONDORELLI of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA (Received 18 November 1997; accepted 9 February 1999) Abstract--Gas phase in terms of a lumped variable, Per(L/D)n . (Sh) increases as the solu- bility of the gas in tissue

George, Steven C.

352

Photoconductivity and luminescence in GaSe crystals at high levels of optical excitation  

SciTech Connect

The photoconductivity and luminescence of GaSe layered crystals at high levels of optical excitation are studied experimentally. The specific features observed in the photoconductivity and photoluminescence spectra are controlled by the nonlinear optical absorption in the region of excitonic resonance.

Kyazym-zade, A. G.; Salmanov, V. M., E-mail: vagif_salmanov@yahoo.com; Salmanova, A. A. [Baku State University (Azerbaijan); Alieva, A. M.; Ibaeva, R. Z. [National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics (Azerbaijan)

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

353

Effects of Biochar and Basalt Additions on Carbon Sequestration and Fluxes of Greenhouse Gases in Soils  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effects of Biochar and Basalt Additions on Carbon Sequestration and Fluxes of Greenhouse Gases Emissions--Carbon Dioxide Emissions--Sequestration and Storage--Biochar--Basalt--Organic Fertilizers, this investigation focuses on the range of potential of different soil additives to enhance sequestration and storage

Vallino, Joseph J.

354

Operational aspects of the desulfurization process of energy gases mimics in biotrickling filters5  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Introduction Energy rich off-gases such as biogas are sometimes not used for electric power generation due impurities. H2S concentrations in biogas can range from 0.1 to 5 We dedicate this article to the memory/v (1000e20,000 ppmv), whereas the specifications for the maximum content of H2S in typical biogas

355

Bose-Einstein Condensation in Atomic Gases Jerzy Zachorowski and Wojciech Gawlik  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. It is instructive to compare orders of magnitude typical for the thermal and condensed gas samples. For atom gasBose-Einstein Condensation in Atomic Gases Jerzy Zachorowski and Wojciech Gawlik M. Smoluchowski on the Bose-Einstein condensate. We also present main parameters and expected characteristics of the first Pol

356

Ion fragmentation in an electrospray ionization mass spectrometer interface with different gases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the gas phase. However, particularly in multi- component samples, this may not be enough to unambigu predicts that the degree of ion fragmentation increases with increasing mass of the curtain gas. However with argon and krypton is caused by condensation of the gases within the free jet expansion between

Chen, David D.Y.

357

UA Researchers design a catalyst that neutralizes the gases responsible for climate change  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

UA Researchers design a catalyst that neutralizes the gases responsible for climate change Toxic Researchers at the University of Alicante have developed and patented a novel catalyst capable of decomposing gas streams. "However, nitrous oxide can be decomposed at lower temperatures using a suitable catalyst

Escolano, Francisco

358

Radiative-convective model of warming Mars with artificial greenhouse gases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

spectra of seven artificial greenhouse gases (CF4, C2F6, C3F8, SF6, CF3Cl, CF3Br, CF2Cl2 ecosynthesis, CF4, C2F6, and SF6 were 17%, 49%, and 48% as effective as C3F8, respectively. The optimal mixture

Kite, Edwin

359

A Biomass-based Model to Estimate the Plausibility of Exoplanet Biosignature Gases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biosignature gas detection is one of the ultimate future goals for exoplanet atmosphere studies. We have created a framework for linking biosignature gas detectability to biomass estimates, including atmospheric photochemistry and biological thermodynamics. The new framework is intended to liberate predictive atmosphere models from requiring fixed, Earth-like biosignature gas source fluxes. New biosignature gases can be considered with a check that the biomass estimate is physically plausible. We have validated the models on terrestrial production of NO, H2S, CH4, CH3Cl, and DMS. We have applied the models to propose NH3 as a biosignature gas on a "cold Haber World," a planet with a N2-H2 atmosphere, and to demonstrate why gases such as CH3Cl must have too large of a biomass to be a plausible biosignature gas on planets with Earth or early-Earth-like atmospheres orbiting a Sun-like star. To construct the biomass models, we developed a functional classification of biosignature gases, and found that gases (such...

Seager, S; Hu, R

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Article published Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology DOI: 10.1002/ghg.1395  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Article published Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology DOI: 10.1002/ghg.1395 National Corridors.1002/ghg.1395 #12;1 Introduction The need to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by present energy.1, 2 Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most worrisome GHG because of its long residence time

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gases gwp global" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Ballistic spin transport in exciton gases A. V. Kavokin,1, 2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, or spin-optronics challeng- ing. How possibly one can explore the current, which is carried by neutral are possible in exciton and exciton-polariton Bose gases. Bosonic spintronics or spin-optronics operates,28 . Combined with evident advantages of bosonic amplifica- tion and low dephasing, this makes spin-optronics

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

362

ESTABoues, a decision tool to assess greenhouse gases of sewage sludge treatment and di  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

digestion, aerobic digestion, dewatering, al composting, drying) and sludge disposal route (land applicationORBIT2012 G ESTABoues, a decision tool to assess greenhouse gases of sewage sludge treatment and di-laure.reverdy@irstea.fr EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Sewage sludge production increases continuously reaching almost 20% (946 700 t 1 118 795

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

363

Gas Chromatographic Measurement of Trace Oxygen and Other Dissolved Gases in Thermally Stressed Jet Fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......additional light hydrocarbon gases (e.g...stream, and the data can be obtained...system. The output data from this analytical...F33615-87-C-2714 and the Combustion and Heat Transfer Studies...from deoxygenated hydrocarbons: I. General features......

Wayne A. Rubey; Richard C. Striebich; Michael D. Tissandier; Debra A. Tirey; Steven D. Anderson

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Experimental observation of a traveling plasma grating formed by two crossing filaments in gases  

SciTech Connect

The spatial motion and effective duration of a traveling plasma grating formed by two interfering femtosecond laser filaments in gases is characterized by its Doppler effect imparted on a probe pulse. The shift velocity determined experimentally agrees with the theoretical calculations.

Durand, Magali [Laboratoire d'Optique Appliquee, ENSTA ParisTech-Ecole Polytechnique-CNRS, 91761 Palaiseau (France); ONERA, Chemin de la Huniere, 91761 Palaiseau (France); Liu Yi; Forestier, Benjamin; Houard, Aurelien; Mysyrowicz, Andre [Laboratoire d'Optique Appliquee, ENSTA ParisTech-Ecole Polytechnique-CNRS, 91761 Palaiseau (France)

2011-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

365

Anode supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cells operating in exhaust gases of thermal engine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Anode supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cells operating in exhaust gases of thermal engine fuel cells are usually described as devices able to convert chemical energy into electrical energy. Conventional solid oxide fuel cells are separated into two compartments containing each electrode split

Boyer, Edmond

366

Abstract--Energy consumption and the concomitant Green House Gases (GHG) emissions of network infrastructures are  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract--Energy consumption and the concomitant Green House Gases (GHG) emissions of network on the overall power consumption and on the GHG emissions with just 25% of green energy sources. I. INTRODUCTION]. In the zero carbon approach, renewable (green) energy sources (e.g. sun, wind, tide) are employed and no GHGs

Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

367

Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy for dilute gases in equilibrium H. van Beijeren,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Posch,3 and Ch. Dellago3,4 1 Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Utrecht, Postbus 80006, 3508 TA Utrecht, The Netherlands 2 Institute for Physical Science and Technology and Department the kinetic theory of gases have been applied to compute the chaotic properties of simple systems such as hard

Dellago, Christoph

368

Towards a history of the international industrial gases industry Ray Stokes, Ralf Banken, and Matthias Phl  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

industrial revolution" and their component companies. From David Landes's classic study, The Unbound of the industries of the second industrial revolution has been virtually ignored in this scholarship to date1 Towards a history of the international industrial gases industry Ray Stokes, Ralf Banken

Guo, Zaoyang

369

Space sensors for global change  

SciTech Connect

Satellite measurements should contribute to a fuller understanding of the physical processes behind the radiation budget, exchange processes, and global change. Climate engineering requires global observation for early indications of predicted effects, which puts a premium on affordable, distributed constellations of satellites with effective, affordable sensors. Defense has a requirement for continuous global surveillance for warning of aggression, which could evolve from advanced sensors and satellites in development. Many climate engineering needs match those of defense technologies.

Canavan, G.H.

1994-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

370

Global Threat Reduction Initiative  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Nonproliferation Nonproliferation U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 1 The Current Status of Gap and U.S.-Origin Nuclear Fuel Removals 2011 Jeff Galan, Deputy Project Manager U.S.-Origin Nuclear Remove Program National Nuclear Security Administration Global Threat Reduction Initiative Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 2 GTRI Mission and Goals GTRI is: A part of President Obama's comprehensive strategy to prevent nuclear terrorism; and The key organization responsible for implementing the U.S. HEU minimization policy. GTRI MISSION Reduce and protect vulnerable nuclear and radiological material located at civilian sites worldwide. DOE STRATEGIC GOAL 2.2 Prevent the acquisition of nuclear and radiological materials for use in weapons of mass destruction and other

371

Perihelion Global | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

focused on the acquisition, development and management of technologies and assets in the energy, natural resource and communications markets. References: Perihelion Global1 This...

372

Global Scratch Upgrade in Progress  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the facility is now positioned to meet the performance demands of all its clusters. By upgrading the consolidated Global Scratch, users will be able to continue taking advantage...

373

Ozone Depletion and Global Warming.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Abstract This thesis examines global warming and the possible contribution that ozone depletion provides to this warming. An examination is performed to determine the extent (more)

Fow, Alista John

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

The British coal global warming R&D programme  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The threat of possible global warming is sufficient to warrant least regrets measures to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and investigation of fallback options, such as carbon dioxide removal from coal-fired power plants. The Global Warming R&D Programme is investigating carbon dioxide removal options, sometimes called Low CO2 Power Generation. An assessment programme has estimated the thermal efficiency of a number of process schemes and concluded that gasification based systems, with the addition of a CO shift reactor and CO2 scrubbers or a membrane gas separator, provide promising approaches. A clean hydrogen fuel would be fired in a gas turbine and 90% of the CO2 removed and exported as a liquid stream for storage in exhausted oil or gas fields. Costs of such power plants are now being explored and a collaborative programme is commencing with membrane developers, with the aim of developing and testing membranes for this duty. The paper outlines the background and describes preparation for experimental work using CO2/H2 separating membranes.

