National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for gases ethane propane

  1. Effect of catalyst structure on oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane and propane on alumina-supported vanadia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Argyle, Morris D.; Chen, Kaidong; Bell, Alexis T.; Iglesia, Enrique

    2001-01-01

    catalysts: (a) ethane ODH, (b) propane ODH (663 K, 14 kPa CDehydrogenation of Ethane and Propane on Alumina-Supporteddehydrogenation of ethane and propane. UV-visible and Raman

  2. Effect of catalyst structure on oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane and propane on alumina-supported vanadia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Argyle, Morris D.; Chen, Kaidong; Bell, Alexis T.; Iglesia, Enrique

    2001-01-01

    h) Figure 3. Example of ethane ODH (a) reaction rates and (x /Al 2 O 3 catalysts: (a) ethane ODH, (b) propane ODH (663Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Ethane and Propane on Alumina-

  3. Marine microbes rapidly adapt to consume ethane, propane, and butane within the dissolved hydrocarbon plume of a natural seep

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    oxi- dation of methane, ethane, propane and butane, Geochim.variability and air-sea ?ux of ethane and propane in thecation of novel methane-, ethane-, and propane-oxidizing

  4. Author's personal copy Unified behaviour of maximum soot yields of methane, ethane and propane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gülder, Ömer L.

    Author's personal copy Unified behaviour of maximum soot yields of methane, ethane and propane the current study and the previous measurements in similar flames with methane, ethane, and propane flames

  5. Selective adsorption of ethylene over ethane and propylene over propane in the metalorganic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selective adsorption of ethylene over ethane and propylene over propane in the metal in the energy costs associated with the cryogenic separation of ethylene­ethane and propylene­propane mixtures adsorption data for ethylene, ethane, propylene, and propane at 45, 60, and 80 C for the entire series

  6. Novel Methane, Ethane, and Propane Oxidizing Bacteria at Marine Hydrocarbon Seeps Identified by Stable Isotope Probing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sessions, Alex L.

    Novel Methane, Ethane, and Propane Oxidizing Bacteria at Marine Hydrocarbon Seeps Identified by Stable Isotope Probing Running Title: Novel Methane, Ethane, and Propane Oxidizing Bacteria Section incubating sediment with 13 C-labeled methane, ethane, or propane, we5 confirmed the incorporation of 13 C

  7. Marine microbes rapidly adapt to consume ethane, propane, and butane within the dissolved hydrocarbon plume of a natural seep

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mendes, SD; Redmond, MC; Voigritter, K; Perez, C; Scarlett, R; Valentine, DL

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial oxidation of propane, FEMS Microbiol. Lett. , 122(oxi- dation of methane, ethane, propane and butane, Geochim.air-sea ?ux of ethane and propane in the plume of a large,

  8. Molecular Properties of the "Ideal" Inhaled Anesthetic: Studies of Fluorinated Methanes, Ethanes, Propanes,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudlicky, Tomas

    , Propanes, and Butanes E. 1Eger, 11, MD*, J. Liu, MD*, D. D. Koblin, PhD, MDt, M. J. Laster, DVM*, S. Taheri unfluorinated, partially fluorinated, and perfluorinated methanes, ethanes, propanes, and butanes to define fluorinated methanes, ethanes, propanes, and butanes, also obtaining limited data on longer- chained alkanes

  9. Novel Pt/Mg(In)(Al)O catalysts for ethane and propane dehydrogenation Pingping Sun a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    Novel Pt/Mg(In)(Al)O catalysts for ethane and propane dehydrogenation Pingping Sun a , Georges and propane dehydrogenation reactions are strongly dependent on the bulk In/Pt ratio. For both reactants to alkene was nearly 100%. Coke deposition was observed after catalyst use for either ethane or propane

  10. Availability of Canadian imports to meet U.S. demand for ethane, propane and butane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hawkins, D.J.

    1996-12-31

    Historically, Canada has had a surplus of ethane, propane and butane. Almost all of the available propane and butane in Canadian natural gas streams is recovered. While there is significant ethane recovery in Canada, ethane that cannot be economically sold is left in the gas streams. All of the surplus Canadian ethane and most of the Canadian surplus propane and butane is exported to the US. Some volumes of Canadian propane and butane have been moved offshore by marine exports to the Asia-Pacific region or South America, or directly to Mexico by rail. Essentially all of the Canadian ethane, 86% of the propane and 74% of the butane are recovered by gas processing. Canadian natural gas production has increased significantly over the last 10 years. Canadian gas resources in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin should permit further expansion of gas exports, and several gas pipeline projects are pending to expand the markets for Canadian gas in the US. The prospective increase in Canadian gas production will yield higher volumes of ethane, propane and butane. While there is a potential to expand domestic markets for ethane, propane and butane, a significant part of the incremental production will move to export markets. This paper provides a forecast of the expected level of ethane, propane and butane exports from Canada and discusses the supply, demand and logistical developments which may affect export availability from Canada.

  11. J. Am. Chem. SOC.1988, 110, 8305-8319 8305 Hydrogenolysis of Ethane, Propane, n-Butane, and Neopentane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Wayne

    J. Am. Chem. SOC.1988, 110, 8305-8319 8305 Hydrogenolysis of Ethane, Propane, n, Pasadena, California 91125. Received February I, 1988 Abstract: The hydrogenolysisof ethane, propane, n for ethane, propane, and neopentane involvesthe cleavage of a single carbon-carbon bond, resulting

  12. Marine microbes rapidly adapt to consume ethane, propane, and butane within the dissolved hydrocarbon plume of a natural seep

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mendes, SD; Redmond, MC; Voigritter, K; Perez, C; Scarlett, R; Valentine, DL

    2015-01-01

    Arp, D. J. (1999), Butane metabolismby butane-grown ‘Pseudomonas butanovora’, Microbiology, 145(ethane, propane and butane, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 71,

  13. Novel Pt/Mg(In)(Al)O catalysts for ethane and propane dehydrogenation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Pingping; Siddiqi, Georges; Vining, William C.; Chi, Miaofang; Bell, Alexis T.

    2011-10-28

    Catalysts for the dehydrogenation of light alkanes were prepared by dispersing Pt on the surface of a calcined hydrotalcite-like support containing indium, Mg(In)(Al)O. Upon reduction in H{sub 2} at temperatures above 673 K, bimetallic particles of PtIn are observed by TEM, which have an average diameter of 1 nm. Analysis of Pt LIII-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) data shows that the In content of the bimetallic particles increases with increasing bulk In/Pt ratio and reduction temperature. Pt LIII-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) indicates that an increasing donation of electronic charge from In to Pt occurs with increasing In content in the PtIn particles. The activity and selectivity of the Pt/Mg(In)(Al)O catalysts for ethane and propane dehydrogenation reactions are strongly dependent on the bulk In/Pt ratio. For both reactants, maximum activity was achieved for a bulk In/Pt ratio of 0.48, and at this In/Pt ratio, the selectivity to alkene was nearly 100%. Coke deposition was observed after catalyst use for either ethane or propane dehydrogenation, and it was observed that the alloying of Pt with In greatly reduced the amount of coke deposited. Characterization of the deposit by Raman spectroscopy indicates that the coke is present as highly disordered graphite particles <30 nm in diameter. While the amount of coke deposited during ethane and propane dehydrogenation are comparable, the effects on activity are dependent on reactant composition. Coke deposition had no effect on ethane dehydrogenation activity, but caused a loss in propane dehydrogenation activity. This difference is attributed to the greater ease with which coke produced on the surface of PtIn nanoparticles migrates to the support during ethane dehydrogenation versus propane dehydrogenation.

  14. Synergistic effect of mixing dimethyl ether with methane, ethane, propane, and ethylene fuels on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and soot formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, S.S.; Anh, D.H.; Chung, S.H.

    2008-08-15

    Characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and soot formation in counterflow diffusion flames of methane, ethane, propane, and ethylene fuels mixed with dimethyl ether (DME) have been investigated. Planar laser-induced incandescence and fluorescence techniques were employed to measure relative soot volume fractions and PAH concentrations, respectively. Results showed that even though DME is known to be a clean fuel in terms of soot formation, DME mixture with ethylene fuel increases PAH and soot formation significantly as compared to the pure ethylene case, while the mixture of DME with methane, ethane, and propane decreases PAH and soot formation. Numerical calculations adopting a detailed kinetics showed that DME can be decomposed to produce a relatively large number of methyl radicals in the low-temperature region where PAH forms and grows; thus the mixture of DME with ethylene increases CH{sub 3} radicals significantly in the PAH formation region. Considering that the increase in the concentration of O radicals is minimal in the PAH formation region with DME mixture, the enhancement of PAH and soot formation in the mixture flames of DME and ethylene can be explained based on the role of methyl radicals in PAH and soot formation. Methyl radicals can increase the concentration of propargyls, which could enhance incipient benzene ring formation through the propargyl recombination reaction and subsequent PAH growth. Thus, the result substantiates the importance of methyl radicals in PAH and soot formation, especially in the PAH formation region of diffusion flames. (author)

  15. Ignition of ethane, propane, and butane in counterflow jets of cold fuel versus hot air under variable pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fotache, C.G.; Wang, H.; Law, C.K.

    1999-06-01

    This study investigates experimentally the nonpremixed ignition of ethane, propane, n-butane, and isobutane in a configuration of opposed fuel versus heated air jets. For each of these fuels the authors explore the effects of inert dilution, system pressure, and flow strain rate, for fuel concentrations ranging between 3--100% by volume, pressures between 0.2 and 8 atm, and strain rates of 100--600 s{sup {minus}1}. Qualitatively, these fuels share a number of characteristics. First, flame ignition typically occurs after an interval of mild oxidation, characterized by minimal heat release, fuel conversion, and weak light emission. The temperature extent of this regime decreases with increasing the fuel concentration, the ambient pressure, or the flow residence time. Second, the response to strain rate, pressure, and fuel concentration is similar for all investigated fuels, in that the ignition temperatures monotonically decrease with increasing fuel content, decreasing flow strain, and increasing ambient pressure. The C{sub 4} alkanes, however, exhibit three distinct p-T ignition regimes, similar to the homogeneous explosion limits. Finally, at 1 atm, 100% fuel, and a fixed flow strain rate the ignition temperature increases in the order of ethane < propane < n-butane < i-butane. Numerical simulation was conducted for ethane ignition using detailed reaction kinetics and transport descriptions. The modeling results suggest that ignition for all fuels studied at pressures below 5 atm is initiated by fuel oxidation following the high-temperature mechanism of radical chain branching and with little contribution by low-to-intermediate temperature chemistry.

  16. Experimental and kinetic study of autoignition in methane/ethane/air and methane/propane/air mixtures under engine-relevant conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, J.; Bushe, W.K.

    2006-01-01

    The ignition delay of homogeneous methane/air mixtures enriched with small fractions of ethane/propane was measured using the reflected-shock technique at temperatures from 900 to 1400 K and pressures from 16 to 40 bar. The results show complex effects of ethane/propane on the ignition of methane, but a common trend observed with both hydrocarbons is an increased promotion effect for temperatures below 1100 K. A detailed kinetic mechanism was used to investigate the interaction between ethane/propane and the ignition chemistry of methane under the above conditions. It was found that at relatively low temperatures, the reactions between ethane/propane and methylperoxy (CH{sub 3}O{sub 2}) lead to an enhanced rate of formation of OH radicals in the initiation phase of the ignition. By systematically applying the quasi-steady-state assumptions to the intermediate species involved in the main reaction path identified, we have achieved an analytical description of the ignition process in the transitional temperature regime. The analytical solutions agree reasonably well with the detailed kinetic model and the experimental results for both ignition delay and concentrations of major intermediate species.

  17. Marine microbes rapidly adapt to consume ethane, propane, and butane within the dissolved hydrocarbon plume of a natural seep

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    Valentine (2015), Marine microbes rapidly adapt to consumeassess the timing by which microbes metabolize these gases,valentine@geol.ucsb.edu Marine microbes rapidly adapt to

  18. Feasibility of reconstructing paleoatmospheric records of selected alkanes, methyl halides, and sulfur gases from Greenland ice cores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aydin, M.; Williams, M. B; Saltzman, E. S

    2007-01-01

    study of ethane and propane oxidation in the tropo- sphere,alkanes (ethane, C 2 H 6 ; propane, C 3 H 8 ; n-butane, n-Cfluid contamination. 4.1.2. Propane [ 24 ] Propane levels in

  19. Microsoft PowerPoint - Joe Rose.Providence.Propane Supply Infrastruct...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    LLC. May 21, 2012. Appendix A Reversal of TEPPCO's line for ethane service (ATEX) Outage at Todhunter, OH Propane Storage Facility Growth in Priority Diluent Transportation *...

  20. Ethane enrichment and propane depletion in subsurface gases indicate gas hydrate occurrence in marine sediments at southern Hydrate Ridge offshore Oregon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milkov, Alexei V.; Claypool, G E.; Lee, Young-Joo; Torres, Marta E.; Borowski, W S.; Tomaru, H; Sassen, Roger; Long, Philip E.

    2004-07-02

    The recognition of finely disseminated gas hydrate in deep marine sediments heavily depends on various indirect techniques because this mineral quickly decomposes upon recovery from in situ pressure and temperature conditions. Here, we discuss molecular properties of closely spaced gas voids (formed as a result of core recovery) and gas hydrates from an area of relatively low gas flux at the flanks of the southern Hydrate Ridge Offshore Oregon (ODP Sites 1244, 1245 and 1247).

  1. Propane Basics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NREL

    2010-03-01

    Propane powers about 190,000 vehicles in the U.S. and more than 14 million worldwide. Propane vehicles are a good choice for many fleet applications including school buses, shuttle buses, taxies and light-duty trucks.

  2. The catalytic oxidation of propane and propylene with air: total aldehyde production and selectivity at low conversions. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Looney, Franklin Sittig

    1950-01-01

    ~ studies ware included The ~ar interest was ~ that of comparing ~ of oxcjdaticn, ~ (8) hells a patent for the method of introducing the ~o- carbon gas into a stream of hot Zine gas containing sufficient oxidiaing gas such 'as k method of sanufacturing... aldetydes from ethane and propane at ~ stares abcnrs six. ~ ~ centigrade over a ~ ~ surface has been patented bT Cmobs (7)~ The efTlnsat gases were scrubbed with water and the residue recyclsd~ 4 Tie1d of aldehyde of xdgh~ve par cent was re~ Tausch...

  3. Airborne measurement of OH reactivity during INTEX-B

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    plus OH sign), reactiv- propane ing different gases gases atisoprene (plus sign), propane (star) and propene (triangle).NMHC includes ethane, ethene, propane, propene, i-butane, n-

  4. ETHAN'S HOUSE GETS HEALTHIER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ETHAN'S HOUSE GETS HEALTHIER WithaVisitfromthe LeadPoisoningPreventionTeam #12;http and Prevention National Center for Environmental Health #12;Ethan's House Gets Healthier With a Visit from and Nikki Walker #12;Dr.HootN.OwltoldIrenethatherson,Ethan,hadleadin hisblood

  5. 9118 J. Am. Chem. SOC.1992, 114, 9118-9122 Propane Buwe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlegel, H. Bernhard

    9118 J. Am. Chem. SOC.1992, 114, 9118-9122 Scheme 111 Propane Buwe X =CHI and Y = H lossofH2 Z = H-82-8; ethane, 74- 84-0; propane, 74-98-6;butane, 106-97-8. (28) The heats of formation for C3H2are the scaled

  6. Propane update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets160Product: Total Crude OilPropane update

  7. Selective dehydrogenation of propane over novel catalytic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sault, A.G.; Boespflug, E.P.; Martino, A.; Kawola, J.S.

    1998-02-01

    The conversion of small alkanes into alkenes represents an important chemical processing area; ethylene and propylene are the two most important organic chemicals manufactured in the U.S. These chemicals are currently manufactured by steam cracking of ethane and propane, an extremely energy intensive, nonselective process. The development of catalytic technologies (e.g., selective dehydrogenation) that can be used to produce ethylene and propylene from ethane and propane with greater selectivity and lower energy consumption than steam cracking will have a major impact on the chemical processing industry. This report details a study of two novel catalytic materials for the selective dehydrogenation of propane: Cr supported on hydrous titanium oxide ion-exchangers, and Pt nanoparticles encapsulated in silica and alumina aerogel and xerogel matrices.

  8. Propane on Titan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. G. Roe; T. K. Greathouse; M. J. Richter; J. H. Lacy

    2003-09-23

    We present the first observations of propane (C$_3$H$_8$) on Titan that unambiguously resolve propane features from other numerous stratospheric emissions. This is accomplished using a $R=\\lambda/\\delta\\lambda\\approx10^5$ spectrometer (TEXES) to observe propane's $\

  9. Boreal forest fire emissions in fresh Canadian smoke plumes: C1-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO2, CO, NO2, NO, HCN and CH3CN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    propene, acetone, benzene, propane and ?-pinene (Table 1).cyanide Acetonitrile Ethane Propane i-Butane n-Butane i-= Ethane Ethane Ethane Ethane Propane Propane Propane ARCTAS

  10. Nationwide: Southeast Propane Autogas Development Program Brings...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Southeast Propane Autogas Development Program Brings 1200 Propane Vehicles to the Road Nationwide: Southeast Propane Autogas Development Program Brings 1200 Propane Vehicles to the...

  11. Liquid Propane Injection Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Liquid propane injection technology meets manufacturing/assembly guidelines, maintenance/repair strategy, and regulations, with same functionality, horsepower, and torque as gasoline counterpart.

  12. Using bardposter.sty Ethan Bloch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bloch, Ethan

    Using bardposter.sty Ethan Bloch with help from Todd Johnson March 7, 2014 Contents 1 Introduction a poster are discussed here. The file "bardposter.sty" can be obtained from Ethan Bloch (bloch

  13. FUNDAMENTAL GROUPS AND COVERING SPACES ETHAN JERZAK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    May, J. Peter

    FUNDAMENTAL GROUPS AND COVERING SPACES ETHAN JERZAK Abstract. In this paper, I will briefly develop) Date: August 22, 2008. 1 #12;2 ETHAN JERZAK the structure of a group; the constant loop is the identity

  14. Distinguishing and understanding thermogenic and biogenic sources of methane using multiply substituted isotopologues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    Doubly C-substituted ethane in shale gases, Goldschmidtoxidation of methane, ethane, propane and butane. Geochimicameasured ? 13 C values of ethane (? 13 C C2H6 ) for some

  15. Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grant Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jack Mallinger

    2004-08-27

    Project Description: Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants The Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants was established to demonstrate the benefits of new propane equipment. The US Department of Energy, the Propane Education & Research Council (PERC) and the Propane Vehicle Council (PVC) partnered in this program. The project impacted ten different states, 179 vehicles, and 15 new propane fueling facilities. Based on estimates provided, this project generated a minimum of 1,441,000 new gallons of propane sold for the vehicle market annually. Additionally, two new off-road engines were brought to the market. Projects originally funded under this project were the City of Portland, Colorado, Kansas City, Impco Technologies, Jasper Engines, Maricopa County, New Jersey State, Port of Houston, Salt Lake City Newspaper, Suburban Propane, Mutual Liquid Propane and Ted Johnson.

  16. The catalytic oxidation of propane 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanderson, Charles Frederick

    1949-01-01

    for fuel use as small as 10 million Btu/hr or across operations of largest multi-facility organizations. We particularly encourage fuel oil and natural gas users to set up for switching to LPG (or propane) *, and propane users to set up to also use... butane and pentane as occasional alternatives. *The terms ?liquefied petroleum gas? (LPG) and propane are used somewhat interchangeably, even though LPG refers to mixtures of propane with some...

  17. Total internal reflection photonic crystal prism Ethan Schonbrun1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fainman, Yeshaiahu

    Total internal reflection photonic crystal prism Ethan Schonbrun1 , Maxim Abashin2 , John Blair3 of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, 80309 ethan

  18. NREL: Energy Analysis - Ethan Warner

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on771/6/14 Contact:NewsWebmasterWorkingElla Zhou PhotoEthan Warner

  19. Residential propane price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

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  20. Residential propane price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

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  1. Residential propane price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

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  2. Residential propane prices available

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

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  3. Residential propane prices available

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

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  4. Residential propane prices available

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

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    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

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  6. Residential propane prices available

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

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  7. Residential propane prices available

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

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  8. Residential propane prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

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  9. Residential propane prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

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  10. Residential propane prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

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  11. Residential propane prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

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  12. Residential propane prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctoberheating13, 2014propane pricespropane

  13. Residential propane prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctoberheating13, 2014propane pricespropanepropane

  14. Residential propane prices stable

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctoberheating13, 2014propane

  15. 2013 Propane Market Outlook

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onPropane Rolls onManual del vehículo eléctricoA25

  16. Propane Market Assessment for Winter

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1997-01-01

    1997-1998 Final issue of this report. This article reviews the major components of propane supply and demand in the United States and their status entering the 1997-1998 heating season.

  17. Coarse-Grain Recon gurable Computing Ethan A. Mirsky

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeHon, André

    Coarse-Grain Recon gurable Computing by Ethan A. Mirsky Submitted to the Department of Electrical gurable Computing by Ethan A. Mirsky Submitted to the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer

  18. POLYHEDRAL REPRESENTATION OF DISCRETE MORSE ETHAN D. BLOCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bloch, Ethan

    POLYHEDRAL REPRESENTATION OF DISCRETE MORSE FUNCTIONS ETHAN D. BLOCH Abstract. It is proved during a sabbatical when parts of this paper were written. 1 #12;2 ETHAN D. BLOCH Forman defines an index

  19. Liquid Propane Injection Technology Conductive to Today's North...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology Conductive to Today's North American Specification Liquid Propane Injection Technology Conductive to Today's North American Specification Liquid propane injection...

  20. Theoretical Analysis of the Rotational Barrier of Ethane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Theoretical Analysis of the Rotational Barrier of Ethane YIRONG MO*, AND JIALI GAO*, Department The understanding of the ethane rotation barrier is fundamental for structural theory and the conformational a computational approach to probe the rotation barriers of ethane and its congeners in terms of steric repulsion

  1. Surface Termination of M1 Phase and Rational Design of Propane Ammoxidation Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guliants, Vadim

    2015-02-16

    This final report describes major accomplishments in this research project which has demonstrated that the M1 phase is the only crystalline phase required for propane ammoxidation to acrylonitrile and that a surface monolayer terminating the ab planes of the M1 phase is responsible for their activity and selectivity in this reaction. Fundamental studies of the topmost surface chemistry and mechanism of propane ammoxidation over the Mo-V-(Te,Sb)-(Nb,Ta)-O M1 and M2 phases resulted in the development of quantitative understanding of the surface molecular structure – reactivity relationships for this unique catalytic system. These oxides possess unique catalytic properties among mixed metal oxides, because they selectively catalyze three alkane transformation reactions, namely propane ammoxidation to acrylonitrile, propane oxidation to acrylic acid and ethane oxidative dehydrogenation, all of considerable economic significance. Therefore, the larger goal of this research was to expand this catalysis to other alkanes of commercial interest, and more broadly, demonstrate successful approaches to rational design of improved catalysts that can be applied to other selective (amm)oxidation processes.

  2. Propane - A Mid-Heating Season Assessment

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01

    This report will analyze some of the factors leading up to the rapid increase in propane demand and subsequent deterioration in supply that propelled propane prices to record high levels during December and early January.

  3. Costs Associated With Propane Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M.; Gonzales, J.

    2014-08-05

    This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with propane vehicle fueling infrastructure. It provides an overview of the equipment and processes necessary to develop a propane fueling station and offers estimated cost ranges.

  4. Costs Associated With Propane Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M.; Gonzales, J.

    2014-08-01

    This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with propane vehicle fueling infrastructure. It provides an overview of the equipment and processes necessary to develop a propane fueling station and offers estimated cost ranges.

  5. Selective adsorption of ethylene over ethane and propylene over propane in

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDidDevelopment Top Scientific Impact Since itsimpact / selectedwiththe

  6. 1, 2341, 2001 OH + propane and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 1, 23­41, 2001 OH + propane and iodopropanes S. A. Carl and J. N. Crowley Title Page Abstract + propane and iodopropanes S. A. Carl and J. N. Crowley Title Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions #12;ACPD 1, 23­41, 2001 OH + propane and iodopropanes S. A. Carl and J. N. Crowley Title Page Abstract

  7. Ethane from associated gas still the most economical

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farry, M.

    1998-06-08

    Ethane extracted from associated gas is one of the cheapest ways to produce ethylene. This is the conclusion reached by a set of recent studies on natural gas processing and conversion published by Chem Systems Ltd. Ethane cracking usually requires a large gas project for ethane to be produced in sufficient quantity for a world-scale cracker, limiting the number of cases where this is feasible. Ethane extracted from LNG plants is an alternative source of cracker feedstock. Although more costly, gas-to-olefins technology is a potential alternative to ethane cracking.

  8. METHANE GAS STABILIZES SUPERCOOLED ETHANE DROPLETS IN TITAN'S CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Chia C.; Lang, E. Kathrin; Signorell, Ruth

    2010-03-20

    Strong evidence for ethane clouds in various regions of Titan's atmosphere has recently been found. Ethane is usually assumed to exist as ice particles in these clouds, although the possible role of liquid and supercooled liquid ethane droplets has been recognized. Here, we report on infrared spectroscopic measurements of ethane aerosols performed in the laboratory under conditions mimicking Titan's lower atmosphere. The results clearly show that liquid ethane droplets are significantly stabilized by methane gas which is ubiquitous in Titan's nitrogen atmosphere-a phenomenon that does not have a counterpart for water droplets in Earth's atmosphere. Our data imply that supercooled ethane droplets are much more abundant in Titan's clouds than previously anticipated. Possibly, these liquid droplets are even more important for cloud processes and the formation of lakes than ethane ice particles.

  9. Propane Market Model documentation report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Propane Market Model (PMM), describe its basic approach, and to provide details on model functions. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the general public. Documentation of the model is in accordance with EIA`s legal obligation to provide adequate documentation in support of its models. The PMM performs a short-term (6- to 9-months) forecast of demand and price for consumer-grad propane in the national US market; it also calculates the end-of-month stock level during the term of the forecast. Another part of the model allows for short-term demand forecasts for certain individual Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) districts. The model is used to analyze market behavior assumptions or shocks and to determine the effect on market price, demand, and stock level.

  10. Silane-propane ignitor/burner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, R.W.; Skinner, D.F. Jr.; Thorsness, C.B.

    1983-05-26

    A silane propane burner for an underground coal gasification process which is used to ignite the coal and to controllably retract the injection point by cutting the injection pipe. A narrow tube with a burner tip is positioned in the injection pipe through which an oxidant (oxygen or air) is flowed. A charge of silane followed by a supply of fuel, such as propane, is flowed through the tube. The silane spontaneously ignites on contact with oxygen and burns the propane fuel.

  11. Silane-propane ignitor/burner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, Richard W. (Livermore, CA); Skinner, Dewey F. (Livermore, CA); Thorsness, Charles B. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A silane propane burner for an underground coal gasification process which is used to ignite the coal and to controllably retract the injection point by cutting the injection pipe. A narrow tube with a burner tip is positioned in the injection pipe through which an oxidant (oxygen or air) is flowed. A charge of silane followed by a supply of fuel, such as propane, is flowed through the tube. The silane spontaneously ignites on contact with oxygen and burns the propane fuel.

  12. Comparison of Hydrogen and Propane Fuels (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-10-01

    Factsheet comparing the chemical, physical, and thermal properties of hydrogen and propane, designed to facilitate an understanding of the differences and similarites of the two fuels

  13. Comparison of Hydrogen and Propane Fuels (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-04-01

    Factsheet comparing the chemical, physical, and thermal properties of hydrogen and propane, designed to facilitate an understanding of the differences and similarites of the two fuels.

  14. Ab Initio Investigation of Ethane Dissociation Using Generalized Transition State Theory Francois Lorant* and Francoise Behar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    Ab Initio Investigation of Ethane Dissociation Using Generalized Transition State Theory Franc carbon-carbon scission of ethane is investigated by performing quantum mechanical calculations reported in this paper aim to validate this methodology by examining the dissociation of ethane

  15. Recent decreases in fossil-fuel emissions of ethane and methane derived from firn air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    distribution and budget of ethane. J. Geophys. Res.Y. et al. Global budget of ethane and regional constraintsin fossil-fuel emissions of ethane and methane derived from

  16. Adsorption and Separation of Light Gases on an Amino-Functionalized Metal–Organic Framework: An Adsorption and In Situ XRD Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Couck S.; Stavitski E.; Gobehiya, E.; Kirschhock, C.E.A.; Serra-Crespo, P.; Juan-Alcaniz, J.; Martinez Joaristi, A.; Gascon, J.; Kapteijn, F.; Baron, G. V.; Denayer J.F.M.

    2012-02-29

    The NH{sub 2}-MIL-53(Al) metal-organic framework was studied for its use in the separation of CO{sub 2} from CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}, N{sub 2} C{sub 2}H{sub 6} and C{sub 3}H{sub 8} mixtures. Isotherms of methane, ethane, propane, hydrogen, nitrogen, and CO{sub 2} were measured. The atypical shape of these isotherms is attributed to the breathing properties of the material, in which a transition from a very narrow pore form to a narrow pore form and from a narrow pore form to a large pore form occurs, depending on the total pressure and the nature of the adsorbate, as demonstrated by in-situ XRD patterns measured during adsorption. Apart from CO{sub 2}, all tested gases interacted weakly with the adsorbent. As a result, they are excluded from adsorption in the narrow pore form of the material at low pressure. CO{sub 2} interacted much more strongly and was adsorbed in significant amounts at low pressure. This gives the material excellent properties to separate CO{sub 2} from other gases. The separation of CO{sub 2} from methane, nitrogen, hydrogen, or a combination of these gases has been demonstrated by breakthrough experiments using pellets of NH{sub 2}-MIL-53(Al). The effect of total pressure (1-30 bar), gas composition, temperature (303-403 K) and contact time has been examined. In all cases, CO{sub 2} was selectively adsorbed, whereas methane, nitrogen, and hydrogen nearly did not adsorb at all. Regeneration of the adsorbent by thermal treatment, inert purge gas stripping, and pressure swing has been demonstrated. The NH{sub 2}-MIL-53(Al) pellets retained their selectivity and capacity for more than two years.

  17. New insights into microbial responses to oil spills from the Deepwater Horizon incident

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mason, O.U.

    2012-01-01

    that exhibited propane and ethane anomalies (Valentine etpreferential loss of both ethane and propane relative toa regression of propane and ethane anomalies against oxygen

  18. Oh the Places You'll Go, with Graphene: A Chemists Exploration of Two Dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wassei, Jonathan Khalil

    2013-01-01

    on Copper from Methane, Ethane and Propane: Evidence foron Copper from Methane, Ethane and Propane: Evidence foron copper from methane, ethane and propane: evidence for

  19. Important Propane Safety Information Propane is a fuel that is stored as a liquid and used as a gas. Propane is often used to fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kienzle, Stefan W.

    Important Propane Safety Information Propane is a fuel that is stored as a liquid and used as a gas. Propane is often used to fuel barbeques, appliances in recreational vehicles (RVs), and other portable equipment. Used properly, propane is a safe and convenient fuel. Follow these tips to stay safe. Basics

  20. Residential propane price decreases slightly

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctoberheating oilpropane pricepropane8,6,propane

  1. Residential propane price is unchanged

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctoberheating13, 2014 Residential propane price

  2. Reactor simulation of benzene ethylation and ethane dehydrogenation catalyzed by ZSM-5: A multiscale approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, Alexis

    Reactor simulation of benzene ethylation and ethane dehydrogenation catalyzed by ZSM-5 is the extension of our continuum model to include the dehydrogenation of ethane. The parameters describing

  3. 29Counting Atoms in a Molecule The complex molecule Propanal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    29Counting Atoms in a Molecule The complex molecule Propanal was discovered in a dense interstellar is the ratio of carbon atoms to hydrogen atoms in propanal? Problem 4 - If the mass of a hydrogen atom of a propanal molecule in AMUs? Problem 5 - What is the complete chemical formula for propanal? C3 H __ O

  4. Alternative Fuel Tool Kit How to Implement: Propane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 08/2014 Alternative Fuel Tool Kit How to Implement: Propane Contents Introduction to Propane (LPG...........................................................................................................2 Benefits of Using Propane (LPG) for Transportation of Energy under Award Number DE-EE0006083. #12;2 08/2014 Introduction to Propane (LPG) for Transportation

  5. Evolutionary History of a Specialized P450 Propane Monooxygenase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Frances H.

