Sample records for gas-fired absorption heat

  1. Residential gas-fired sorption heat Test and technology evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Residential gas-fired sorption heat pumps Test and technology evaluation Energiforskningsprogram EFP05 Journal nr: 33031-0054 December 2008 #12;Residential gas-fired sorption heat pumps Test.............................................................................................................................................5 1 Residential gas-fired thermally driven heat pumps

  2. A Gas-Fired Heat Pipe Zone Heater 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winn, C. B.; Burns, P.; Guire, J.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas-fired vented zone heater has recently been developed by the Altar Corporation for Colorado State University (CSU) under a Gas Research Institute (GRI) contract. The unit war developed for auxiliary heating applications in passive solar...

  3. A Gas-Fired Heat Pipe Zone Heater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winn, C. B.; Burns, P.; Guire, J.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas-fired vented zone heater has recently been developed by the Altar Corporation for Colorado State University (CSU) under a Gas Research Institute (GRI) contract. The unit war developed for auxiliary heating applications in passive solar...

  4. Direct Gas Fired Air Heating For 40 to 50% Fuel Savings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Searcy, J. A.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    between direct and indirect gas fired unit heaters show why there is a minimum of 40% fuel savings. The application of direct gas-fired make-up heaters for industrial space heating as well as the safety of the direct gas fired systems, a simple...

  5. Development and Validation of a Gas-Fired Residential Heat Pump Water Heater - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Garrabrant; Roger Stout; Paul Glanville; Janice Fitzgerald; Chris Keinath

    2013-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    For gas-fired residential water heating, the U.S. and Canada is predominantly supplied by minimum efficiency storage water heaters with Energy Factors (EF) in the range of 0.59 to 0.62. Higher efficiency and higher cost ($700 - $2,000) options serve about 15% of the market, but still have EFs below 1.0, ranging from 0.65 to 0.95. To develop a new class of water heating products that exceeds the traditional limit of thermal efficiency, the project team designed and demonstrated a packaged water heater driven by a gas-fired ammonia-water absorption heat pump. This gas-fired heat pump water heater can achieve EFs of 1.3 or higher, at a consumer cost of $2,000 or less. Led by Stone Mountain Technologies Inc. (SMTI), with support from A.O. Smith, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), and Georgia Tech, the cross-functional team completed research and development tasks including cycle modeling, breadboard evaluation of two cycles and two heat exchanger classes, heat pump/storage tank integration, compact solution pump development, combustion system specification, and evaluation of packaged prototype GHPWHs. The heat pump system extracts low grade heat from the ambient air and produces high grade heat suitable for heating water in a storage tank for domestic use. Product features that include conventional installation practices, standard footprint and reasonable economic payback, position the technology to gain significant market penetration, resulting in a large reduction of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from domestic hot water production.

  6. Study of the Heating Load of a Manufactured Space with a Gas-fired Radiant Heating System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, X.; Dong, Z.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal balance mathematics model of a manufactured space with a gas-fired radiant heating system is established to calculate the heating load. Computer programs are used to solve the model. Envelope internal surface temperatures under different...

  7. Study of the Heating Load of a Manufactured Space with a Gas-fired Radiant Heating System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, X.; Dong, Z.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal balance mathematics model of a manufactured space with a gas-fired radiant heating system is established to calculate the heating load. Computer programs are used to solve the model. Envelope internal surface temperatures under different...

  8. Operation Synopsis of Gas-Fired Double-Effect Absorption Chillers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, J.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for an absorption refrigeration system was issued in 1860. Absorption systems can use many different heat sources to produce the refrigeration effect: natural gas, steam, solar, and oil. While absorption systems were popular in the U.S. in the early part of the 20th...

  9. Application of advanced Stirling engine technology to a commercial size gas-fired heat pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johansson, L.; Agno, J.; Wurm, J.

    1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Gas Research Institute sponsored work on the kinematic Stirling engine-driven heat pump, which offers practical improvements in the use of natural gas. Results from the first phase of the program led to the selection of a method of introducing low pressure natural gas into the V160 engine's combustor and testing of the ejector system. Further engine modifications will be needed as well as demonstrations of the performance and reliability of the units. The first phase found all developmental needs to be achievable, making the concept technically feasible. Computer projections based on the system performance of components indicate the gas-fired pump will work better than electric models and be economically feasible as well. 5 figures, 1 table.

  10. Measurement and analysis of heating of paper with gas-fired infrared burner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Husain, Abdullah Nadir

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Gas-fired IR heaters produce combustion on the burner surface by ignition of a pre-mixed air and fuel streams. The combustion raises the surface temperature to ranges of 800-1,100°C to emit radiation, mainly in the medium IR range, which has a...