J.M. Topper; C.J. Bower; I.R. Summerfield; I.S.C. Hughes

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Combating global warming via non-fossil fuel energy options  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Non-fossil fuel energy options can help reduce or eliminate the emissions of greenhouse gases and are needed to combat climate change. Three distinct ways in which non-fossil fuel options can be used in society are examined here: the capture/production of non-fossil fuel energy sources, their conversion into appropriate energy carriers and increased efficiency throughout the life cycle. Non-fossil fuel energy sources are insufficient to avoid global warming in that they are not necessarily readily utilisable in their natural forms. Hydrogen energy systems are needed to facilitate the use of non-fossil fuels by converting them to two main classes of energy carriers: hydrogen (and hydrogen-derived fuels) and electricity. High efficiency is needed to allow the greatest benefits to be attained from energy options in terms of climate change and other factors. A case study is considered involving the production of hydrogen from non-fossil energy sources via thermochemical water decomposition. Thermochemical water decomposition provides a realistic future non-fossil fuel energy option, which can be driven by non-fossil energy sources (particularly nuclear or solar energy) and help combat global warming.

Marc A. Rosen

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Environmental Performance Report 2011: Annual Site Environmental...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Announcement FTLB-Field Test Laboratory Building FY-Fiscal Year GHG-Greenhouse Gas GP-Guiding Principles GWP-Global Warming Potential HAP-Hazardous Air Pollutant...

377

CHILLING CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.time.com #12;NEW ORLEANS www.time.com #12;ALASKA www.time.com #12;UPSALA GLACIER, ANDES, ARGENTINA 1928 2004;ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION Energy per area per time Power per area Unit: Watt per square meter W m-2 #12;GLOBAL ENERGY BALANCE Global and annual average energy fluxes in watts per square meter 343 237 237 254K 390

Schwartz, Stephen E.

378

GLOBAL IMPACT FROM THE HEART  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

GLOBAL IMPACT FROM THE HEART OF NORTHERN IRELAND #12;A first-class student experience in world-CLASS 18 CONTACT 26 CONTENTS 3GLOBAL IMPACT FROM THE HEART OF NORTHERN IRELAND #12;Queen's is a powerhouse THE HEART OF NORTHERN IRELANDGLOBAL IMPACT FROM THE HEART OF NORTHERN IRELAND CHANCELLOR'S WELCOME

Paxton, Anthony T.

379

GLOBAL IMPACT FROM THE HEART  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

GLOBAL IMPACT FROM THE HEART OF NORTHERN IRELAND #12;#12;CHANCELLOR'S WELCOME 4 VICE: INNOVATIVE AND WORLD-CLASS 18 CONTACT 26 CONTENTS 3GLOBAL IMPACT FROM THE HEART OF NORTHERN IRELAND #12;Queen THE HEART OF NORTHERN IRELANDGLOBAL IMPACT FROM THE HEART OF NORTHERN IRELAND CHANCELLOR'S WELCOME

Müller, Jens-Dominik

380

GLOBAL WARMING THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

GLOBAL WARMING THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT AND YOUR FAMILY'S CONTRIBUTION TO IT Stephen E. Schwartz September 22, 2004 http://www.ecd.bnl.gov/steve/schwartz.html #12;#12;THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT #12;GLOBAL does anything about it. ­ Mark Twain­ Mark Twain Now with the greenhouse effect, we ARE doing something

Schwartz, Stephen E.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gases gwp global" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Educational Global Climate Change Links  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Educational Global Climate Change Links Educational Global Climate Change Links Evidence of the importance of global climate change to the future generation is reflected in the increasing number of queries CDIAC receives from students and educators, from a range of educational levels. We have compiled a listing of some sites that we hope will be of interest and of use to those looking for information, fun, ideas, and ways that they can make a difference. These links were chosen because we have found them useful in responding to those with inquiring minds. These links will take the user outside of CDIAC, and are by no means comprehensive. We are not responsible for the content or intent of these outside links. Tools you can use! NOAA's Global Climate Dashboard - The Global Climate Dashboard is

382

Frequently Asked Global Change Questions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Asked Global Change Questions Asked Global Change Questions This page lists global change questions that have been received at CDIAC and the answers that were provided to a diverse audience. If you have a question relating to carbon dioxide and global change and cannot find the answer you need here, you can "Ask Us a Question", and we will be glad to try to help you. Questions Should we grow trees to remove carbon in the atmosphere? What are the present tropospheric concentrations, global warming potentials (100 year time horizon), and atmospheric lifetimes of CO2, CH4, N2O, CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, CCl4, methyl chloroform, HCFC-22, sulphur hexafluoride, trifluoromethyl sulphur pentafluoride, perfluoroethane, and surface ozone? Where can I find information on the naming of halocarbons?

383

Integrated global background monitoring network  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the background and elucidates the need for an integrated global background monitoring network. This network should: establish reference levels for pollutants that have potential for global contaminatin, serve as an early warning site for detecting global spread of pollutants, and establish baseline levels for selected ecosystem parameters against which data from more impacted areas can be compared. This paper proposes the following: (1) establish an integrated global background monitoring network for pollutants and ecosystem parameters; (2) pollutant measurements be multi-media; (3) carry out ecosystem parameter studies in conjunction with pollutant measurements; (4) the network be maintained for an indefinite period of time; (5) the network be established using the international biosphere reserve system as the universe from which a subset of monitoring sites are drawn; and (6) that the project be under the overall direction of the Global Environmental Monitoring System. 43 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

Wiersma, G.B.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Controlled Vapor Phase Growth of Single Crystalline, Two-Dimensional GaSe Crystals with High Photoresponse  

SciTech Connect

Abstract Compared with their bulk counterparts, atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) crystals exhibit new physical properties, and have the potential to enable next-generation electronic and optoelectronic devices. However, controlled synthesis of large uniform monolayer and multi-layer 2D crystals is still challenging. Here, we report the controlled synthesis of 2D GaSe crystals on SiO2/Si substrates using a vapor phase deposition method. For the first time, uniform, large (up to ~60 m in lateral size), single-crystalline, triangular monolayer GaSe crystals were obtained and their atomic resolution structure were characterized. The size, density, shape, thickness, and uniformity of the 2D GaSe crystals were shown to be controllable by growth duration, growth region, growth temperature, and argon carrier gas flow rate. The theoretical modeling of the electronic structure and Raman spectroscopy demonstrate a direct-to-indirect bandgap transition and progressive confinement-induced bandgap shifts for 2D GaSe crystals. The 2D GaSe crystals show p-type semiconductor characteristics and high photoresponsivity (~1.7 A/W under white light illumination) comparable to exfoliated GaSe nanosheets. These 2D GaSe crystals are potentially useful for next-generation electronic and optoelectronic devices such as photodetectors and field-effect transistors.

Li, Xufan [ORNL; Lin, Ming-Wei [ORNL; Zhang, Huidong [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Puretzky, Alexander A [ORNL; Idrobo Tapia, Juan C [ORNL; Ma, Cheng [ORNL; Chi, Miaofang [ORNL; Yoon, Mina [ORNL; Rouleau, Christopher M [ORNL; Kravchenko, Ivan I [ORNL; Geohegan, David B [ORNL; Xiao, Kai [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE: SOME IMPLICATIONS, OPPORTUNITIES. AND CHALLENGES FOR U.S. FORESTRY  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE: SOME IMPLICATIONS, OPPORTUNITIES. GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE: SOME IMPLICATIONS, OPPORTUNITIES. AND CHALLENGES FOR U.S. FORESTRY G. Marland' Ahsiract.--It is widcly agrccd that thc concentration of greenhouse gases in the earth's atmosphcrc is increasing, that this increase is a consequence of man's activities, and that there is signilicant risk that this will lead to changes in the earth's climate. T h c qucstion is now k i n g discusscd what, if anything, we should be doing to minimize and/or adapt to changes in climate. Virtually evcry statcmcnt on this matter; from the G.S. Oflice of Tcchnology Assessment. to the National Acadcmy of Science, to the Nairobi Declaration on Climatic Change. includes some recommendation for planting and protecting forests. In fact, forestry is intimately involved in the climate change

386

It's Not Too Late to Change Global Warming's Course - NERSC Science News  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

It's Not Too Late to It's Not Too Late to Change Global Warming's Course It's Not Too Late to Change Global Warming's Course Simulations Show That Cuts in Greenhouse Gas Emissions Would Save Arctic Ice, Reduce Sea Level Rise October 27, 2009 | Tags: Climate Research mitigation1.jpg Computer simulations show the extent that average air temperatures at Earth's surface could warm by 2080-2099 compared to 1980-1999, if (top) greenhouse gases emissions continue to climb at current rates, or if (middle) society cuts emissions by 70 percent. In the latter case, temperatures rise by less than 2°C (3.6°F) across nearly all of Earth's populated areas (the bottom panel shows warming averted). However, unchecked emissions could lead to warming of 3°C (5.4°F) or more across parts of Europe, Asia, North America, and Australia. (Image: Geophysical

387

Molybdenum-based additives to mixed-metal oxides for use in hot gas cleanup sorbents for the catalytic decomposition of ammonia in coal gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to additives to mixed-metal oxides that act simultaneously as sorbents and catalysts in cleanup systems for hot coal gases. Such additives of this type, generally, act as a sorbent to remove sulfur from the coal gases while substantially simultaneously, catalytically decomposing appreciable amounts of ammonia from the coal gases.

Ayala, Raul E. (Clifton Park, NY)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Effects of land use on surfaceatmosphere exchanges of trace gases and energy in Borneo: comparing fluxes over oil palm plantations and a rainforest  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...27 November 2011 research-article Articles...trace gases and energy in Borneo: comparing...boundary layer using a research aircraft in Sabah...exchange fluxes of energy and trace gases...Geophys. Res. Abstracts 12, EGU2010-15408...trace gases and energy in Borneo: comparing...