    Evolutionary History of a Specialized P450 Propane Monooxygenase Rudi Fasan1 , Yergalem T-evolved P450 propane mono- oxygenase (P450PMO) having 20 heme domain substitutions compared to P450BM3 of propane activity. In contrast, refinement of the enzyme catalytic efficiency for propane oxidation (9000

  6. Propane vehicles : status, challenges, and opportunities.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rood Werpy, M.; Burnham, A.; Bertram, K.; Energy Systems

    2010-06-17

    Propane as an auto fuel has a high octane value and has key properties required for spark-ignited internal combustion engines. To operate a vehicle on propane as either a dedicated fuel or bi-fuel (i.e., switching between gasoline and propane) vehicle, only a few modifications must be made to the engine. Until recently propane vehicles have commonly used a vapor pressure system that was somewhat similar to a carburetion system, wherein the propane would be vaporized and mixed with combustion air in the intake plenum of the engine. This leads to lower efficiency as more air, rather than fuel, is inducted into the cylinder for combustion (Myers 2009). A newer liquid injection system has become available that injects propane directly into the cylinder, resulting in no mixing penalty because air is not diluted with the gaseous fuel in the intake manifold. Use of a direct propane injection system will improve engine efficiency (Gupta 2009). Other systems include the sequential multi-port fuel injection system and a bi-fuel 'hybrid' sequential propane injection system. Carbureted systems remain in use but mostly for non-road applications. In the United States a closed-loop system is used in after-market conversions. This system incorporates an electronic sensor that provides constant feedback to the fuel controller to allow it to measure precisely the proper air/fuel ratio. A complete conversion system includes a fuel controller, pressure regulator valves, fuel injectors, electronics, fuel tank, and software. A slight power loss is expected in conversion to a vapor pressure system, but power can still be optimized with vehicle modifications of such items as the air/fuel mixture and compression ratios. Cold start issues are eliminated for vapor pressure systems since the air/fuel mixture is gaseous. In light-duty propane vehicles, the fuel tank is typically mounted in the trunk; for medium- and heavy-duty vans and trucks, the tank is located under the body of the vehicle. Propane tanks add weight to a vehicle and can slightly increase the consumption of fuel. On a gallon-to-gallon basis, the energy content of propane is 73% that of gasoline, thus requiring more propane fuel to travel an equivalent distance, even in an optimized engine (EERE 2009b).

  7. Ethane: Taking Control of the Enterprise Martn Casado, Michael J. Freedman,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pratt, Vaughan

    Ethane: Taking Control of the Enterprise Martìn Casado, Michael J. Freedman, Justin Pettit presents Ethane, a new network architecture for the enterprise. Ethane allows managers to define a single network- wide fine-grain policy, and then enforces it directly. Ethane cou- ples extremely simple flow

  8. Ethan Burns (UNH) Anticipatory On-line Planning 1 / 22 Anticipatory On-line Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruml, Wheeler

    Ethan Burns (UNH) Anticipatory On-line Planning ­ 1 / 22 Anticipatory On-line Planning Ethan Burns1 Formalization Hindsight Opt. Experiments Conclusion Ethan Burns (UNH) Anticipatory On-line Planning ­ 2 / 22'd s Contributions Formalization Hindsight Opt. Experiments Conclusion Ethan Burns (UNH) Anticipatory On

  9. Self-Diffusion Coefficients of Methane or Ethane Mixtures with Hydrocarbons at High Pressure by NMR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dysthe, Dag Kristian

    Self-Diffusion Coefficients of Methane or Ethane Mixtures with Hydrocarbons at High Pressure by NMR in homogeneous mixtures of methane + hexane, ethane + hexane, methane + octane, ethane + octan, methane + decane, ethane + decane, and methane + hexane + benzene over the whole concentration range, at 303.2 K and 333

  10. Knoxville Area Transit: Propane Hybrid Electric Trolleys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-04-01

    A 2-page fact sheet summarizing the evaluation done by the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity on the Knoxville Area Transit's use of propane hybrid electric trolleys.

  11. QER- Comment of National Propane Gas Association

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Ladies and Gentlemen: Please find attached the QER comments of the National Propane Gas Association. Please feel to contact us if we can provide further information. Thank you for your attention to our submission.

  12. QER- Comment of Propane Education & Research Council

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    I plan to attend and ask a question of the Secretary regarding propane supply for the upcoming winter. Please do not hesitate to call or email if you have questions. Tucker Perkins

  13. Sandia Energy - Sandia's Katrina Groth and Ethan Hecht win inaugural...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Groth and Ethan Hecht were recognized at the IA-HySafe International Conference on Hydrogen Safety (ICHS) with the inaugural Robert Schefer Best Paper award. The award honors...

  14. Hydrogen Safety Issues Compared to Safety Issues with Methane and Propane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Green, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    Issues with Methane and Propane Michael A. Green LawrenceSAFETY ISSUES WITH METHANE AND PROPANE M. A. Green Lawrencehydrogen. Methane and propane are commonly used by ordinary

  15. Low-temperature superacid catalysis: Reactions of n - butane and propane catalyzed by iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsz-Keung, Cheung; d`Itri, J.L.; Lange, F.C.; Gates, B.C.

    1995-12-31

    The primary goal of this project is to evaluate the potential value of solid superacid catalysts of the sulfated zirconia type for light hydrocarbon conversion. The key experiments catalytic testing of the performance of such catalysts in a flow reactor fed with streams containing, for example, n-butane or propane. Fe- and Mn-promoted sulfated zirconia was used to catalyze the conversion of n-butane at atmospheric pressure, 225-450{degrees}C, and n-butane partial pressures in the range of 0.0025-0.01 atm. At temperatures <225{degrees}C, these reactions were accompanied by cracking; at temperatures >350{degrees}C, cracking and isomerization occurred. Catalyst deactivation, resulting at least in part from coke formation, was rapid. The primary cracking products were methane, ethane, ethylene, and propylene. The observation of these products along with an ethane/ethylene molar ratio of nearly 1 at 450{degrees}C is consistent with cracking occurring, at least in part, by the Haag-Dessau mechanism, whereby the strongly acidic catalyst protonates n-butane to give carbonium ions. The rate of methane formation from n-butane cracking catalyzed by Fe- and Mn-promoted sulfated zirconia at 450{degrees}C was about 3 x 10{sup -8} mol/(g of catalyst {center_dot}s). The observation of butanes, pentanes, and methane as products is consistent with Olah superacid chemistry, whereby propane is first protonated by a very strong acid to form a carbonium ion. The carbonium ion then decomposes into methane and an ethyl cation which undergoes oligocondensation reactions with propane to form higher molecular weight alkanes. The results are consistent with the identification of iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia as a superacid.

  16. Sources of air pollution in a region of oil and gas exploration downwind of a large city

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    alkanes such as ethane and propane (Buzcu and Fraser, 2006;ppb. Statistics Ethane Propane Toluene Benzene C 8 aromatics

  17. Electron attenuation in free, neutral ethane clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winkler, M.; Harnes, J.; Børve, K. J.; Myrseth, V.

    2014-10-28

    The electron effective attenuation length (EAL) in free, neutral ethane clusters has been determined at 40 eV kinetic energy by combining carbon 1s x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and theoretical lineshape modeling. More specifically, theory is employed to form model spectra on a grid in cluster size (N) and EAL (?), allowing N and ? to be determined by optimizing the goodness-of-fit ?{sup 2}(N, ?) between model and observed spectra. Experimentally, the clusters were produced in an adiabatic-expansion setup using helium as the driving gas, spanning a range of 100–600 molecules in mean cluster size. The effective attenuation length was determined to be 8.4?±?1.9 Å, in good agreement with an independent estimate of 10 Å formed on the basis of molecular electron-scattering data and Monte Carlo simulations. The aggregation state of the clusters as well as the cluster temperature and its importance to the derived EAL value are discussed in some depth.

  18. The contribution of gas-phase reactions in the Pt-catalyzed conversion of ethane-oxygen mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huff, M.C.; Androulakis, I.P.; Sinfelt, J.H.; Reyes, S.C.

    2000-04-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane on platinum-containing monoliths. The purpose of the work is to make a quantitative assessment of the extent to which homogeneous gas-phase reactions contribute to the overall conversion of the ethane. In making the analysis, extensive use is made of kinetic information obtained and compiled by A.M. Dean and associates for elementary homogeneous reaction steps and by L.D. Schmidt and associates for elementary surface reactions. A critical part of the analysis is concerned with accounting for the heat effects and for the reactor temperature gradient resulting therefrom. This is absolutely essential for meeting the objective of this investigation. The rise in temperature as the gases proceed through the reactor is responsible for a very substantial contribution of homogeneous gas-phase reactions in the chemical transformation occurring. one can view the process as a sequential one in which ethane is first oxidized on the platinum surface to CO, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O in the front region of the monolith. The formation of these products causes a substantial temperature increase that drives the dehydrogenation of ethane to ethylene (and acetylene) in the gas phase. The heat required to sustain these endothermic reactions in the tail end of the reaction zone is supplied by exothermic gas-phase oxidation reactions that form additional H{sub 2}O and CO. Overall, the system can be viewed as one in which the catalyst initiates gas-phase chemistry through the acceleration of exothermic reactions at the front of the reactor which increase the downstream temperature to the point where gas-phase reactions occur readily.

  19. Material Properties and Operating Configurations of Membrane Reactors for Propane Dehydrogenation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nair, Sankar

    Material Properties and Operating Configurations of Membrane Reactors for Propane Dehydrogenation material properties and operating configurations of packed-bed membrane reactors (PBMRs) for propane Keywords: membrane reactor, propane dehydrogenation, zeolite membrane, modeling, propane dehydrogenation

  20. No. 2 heating oil/propane program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBrien, J.

    1991-06-01

    During the 1990/91 heating season, the Massachusetts Division of Energy Resources (DOER) participated in a joint data collection program between several state energy offices and the federal Department of Energy's (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA). The purpose of the program was to collect and monitor retail and wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories from October 1990 through March 1991. This final report begins with an overview of the unique events which had an impact on the reporting period. Next, the report summarizes the results from the residential heating oil and propane price surveys conducted by DOER over the 1990/91 heating season. The report also incorporates the wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories collected by the EIA and distributed to the states.

  1. Liquid Propane Injection Technology Conductive to Today's North American Specification

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Liquid propane injection technology can offer the same power, torque, and environmental vehicle performance while reducing imports of foreign oil

  2. Propane Vehicle and Infrastructure Codes and Standards Citations (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-07-01

    This document lists codes and standards typically used for U.S. propane vehicle and infrastructure projects.

  3. Catalytic Dehydrogenation of Propane in Hydrogen Permselective Membrane Reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    Catalytic Dehydrogenation of Propane in Hydrogen Permselective Membrane Reactors John P. Collins and Production, Amoco Research Center, 150 West Warrenville Road, Naperville, Illinois 60566-7011 Propane operated at liquid hourly space velocities (LHSVs) similar to those used in commercial reactors for propane

  4. Evolutionary History of a Specialized P450 Propane Monooxygenase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Frances H.

    Evolutionary History of a Specialized P450 Propane Monooxygenase Rudi Fasan1 , Yergalem T hydroxylase (P450BM3) to a laboratory-evolved P450 propane mono- oxygenase (P450PMO) having 20 heme domain substrate range and the emergence of propane activity. In contrast, refinement of the enzyme catalytic

  5. ORIGINAL PAPER Tunability of Propane Conversion over Alumina Supported

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ORIGINAL PAPER Tunability of Propane Conversion over Alumina Supported Pt and Rh Catalysts William Propane conversion over alumina supported Pt and Rh (1 wt% metals loading) was examined under fuel rich conversion and almost complete propane conversion) so long as the metal particle size was sufficiently low

  6. Correlation between homogeneous propane pyrolysis and pyrocarbon deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Correlation between homogeneous propane pyrolysis and pyrocarbon deposition C´edric Descamps, G propane pyrolysis is studied in a 1-D hot-wall CVD furnace. The gas-phase pyrolysis is modelled in previous reports [6]: total pressure equal to 2 kPa, temperature between 900 K and 1400 K, and pure propane

  7. Study of the Low Temperature Oxidation of Propane Maximilien Cord

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Study of the Low Temperature Oxidation of Propane Maximilien Cord , Benoit Husson , Juan of China, Hefei, Anhui 230029, P. R. China Abstract The lowtemperature oxidation of propane oxidation of propane in the gas phase has been the subject of very few experimental studies, mainly

  8. Crowd-scale Interactive Formal Reasoning and Analytics Ethan Fast1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aiken, Alex

    Crowd-scale Interactive Formal Reasoning and Analytics Ethan Fast1 , Colleen Lee1 , Alex Aiken1 , Michael Bernstein1 , Daphne Koller1 , Eric Smith2 Stanford University1 , Kestrel Institute2 {ethan

  9. Fast Offset Compensation for a 10Gbps Limit Ethan A. Crain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perrott, Michael

    Fast Offset Compensation for a 10Gbps Limit Amplifier by Ethan A. Crain Bachelor of Science Students #12;2 #12;Fast Offset Compensation for a 10Gbps Limit Amplifier by Ethan A. Crain Submitted

  10. ALGEBRAIC K-THEORY OF MAPPING CLASS ETHAN BERKOVE, DANIEL JUAN-PINEDA, AND QIN LU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ALGEBRAIC K-THEORY OF MAPPING CLASS GROUPS ETHAN BERKOVE, DANIEL JUAN-PINEDA, AND QIN LU Abstract;guration Space, Fixed Point Data. 1 #12; 2 ETHAN BERKOVE, DANIEL JUAN-PINEDA, AND QIN LU The techniques

  11. MOLECULAR SIMULATION OF PHASE EQUILIBRIA FOR WATER -METHANE AND WATER -ETHANE MIXTURES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 MOLECULAR SIMULATION OF PHASE EQUILIBRIA FOR WATER - METHANE AND WATER - ETHANE MIXTURES Jeffrey were used to calculate water - methane and water - ethane phase equilibria over a wide range

  12. Emergent, Crowd-scale Programming Practice in the IDE Ethan Fast1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pratt, Vaughan

    Emergent, Crowd-scale Programming Practice in the IDE Ethan Fast1 , Daniel Steffee1 , Lucy Wang1 , Joel Brandt2 , Michael S. Bernstein1 Stanford University1 , Adobe Research2 {ethan.fast, dsteffee

  13. "A First Course in Geometric Topology and Differential Geometry" Ethan D. Bloch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bloch, Ethan

    ERRATA FOR "A First Course in Geometric Topology and Differential Geometry" Ethan D. Bloch Birkh or regular mail at the following address: Ethan D. Bloch Bard College Annandale-on-Hudson, NY 12504 bloch

  14. "Proofs and Fundamentals: A First Course in Abstract Mathematics" Ethan D. Bloch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bloch, Ethan

    ERRATA FOR "Proofs and Fundamentals: A First Course in Abstract Mathematics" Ethan D. Bloch Birkh let me know by email or regular mail at the following address: Ethan D. Bloch Bard College Annandale

  15. Marine microbes rapidly adapt to consume ethane, propane, and butane within the dissolved hydrocarbon plume of a natural seep

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of the spatial and temporal variability of bulk hydrocarbon respiration following the Deepwater Horizon oilthe Coal Oil Point seep. Samples for the method assessment

  16. Marine microbes rapidly adapt to consume ethane, propane, and butane within the dissolved hydrocarbon plume of a natural seep

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    the Coal Oil Point seeps, offshore California. Spatial andthe red star) is located offshore Goleta, California. Arrows

  17. Portland Public School Children Move with Propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2004-04-01

    This 2-page Clean Cities fact sheet describes the use of propane as a fuel source for Portland Public Schools' fleet of buses. It includes information on the history of the program, along with contact information for the local Clean Cities Coordinator and Portland Public Schools.

  18. Case Study - Propane School Bus Fleets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laughlin, M; Burnham, A.

    2014-08-31

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) effort to deploy transportation technologies that reduce U.S. dependence on imported petroleum, this study examines five school districts, one in Virginia and four in Texas, successful use of propane school buses. These school districts used school buses equipped with the newly developed liquid propane injection system that improves vehicle performance. Some of the school districts in this study saved nearly 50% on a cost per mile basis for fuel and maintenance relative to diesel. Using Argonne National Laboratory’s Alternative Fuel Life-Cycle Environmental and Economic Transportation (AFLEET) Tool developed for the DOE’s Clean Cities program to help Clean Cities stakeholders estimate petroleum use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, air pollutant emissions and cost of ownership of light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles, the results showed payback period ranges from 3—8 years, recouping the incremental cost of the vehicles and infrastructure. Overall, fuel economy for these propane vehicles is close to that of displaced diesel vehicles, on an energy-equivalent basis. In addition, the 110 propane buses examined demonstrated petroleum displacement, 212,000 diesel gallon equivalents per year, and GHG benefits of 770 tons per year.

  19. Carbonaceous adsorbent regeneration and halocarbon displacement by hydrocarbon gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Senum, G.I.; Dietz, R.N.

    1994-04-05

    This invention describes a process for regeneration of halocarbon bearing carbonaceous adsorbents through which a carbonaceous adsorbent is contacted with hydrocarbon gases, preferably propane, butane and pentane at near room temperatures and at atmospheric pressure. As the hydrocarbon gases come in contact with the adsorbent, the hydrocarbons displace the halocarbons by physical adsorption. As a result of using this process, the halocarbon concentration and the hydrocarbon eluant is increased thereby allowing for an easier recovery of pure halocarbons. By using the process of this invention, carbonaceous adsorbents can be regenerated by an inexpensive process which also allows for subsequent re-use of the recovered halocarbons. 8 figures.

  20. Carbonaceous adsorbent regeneration and halocarbon displacement by hydrocarbon gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Senum, Gunnar I. (Patchogue, NY); Dietz, Russell N. (Patchogue, NY)

    1994-01-01

    This invention describes a process for regeneration of halocarbon bearing carbonaceous adsorbents through which a carbonaceous adsorbent is contacted with hydrocarbon gases, preferably propane, butane and pentane at near room temperatures and at atmospheric pressure. As the hydrocarbon gases come in contact with the adsorbent, the hydrocarbons displace the halocarbons by physical adsorption. As a result of using this process, the halocarbon concentration and the hydrocarbon eluant is increased thereby allowing for an easier recovery of pure halocarbons. By using the process of this invention, carbonaceous adsorbents can be regenerated by an inexpensive process which also allows for subsequent re-use of the recovered halocarbons.

  1. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    -21 - -37 114 0 93 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 824 251 93 -184 - -490 163 26 1,284 EthaneEthylene 373 17 0 67 - -101 0 0 559 PropanePropylene 282 321 53 -238 - -236 0 25 630...

  2. TABLE05.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    177 2 134 Liquefied Petroleum Gases ... 1,519 711 246 - 78 - 216 46 2,137 EthaneEthylene ... 672 22 (s) - 6 - 0 0 688 PropanePropylene...

  3. Electron solvation in methane and ethane Zhihua Liu and Bruce J. Berne

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berne, Bruce J.

    Electron solvation in methane and ethane Zhihua Liu and Bruce J. Berne Department of Chemistry; accepted 27 August 1993) The solvation of excess electrons in fluid methane and ethane is studied by path that the electron is in an extended state throughout the whole fluid density range studied. In ethane, it is found

  4. Ethan Burns (UNH) Heuristic Search for Multi-core 1 / 38 Suboptimal and Anytime Heuristic Search

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruml, Wheeler

    Ethan Burns (UNH) Heuristic Search for Multi-core ­ 1 / 38 Suboptimal and Anytime Heuristic Search on Multi-core Machines Ethan Burns1, Seth Lemons1, Wheeler Ruml1 and Rong Zhou2 1 2 [Many thanks to NSF Suboptimal Search Anytime Search Conclusion Ethan Burns (UNH) Heuristic Search for Multi-core ­ 2 / 38

  5. Space-Efficient Evaluation of Hypergeometric Series Howard Cheng, Barry Gergel, Ethan Kim, Eugene Zima

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Howard

    Space-Efficient Evaluation of Hypergeometric Series by Howard Cheng, Barry Gergel, Ethan Kim, Eugene Zima Report TR-CS-04-04 September 2004. COPYRIGHT ( c ) BY HOWARD CHENG, BARRY GERGEL, ETHAN KIM of Hypergeometric Series Howard Cheng Barry Gergel Ethan Kim Department of Mathematics and Computer Science

  6. Titan's Carbon Budget and the Case of the Missing Ethane Eric H. Wilson*,,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atreya, Sushil

    Titan's Carbon Budget and the Case of the Missing Ethane Eric H. Wilson*,,§ and Sushil K. Atreya more questions. One of these questions involves the lack of large reservoirs of ethane that were of methane, and the role that ethane condensation plays in this budget. Model results show that 40

  7. DOI: 10.1002/cbic.200500261 Direct Conversion of Ethane to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Frances H.

    DOI: 10.1002/cbic.200500261 Direct Conversion of Ethane to Ethanol by Engineered Cytochrome P450 BM] selective conversion of ethane and methane mainly to their correspond- ing alcohols has yet to be demonstrated.[2] For example, limit- ed (i.e.ethane oxidation is sup- ported

  8. Energy of the excess electron in methane and ethane near the critical point

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Findley, Gary L.

    Energy of the excess electron in methane and ethane near the critical point Xianbo Shi a,b , Luxi in ethane are presented as a function of perturber number density at various noncritical temperatures to the simple alka- nes methane and ethane. The quasi-free electron energy V0(P) [9­15] and the electron

  9. METHANE AND ETHANE ON THE BRIGHT KUIPER BELT OBJECT 2005 FY9 M. E. Brown,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Michael E.

    METHANE AND ETHANE ON THE BRIGHT KUIPER BELT OBJECT 2005 FY9 M. E. Brown,1 K. M. Barkume,1 G. A indicates the clear presence of ethane, an expected product of UV photolysis of methane. No evidence for N2 of 2005 FY9 that leads to large methane grains, abundant sites for ethane formation through UV photolysis

  10. PREDICTION OF SUBURBAN ENCROACHMENT ON THE ETHAN ALLEN FIRING RANGE AND CAMP JOHNSON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramsey, R. Douglas

    PREDICTION OF SUBURBAN ENCROACHMENT ON THE ETHAN ALLEN FIRING RANGE AND CAMP JOHNSON CHITTENDEN Prediction of Suburban Encroachment on the Ethan Allen Firing Range and Camp Johnson, Chittenden County for many National Guard training installations. The Ethan Allen Firing Range and Camp Johnson, Vermont

  11. Atomic chlorine concentrations derived from ethane and hydroxyl measurements over the equatorial Pacific Ocean: Implication for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wingenter, Oliver W.

    Atomic chlorine concentrations derived from ethane and hydroxyl measurements over the equatorial model includes in situ observations of hydroxyl [HO] and precise measurements of ethane (C2H6) mixing ratios. Ethane was $40 pptv higher in the buffer layer (BuL) than in the SL, thus vertical exchange

  12. High ethylene to ethane processes for oxidative coupling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chafin, R.B.; Warren, B.K.

    1991-12-17

    Oxidative coupling of lower alkane to higher hydrocarbon is conducted using a catalyst comprising barium and/or strontium component and a metal oxide combustion promoter in the presence of vapor phase halogen component. High ethylene to ethane mole ratios in the product can be obtained over extended operating periods.

  13. Sequestration of ethane in the cryovolcanic subsurface of Titan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olivier Mousis; Bernard Schmitt

    2008-02-07

    Saturn's largest satellite, Titan, has a thick atmosphere dominated by nitrogen and methane. The dense orange-brown smog hiding the satellite's surface is produced by photochemical reactions of methane, nitrogen and their dissociation products with solar ultraviolet, which lead primarily to the formation of ethane and heavier hydrocarbons. In the years prior to the exploration of Titan's surface by the Cassini-Huygens spacecraft, the production and condensation of ethane was expected to have formed a satellite-wide ocean one kilometer in depth, assuming that it was generated over the Solar system's lifetime. However, Cassini-Huygens observations failed to find any evidence of such an ocean. Here we describe the main cause of the ethane deficiency on Titan: cryovolcanic lavas regularly cover its surface, leading to the percolation of the liquid hydrocarbons through this porous material and its accumulation in subsurface layers built up during successive methane outgassing events. The liquid stored in the pores may, combined with the ice layers, form a stable ethane-rich clathrate reservoir, potentially isolated from the surface. Even with a low open porosity of 10% for the subsurface layers, a cryovolcanic icy crust less than 2300 m thick is required to bury all the liquid hydrocarbons generated over the Solar system's lifetime.

  14. High ethylene to ethane processes for oxidative coupling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chafin, Richard B. (Hurricane, WV); Warren, Barbara K. (Charleston, WV)

    1991-01-01

    Oxidative coupling of lower alkane to higher hydrocarbon is conducted using catalyst comprising barium and/or strontium component and a metal oxide combustion promoter in the presence of vapor phase halogen component. High ethylene to ethane mole ratios in the product can be obtained over extended operating periods.

  15. Prototyping Fast, Simple, Secure Switches for Ethane Jianying Luo, Justin Pettit, Martin Casado, John Lockwood, Nick McKeown

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pratt, Vaughan

    Prototyping Fast, Simple, Secure Switches for Ethane Jianying Luo, Justin Pettit, Martin Casado for Ethane: A clean- slate approach to managing and securing enterprise net- works. The goal of Ethane to manage. Ethane is built on the premise that the only way to manage and secure networks is to make sure we

  16. A mathematical framework for delay analysis in single source networks Axel Parmentier, Samitha Samaranayake, Yiguang (Ethan) Xuan, Alexandre Bayen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samaranayake, Yiguang (Ethan) Xuan, Alexandre Bayen Abstract-- This article presents a mathematical framework

  17. Prototyping Fast, Simple, Secure Switches for Ethane Jianying Luo, Justin Pettit, Martin Casado, John Lockwood, Nick McKeown

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKeown, Nick

    Prototyping Fast, Simple, Secure Switches for Ethane Jianying Luo, Justin Pettit, Martin Casado proposed Ethane: A clean-slate approach to managing and securing enterprise networks. The goal of Ethane to manage. Ethane is built on the premise that the only way to manage and secure networks is to make sure we

  18. Source characteristics of volatile organic compounds during high ozone episodes in Hong Kong, Southern China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, J.; Wang, T.; Chameides, W. L; Cardelino, C.; Blake, D. R; Streets, D. G

    2008-01-01

    TO EPD sites Methane Ethane Propane n-butane i-butane n-to Source Category Species Ethane Propane n-butane i-butane9. Ratios of n-butane-to-ethane vs. propane-to-ethane from

  19. New insights into microbial responses to oil spills from the Deepwater Horizon incident

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mason, O.U.

    2012-01-01

    C. J. Villanueva (2010). "Propane respiration jump-startsin samples that exhibited propane and ethane anomalies (loss of both ethane and propane relative to methane

  20. Propane Fuel Basics | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested PartiesBuildingBudget || Department of Energy Projects SelectedofPropane

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Availability

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onPropane Rolls on as Reliable Fleet Fuel to someone

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Conversions

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onPropane Rolls on as Reliable Fleet Fuel to

  3. Titan's Prolific Propane: The Cassini CIRS Perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nixon, C A; Flaud, J -M; Bezard, B; Teanby, N A; Irwin, P G J; Ansty, T M; Coustenis, A; Vinatier, S; Flasar, F M; 10.1016/j.pss.2009.06.021

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we select large spectral averages of data from the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) obtained in limb-viewing mode at low latitudes (30S--30N), greatly increasing the path length and hence signal-to-noise ratio for optically thin trace species such as propane. By modeling and subtracting the emissions of other gas species, we demonstrate that at least six infrared bands of propane are detected by CIRS, including two not previously identified in Titan spectra. Using a new line list for the range 1300-1400cm -1, along with an existing GEISA list, we retrieve propane abundances from two bands at 748 and 1376 cm-1. At 748 cm-1 we retrieve 4.2 +/- 0.5 x 10(-7) (1-sigma error) at 2 mbar, in good agreement with previous studies, although lack of hotbands in the present spectral atlas remains a problem. We also determine 5.7 +/- 0.8 x 10(-7) at 2 mbar from the 1376 cm-1 band - a value that is probably affected by systematic errors including continuum gradients due to haze and also an imperf...

  4. Adsorptive separation of propylene-propane mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaervelin, H.; Fair, J.R. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States))

    1993-10-01

    The separation of propylene-propane mixtures is of great commercial importance and is carried out by fractional distillation. It is claimed to be the most energy-intensive distillation practiced in the United States. The purpose of this paper is to describe experimental work that suggests a practical alternative to distillation for separating the C[sub 3] hydrocarbons: adsorption. As studied, the process involves three adsorptive steps: initial separation with molecular sieves with heavy dilution with an inert gas; separation of propylene and propane separately from the inert gas, using activated carbon; and drying of the product streams with any of several available desiccants. The research information presented here deals with the initial step and includes both equilibrium and kinetic data. Isotherms are provided for propylene and propane adsorbed on three zeolites, activated alumina, silica gel, and coconut-based activated carbon. Breakthrough data are provided for both adsorption and regeneration steps for the zeolites, which were found to be superior to the other adsorbents for breakthrough separations. A flow diagram for the complete proposed process is included.

  5. Finding the missing stratospheric Bry: a global modeling study of CHBr3 and CH2Br2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    C-130 T0 T1 G1 Ethane Propane i-Butane n-Butane i-Pentane n-ppbv) Ethane Ethene Ethyne Propane Propene i-Butane n-Butanee.g. , ethane, ethene, propane, propane, methanol, ethanol,

  6. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    C-130 T0 T1 G1 Ethane Propane i-Butane n-Butane i-Pentane n-ppbv) Ethane Ethene Ethyne Propane Propene i-Butane n-Butanee.g. , ethane, ethene, propane, propane, methanol, ethanol,

  7. Table 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Marketing Annual 1998 Table 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Residual Fuel Oil by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) -...

  8. Table 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Marketing Annual 1999 Table 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Residual Fuel Oil by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) -...

  9. Metallurgical failure analysis of a propane tank boiling liquid...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Metallurgical failure analysis of a propane tank boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE). Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Metallurgical failure...

  10. Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Propane on Vanadium, Molybdenum, and Tungsten Oxides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Propane on Vanadium, Molybdenum catalysts confirmed that oxidative dehydrogenation of propane occurs via similar pathways, which involve for propane dehydrogenation and for propene combustion increase in the sequence VOx/ZrO2

  11. CONTRIBUTION A L'TUDE DES FLAMMES D'HYDROCARBURES. PROPANE ET ACTYLNE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    CONTRIBUTION A L'ÉTUDE DES FLAMMES D'HYDROCARBURES. PROPANE ET ACÉTYLÈNE Par MM. JEAN VAN DER POLL du propane et de l'acétylène qui ont montré que, dans certains cas, les flammes oxy-propane et oxy

  12. Mid-Infrared Ethane Emission on Neptune and Uranus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. B. Hammel; D. K. Lynch; R. W. Russell; M. L. Sitko; L. S. Bernstein; T. Hewagama

    2006-02-24

    We report 8- to 13-micron spectral observations of Neptune and Uranus from the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility spanning more than a decade. The spectroscopic data indicate a steady increase in Neptune's mean atmospheric 12-micron ethane emission from 1985 to 2003, followed by a slight decrease in 2004. The simplest explanation for the intensity variation is an increase in stratospheric effective temperature from 155 +/- 3 K in 1985 to 176 +/- 3 K in 2003 (an average rate of 1.2 K/year), and subsequent decrease to 165 +/- 3 K in 2004. We also detected variation of the overall spectral structure of the ethane band, specifically an apparent absorption structure in the central portion of the band; this structure arises from coarse spectral sampling coupled with a non-uniform response function within the detector elements. We also report a probable direct detection of ethane emission on Uranus. The deduced peak mole fraction is approximately an order of magnitude higher than previous upper limits for Uranus. The model fit suggests an effective temperature of 114 +/- 3 K for the globally-averaged stratosphere of Uranus, which is consistent with recent measurements indicative of seasonal variation.