  11. Duplex Stirling gas-fired heat pump. Phase 2. Breadboard demonstration. Final report, May 1981-November 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gedeon, D.; Penswick, B.; Beale, W.

    1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This program represents the first attempt to design, fabricate, and test a breadboard gas-fired duplex Stirling heat pump in a heating only mode. The system was designed to obtain a COP of 1.5 at an ambient temperature of 17F and have an output sufficient for an average residential home. The design methodology, detailed system description and test results for sub components and the entire system are discussed. Technical problems encountered in the program, and recommendations for further efforts are detailed.

  12. Improving Gas-Fired Heat Pump Capacity and Performance by Adding a Desiccant Dehumidification Subsystem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parsons, B. K.; Pesaran, A. A.; Bharathan, D.; Shelpuk, B. C.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of absorption and desiccant solar cooling systems." Berkeley, CA: Lawrence Berkeley La- boratory. Kinast, J. A,; Wurm. J.; Zawacki, T. S.: and . Macriss, R. A. 1982. SOLAR-MEC~ development program report. COO-4495-53. Chicago, IL: Institute of Gas...

  13. Absorption heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Gershon (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  14. Absorption heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, G.

    1982-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  15. Absorption heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Gershon (Oak Ridge, TN); Perez-Blanco, Horacio (Knoxville, TN)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  16. Comparative Performance Analysis of IADR Operating in Natural Gas-Fired and Waste-Heat CHP Modes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrov, Andrei Y [ORNL; Sand, James R [ORNL; Zaltash, Abdolreza [ORNL

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuel utilization can be dramatically improved through effective recycle of 'waste' heat produced as a by-product of on-site or near-site power generation technologies. Development of modular compact cooling, heating, and power (CHP) systems for end-use applications in commercial and institutional buildings is a key part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) energy policy. To effectively use the thermal energy from a wide variety of sources which is normally discarded to the ambient, many components such as heat exchangers, boilers, absorption chillers, and desiccant dehumidification systems must be further developed. Recently a compact, cost-effective, and energy-efficient integrated active-desiccant vapor-compression hybrid rooftop (IADR) unit has been introduced in the market. It combines the advantages of an advanced direct-expansion cooling system with the dehumidification capability of an active desiccant wheel. The aim of this study is to compare the efficiency of the IADR operation in baseline mode, when desiccant wheel regeneration is driven by a natural gas burner, and in CHP mode, when the waste heat recovered from microturbine exhaust gas is used for desiccant regeneration. Comparative analysis shows an excellent potential for more efficient use of the desiccant dehumidification as part of a CHP system and the importance of proper sizing of the CHP components. The most crucial factor in exploiting the efficiency of this application is the maximum use of thermal energy recovered for heating of regeneration air.

  17. Laboratory Evaluation of Gas-Fired Tankless and Storage Water Heater Approaches to Combination Water and Space Heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kingston, T.; Scott, S.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Homebuilders are exploring more cost effective combined space and water heating systems (combo systems) with major water heater manufacturers that are offering pre-engineered forced air space heating combo systems. In this project, unlike standardized tests, laboratory tests were conducted that subjected condensing tankless and storage water heater based combo systems to realistic, coincidental space and domestic hot water loads with the following key findings: 1) The tankless combo system maintained more stable DHW and space heating temperatures than the storage combo system. 2) The tankless combo system consistently achieved better daily efficiencies (i.e. 84%-93%) than the storage combo system (i.e. 81%- 91%) when the air handler was sized adequately and adjusted properly to achieve significant condensing operation. When condensing operation was not achieved, both systems performed with lower (i.e. 75%-88%), but similar efficiencies. 3) Air handlers currently packaged with combo systems are not designed to optimize condensing operation. More research is needed to develop air handlers specifically designed for condensing water heaters. 4) System efficiencies greater than 90% were achieved only on days where continual and steady space heating loads were required with significant condensing operation. For days where heating was more intermittent, the system efficiencies fell below 90%.

  18. Absorption-heat-pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, G.; Perez-Blanco, H.

    1983-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  19. absorption heat: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    drive compressor heat pump; (3) absorption heat pump; (4) high temperature heat powered compressor heat pump; (5) reverse absorption heat... Erickson, D. C. 1983-01-01 26...

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF SOLAR DRIVEN ABSORPTION AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dao, K.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DRIVEN ABSORPTION AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS K. Dao, M.ABSORPTION AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS* K. DAO, M.