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Globally Collaborative Environmental Peach Gaming with Global University Systems Globally Collaborative Environmental Peace  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and figures." To realize this, I worked on the proliferations of data telecom infrastructure and email to various countries, and demonstration and testing of hybrid technologies with "Global Lecture Hall (GLH will supply game players from around the world. With global GRID computer networking technology and Beowulf

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

390

Global production through 2005  

SciTech Connect

Two companion studies released recently should provide great food for thought among geo-political strategists and various national governments. If predictions contained in these Petroconsultants studies of oil and gas production trends for the next 10 years are realized, there will be great repercussions for net exporters and importers, alike. After analyzing and predicting trends within each of the world`s significant producing nations for the 1996--2005 period, the crude oil and condensate report concludes tat global production will jump nearly 24%. By contrast, worldwide gas output will leap 40%. The cast of characters among producers and exporters that will benefit from these increases varies considerably for each fuel. On the oil side, Russia and the OPEC members, particularly the Persian Gulf nations, will be back in the driver`s seat in terms of affecting export and pricing patterns. On the gas side, the leading producers will be an interesting mix of mostly non-OPEC countries. The reemergence of Persian Gulf oil producers, coupled with an anticipated long-term decline among top non-OPEC producing nations should present a sobering picture to government planners within large net importers, such as the US. They are likely to find themselves in much the same supply trap as was experienced in the 1970s, only this time the dependence on foreign oil supplies will be much worse. Gas supplies will not be similarly constrained, and some substitution for oil is probable. Here, two articles, ``World oil industry is set for transition`` and ``Worldwide gas surges forward in next decade,`` present a summary of the findings detailed in Petroconsultants` recent studies.

Foreman, N.E. [Petroconsultants, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

GE Global Research in San Ramon, California | GE Global Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and the world. Visit the Careers page to search and apply for Global Research jobs in San Ramon. We also welcome robust participation in our work from a range of science...

392

,"Ohio Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Monthly","9/2013" Monthly","9/2013" ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n9030oh2m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n9030oh2m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/19/2013 6:56:25 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Ohio Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)" "Sourcekey","N9030OH2" "Date","Ohio Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)" 33253,0 33284,0 33312,0

393

,"Tennessee Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Monthly","9/2013" Monthly","9/2013" ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n9030tn2m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n9030tn2m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/19/2013 6:56:27 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Tennessee Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)" "Sourcekey","N9030TN2" "Date","Tennessee Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)" 33253,0 33284,0

394

,"Tennessee Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Annual",2010 Annual",2010 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n9030tn2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n9030tn2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/19/2013 6:56:27 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Tennessee Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)" "Sourcekey","N9030TN2" "Date","Tennessee Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)" 35611,0 35976,0 37802,0 38898,0

395

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - About the 1605(b)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

About the 1605(b) Program About the 1605(b) Program Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program About the 1605(b) Program History Established by Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, the Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program (also known as the 1605(b) Program) encourages corporations, government agencies, non-profit organizations, households, and other private and public entities to submit annual reports of their greenhouse gas emissions, emission reductions, and sequestration activities. The Program provides a means for voluntary reporting that is complete, reliable, and consistent. The Voluntary Reporting Program began operations in 1994 under the auspices of the Energy Information Administration, the statistical branch of the Department of Energy. Under the original guidelines, the Program released annual reports and a public database for each reporting cycle from the 1994 through the 2005 data years.

396

,"Virginia Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Monthly","9/2013" Monthly","9/2013" ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n9030va2m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n9030va2m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/19/2013 6:56:29 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Virginia Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)" "Sourcekey","N9030VA2" "Date","Virginia Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)" 33253,0 33284,0

397

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2009, DOE/EIA-0573(2009)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

March 2011 www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2009 ii Contacts This report, Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2009, was prepared under the general direction of John Conti, Assistant Administrator for Energy Analysis, and Paul Holtberg, Team Leader, Analysis Integration Team. General questions concerning the content of this report may be directed to the Office of Communications at 202/586-8800. Technical information concerning the content of the report may be obtained from Perry Lindstrom at 202/586-0934 (email, perry. lindstrom@eia.gov). Without the assistance of Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), this report would not have

398

,"Pennsylvania Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Annual",2010 Annual",2010 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n9030pa2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n9030pa2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/19/2013 6:56:26 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Pennsylvania Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)" "Sourcekey","N9030PA2" "Date","Pennsylvania Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)" 35611,0 35976,0 37802,0

399

Comparative Analysis of Alternative Means for Removing Noncondensable Gases from Flashed-Steam Geothermal Power Plants  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

June 2000 * NREL/SR-550-28329 June 2000 * NREL/SR-550-28329 Martin Vorum, P.E. Englewood, Colorado Eugene A. Fritzler, P.E. Fort Morgan, Colorado Comparative Analysis of Alternative Means for Removing Noncondensable Gases from Flashed-Steam Geothermal Power Plants April 1999-March 2000 National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 NREL is a U.S. Department of Energy Laboratory Operated by Midwest Research Institute * * * * Battelle * * * * Bechtel Contract No. DE-AC36-99-GO10337 June 2000 * NREL/SR-550-28329 Comparative Analysis of Alternative Means for Removing Noncondensable Gases from Flashed-Steam Geothermal Power Plants April 1999-March 2000 Martin Vorum, P.E. Englewood, Colorado Eugene A. Fritzler, P.E. Fort Morgan, Colorado NREL Technical Monitor: C. Kutscher

400

,"South Dakota Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Monthly","9/2013" Monthly","9/2013" ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n9030sd2m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n9030sd2m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/19/2013 6:56:26 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: South Dakota Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","N9030SD2" "Date","South Dakota Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (MMcf)" 33253,0 33284,0 33312,0 33343,0 33373,0

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gases gwp global" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Biological production of acetic acid from waste gases with Clostridium ljungdahlii  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus are disclosed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration. 5 figs.

Gaddy, J.L.

1998-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

402

Removal of oxides of nitrogen from gases in multi-stage coal combustion  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Polluting NO.sub.x gas values are removed from off-gas of a multi-stage coal combustion process which includes an initial carbonizing reaction, firing of char from this reaction in a fluidized bed reactor, and burning of gases from the carbonizing and fluidized bed reactions in a topping combustor having a first, fuel-rich zone and a second, fuel-lean zone. The improvement by means of which NO.sub.x gases are removed is directed to introducing NO.sub.x -free oxidizing gas such as compressor air into the second, fuel-lean zone and completing combustion with this source of oxidizing gas. Excess air fed to the fluidized bed reactor is also controlled to obtain desired stoichiometry in the first, fuel-rich zone of the topping combustor.

Mollot, Darren J. (Morgantown, WV); Bonk, Donald L. (Louisville, OH); Dowdy, Thomas E. (Orlando, FL)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

A comprehensive study of different gases in inductively coupled plasma torch operating at one atmosphere  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A numerical study is done to understand the possible operating regimes of RF-ICP torch (3?MHz 50?kW) using different gases for plasma formation at atmospheric pressure. A two dimensional numerical simulation of RF-ICP torch using argon nitrogen oxygen and air as plasma gas has been investigated using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) software fluent. The operating parameters varied here are central gas flow sheath gas flow RF-power dissipated in plasma and plasma gas. The temperature contours flow field axial and radial velocity profiles were investigated under different operating conditions. The plasmaresistance inductance of the torch and the heat distribution for various plasma gases have also been investigated. The plasma impedance of ICP torch varies with different operating parameters and plays an important role for RF oscillator design and power coupling. These studies will be useful to decide the design criteria for ICP torches required for different material processing applications.

Sangeeta B. Punjabi; N. K. Joshi; H. A. Mangalvedekar; B. K. Lande; A. K. Das; D. C. Kothari

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Membranes, methods of making membranes, and methods of separating gases using membranes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Membranes, methods of making membranes, and methods of separating gases using membranes are provided. The membranes can include at least one hydrophilic polymer, at least one cross-linking agent, at least one base, and at least one amino compound. The methods of separating gases using membranes can include contacting a gas stream containing at least one of CO.sub.2, H.sub.2S, and HCl with one side of a nonporous and at least one of CO.sub.2, H.sub.2S, and HCl selectively permeable membrane such that at least one of CO.sub.2, H.sub.2S, and HCl is selectively transported through the membrane.

Ho, W. S. Winston

2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

405

Process for removal of ammonia and acid gases from contaminated waters  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Contaminating basic gases, i.e., ammonia and acid gases, e.g., carbon dioxide, are removed from process waters or waste waters in a combined extraction and stripping process. Ammonia in the form of ammonium ion is extracted by an immiscible organic phase comprising a liquid cation exchange component, especially an organic phosphoric acid derivative, and preferably di-2-ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid, dissolved in an alkyl hydrocarbon, aryl hydrocarbon, higher alcohol, oxygenated hydrocarbon, halogenated hydrocarbon, and mixtures thereof. Concurrently, the acidic gaseous contaminants are stripped from the process or waste waters by stripping with stream, air, nitrogen, or the like. The liquid cation exchange component has the ammonia stripped therefrom by heating, and the component may be recycled to extract additional amounts of ammonia.

King, C.J.; Mackenzie, P.D.

1982-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

406

Process for removal of ammonia and acid gases from contaminated waters  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Contaminating basic gases, i.e., ammonia, and acid gases, e.g., carbon dioxide, are removed from process waters or waste waters in a combined extraction and stripping process. Ammonia in the form of ammonium ion is extracted by an immiscible organic phase comprising a liquid cation exchange component, especially an organic phosphoric acid derivative, and preferably di-2-ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid, dissolved in an alkyl hydrocarbon, aryl hydrocarbon, higher alcohol, oxygenated hydrocarbon, halogenated hydrocarbon, and mixtures thereof. Concurrently, the acidic gaseous contaminants are stripped from the process or waste waters by stripping with steam, air, nitrogen, or the like. The liquid cation exchange component has the ammonia stripped therefrom by heating, and the component may be recycled to extract additional amounts of ammonia.

King, C. Judson (Kensington, CA); MacKenzie, Patricia D. (Berkeley, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Bose and Fermi gases in the early Universe with self-gravitational effect  

SciTech Connect

We study the self-gravitational effect on the equation of state (EoS) of Bose and Fermi gases in thermal equilibrium at the end of reheating, the period after quark-hadron transition and before big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). After introducing new grand canonical partition functions based on the work of Uhlenbeck and Gropper, we notice some interesting features of the newly developed EoSs with distinct behaviors of relativistic and nonrelativistic gases under self-gravity. The usual negligence of the self-gravitational effect when solving the background expansion of the early Universe is justified with numerical results, showing the magnitude of the self-gravitational modification of the state constant to be less than O(10{sup -78}). This helps us to clarify the background thermal evolution of the primordial patch. Such clarification is crucial in testing gravity theories, evaluating inflation models and determining element abundances in BBN.