  13. Emissions with butane/propane blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-11-01

    This article reports on various aspects of exhaust emissions from a light-duty car converted to operate on liquefied petroleum gas and equipped with an electrically heated catalyst. Butane and butane/propane blends have recently received attention as potentially useful alternative fuels. Butane has a road octane number of 92, a high blending vapor pressure, and has been used to upgrade octane levels of gasoline blends and improve winter cold starts. Due to reformulated gasoline requirements for fuel vapor pressure, however, industry has had to remove increasing amounts of butane form the gasoline pool. Paradoxically, butane is one of the cleanest burning components of gasoline.

  14. Propane/Propylene Days of Supply

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets160Product: Total Crude OilPropane update

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Emissions

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onPropane Rolls on as Reliable Fleet Fuel toEmissions to

  16. Ethane oxidative dehydrogenation pathways on vanadium oxide catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Argyle, Morris; Chen, Kaidong; Bell, Alexis T.; Iglesia, Enrique

    2001-12-10

    Kinetic and isotopic tracer and exchange measurements were used to determine the identity and reversibility of elementary steps involved in ethane oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) on VOx/Al2O3 and VOx/ZrO2. C2H6-C2D6-O2 and C2H6-D2O-O2 react to form alkenes and COx without concurrent formation of C2H6-xDx orC2H4-xDx isotopomers, suggesting that C-H bond cleavage in ethane and ethene is an irreversible and kinetically relevant step in ODH and combustion reactions. Primary ethane ODH reactions show normal kinetic isotopic effects (kC-H/kC-D 2.4); similar values were measured for ethane and ethene combustion(1.9 and 2.8, respectively). 16O2-18O2-C2H6 reactions on supported V16Ox domains led to the initial appearance of 16O from the lattice in H2O, CO, and CO2, consistent with the involvement of lattice oxygen in C-H bond activation steps. Isotopic contents are similar in H2O, CO, and CO2, suggesting that ODH and combustion reactions use similar lattice oxygen sites. No 16O-18O isotopomer s were detected during reactions of 16O2-18O2-C2H6 mixtures, as expected if dissociative O2 chemisorption steps were irreversible. The alkyl species formed in these steps desorb irreversibly as ethene and the resulting O-H groups recombine to form H2O and reduced V centers in reversible desorption steps. These reduced V centers reoxidize by irreversible dissociative chemisorption of O2. A pseudo-steady state analysis of these elementary steps together with these reversibility assumptions led to a rate expression that accurately describes the observed inhibition of ODH rates by water and the measured kinetic dependence of ODH rates on C2H6 and O2 pressures. This kinetic analysis suggests that surface oxygen, OH groups, and oxygen vacancies are the most abundant reactive intermediates during ethane ODH on active VOx domains.

  17. Ethane oxidative dehydrogenation pathways on vanadium oxide catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Argyle, Morris; Chen, Kaidong; Bell, Alexis T.; Iglesia, Enrique

    2001-12-10

    Kinetic and isotopic tracer and exchange measurements were used to determine the identity and reversibility of elementary steps involved in ethane oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) on VOx/Al2O3 and VOx/ZrO2. C2H6-C2D6-O2 and C2H6-D2O-O2 react to form alkenes and COx without concurrent formation of C2H6-xDx orC2H4-xDx isotopomers, suggesting that C-H bond cleavage in ethane and ethene is an irreversible and kinetically relevant step in ODH and combustion reactions. Primary ethane ODH reactions show normal kinetic isotopic effects (kC-H/kC-D) 2.4; similar values were measured for ethane and ethene combustion(1.9 and 2.8, respectively). 16O2-18O2-C2H6 reactions on supported V16Ox domains led to the initial appearance of 16O from the lattice in H2O, CO, and CO2, consistent with the involvement of lattice oxygen in C-H bond activation steps. Isotopic contents are similar in H2O, CO, and CO2, suggesting that ODH and combustion reactions use similar lattice oxygen sites. No 16O-18O isotopomer s were detected during reactions of 16O2-18O2-C2H6 mixtures, as expected if dissociative O2 chemisorption steps were irreversible. The alkyl species formed in these steps desorb irreversibly as ethene and the resulting O-H groups recombine to form H2O and reduced V centers in reversible desorption steps. These reduced V centers reoxidize by irreversible dissociative chemisorption of O2. A pseudo-steady state analysis of these elementary steps together with these reversibility assumptions led to a rate expression that accurately describes the observed inhibition of ODH rates by water and the measured kinetic dependence of ODH rates on C2H6 and O2 pressures. This kinetic analysis suggests that surface oxygen, OH groups, and oxygen vacancies are the most abundant reactive intermediates during ethane ODH on active VOx domains.

  18. Method for the removal of carbonyl sulfide from liquid propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClure, G.

    1980-06-17

    A method for the removal of carbonyl sulfide from liquid propane under liquid-liquid contact conditions by mixing liquid propane containing carbonyl sulfide as an impurity with 2-(2-aminoethoxy) ethanol as the principal agent for the carbonyl sulfide removal. The 2(2-aminoethoxy) ethanol is reclaimed and reused for further carbonyl sulfide removal. 5 claims.

  19. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulprathipanja, S.; Kulkarni, S.S.

    1986-08-26

    Polar gases such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and ammonia may be separated from nonpolar gases such as methane, nitrogen, hydrogen or carbon dioxide by passing a mixture of polar and nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The use of such membranes as exemplified by polyethylene glycol and silicon rubber composited on polysulfone will permit greater selectivity accompanied by a high flux rate in the separation process.

  20. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulprathipanja, Santi (Hoffman Estates, IL); Kulkarni, Sudhir S. (Hoffman Estates, IL)

    1986-01-01

    Polar gases such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and ammonia may be separated from nonpolar gases such as methane, nitrogen, hydrogen or carbon dioxide by passing a mixture of polar and nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The use of such membranes as exemplified by polyethylene glycol and silicon rubber composited on polysulfone will permit greater selectivity accompanied by a high flux rate in the separation process.

  1. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulprathipanja, Santi (Hoffman Estates, IL)

    1986-01-01

    The separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases may be effected by passing a mixture of nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The porous support is pretreated prior to casting of the mixture thereon by contact with a polyhydric alcohol whereby the pores of the support are altered, thus adding to the increased permeability of the polar gas.

  2. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulprathipanja, S.

    1986-08-19

    The separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases may be effected by passing a mixture of nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The porous support is pretreated prior to casting of the mixture thereon by contact with a polyhydric alcohol whereby the pores of the support are altered, thus adding to the increased permeability of the polar gas.

  3. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    MN, WI, ND, SD OK, KS, MO Total Liquefied Refinery Gases 382 8 390 2,072 157 116 2,345 EthaneEthylene 10 0 10 0 0 0 0 Ethane 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Ethylene 10 0 10 0 0 0 0 Propane...

  4. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    WI, ND, SD OK, KS, MO Total Liquefied Refinery Gases 331 -18 313 2,398 -147 -220 2,031 EthaneEthylene 12 0 12 0 0 0 0 Ethane 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Ethylene 12 0 12 0 0 0 0 Propane...

  5. PSA Vol 1 Tables Revised Ver 2 Print.xls

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    OK, KS, MO Total Liquefied Refinery Gases 14,825 298 15,123 33,928 1,840 2,446 38,214 EthaneEthylene 107 0 107 0 0 0 0 Ethane 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Ethylene 107 0 107 0 0 0 0 Propane...

  6. Ethane ignition and oxidation behind reflected shock waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de Vries, Jaap; Hall, Joel M.; Simmons, Stefanie L.; Kalitan, Danielle M.; Petersen, Eric L.; Rickard, Matthew J.A.

    2007-07-15

    Several diluted C{sub 2}H{sub 6}/O{sub 2}/Ar mixtures of varying concentrations and equivalence ratios (0.5<{phi}<2.0) were studied at temperatures between 1218 and 1860 K and at pressures between 0.57 and 3.0 atm using a shock tube. The argon dilution ranged from 91 to 98% by volume. Reaction progress was monitored using chemiluminescence emission from OH{sup *} and CH{sup *} at 307 and 431 nm, respectively. The dependence of ignition delay time on temperature, activation energy, and reactant concentrations is given in a master correlation of all the experimental data. The overall activation energy was found to be 39.6 kcal/mol over the range of conditions studied. For the first time in a shock-tube C{sub 2}H{sub 6} oxidation study, detailed species profile data and quantitative OH{sup *} time histories were documented, in addition to ignition delay times, and compared against modern detailed mechanisms. Because of the comprehensive scope of the present study and the high precision of the experimental data, several conclusions can be drawn that could not have been reached from earlier studies. Although there is some discrepancy among previous ethane oxidation data, the present work clearly shows the convergence of ignition delay time measurements to those herein and the remarkable accuracy of current kinetics models over most of the parameter space explored, despite the variation in the literature data. However, two areas shown to still need more measurements and better modeling are those of higher pressures and fuel-rich ethane-air mixtures. After appropriate OH{sup *} and CH{sup *} submechanisms are added, two modern chemical kinetics mechanisms containing high-temperature ethane chemistry are compared to the data to gauge the current state of C{sub 2}H{sub 6} oxidation modeling over the conditions of this study. The reproduction of the OH{sup *} and CH{sup *} profiles, together with {tau}{sub ign} predictions by these models, are compared against the profiles and ignition times found in the experimental data. The models are then used to identify some key reactions in ethane oxidation and CH formation under the conditions of this study. (author)

  7. SHARKOVSKII TYPE OF CYCLES Alexander M. Blokh and Ethan M. Coven

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blokh, Alexander

    SHARKOVSKII TYPE OF CYCLES Alexander M. Blokh and Ethan M. Coven Abstract. The Sharkovskii type and support. Typeset by AMS-TEX 1 #12;2 ALEXANDER M. BLOKH AND ETHAN M. COVEN 3 >S 5 >S 7 >S · · · >S 2 · 3 >S

  8. Solubilities of ethane in aqueous solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate at elevated pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, P.; Han, B.; Yan, H.; Liu, R.

    1995-10-01

    The solubilities of ethane in aqueous solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were measured at 313.15 K and at pressures up to 3 MPa. The molalities of SDS (m{sub SDS}) in the aqueous solution were 0.0000, 0.0020, 0.0040, 0.0060, 0.0070, 0.0080, 0.0090, 0.0100, 0.0126, 0.0150, 0.0200, and 0.0300. The effect of SDS on the gas solubility in both concentration regions below and above the critical micelle concentration (cmc) was studied. The existence of the micelles of SDS in the solution is favorable to the dissolution of ethane due to the hydrocarbon-like interior of the micelles. The solubilities of ethane in each micelle at different pressures were evaluated based on some assumptions. It was found that the intramicellar solubility of ethane is less than that of the gas in n-dodecane. It was also found that the solubility of ethane in the micelles increases linearly with the partial pressure of ethane. The cmc of SDS was evaluated based on the solubility vs m{sub SDS} curves and the effect of dissolved ethane on the cmc was studied. It was observed that the cmc shifts toward a higher value with the increase in dissolved ethane.

  9. Assessing Affinity Between Users and CDN Sites Ethan Katz-Bassett2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heidemann, John

    Assessing Affinity Between Users and CDN Sites Xun Fan1,2 Ethan Katz-Bassett2 John Heidemann1,2 1: USC/Information Sciences Institute 2: USC/Computer Science Dept. xunfan@usc.edu ethan.kb@usc.edu johnh

  10. LIQUID PROPANE GAS (LPG) STORAGE AREA BOILING LIQUID EXPANDING VAPOR EXPLOSION (BLEVE) ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PACE, M.E.

    2004-01-13

    The PHA and the FHAs for the SWOC MDSA (HNF-14741) identified multiple accident scenarios in which vehicles powered by flammable gases (e.g., propane), or combustible or flammable liquids (e.g., gasoline, LPG) are involved in accidents that result in an unconfined vapor cloud explosion (UVCE) or in a boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE), respectively. These accident scenarios are binned in the Bridge document as FIR-9 scenarios. They are postulated to occur in any of the MDSA facilities. The LPG storage area will be in the southeast corner of CWC that is relatively remote from store distaged MAR. The location is approximately 30 feet south of MO-289 and 250 feet east of 2401-W by CWC Gate 10 in a large staging area for unused pallets and equipment.

  11. J. CHEM. SOC. DALTON TRANS. 1984 2789 12-Bis(dimethy1phosphino)ethane (dmpe) Alkyl Compounds of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Girolami, Gregory S.

    J. CHEM. SOC. DALTON TRANS. 1984 2789 12-Bis(dimethy1phosphino)ethane (dmpe) Alkyl Compounds, London El 4NS The reaction of ZrCl,(dmpe), [dmpe = 1,2-bis(dirnethylphosphino)ethane] with excess MgMe2Me, showed that TiMe.,(dmpe) [dmpe = I ,2-bis(dimethyIphosphino)ethane] was much more thermally stable than

  12. Kinetics and Mechanism of Ethane Oxidation to Acetic Acid on Catalysts Based on Mo-V-Nb Oxides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    Kinetics and Mechanism of Ethane Oxidation to Acetic Acid on Catalysts Based on Mo-V-Nb Oxides and isotopic studies showed that C-H bond activation in ethane by surfaces essentially saturated with lattice oxygens is the sole kinetically relevant step in ethane oxidation on Mo-V-NbOx mixed oxides

  13. Theoretical and kinetic assessment of the mechanism of ethane hydrogenolysis on metal surfaces saturated with chemisorbed hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    Theoretical and kinetic assessment of the mechanism of ethane hydrogenolysis on metal surfaces Hydrogenation Ring opening a b s t r a c t Ethane hydrogenolysis involves C­C bond rupture in unsaturated predominantly via an a,b-bound à CHCHà species that forms via sequential dehydrogenation of adsorbed ethane; all

  14. Soot formation in laminar ethane diffusion flames at pressures from 0.2 to 3.3 MPa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gülder, Ömer L.

    Soot formation in laminar ethane diffusion flames at pressures from 0.2 to 3.3 MPa Paul M formation and the structure of the temperature field were studied in co-flow ethane-air laminar diffusion; Laminar ethane diffusion flame; Pressure depen- dence of soot formation; Temperature of high

  15. J. Phys. Chem. 1988, 92, 6179-6182 6179 TABLE 111: Relative Concentrations of Ethanes and Ethylenes in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simons, Jack

    J. Phys. Chem. 1988, 92, 6179-6182 6179 TABLE 111: Relative Concentrations of Ethanes and Ethylenes.1. By difference. other ethane and CD2CH2is,the only other ethylene, the con- tribution of these species may that ethane is the source of the ethylene since the distribution of the deuteriated ethylenes

  16. Effects of O2 Concentration on the Rate and Selectivity in Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Ethane Catalyzed by Vanadium Oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    Effects of O2 Concentration on the Rate and Selectivity in Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Ethane monovanadates. Cofeed and staged-O2 introduction modes led to similar ethane dehydrogenation and combustion introduced gradually as ethane conversion increased. These effects reflect inhibition of homogeneous ethene

  17. Ethane Oxidative Dehydrogenation Pathways on Vanadium Oxide Catalysts Morris D. Argyle, Kaidong Chen, Alexis T. Bell,* and Enrique Iglesia*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    Ethane Oxidative Dehydrogenation Pathways on Vanadium Oxide Catalysts Morris D. Argyle, Kaidong to determine the identity and reversibility of elementary steps involved in ethane oxidative dehydrogenation concurrent formation of C2H6-xDx or C2H4-xDx isotopomers, suggesting that C-H bond cleavage in ethane

  18. Oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) of ethane with O2 as oxidant on selected transition metal-loaded zeolites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.

    Oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) of ethane with O2 as oxidant on selected transition metal Accepted 14 April 2009 Available online 17 May 2009 Keywords: Oxidative dehydrogenation Ethane Ethylene of ethane (ODHE) to ethylene were characterized. Acidic Ni-loaded Y zeolite exhibits an ethylene

  19. Ethan Burns (UNH) Abstraction in Multicore Heuristic Search 1 / 31 Parallel Best-First Search: The Role of Abstraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruml, Wheeler

    Ethan Burns (UNH) Abstraction in Multicore Heuristic Search ­ 1 / 31 Parallel Best-First Search: The Role of Abstraction Ethan Burns1, Sofia Lemons1, Wheeler Ruml1 and Rong Zhou2 1 2 [Many thanks to NSF s Best-first Search s Parallel Search PRA* PBNF Optimal Search Suboptimal Search Conclusion Ethan Burns

  20. VEE-0040- In the Matter of Western Star Propane, Inc.

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On February 18, 1997, Western Star Propane, Inc. (Western) filed an Application for Exception with the Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA) of the Department of Energy (DOE). In its application,...

  1. VEE-0060- In the Matter of Blakeman Propane, Inc.

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On May 11, 1999, Blakeman Propane, Inc. (Blakeman) of Moorcroft, Wyoming, filed an Application for Exception with the Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA) of the Department of Energy (DOE). In its...

  2. Microsoft Word - Joe Rose - Providence remarks.propane.JUR -...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and the greater Northeast. These include: The critical need for additional primary storage in the Northeast New England sells 7% of the nation's propane but has only 1% of the...

  3. Applications of Density Functional Theory and Absolutely Localized Molecular Orbital Energy Decomposition Analysis: Intermolecular Interactions in Rhenium-Alkane s-Complexes and in Water Clusters and Reaction Energy Profiles of Methane Hydroxylation Mediated by Quantum Models of p-MMO Active Sites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cobar, Erika Ann

    2011-01-01

    ethane, n-propane, n- butane, n-pentane, n-hexane, and n-H Dist. Methane Ethane Propane Butane Pentane Hexane HeptaneDist. Methane Ethane Propane Butane Pentane Hexane Heptane

  4. Dehydrogenation of Light Alkanes over Supported Pt Catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Jason

    2015-01-01

    as seen for both ethane and propane dehydrogenation over Pt/was investigated for ethane and propane dehydrogenation.O Chapter 5: Ethane and Propane Dehydrogenation over PtIr/

  5. Ionization of ethane, butane, and octane in strong laser fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palaniyappan, Sasi; Mitchell, Rob; Ekanayake, N.; Watts, A. M.; White, S. L.; Sauer, Rob; Howard, L. E.; Videtto, M.; Mancuso, C.; Wells, S. J.; Stanev, T.; Wen, B. L.; Decamp, M. F.; Walker, B. C.

    2010-10-15

    Strong-field photoionization of ethane, butane, and octane are reported at intensities from 10{sup 14} to 10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2}. The molecular fragment ions, C{sup +} and C{sup 2+}, are created in an intensity window from 10{sup 14} to 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2} and have intensity-dependent yields similar to the molecular fragments C{sub m}H{sub n}{sup +} and C{sub m}H{sub n}{sup 2+}. In the case of C{sup +}, the yield is independent of the molecular parent chain length. The ionization of more tightly bound valence electrons in carbon (C{sup 3+} and C{sup 4+}) has at least two contributing mechanisms, one influenced by the parent molecule size and one resulting from the tunneling ionization of the carbon ion.

  6. Sorption of Methane and Ethane on Belgian Black Shale Using a Manometric Setup

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirpka, Olaf Arie

    Sorption of Methane and Ethane on Belgian Black Shale Using a Manometric Setup Naeeme Danesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2 Fundamentals 3 2.1 Shales.1.2 Shale characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.1.3 Shale gas

  7. Large-Scale Computational Screening of Zeolites for Ethane/Ethene Separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, J; Lin, LC; Martin, RL; Swisher, JA; Haranczyk, M; Smit, B

    2012-08-14

    Large-scale computational screening of thirty thousand zeolite structures was conducted to find optimal structures for seperation of ethane/ethene mixtures. Efficient grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations were performed with graphics processing units (GPUs) to obtain pure component adsorption isotherms for both ethane and ethene. We have utilized the ideal adsorbed solution theory (LAST) to obtain the mixture isotherms, which were used to evaluate the performance of each zeolite structure based on its working capacity and selectivity. In our analysis, we have determined that specific arrangements of zeolite framework atoms create sites for the preferential adsorption of ethane over ethene. The majority of optimum separation materials can be identified by utilizing this knowledge and screening structures for the presence of this feature will enable the efficient selection of promising candidate materials for ethane/ethene separation prior to performing molecular simulations.

  8. Evaluation of ethane as a power conversion system working fluid for fast reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Jeffrey A

    2008-01-01

    A supercritical ethane working fluid Brayton power conversion system is evaluated as an alternative to carbon dioxide. The HSC® chemical kinetics code was used to study thermal dissociation and chemical interactions for ...

  9. Recent decreases in fossil-fuel emissions of ethane and methane derived from firn air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    Recent decreases in fossil-fuel emissions of ethane andp.p.b. since 1900 28 . Fossil-fuel, biofuel and biomass-the total emissions. The fossil-fuel emission histories for

  10. Control of pollutants in flue gases and fuel gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    Control of pollutants in flue gases and fuel gases Ron Zevenhoven Helsinki University of Technology Programme Solid Fuel Committee Ås, Norway Helsinki University of Technology Espoo, Finland #12;limited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3 Chapter 2 Flue gases and fuel gases 2.1 Introduction

  11. Consequences of propene and propane on plasma remediation of NOx Rajesh Doraia)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kushner, Mark

    Consequences of propene and propane on plasma remediation of NOx Rajesh Doraia) Department exhausts with hydrocarbons propane (C3H8) and propene (C3H6) has been investigated. In general

  12. Emissions from In-Use NG, Propane, and Diesel Fueled Heavy Duty...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    In-Use NG, Propane, and Diesel Fueled Heavy Duty Vehicles Emissions from In-Use NG, Propane, and Diesel Fueled Heavy Duty Vehicles Emissions tests of in-use heavy-duty vehicles...

  13. Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks for Kinetic Separation of Propane and David H. Olson,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jing

    Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks for Kinetic Separation of Propane and Propene Kunhao Li, David H the first examples of MMOFs that are capable of kinetic separation of propane and propene (propylene), which

  14. Propane-Diesel Dual Fuel for CO2 and Nox Reduction | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Propane-Diesel Dual Fuel for CO2 and Nox Reduction Propane-Diesel Dual Fuel for CO2 and Nox Reduction Test results show significant CO2 and NOx emission reductions, fuel economy...

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane School Buses Launched in Gloucester

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O O D S TA IMarylandOrleans Propane PowersPropane

  16. Propane Vehicle and Infrastructure Codes and Standards Chart (Revised) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    This chart shows the SDOs responsible for leading the support and development of key codes and standards for propane.

  17. Vitiated ethane oxidation in a high-pressure flow reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walters, K.M.; Bowman, C.T.

    2009-10-15

    Vitiated combustion processes offer the potential to improve the thermodynamic efficiency in hydrocarbon-fueled combustion systems, providing a subsequent decrease in energy-specific CO{sub 2} emissions along with a decrease in the emission levels of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and particulate matter. The present work comprises an experimental and modeling study of vitiated ethane oxidation in a high-pressure flow reactor, with pressures of 1-6 bar, O{sub 2} mole fractions of 3.5-7.0%, temperatures of 1075-1100 K and 15-18 mole.% H{sub 2}O. Time-history measurements of species are used to characterize the overall rate of reaction and track the fuel-carbon through intermediate and product species. A one-dimensional mixing-reacting model that accounts for partial oxidation during reactant mixing is used in conjunction with a detailed kinetic mechanism. Changes in competing pathways due to variations in pressure and O{sub 2} mole fraction give rise to the complex pressure dependence seen in the experiments. (author)

  18. CASSINI VIMS OBSERVATIONS SHOW ETHANE IS PRESENT IN TITAN'S RAINFALL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dalba, Paul A.; Buratti, Bonnie J.; Baines, Kevin H.; Sotin, Christophe; Lawrence, Kenneth J.; Brown, Robert H.; Barnes, Jason W.; Clark, Roger N.; Nicholson, Philip D.

    2012-12-20

    Observations obtained over two years by the Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem suggest that rain showers fall on the surface. Using measurements obtained by the Visual Infrared Mapping Spectrometer, we identify the main component of the rain to be ethane, with methane as an additional component. We observe five or six probable rainfall events, at least one of which follows a brief equatorial cloud appearance, suggesting that frequent rainstorms occur on Titan. The rainfall evaporates, sublimates, or infiltrates on timescales of months, and in some cases it is associated with fluvial features but not with their creation or alteration. Thus, Titan exhibits frequent 'gentle rainfall' instead of, or in addition to, more catastrophic events that cut rivers and lay down large fluvial deposits. Freezing rain may also be present, and the standing liquid may exist as puddles interspersed with patches of frost. The extensive dune deposits found in the equatorial regions of Titan imply multi-season arid conditions there, which are consistent with small, but possibly frequent, amounts of rain, in analogy to terrestrial deserts.

  19. Fourier transform microwave spectrum of the propane-water complex: A prototypical water-hydrophobe system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    Fourier transform microwave spectrum of the propane-water complex: A prototypical water) The Fourier transform microwave spectrum of the propane-water complex (C3H,-H,O) has been observed and analyzed. This spectrum includes transitions assigned to propane complexed with both the ortho and para

  20. A KINETIC STUDY OF AEROBIC PROPANE UPTAKE AND COMETABOLIC DEGRADATION OF CHLOROFORM,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Semprini, Lewis

    A KINETIC STUDY OF AEROBIC PROPANE UPTAKE AND COMETABOLIC DEGRADATION OF CHLOROFORM, CIS the behavior of different consortiums of aerobic propane-utilizing microorganisms, with respect to both the lag time for growth after exposure to propane, and their ability to transform three chlorinated aliphatic

  1. High propylene/propane adsorption selectivity in a copper(catecholate)-decorated porous organic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High propylene/propane adsorption selectivity in a copper(catecholate)-decorated porous organic and propane isotherms measured at ambient temperatures and ideal adsorption solution theory (IAST) calculations revealed increasing propylene/propane selectivities with increasing pressures. The eld of highly

  2. Computational Study of Propylene and Propane Binding in Metal-Organic Frameworks Containing Highly Exposed Cu+

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Computational Study of Propylene and Propane Binding in Metal- Organic Frameworks Containing Highly than propane, suggesting their utility in adsorption separations. The nature of the propylene challenging problems in the field of separations is the separation of propane/propylene mixtures. Propylene

  3. PROPANE -C3H8 MSDS (Document # 001045) PAGE 1 OF 8 MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Kyu Yong

    PROPANE - C3H8 MSDS (Document # 001045) PAGE 1 OF 8 MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET Prepared to U in an emergency? 1. PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION CHEMICAL NAME; CLASS: PROPANE - C3H8 Document Number: 001045 PRODUCT IN AIR ACGIH OSHA TLV STEL PEL STEL IDLH OTHER ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm Propane 74-98-6 > 96.0 Simple

  4. Isotopic Tracer Studies of Reaction Pathways for Propane Oxidative Dehydrogenation on Molybdenum Oxide Catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    Isotopic Tracer Studies of Reaction Pathways for Propane Oxidative Dehydrogenation on Molybdenum of propane over ZrO2-supported MoOx catalysts. Competitive reactions of C3H6 and CH3 13 CH2CH3 showed combustion of propene, or by direct combustion of propane. A mixture of C3H8 and C3D8 undergoes oxidative

  5. Dehydrogenation of Propane to Propylene over Supported Model NiAu Catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Wayne

    Dehydrogenation of Propane to Propylene over Supported Model Ni­Au Catalysts Zhen Yan · Yunxi Yao 2012 Ó Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012 Abstract Hydrogenolysis and dehydrogenation of propane. For the conversionofpropane in the presence of hydrogen, the dehydrogenation of propane to propylene was observed onthe Ni

  6. Catalytic Properties of Supported MoO3 Catalysts for Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Propane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    Catalytic Properties of Supported MoO3 Catalysts for Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Propane Kaidong The effects of MoOx structure on propane oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) rates and selectivity were examined with those obtained on MoOx/ZrO2. On MoOx/Al2O3 catalysts, propane turnover rate increased with increasing Mo

  7. Coleman Two Burner Stove The Coleman Matchlight 2-Burner Propane Stove is especially designed for outdoor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Lawrence R.

    Coleman Two Burner Stove The Coleman Matchlight 2-Burner Propane Stove is especially designed-burner propane stove has a high-pressure regulator that ensures a constant flame regardless of weather propane stove has a removable nickel-chrome-plated grate that makes for easy cleaning. The aluminized

  8. Experimental Study of Propane-Fueled Pulsed Detonation Rocket Frank K. Lu,* Jason M. Meyers,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Arlington, University of

    1 Experimental Study of Propane-Fueled Pulsed Detonation Rocket Frank K. Lu,* Jason M. Meyers in comparison to cases without the spiral. Tests through a range of cycle frequencies up to 20 Hz in oxygen-propane spiral in a pulsed detonation engine operating with propane and oxygen. A high-energy igniter is used

  9. Ceramic microreactors for on-site hydrogen production from high temperature steam reforming of propane{

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenis, Paul J. A.

    of propane{ Christian, Michael Mitchell and Paul J. A. Kenis* Received 31st May 2006, Accepted 10th August of propane into hydrogen at temperatures between 800 and 1000 uC. We characterized these microreactors. Kinetic analysis using a power law model showed reaction orders of 0.50 and 20.23 with respect to propane

  10. Functional Characterization of Propane-Enhanced N-Nitrosodimethylamine Degradation by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    ARTICLE Functional Characterization of Propane-Enhanced N-Nitrosodimethylamine Degradation by Two: Propane-induced cometabolic degradation of n-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) by two propanotrophs is characterized through kinetic, gene presence, and expression studies. After growth on propane, resting cells

  11. Ionization Spectroscopy of Conformational Isomers of Propanal: The Origin of the Conformational Preference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Sang Kyu

    Ionization Spectroscopy of Conformational Isomers of Propanal: The Origin of the Conformational conformational isomers of propanal, cis and gauche, are investigated by the vacuum-UV mass- analyzed thresholdV and 9.9516 ( 0.0006 eV, respectively. cis-Propanal, which is the more stable conformer in the neutral

  12. Improved Product-Per-Glucose Yields in P450-Dependent Propane Biotransformations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Frances H.

    ARTICLE Improved Product-Per-Glucose Yields in P450-Dependent Propane Biotransformations Using propane monooxygenase prepared by directed evolu- tion [P450PMOR2; Fasan et al. (2007); Angew Chem Int Ed of the energy source (glucose) in the propane biotransformation com- pared to the native E. coli strain. Using

  13. Structural and dynamic properties of propane coordinated to TpRh(CNR) from a confrontation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, William D.

    Structural and dynamic properties of propane coordinated to TpRh(CNR) from a confrontation between] in interaction with propane. Two complexes have been found as minima coordinated through either a methyl the methylene complex of propane into a methyl complex of pro- pane. This latter reaction has a much lower

  14. Layering and orientational ordering of propane on graphite: An experimental and simulation study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borguet, Eric

    Layering and orientational ordering of propane on graphite: An experimental and simulation study 2002; accepted 30 July 2002 We report the results of an experimental and theoretical study of propane and experiments show that propane adsorbs in a layer-by-layer fashion and exhibits continuous growth beyond

  15. Absorption du rayonnement 12 et 8 millimtres par les vapeurs de propane sous pression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Absorption du rayonnement 12 et 8 millimètres par les vapeurs de propane sous pression A. Battaglia des pertes diélectriques (03B5") présentées par le propane gazeux aux fréquences de 24 et 36 GHz, à la Birnbaum. Abstract. 2014 Experimental study of dielectric losses (03B5") presented by gaseous propane

  16. "Nanocrystal bilayer for tandem catalysis"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamada, Yusuke

    2012-01-01

    Part VI. Hydrogenolysis of Ethane, Propane, n-Butane andactivation energy for ethane hydrogenolysis over platinum-such as propanol or ethane was less than the detection

  17. J. CHEM. SOC. DALTON TRANS. 1985 685 Synthesis and Characterisation of 1.2-Bis(dimethylphosphino)ethane (dmpe)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Girolami, Gregory S.