  1. absorption cycle heat: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    drive compressor heat pump; (3) absorption heat pump; (4) high temperature heat powered compressor heat pump; (5) reverse absorption heat... Erickson, D. C. 1983-01-01 First Page...

  2. Stirling engines for gas fired micro-cogen and cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lane, N.W.; Beale, W.T. [Sunpower, Inc., Athens, OH (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the design and performance of free-piston Stirling engine-alternators particularly suited for use as natural gas fired micro-cogen and cooling devices. Stirling based cogen systems offer significant potential advantages over internal combustion engines in efficiency, to maintain higher efficiencies at lower power levels than than combustion engines significantly expands the potential for micro-cogen. System cost reduction and electric prices higher than the U.S. national average will have a far greater effect on commercial success than any further increase in Stirling engine efficiency. There exist niche markets where Stirling engine efficiency. There exist niche markets where Stirling based cogen systems are competitive. Machines of this design are being considered for production in the near future as gas-fired units for combined heat and power in sufficiently large quantities to assure competitive prices for the final unit.

  3. Phase I-B development of kinematic Stirling/Rankine commercial gas-fired heat-pump system. Final report, September 1983-December 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monahan, R.E.

    1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Kinematic Stirling/Rankine gas heat pump concept is based on the application of a Stirling engine that has been under development for over a decade. The engine has been converted to natural gas and is characterized with many thousand hours of operating experience. The goal of the project is to develop a commercial-size Stirling engine-driven gas heat pump with a cooling capacity of 10-ton, and a COP (heating) of 1.8 and COP (cooling) of 1.1. The project is a multi-phase development with commercialization planned for 1989. In this phase, an HVAC systems manufacturer (Borg-Warner) is working with SPS to develop a prototype gas-heat-pump system. To date, a piston-type open-shaft refrigeration compressor was selected as the best match for the engine. Both the engine and compressor have been tested and characterized by performance maps, and the experimental heat-pump systems designed, built, and preliminary testing performed. Close agreement with computer model output has been achieved. SPS has continued to focus on improving the Stirling-engine performance and reliability for the gas-heat-pump application.

  4. absorption heat pumps: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heating capacity k jet nozzle Closed Cycles: AbsorptionAdsorption heat pump thermal compressor driven by waste heat1 Industrial heat pumps in Germany - potentials,...

  5. absorption heat pump: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heating capacity k jet nozzle Closed Cycles: AbsorptionAdsorption heat pump thermal compressor driven by waste heat1 Industrial heat pumps in Germany - potentials,...

  6. Phase 1-supplemental development of a kinematic Stirling/Rankine commercial gas-fired heat-pump system. Final report, January 1989-June 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monahan, R.

    1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The kinematic Stirling/Rankine gas heat pump concept is based on the application of a Stirling engine that has been under development for over a decade. The engine has been converted to natural gas and is characterized with many thousand hours of operating experience. The goal of the project is to develop a commercial size Stirling engine-driven gas heat pump with a cooling capacity of 10 tons, a COP (heating) of 1.8 and a COP (cooling) of 1.1. The project is a multi-phase development with commercialization planned for the mid-1990's. In previous phases, an HVAC-systems manufacturer (York International) had been working with SPS to develop a prototype gas-heat-pump system. To date, two generations of prototype GHP systems have been built and tested and have demonstrated significant operating cost savings over the conventional electric heat pump. Under the program, a number of design and manufacturing process changes were made to the engine to reduce costs and improve endurance and shaft efficiency and are described. The adaptation and operation of a computer optimization code was accomplished under the program and is reported herein.

  7. Absorption Heat Pumping- Have You Tried It? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, R. C.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The concept of a thermal powered absorption heat pump is not a new or revolutionary idea. It has been successfully demonstrated in the lab and prototypes have been installed in the field. Units have been successfully applied in a number...

  8. Absorption Heat Pumping- Have You Tried It?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, R. C.

    The concept of a thermal powered absorption heat pump is not a new or revolutionary idea. It has been successfully demonstrated in the lab and prototypes have been installed in the field. Units have been successfully applied in a number...

  9. Absorptive Recycle of Distillation Waste Heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erickson, D. C.; Lutz, E. J., Jr.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ABSORPTIVE RECYCLE OF DISTILLATION WASTE HEAT Donald C. Erickson and Edward J. Lutz Jr. Energy Concepts Company Annapolis, Maryland ABSTRACT When the heat source available to a distillation process is at a significantly higher temperature... which conserve 60 to 70%. Also, there are ver sions which incorporate separate low tem perature waste heat streams and thereby conserve over 90% of the required dis tillation energy. The main limitations of the R/AHP are the need for sufficient...