Niu Yuezhen; Huang Junwu; Ma Boqiang [School of Physics and State Keye Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); School of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China) and Center for High Energy Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China) and Center for History and Philosophy of Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

408

Nuclear magnetic resonance of laser-polarized noble gases in molecules, materials and organisms  

SciTech Connect

Conventional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are fundamentally challenged by the insensitivity that stems from the ordinarily low spin polarization achievable in even the strongest NMR magnets. However, by transferring angular momentum from laser light to electronic and nuclear spins, optical pumping methods can increase the nuclear spin polarization of noble gases by several orders of magnitude, thereby greatly enhancing their NMR sensitivity. This dissertation is primarily concerned with the principles and practice of optically pumped nuclear magnetic resonance (OPNMR). The enormous sensitivity enhancement afforded by optical pumping noble gases can be exploited to permit a variety of novel NMR experiments across many disciplines. Many such experiments are reviewed, including the void-space imaging of organisms and materials, NMR and MRI of living tissues, probing structure and dynamics of molecules in solution and on surfaces, and zero-field NMR and MRI.

Goodson, Boyd M.

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

,"Virginia Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Annual",2010 Annual",2010 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n9030va2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n9030va2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/19/2013 6:56:29 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Virginia Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)" "Sourcekey","N9030VA2" "Date","Virginia Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)" 35611,0 35976,0 37802,0 38898,0

410

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Original 1605(b)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Program Program Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Original 1605(b) Program Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 established the Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program. The Program operated under the original 1994 guidelines through the 2005 data year (for reports containing data through 2005). Reports containing data through 2007 and beyond submitted beginning in 2008 will be conducted under the revised General and Technical Guidelines issued in 2006 and 2007, respectively. More about the original 1605(b) Program. Old Program Reporting Guidelines Old Program Electricity Emissions Factors Old Program Calculation Tools Old Program Forms and Software Old Program Reports for the reporting years 1994 to 2004. Old Program Data for the reporting years 1994 to 2005.

411

,"Pennsylvania Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Monthly","9/2013" Monthly","9/2013" ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n9030pa2m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n9030pa2m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/19/2013 6:56:26 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Pennsylvania Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)" "Sourcekey","N9030PA2" "Date","Pennsylvania Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)" 33253,0

412

Adsorption of molecular gases on porous materials in the SAFT-VR approximation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A simple molecular thermodynamic approach is applied to the study of the adsorption of gases of chain molecules on solid surfaces. We use a model based on the Statistical Associating Fluid Theory for Variable Range (SAFT-VR) potentials [A. Gil-Villegas, A. Galindo, P. J. Whitehead, S. J. Mills, G. Jackson, A. N. Burgess, J. Chem. Phys. 106 (1997) 4168] that we extend by including a quasi-two-dimensional approximation to describe the adsorption properties of this type of real gases [A. Martinez, M. Castro, C. McCabe, A. Gil-Villegas, J. Chem. Phys. 126 (2007) 074707]. The model is applied to ethane, ethylene, propane, and carbon dioxide adsorbed on activated carbon and silica gel, which are porous media of significant industrial interest. We show that the adsorption isotherms obtained by means of the present SAFT-VR modeling are in fair agreement with the experimental results provided in the literature

Castro, M; Martinez, A; Rosu, H C; 10.1016/j.physa.2010.04.028

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Resisting globalization- ATTAC in France: local discourses, global terrain  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, social movements in France appeared to run out of raison d??tre, as enthusiasm for collective action gave away to a new individualism and, the Left, which was in power, along with the country itself started to confront the effects of a deregulated... RESISTING GLOBALIZATION ATTAC IN FRANCE: LOCAL DISCOURSES, GLOBAL TERRAIN A Dissertation by MARIE DES NEIGES LEONARD Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

Leonard, Marie des Neiges

2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

414

Plasmon mass and Drude weight in strongly spin-orbit-coupled two-dimensional electron gases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) spin- orbit-coupled 2D electron and hole gases, which are promising candidates for semiconductor spintronics,1 (ii) graphene2 (a monolayer of carbon atoms arranged in a 2D honeycomb lattice), which has attracted a great deal of interest because..., in the case of graphene) degree of freedom. This coupling, being of relativistic origin,12 naturally breaks Galilean invariance and is thus the basic reason for a quite sensitive dependence of several observables on electron-electron interactions, even...

Agarwal, Amit; Chesi, Stefano; Jungwirth, T.; Sinova, Jairo; Vignale, G.; Polini, Marco.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Changes in atmospheric gases during isobaric storage of beef packaged pre- and post-rigor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

displacement measurements of the head- space volume were conducted during two weeks of storage. Males of the headspace gases were calculated using the general gas law (PU = nRT). Carbon dioxide absorption by the meat was greatest in steaks stored in 100% C... OF FIGURES INTRODUCTION LITERATURE REV IELV Microbiol ogical Aspects of Packaging Meat Shelf-Life of Packaged Meat Respiration . Carbon Dioxide Absorption OBJECTIVES EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Description of Meat Samples . Molar...

Hoermann, Karen Lee

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Selective Catalytic Oxidation of Hydrogen Sulfide to Elemental Sulfur from Coal-Derived Fuel Gases  

SciTech Connect

The development of low cost, highly efficient, desulfurization technology with integrated sulfur recovery remains a principle barrier issue for Vision 21 integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generation plants. In this plan, the U. S. Department of Energy will construct ultra-clean, modular, co-production IGCC power plants each with chemical products tailored to meet the demands of specific regional markets. The catalysts employed in these co-production modules, for example water-gas-shift and Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, are readily poisoned by hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), a sulfur contaminant, present in the coal-derived fuel gases. To prevent poisoning of these catalysts, the removal of H{sub 2}S down to the parts-per-billion level is necessary. Historically, research into the purification of coal-derived fuel gases has focused on dry technologies that offer the prospect of higher combined cycle efficiencies as well as improved thermal integration with co-production modules. Primarily, these concepts rely on a highly selective process separation step to remove low concentrations of H{sub 2}S present in the fuel gases and produce a concentrated stream of sulfur bearing effluent. This effluent must then undergo further processing to be converted to its final form, usually elemental sulfur. Ultimately, desulfurization of coal-derived fuel gases may cost as much as 15% of the total fixed capital investment (Chen et al., 1992). It is, therefore, desirable to develop new technology that can accomplish H{sub 2}S separation and direct conversion to elemental sulfur more efficiently and with a lower initial fixed capital investment.

Gardner, Todd H.; Berry, David A.; Lyons, K. David; Beer, Stephen K.; Monahan, Michael J.

2001-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

417

Purification of Natural Gases with High CO2 Content Using Gas Hydrates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Purification of Natural Gases with High CO2 Content Using Gas Hydrates ... The feed was separated using a cascade of continuously stirred tank crystallizer vessels, which can also be regarded as an ideal crystallizer column resembling a gas-hydrate-based scrubbing process. ... Pressurized gas scrubbing, pressure swing adsorption, chemical absorption, and membrane and cryogenic processes are some examples of well-established technologies for the removal of CO2 from gaseous products. ...

Nena Dabrowski; Christoph Windmeier; Lothar R. Oellrich

2009-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

418

Gas chromatographic identification of interferences and their elimination in measuring total reduced sulfur gases  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on a selective filter that is capable of eliminating positive interference in the coulometric measurement of ambient concentrations of total reduced sulfur gases which has been successfully developed and field tested. Most of the interference was found to be caused by terpenes, which react with bromine, the active reagent in the coulometric titrators. Terpenes are given off by conifer trees in the natural environment as well as emitted in pulping and other wood-handling and lumber manufacturing operations.

de Souza, T.L.C. (Pulp and Paper Research Inst. of Canada, Pointe Claire, PQ (Canada))

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Solubility and displacement behavior of a viscous crude with CO[sub 2] and hydrocarbon gases  

SciTech Connect

The West Sak reservoir on the Alaskan North Slope contains an estimated 15 to 25 billion bbl of low-temperature, viscous crude. The reservoir has promising development potential by means of a gas injection process. An experimental study of the solubility and displacement behavior of West Sak oil with CO[sub 2] and hydrocarbon gases shows simple black-oil to complex, multiphase equilibrium behaviors.

DeRuiter, R.A.; Nash, L.J.; Singletary, M.S.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Metal MEMS Devices | GE Global Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

MEMS: Inside the Global Research Cleanroom MEMS: Inside the Global Research Cleanroom This follow-up to our introduction to MEMS takes you inside the GE Global Research cleanroom...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gases gwp global" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

The China-in-Global Energy Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The China-in-Global Energy Model (C-GEM) is a global Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model that captures the interaction of production, consumption and trade among multiple global regions and sectors including five ...

Qi, T.

422

Hot Topics: Globalization and Climate Change  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

global sense of the world, is bound up in both its analysis and its policy proposals with the same issues that confront globalization theorists. The proliferation of theories and analyses in globalization and climate change reflects the emerging nature...

Malone, Elizabeth L.

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Domain walls and bubble-droplets in immiscible binary Bose gases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The existence and stability of domain walls (DWs) and bubble-droplet (BD) states in binary mixtures of quasi-one-dimensional ultracold Bose gases with inter- and intra-species repulsive interactions is considered. Previously, DWs were studied by means of coupled systems of Gross-Pitaevskii equations (GPEs) with cubic terms, which model immiscible binary Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs). We address immiscible BECs with two- and three-body repulsive interactions, as well as binary Tonks--Girardeau (TG) gases, using systems of GPEs with cubic and quintic nonlinearities for the binary BEC, and coupled nonlinear Schr\\"{o}dinger equations with quintic terms for the TG gases. Exact DW\\ solutions are found for the symmetric BEC mixture, with equal intra-species scattering lengths. Stable asymmetric DWs in the BEC mixtures with dissimilar interactions in the two components, as well as of symmetric and asymmetric DWs in the binary TG gas, are found by means of numerical and approximate analytical methods. In the BEC sy...