    J. CHEM. SOC. DALTON TRANS. 1985 685 Synthesis and Characterisation of 1.2-Bis(dimethylphosphino)ethane The reduction of trans-CrCl,(dmpe), [dmpe = 1,2- bis(dimethylphosphino)ethane] in tetrahydrofuran by sodium the A sites [Cr-H 1.57(3) A]. In a preliminary note' we have described some 1,2-bis- (dimethy1phosphino)ethane

  18. Direct observation of surface ethyl to ethane interconversion upon C2H4 hydrogenation over Pt/Al2O3 catalyst by time-resolved FT-IR spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wasylenko, Walter; Frei, Heinz

    2004-01-01

    Figure 7: Prompt growth of ethane upon C 2 H 4 hydrogenationratio corresponds to the ethane absorbance of the first timeObservation of Surface Ethyl to Ethane Interconversion upon

  19. Zeolitic imidazolate frameworks for kinetic separation of propane and propene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Jing; Li, Kunhao; Olson, David H.

    2014-08-05

    Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks (ZIFs) characterized by organic ligands consisting of imidazole ligands that are either essentially all 2-chloroimidazole ligands or essentially all 2-bromoimidazole ligands are disclosed. Methods for separating propane and propene with the ZIFs of the present invention, as well as other ZIFs, are also disclosed.

  20. Cuprous-chloride-modified nanoporous alumina membranes for ethylene-ethane separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Y.S.; Wang, Y.; Ji, W.; Higgins, R.J.

    1999-06-01

    This paper reports an attempt to synthesize a CuCl-modified {gamma}-alumina membrane for separation of ethylene from ethane. CuCl was effectively coated in the 4 nm pore {gamma}-alumina top layers of disk-shaped and tubular alumina membranes by the reservoir method. Permeation of a single gas and binary mixture of ethylene and ethane was measured to characterize separation properties of the modified membranes. Pure ethylene permeance of the CuCl-modified membrane is 10--40% lower than that predicted from the pure ethane permeance by the Knudsen theory. This result is explained by a model based on the adsorbed layer of ethylene via {pi}-complexation. Such an adsorbed layer hinders the diffusion of ethylene in the nanopores of CuCl-modified {gamma}-alumina. Multiple gas permeation measurements on the CuCl-modified membranes show a separation factor for ethylene over ethane larger than the Knudsen value. This confirms a positive contribution of the surface flow of ethylene to the permeance of ethylene in the multiple gas permeation system. A maximum separation factor for ethylene over ethane of 1.4 is obtained for the CuCl-modified membrane at 60 C.

  1. Experimental comparison of hot water/propane injection to steam/propane injection for recovery of heavy oil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nesse, Thomas

    2005-02-17

    , attempts have been made to inject hot water instead of steam. The results have all been rather poor, the major problem being low sweep efficiency. The hot water just doesn?t enhance oil recovery enough. Adding propane to the steam injected in the reservoir...

  2. Isotopic Tracer Studies of Propane Reactions on H-ZSM5 Zeolite Joseph A. Biscardi and Enrique Iglesia*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    Isotopic Tracer Studies of Propane Reactions on H-ZSM5 Zeolite Joseph A. Biscardi and Enrique unlabeled products from mixtures of propene and propane-2-13C reactants. Aromatic products of propane-2-13C-Parmer) that allowed differential reactor operation (propane reactions were

  3. Effect of a current polarisation on BIMEVOX membranes for oxidation of propane in a Catalytic Dense Membrane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effect of a current polarisation on BIMEVOX membranes for oxidation of propane in a Catalytic Dense of propane under OCV and under electrical bias. The propane conversion remained constantly equal to 12 by partial oxidation and oxidative dehydrogenation of propane, respectively. An anodic polarisation led

  4. Chemical modification of porous silicon for the detection of explosive gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Danny Yuan

    2012-01-01

    signal-to-noise ratio for 2% ethane as a function of carbonsilica as a function of ethane concentration…………………45 Figurecomposites as a function of ethane, ethylene, and acetylene

  5. Guidance Document CompressedGases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    gases are toxic, flammable, pyrophoric, or corrosive. Liquefied compressed gases (cryogenic liquids of exposure may be delayed. Cold "Burns": Rapidly escaping gas from a cylinder can cause destruction freezing

  6. Supporting Information UV-Responsive Degradable Polymers Derived from 1-(4-Aminophenyl)ethane-1, 2-diol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Jianjun

    S1 Supporting Information UV-Responsive Degradable Polymers Derived from 1-(4-Aminophenyl)ethane-1 of synthesized compounds (Fig. S6-S20) S16 #12;S2 Scheme S1. Synthesis of polyBoc Synthesis of 1-(4-aminophenyl)ethane

  7. Gold(I) chloride adducts of 1,3-bis(di-2-pyridylphosphino)propane: synthesis, structural studies and antitumour activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Humphreys, Anthony S.; Filipovska, Aleksandra; Berners-Price, Susan J.; Koutsantonis, George A.; Skelton, Brian W.; White, Allan H.

    2008-06-30

    The novel water soluble bidentate phosphine ligand 1,3-bis(di-2-pyridylphosphino)propane (d2pypp) has been synthesized by a convenient route involving treatment of 2-pyridyllithium with Cl{sub 2}P(CH{sub 2}){sub 3}PCl{sub 2} and isolation in crystalline form as the hydrochloride salt. The synthesis of the precursor Cl{sub 2}P(CH{sub 2}){sub 3}PCl{sub 2} has been optimized by the use of triphosgene as the chlorinating agent. The 2:1 and 1:2 AuCl:d2pypp adducts have been synthesized and characterized by NMR spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray studies, and shown to be of the form (AuCl){sub 2}({mu}-d2pypp-P,P{prime}) and Au(d2pypp-P,P{prime}){sub 2}Cl(-3.75H{sub 2}O), respectively. The latter is more lipophilic than analogous 1:2 adducts of gold(I) chloride with the diphosphine ligands 1,2-bis(di-n-pyridylphosphino)ethane (dnpype) for n = 2, 3 and 4, based on measurement of the n-octanol-water partition coefficient (log P = -0.46). A single crystal structure determination of the 1:2 Au(I) complex of the 3-pyridyl ethane ligand shows it to be of the form [Au(d3pype-P,P{prime}){sub 2}]Cl {center_dot} 5H{sub 2}O. The in vitro cytotoxic activity of [Au(d2pypp){sub 2}]Cl was assessed in human normal and cancer breast cells and selective toxicity to the cancer cells found. The significance of these results to the antitumour properties of chelated 1:2 Au(I) diphosphine complexes is discussed.

  8. Shock-tube and modeling study of ethane pyrolysis and oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hidaka, Yoshiaki; Sato, Kazutaka; Hoshikawa, Hiroki; Nishimori, Toshihide; Takahashi, Rie; Tanaka, Hiroya; Inami, Koji; Ito, Nobuhiro

    2000-02-01

    Pyrolysis and oxidation of ethane were studied behind reflected shock waves in the temperature range 950--1,900 K at pressures of 1.2--4.0 atm. Ethane decay rates in both pyrolysis and oxidation were measured using time-resolved infrared (IR) laser absorption at 3.39 {micro}m, and CO{sub 2} production rates in oxidation were measured by time-resolved thermal IR emission at 4.24 {micro}m. The product yields were also determined using a single-pulse method. The pyrolysis and oxidation of ethane were modeled using a reaction mechanism with 157 reaction steps and 48 species including the most recent submechanisms for formaldehyde, ketene, methane, acetylene, and ethylene oxidation. The present and previously reported shock tube data were reproduced using this mechanism. The rate constants of the reactions C{sub 2}H{sub 6} {yields} CH{sub 3} + CH{sub 3}, C{sub 2}H{sub 5} + H {yields} H{sub 2} and C{sub 2}H{sub 5} + O{sub 2} {yields} C{sub 2}H{sub 4} + HO{sub 2} were evaluated. These reactions were important in predicting the previously reported and the present data, which were for mixture compositions ranging from ethane-rich (including ethane pyrolysis) to ethane-lean. The evaluated rate constants of the reactions C{sub 2}H{sub 5} + H {yields} C{sub 2}H{sub 4} + H{sub 2} and C{sub 2}H{sub 5} + O{sub 2} {yields} C{sub 2}H{sub 4} + HO{sub 2} were found to be significantly different from currently accepted values.

  9. Structural Transitions of Electrosprayed Ubiquitin Ions Stored in an Ion Trap over 10 ms Sunnie Myung, Ethan R. Badman, Young Jin Lee, and David E. Clemmer*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clemmer, David E.

    s Sunnie Myung, Ethan R. Badman, Young Jin Lee, and David E. Clemmer* Department of Chemistry, Indiana Uni

  10. Radical addition reactions of uorinated species. Part 7. Highly selective two-step synthesis of 1-(polyuoroalkyl)ethane-1,2-diols; regioselectivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirkva, Vladimir

    -(poly¯uoroalkyl)ethane-1,2-diols; regioselectivity of the additions of methylated 1,3-dioxolanes to per (1), a protected ethane-1,2-diol, to per¯uoroalk-1-enes RF±CF=CF2 (RF=CF3, C9F19; 2, 3) and per-addition; Hydrolysis of ¯uoroalkylated 1,3-dioxolanes; 1-(Poly¯uoroalkyl)ethane-1,2-diols; 1-(Poly-¯uoroalkyl)ethane-1

  11. Visible absorption spectra of crystal violet in supercritical ethane - methanol solution.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dimitrijevic, N. M.; Takahashi, K.; Jonah, C. D.; Chemistry

    2002-11-01

    The effects of concentration and mole fraction of methanol in supercritical ethane on the absorption spectra of crystal violet (CV) were examined. Keeping the concentration of CV in the cell constant at 50 {mu}mol l{sup -1}, both the methanol concentration (from 0.4 to 1.2 mol l{sup -1}) and pressure of ethane (from 60 to 150 bar) were varied. The degree of solvation of CV depends both on the mole fraction and concentration of cosolvent. The dimerization of CV was found to decrease with pressure, and with the ratio between methanol and CV concentrations.

  12. Ethan Burns (UNH) Heuristic Search for Multi-Core 1 / 25 Best-First Heuristic Search for Multi-Core Machines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruml, Wheeler

    Ethan Burns (UNH) Heuristic Search for Multi-Core ­ 1 / 25 Best-First Heuristic Search for Multi-Core Machines Ethan Burns1, Seth Lemons1, Rong Zhou2 and Wheeler Ruml1 1 2 [NSF grant IIS-0812141] #12 Evaluation Conclusion Ethan Burns (UNH) Heuristic Search for Multi-Core ­ 2 / 25 Now we're into the explicit

  13. Ethane dehydrogenation on Pt/Mg(Al)O and PtSn/Mg(Al)O catalysts Vladimir Galvita, Georges Siddiqi, Pingping Sun, Alexis T. Bell *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, Alexis

    Ethane dehydrogenation on Pt/Mg(Al)O and PtSn/Mg(Al)O catalysts Vladimir Galvita, Georges Siddiqi(Al)O Dehydrogenation Alkanes Alkenes a b s t r a c t The dehydrogenation of ethane to ethene on Sn-promoted Pt for dehydrogenation, and the formation of coke. The origins of methane, the primary byproduct of ethane

  14. Ethan Burns (UNH) Iterative-deepening Search with On-line Tree Size Prediction 1 / 30 Iterative-deepening Search with On-line Tree Size Prediction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruml, Wheeler

    Ethan Burns (UNH) Iterative-deepening Search with On-line Tree Size Prediction ­ 1 / 30 Iterative-deepening Search with On-line Tree Size Prediction Ethan Burns and Wheeler Ruml {eaburns, ruml} at cs Evaluation Ethan Burns (UNH) Iterative-deepening Search with On-line Tree Size Prediction ­ 2 / 30 On

  15. April 15, 2004 / Vol. 29, No. 8 / OPTICS LETTERS 797 Parts per trillion sensitivity for ethane in air with an optical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiller, Stephan

    April 15, 2004 / Vol. 29, No. 8 / OPTICS LETTERS 797 Parts per trillion sensitivity for ethane Spectroscopic detection of ethane in the 3-mm wavelength region was performed by means of a cw optical 10210 cm21 p Hz, corresponding to an ethane detection limit of 6 parts per trillion p Hz. For 3-min

  16. Mo l e c u l a r Ph y s i c s , 1996, Vo l . 87, No . 1, 167 187 Molecular dynamics simulations of uorinated ethanes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lisal, Martin

    of ¯ uorinated ethanes By MARTIN LI! SAL simulations for three isomeric pairs of ¯ uorinated ethanes : CHF # CHF # (HFC-134) and CF $ CH # F (HFC-134a) simulations with an isotropic atom± atom potential for three isomeric pairs of ¯ uorinated ethanes : CHF # CHF

  17. J. CHEM. soc. DALTON TRANS. 1985 1339 Synthesis and Properties of the Divalent 1.2-Bis(dimethy1phosphino)ethane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Girolami, Gregory S.

    phosphino)ethane (dmpe) Complexes MCl,(dmpe), and MMe,(dmpe), (M = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, or Fe). X-Ray Crystal with 1,2-bis(dimethy1phosphino)ethane(dmpe) leads to the brightly coloured, highly-crystalline octahedral of 1,2-bis(dimethylphosphino)ethane (dmpe) complexes of divalent transition metals; part of this work

  18. Activation of ethane in the presence of solid acids: Sulfated zirconia, iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia, and zeolites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheung, Tsz-Keung; Gates, B.

    1997-06-01

    Ethane was activated in the presence of solid acids [sulfated zirconia (SZ), iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia (FMSZ), HZSM-5, and USY zeolite] at 1 atm, 200-450{degrees}C, and ethane partial pressures in the range 0.014.2 atm. The data were measured with a flow reactor at low conversions (<0.005) such that reaction of ethane took place in the near absence of alkenes. Catalysis was demonstrated for ethane conversion in the presence of FMSZ at 450{degrees}C and 0.2 atm ethane partial pressure, but the reactions were not shown to be catalytic for the other solid acids and other conditions. FMSZ was active for converting ethane into methane, ethene, and butane at an ethane partial pressure of 0.2 atm and at temperatures of 200-300{degrees}C; the other solid acids had no detectable activities under these conditions. At higher temperatures, each of the solid acids was active for conversion of ethane into ethene; butane and methane were also formed in the presence of FMSZ, HZSM-5, and USY zeolite, whereas methane was the only other hydrocarbon observed in the presence of SZ. The initial (5 min on stream) selectivities to ethene at approximately 0.1 % conversion, ethane partial pressure of 0.2 atm, and 450{degrees}C were approximately 98, 94, 97, and 99%, for SZ, FMSZ, HZSM-5, and USY zeolite, respectively. Under the same reaction conditions, the initial rates of ethane conversion were 0. 1 5 x 10{sup -8}, 3.5 x 10{sup -8} 3.9 x 10{sup -8}, and 0.56 x 10{sup -8} mol/(s {circ} g) for SZ, FMSZ, HZSM-5, and USY zeolite, respectively. The reactivities are consistent with chemistry analogous to that occurring in superacidic solutions and with the suggestion that FMSZ is a stronger acid than the others investigated here. 25 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Greenhouse Gases CHAPTER 4 Why some gases are greenhouse gases, but

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenhouse Gases CHAPTER 4 Why some gases are greenhouse gases, but most aren't, and some. It has the essential ingre- dient of the greenhouse effect, but it is missing numerous things, the mixing ratio is currently about 390 ppm, and its pCO2 is about 390 atm. 29 #12;30 CHAPTER 4 Greenhouse

  20. Experimental and Computational Studies of the Combustion of Classical and Alternative Fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niemann, Ulrich

    combustion of hydrogen [29], carbon monoxide [29], methane [30, 31], ethane [32], acetylene [33], propane [

  1. Propane-air peakshaving impact on natural gas vehicles. Topical report, August 1993-January 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richards, M.E.; Shikari, Y.; Blazek, C.F.

    1997-01-01

    Propane-air peakshaving activities can lead to higher-than-normal propane levels in natural gas. Natural gas vehicle (NGV) fueling station operation and NGV performance can be affected by the presence of excess propane in natural gas. To assess the impact on NGV markets due to propane-air peakshaving, a comprehensive survey of gas utilities nationwide was undertaken to compile statistics on current practices. The survey revealed that about half of the responders continue to propane-air peakshave and that nearly two-thirds of these companies serve markets that include NGV fueling stations. Based on the survey results, it is estimated that nearly 13,000 NGVs could be affected by propane-air peakshaving activities by the year 2000.

  2. LABORATORY STUDIES ON THE IRRADIATION OF SOLID ETHANE ANALOG ICES AND IMPLICATIONS TO TITAN'S CHEMISTRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Ralf I.

    , methane (CH4), acetylene (C2H2), ethylene (C2H4), and the ethyl radical (C2H5), together with n-butane (C4 and molecular hydrogen, which may compete with the formation of n-butane inside the ethane matrix. Among the higher molecular products, n-butane dominates. Of particular relevance to the atmosphere of Saturn's moon

  3. Introduction of ?-Complexation into Porous Aromatic Framework for Highly Selective Adsorption of Ethylene over Ethane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Baiyan; Zhang, Yiming; Krishna, Rajamani; Yao, Kexin; Han, Yu; Wu, Zili; Ma, Dingxuan; Shi, Zhan; Pham, Tony; Space, Brian; Liu, Jian; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Liu, Jun; Matthew, Chrzanowski; Ma, Shengqian

    2014-06-05

    We report herein a strategy of incorporating air stable Ag(I) ions into water stable, high surface area porous organic polymer (POP) affording significant increase in ethylene uptake capacity and extremely high Qst for ethylene (over 100 kJ/mol at low ethylene load-ing) as illustrated in the context of Ag(I) ion functionalized PAF-1, PAF-1-SO3Ag. IAST calculations using single-component-isotherm data and equimolar ethylene/ethane ratio at 296 K reveal PAF-1-SO3Ag shows exceptionally high ethylene/ethane adsorption selectivi-ty (Sads: 27 to 125), far surpassing benchmark zeolite and any other MOF reported in literature. This alongside excellent water/air stability, high ethylene uptake capacity, and mild regeneration requirements make PAF-1-SO3Ag hold promise for adsorption-based eth-ylene/ethane separations, paving a way to develop Ag(I) ion function-alized POPs as a new platform for highly selective adsorption of eth-ylene over ethane.

  4. Oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane at millisecond contact times: Effect of H{sub 2} addition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodke, A.S.; Henning, D.; Schmidt, L.D.; Bharadwaj, S.S.; Maj, J.J.; Siddall, J.

    2000-04-01

    The oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane using Pt/{alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and various bimetallic catalysts operating at {approximately}1,000 C and very short contact times is examined with H{sub 2} addition to the feed. When H{sub 2} is added with a Pt catalyst, the ethylene selectivity rises from 65 to 72% but ethane conversion drops from 70 to 52%. However, using a Pt-Sn/{alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst, the C{sub 2}H{sub 4} selectivity increases from 70 to greater than 85%, while the conversion remains {approximately}70%. The process also produces approximately as much H{sub 2} as is added to the feed. Effects of other metal promoters, sphere bed and fibermat supports, preheat, pressure, nitrogen dilution, and flow rate are examined in an effort to further elucidate the mechanism. Deactivation of the Pt-Sn catalyst is examined, and a simple method of regenerating the activity on-line is demonstrated. Possible mechanisms to explain high selectivities to ethylene are discussed. Although the process can be regarded as a simple two-step reaction sequence with the exothermic oxidation of hydrogen or ethane driving the endothermic dehydrogenation of ethane to ethylene, the exact contributions of heterogeneous or gas-phase reactions and their spatial variations within the catalyst are yet to be determined.

  5. Activation of small alkanes in Ga-exchanged zeolites: A quantum chemical study of ethane dehydrogenation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frash, M.V.; Santen, R.A. van

    2000-03-23

    Quantum chemical calculations on the mechanism of ethane dehydrogenation catalyzed by Ga-exchanged zeolites have been undertaken. Two forms of gallium, adsorbed dihydride gallium ion GaH{sub 2}+Z{sup {minus}} and adsorbed gallyl ion [Ga=O]{sup +}Z{sup {minus}}, were considered. It was found that GaH{sub 2}{sup +}Z{sup {minus}} is the likely active catalyst. On the contrary, [Ga=O]{sup +}Z{sup {minus}} cannot be a working catalyst in nonoxidative conditions, because regeneration of this form is very difficult. Activation of ethane by GaH{sub 2}{sup +}Z{sup {minus}} occurs via an alkyl mechanism and the gallium atom acts as an acceptor of the ethyl group. The carbenium activation of ethane, with gallium abstracting a hydride ion, is much (ca. 51 kcal/mol) more difficult. The catalytic cycle for the alkyl activation consists of three elementary steps: (1) rupture of the ethane C-H bond; (2) formation of dihydrogen from the Bronsted proton and hydrogen bound to Ga; and (3) formation of ethene from the ethyl group bound to Ga. The best estimates (MP2/6--311++G(2df,p)//B3LYP/6--31G*) for the activation energies of these three steps are 36.9, ca. 0, and 57.9 kcal/mol, respectively.

  6. Converged vibrational energy levels and quantum mechanical vibrational partition function of ethane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Truhlar, Donald G

    Converged vibrational energy levels and quantum mechanical vibrational partition function of ethane­25 In this article, we report converged vibrational levels and converged quantum mechanical vibrational partition-0431 Received 25 January 2006; accepted 15 March 2006; published online 9 May 2006 The vibrational partition

  7. Experimental study on transmission of an overdriven detonation wave from propane/oxygen to propane/air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, J.; Lai, W.H.; Chung, K.; Lu, F.K.

    2008-08-15

    Two sets of experiments were performed to achieve a strong overdriven state in a weaker mixture by propagating an overdriven detonation wave via a deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) process. First, preliminary experiments with a propane/oxygen mixture were used to evaluate the attenuation of the overdriven detonation wave in the DDT process. Next, experiments were performed wherein a propane/oxygen mixture was separated from a propane/air mixture by a thin diaphragm to observe the transmission of an overdriven detonation wave. Based on the characteristic relations, a simple wave intersection model was used to calculate the state of the transmitted detonation wave. The results showed that a rarefaction effect must be included to ensure that there is no overestimate of the post-transmission wave properties when the incident detonation wave is overdriven. The strength of the incident overdriven detonation wave plays an important role in the wave transmission process. The experimental results showed that a transmitted overdriven detonation wave occurs instantaneously with a strong incident overdriven detonation wave. The near-CJ state of the incident wave leads to a transmitted shock wave, and then the transition to the overdriven detonation wave occurs downstream. The attenuation process for the overdriven detonation wave decaying to a near-CJ state occurs in all tests. After the attenuation process, an unstable detonation wave was observed in most tests. This may be attributed to the increase in the cell width in the attenuation process that exceeds the detonability cell width limit. (author)

  8. LABORATORY STUDIES ON THE IRRADIATION OF SOLID ETHANE ANALOG ICES AND IMPLICATIONS TO TITAN'S CHEMISTRY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Y. S.; Bennett, C. J.; Chen, L-H; Kaiser, R. I.; O'Brien, K.

    2010-03-10

    Pure ethane ices (C{sub 2}H{sub 6}) were irradiated at 10, 30, and 50 K under contamination-free, ultrahigh vacuum conditions with energetic electrons generated in the track of galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) particles to simulate the interaction of GCRs with ethane ices in the outer solar system. The chemical processing of the samples was monitored by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and a quadrupole mass spectrometer during the irradiation phase and subsequent warm-up phases on line and in situ in order to extract qualitative (products) and quantitative (rate constants and yields) information on the newly synthesized molecules. Six hydrocarbons, methane (CH{sub 4}), acetylene (C{sub 2}H{sub 2}), ethylene (C{sub 2}H{sub 4}), and the ethyl radical (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}), together with n-butane (C{sub 4}H{sub 10}) and butene (C{sub 4}H{sub 8}), were found to form at the radiation dose reaching 1.4 eV per molecule. The column densities of these species were quantified in the irradiated ices at each temperature, permitting us to elucidate the temperature and phase-dependent production rates of individual molecules. A kinetic reaction scheme was developed to fit column densities of those species produced during irradiation of amorphous/crystalline ethane held at 10, 30, or 50 K. In general, the yield of the newly formed molecules dropped consistently for all species as the temperature was raised from 10 K to 50 K. Second, the yield in the amorphous samples was found to be systematically higher than in the crystalline samples at constant temperature. A closer look at the branching ratios indicates that ethane decomposes predominantly to ethylene and molecular hydrogen, which may compete with the formation of n-butane inside the ethane matrix. Among the higher molecular products, n-butane dominates. Of particular relevance to the atmosphere of Saturn's moon Titan is the radiation-induced methane production from ethane-an alternative source of replenishing methane into the atmosphere. Finally, we discuss to what extent the n-butane could be the source of ''higher organics'' on Titan's surface thus resembling a crucial sink of condensed ethane molecules.

  9. In arktischen Torfbden lebende M ikroorganism en passen sich sehrschnellunterschiedlichen Tem peraturen an.Auch w enn es deutlich w rm erals derzeitist,knnen sie das Treibhausgas M ethan m it

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    sehrschnellunterschiedlichen Tem peraturen an.Auch w enn es deutlich w ärm erals derzeitist,können sie das Treibhausgas M ethan 2 und M ethan. Derzeittragen diese Böden dreibis zehn Prozentzu den globalen M ethan-Em issionen bei nicht zurechtkom m en und deshalb w enigerM ethan produzieren",sagtU rich. Service:Die Publikation im

  10. CTHB Mentorship group of 2011. Back Row (left to right): Markus Wilken, Angelique du Preez, Brigitte Van Dyk, Shaun van der Walt, Ethan Besaans. Third row: Tanweer Mahomed, Danielle Roodt, Estine Theron, Wilke

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Brigitte Van Dyk, Shaun van der Walt, Ethan Besaans. Third row: Tanweer Mahomed, Danielle Roodt, Estine

  11. SURVEY OF THE LITERATURE ON THE CARBON-HYDROGEN SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krakowski, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    quenching. The pyrolysis of ethane and propane at 2000 toPropane and The tempera- ethane constituted only 2% of theMethane, acetylene, ethylene, ethane, and pro- Lowrie finds

  12. Hy-Prop Jet Boat Hybrid Propane/Hydrogen and Electric Powered

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Stephen L.

    1 Hy-Prop Jet Boat Hybrid Propane/Hydrogen and Electric Powered Jet Boat Senior Design Project July ..........................................................................................................................28 Engineering Standards Addressed

  13. Table A2. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 421 Table A2. RefinerReseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Kerosene, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per...

  14. The determination of compressibility factors of gaseous propane-nitrogen mixtures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickson, Cecil Herman

    1955-01-01

    100 0 2 000 3000 4000 LEGEND DALTON + BE ATT IE- B RI DGEMAN V AMAGAT ~ EX PER I MENTAL 5000 6000 7000 8000 PR E SSUR E, P SI A 50 GRAPH X COMPA RISON OF EX PER IMENTAL DATA WITH CALCULATED VALUES F OR THE 48. 6I% PROPANE MIXTURE AT 300 F I... Percent Propane Mixture at 300 F. Comparison of Experimental Data wI. th Calculated Values for the 48. 6$ Mole Percent Propane Mixture at 260 F, Comparison of Experimental Data with Calculated Values for the &8. 6$ Mole Percent Propane Mixture st 300...

  15. Dynamics of Propane in Silica Mesopores Formed upon Propylene Hydrogenation over Pt Nanoparticles by Time-Resolved FT-IR Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waslylenko, Walter; Frei, Heinz

    2008-01-01

    state distribution of propane between gas and mesopore phaseWavenumber (cm ) B Gas Phase Propane 2968 cm k 1 = 3.1 ± 0.4slices showing the gas phase propane component at 216, 648,

  16. Traffic Congestion and Greenhouse Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barth, Matthew; Boriboonsomsin, Kanok

    2009-01-01

    TATES IS A source of greenhouse gas emissions, and thereforeis increased emissions of greenhouse gases. Althoughthat driving contributes to greenhouse gas emis- sions, the

  17. Investigating and Using Biomass Gases

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Investigating and Using Biomass Gases Grades: 9-12 Topic: Biomass Authors: Eric Benson and Melissa Highfill Owner: National Renewable Energy Laboratory This educational material is...

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Shuttle Visitors in Maine

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O O D S TA IMaryland ConservesElectricSurpassesPropane Buses

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Powers Airport Shuttles in New

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O O D S TA IMarylandOrleans Propane Powers Airport Shuttles

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Powers Fleets Across the Nation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O O D S TA IMarylandOrleans Propane Powers Airport

  1. Microsoft PowerPoint - Propane_Briefing_140312.pptx

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963Residential2, 2014 MEMORANDUMProvedFeet) Year JanProved O iPropane

  2. Nationwide: Southeast Propane Autogas Development Program Brings 1200

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nAand DOEDepartment ofProgram |(Upstate104-113] |Department ofPropane Vehicles

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Tank Overfill Safety Advisory

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageBlender PumpVehicles andProduction and DistributionPropane

  4. Untangling the Chemical Evolution of Titan's Atmosphere and Surface -- From Homogeneous to Heterogeneous Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Ralf I.

    2010-01-01

    CH 3 CCH), propane (C 3 H 8 ), diacetylene (C 4 H 2 ), andorganic solids (ethane, propane) with ionizing radiation insolid ices of ethane and propane – two of Titan’s abundant

  5. SURVEY OF THE LITERATURE ON THE CARBON-HYDROGEN SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krakowski, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    one temperature and analyzed for propane for corr- osion-ratThe pyrolysis of ethane and propane at 2000 to 5000 0 K wasproduct was methane. Propane and The tempera- ethane

  6. Oh the Places You'll Go, with Graphene: A Chemists Exploration of Two Dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wassei, Jonathan Khalil

    2013-01-01

    from Methane, Ethane and Propane: Evidence for Bilayer6H-SiC and 3C-SiC/Si via propane chemical vapor deposition.from Methane, Ethane and Propane: Evidence for Bilayer

  7. Computational Studies of Flame Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amin, Vaishali

    2015-01-01

    ethane and propane. Understanding of changes in combustioncombustion of hydrogen [19], carbon monoxide [19], methane [20][21], ethane [22], ethyne [23], propane [propane. The application of these fuels in the existing energy infrastructure requires modifications in the current combustion

  8. Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2011-01-01

    The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program was suspended May 2011. It was a mechanism by which corporations, government agencies, individuals, voluntary organizations, etc., could report to the Energy Information Administration, any actions taken that have or are expected to reduce/avoid emissions of greenhouse gases or sequester carbon.

  9. Final report of the Rhode Island State Energy Office on residential no. 2 heating oil and propane prices [SHOPP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClanahan, Janice

    2001-04-01

    Summary report on residential No.2 heating oil and propane prepared under grant. Summarizes the monitoring and analysis of heating oil and propane prices from October 2000 through March 2001.

  10. Experimental studies of steam-propane and enriched gas injection for the Minas light crude oil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yudishtira, Wan Dedi

    2003-01-01

    Experimental studies were carried out to compare the benefits of propane as an additive in steam injection and in lean gas injection to enhance production for the Minas light crude oil (34?API). The studies on steam-propane were specifically...