Filatrella, G; Salerno, M

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

PARTNERSHIP PROFILE: THE GLOBAL FUND | 1 About the Global Fund to Fight AIDS,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

grants worth a total of US$29 billion in more than 140 countries. The Global Fund provided 22% of allPARTNERSHIP PROFILE: THE GLOBAL FUND | 1 MARCH 2014 About the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) is a global

Klein, Ophir

425

Endeavor Global | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Endeavor Global Endeavor Global Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Endeavor Global Name Endeavor Global Address 900 Broadway Place New York, New York Zip 10003 Coordinates 40.7391824°, -73.9897252° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":40.7391824,"lon":-73.9897252,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

426

Global Warming and Extreme Weather  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Global Warming and Extreme Weather Global Warming and Extreme Weather Speaker(s): Michael Wehner Date: November 28, 2006 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Surabi Menon Extreme weather events can have serious impacts on human and ecological systems. Changes in the magnitude and frequency of extreme weather associated with changes in the mean climate are likely the most serious consequence of human induced global warming. Understanding what the future portends is vital if society hopes to adapt to the very different world that awaits. In this talk, we will exploit simple extreme value theory to make predictions about the late 21st century climate. Current work on the relationship between global warming and the hurricane cycle will also be presented. The bottom line is that events that are considered rare today

427

BPL Global | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

BPL Global BPL Global Jump to: navigation, search Name BPL Global Place Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Zip 15222 Product BPL Global is a Pittburgh based company that uses broadband over powerline (BPL) to intergrate offerings of advanced metering infrastructure and broadband internet. Coordinates 40.438335°, -79.997459° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":40.438335,"lon":-79.997459,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

428

The Psychology of Global Warming  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The evidence in support of global warming and the lack of significant published evidence to the contrary provides an extraordinarily strong foundation for the scientific community's call for action on greenhouse gas emissions. However, public ...

Ben R. Newell; Andrew J. Pitman

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

MEMS Relays | GE Global Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

MEMS Technology 2-1-7-v-metal-mems-devices MEMS: Inside the Global Research Cleanroom 2-3-11-v Carousolar Uses Solar Power for Fun 2-2-6-v GE Scientists Demonstrate...

430

Tropospheric chemistry: A global perspective  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a global Openshaw, K. , Wood fuels the developing world, Newbetween 6 and 40% of wood fuel is converted to charcoalsimilar to that for wood fuel. The source for CO given in

Logan, Jennifer A; Prather, Michael J; Wofsy, Steven C; McElroy, Michael B

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

The Sun's global magnetic field  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the plasma in the Sun's atmosphere...representation of the Sun's large-scale...high density and temperature contrast between...the density and temperature distributions found in the global...magnetic fields on the Sun and other stars...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Global energy demand to 2060  

SciTech Connect

The projection of global energy demand to the year 2060 is of particular interest because of its relevance to the current greenhouse concerns. The long-term growth of global energy demand in the time scale of climatic change has received relatively little attention in the public discussion of national policy alternatives. The sociological, political, and economic issues have rarely been mentioned in this context. This study emphasizes that the two major driving forces are global population growth and economic growth (gross national product per capita), as would be expected. The modest annual increases assumed in this study result in a year 2060 annual energy use of >4 times the total global current use (year 1986) if present trends continue, and >2 times with extreme efficiency improvements in energy use. Even assuming a zero per capita growth for energy and economics, the population increase by the year 2060 results in a 1.5 times increase in total annual energy use.

Starr, C. (Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (USA))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Global Consequences of Land Use  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...purposes of illustration, we compare three hypothetical landscapes: a natural ecosystem...Russia, 1998 ). 28 S. L. Postel , Pillar of Sand: Can the Miracle...services in the long term. | Center for Sustainability and the Global Environment (SAGE...

Jonathan A. Foley; Ruth DeFries; Gregory P. Asner; Carol Barford; Gordon Bonan; Stephen R. Carpenter; F. Stuart Chapin; Michael T. Coe; Gretchen C. Daily; Holly K. Gibbs; Joseph H. Helkowski; Tracey Holloway; Erica A. Howard; Christopher J. Kucharik; Chad Monfreda; Jonathan A. Patz; I. Colin Prentice; Navin Ramankutty; Peter K. Snyder

2005-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

434

Global Warming: A Science Overview  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fossil fuels (i.e., coal, oil, and natural gas) provide about ... various control efforts and to the problem of global warming, which is now being considered by governments ... six key aspects of the scientific f...

Michael C. MacCracken

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Global air quality and climate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CRITICAL REVIEW Global air quality and climatewz Arlene M.determine regional air quality and can alter climate.to-continental scale air quality. Reducing the O 3 precursor

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

THE GLOBAL NUCLEAR ENERGY PARTNERSHIP:  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

GLOBAL NUCLEAR ENERGY PARTNERSHIP: GLOBAL NUCLEAR ENERGY PARTNERSHIP: Greater Energy Security in a Cleaner, Safer World The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) is a comprehensive strategy to increase U.S. and global energy security, encourage clean development around the world, reduce the risk of nuclear proliferation, and improve the environment. A plentiful, reliable supply of energy is the cornerstone of sustained economic growth and prosperity. Nuclear power is the only proven technology that can provide abundant supplies of base load electricity reliably and without air pollution or emissions of greenhouse gasses. In order to help meet growing demand for energy at home and encourage the growth of prosperity around the globe, GNEP provides for the safe, extensive expansion of clean nuclear power.

437

Building Technologies Office: Global Superior Energy Performance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Global Superior Energy Global Superior Energy Performance Partnership to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Global Superior Energy Performance Partnership on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: Global Superior Energy Performance Partnership on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Global Superior Energy Performance Partnership on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Global Superior Energy Performance Partnership on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: Global Superior Energy Performance Partnership on Digg Find More places to share Building Technologies Office: Global Superior Energy Performance Partnership on AddThis.com... About Take Action to Save Energy Activities 179d Tax Calculator Advanced Energy Design Guides Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides

438

Sunrise Global Solar Energy | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sunrise Global Solar Energy Place: Taoyuan County, Taiwan Zip: 330 Sector: Solar Product: Engaged in solar monocrystalline cell design and production. References: Sunrise Global...

439

Carbon Markets Global Ltd | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Markets Global Ltd Place: London, United Kingdom Zip: NW4 2HT Product: Assist project originators develop and finance clean development projects. References: Carbon Markets Global...

440

Understanding Public Perceptions of Global Warming.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In this dissertation, I investigate the determinants on Americans perceptions of global warming and individuals environmentally significant behaviors to reduce global warming. Specially, I examine (more)

Shao, Wanyun

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gases gwp global" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

New Medical Technology | GE Global Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of care and expanding medical treatment boundaries. Home > Innovation > Healthcare Additive Manufacturing Demonstration at GE Global Research See how GE Global Research is...

442

Global Threat Reduction Initiative | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Reduction Initiative An overview of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative, U.S.-Origin Nuclear Fuel Removals. Global Threat Reduction Initiative More Documents &...

443

Global Threat Reduction Initiative | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Initiative Global Threat Reduction Initiative The Current Status of Gap and U.S.-Origin Nuclear Fuel Removals 2011. Global Threat Reduction Initiative More Documents &...

444

GLOBAL CONVERGENCE OF AN ELASTIC MODE APPROACH ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Definition (Global Convergence Safeguard). We say that a nonlinear pro- gramming algorithm has a global convergence safeguard if any accumulation point of.

445

Oil & Gas Technology Center | GE Global Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Global Research Oil & Gas Technology Center GE Global Research Oil & Gas Technology Center Mark Little, SVP and chief technology officer for GE, and Eric Gebhardt, vice president...

446

High-Pressure Phase Equilibria of Ionic Liquids and Compressed Gases for Applications in Reactions and Absorption Refrigeration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of high-melting solids not liquids at processing conditions. Coupling ionic liquids with compressed gases systems may overcome most of these difficulties for their applications in separations, reactions, materials processing and engineering applications...

Ren, Wei

2009-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

447

PII S0016-7037(01)00802-X Volatilization kinetics of silicon carbide in reducing gases: An experimental study with  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PII S0016-7037(01)00802-X Volatilization kinetics of silicon carbide in reducing gases occurring hexagonal sili- con carbide ( -SiC), and -SiC, the cubic form, are occasion- ally reported

Grossman, Lawrence

448

Methods for reducing emissions of dioxins and furans in flue gases at plants burning solid domestic waste  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Methods are discussed for reducing emissions of toxic chlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and dibenzo-furans in flue gases at plants which burn solid domestic waste. Results are presented from a study of ... number of th...

A. N. Tugov; V. F. Moskvichev; L. G. Fedorov

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Pulsed quantum cascade laser instrument with compact design for rapid, high sensitivity measurements of trace gases in air  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have developed a compact instrument for sensitive, rapid and continuous measurement of trace gases in air, with results presented here for methane (CH4), nitric oxide (NO), nitrous oxide (N2O) and ammonia (NH3

J.B. McManus; J.H. Shorter; D.D. Nelson; M.S. Zahniser; D.E. Glenn

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

A conceptual design of a Reactive Ion Etch back end system for the direct reuse of process gases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The use of Plasma Etching, specifically Reactive Ion Etching (RIE), is a vital tool in manufacturing semiconductor devices. Most gases used in RIE processes were initially chosen because of their relatively low toxicity and reactivity. However, many...

Tiner, Paul Alan

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

451

Coal-Fired Power Plants, Greenhouse Gases, and State Statutory Substantial Endangerment Provisions: Climate Change Comes to Kansas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

economy standards on motor vehicles by states such as California. But the states have also targeted stationary sources of greenhouse gases. In particular, they have sought to minimize carbon dioxide emissions from coal-fired power plants. States have used...

Glicksman, Robert L.

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Hydrogeological studies on the mechanical behavior of landfill gases and leachate of the Nanjido Landfill in Seoul, Korea  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

?The Nanjido Landfill is the largest uncontrolled landfill in Korea and it causes various kinds of environmental problems. Landfill gases and leachate are recognized as the most serious environmental problems ass...

K. K. Lee; Y. Y. Kim; H. W. Chang; S. Y. Chung

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Timelines for mitigating methane emissions from energy technologies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy technologies emitting differing proportions of methane and carbon dioxide vary in their relative climate impacts over time, due to the different atmospheric lifetimes of the two gases. Standard technology comparisons using the global warming potential (GWP) emissions equivalency metric do not reveal these dynamic impacts, and may not provide the information needed to assess technologies and emissions mitigation opportunities in the context of broader climate policy goals. Here we formulate a portfolio optimization model that incorporates changes in technology impacts as a radiative forcing (RF) stabilization target is approached. An optimal portfolio, maximizing allowed energy consumption while meeting the RF target, is obtained by year-wise minimization of the marginal RF impact in an intended stabilization year. The optimal portfolio calls for using certain higher methane-emitting technologies prior to an optimal switching year, followed by methane-light technologies as the stabilization year approac...

Roy, Mandira; Trancik, Jessika E

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Making Global Illumination User Friendly  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Making Global Illumination User Friendly Making Global Illumination User Friendly Title Making Global Illumination User Friendly Publication Type Conference Paper LBNL Report Number LBL-37860 Year of Publication 1995 Authors Ward, Gregory J. Conference Name 6th Eurographics Workshop on Rendering Date Published 06/1995 Conference Location Dublin, Ireland Call Number LBL-37860 Abstract Global illumination researchers tend to think in terms of mesh density and sampling frequency, and their software reflects this in its user interface. Advanced rendering systems are rife with long command lines and parameters for tuning the sample densities, thresholds and other algorithm-specific variables, and the novice user is quickly lost in a sea of possibilities. This paper details a successful effort of making one such global illumination system usable by people who understand their problems, even if they do not understand the methods needed to solve them, through an assisted oracle approach. A single program is introduced to map a small set of intuitive control variables to the rendering commands and parameter settings needed to produce the desired output in a reasonable time. This new executive program then serves as the basis for a graphical user interface that is both friendly in its appearance and reliable in its performance. Finally, we conclude with some future directions for improving this interface.

455

Shrinking Global Population: A futuristic scenario  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

global population it will not be a game-changer. #12;Measures for changes in total births 1. TotalShrinking Global Population: A futuristic scenario or a current challenge. Hillel Bar of RSAI - Atlanta November 15, 2013 #12;The evolution of global population Year Global Population

Nagurney, Anna

456

PRINT ONLY: GLOBAL WARMING Alexeev V. A.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PRINT ONLY: GLOBAL WARMING Alexeev V. A. Global Warming: 0.6°C or Less? [#1035] The peculiarities of global warming on the Earth during the last century are discussed. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVIII (2007) full818.pdf #12;GLOBAL WARMING: 0.6 OR LESS? V.A.Alexeev; Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry

Rathbun, Julie A.

457

Case Study #1 "The Global Warming Debate"  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CHEM 001A Case Study #1 "The Global Warming Debate" Global warming is one of the most contentious issues of our time. There is an ongoing debate about whether global warming is caused by human activity.S., and because the scientific evidence used to determine if global warming is man-made is so difficult

Reed, Christopher A.

458

Global Scratch File System at NERSC  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Scratch Scratch Global Scratch File System Overview The global scratch file system (or "global scratch") can be accessed by multiple NERSC systems. Its default quota is much larger than the Global Home quota, so it can be used to temporarily store large amounts of data. This file system is periodically purged. Platforms Using Global Scratch The global scratch file system is available on all NERSC systems except PDSF. Quotas Default global scratch quotas are 20 TB and 2,000,000 inodes. If you need more than that, fill out the Disk Quota Change Request Form. Purging Yes, files in global scratch file system are subject to purging. Backup No, Files in global scratch file system are not backed up. Environment Variable You can reference your personal scratch directory in global scratch as

459

Relevance of Bose-Einstein condensation to the interference of two independent Bose gases  

SciTech Connect

Interference of two independently prepared ideal Bose gases is discussed, on the basis of the idea of measurement-induced interference. It is known that, even if the number of atoms in each gas is individually fixed finite and the symmetry of the system is not broken, an interference pattern is observed on each single snapshot. The key role is played by the Hanbury Brown and Twiss effect, which leads to an oscillating pattern of the cloud of identical atoms. Then, how essential is the Bose-Einstein condensation to the interference? In this work, we describe two ideal Bose gases trapped in two separate three-dimensional harmonic traps at a finite temperature T, using the canonical ensembles (with fixed numbers of atoms). We compute the full statistics of the snapshot profiles of the expanding and overlapping gases released from the traps. We obtain a simple formula valid for finite T, which shows that the average fringe spectrum (average fringe contrast) is given by the purity of each gas. The purity is known to be a good measure of condensation, and the formula clarifies the relevance of the condensation to the interference. The results for T=0, previously known in the literature, can be recovered from our analysis. The fluctuation of the interference spectrum is also studied, and it is shown that the fluctuation is vanishingly small only below the critical temperature T{sub c}, meaning that interference pattern is certainly observed on every snapshot below T{sub c}. The fact that the number of atoms is fixed in the canonical ensemble is crucial to this vanishing fluctuation.

Iazzi, Mauro [International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), via Beirut 2-4, I-34014 Trieste (Italy); Yuasa, Kazuya [Waseda Institute for Advanced Study, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8050 (Japan)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

460

Relevance of Bose-Einstein condensation to the interference of two independent Bose gases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Interference of two independently prepared ideal Bose gases is discussed, on the basis of the idea of measurement-induced interference. It is known that, even if the number of atoms in each gas is individually fixed finite and the symmetry of the system is not broken, an interference pattern is observed on each single snapshot. The key role is played by the Hanbury Brown and Twiss effect, which leads to an oscillating pattern of the cloud of identical atoms. Then, how essential is the Bose-Einstein condensation to the interference? In this work, we describe two ideal Bose gases trapped in two separate three-dimensional harmonic traps at a finite temperature T, using the canonical ensembles (with fixed numbers of atoms). We compute the full statistics of the snapshot profiles of the expanding and overlapping gases released from the traps. We obtain a simple formula valid for finite T, which shows that the average fringe spectrum (average fringe contrast) is given by the purity of each gas. The purity is known to be a good measure of condensation, and the formula clarifies the relevance of the condensation to the interference. The results for T=0, previously known in the literature, can be recovered from our analysis. The fluctuation of the interference spectrum is also studied, and it is shown that the fluctuation is vanishingly small only below the critical temperature Tc, meaning that interference pattern is certainly observed on every snapshot below Tc. The fact that the number of atoms is fixed in the canonical ensemble is crucial to this vanishing fluctuation.

Mauro Iazzi and Kazuya Yuasa

2011-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gases gwp global" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Shear viscosity and spin sum rules in strongly interacting Fermi gases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fermi gases with short-range interactions are ubiquitous in ultracold atomic systems. In the absence of spin-flipping processes the number of atoms in each spin species is conserved separately, and we discuss the associated Ward identities. For contact interactions the spin conductivity spectral function sigma_s(omega) has universal power-law tails at high frequency. We derive the spin f-sum rule and show that it is not affected by these tails in dviscosity spectral function eta(omega) has universal tails; in contrast they modify the viscosity sum rule in a characteristic way.

Tilman Enss

2012-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

462

Finite-temperature phase transitions in quasi-two-dimensional spin-1 Bose gases  

SciTech Connect

Recently, the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition was found to be mediated by half-quantum vortices (HQVs) in two-dimensional (2D) antiferromagnetic Bose gases [S. Mukerjee, C. Xu, and J. E. Moore, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 120406 (2006)]. We study the thermal activation of HQVs in the experimentally relevant trapped quasi-2D system and find a crossover temperature at which free HQVs proliferate at the center of the trap. Above the crossover temperature, we observe transitions corresponding to the onset of a coherent condensate and a quasicondensate and discuss the absence of a fragmented condensate.

Pietilae, Ville [Department of Applied Physics/COMP, Aalto University, Post Office Box 15100, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Quantum Computer Technology, School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia); Simula, Tapio P. [Department of Physics, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); School of Physics, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Moettoenen, Mikko [Department of Applied Physics/COMP, Aalto University, Post Office Box 15100, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Quantum Computer Technology, School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia); Low Temperature Laboratory, Aalto University, Post Office Box 13500, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland)

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

463

Separation of rare gases and chiral molecules by selective binding in porous organic cages  

SciTech Connect

Abstract: The rare gases krypton, xenon, and radon pose both an economic opportunity and a potential environmental hazard. Xenon is used in commercial lighting, medical imaging, and anesthesia, and can sell for $5,000 per kilogram. Radon, by contrast, Is naturally radioactive and the second largest cause of lung cancer, and radioactive xenon, 133Xe, was a major pollutant released In the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant disaster. We describe an organic cage molecule that can capture xenon and radon with unprecedented selectivity, suggesting new technologies for environmental monitoring, removal of pollutants, or the recovery of rare, valuable elements from air.

Chen, Linjiang; Reiss, Paul S.; Chong, Samantha Y.; Holden, Daniel; Jelfs, Kim E.; Hasell, Tom; Little, Marc A.; Kewley, Adam; Briggs, Michael E.; Stephenson, Andrew; Thomas, K. M.; Armstrong, Jayne A.; Bell, Jon; Busto, Jose; Noel, Raymond; Liu, Jian; Strachan, Denis M.; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Cooper, Andrew I.

2014-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

464

Critical behavior of two freely evolving granular gases separated by an adiabatic piston  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Two granular gases separated by an adiabatic piston and initially in the same macroscopic state are considered. It is found that a phase transition with an spontaneous symmetry breaking occurs. When the mass of the piston is increased beyond a critical value, the piston moves to a stationary position different from the middle of the system. The transition is accurately described by a simple kinetic model that takes into account the velocity fluctuations of the piston. Interestingly, the final state is not characterized by the equality of the temperatures of the subsystems but by the cooling rates being the same. Some relevant consequences of this feature are discussed.

J. Javier Brey; Nagi Khalil

2010-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

465

Overview of the Flammability of Gases Generated in Hanford Waste Tanks  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an overview of what is known about the flammability of the gases generated and retained in Hanford waste tanks in terms of the gas composition, the flammability and detonability limits of the gas constituents, and the availability of ignition sources. The intrinsic flammability (or nonflammability) of waste gas mixtures is one major determinant of whether a flammable region develops in the tank headspace; other factors are the rate, surface area, volume of the release, and the tank ventilation rate, which are not covered in this report.