  11. Further experimental studies of steam-propane injection to enhance recovery of Morichal oil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferguson,Mark Anthony

    2000-01-01

    In 1998-1999, experimental research was conducted by Goite at Texas A&M University into steam-propane injection to enhance oil recovery from the Morichal field, Venezuela. Goite's results showed that, compared with steam injection alone, steam-propane...

  12. Highly Selective Adsorption of Ethylene over Ethane in a MOF Featuring the Combination of Open Metal Site and -Complexation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yiming; LI, Baiyan; Wu, Zili; Ma, Shengqian

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of the combination of open metal site (OMS) and -complexation into MOF has led to very high ethylene/ethane adsorption selectivity at 318K, as illustrated in the context of MIL-101-Cr-SO3Ag. The interactions with ethylene from both OMS and -complexation in MIL-101-Cr-SO3Ag have been investigated by in situ IR spectroscopic studies and computational calculations, which suggest -complexation contributes dominantly to the high ethylene/ethane adsorption selectivity.

  13. Syngas Production from Propane Using Atmospheric Non-thermal Plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ouni, Fakhreddine; Cormier, Jean Marie; 10.1007/s11090-009-9166-2

    2009-01-01

    Propane steam reforming using a sliding discharge reactor was investigated under atmospheric pressure and low temperature (420 K). Non-thermal plasma steam reforming proceeded efficiently and hydrogen was formed as a main product (H2 concentration up to 50%). By-products (C2-hydrocarbons, methane, carbon dioxide) were measured with concentrations lower than 6%. The mean electrical power injected in the discharge is less than 2 kW. The process efficiency is described in terms of propane conversion rate, steam reforming and cracking selectivity, as well as by-products production. Chemical processes modelling based on classical thermodynamic equilibrium reactor is also proposed. Calculated data fit quiet well experimental results and indicate that the improvement of C3H8 conversion and then H2 production can be achieved by increasing the gas fraction through the discharge. By improving the reactor design, the non-thermal plasma has a potential for being an effective way for supplying hydrogen or synthesis gas.

  14. AIRBORNE, OPTICAL REMOTE SENSNG OF METHANE AND ETHANE FOR NATURAL GAS PIPELINE LEAK DETECTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerry Myers

    2005-04-15

    Ophir Corporation was awarded a contract by the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory under the Project Title ''Airborne, Optical Remote Sensing of Methane and Ethane for Natural Gas Pipeline Leak Detection'' on October 14, 2002. The scope of the work involved designing and developing an airborne, optical remote sensor capable of sensing methane and, if possible, ethane for the detection of natural gas pipeline leaks. Flight testing using a custom dual wavelength, high power fiber amplifier was initiated in February 2005. Ophir successfully demonstrated the airborne system, showing that it was capable of discerning small amounts of methane from a simulated pipeline leak. Leak rates as low as 150 standard cubic feet per hour (scf/h) were detected by the airborne sensor.

  15. Far-infrared laser vibration-rotation-tunneling spectroscopy of the propane-water compkx: Torsional dynamics of the hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elrod, Matthew J.

    Far-infrared laser vibration-rotation-tunneling spectroscopy of the propane-water compkx: Torsional 1993) The far-infrared laservibration-rotation-tunneling (FIR-VRT) spectrumof the propane-water complex calculations. In the present paper and in its counterpart,13we present our results for the water-propane

  16. Non-oxidative reactions of propane on Zn/Na-ZSM5 Joseph A. Biscardi and Enrique Iglesia*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    Non-oxidative reactions of propane on Zn/Na-ZSM5 Joseph A. Biscardi and Enrique Iglesia* Department rates during propane conversion at 773 K on Zn/Na-ZSM5 are about ten times higher than on Zn/H-ZSM5 catalysts with similar Zn content. The total rate of propane conversion is also higher on Zn/Na-ZSM5

  17. Kinetics and Reaction Pathways for Propane Dehydrogenation and Aromatization on Co/H-ZSM5 and H-ZSM5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    Kinetics and Reaction Pathways for Propane Dehydrogenation and Aromatization on Co/H-ZSM5 and H Co/H-ZSM5 catalyzes propane dehydrogenation and aromatization reactions. Initial product selectivities, product site-yields, and the 13C content and distribution in the products of 2-13C-propane show

  18. Modeling of the formation of short-chain acids in propane flames F. Battin-Leclerc , 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Modeling of the formation of short-chain acids in propane flames F. Battin-Leclerc , 1 , A. Simulations of lean (equivalence ratios from 0.9 to 0.48) laminar premixed flames of propane stabilized in a combustion apparatus which can easily be modeled, a laminar premixed flame of propane at atmospheric pressure

  19. Performance analysis of a series of hermetic reciprocating compressors working with R290 (propane) and R407C

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernández de Córdoba, Pedro

    Performance analysis of a series of hermetic reciprocating compressors working with R290 (propane with propane as refrigerant are analyzed in terms of the compressor model developed by [E. Navarro, E. Granryd. In addition, a comparison study between propane and R407C was carried out for one compressor and the observed

  20. PSA Vol 1 Tables Revised Ver 2 Print.xls

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Plus 30 - 1 -17 - 0 6 1 6 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 172 4 9 -141 - 0 9 1 34 EthaneEthylene 82 0 0 -76 - 0 0 0 6 PropanePropylene 57 8 7 -39 - 0 0 0 33 Normal Butane...

  1. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Plus 33 0 1 25 - 0 48 4 7 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 265 103 101 25 - -4 68 9 420 EthaneEthylene 116 0 0 -55 - -3 0 0 64 PropanePropylene 100 109 88 54 - -1 0 1 350 Normal...

  2. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Petroleum Gases 408,420 181,485 78,294 - 42,513 59,407 15,128 551,151 146,254 EthaneEthylene 184,115 5,593 103 - 4,856 0 0 184,955 25,936 PropanePropylene 139,661 151,559...

  3. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 98 32 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 476 313 3,183 4,949 - -1,599 189 30 10,301 5,357 EthaneEthylene 18 12 0 0 - 0 0 0 30 0 PropanePropylene 303 1,206 2,976 4,739 - -1,246 0 20...

  4. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Plus 32 - 0 0 - 8 22 2 0 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 36 68 2 0 - 23 36 15 32 EthaneEthylene 0 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 0 PropanePropylene 14 58 1 0 - 11 0 14 47 Normal ButaneButylene...

  5. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Liquefied Petroleum Gases 3,797 14,651 14,958 24,531 - 87 1,187 899 55,764 6,788 EthaneEthylene 101 73 0 0 - 0 0 0 174 0 PropanePropylene 2,462 13,334 13,224 24,164 - -1,369 0...

  6. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    29 0 2 33 - -1 57 5 2 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 212 66 146 116 - -292 120 3 707 EthaneEthylene 80 0 0 -16 - -8 0 0 72 PropanePropylene 88 113 128 106 - -186 0 1 620 Normal...

  7. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Plus 37 - 0 0 - 0 25 1 11 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 40 69 2 0 - 0 38 18 55 EthaneEthylene 0 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 0 PropanePropylene 13 56 2 0 - 0 0 15 56 Normal ButaneButylene...

  8. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Liquefied Petroleum Gases 36,945 11,778 10,245 - 347 7,742 1,285 49,594 146,254 EthaneEthylene 16,264 474 16 - 2,862 0 0 13,892 25,936 PropanePropylene 12,980 13,968 7,658 -...

  9. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Plus 3 - 0 0 - 0 0 0 3 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 14 41 60 101 - -4 5 3 214 EthaneEthylene 0 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 1 PropanePropylene 9 47 52 99 - -4 0 1 211 Normal Butane...

  10. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Plus 38 - 0 0 - 1 26 1 11 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 40 77 3 0 - 9 34 19 58 EthaneEthylene 0 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 0 PropanePropylene 13 56 2 0 - 3 0 15 53 Normal ButaneButylene...

  11. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Pentanes Plus 3 - 0 0 - 0 0 0 3 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 14 13 56 88 - -8 5 1 174 EthaneEthylene 0 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 1 PropanePropylene 9 45 50 88 - 1 0 0 191 Normal ButaneButylene...

  12. PSA Vol 1 Tables Revised Ver 2 Print.xls

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    - 45 -8 - 2 105 0 93 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 959 354 144 18 - 23 130 22 1,300 EthaneEthylene 450 20 0 131 - 12 0 0 589 PropanePropylene 320 321 78 -112 - 11 0 20 577 Normal...

  13. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Plus 3 - 0 0 - 0 0 0 3 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 15 10 103 160 - -52 6 1 332 EthaneEthylene 1 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 1 PropanePropylene 10 39 96 153 - -40 0 1 337 Normal Butane...

  14. PSA Vol 1 Tables Revised Ver 2 Print.xls

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    95 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 14,528 24,908 905 0 - -17 14,218 6,684 19,456 3,094 EthaneEthylene 44 0 0 0 - -1 0 0 45 0 PropanePropylene 4,842 20,540 672 0 - 130 0 5,589 20,335...

  15. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    244 - 55 - 25 176 5 92 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 1,232 393 342 - 12 258 43 1,653 EthaneEthylene 542 16 1 - 95 0 0 463 PropanePropylene 433 466 255 - 124 0 32 997 Normal Butane...

  16. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Plus 37 0 1 26 - 0 58 3 4 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 260 78 89 20 - -47 74 10 411 EthaneEthylene 111 0 0 -44 - -10 0 0 77 PropanePropylene 102 106 77 41 - 10 0 1 314 Normal...

  17. PSA Vol 1 Tables Revised Ver 2 Print.xls

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Plus 3 - 0 0 - 0 0 0 3 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 14 41 64 101 - -4 5 3 217 EthaneEthylene 0 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 1 PropanePropylene 9 47 56 99 - -4 0 1 214 Normal Butane...

  18. PSA Vol 1 Tables Revised Ver 2 Print.xls

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Petroleum Gases 96,786 38,214 39,774 8,116 - -1,564 25,650 3,426 155,378 28,105 EthaneEthylene 42,381 0 215 -20,104 - -929 0 0 23,421 2,622 PropanePropylene 36,474 39,477...

  19. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Petroleum Gases 37,751 10,597 11,093 - -28,037 10,899 1,489 75,090 109,511 EthaneEthylene 15,503 551 9 - -3,400 0 0 19,463 24,671 PropanePropylene 13,708 16,793 9,019 -...

  20. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Plus 33 0 1 22 - 0 43 4 10 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 273 120 92 4 - 37 52 11 388 EthaneEthylene 120 0 0 -63 - -4 0 0 62 PropanePropylene 102 109 82 42 - 18 0 2 316 Normal...

  1. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Petroleum Gases 74,406 32,688 25,168 1,142 - 10,066 14,244 3,099 105,995 39,735 EthaneEthylene 32,795 0 93 -17,066 - -987 0 0 16,809 2,564 PropanePropylene 27,850 29,713...

  2. PSA Vol 1 Tables Revised Ver 2 Print.xls

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Pentanes Plus 37 - 0 0 - 0 28 1 8 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 40 68 2 0 - 0 39 18 53 EthaneEthylene 0 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 0 PropanePropylene 13 56 2 0 - 0 0 15 56 Normal ButaneButylene...

  3. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Petroleum Gases 25,529 7,785 2,880 -5,690 - -15,179 5,059 811 39,813 71,430 EthaneEthylene 11,568 539 0 2,076 - -3,146 0 0 17,329 21,726 PropanePropylene 8,757 9,958 1,655...

  4. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Plus 30 - 0 -18 - 0 6 1 5 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 176 6 7 -147 - 0 9 1 32 EthaneEthylene 85 0 0 -80 - 0 0 0 5 PropanePropylene 57 8 6 -41 - 0 0 0 30 Normal Butane...

  5. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 0 85 30 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 418 390 1,693 2,645 - -243 157 20 5,212 6,788 EthaneEthylene 5 10 0 0 - 0 0 0 15 0 PropanePropylene 278 1,350 1,511 2,638 - 42 0 11 5,724...

  6. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Liquefied Petroleum Gases 7,801 2,345 2,659 608 - -1,415 2,208 292 12,328 39,735 EthaneEthylene 3,343 0 11 -1,329 - -285 0 0 2,310 2,564 PropanePropylene 3,057 3,173 2,300...

  7. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    666 52 7 242 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 1,090 2,029 65 0 - 678 1,086 451 969 5,504 EthaneEthylene 5 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 5 0 PropanePropylene 419 1,740 26 0 - 326 0 434 1,425 2,178...

  8. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    272 - 51 - 11 178 6 128 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 1,496 665 287 - 156 218 55 2,019 EthaneEthylene 674 20 0 - 18 0 0 677 PropanePropylene 512 555 195 - 52 0 36 1,174 Normal...

  9. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Petroleum Gases 5,178 15,123 22,036 36,994 - -1,344 1,656 1,039 77,980 5,357 EthaneEthylene 148 107 0 0 - 0 0 0 255 0 PropanePropylene 3,345 17,172 19,114 36,150 - -1,318 0...

  10. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Plus 27 - 1 -12 - 0 6 1 8 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 127 -4 16 -92 - -4 9 0 43 EthaneEthylene 46 0 0 -51 - 0 0 0 -5 PropanePropylene 49 7 14 -20 - -7 0 0 56 Normal Butane...

  11. PSA Vol 1 Tables Revised Ver 2 Print.xls

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Plus 33 - 1 25 - 0 48 4 7 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 265 105 109 22 - -4 70 9 426 EthaneEthylene 116 0 1 -55 - -3 0 0 64 PropanePropylene 100 108 90 52 - -1 0 1 350 Normal...

  12. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    258 171 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 3,934 -136 508 -2,842 - -136 269 0 1,331 1,382 EthaneEthylene 1,429 0 0 -1,576 - -5 0 0 -142 323 PropanePropylene 1,519 232 420 -635 - -203 0...

  13. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Petroleum Gases 271,319 111,530 35,599 14,442 - 29,838 32,256 5,774 365,022 92,717 EthaneEthylene 127,896 5,520 10 39,027 - 5,851 0 0 166,602 23,050 PropanePropylene 90,209...

  14. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    - 53 - -40 204 7 117 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 1,218 342 358 - -904 352 48 2,422 EthaneEthylene 500 18 0 - -110 0 0 628 PropanePropylene 442 542 291 - -488 0 44 1,719 Normal...

  15. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Petroleum Gases 96,708 37,606 36,692 9,015 - -1,421 24,645 3,426 153,371 28,248 EthaneEthylene 42,338 0 121 -20,104 - -929 0 0 23,284 2,622 PropanePropylene 36,460 39,638...

  16. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    - 53 -9 - 17 90 0 80 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 749 229 183 33 - 44 132 16 1,000 EthaneEthylene 347 15 0 122 - 105 0 0 379 PropanePropylene 252 248 117 -89 - 99 0 16 413 Normal...

  17. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    - 49 -4 - 10 103 0 99 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 994 409 130 53 - 109 118 21 1,337 EthaneEthylene 468 20 0 143 - 21 0 0 610 PropanePropylene 330 333 57 -90 - 35 0 19 575 Normal...

  18. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    - 45 -8 - 2 105 0 92 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 954 358 147 14 - 23 131 22 1,296 EthaneEthylene 448 20 0 132 - 12 0 0 587 PropanePropylene 318 321 77 -115 - 11 0 20 570 Normal...

  19. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Pentanes Plus 3 - 0 0 - 0 0 0 3 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 14 54 55 90 - 0 4 3 204 EthaneEthylene 0 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 1 PropanePropylene 9 49 48 89 - -5 0 1 199 Normal Butane...

  20. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    95 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 14,530 25,070 857 0 - -13 13,691 6,684 20,095 3,094 EthaneEthylene 43 0 0 0 - -1 0 0 44 0 PropanePropylene 4,845 20,606 627 0 - 134 0 5,589 20,355...

  1. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Liquefied Petroleum Gases 6,559 2,031 4,512 3,583 - -9,046 3,705 97 21,929 28,248 EthaneEthylene 2,484 0 9 -500 - -249 0 0 2,242 2,622 PropanePropylene 2,717 3,506 3,958 3,271 -...

  2. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Liquefied Petroleum Gases 48,006 1,688 1,875 -40,115 - 125 2,495 172 8,662 1,510 EthaneEthylene 23,291 0 0 -21,961 - -7 0 0 1,337 322 PropanePropylene 15,540 2,285 1,537...

  3. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Petroleum Gases 348,159 130,519 53,607 5,179 - 8,551 47,705 8,005 473,203 71,430 EthaneEthylene 163,577 7,158 16 48,163 - 4,527 0 0 214,387 21,726 PropanePropylene 116,049...

  4. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    0 175 175 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 5,180 150 350 -4,232 - 13 317 30 1,088 1,510 EthaneEthylene 2,511 0 0 -2,332 - -1 0 0 180 322 PropanePropylene 1,673 256 313 -1,207 - 62 0 0...

  5. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Liquefied Petroleum Gases 62,586 1,434 3,056 -51,188 - -3 3,410 185 12,296 1,382 EthaneEthylene 29,842 0 0 -28,059 - -6 0 0 1,789 323 PropanePropylene 20,545 2,970 2,464...

  6. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    265 - 47 - 2 184 7 119 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 1,444 575 318 - 16 250 53 2,019 EthaneEthylene 646 20 0 - 10 0 0 657 PropanePropylene 497 541 226 - 7 0 37 1,220 Normal Butane...

  7. PSA Vol 1 Tables Revised Ver 2 Print.xls

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Petroleum Gases 350,117 129,344 52,534 6,508 - 8,545 47,466 8,005 474,487 71,424 EthaneEthylene 164,362 7,158 16 47,996 - 4,528 0 0 215,004 21,727 PropanePropylene 116,926...

  8. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Plus 30 - 1 -17 - 0 6 1 5 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 171 4 8 -140 - 0 9 1 34 EthaneEthylene 82 0 0 -77 - 0 0 0 5 PropanePropylene 56 8 7 -38 - 0 0 0 33 Normal Butane...

  9. PSA Vol 1 Tables Revised Ver 2 Print.xls

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Petroleum Gases 5,202 15,123 23,191 36,994 - -1,344 1,693 1,039 79,122 5,357 EthaneEthylene 148 107 0 0 - 0 0 0 255 0 PropanePropylene 3,359 17,172 20,262 36,150 - -1,318 0...

  10. PSA Vol 1 Tables Revised Ver 2 Print.xls

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Liquefied Petroleum Gases 62,852 1,440 3,251 -51,618 - -58 3,410 185 12,388 1,382 EthaneEthylene 29,950 0 0 -27,892 - -9 0 0 2,067 323 PropanePropylene 20,635 2,967 2,659...

  11. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    242 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 10,892 20,928 694 0 - 2,397 9,225 5,184 15,708 5,504 EthaneEthylene 32 0 0 0 - -1 0 0 33 0 PropanePropylene 3,600 15,411 482 0 - 916 0 4,094 14,483...

  12. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Plus 30 - 0 -17 - 0 7 0 6 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 173 5 12 -141 - 0 11 1 36 EthaneEthylene 84 0 0 -78 - 0 0 0 6 PropanePropylene 56 9 10 -40 - 2 0 0 32 Normal Butane...

  13. PSA Vol 1 Tables Revised Ver 2 Print.xls

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    266 - 47 - 2 188 7 116 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 1,451 573 328 - 15 253 53 2,030 EthaneEthylene 649 20 1 - 10 0 0 660 PropanePropylene 499 540 233 - 6 0 37 1,229 Normal Butane...

  14. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Plus 35 - 0 0 - -2 26 0 10 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 40 19 0 0 - -67 54 18 55 EthaneEthylene 0 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 0 PropanePropylene 13 61 0 0 - -19 0 18 76 Normal Butane...

  15. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    13 322 95 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 1,253 604 10 0 - -2,077 1,677 551 1,716 3,094 EthaneEthylene 4 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 4 0 PropanePropylene 412 1,891 10 0 - -590 0 548 2,355 1,396...

  16. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gases 157 0 157 2,987 173 476 3,636 Ethane 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Propane 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Normal Butane 78 0 78 2,096 132 282 2,510 Isobutane 79 0 79 891 41 194 1,126 Other Liquids 196 -44...

  17. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gases 189 0 189 2,995 175 535 3,705 Ethane 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Propane 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Normal Butane 110 0 110 2,104 134 341 2,579 Isobutane 79 0 79 891 41 194 1,126 Other Liquids 16,629...

  18. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gases 157 0 157 1,479 172 557 2,208 Ethane 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Propane 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Normal Butane 80 0 80 423 103 371 897 Isobutane 77 0 77 1,056 69 186 1,311 Other Liquids 17,327 44...

  19. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gases 130 0 130 1,478 129 247 1,854 Ethane 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Propane 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Normal Butane 53 0 53 422 60 61 543 Isobutane 77 0 77 1,056 69 186 1,311 Other Liquids -455 -53 -508...

  20. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 43 1,588 13 0 1,644 55 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 1,693 2,659 5,478 350 65 10,245 342 Ethane 0 0 5 0 0 5 0 Ethylene 0 11 0 0 0 11 0 Propane 1,281 2,178 3,508 313 26 7,306 244...

  1. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    0 55 1,570 26 0 1,651 53 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 3,183 4,512 2,880 508 10 11,093 358 Ethane 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Ethylene 0 9 0 0 0 9 0 Propane 2,597 3,875 1,655 420 10 8,557 276...

  2. Renormalization group theory of condensable gases: General remarks and a discussion of water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, J.A.

    1993-04-01

    The preceding talks by Tewari and by Zhang illustrates aspects of a renormalization group theory of condensable gases that appears to be capable of describing reduced volumetric properties of several rather different types of fluids to a reasonable approximation near the critical point using as input only a knowledge of the critical compressibility ratio Z{sub c}, and in a rather large extended neighborhood of the critical point by introducing only a small number of additional parameters. When an attempt is made to apply the same approach to an extended neighborhood of the critical point of water, it is found that at least one additional parameter is required beyond the minimal argon, ethane, and helium-4 over comparably large regions of density, temperature, and pressure.

  3. Survey and assessment of the effects of nonconventional gases on gas distribution equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jasionowski, W.J.; Scott, M.I.; Gracey, W.C.

    1982-10-01

    A literature search and a survey of the gas industry were conducted to assess potential problems in the distribution of nonconventional gases. Available literature did not uncover data that would describe potential problems or substantiate the presence of harmful trace elements in final gas compositions produced from various SNG processes. Information from the survey indicates that some companies have encountered problems with nonconventional gases and extraneous additives such as landfill gas, refinery off-gases, oil gas, carbureted water gas, coke-oven gas, propane-air, and compressor lubricant oils. These nonconventional gases and compressor oils may 1) cause pipeline corrosion, 2) degrade some elastomeric materials and greases and affect the integrity of seals, gaskets, O-rings, and meter and regulator diaphragms, and 3) cause operational and safety problems. The survey indicated that 62% of the responding companies plan to use supplemental gas, with most planning on more than one type. Distribution companies intend to significantly increase their use of polyethylene piping from 11.6% in 1980 to 22.4% in 2000 for gas mains and from 33.4% to 50.3% in 2000 for gas service lines.

  4. Simulation of hydrogen and hydrogen-assisted propane ignition in Pt catalyzed microchannel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seshadri, Vikram; Kaisare, Niket S.

    2010-11-15

    This paper deals with self-ignition of catalytic microburners from ambient cold-start conditions. First, reaction kinetics for hydrogen combustion is validated with experimental results from the literature, followed by validation of a simplified pseudo-2D microburner model. The model is then used to study the self-ignition behavior of lean hydrogen/air mixtures in a Platinum-catalyzed microburner. Hydrogen combustion on Pt is a very fast reaction. During cold start ignition, hydrogen conversion reaches 100% within the first few seconds and the reactor dynamics are governed by the ''thermal inertia'' of the microburner wall structure. The self-ignition property of hydrogen can be used to provide the energy required for propane ignition. Two different modes of hydrogen-assisted propane ignition are considered: co-feed mode, where the microburner inlet consists of premixed hydrogen/propane/air mixtures; and sequential feed mode, where the inlet feed is switched from hydrogen/air to propane/air mixtures after the microburner reaches propane ignition temperature. We show that hydrogen-assisted ignition is equivalent to selectively preheating the inlet section of the microburner. The time to reach steady state is lower at higher equivalence ratio, lower wall thermal conductivity, and higher inlet velocity for both the ignition modes. The ignition times and propane emissions are compared. Although the sequential feed mode requires slightly higher amount of hydrogen, the propane emissions are at least an order of magnitude lower than the other ignition modes. (author)

  5. Oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane and n-butane on VO{sub x}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blasco, T.; Galli, A.; Lopez Neito, J.M.; Trifiro, F.

    1997-07-01

    The catalytic properties of vanadium oxides/aluminium oxides were investigated in the dehydrogenation of ethane and n-butane. The importance of Lewis acid sites is described.

  6. An analysis of US propane markets, winter 1996-1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-06-01

    In late summer 1996, in response to relatively low inventory levels and tight world oil markets, prices for crude oil, natural gas, and products derived from both began to increase rapidly ahead of the winter heating season. Various government and private sector forecasts indicated the potential for supply shortfalls and sharp price increases, especially in the event of unusually severe winter weather. Following a rapid runup in gasoline prices in the spring of 1996, public concerns were mounting about a possibly similar situation in heating fuels, with potentially more serious consequences. In response to these concerns, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) participated in numerous briefings and meetings with Executive Branch officials, Congressional committee members and staff, State Energy Offices, and consumers. EIA instituted a coordinated series of actions to closely monitor the situation and inform the public. This study constitutes one of those actions: an examination of propane supply, demand, and price developments and trends.

  7. Effect of temperature and pressure on the dynamics of nanoconfined propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gautam, Siddharth Liu, Tingting Welch, Susan; Cole, David; Rother, Gernot; Jalarvo, Niina; Mamontov, Eugene

    2014-04-24

    We report the effect of temperature and pressure on the dynamical properties of propane confined in nanoporous silica aerogel studied using quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS). Our results demonstrate that the effect of a change in the pressure dominates over the effect of temperature variation on the dynamics of propane nano-confined in silica aerogel. At low pressures, most of the propane molecules are strongly bound to the pore walls, only a small fraction is mobile. As the pressure is increased, the fraction of mobile molecules increases. A change in the mechanism of motion, from continuous diffusion at low pressures to jump diffusion at higher pressures has also been observed.

  8. Experimental studies of steam-propane injection to enhance recovery of an intermediate crude oil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tinss, Judicael Christopher

    2001-01-01

    in accelerating oil production and to compare the performance of steam-propane injection versus steam injection alone on an intermediate crude oil of 21 ?API gravity. Eight experimental runs were performed: three pure steam injection runs, three steam...

  9. Experimental study of Morichal heavy oil recovery using combined steam and propane injection 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goite Marcano, Jose Gregorio

    1999-01-01

    with steam (for the purpose of increasing steam recovery efficiency) are being evaluated. An experimental study has been performed to investigate the effect of combined steam and propane injection on recovery of heavy oil from the Morichal field, Venezuela...

  10. Emissions from In-Use NG, Propane, and Diesel Fueled Heavy Duty Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Emissions tests of in-use heavy-duty vehicles showed that, natural gas- and propane-fueled vehicles have high emissions of NH3 and CO, compared to diesel vehicles, while meeting certification requirements

  11. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Regional Residential Propane Price Model

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    The regional residential propane price module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide residential retail price forecasts for the 4 Census regions: Northeast, South, Midwest, and West.

  12. Experimental and analytical studies of hydrocarbon yields under dry-, steam-, and steam with propane-distillation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramirez Garnica, Marco Antonio

    2004-09-30

    Recent experimental and simulation studies -conducted at the Department of Petroleum Engineering at Texas A&M University - confirm oil production is accelerated when propane is used as an additive during steam injection. To better understand...

  13. Pulse radiolysis studies of solvated electrons in supercritical ethane with methanol as cosolvent.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dimitrijevic, N. M.; Takahashi, K.; Bartels, D. M.; Jonah, C. D.; Chemistry

    2001-08-02

    Pulse radiolysis has been used to study the solvated electron in supercritical ethane with methanol as a cosolvent. These measurements give information about the liquid structure of the cosolvent in these systems. The results show that at temperatures below 110 {sup o}C, there are high local concentrations of alcohol molecules (clusters), which are capable of solvating an electron. The agglomeration number of methanol clusters depends on mole fraction of alcohol at a fixed temperature. Addition of salts increases the size of methanol clusters.

  14. Decomposition of chlorinated ethylenes and ethanes in an electron beam generated plasma reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vitale, S.A.

    1996-02-01

    An electron beam generated plasma reactor (EBGPR) is used to determine the plasma chemistry kinetics, energetics and decomposition pathways of six chlorinated ethylenes and ethanes: 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethane, ethyl chloride, trichloroethylene, 1,1-dichloroethylene, and vinyl chloride. A traditional chemical kinetic and chemical engineering analysis of the data from the EBGPR is performed, and the following hypothesis was verified: The specific energy required for chlorinated VOC decomposition in the electron beam generated plasma reactor is determined by the electron attachment coefficient of the VOC and the susceptibility of the molecule to radical attack. The technology was demonstrated at the Hanford Reservation to remove VOCs from soils.

  15. Design and Operation of the Synthesis Gas Generator System for Reformed Propane and Glycerin Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pickett, Derek

    2013-12-31

    Element LHV Lower Heating Value N2 Nitrogen NI National Instruments NOx Nitrogen Oxides O2 Oxygen PP Pure Propane REG Renewable Energy Group RFS Renewable Fuel Standards RG Reformed Glycerin RP Reformed Propane RPM Revolutions Per Minute SM... ignition (CI) engines in sufficient quantities that meets the Renewable Fuel Standards (RFS) set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) [4]. Upcoming mandates surrounding biofuels (including bio- based ethanol) in the United States requires a...

  16. Etude cin\\'etique de CVD de pyrocarbone obtenu par pyrolyse de propane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ziegler-Devin, Isabelle; Marquaire, Paul-Marie

    2009-01-01

    High temeperature (900-1000\\degree C) low pressure (propane yields a pyrocarbon deposit, but also mainly hydrogen and hydrocarbons from methane to polyaromatics. 30 reaction products were exeperimentally quantified at different operating conditions. A detailed kinetic pyrolysis model (600 reactions) has been developed and validated based on the totality of experiments. This model includes a homogeneous model (describing the gas phase pyrolysis of propane) coupled with a heterogeneous model describing the pyrocarbon deposit.

  17. Experimental and analytical studies of hydrocarbon yields under dry-, steam-, and steam-with-propane distillation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaiswal, Namit

    2007-09-17

    the synthetic sample and experimental study previously carried out. (e) To correlate steam-propane distillation yields for some crude oils and synthetic hydrocarbons to generate steam-propane distillation data that could be used to develop the input data... there is need to develop a model to predict distillate yield under any set of conditions for any heavy oil, requiring only the simulated distillation (SIMDIS) trace (i.e. percent off vs. normal boiling temperature) of the oil. The expected deliverables from...

  18. Propane-fueled car records good marks in alternate-fuel testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    Testing of a 1988 Ford Crown Victoria, fueled by propane and provided by Petrolane (Long Beach, Calif.), has provided the NPGA Alternate Fuels Task Force with some powerful arguments as to the worth of propane as a motor fuel to help combat air pollution. The car was tested for high altitude performance in Denver and for sea level performance at the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) test site in Ann Arbor, Mich.

  19. doi:10.1152/jn.00158.2010104:1068-1076, 2010. First published 10 June 2010;J Neurophysiol Ethan S. Bromberg-Martin, Masayuki Matsumoto, Simon Hong and Okihide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ethan S. Bromberg-Martin, Masayuki Matsumoto, Simon Hong and Okihide Inferred Stimulus Values A Pallidus Inferred Stimulus Values Ethan S. Bromberg-Martin,1 Masayuki Matsumoto,1,2 Simon Hong,1 and Okihide

  20. Equilibrium hydrate formation conditions for hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and ethane in aqueous solutions of ethylene glycol and sodium chloride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majumdar, A.; Mahmoodaghdam, E.; Bishnoi, P.R.