LA Mahoney; JL Huckaby; SA Bryan; GD Johnson

2000-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

466

Global change: Acronyms and abbreviations  

SciTech Connect

This list of acronyms and abbreviations is compiled to provide the user with a ready reference to dicipher the linguistic initialisms and abridgements for the study of global change. The terms included in this first edition were selected from a wide variety of sources: technical reports, policy documents, global change program announcements, newsletters, and other periodicals. The disciplinary interests covered by this document include agriculture, atmospheric science, ecology, environmental science, oceanography, policy science, and other fields. In addition to its availability in hard copy, the list of acronyms and abbreviations is available in DOS-formatted diskettes and through CDIAC`s anonymous File Transfer Protocol (FTP) area on the Internet.

Woodard, C.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Stoss, F.W. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Global Health Leadership and Management  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...obvious and do not build particularly well on Foege's excellent foundation perhaps understandably, because this book charts truly new territory. It must have been difficult to organize such an army of prominent explorers and to keep them marching in the same direction. Editing the book must have been... It is a welcome breath of fresh air to read William H. Foege's preface to Global Health Leadership and Management. He zeroes in on the looming crisis in global public health with a tiger's instinct for the jugular vein. Bridging the huge gap between the ...

MacWilliams K.E.

2005-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

468

Global warming: A Northwest perspective  

SciTech Connect

The Northwest Power Planning Council convened a symposium in Olympia, Washington, on the subject of global climate change ( the greenhouse effect'') and its potential for affecting the Pacific Northwest. The symposium was organized in response to a need by the Power Council to understand global climate change and its potential impacts on resource planning and fish and wildlife planning for the region, as well as a need to understand national policy developing toward climate change and the Pacific Northwest's role in it. 40 figs., 15 tabs.

Scott, M.J.; Counts, C.A. (eds.)

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Mapping the global digital divide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The global digital divide as a concept is intuitively understood by most academicians, politicians and public policy makers. However, to date little empirical work exists to explain differences in per country access to information and communication technologies (ICTs). The research that does exist places heavy influence on the impact of country wealth, as measured by gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, on the diffusion of ICTs. While GDP per capita certainly influences the diffusion of ICTs within a country, it is not the sole determinant of a country's location versus other countries vis-a-vis the global digital divide. To investigate and map the global digital divide, as it currently exists, the authors utilise model-based cluster analysis to determine cohorts of countries based on three variables: personal computers per 100 population, internet users per 100 population and internet bandwidth per person. The results indicate that the global digital divide consists of four tiers. And although all of the developed countries are included in the first tier, some surprising results are obtained. Implications of the results are discussed and directions for future research are provided.

D. Steven White; Angappa Gunasekaran; Timothy P. Shea; Godwin C. Ariguzo

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Conservation and Global Climate Change  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

V.6 Conservation and Global Climate Change Diane M. Debinski and Molly S. Cross OUTLINE 1. Introduction 2. How climate is changing 3. Environmental responses to climate change 4. Consequences of climate the coming decades will be preserving biodiversity in the face of climate change. It has become increasingly

Landweber, Laura

471

On globally Symmetric Finsler spaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The paper consider the symmetric of Finsler spaces. We give some conditions about globally symmetric Finsler spaces. Then we prove that these spaces can be written as a coset space of Lie group with an invariant Finsler metric. Finally, we prove that such a space must be Berwaldian

Khatamy, R Chavosh

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Workshop report Impact of Global  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with an emphasis on low-to-middle-income countries 21­23 March 2012 Wellcome Trust, London #12;IMPACT OF GLOBALWorkshop report Impact of Global Environmental Change on Food/Nutrition and Water in Relation ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE ON FOOD/NUTRITION AND WATER IN RELATION TO HUMAN HEALTH 21­23 March 2012 Wellcome Trust

Rambaut, Andrew

473

Cambio global y polucin atmosfrica  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

pollution and forest ecosystems Atmospheric pollution is referred as a component of global change. The role on the interaction between pollution and climate change. Key words: atmospheric pollution, acidic rain, anatomical anatómicos y fisiológicos, micorrizas, recursos ge- néticos, masas forestales españolas. Abstract Atmospheric

Espigares, Tíscar

474

Federal Offshore--Gulf of Mexico Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2008 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2011 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 2012 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

475

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Section 1605 Text  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Section 1605 Text Section 1605 Text Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Section 1605 Text Energy Policy Act of 1992 [Full Text] (a) NATIONAL INVENTORY.- Not later than 18 months after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary, through the Energy Information Administration, shall develop, based on data available to, and obtained by, the Energy Information Administration, an inventory of the national aggregate emissions of each greenhouse gas for each calendar year of the baseline period of 1987 through 1990. The Administrator of the Energy Information Administration shall annually update and analyze such inventory using available data. This subsection does not provide any new data collection authority. (b) VOLUNTARY REPORTING.- (1) ISSUANCE OF GUIDELINES.-Not later than 18 months after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall, after opportunity for public comment, issue guidelines for the voluntary collection and reporting of information on sources of greenhouse gases. Such guidelines shall establish procedures for the accurate voluntary reporting of information on-

476

Hollow cathode cold atmospheric plasma source with monoatomic and molecular gases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Performance of the radio frequency (r.f.) hollow cathode at atmospheric pressure was tested for neon, argon, nitrogen and air. A non-equilibrium (cold) atmospheric plasma was generated in the gas flowing through the cathode. The electrode system was installed in a chamber open to ambient atmosphere. Two r.f. frequencies 13.56 and 27.12 \\{MHz\\} were compared. Similarly to the low pressure hollow cathodes the higher frequency was found to be more suitable for all tested gases, due to a lower minimum r.f. voltage and related power for ignition and sustaining a stable plasma. The fused hollow cathode (FHC) source produces a stable and uniform plasma over large area in monoatomic gases, suitable for surface treatment of temperature sensitive materials, for cleaning and surface activation applications. However, a substantial difference was found in discharge performance when using a molecular gas. An optimization of the impedance matching network enabled generation of a stable cold plasma at r.f. powers below 50 W in both air and nitrogen. Possibilities of a stable uniform air (or nitrogen) plasma generation over large areas by the FHC sources are discussed, too.

H Barnkov; L Brdo

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Spectroscopic Diagnostics of Barrier Discharge Plasmas in Mixtures of Zinc Diiodide with Inert Gases  

SciTech Connect

The spectral characteristics of the emission of gas discharge atmospheric pressure plasmas in mixtures of zinc diiodide vapor with inert gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe) are investigated. The formation of a gas discharge plasma and the excitation of the components of a working mixture were performed in a high-frequency (with a repetition frequency of sinusoidal voltage pulses of 100 kHz) barrier discharge. The gas discharge emission was analyzed in the spectral range 200-900 nm with a resolution of 0.05 nm. Emission bands of ZnI(B-X) exciplex molecules and I*{sub 2} excimer molecules, lines of inert gases, and emission bands of XeI* exciplex molecules (in Xe-containing mixtures) were revealed. It is ascertained that the strongest emission of ZnI* molecules is observed in ZnI{sub 2}/He(Ne) mixtures. The regularities in the spectral characteristics of the gas discharge plasma emission are considered.

Guivan, N.N.; Malinin, A.N. [Uzhgorod National University, Uzhgorod, 88000 (Ukraine)

2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

478

Global Health: Mental Health and the Global Agenda  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

When the World Health Organization (WHO) European Ministerial Conference on Mental Health endorsed the statement "No health without mental health" in 2005, it spoke to the intrinsic and indispensable role of mental health care in health care writ large. Yet mental health has long been treated... This article reviews the impact of mental health on overall health on a global level. The authors suggest changes that could lead to improved identification and treatment of mental illness in countries with limited resources.

Becker A.E.; Kleinman A.

2013-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

479

ARCS FOUNDATION GLOBAL IMPACT AWARD Global Health, Public Good and Graduate Education  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ARCS FOUNDATION GLOBAL IMPACT AWARD Global Health, Public Good and Graduate Education Case Foundation Awards Luncheon in Atlanta on November 20, 2014. #12;Application Materials: 1) A letter

Arnold, Jonathan

480

Improved 3-omega measurement of thermal conductivity in liquid, gases, and powders using a metal-coated optical fiber  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A novel 3?thermal conductivitymeasurement technique called metal-coated 3? is introduced for use with liquids gases powders and aerogels. This technique employs a micron-scale metal-coated glass fiber as a heater/thermometer that is suspended within the sample. Metal-coated 3? exceeds alternate 3? based fluid sensing techniques in a number of key metrics enabling rapid measurements of small samples of materials with very low thermal effusivity (gases) using smaller temperature oscillations with lower parasitic conduction losses. Its advantages relative to existing fluid measurement techniques including transient hot-wire steady-state methods and solid-wire 3? are discussed. A generalized n-layer concentric cylindrical periodic heating solution that accounts for thermal boundary resistance is presented. Improved sensitivity to boundary conductance is recognized through this model. Metal-coated 3? was successfully validated through a benchmark study of gases and liquids spanning two-orders of magnitude in thermal conductivity.

Scott N. Schiffres; Jonathan A. Malen

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gases gwp global" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

On the ratio of the shear viscosity to the density of entropy of the rare gases and , and  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The ratio ? of the shear viscosity ? to the volume density of entropy s , ? = ? / s , of the rare gases He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe and the molecules H 2 , N 2 , CH 4 , and CF 4 is studied in the critical region. It is shown that the minimum value ? m of ? / s is observed in the vicinity of the critical point. In addition the universal inequality ? ? ? / ( 4 ? k ) proposed by Kovtun, Son, and Starinets [Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 (2005) 111601] holds for these gases. For the rare gases and 6Li ? m depends linearly on m 1 / 2 ? 2 , where m is the mass and ? defined via the potential energy function as U ( ? ) = 0 . ? m of the molecules H 2 , N 2 , CH 4 , and CF 4 falls on the same straight line provided that the vibrational and rotational contributions to the entropy density s are removed.