    2000-02-01

    Natural gas components such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and ethane form gas hydrates of structure I under suitable temperature and pressure conditions. Information on such conditions is vital to the oil and gas industry in order to design and operate processing equipment and pipelines so that hydrate formation is avoided. Incipient equilibrium hydrate formation conditions for hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and ethane in aqueous solutions of ethylene glycol and sodium chloride were experimentally obtained in the temperature range 264--290 K and the pressure range 0.23--3.18 MPa. A variable-volume sapphire cell was used for the measurements.

  1. AIRBORNE, OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING OF METHANE AND ETHANE FOR NATURAL GAS PIPELINE LEAK DETECTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerry Myers

    2003-11-12

    Ophir Corporation was awarded a contract by the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory under the Project Title ''Airborne, Optical Remote Sensing of Methane and Ethane for Natural Gas Pipeline Leak Detection'' on October 14, 2002. This second six-month technical report summarizes the progress made towards defining, designing, and developing the hardware and software segments of the airborne, optical remote methane and ethane sensor. The most challenging task to date has been to identify a vendor capable of designing and developing a light source with the appropriate output wavelength and power. This report will document the work that has been done to identify design requirements, and potential vendors for the light source. Significant progress has also been made in characterizing the amount of light return available from a remote target at various distances from the light source. A great deal of time has been spent conducting laboratory and long-optical path target reflectance measurements. This is important since it helps to establish the overall optical output requirements for the sensor. It also reduces the relative uncertainty and risk associated with developing a custom light source. The data gathered from the optical path testing has been translated to the airborne transceiver design in such areas as: fiber coupling, optical detector selection, gas filters, and software analysis. Ophir will next, summarize the design progress of the transceiver hardware and software development. Finally, Ophir will discuss remaining project issues that may impact the success of the project.

  2. AIRBORNE, OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING OF METHANE AND ETHANE FOR NATURAL GAS PIPLINE LEAK DETECTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerry Myers

    2004-05-12

    Ophir Corporation was awarded a contract by the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory under the Project Title ''Airborne, Optical Remote Sensing of Methane and Ethane for Natural Gas Pipeline Leak Detection'' on October 14, 2002. The third six-month technical report contains a summary of the progress made towards finalizing the design and assembling the airborne, remote methane and ethane sensor. The vendor has been chosen and is on contract to develop the light source with the appropriate linewidth and spectral shape to best utilize the Ophir gas correlation software. Ophir has expanded upon the target reflectance testing begun in the previous performance period by replacing the experimental receiving optics with the proposed airborne large aperture telescope, which is theoretically capable of capturing many times more signal return. The data gathered from these tests has shown the importance of optimizing the fiber optic receiving fiber to the receiving optic and has helped Ophir to optimize the design of the gas cells and narrowband optical filters. Finally, Ophir will discuss remaining project issues that may impact the success of the project.

  3. Ethan Frome

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowers 2015 U.S.4LycomingReview,

  4. Ethan Frome

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowers 2015 U.S.4LycomingReview,xx/xx/xxxx

  5. Ag(I) Ion Functionalized Porous Organic Polymers As a New Platform for Highly Selective Adsorption of Ethylene over Ethane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LI, Baiyan; Zhang, Yiming; Ma, Dingxuan; Wu, Zili; Ma, Shengqian

    2014-01-01

    We report herein a strategy of incorporating air stable Ag(I) ions into water stable, high surface area porous organic polymer (POP) affording significant increase in ethylene uptake capacity and extremely high Qst for ethylene (over 100 kJ/mol at low ethylene load-ing) as illustrated in the context of Ag(I) ion functionalized PAF-1, PAF-1-SO3Ag. IAST calculations using single-component-isotherm data and equimolar ethylene/ethane ratio at 296 K reveal PAF-1-SO3Ag shows exceptionally high ethylene/ethane adsorption selectivi-ty (Sads: 27 to 125), far surpassing benchmark zeolite and any other MOF reported in literature. This alongside excellent water/air stability, high ethylene uptake capacity, and mild regeneration requirements make PAF-1-SO3Ag hold promise for adsorption-based eth-ylene/ethane separations, paving a way to develop Ag(I) ion function-alized POPs as a new platform for highly selective adsorption of eth-ylene over ethane.

  6. A Minimum Free Energy Reaction Path for the E2 Reaction between Fluoro Ethane and a Fluoride Ion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nielsen, Steven O.

    A Minimum Free Energy Reaction Path for the E2 Reaction between Fluoro Ethane and a Fluoride Ion, such as the mechanism and the free-energy profile, remains an important challenge not only for enzyme catalysis1 of the reaction free-energy profile is very cumbersome with constrained molecular dynamics (MD) and umbrella

  7. State Heating Oil & Propane Program. Final report 1997/98 heating season

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunton, G.

    1998-06-01

    The following is a summary report of the New Hampshire Governor`s Office of Energy and Community Services (ECS) participation in the State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP) for the 1997/98 heating season. SHOPP is a cooperative effort, linking energy offices in East Coast and Midwest states, with the Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA) for the purpose of collecting retail price data for heating oil and propane. The program is funded by the participating state with a matching grant from DOE. SHOPP was initiated in response to congressional inquires into supply difficulties and price spikes of heating oil and propane associated with the winter of 1989/90. This is important to New Hampshire because heating oil controls over 55% of the residential heating market statewide. Propane controls 10% of the heating market statewide and is widely used for water heating and cooking in areas of the state where natural gas is not available. Lower installation cost, convenience, lower operating costs compared to electricity, and its perception as a clean heating fuel have all worked to increase the popularity of propane in New Hampshire and should continue to do so in the future. Any disruption in supply of these heating fuels to New Hampshire could cause prices to skyrocket and leave many residents in the cold.

  8. State heating oil and propane program. Final report, 1996--1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunton, G.

    1997-08-01

    The following is a summary report of the New Hampshire Governor`s Office of Energy and Community Services (ECS) participation in the State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP) for the 1996-97 heating season. SHOPP is a cooperative effort, linking energy offices in East Coast and Midwest states, with the Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA) for the purpose of collecting retail price data for heating oil and propane. The program funded by the participating state with a matching grant from DOE. SHOPP was initiated in response to congressional inquires into supply difficulties and price spikes of heating oil and propane associated with the winter of 1989/90. This is important to New Hampshire because heating oil controls over 55% of the residential heating market statewide. Propane controls 10% of the heating market statewide and is widely used in rural areas where Natural GAs is not available. Lower installation cost, convenience, lower operating costs compared to electricity and its perception as a clean heating fuel has increased the popularity of propane in New Hampshire and should continue to do so in the future. Any disruption in supply of these heating fuels to New Hampshire could cause prices to skyrocket and leave many residents in the cold.

  9. Atmospheric chemistry results from the ANTCI 2005 Antarctic plateau airborne study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    et al. [2004]. g Except ethane, which had a detection limitthe trace gases CO, ethane, ethyne, and the halocarbonb) methyl chloroform, (c) ethane, and (d) ethyne. Overall,

  10. Infrared Spectra and Optical Constants of Astronomical Ices: II. Ethane and Ethylene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, R L; Moore, M H

    2015-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopic observations have established the presence of hydrocarbon ices on Pluto and other TNOs, but the abundances of such molecules cannot be deduced without accurate optical constants (n, k) and reference spectra. In this paper we present our recent measurements of near- and mid-infrared optical constants for ethane (C$_2$H$_6$) and ethylene (C$_2$H$_4$) in multiple ice phases and at multiple temperatures. As in our recent work on acetylene (C$_2$H$_2$), we also report new measurements of the index of refraction of each ice at 670 nm. Comparisons are made to earlier work where possible, and electronic versions of our new results are made available.

  11. Energetic proton generation from intense Coulomb explosion of large-size ethane clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Song; Zhou Zili; Tian Ye; Lu Haiyang; Wang Wentao; Ju Jingjing; Xu Yi; Leng Yuxin; Ni Guoquan; Wang Cheng; Liu Jiansheng; Li Hongyu

    2013-04-15

    An experimental investigation is performed on the interaction of intense femtosecond laser pulses at the intensity of 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2} (55 fs, 160 mJ at 800 nm) with ethane cluster (C{sub 2}H{sub 6}){sub N} jets prepared under the backing pressure of 30 bars at room temperature (298 K). The experiment results indicate the generation of energetic protons, whose average and maximum kinetic energies are 12.2 and 138.1 keV, respectively, by Coulomb explosion of (C{sub 2}H{sub 6}){sub N} clusters. (C{sub 2}H{sub 6}){sub N} clusters of 5 nm in radius are generated in the experiment, which are 1.7 times larger than that of (CH{sub 4}){sub N} clusters prepared in the same conditions. Empirical estimation suggests that (C{sub 2}H{sub 6}){sub N} clusters with radius of about 9.6 nm can be prepared at 80-bars backing pressure at 308 K. While (C{sub 2}H{sub 6}){sub N} clusters of so large size are irradiated by sufficiently intense laser pulses, the average energy of protons will be increased up to 50 keV. It is inferred that such large-size deuterated ethane clusters (C{sub 2}D{sub 6}){sub N} will favor more efficient neutron generation due to the significant increase of the D-D nuclear reaction cross section in laser-driven cluster nuclear fusion.

  12. AIRBORNE, OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING OF METHANE AND ETHANE FOR NATURAL GAS PIPELINE LEAK DETECTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerry Myers

    2003-05-13

    Ophir Corporation was awarded a contract by the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory under the Project Title ''Airborne, Optical Remote Sensing of Methane and Ethane for Natural Gas Pipeline Leak Detection'' on October 14, 2002. This six-month technical report summarizes the progress for each of the proposed tasks, discusses project concerns, and outlines near-term goals. Ophir has completed a data survey of two major natural gas pipeline companies on the design requirements for an airborne, optical remote sensor. The results of this survey are disclosed in this report. A substantial amount of time was spent on modeling the expected optical signal at the receiver at different absorption wavelengths, and determining the impact of noise sources such as solar background, signal shot noise, and electronic noise on methane and ethane gas detection. Based upon the signal to noise modeling and industry input, Ophir finalized the design requirements for the airborne sensor, and released the critical sensor light source design requirements to qualified vendors. Responses from the vendors indicated that the light source was not commercially available, and will require a research and development effort to produce. Three vendors have responded positively with proposed design solutions. Ophir has decided to conduct short path optical laboratory experiments to verify the existence of methane and absorption at the specified wavelength, prior to proceeding with the light source selection. Techniques to eliminate common mode noise were also evaluated during the laboratory tests. Finally, Ophir has included a summary of the potential concerns for project success and has established future goals.

  13. No. 2 heating oil/propane program. Final report, 1990/91

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBrien, J.

    1991-06-01

    During the 1990/91 heating season, the Massachusetts Division of Energy Resources (DOER) participated in a joint data collection program between several state energy offices and the federal Department of Energy`s (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA). The purpose of the program was to collect and monitor retail and wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories from October 1990 through March 1991. This final report begins with an overview of the unique events which had an impact on the reporting period. Next, the report summarizes the results from the residential heating oil and propane price surveys conducted by DOER over the 1990/91 heating season. The report also incorporates the wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories collected by the EIA and distributed to the states.

  14. Number 2 heating oil/propane program. Final report, 1991/92

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBrien, J.

    1992-06-01

    During the 1991--92 heating season, the Massachusetts Division of Energy Resources (DOER) participated in a joint data collection program between several state energy offices and the federal Department of Energy`s (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA). The purpose of the program was to collect and monitor retail and wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories from October, 1991 through March, 1992. This final report begins with an overview of the unique events which had an impact on the reporting period. Next, the report summarizes the results from the residential heating oil and propane price surveys conducted by DOER over the 1991--1992 heating season. The report also incorporates the wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories collected by the EIA and distributed to the states. Finally, the report outlines DOER`s use of the data and responses to the events which unfolded during the 1991--1992 heating season.

  15. No. 2 heating oil/propane program. Final report, 1992/93

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBrien, J.

    1993-05-01

    During the 1992--93 heating season, the Massachusetts Division Energy Resources (DOER) participated in a joint data collection program between several state energy offices and the federal Department of Energy`s (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA). The purpose of the program was to collect and monitor retail and wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories from October, 1992 through March, 1993. This final report begins with an overview of the unique events which had an impact on the petroleum markets prior to and during the reporting period. Next, the report summarizes the results from residential heating oil and propane price surveys conducted by DOER over the 1992--93 heating season. The report also incorporates the wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories collected by the EIA and distributed to the states. Finally, the report outlines DOER`s use of the data.

  16. Sources and photochemistry of volatile organic compounds in the remote atmosphere of western China: results from the Mt. Waliguan Observatory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    sites a . Waliguan b Species Ethane Propane n-butanei-butane n-pentane i-pentane Ethene Propene Isoprene EthyneNorth b CO Ethane Propane n-butane i-butane Ethyne Benzene

  17. Observations of nonmethane organic compounds during ARCTAS - Part 1: Biomass burning emissions and plume enhancements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    Propane WAS Ethane TOGA WAS Butane TOGA WAS Isopentane R. S.24 Plume 28 n-Hexane i-Pentane n-Pentane 1-Butene n-Butanei-Butane Propene Propane Ethyne Ethene Ethane global scale,

  18. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation into Heated Seat Cushions as a Substitute for Propane Patio Heaters for the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    into Heated Seat Cushions as a Substitute for Propane Patio Heaters for the Perch Restaurant Arman Abadi SUMMARY This report investigates alternatives to propane patio heaters to keep patrons warm with the goal certification for the building. A triple bottom line analysis was conducted on heated seat cushions, propane

  19. Structure and critical function of Fe and acid sites in Fe-ZSM-5 in propane oxidative dehydrogenation with N2O and N2O decomposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sklenak, Stepan

    Structure and critical function of Fe and acid sites in Fe-ZSM-5 in propane oxidative species Steamed Fe-zeolites Mössbauer spectroscopy UV­Vis FTIR H2-TPR N2O decomposition Propane oxidative of propane to propene with N2O. The evacuated non-steamed FeH-ZSM-5 contained high concentration of Brønsted

  20. Transient behaviour of dense catalytic membranes based on Cu-and Co-doped Bi4V2O11 (BIMEVOX) in the oxidation of propene and propane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ) in the oxidation of propene and propane A. Löfberg a,* , C. Pirovano b , M.C. Steil b , R.N. Vannier b , E. Bordes, propane oxidation, syngas, catalytic dense membrane reactor, transient behaviour Abstract ME-doped -Bi4V2O of propene and of propane. Mirror-polished BICUVOX and BICOVOX membranes studied previously were poorly

  1. SUR LA POSSIBILIT D'UTILISATION D'UNE CHAMBRE A BULLES A PROPANE POUR L'TUDE DES RACTIONS NUCLAIRES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    175 A. SUR LA POSSIBILITÉ D'UTILISATION D'UNE CHAMBRE A BULLES A PROPANE POUR L'ÉTUDE DES RÉACTIONS. - Mise au point et étude des caractéristiques du fonctionnement d'une chambre à bulles à propane de 6 135 MeV. Abstract. 2014 Adjustment and studies of some characteristics of a 6 litre propane bubble

  2. Single-Site Vanadyl Activation, Functionalization, and Reoxidation Reaction Mechanism for Propane Oxidative Dehydrogenation on the Cubic V4O10 Cluster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    Single-Site Vanadyl Activation, Functionalization, and Reoxidation Reaction Mechanism for Propane of density functional theory) to examine the detailed mechanism for propane reacting with a V4O10 cluster to model the catalytic oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) of propane on the V2O5(001) surface. We here report

  3. "Nanocrystal bilayer for tandem catalysis"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamada, Yusuke

    2012-01-01

    Part VI. Hydrogenolysis of Ethane, Propane, n-Butane andiso-Butane over Supported Platinum Catalysts. J. Catal. 176,

  4. Pimmel A., and Claypool, G. ODP Technical Note 30

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the system. C1­C4 Hydrocarbons C1­C4 hydrocarbons (methane, ethane, propane, and butane) are found

  5. Simulation studies of steam-propane injection for the Hamaca heavy oil field 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venturini, Gilberto Jose

    2002-01-01

    Simulation studies were performed to evaluate a novel technology, steam-propane injection, for the heavy Hamaca crude oil. The oil has a gravity of 9.3?API and a viscosity of 25,000 cp at 50?C. Two types of simulation studies were performed: a...

  6. Experimental studies of steam-propane injection for the Duri intermediate crude oil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hendroyono, Arief

    2003-01-01

    for the intermediate Duri crude oil. The experiments involved injecting steam or a mixture of steam and propane into a cell in which was tamped a mixture of sand, oil and water. The cell was placed inside a vacuum jacket set at a reservoir temperature of 100?F...

  7. Alternative descriptions of catalyst deactivation in aromatization of propane and butane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koshelev, Yu.N.; Vorob`ev, B.L.; Khvorova, E.P.

    1995-08-20

    Deactivation of a zeolite-containing catalyst has been studied in aromatization of propane and butane. Various descriptions of the dependence of the alkane conversion on the coke concentration on the catalyst have been considered, and using a statistical method of estimating the model validity, the most preferable form of the deactivation function has been proposed.

  8. Metallurgical failure analysis of a propane tank boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kilgo, Alice C.; Eckelmeyer, Kenneth Hall; Susan, Donald Francis

    2005-01-01

    A severe fire and explosion occurred at a propane storage yard in Truth or Consequences, N.M., when a truck ran into the pumping and plumbing system beneath a large propane tank. The storage tank emptied when the liquid-phase excess flow valve tore out of the tank. The ensuing fire engulfed several propane delivery trucks, causing one of them to explode. A series of elevated-temperature stress-rupture tears developed along the top of a 9800 L (2600 gal) truck-mounted tank as it was heated by the fire. Unstable fracture then occurred suddenly along the length of the tank and around both end caps, along the girth welds connecting the end caps to the center portion of the tank. The remaining contents of the tank were suddenly released, aerosolized, and combusted, creating a powerful boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE). Based on metallography of the tank pieces, the approximate tank temperature at the onset of the BLEVE was determined. Metallurgical analysis of the ruptured tank also permitted several hypotheses regarding BLEVE mechanisms to be evaluated. Suggestions are made for additional work that could provide improved predictive capabilities regarding BLEVEs and for methods to decrease the susceptibility of propane tanks to BLEVEs.

  9. Analysis of U.S. Propane Markets Winter 1996-97, An

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1997-01-01

    This study constitutes an examination of propane supply, demand, and price developments and trends. The Energy Information Administration's approach focused on identifying the underlying reasons for the tight supply/demand balance in the fall of 1996, and on examining the potential for a recurrence of these events next year.

  10. Effects of natural gas composition on ignition delay under diesel conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naber, J.D.; Siebers, D.L. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Di Julio, S.S. [California State Univ., Northridge, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Westbrook, C.K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-12-03

    Effects of variations in natural gas composition on autoignition of natural gas under direct-injection (DI) diesel engine conditions were studied experimentally in a constant-volume combustion vessel and computationally using a chemical kinetic model. Four fuel blends were investigated: pure methane, a capacity weighted mean natural gas, a high ethane content natural gas, and a natural gas with added propane typical of peak shaving conditions. Experimentally measured ignition delays were longest for pure methane and became progressively shorter as ethane and propane concentrations increased. At conditions characteristic of a DI compression ignition natural gas engine at Top Dead Center (CR=23:1, p = 6.8 MPa, T = 1150K), measured ignition delays for the four fuels varied from 1.8 ms for the peak shaving and high ethane gases to 2.7 ms for pure methane. Numerically predicted variations in ignition delay as a function of natural gas composition agreed with these measurements.

  11. Sources of air pollution in a region of oil and gas exploration downwind of a large city

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    Fig. 3). For example, the ethane per- centages across thewould add up to 100% if all ethane mass could be attributed.short chain alkanes such as ethane and propane (Buzcu and

  12. Relationships Between Emission Sources and Airmass Characteristics in East Asia1 during the TRACE-P Period2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanier, Charlie

    . Department of Ecological Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Japan5 2. Center, such as ethane/CO and23 ethane/propane, by the backward trajectory could well reproduce the emission ratio and their ratio along the trajectory. From25 this analysis, the propane/ethane ratio and propane/acetylene ratio

  13. Kinetic and Thermodynamic Investigation of Hydrogen Release from Ethane 1,2-di-amineborane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neiner, Doinita; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Bowden, Mark; Choi, Young Joon; Luedtke, Avery T.; Holladay, Jamelyn D.; Fisher, Allison M.; Szymczak, Nathaniel; Autrey, Thomas

    2011-07-18

    The thermodynamics and kinetics of hydrogen (H2) release from ethane 1,2-di-amineborane (EDAB, BH3NH2CH2CH2NH2BH3) were measured using Calvet and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), pressure-composition isotherms, and volumetric gas-burette experiments. The results presented here indicate that EDAB releases ~ 9 wt.% H2 at temperatures ranging from 100 °C to 200 °C in two moderately exothermic steps, approximately -10±1 kJ/mol H2 and -3.8±1 kJ/mol H2. Isothermal kinetic analysis shows that EDAB is more stable than ammonia borane (AB) at temperatures lower than 100°C; however, the rates of hydrogen release are faster for EDAB than for AB at temperatures higher than 120°C. In addition, no volatile impurities in the H2 released by EDAB were detected by mass spectrometry upon heating with 1°C/min to 200°C in a calorimeter.

  14. Method of concurrently filtering particles and collecting gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mitchell, Mark A; Meike, Annemarie; Anderson, Brian L

    2015-04-28

    A system for concurrently filtering particles and collecting gases. Materials are be added (e.g., via coating the ceramic substrate, use of loose powder(s), or other means) to a HEPA filter (ceramic, metal, or otherwise) to collect gases (e.g., radioactive gases such as iodine). The gases could be radioactive, hazardous, or valuable gases.

  15. Thermalization of Gases: A First Principles Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clifford Chafin

    2015-06-20

    Previous approaches of emergent thermalization for condensed matter based on typical wavefunctions are extended to generate an intrinsically quantum theory of gases. Gases are fundamentally quantum objects at all temperatures, by virtue of rapid delocalization of their constituents. When there is a sufficiently broad spread in the energy of eigenstates, a well-defined temperature is shown to arise by photon production when the samples are optically thick. This produces a highly accurate approximation to the Planck distribution so that thermalization arises from the initial data as a consequence of purely quantum and unitary dynamics. These results are used as a foil for some common hydrodynamic theory of ultracold gases. It is suggested here that strong history dependence typically remains in these gases and so limits the validity of thermodynamics in their description. These problems are even more profound in the extension of hydrodynamics to such gases when they are optically thin, even when their internal energy is not low. We investigate rotation of elliptically trapped gases and consistency problems with deriving a local hydrodynamic approach. The presence of vorticity that is "hidden" from order parameter approaches is discussed along with some buoyancy intrinsically associated with vorticity that gives essential quantum corrections to gases in the regimes where standard perturbation approaches to the Boltzmann equations are known to fail to converge. These results suggest that studying of trapped gases in the far from ultracold regions may yield interesting results not described by classical hydrodynamics.

  16. Propane reacts with O2 and H2 on gold supported TS-1 to form oxygenates with high selectivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bravo Suarez, Juan J.

    2008-06-13

    Gold nanoparticles supported on a microporous titanosilicate (TS-1) were found to be highly selective (95%) towards the formation of acetone and isopropanol from propane, O2, and H2 at moderate temperatures (443 K)....

  17. Scientific Achievement Networks of highly photoresponsive crystalline GaSe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geohegan, David B.

    Scientific Achievement Networks of highly photoresponsive crystalline GaSe nanosheets a crystalline GaSe target was adjusted to directly grow networks of interconnected triangular GaSe crystalline nanosheets of ~ 200 nm size (inset shows atomic

  18. Quantified estimates of total GWPs for greenhouse gases taking into account tropospheric chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wuebbles, D.J.; Tamaresis, J.S.; Patten, K.O.

    1993-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to give interim account of the progress being made at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in developing an improved capability for assessing the direct and indirect effects on Global Warming Potentials. Much of our current efforts are being devoted to improving the capability for modeling of global tropospheric processes in our state-of-the-art zonally-averaged chemical-radiative-transport model of the troposphere and stratosphere. These efforts are in preparation for an improved evaluation and better quantification of the indirect GWPs resulting from effects on tropospheric ozone from ethane and other gases with significant human-related emissions. There are three major findings that should result from this project that should have significant impacts on EPA and its programs. First, the current and ongoing studies of the direct and indirect GWPs should have a significant influence on the continuing national and international assessments of climate change. Second, the improved capability for modeling of chemical and physical processes should lead to enhanced understanding of the controlling factors influencing ozone, hydroxyl and other key tropospheric constituents. Third, the enhanced modeling capability should be important to future studies of human-related influences on tropospheric and stratospheric chemical processes.

  19. Welcome to Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology: Editorial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Welcome to Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology510) 486-7419 Welcome to Greenhouse Gases: Science andand interviews on greenhouse gas emissions science and

  20. The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation Model (GREET) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated...

  1. Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gases | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gases Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gases Mission The team establishes an energy conservation program, as deemed appropriate for LM operations...

  2. Light Collection in Liquid Noble Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKinsey, Dan [Yale University

    2013-05-29

    Liquid noble gases are increasingly used as active detector materials in particle and nuclear physics. Applications include calorimeters and neutrino oscillation experiments as well as searches for neutrinoless double beta decay, direct dark matter, muon electron conversion, and the neutron electric dipole moment. One of the great advantages of liquid noble gases is their copious production of ultraviolet scintillation light, which contains information about event energy and particle type. I will review the scintillation properties of the various liquid noble gases and the means used to collect their scintillation light, including recent advances in photomultiplier technology and wavelength shifters.

  3. Determination of usage patterns and emissions for propane/LPG in California. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, M.

    1992-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine California usage patterns of Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG), and to estimate propane emissions resulting from LPG transfer operations statewide, and by county and air basin. The study is the first attempt to quantify LPG transfer emissions for California. This was accomplished by analyzing data from a telephone survey of California businesses that use LPG, by extracting information from existing databases.

  4. Palladium catalyzed coupling reactions: mechanism of reductive elimination. Progress report, October 1, 1979-September 30, 1980. [Ethane elimination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stille, J.K.

    1980-09-01

    The 1,1-reductive elimination of ethane from three cis-bis(phosphine)-dimethylpalladium complexes, L/sub 2/Pd(CH/sub 3/)/sub 2/ (L = PPh/sub 3/, PPh/sub 2/,CH/sub 3/ and L/sub 2/ = Ph/sub 2/PCH/sub 2/CH/sub 2/PPh/sub 2/), and three trans analogs (L = PPh/sub 3/, PPh/sub 2/CH/sub 3/ and L/sub 2/ = 2,11-bis(diphenylphosphinomethyl)benzo(c)phenanthrene (TRANSPHOS)) was carried out. The three cis complexes underwent reductive elimination in the presence of coordinating solvents (DMSO, DMF, and THF). The trans complexes which could isomerize to cis (L = PPh/sub 3/, PPh/sub 2/CH/sub 3/) did so in polar solvents and then underwent reductive elimination. TRANSPHOS dimethylpalladium would not undergo reductive elimination of ethane. The eliminations from the cis isomers were intramolecular and displayed first order kinetics. Although TRANSPHOS dimethylpalladium(II) would not undergo a 1,1-reductive elimination of ethane, the addition of CD/sub 3/I to a DMSO solution of this complex at 25/sup 0/C rapidly produced CD/sub 3/-CH/sub 3/, implicating a transient palladium(IV) intermediate. E- and Z-bromostyrylbis(diphenylmethylphosphine)palladium(0) react with methyl lithium in THF at ambient temperature to give the E- and Z- propenylbenzenes, respectively. At -78/sup 0/C, the intermediate E- and Z-styrylmethylbis(diphenylmethylphosphine)palladium(II) complexes (9a,b) can be isolated. On raising the temperature of solutions of 9a,b in THF, E- and Z-propenylbenzenes are produced. The reductive elimination reaction is intramolecular and first order in dialkylpalladium(II) complex.

  5. Denitrification of combustion gases. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, R.T.

    1980-10-09

    A method for treating waste combustion gas to remove the nitrogen oxygen gases therefrom is disclosed wherein the waste gas is first contacted with calcium oxide which absorbs and chemically reacts with the nitrogen oxide gases therein at a temperature from about 100/sup 0/ to 430/sup 0/C. The thus reacted calcium oxide (now calcium nitrate) is then heated at a temperature range between about 430/sup 0/ and 900/sup 0/C, resulting in regeneration of the calcium oxide and production of the decomposition gas composed of nitrogen and nitrogen oxide gas. The decomposition gases can be recycled to the calcium oxide contacting step to minimize the amount of nitrogen oxide gases in the final product gas.

  6. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-07-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program for greenhouse gases is part of an attempt by the U.S. Government to develop innovative, low-cost, and nonregulatory approaches to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. It is one element in an array of such programs introduced in recent years as part of the effort being made by the United States to comply with its national commitment to stabilize emissions of greenhouse gases under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions of greenhouse gases.

  7. Gas-Phase Reactions of Doubly Charged Lanthanide Cations with Alkanes and Alkenes. Trends in Metal(2+) Reactivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gibson, John K.

    2010-01-01

    methane, ethane, propane, n-butane) and alkenes (ethene,respectively). With propane and n-butane, all the Ln 2+ ionsof La 2+ with propane and n-butane, and the absence of their

  8. Gas-Phase Reactions of Doubly Charged Lanthanide Cations with Alkanes and Alkenes. Trends in Metal(2+) Reactivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gibson, John K.

    2010-01-01

    alkanes (methane, ethane, propane, n-butane) and alkenes (and 9, respectively). With propane and n-butane, all the Lnin the reactions of La 2+ with propane and n-butane, and the

  9. "Nanocrystal bilayer for tandem catalysis"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamada, Yusuke

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogenolysis of Ethane, Propane, n-Butane and iso-Butanethe Hydroformylation of Propane over Silica-supported Groupproduct and small amount of propane, which is likely to be

  10. Biological production of products from waste gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR)

    2002-01-22

    A method and apparatus are designed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, and carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various products, such as organic acids, alcohols, hydrogen, single cell protein, and salts of organic acids by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified.

  11. Anthropogenic emissions of nonmethane hydrocarbons in the northeastern United States: Measured seasonal variations from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    in relative emissions for this series of trace gases. Seasonal changes in n-butane and i-butane emissions may [Seinfeld and Pandis, 1998]. [3] In this study, we present the seasonality of C2-C6 (ethane, propane, n-butane, i-butane, n-pentane, i-pentane and n-hexane) hydrocarbons, NOy and CO as measured at Harvard Forest

  12. Ethane and n-butane oxidation over supported vanadium oxide catalysts: An in situ UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopic investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, X.; Banares, M.A.; Wachs, I.E.

    1999-12-10

    The coordination/oxidation states of surface vanadium oxide species on several oxide supports (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ZrO{sub 2}, SiO{sub 2}) during ethane and n-butane oxidation were examined by in situ UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). Only a small amount of the surface V(V)cations are reduced to V(IV)/V(III) cations under present steady-state reaction conditions. The extents of reduction of the surface V(V) species are a strong function of the specific oxide support, V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/ZrO{sub 2} {gt} V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} {gt} V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2}, and also correlate with their reactivities (turnover frequencies) for ethane and n-butane oxidation reactions. For ZrO{sub 2}-supported samples, the polymerized surface vanadia species were found to be more easily reduced than the isolated surface vanadia species in reducing environments (i.e., ethane or n-butane in He), but no significant differences in the extents of reduction were observed under present steady-state reaction conditions (i.e., ethane/O{sub 2}/He or n-butane/O{sub 2}/He). This observation is also consistent with the ethane oxidation catalytic study, which revealed that the polymerization degree, the domain size, of the surface vanadia species does not appear to significantly affect the reactivity of the supported vanadia catalysts for ethane oxidation.

  13. ABBREVIATIONS: NMDA, N-methyl-D-aspartic acid; ACPD, 1-aminocyclopentane-1 ,3-dicarboxylic acid; AMPA,a-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyli-soxazole-4-propionic acid; BAPTA, 1 ,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid; DMSO, dimethylsulfoxide; DNQX, 6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huettner, James E.

    ; AMPA,a-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyli- soxazole-4-propionic acid; BAPTA, 1 ,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane

  14. Toward Understanding the Nature of Internal Rotation Barriers with a New Energy Partition Scheme: Ethane and n-Butane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Shubin; Govind, Niri

    2008-07-24

    Based on an alternative energy partition scheme where density-based quantification of the steric effect was proposed [S.B. Liu, J. Chem. Phys. 126, 244103 (2007)], the origin of the internal rotation barrier between the eclipsed and staggered conformers of ethane and n-butane is systematically investigated in this work. The new definition is repulsive, exclusive, and extensive, and is intrinsically related to Bader’s atoms in molecules approach. Two kinds of differences, adiabatic (with optimal structure) and vertical (with fixed geometry), are considered in this work. We find that in the adiabatic case the eclipsed conformer possesses a larger steric repulsion than the staggered conformer for both molecules, but in the vertical cases the staggered conformer retains a larger steric repulsion. For ethane, a strong correlation between the total energy difference and the fermionic quantum energy difference is discovered. This linear relationship, however, does not hold for n-butane, whose behaviors in energy component differences are found to be more complicated. The impact of basis set and density functional choices on energy components from the new energy partition scheme has been investigated, as has its comparison with another definition of the steric effect in the literature in terms of the natural bond orbital analysis through the Pauli Exclusion Principle. Profiles of conceptual DFT reactivity indices as a function of dihedral angle changes have also been examined. Put together, these results suggest that the new energy partition scheme provides insights from a different perspective of internal rotation barriers.

  15. Series 50 propane-fueled Nova bus: Engine development, installation, and field trials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, B.

    1999-01-01

    The report describes a project to develop the Detroit Diesel series 50 liquefied propane gas (LPG) heavy-duty engine and to conduct demonstrations of LPG-fuelled buses at selected sites (Halifax Regional Municipality and three sites in the United States). The project included five main elements: Engine development and certification, chassis re-engineering and engine installation, field demonstration, LPG fuel testing, and LPG fuel variability testing. Lessons learned with regard to engine design and other issues are discussed, and recommendations are made for further development and testing.

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel and Propane Fuel Buses for Dallas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O O D S TA I NLoans TheCounty Schools Biodiesel and Propane

  17. U.S. Natural Gas Supplemental Gas - Propane Air (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan3 November18.5Gross Withdrawals (MillionBiomass Gas (MillionPropane

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Rolls on as Reliable Fleet Fuel

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onPropane Rolls on as Reliable Fleet Fuel to someone by

  19. Where do California's greenhouse gases come from?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Last March, more than two years after California passed legislation to slash greenhouse gas emissions 25 percent by 2020, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory scientist Marc Fischer boarded a Cessna loaded with air monitoring equipment and crisscrossed the skies above Sacramento and the Bay Area. Instruments aboard the aircraft measured a cocktail of greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide from fossil fuel use, methane from livestock and landfills, CO2 from refineries and power plants, traces of nitrous oxide from agriculture and fuel use, and industrially produced other gases like refrigerants. The flight was part of the Airborne Greenhouse Gas Emissions Survey, a collaboration between Berkeley Lab, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the University of California, and UC Davis to pinpoint the sources of greenhouse gases in central California. The survey is intended to improve inventories of the states greenhouse gas emissions, which in turn will help scientists verify the emission reductions mandated by AB-32, the legislation enacted by California in 2006.

  20. Where do California's greenhouse gases come from?

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Fischer, Marc

    2013-05-29

    Last March, more than two years after California passed legislation to slash greenhouse gas emissions 25 percent by 2020, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory scientist Marc Fischer boarded a Cessna loaded with air monitoring equipment and crisscrossed the skies above Sacramento and the Bay Area. Instruments aboard the aircraft measured a cocktail of greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide from fossil fuel use, methane from livestock and landfills, CO2 from refineries and power plants, traces of nitrous oxide from agriculture and fuel use, and industrially produced other gases like refrigerants. The flight was part of the Airborne Greenhouse Gas Emissions Survey, a collaboration between Berkeley Lab, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the University of California, and UC Davis to pinpoint the sources of greenhouse gases in central California. The survey is intended to improve inventories of the states greenhouse gas emissions, which in turn will help scientists verify the emission reductions mandated by AB-32, the legislation enacted by California in 2006.

  1. SOLAR HEATING OF TANK BOTTOMS Application of Solar Heating to Asphaltic and Parrafinic Oils Reducing Fuel Costs and Greenhouse Gases Due to Use of Natural Gas and Propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eugene A. Fritzler

    2005-09-01

    The sale of crude oil requires that the crude meet product specifications for BS&W, temperature, pour point and API gravity. The physical characteristics of the crude such as pour point and viscosity effect the efficient loading, transport, and unloading of the crude oil. In many cases, the crude oil has either a very high paraffin content or asphalt content which will require either hot oiling or the addition of diluents to the crude oil to reduce the viscosity and the pour point of the oil allowing the crude oil to be readily loaded on to the transport. Marginal wells are significantly impacted by the cost of preheating the oil to an appropriate temperature to allow for ease of transport. Highly paraffinic and asphaltic oils exist throughout the D-J basin and generally require pretreatment during cold months prior to sales. The current study addresses the use of solar energy to heat tank bottoms and improves the overall efficiency and operational reliability of stripper wells.

  2. METHANE AND METHANOTROPHY IN TEXAS AQUIFERS ETHAN L. GROSSMAN,1 CHUANLUN ZHANG,1* JAMES W. AMMERMAN,2 AND MARTHA J. D.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossman, Ethan L.

    1 METHANE AND METHANOTROPHY IN TEXAS AQUIFERS ETHAN L. GROSSMAN,1 CHUANLUN ZHANG,1* JAMES W-occurring methane-oxidizing bacteria (methanotrophs) have been shown to degrade the halogenated hydrocarbons, especially for deep pristine aquifers. Many Texas groundwaters contain significant to abundant methane

  3. Catalytic Nonoxidation Dehydrogenation of Ethane Over Fe-Ni Catalysts Supported on Mg (Al)O to Produce Hydrogen and Easily Purified Carbon Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen,W.; Wang, Y.; Shi, X.; Shah, N.; Huggins, F.; Bollineni, S.; Seehra, M.; Huffman, G.

    2007-01-01

    Nonoxidative decomposition of ethane was conducted over monometallic Ni and bimetallic Fe-Ni catalysts on basic Mg(Al)O support to produce H2 free of CO and CO2 and easily purified carbon nanotubes, a potentially valuable byproduct. The Mg(Al)O support was prepared by calcination of synthetic MgAl-hydrotalcite with a Mg to Al ratio of 5. The catalysts were prepared by incipient wetness with total metal loadings of 5 wt %. The dehydrogenation of undiluted ethane was conducted at temperatures of 500, 650, and 700 C. At 500 C, the Ni/Mg(Al)O catalyst was highly active and very stable with 100% conversion of ethane to 20 vol % H2 and 80 vol % CH4. However, the bimetallic Fe-Ni/Mg(Al)O exhibited its best performance at 650 C, yielding 65 vol % H2, 10 vol % CH4, and 25 vol % unreacted ethane. The product carbon was in the form of carbon nanotubes (CNT) at all three reaction temperatures, but the morphology of the CNT depended on both the catalyst composition and reaction temperature. The CNTs were formed by a tip-growth mechanism over the Mg(Al)O supported catalysts and were easily purified by a one-step dilute nitric acid treatment. Mossbauer spectroscopy, X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, TEM, STEM, TGA, and XRD were used to characterize the catalysts and the CNT, revealing the catalytic mechanisms.

  4. Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonding in Disubstituted Ethanes. A Comparison of NH,,,O-and OH,,,O-Hydrogen Bonding through Conformational Analysis of 4-Amino-4-oxobutanoate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonding in Disubstituted Ethanes. A Comparison of NH,,,O- and OH,,,O- Hydrogen Bonding through Conformational Analysis of 4-Amino-4-oxobutanoate (succinamate) and Monohydrogen 1 of amide NH,,,O- and carboxyl OH,,,O- hydrogen bonds were investigated via conformational analysis

  5. Long-term high frequency measurements of ethane, benzene and methyl chloride at Ragged Point, Barbados: Identification of long-range transport events.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Archibald, A. T.; Witham, C. S.; Ashfold, M. J.; Manning, A. J.; O'Doherty, S.; Greally, B. R.; Young, D.; Shallcross, D. E.

    2015-01-01

    Here we present high frequency long-term observations of ethane, benzene and methyl chloride from the AGAGE Ragged Point, Barbados, monitoring station made using a custom built GC-MS system. Our analysis focuses on the first three years of data...

  6. Combustion: What is the Lower Heating Value (LHV) of Propane? Before we start: how reasonable is the use of the LHV? What is the dewpoint of the reaction products?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Combustion: What is the Lower Heating Value (LHV) of Propane? Before we start: how reasonable temperature we can achieve with a propane-and-air blowtorch? We repeat this calculation for several different

  7. Analysis of ignition behavior in a turbocharged direct injection dual fuel engine using propane and methane as primary fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polk, A. C.; Gibson, C. M.; Shoemaker, N. T.; Srinivasan, K. K.; Krishnan, S. R.

    2011-10-05

    This paper presents experimental analyses of the ignition delay (ID) behavior for diesel-ignited propane and diesel-ignited methane dual fuel combustion. Two sets of experiments were performed at a constant speed (1800 rev/min) using a 4-cylinder direct injection diesel engine with the stock ECU and a wastegated turbocharger. First, the effects of fuel-air equivalence ratios (���© pilot �¢���¼ 0.2-0.6 and ���© overall �¢���¼ 0.2-0.9) on IDs were quantified. Second, the effects of gaseous fuel percent energy substitution (PES) and brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) (from 2.5 to 10 bar) on IDs were investigated. With constant ���© pilot (> 0.5), increasing ���© overall with propane initially decreased ID but eventually led to premature propane autoignition; however, the corresponding effects with methane were relatively minor. Cyclic variations in the start of combustion (SOC) increased with increasing ���© overall (at constant ���© pilot), more significantly for propane than for methane. With increasing PES at constant BMEP, the ID showed a nonlinear (initially increasing and later decreasing) trend at low BMEPs for propane but a linearly decreasing trend at high BMEPs. For methane, increasing PES only increased IDs at all BMEPs. At low BMEPs, increasing PES led to significantly higher cyclic SOC variations and SOC advancement for both propane and methane. Finally, the engine ignition delay (EID) was also shown to be a useful metric to understand the influence of ID on dual fuel combustion.

  8. Co-generation of electricity and chemicals from propane fuel in solid oxide fuel cells with anode containing nano-bimetallic catalyst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frenkel, Anatoly

    as an anode in direct propane fueled solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). After exposure of the initial single systems. Ó 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCsCo-generation of electricity and chemicals from propane fuel in solid oxide fuel cells with anode

  9. Effects of Propane/Natural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Straub; D. Ferguson; K. Casleton; G. Richards

    2006-03-01

    U.S. natural gas composition is expected to be more variable in the future. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports to the U.S. are expected to grow significantly over the next 10-15 years. Unconventional gas supplies, like coal-bed methane, are also expected to grow. As a result of these anticipated changes, the composition of fuel sources may vary significantly from existing domestic natural gas supplies. To allow the greatest use of gas supplies, end-use equipment should be able to accommodate the widest possible gas composition. For this reason, the effect of gas composition on combustion behavior is of interest. This paper will examine the effects of fuel variability on pollutant emissions for premixed gas turbine conditions. The experimental data presented in this paper have been collected from a pressurized single injector combustion test rig at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The tests are conducted at 7.5 atm with a 589K air preheat. A propane blending facility is used to vary the Wobbe Index of the site natural gas. The results indicate that propane addition of about five (vol.) percent does not lead to a significant change in the observed NOx emissions. These results vary from data reported in the literature for some engine applications and potential reasons for these differences are discussed.

  10. Effects of Propane/Natural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Straub, D.L.; Ferguson, D.H.; Casleton, K.H.; Richards, G.A.

    2007-03-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports to the U.S. are expected to grow significantly over the next 10-15 years. Likewise, it is expected that changes to the domestic gas supply may also introduce changes in natural gas composition. As a result of these anticipated changes, the composition of fuel sources may vary significantly from conventional domestic natural gas supplies. This paper will examine the effects of fuel variability on pollutant emissions for premixed gas turbine conditions. The experimental data presented in this paper have been collected from a pressurized single injector combustion test rig at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The tests are conducted at 7.5 atm with a 588 K air preheat. A propane blending facility is used to vary the Wobbe Index of the site natural gas. The results indicate that propane addition of about five (vol.) percent does not lead to a significant change in the observed NOx or CO emissions. These results are different from data collected on some engine applications and potential reasons for these differences will be described.

  11. Comparison of propane and methane performance and emissions in a turbocharged direct injection dual fuel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibson, C. M.; Polk, A. C.; Shoemaker, N. T.; Srinivasan, K. K.; Krishnan, S. R.

    2011-04-20

    With increasingly restrictive NO x and particulate matter emissions standards, the recent discovery of new natural gas reserves, and the possibility of producing propane efficiently from biomass sources, dual fueling strategies have become more attractive. This paper presents experimental results from dual fuel operation of a four-cylinder turbocharged direct injection (DI) diesel engine with propane or methane (a natural gas surrogate) as the primary fuel and diesel as the ignition source. Experiments were performed with the stock engine control unit at a constant speed of 1800 rpm, and a wide range of brake mean effective pressures (BMEPs) (2.7-11.6 bars) and percent energy substitutions (PESs) of C 3 H 8 and CH 4. Brake thermal efficiencies (BTEs) and emissions (NO x, smoke, total hydrocarbons (THCs), CO, and CO 2) were measured. Maximum PES levels of about 80-95% with CH 4 and 40-92% with C 3 H 8 were achieved. Maximum PES was limited by poor combustion efficiencies and engine misfire at low loads for both C 3 H 8 and CH 4, and the onset of knock above 9 bar BMEP for C 3 H 8. While dual fuel BTEs were lower than straight diesel BTEs at low loads, they approached diesel BTE values at high loads. For dual fuel operation, NO x and smoke reductions (from diesel values) were as high as 66-68% and 97%, respectively, but CO and THC emissions were significantly higher with increasing PES at all engine loads

  12. Prediction of the energy dependence of molecular fragmentation cross sections for collisions of swift protons with ethane and acetylene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabrera-Trujillo, Remigio; Sabin, John R.; Deumens, Erik; Oehrn, Yngve

    2005-04-01

    We report the energy-dependent fragmentation cross sections for several of the more likely fragmentation channels for protons with up to 10 keV impact energy colliding with acetylene and ethane. We find that the predominant channels are those which involve the dissociation of a carbon-hydrogen bond, and we find that the cross sections for these channels are maximum in the low-projectile-energy region. The cross sections for fragmentation involving dissociation of a C-C bond are an order of magnitude smaller and peak at somewhat higher projectile energy. Although there are no experimental values with which to compare, it appears that selection of projectile energy can be used to influence branching ratios in proton-hydrocarbon collisions and, by implication, in other ion-molecule and atom-molecule collisions.

  13. Cmo simular flujo de gases reactivos con

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    ¿Cómo simular flujo de gases reactivos con RetrasoCodeBright? Maarten W. Saaltink #12;Procesos Difusión de especies gaseosas Flujo de gas reactivo Se forma/consume especies gaseosas por reacciones dispersión #12;Tipos de fenómenos Descomposición de materia orgánica CH2O + O2(g) CO2(g) + H2O CH2O + 0.8NO3

  14. Published in Journal de Physique IV, vol 11, pp. Pr3-101 ---Pr3-108 Kinetic modelling of gas-phase decomposition of propane : correlation with pyrocarbon deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    -phase decomposition of propane : correlation with pyrocarbon deposition Cédric Descamps, Gerard L. Vignoles , Olivier : A chemical kinetic model for gas-phase pyrolysis of propane has been set up, partially reduced, and validated the notion of "maturation" from propane to lighter hydrocarbons, then to aromatic compounds and PAHs. The gas

  15. Detectability of biosignature gases in the atmospheres of terrestrial exoplanets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Messenger, Stephen Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Biosignature gases in the atmosphere of an exoplanet provide a means by which we can deduce the possible existence of life on that planet. As the list of possible biosignature gases is ever growing, the need to determine ...

  16. Method for enhancing microbial utilization rates of gases using perfluorocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turick, Charles E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1997-01-01

    A method of enhancing the bacterial reduction of industrial gases using perfluorocarbons (PFCs) is disclosed. Because perfluorocarbons (PFCs) allow for a much greater solubility of gases than water does, PFCs have the potential to deliver gases in higher concentrations to microorganisms when used as an additive to microbial growth media thereby increasing the rate of the industrial gas conversion to economically viable chemicals and gases.

  17. Method for enhancing microbial utilization rates of gases using perfluorocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turick, C.E.

    1997-06-10

    A method of enhancing the bacterial reduction of industrial gases using perfluorocarbons (PFCs) is disclosed. Because perfluorocarbons (PFCs) allow for a much greater solubility of gases than water does, PFCs have the potential to deliver gases in higher concentrations to microorganisms when used as an additive to microbial growth media thereby increasing the rate of the industrial gas conversion to economically viable chemicals and gases. 3 figs.

  18. A simulation study of steam and steam-propane injection using a novel smart horizontal producer to enhance oil production 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandoval Munoz, Jorge Eduardo

    2004-11-15

    in an increase of oil recovery to 35.4-32.6% OOIP at 150-300 BPDCWE. Fifth, with steam-propane injection, for both well systems, oil production acceleration increases with lower injection rates. Sixth, the second oil production peak in the vertical...

  19. Effect of propane-air on NGVs and vehicle fueling stations. Topical report, January 1-October 1, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liss, W.E.; Moulton, D.S.

    1994-06-01

    Propane-air (P/A) peakshaving is an important element of peak-load management for some U.S. gas utilities. P/A is used as a supplemental energy medium with natural gas and has been shown to operate satisfactorily in most natural gas applications. The propane levels injected are compatible with the pressures (under 200 psig) and temperatures (over 40 F) found in utility distribution networks. However, P/A can create problems for natural gas vehicles (NGVs) operating on compressed gas as well as NGV fueling stations. This report contains information on P/A peakshaving and its compatibility with NGVs by documenting condensation impacts at nine conditions--i.e., three propane levels and three temperatures. These data portray the depressurization of a vehicle tank, an area selected because it illustrates NGV operation and can discriminate between acceptable and potentially non-acceptable operating points. These analyses show, not surprisingly, a correlation exists between propane level, ambient temperature, and condensation.

  20. Optimized design of a heat exchanger for an air-to-water reversible heat pump working with propane (R290)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernández de Córdoba, Pedro

    Optimized design of a heat exchanger for an air-to-water reversible heat pump working with propane-to-water reversible heat pump unit was carried out using two different fin-and-tube heat exchanger ``coil'' designs concepts. The performance of the heat pump was evaluated for each coil design at different superheat

  1. Studies of n-Propanol, iso-Propanol, and Propane Flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veloo, Peter S.; Egolfopoulos, Fokion N.

    2011-01-01

    The phenomena of propagation and extinction of flames of saturated C{sub 3} alcohols and propane were studied experimentally and numerically in order to assess the effects of the presence and location of the hydroxyl radical in the fuel molecular structure. The experiments were carried out in the counterflow configuration under atmospheric pressure and for unreacted fuel-carrying stream temperature of 343 K. The simulations included detailed descriptions of molecular transport and chemical kinetics using a recently developed kinetic model for C{sub 3} alcohols. The experimental results revealed that the laminar flame speeds and extinction strain rates of n-propanol/air and propane/air flames are close to each other whereas those of iso-propanol/air flames are consistently lower. Similar behavior was observed also for the extinction strain rates of non-premixed n-propanol and iso-propanol flames. It was shown through sensitivity and reaction path analyses that there are two major differences between the intermediates of n-propanol/air and iso-propanol/air flames. In iso-propanol/air flames there are notably higher concentrations of propene whose consumption pathway results in the relatively unreactive allyl radicals, retarding thus the overall reactivity. In n-propanol/air flames there are notably higher concentrations of formaldehyde that reacts readily to form formyl radicals whose subsequent reactions enhance the overall reactivity. The kinetic model used in this study was found to overpredict the experimental results for rich n-propanol/air and propane/air flames. Analysis revealed that those discrepancies are most likely caused by deficiencies in the C{sub 3} alkane kinetics. Through sensitivity analysis, it was determined also that the propagation and extinction of n-propanol/air and iso-propanol/air flames are sensitive largely to hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and C{sub 1}–C{sub 3} kinetics and not to fuel-specific reactions. Finally, the relative sooting propensities of flames of these three fuels were assessed computationally.

  2. Scale-invariant nonlinear optics in gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heyl, C M; Miranda, M; Louisy, M; Kovacs, K; Tosa, V; Balogh, E; Varjú, K; L'Huillier, A; Couairon, A; Arnold, C L

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear optical methods are becoming ubiquitous in many areas of modern photonics. They are, however, often limited to a certain range of input parameters, such as pulse energy and average power, since restrictions arise from, for example, parasitic nonlinear effects, damage problems and geometrical considerations. Here, we show that many nonlinear optics phenomena in gaseous media are scale-invariant if spatial coordinates, gas density and laser pulse energy are scaled appropriately. We develop a general scaling model for (3+1)-dimensional wave equations, demonstrating the invariant scaling of nonlinear pulse propagation in gases. Our model is numerically applied to high-order harmonic generation and filamentation as well as experimentally verified using the example of pulse post-compression via filamentation. Our results provide a simple recipe for up-or downscaling of nonlinear processes in gases with numerous applications in many areas of science.

  3. Glass Membrane For Controlled Diffusion Of Gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shelby, James E. (Alfred Station, NY); Kenyon, Brian E. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2001-05-15

    A glass structure for controlled permeability of gases includes a glass vessel. The glass vessel has walls and a hollow center for receiving a gas. The glass vessel contains a metal oxide dopant formed with at least one metal selected from the group consisting of transition metals and rare earth metals for controlling diffusion of the gas through the walls of the glass vessel. The vessel releases the gas through its walls upon exposure to a radiation source.

  4. Cross sections for electron scattering by propane in the low- and intermediate-energy ranges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Souza, G. L. C. de; Lee, M.-T.; Sanches, I. P.; Rawat, P.; Iga, I.; Santos, A. S. dos; Machado, L. E.; Sugohara, R. T.; Brescansin, L. M.; Homem, M. G. P.; Lucchese, R. R.

    2010-07-15

    We present a joint theoretical-experimental study on electron scattering by propane (C{sub 3}H{sub 8}) in the low- and intermediate-energy ranges. Calculated elastic differential, integral, and momentum transfer as well as total (elastic + inelastic) and total absorption cross sections are reported for impact energies ranging from 2 to 500 eV. Also, experimental absolute elastic cross sections are reported in the 40- to 500-eV energy range. A complex optical potential is used to represent the electron-molecule interaction dynamics. A theoretical method based on the single-center-expansion close-coupling framework and corrected by the Pade approximant is used to solve the scattering equations. The experimental angular distributions of the scattered electrons are converted to absolute cross sections using the relative flow technique. The comparison of our calculated with our measured results, as well as with other experimental and theoretical data available in the literature, is encouraging.

  5. Performance and emissions of propane, natural gas, and methanol fuelled bus engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goetz, W.A.; Petherick, D.; Topaloglu, T.

    1988-01-01

    A comparative evaluation of six transit bus engines (three diesel, one propane (LPG), one natural gas for vehicles (NGV), and one methanol) has been performed. The purpose of the program was to assess the exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of current state-of-the-art large alternative fuel engines. Engine dynamometer test work was performed at the Ontario Research Foundation (ORF) which allowed a detailed comparison of several alternative-fuelled engines versus their diesel counterparts. Test data includes steady-state brake-specific fuel consumption maps, torque and horsepower curves. Transient performance, fuel consumption and emissions information came from computer-controlled engine dynamometer runs of the Advanced Design Bus (ADB) test cycle.

  6. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Hydronic Heating Coil Versus Propane Furnace, Rehoboth Beach, Delaware

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-01-01

    In this project involving two homes, the IBACOS team evaluated the performance of the two space conditioning systems and the modeled efficiency of the two tankless domestic hot water systems relative to actual occupant use. Each house was built by Insight Homes and is 1,715-ft2 with a single story, three bedrooms, two bathrooms, and the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems and ductwork located in conditioned crawlspaces. The standard house, which the builder offers as its standard production house, uses an air source heat pump (ASHP) with supplemental propane furnace heating. The Building America test house uses the same ASHP unit with supplemental heat provided by the DHW heater (a combined DHW and hydronic heating system, where the hydronic heating element is in the air handler).

  7. Synthesis and Characterization of Gold Clusters Ligated with 1,3-Bis(dicyclohexylphosphino)propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Grant E.; Priest, Thomas A.; Laskin, Julia

    2013-09-01

    In this multidisciplinary study we combine chemical reduction synthesis of novel gold clusters in solution with high-resolution analytical mass spectrometry (MS) to gain insight into the composition of the gold clusters and how their size, ionic charge state and ligand substitution influences their gas-phase fragmentation pathways. Ultra small cationic gold clusters ligated with 1,3-bis(dicyclohexylphosphino)propane (DCPP) were synthesized for the first time and introduced into the gas phase using electrospray ionization (ESI). Mass-selected cluster ions were fragmented employing collision induced dissociation (CID) and the product ions were analysed using MS. The solutions were found to contain the multiply charged cationic gold clusters Au9L43+, Au13L53+, Au6L32+, Au8L32+ and Au10L42+ (L = DCPP). The gas-phase fragmentation pathways of these cluster ions were examined systematically employing CID combined with MS. In addition, CID experiments were performed on related gold clusters of the same size and ionic charge state but capped with 1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane (DPPP) ligands containing phenyl functional groups at the two phosphine centers instead of cyclohexane rings. It is shown that this relatively small change in the molecular substitution of the two phosphine centers in diphosphine ligands (C6H11 versus C6H5) exerts a pronounced influence on the size of the species that are preferentially formed in solution during reduction synthesis as well as the gas-phase fragmentation channels of otherwise identical gold cluster ions. The mass spectrometry results indicate that in addition to the length of the alkyl chain between the two phosphine centers, the substituents at the phosphine centers also play a crucial role in determining the composition, size and stability of diphosphine ligated gold clusters synthesized in solution.

  8. The effect of acoustics on an ethanol spray flame in a propane-fired pulse combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubey, R.K.; Black, D.L.; McQuay, M.Q. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.] [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Carvalho, J.A. Jr. [Inst. Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Cachoeira Paulista, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Lab. Associado de Comubustao e Propulsao] [Inst. Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Cachoeira Paulista, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Lab. Associado de Comubustao e Propulsao

    1997-07-01

    The influence of an acoustic field on the combustion characteristics of a hydrogen-stabilized ethanol spray flame has been experimentally investigated using a phase-Doppler particle analyzer in a propane-fired, Rijke-tube, pulse combustor. The controlled sinusoidal acoustic field in the combustor had a sound pressure level of 155 dB and a frequency of 80 Hz. Experiments were performed to study the effect of oscillations on Sauter-mean and arithmetic-mean diameters, droplet velocity, and droplet number density for the present operating conditions of the Rijke-tube combustor. Similar measurements were also performed on a water spray in the propane-fired reactor to study the effect of the acoustic field on the atomization process for the nozzle type used. Spectral analysis of the droplet axial velocity component for the oscillating conditions revealed a dominant frequency equal to the frequency of the sinusoidal acoustic wave in the combustor. The Sauter-mean diameter of the ethanol spray decreased by 15%, on average, in the presence of the acoustic field because of enhanced evaporation, while the droplet arrival rate at the probe volume increased due to changes in the flame structure. Analysis of the measured size distributions indicated that under an oscillating flow there was a larger population of droplets in the diameter range of 3--20 {micro}m. Experiments conducted with the water spray indicated that the oscillations did affect droplet size distributions in the ethanol spray due to enhanced evaporation caused by the relocation of the flame front inside and around the spray cone.

  9. 4-70C Propane (molar mass = 44.1 kg/kmol) poses a greater fire danger than methane (molar mass = 16 kg/kmol) since propane is heavier than air (molar mass = 29 kg/kmol), and it will settle near the floor.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    4-36 Ideal Gas 4-70C Propane (molar mass = 44.1 kg/kmol) poses a greater fire danger than methane (molar mass = 16 kg/kmol) since propane is heavier than air (molar mass = 29 kg/kmol), and it will settle

  10. Use of a thermodynamic cycle simulation to determine the difference between a propane-fuelled engine and an iso-octane-fuelled engine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pathak, Dushyant

    2006-04-12

    the engine cycle simulation to determine the difference between a propane-fuelled and an iso-octane-fuelled engine for the same operating conditions and engine specifications. A comprehensive parametric investigation was conducted to examine the effects...

  11. Experimental study of enhancement of injectivity and in-situ oil upgrading by steam-propane injection for the Hamaca heavy oil field 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rivero Diaz, Jose Antonio

    2002-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the feasibility of using propane as a steam additive to accelerate oil production and improve steam injectivity in the Hamaca field, Venezuela. The experiments utilized a vertical injection cell into which a...

  12. Autoignited laminar lifted flames of methane, ethylene, ethane, and n-butane jets in coflow air with elevated temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, B.C.; Chung, S.H.

    2010-12-15

    The autoignition characteristics of laminar lifted flames of methane, ethylene, ethane, and n-butane fuels have been investigated experimentally in coflow air with elevated temperature over 800 K. The lifted flames were categorized into three regimes depending on the initial temperature and fuel mole fraction: (1) non-autoignited lifted flame, (2) autoignited lifted flame with tribrachial (or triple) edge, and (3) autoignited lifted flame with mild combustion. For the non-autoignited lifted flames at relatively low temperature, the existence of lifted flame depended on the Schmidt number of fuel, such that only the fuels with Sc > 1 exhibited stationary lifted flames. The balance mechanism between the propagation speed of tribrachial flame and local flow velocity stabilized the lifted flames. At relatively high initial temperatures, either autoignited lifted flames having tribrachial edge or autoignited lifted flames with mild combustion existed regardless of the Schmidt number of fuel. The adiabatic ignition delay time played a crucial role for the stabilization of autoignited flames. Especially, heat loss during the ignition process should be accounted for, such that the characteristic convection time, defined by the autoignition height divided by jet velocity was correlated well with the square of the adiabatic ignition delay time for the critical autoignition conditions. The liftoff height was also correlated well with the square of the adiabatic ignition delay time. (author)

  13. Photophysics and Luminescence Spectroelectrochemistry of [Tc(dmpe)3]+/2+ (dmpe = 1,2-bis(dimethylphosphino)ethane)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chatterjee, Sayandev; Del Negro, Andrew S.; Smith, Frances N.; Wang, Zheming; Hightower, Sean E.; Sullivan, Brian P.; Heineman, William R.; Seliskar, Carl J.; Bryan, Samuel A.

    2013-12-05

    The ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT) excited state luminescence of [Tc(dmpe)3]2+ (dmpe is 1,2-bis-(dimethylphosphino)ethane) has been measured in solution at room temperature, and is compared to its Re analogue. Surprisingly, both [M(dmpe)3]2+* (M = Re, Tc) species have extremely large excited-state potentials (ESPs) as oxidants - the highest for any simple coordination complex of a transition metal. Furthermore, this potential is available using a photon of visible light (calculated for M = Re(Tc); E1/2* = +2.61(2.48) V versus SCE; ?max = 526(585) nm). Open shell TDDFT calculations support the assignment of the lowest energy transition in both the technetium and rhenium complexes to be a doublet-doublet process that involve predominantly LMCT (dmpe-to-metal) character and is in agreement with past assignments for the Re system. As expected for highly oxidizing excited state potentials, quenching is observed for the excited states by both the rhenium and technetium complexes. Stern-Volmer analysis resulted in quenching parameters for both the rhenium and technetium complexes under identical conditions, and are compared using Rehm-Weller analysis. Of particular interest is the fact that both benzene and toluene are oxidized by both the Re and Tc systems.