U. Hohm

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Institutionalizing Unsustainability: The Paradox of Global Climate Governance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

pide tener en cuenta las emisiones per cpita para calcularapuesta por reducir las emisiones aunque no se apruebe el2008. Evolucin de las emisiones de gases de efecto

Stevenson, Hayley

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Science as Art: Materials Characterization Art | GE Global Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

bamboo plant to grow. A porous "composite" structure as seen in the image would help in engineering structural materials capable of carrying fluids or gases internally." However,...

484

Emissions of trace gases and aerosols during the open combustion of biomass  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Emissions of trace gases and aerosols during the open combustion of biomass Emissions of trace gases and aerosols during the open combustion of biomass in the laboratory Title Emissions of trace gases and aerosols during the open combustion of biomass in the laboratory Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2009 Authors McMeeking, Gavin R., Sonia M. Kreidenweis, Stephen Baker, Christian M. Carrico, Judith C. Chow, Jeffrey Collett L. Jr., Wei Min Hao, Amanda S. Holden, Thomas W. Kirchstetter, William C. Malm, Hans Moosmuller, Amy P. Sullivan, and Cyle E. Wold Journal Journal of Geophysical Research Volume 114 Abstract We characterized the gas- and speciated aerosol-phase emissions from the open combustion of 33 different plant species during a series of 255 controlled laboratory burns during the Fire Laboratory at Missoula Experiments (FLAME). The plant species we tested were chosen to improve the existing database for U.S. domestic fuels: laboratory-based emission factors have not previously been reported for many commonly burned species that are frequently consumed by fires near populated regions and protected scenic areas. The plants we tested included the chaparral species chamise, manzanita, and ceanothus, and species common to the southeastern United States (common reed, hickory, kudzu, needlegrass rush, rhododendron, cord grass, sawgrass, titi, and wax myrtle). Fire-integrated emission factors for gas-phase CO2, CO, CH4, C2-4 hydrocarbons, NH3, SO2, NO, NO2, HNO3, and particle-phase organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), SO4 2, NO3, Cl, Na+, K+, and NH4 + generally varied with both fuel type and with the fire-integrated modified combustion efficiency (MCE), a measure of the relative importance of flaming- and smoldering-phase combustion to the total emissions during the burn. Chaparral fuels tended to emit less particulate OC per unit mass of dry fuel than did other fuel types, whereas southeastern species had some of the largest observed emission factors for total fine particulate matter. Our measurements spanned a larger range of MCE than prior studies, and thus help to improve estimates of the variation of emissions with combustion conditions for individual fuels.

485

Momentum-resolved study of an array of one-dimensional strongly phase-fluctuating Bose gases  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the coherence properties of an array of one-dimensional Bose gases with short-scale phase fluctuations. The momentum distribution is measured using Bragg spectroscopy, and an effective coherence length of the whole ensemble is defined. In addition, we propose and demonstrate that time-of-flight absorption imaging can be used as a simple probe to directly measure the coherence length of one-dimensional gases in the regime where phase fluctuations are strong. This method is suitable for future studies such as investigating the effect of disorder on the phase coherence.

Fabbri, N.; Clement, D.; Fallani, L.; Inguscio, M. [European Laboratory for Non linear Spectroscopy (LENS) and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Firenze, and Istituto Nazionale di Ottica (INO-CNR), Sezione Sesto Fiorentino, via N. Carrara 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Fort, C. [European Laboratory for Non linear Spectroscopy (LENS) and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Firenze, and Istituto Nazionale di Ottica (INO-CNR), Sezione Sesto Fiorentino, via N. Carrara 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Scienze Fisiche della Materia UdR di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

486

Global  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

complimentary copy. Redistribution subject to AIP license or copyright, see http:php.aip.orgphpcopyright.jsp rent sheet, 22 and a study of the formation, stability, and...

487

global horizontal | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

87 87 Varnish cache server Browse Upload data GDR 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load) Throttled (bot load) Guru Meditation: XID: 2142278787 Varnish cache server global horizontal Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Documentation of the satellite-based high resolution solar resource assessment for Ghana provided by DLR. The high resolution solar data (10kmx10km) provide country maps of the annual and monthly sums of hourly global horizontal and direct normal irradiance (GHI and DNI) for the year 2000, 2001 and 2002. Additionally, for selected sites hourly values of GHI and DNI are provided.The Documentation gives an overview about the used input data and used methodology, shows example maps and describes a comparison with ground data (if provided by the country)

488

Global nuclear-structure calculations  

SciTech Connect

The revival of interest in nuclear ground-state octupole deformations that occurred in the 1980's was stimulated by observations in 1980 of particularly large deviations between calculated and experimental masses in the Ra region, in a global calculation of nuclear ground-state masses. By minimizing the total potential energy with respect to octupole shape degrees of freedom in addition to {epsilon}{sub 2} and {epsilon}{sub 4} used originally, a vastly improved agreement between calculated and experimental masses was obtained. To study the global behavior and interrelationships between other nuclear properties, we calculate nuclear ground-state masses, spins, pairing gaps and {Beta}-decay and half-lives and compare the results to experimental qualities. The calculations are based on the macroscopic-microscopic approach, with the microscopic contributions calculated in a folded-Yukawa single-particle potential.

Moeller, P.; Nix, J.R.

1990-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

489

Global Change Research Act of 1990  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Global Change Research Act of 1990 Print E-mail Global Change Research Act of 1990 Print E-mail The U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) was established by Presidential initiative in 1989 and mandated by Congress in the Global Change Research Act (GCRA) of 1990 in order to "assist the nation and the world to understand, assess, predict, and respond to human-induced and natural processes of global change." In consultation with White House officials and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research (SGCR), USGCRP's Executive Director ensures that the Program meets all mandated requirements which are summarized in the table below. Global Change Research Act of 1990 Requirements Please click on the buttons below for further details about the Global Change Research Act of 1990. Public Law 101-606(11/16/90) 104 Stat. 3096-3104

490

Ireland's Global University MSc World Heritage Conservation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for conservation · Cultural heritage, sustainable development and diversity · Global biodiversity and heritageIreland's Global University MSc World Heritage Conservation (Three Years Part Time) (Online facing conservation challenges, there is a growing need for professionals who understand how

491

Reflected Knowledge and Trust in Global Collaboration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Scholars argue that direct knowledge about distant colleagues is crucial for fostering trust in global collaboration. However, their arguments focus mainly on how trust accrues from knowledge about distant collaborators' personal characteristics, relationships, ... Keywords: behavior, global work, organizational studies, trust

Mark Mortensen; Tsedal B. Neeley

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Re-embedding the global soul  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis proposes to "re-embed" the "global nomad" into the context of an increasingly globalized world at the room scale. I define re-embedding as the "plugging in" of social relationships to local contexts and their ...

Wang, Joy (Joy Yuk-Hwa), 1975-

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Notes on global climate and ocean currents  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The problems related to the role of both natural and anthropogenic factors in global climate change are considered. The role of ocean circulation in the Earths global thermodynamic processes is qualitatively ...

R. I. Nigmatulin

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

Terra Solar Global Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Global Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Terra Solar Global Inc Place: New York, New York Zip: 10111-2000 Product: US-based manufacturer of amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin-film...

495

"How Can the WTO Help Harness Globalization?"  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

"How Can the WTO Help Harness Globalization?" "How Can the WTO Help Harness Globalization?" Public ForumPublic Forum WTOWTO20072007 4-5 October 20074-5 October 2007 #12;"How Can the WTO Help Harness

496

Merck Global Energy Management Program  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MERCK GLOBAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Keith Williams, Merck & Co., Inc. Company: Merck & Co., Inc. Category: Energy Efficiency Program ? Corporate In April 2000, Merck & Co., Inc. launched its comprehensive program to reduce energy... automation system (BAS) management, insulation programs, employee awareness, and implementation of best practices. MERIT set an aggressive target of 3.5% savings over 2003 consumption and expects to achieve a 4.37 percent savings in 2004. The major...

Williams, K.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

5 - Consequences of Global Warming  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This chapter looks at different areas of risk associated with the onset of global warming. The first risk area refers to pathogens and diseases. We first discuss perspectives on disease spread, and focus on the role played by globalization and the current livestock revolution strongly affected by large-scale processes of urbanization. We then discuss zoonoses, or diseases that are passed between humans and other animals, and identify 11 kinds of zoonoses associated with global warming. Although not a zoonose, malaria is also discussed. Patterns of transmission associated with warming tend to be poleward, and small changes in temperature can produce large changes in disease vectors to higher latitudes. A brief presentation of the history of malaria shows how it has had a substantial effect on conflicts in the past, particularly the US Civil War (18611865) and World War I. It has been famously suggested that World War I ended because of the spread of Swine Flu, decimating the Axis troops and rendering many units unable to continue fighting. AIDS is presented as a contemporary example of the way in which diseases can profoundly undermine the capacity of a country to provide security and state leadership, and undercut international peacekeeping activities.

John P. Crank; Linda S. Jacoby

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Bayesian method for global optimization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We introduce a Bayesian approach for obtaining the global optimum of multimodal functions. The set of observed minima of a multimodal function is viewed as a sample from a multinomial distribution, whose cells correspond to the basins of attraction of the local optima. We then derive the posterior distribution of the number of local optima. This posterior information is obtained from a Bayesian analysis and is used to construct a stopping criterion for a sequential random search method which finds the optimal tradeoff between reliability and computational effort. The computational complexity of this global optimization method is a strong function of the total number of local optima and a weak function of the dimensions of the configuration space. Application to four classical problems from the global optimization literature, a bifunctional catalytic reactor problem, and the conformation problem of Lennard-Jones microclusters is demonstrated. Comparisons with the Bayesian method of Boender and Rinooy Kan [Math. Program. 37, 59 (1987)] and the simulated annealing method of Dekkers and Aarts [Math. Program. 50, 367 (1991)] are provided and, in each case, the computational complexity of our method is shown to be smaller than that of these methods.

Prasana K. Venkatesh; Morrel H. Cohen; Robert W. Carr; Anthony M. Dean

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

Increasing Global Renewable Energy Market Share  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Increasing Global Renewable Energy Market Share: Recent Trends and Perspectives Final Report..............................................................................................................................12 2.2 Bioenergy

Peinke, Joachim

500

Promoting Sustainability on a Global Scale  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Promoting Sustainability on a Global Scale Martina Otto, Head of the Policy Unit, United Nations Environment Programme