  14. Oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) of ethane with O[subscript 2] as oxidant on selected transition metal-loaded zeolites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Xufeng; Hoel, Cathleen A.; Sachtler, Wolfgang M.H.; Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.; Weitz, Eric

    2009-09-14

    Ni-, Cu-, and Fe-loaded acidic and basic Y zeolites were synthesized, and their catalytic properties for oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane (ODHE) to ethylene were characterized. Acidic Ni-loaded Y zeolite exhibits an ethylene productivity of up to 108 g{sub C{sub 2}H{sub 4}}g{sub cat}{sup -1} h{sup -1} with a selectivity of {approx}75%. Acidic Cu- and Fe-loaded Y zeolites have an ethylene productivity of up to 0.37 g{sub C{sub 2}H{sub 4}}g{sub cat}{sup -1} h{sup -1} and a selectivity of {approx}50%. For the same metal, the acidity of the zeolite favors both ODHE productivity and ethylene selectivity. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) studies show that Ni, present in particles on Ni/HY during the ODHE catalytic process, contains both Ni-Ni and Ni-O bonds, and that the ratio of oxidized Ni versus metallic Ni increases with the temperature. The insights these studies provide into the ODHE reaction mechanism are discussed.

  15. Ligand-Based Steric Effects in Ni-Catalyzed Chain-Growth Polymerizations Using Bis(dialkylphosphino)ethanes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lanni, Erica L.; Locke, Jonas R.; Gleave, Christine M.; McNeil, Anne J.

    2011-07-12

    The role of ligand-based steric effects was investigated in the polymerization of 4-bromo-2,5-bis(hexyloxy)phenylmagnesium chloride. Three different Ni(L-L)Cl? catalysts were synthesized using commercially available bis(dialkylphosphino)ethane ligands with varying steric properties. One of these catalysts (Ni(depe)Cl?) outperformed the others for this polymerization. The polymer characterization data were consistent with a chain-growth mechanism. Rate and spectroscopic studies revealed a rate-limiting reductive elimination for both initiation and propagation with Ni(depe)Cl?. In contrast, less hindered Ni(dmpe)Cl? and more hindered Ni(dcpe)Cl? were ineffective polymerization catalysts; NMR spectroscopic studies indicated that competing decomposition and uncontrolled pathways intervene. For other monomers, Ni(depe)Cl? performed similar to the conventional catalysts. Copolymerization studies revealed that block copolymers could be effectively prepared. Overall, these studies indicate that altering the ligand-based steric properties can have a significant impact on the chain-growth polymerization.

  16. Adsorption of propane, isopropyl, and hydrogen on cluster models of the M1 phase of Mo-V-Te-Nb-O mixed metal oxide catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Govindasamy, Agalya; Muthukumar, Kaliappan; Yu, Junjun; Xu, Ye; Guliants, Vadim V.

    2010-01-01

    The Mo-V-Te-Nb-O mixed metal oxide catalyst possessing the M1 phase structure is uniquely capable of directly converting propane into acrylonitrile. However, the mechanism of this complex eight-electron transformation, which includes a series of oxidative H-abstraction and N-insertion steps, remains poorly understood. We have conducted a density functional theory study of cluster models of the proposed active and selective site for propane ammoxidation, including the adsorption of propane, isopropyl (CH{sub 3}CHCH{sub 3}), and H which are involved in the first step of this transformation, that is, the methylene C-H bond scission in propane, on these active site models. Among the surface oxygen species, the telluryl oxo (Te=O) is found to be the most nucleophilic. Whereas the adsorption of propane is weak regardless of the MO{sub x} species involved, isopropyl and H adsorption exhibits strong preference in the order of Te=O > V=O > bridging oxygens > empty Mo apical site, suggesting the importance of TeO{sub x} species for H abstraction. The adsorption energies of isopropyl and H and consequently the reaction energy of the initial dehydrogenation of propane are strongly dependent on the number of ab planes included in the cluster, which points to the need to employ multilayer cluster models to correctly capture the energetics of surface chemistry on this mixed metal oxide catalyst.

  17. Surface Permeabilities DOI: 10.1002/anie.200804785

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jing

    . We selected ethane, propane, and n-butane as guest molecules. Sorption was initiated by varying between 8.5­12 min for ethane and 30 h for n-butane. After equilibration with the surrounding gas phase

  18. Method for controlling corrosion in thermal vapor injection gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sperry, John S. (Houston, TX); Krajicek, Richard W. (Houston, TX)

    1981-01-01

    An improvement in the method for producing high pressure thermal vapor streams from combustion gases for injection into subterranean oil producing formations to stimulate the production of viscous minerals is described. The improvement involves controlling corrosion in such thermal vapor gases by injecting water near the flame in the combustion zone and injecting ammonia into a vapor producing vessel to contact the combustion gases exiting the combustion chamber.

  19. The greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs Danish consumption and emissions, 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF6 Danish consumption and emissions, 2007 Tomas Sander Poulsen AND EMISSION OF F-GASES 7 1.1.1 Consumption 7 1.1.2 Emission 7 1.1.3 Trends in total GWP contribution from F 21 4 EMISSION OF F-GASES 23 4.1.1 Emissions of HFCs from refrigerants 23 4.1.2 Emissions of HFCs from

  20. Michigan residential No. 2 fuel oil and propane price survey for the 1990/91 heating season. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This report summarizes the results of a survey of home heating oil and propane prices over the 1990/1991 heating season in Michigan. The survey was conducted under a cooperative agreement between the State of Michigan, Michigan Public Service Commission and the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA), and was funded by a grant from EIA. From October 1990 through May 1991, participating dealers/distributions were called and asked for their current residential retail prices of No. 2 home heating oil and propane. This information was then transmitted to the EIA, bi-monthly using an electronic reporting system called Petroleum Data Reporting Option (PEDRO). The survey was conducted using a sample provided by EIA of home heating oil and propane retailers which supply Michigan households. These retailers were contacted the first and third Mondays of each month. The sample was designed to account for distributors with different sales volumes, geographic distributions and sources of primary supply. It should be noted that this simple is different from the sample used in prior year surveys.

  1. Michigan residential No. 2 fuel oil and propane price survey for the 1990/91 heating season

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This report summarizes the results of a survey of home heating oil and propane prices over the 1990/1991 heating season in Michigan. The survey was conducted under a cooperative agreement between the State of Michigan, Michigan Public Service Commission and the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA), and was funded by a grant from EIA. From October 1990 through May 1991, participating dealers/distributions were called and asked for their current residential retail prices of No. 2 home heating oil and propane. This information was then transmitted to the EIA, bi-monthly using an electronic reporting system called Petroleum Data Reporting Option (PEDRO). The survey was conducted using a sample provided by EIA of home heating oil and propane retailers which supply Michigan households. These retailers were contacted the first and third Mondays of each month. The sample was designed to account for distributors with different sales volumes, geographic distributions and sources of primary supply. It should be noted that this simple is different from the sample used in prior year surveys.

  2. Deviation from the Knudsen law on quantum gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babac, Gulru

    2014-12-09

    Gas flow in micro/nano scale systems has been generally studied for the Maxwell gases. In the limits of very low temperature and very confined domains, the Maxwellian approximation can break down and the quantum character of the gases becomes important. In these cases, Knudsen law, which is one of the important equations to analyze rarefied gas flows is invalid and should be reanalyzed for quantum gases. In this work, the availability of quantum gas conditions in the high Knudsen number cases is discussed and Knudsen law is analyzed for quantum gases.

  3. Test Results For Physical Separation Of Tritium From Noble Gases...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Test Results For Physical Separation Of Tritium From Noble Gases And It's Implications For Sensitivity And Accuracy In Air And Stack Monitoring Test Results For Physical Separation...

  4. Finalize Historic National Program to Reduce Greenhouse Gases...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Finalize Historic National Program to Reduce Greenhouse Gases and Improve Fuel Economy for Cars and Trucks Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Finalize...

  5. Autoignited laminar lifted flames of propane in coflow jets with tribrachial edge and mild combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, B.C.; Kim, K.N.; Chung, S.H.

    2009-02-15

    Characteristics of laminar lifted flames have been investigated experimentally by varying the initial temperature of coflow air over 800 K in the non-premixed jets of propane diluted with nitrogen. The result showed that the lifted flame with the initial temperature below 860 K maintained the typical tribrachial structure at the leading edge, which was stabilized by the balance mechanism between the propagation speed of tribrachial flame and the local flow velocity. For the temperature above 860 K, the flame was autoignited without having any external ignition source. The autoignited lifted flames were categorized in two regimes. In the case with tribrachial edge structure, the liftoff height increased nonlinearly with jet velocity. Especially, for the critical condition near blowout, the lifted flame showed a repetitive behavior of extinction and reignition. In such a case, the autoignition was controlled by the non-adiabatic ignition delay time considering heat loss such that the autoignition height was correlated with the square of the adiabatic ignition delay time. In the case with mild combustion regime at excessively diluted conditions, the liftoff height increased linearly with jet velocity and was correlated well with the square of the adiabatic ignition delay time. (author)

  6. Subnanometer platinum clusters highly active and selective catalysts for the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vajda, S; Pellin, M. J.; Greeley, J. P.; Marshall, C. L.; Curtiss, L. A.; Ballentine, G. A.; Elam, J. W.; Catillon-Mucherie, S.; Redfern, P. C.; Mehmood, F.; Zapol, P.; Yale Univ.

    2009-03-01

    Small clusters are known to possess reactivity not observed in their bulk analogues, which can make them attractive for catalysis. Their distinct catalytic properties are often hypothesized to result from the large fraction of under-coordinated surface atoms. Here, we show that size-preselected Pt{sub 8-10} clusters stabilized on high-surface-area supports are 40-100 times more active for the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane than previously studied platinum and vanadia catalysts, while at the same time maintaining high selectivity towards formation of propylene over by-products. Quantum chemical calculations indicate that under-coordination of the Pt atoms in the clusters is responsible for the surprisingly high reactivity compared with extended surfaces. We anticipate that these results will form the basis for development of a new class of catalysts by providing a route to bond-specific chemistry, ranging from energy-efficient and environmentally friendly synthesis strategies to the replacement of petrochemical feedstocks by abundant small alkanes.

  7. A rapid compression machine study of the oxidation of propane in the negative temperature coefficient regime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallagher, S.M.; Curran, H.J.; Metcalfe, W.K.; Healy, D.; Simmie, J.M.; Bourque, G.

    2008-04-15

    The oxidation of propane has been studied in the temperature range 680-970 K at compressed gas pressures of 21, 27, and 37 atm and at varying equivalence ratios of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0. These data are consistent with other experiments presented in the literature for alkane fuels in that, when ignition delay times are plotted as a function of temperature, a characteristic negative coefficient behavior is observed. In addition, these data were simulated using a detailed chemical kinetic model. It was found that qualitatively the model correctly simulated the effect of change in equivalence ratio and pressure, predicting that fuel-rich, high-pressure mixtures ignite fastest, while fuel-lean, low-pressure mixtures ignite slowest. Moreover, reactivity as a function of temperature is well captured, with the model predicting negative temperature coefficient behavior similar to the experiments. Quantitatively the model is faster than experiment for all mixtures at the lowest temperatures (650-750 K) and is also faster than experiment throughout the entire temperature range for fuel-lean mixtures. (author)

  8. Modeling of the formation of short-chain acids in propane flames

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique; Jaffrezo, J L; Legrand, M

    2009-01-01

    In order to better understand their potential formation in combustion systems, a detailed kinetic mechanism for the formation of short-chain monocarboxylic acids, formic (HCOOH), acetic (CH3COOH), propionic (C2H5COOH) and propenic (C2H3COOH)) acids, has been developed. Simulations of lean (equivalence ratios from 0.9 to 0.48) laminar premixed flames of propane stabilized at atmospheric pressure with nitrogen as diluent have been performed. It was found that amounts up to 25 ppm of acetic acid, 15 ppm of formic acid and 1 ppm of C3 acid can be formed for some positions in the flames. Simulations showed that the more abundant C3 acid formed is propenic acid. A quite acceptable agreement has been obtained with the scarce results from the literature concerning oxygenated compounds, including aldehydes (CH2O, CH3CHO) and acids. A reaction pathways analysis demonstrated that each acid is mainly derived from the aldehyde of similar structure.

  9. Operation of a Four-Cylinder 1.9L Propane Fueled HCCI Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flowers, D; Aceves, S M; Martinez-Frias, J; Smith, J R; Au, M; Girard, J; Dibble, R

    2001-03-15

    A four-cylinder 1.9 Volkswagen TDI Engine has been converted to run in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) mode. The stock configuration is a turbocharged direct injection Diesel engine. The combustion chamber has been modified by discarding the in-cylinder Diesel fuel injectors and replacing them with blank inserts (which contain pressure transducers). The stock pistons contain a reentrant bowl and have been retained for the tests reported here. The intake and exhaust manifolds have also been retained, but the turbocharger has been removed. A heater has been installed upstream of the intake manifold and fuel is added just downstream of this heater. The performance of this engine in naturally aspirated HCCI operation, subject to variable intake temperature and fuel flow rate, has been studied. The engine has been run with propane fuel at a constant speed of 1800 rpm. This work is intended to characterize the HCCI operation of the engine in this configuration that has been minimally modified from the base Diesel engine. The performance (BMEP, IMEP, efficiency, etc) and emissions (THC, CO, NOx) of the engine are presented, as are combustion process results based on heat release analysis of the pressure traces from each cylinder.

  10. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program, required by Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, records the results of voluntary measures to reduce, avoid, or sequester greenhouse gas emissions. In 1998, 156 US companies and other organizations reported to the Energy information Administration that, during 1997, they had achieved greenhouse gas emission reductions and carbon sequestration equivalent to 166 million tons of carbon dioxide, or about 2.5% of total US emissions for the year. For the 1,229 emission reduction projects reported, reductions usually were measured by comparing an estimate of actual emissions with an estimate of what emissions would have been had the project not been implemented.

  11. Removal of mercury from waste gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muster, U.; Marr, R.; Pichler, G.; Kremshofer, S.; Wilferl, R.; Draxler, J.

    1996-12-31

    Waste and process gases from thermal power, incineration and metallurgical plants or those from cement and alkali chloride industries contain metallic, inorganic and organic mercury. Widespread processes to remove the major amount of mercury are absorption and adsorption. Caused by the lowering of the emission limit from 200 to 50 {mu}g/m{sup 3} [STP] by national and European legislators, considerable efforts were made to enhance the efficiency of the main separation units of flue gas cleaning plants. Specially impregnated ceramic carriers can be used for the selective separation of metallic, inorganic and organic mercury. Using the ceramic reactor removal rates lower than 5 {mu}g/m{sup 3} [STP] of gaseous mercury and its compounds can be achieved. The ceramic reactor is active, regenerable and stable for a long term operation. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  12. Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Propane over V2O5/MoO3/Al2O3 and V2O5/Cr2O3/Al2O3: Structural Characterization and Catalytic Function

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Propane over V2O5/MoO3/Al2O3 and V2O5/Cr2O3/Al2O3: Structural of stoichiometric reduction in H2, and the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane. VOx domains on Al2O3 modified The oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) of propane provides an attractive route for the synthesis of propene.1

  13. Supplement of Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1317513188, 2014 http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/14/13175/2014/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    methane, ethane, propane, ethyne, benzene C4HC n-butane, i-butane, n-pentane, i-pentane, n-hexane, n

  14. Biocorrosive Thermophilic Microbial Communities in Alaskan North Slope Oil Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duncan, Kathleen E.

    2010-01-01

    ethane, propane or butane. Concentrations of metabolitesacid COO - CH 3 O H 3 C Butane (C 4 H 10 ) H 3 C CH 3 O - O

  15. Assumptions and Expectations for Annual Energy Outlook 2015:...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    * Update NPGL factors as well as the composition shares of NGPLs (ethane, propane, butane, iso-butane, pentanes plus). * Update EURs as time allows - focus on PA Marcellus...

  16. ORGANIC SPECIES IN GEOTHERMAL WATERS IN LIGHT OF FLUID INCLUSION...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    > 0.001 mol % typically have ethane > ethylene, propane > propylene, and butane > butylene. There are three end member fluid compositions: type 1 fluids in which...

  17. AMIII Termodinamica dos Gases Ideais 17 de Janeiro de 2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natário, José

    AMIII ­ Termodinâ??amica dos Gases Ideais 17 de Janeiro de 2002 N moles de um gâ??as ideal em equil dos gases ideais). A Primeira Lei da Termodinâ??amica afirma que existe uma funâ?ºcâ?ao E : M # R, dita pela Segunda Lei da Termodinâ??amica. 2 #12;

  18. Climate change and trace gases BY JAMES HANSEN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ford, Andrew

    Climate change and trace gases BY JAMES HANSEN 1,*, MAKIKO SATO 1 , PUSHKER KHARECHA 1 , GARY climate change that could run out of our control, with great dangers for humans and other creatures and the global environment. Keywords: climate change; trace gases; climate feedbacks; black carbon; sea level

  19. Continuous cryopump with a method for removal of solidified gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, L.W.; Herman, H.

    1988-05-05

    An improved cryopump for the removal of gases from a high vacuum, comprising a cryopanel incorporating honeycomb structure, refrigerant means thermally connected to the cryopanel, and a rotatable channel moving azimuthally around an axis located near the center of the cryopanel, removing gases adsorbed within the honeycomb structure by subliming them and conducting them outside the vacuum vessel. 4 figs.

  20. Bench-Scale Synthetic Optimization of 1,2-bis(2-aminophenylthio)ethane (APO-Link) Used in the Production of APO-BMI Resin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hilary Wheeler; Crystal Densmore

    2007-07-31

    The diamine reagent 1,2-bis(2-aminophenylthio)ethane is no longer commercially available but still required for the synthesis of the bismaleimide resin, APO-BMI, used in syntactic foams. In this work, we examined the hydrolysis of benzothiazole followed the by reaction with dichloroethane or dibromoethane. We also studied the deprotonation of 2-aminothiophenol followed by the reaction with dibromoethane. We optimized the latter for scale-up by scrutinizing all aspects of the reaction conditions, work-up and recrystallization. On bench-scale, our optimized procedure consistently produced a 75-80% overall yield of finely divided, high purity product (>95%).

  1. Emissions of volatile organic compounds inferred from airborne flux measurements over a megacity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karl, T.; Apel, E.; Hodzic, A.; Riemer, D. D; Blake, D. R; Wiedinmyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    ethane, ethene, propane, propene, acetylene, i- butane,n-butane, 1-butene, trans-2-butene, cis-2-butene, i-pentane,some alkanes (e.g. propane, i-butane, n-butane) (Blake and

  2. CHARACTERIZATION STUDIES OF THE SELECTIVE REDUCTION OF NO by NH3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, N.J.

    2013-01-01

    post combustion gases of propane/air in a laboratory scalepost combustion gases of propane/air in a laboratory scaleThe combustion products of propane and air are diluted by

  3. Hydronic Heating Coil Versus Propane Furnace, Rehoboth Beach, Delaware (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-01-01

    Insight Homes constructed two houses in Rehoboth Beach, Delaware, with identical floor plans and thermal envelopes but different heating and domestic hot water (DHW) systems. Each house is 1,715-ft2 with a single story, three bedrooms, two bathrooms, and the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and ductwork located in conditioned crawlspaces. The standard house, which the builder offers as its standard production house, uses an air source heat pump (ASHP) with supplemental propane furnace heating. The Building America test house uses the same ASHP unit with supplemental heat provided by the DHW heater (a combined DHW and hydronic heating system, where the hydronic heating element is in the air handler). Both houses were occupied during the test period. Results indicate that efficiency of the two heating systems was not significantly different. Three issues dominate these results; lower system design performance resulting from the indoor refrigerant coil selected for the standard house, an incorrectly functioning defrost cycle in the standard house, and the low resolution of the natural gas monitoring equipment. The thermal comfort of both houses fell outside the ASHRAE Standard 55 heating range but was within the ACCA room-to-room temperature range when compared to the thermostat temperature. The monitored DHW draw schedules were input into EnergyPlus to evaluate the efficiency of the tankless hot water heater model using the two monitored profiles and the Building America House Simulation Protocols. The results indicate that the simulation is not significantly impacted by the draw profiles.

  4. ED-XAS Data Reveal In-situ Time-Resolved Adsorbate Coverage on Supported Molybdenum Oxide Catalysts during Propane Dehydrogenation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramaker, David; Gatewood, Daniel; Beale, Andrew M.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2007-02-02

    Energy-Dispersive X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (ED-XAS) data combined with UV/Vis, Raman, and mass spectrometry data on alumina- and silica-supported molybdenum oxide catalysts under propane dehydrogenation conditions have been previously reported. A novel {delta}{mu} adsorbate isolation technique was applied here to the time-resolved (0.1 min) Mo K-edge ED-XAS data by taking the difference of absorption, {mu}, at t>1 against the initial time, t=0. Further, full multiple scattering calculations using the FEFF 8.0 code are performed to interpret the {delta}{mu} signatures. The resulting difference spectra and interpretation provide real time propane coverage and O depletion at the MoOn surface. The propane coverage is seen to correlate with the propene and/or coke production, with the maximum coke formation occurring when the propane coverage is the largest. Combined, these data give unprecedented insight into the complicated dynamics for propane dehydrogenation.

  5. Regional respiratory tract absorption of inhaled reactive gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, F.J.; Overton, J.H.; Kimbell, J.S.; Russell, M.L.

    1992-06-29

    Highly reactive gases present unique problems due to the number of factors which must be taken into account to determine regional respiratory tract uptake. The authors reviewed some of the physical, chemical, and biological factors that affect dose and that must be understood to interpret toxicological data, to evaluate experimental dosimetry studies, and to develop dosimetry models. Selected dosimetry experiments involving laboratory animals and humans were discussed, showing the variability and uptake according to animal species and respiratory tract region for various reactive gases. New experimental dosimetry approaches, such as those involving isotope ratio mass spectroscopy and cyclotron generation reactive gases, were discussed that offer great promise for improving the ability to study regional respiratory tract absorption of reactive gases. Various dosimetry modeling applications were discussed which demonstrate: the importance of airflow patterns for site-specific dosimetry in the upper respiratory tract, the influence of the anatomical model used to make inter- and intraspecies dosimetric comparisons, the influence of tracheobronchial path length on predicted dose curves, and the implications of ventilatory unit structure and volume on dosimetry and response. Collectively, these examples illustrate important aspects of regional respiratory tract absorption of inhaled reactive gases. Given the complex nature of extent and pattern of injury in the respiratory tract from exposure to reactive gases, understanding interspecies differences in the absorption of reactive gases will continue to be an important area for study.

  6. Measuring non-condensable gases in steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doornmalen, J. P. C. M. van; Kopinga, K., E-mail: k.kopinga@tue.nl [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2013-11-15

    In surgery, medical devices that are used should be sterilized. To obtain surface steam sterilization conditions, not only in the sterilizer chamber itself but also in the loads to be sterilized, the amount of non-condensable gases (NCGs), for instance air, should be very low. Even rather small fractions of NCGs (below 1 %) seriously hamper steam penetration in porous materials or devices with hollow channels (e.g., endoscopes). A recently developed instrument which might detect the presence of residual NCGs in a reliable and reproducible way is the 3M{sup TM} Electronic Test System (ETS). In this paper, a physical model is presented that describes the behavior of this instrument. This model has been validated by experiments in which known fractions of NCGs were introduced in a sterilizer chamber in which an ETS was placed. Despite several approximations made in the model, a good agreement is found between the model predictions and the experimental results. The basic principle of the ETS, measuring the heat transfer by condensation on a cooled surface, permits a very sensitive detection of NCGs in harsh environments like water vapor at high temperatures and pressures. Our model may serve to develop adapted and optimized versions of this instrument for use outside the field of sterilization, e.g., in heat exchangers based on steam condensation.

  7. Unusual mechanism for H{sub 3}{sup +} formation from ethane as obtained by femtosecond laser pulse ionization and quantum chemical calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kraus, Peter M.; Schwarzer, Martin C.; Schirmel, Nora; Urbasch, Gunter; Frenking, Gernot; Weitzel, Karl-Michael

    2011-03-21

    The formation of H{sub 3}{sup +} from saturated hydrocarbon molecules represents a prototype of a complex chemical process, involving the breaking and the making of chemical bonds. We present a combined theoretical and experimental investigation providing for the first time an understanding of the mechanism of H{sub 3}{sup +} formation at the molecular level. The experimental approach involves femtosecond laser pulse ionization of ethane leading to H{sub 3}{sup +} ions with kinetic energies on the order of 4 to 6.5 eV. The theoretical approach involves high-level quantum chemical calculation of the complete reaction path. The calculations confirm that the process takes place on the potential energy surface of the ethane dication. A surprising result of the theoretical investigation is, that the transition state of the process can be formally regarded as a H{sub 2} molecule attached to a C{sub 2}H{sub 4}{sup 2+} entity but IRC calculations show that it belongs to the reaction channel yielding C{sub 2}H{sub 3}{sup +}+ H{sub 3}{sup +}. Experimentally measured kinetic energies of the correlated H{sub 3}{sup +} and C{sub 2}H{sub 3}{sup +} ions confirm the reaction path suggested by theory.

  8. Acoustic method for measuring the sound speed of gases over small path lengths

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in automotive applications, such as measuring the ex- haust gas recirculation EGR in combustion engines and the quality of gaseous fuels for alternative fueled vehicles such as hydrogen, natural gas, and propane

  9. Rethinking Downstream Regulation: California's Opportunity to Engage Households in Reducing Greenhouse Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    households in reducing greenhouse gases. Energy Policy (Tradable Permits for Greenhouse Gas Emissions: a Primer WithEIA, 2006a. Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United

  10. Cryogenic method for measuring nuclides and fission gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perdue, P.T.; Haywood, F.F.

    1980-05-02

    A cryogenic method is provided for determining airborne gases and particulates from which gamma rays are emitted. A special dewar counting vessel is filled with the contents of the sampling flask which is immersed in liquid nitrogen. A vertically placed sodium-iodide or germanium-lithium gamma-ray detector is used. The device and method are of particular use in measuring and identifying the radioactive noble gases including emissions from coal-fired power plants, as well as fission gases released or escaping from nuclear power plants.

  11. High-Pressure Micellar Solutions of Polystyrene-block-Polybutadiene and Polystyrene-block-Polyisoprene Solutions in Propane Exhibit Cloud-Pressure Reduction and Distinct Micellization End Points

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winoto, Winoto; Radosz, Maciej; Tan, Sugata; Hong, Kunlun; Mays, Jimmy

    2009-01-01

    Micellar solutions of polystyrene-block-polybutadiene and polystyrene-block-polyisoprene in propane are found to exhibit significantly lower cloud pressures than the corresponding hypothetical non-micellar solutions. Such a cloud-pressure reduction indicates the extent to which micelle formation enhances the apparent diblock solubility in near-critical and hence compressible propane. Pressure-temperature points beyond which no micelles can be formed, referred to as the micellization end points, are found to depend on the block type, size and ratio, and on the polymer concentration. For a given pressure, the micellization end-point temperature corresponds to the "critical micelle temperature." The cloud-pressure reduction and the micellization end point measured for styrene-diene diblocks in propane should be characteristic of all amphiphilic diblock copolymer solutions that form micelles in compressible solvents.

  12. Catalytic dehydrogenation of ethane 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Place, Harold Glenn

    1955-01-01

    for the purpose of distributing the gas evenly through the catalyst bed. The catalyst bed rested on a perforated stainless steel block which was drilled to permit the insertion of therso- couple wells. Temperatures were amasured at the top and bottom... of bed. The reactor was surrounded by an electric furnace. The furnace contained four separate heating coils. The output of each was adjusted by use of a variac. The temperature of the catalyst bed was controlled by means of a Leeds and Northrup...

  13. Ethane/Ethylene Exports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969Central RegionReportingElectricity GlossaryNaturalRevenueMay

  14. Method for monitoring stack gases for uranium activity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beverly, Claude R. (Paducah, KY); Ernstberger, Harold G. (Paducah, KY)

    1988-01-01

    A method for monitoring the stack gases of a purge cascade of a gaseous diffusion plant for uranium activity. A sample stream is taken from the stack gases and contacted with a volume of moisture-laden air for converting trace levels of uranium hexafluoride, if any, in the stack gases into particulate uranyl fluoride. A continuous strip of filter paper from a supply roll is passed through this sampling stream to intercept and gather any uranyl fluoride in the sampling stream. This filter paper is then passed by an alpha scintillation counting device where any radioactivity on the filter paper is sensed so as to provide a continuous monitoring of the gas stream for activity indicative of the uranium content in the stack gases.

  15. Method for monitoring stack gases for uranium activity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beverly, C.R.; Ernstberger, E.G.

    1985-07-03

    A method for monitoring the stack gases of a purge cascade of gaseous diffusion plant for uranium activity. A sample stream is taken from the stack gases and contacted with a volume of moisture-laden air for converting trace levels of uranium hexafluoride, if any, in the stack gases into particulate uranyl fluoride. A continuous strip of filter paper from a supply roll is passed through this sampling stream to intercept and gather any uranyl fluoride in the sampling stream. This filter paper is then passed by an alpha scintillation counting device where any radioactivity on the filter paper is sensed so as to provide a continuous monitoring of the gas stream for activity indicative of the uranium content in the stack gases. 1 fig.

  16. Modeling shows that alternative soil management can decrease greenhouse gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Gryze, Steven; Albarracin, Maria Victoria; Catala-Luque, Rosa; Howitt, Richard E; Six, Johan

    2009-01-01

    warmer temperatures. Reducing greenhouse gases A (SacramentoMan. Yes Agricultural greenhouse-gas emis- sions can beWhether the decrease in greenhouse-gas emissions comes from

  17. Measuring the Isotopic Composition of Solar Wind Noble Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Floss, Christine

    in meteorites are depleted by many orders of magnitude compared with the solar nebula and, although lunar soils the various components, these gases were extracted using stepped pyrolysis and analyzed in sensitive mass

  18. BIOSIGNATURE GASES IN H?-DOMINATED ATMOSPHERES ON ROCKY EXOPLANETS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seager, Sara

    Super-Earth exoplanets are being discovered with increasing frequency and some will be able to retain stable H2-dominated atmospheres. We study biosignature gases on exoplanets with thin H2 atmospheres and habitable surface ...

  19. Low-Value Waste Gases as an Energy Source 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waibel, R. T.

    1996-01-01

    Waste gases with potentially useful fuel value are generated at any number of points in refineries, chemical plants and other industrial and commercial sites. The higher quality streams have been utilized successfully in fuel systems for years...

  20. Method of producing pyrolysis gases from carbon-containing materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mudge, Lyle K. (Richland, WA); Brown, Michael D. (West Richland, WA); Wilcox, Wayne A. (Kennewick, WA); Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA)

    1989-01-01

    A gasification process of improved efficiency is disclosed. A dual bed reactor system is used in which carbon-containing feedstock materials are first treated in a gasification reactor to form pyrolysis gases. The pyrolysis gases are then directed into a catalytic reactor for the destruction of residual tars/oils in the gases. Temperatures are maintained within the catalytic reactor at a level sufficient to crack the tars/oils in the gases, while avoiding thermal breakdown of the catalysts. In order to minimize problems associated with the deposition of carbon-containing materials on the catalysts during cracking, a gaseous oxidizing agent preferably consisting of air, oxygen, steam, and/or mixtures thereof is introduced into the catalytic reactor at a high flow rate in a direction perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the reactor. This oxidizes any carbon deposits on the catalysts, which would normally cause catalyst deactivation.