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF SOLAR DRIVEN ABSORPTION AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dao, K.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SOLAR DRIVEN ABSORPTION AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS K.Driven Absorption Air-Conditioner", K. Dao, M. Simmons, R.SOLAR DRIVEN ABSORPTION AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS* K.

  11. New configurations of a heat recovery absorption heat pump integrated with a natural gas boiler for boiler efficiency improvement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qu, Ming [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Yin, Hongxi [Southeast University, Nanjing, China

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conventional natural gas-fired boilers exhaust flue gas direct to the atmosphere at 150 200 C, which, at such temperatures, contains large amount of energy and results in relatively low thermal efficiency ranging from 70% to 80%. Although condensing boilers for recovering the heat in the flue gas have been developed over the past 40 years, their present market share is still less than 25%. The major reason for this relatively slow acceptance is the limited improvement in the thermal efficiency of condensing boilers. In the condensing boiler, the temperature of the hot water return at the range of 50 60 C, which is used to cool the flue gas, is very close to the dew point of the water vapor in the flue gas. Therefore, the latent heat, the majority of the waste heat in the flue gas, which is contained in the water vapor, cannot be recovered. This paper presents a new approach to improve boiler thermal efficiency by integrating absorption heat pumps with natural gas boilers for waste heat recovery (HRAHP). Three configurations of HRAHPs are introduced and discussed. The three configurations are modeled in detail to illustrate the significant thermal efficiency improvement they attain. Further, for conceptual proof and validation, an existing hot water-driven absorption chiller is operated as a heat pump at operating conditions similar to one of the devised configurations. An overall system performance and economic analysis are provided for decision-making and as evidence of the potential benefits. These three configurations of HRAHP provide a pathway to achieving realistic high-efficiency natural gas boilers for applications with process fluid return temperatures higher than or close to the dew point of the water vapor in the flue gas.

  12. Multi-stage quantum absorption heat pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luis A. Correa

    2014-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    It is well known that heat pumps, while being all limited by the same basic thermodynamic laws, may find realization on systems as "small" and "quantum" as a three-level maser. In order to quantitatively assess how the performance of these devices scales with their size, we design generalized $N$-dimensional ideal heat pumps by merging $N-2$ elementary three-level stages. We set them to operate in the absorption chiller mode between given hot and cold baths, and study their maximum achievable cooling power and the corresponding efficiency as a function of $N$. While the efficiency at maximum power is roughly size-independent, the power itself slightly increases with the dimension, quickly saturating to a constant. Thus, interestingly, scaling up autonomous quantum heat pumps does not render a significant enhancement beyond the optimal double-stage configuration.

  13. Commercialization of Industrialized Absorption Heat Pumps in the US

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pettigrew, M. G.

    COMMERCIALIZATION OF INDUSTRIAL ABSORPTION HEAT PUMPS IN THE US MALCOLM G. PETTIGREW LITWIN ENGINEERS &CONSTRUCTORS, INC. HOUSTON, ABSTRACT The recovery of waste heat through absorption heat pumping is quite appeal ing to U.S. industry.... However, although this technology has been successfully applied in Europe and Japan, a cauti ous atmosphere wi 11 continue to prevail in the U.S. until the first absorption heat pump is built and successfully demonstrates it's viability...

  14. An Economic Analysis of Industrial Absorption Heat Pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaplan, S. I.; Huntley, W. R.; Perez-Blanco, H.

    Absorption heat pumps are a viable technology for waste heat recovery in industry. Yet, no U.S applications exist to date. In sharp contrast, large scale heat pumps are used in Japan, and a few recent installations have been reported in Europe...

  15. Waste heat driven absorption refrigeration process and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilkinson, William H. (Columbus, OH)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Absorption cycle refrigeration processes and systems are provided which are driven by the sensible waste heat available from industrial processes and other sources. Systems are disclosed which provide a chilled water output which can be used for comfort conditioning or the like which utilize heat from sensible waste heat sources at temperatures of less than 170.degree. F. Countercurrent flow equipment is also provided to increase the efficiency of the systems and increase the utilization of available heat.

  16. Develop & Demonstrate an Advanced Low Temp Heat Recovery Absorption...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    million tons of CO 2e reduction per year. The Advanced Low Temperature Heat Recovery Absorption Chiller Module will provide the next level of performance and economics that could...

  17. Absorptive Recycle of Distillation Waste Heat 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erickson, D. C.; Lutz, E. J., Jr.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When the heat source available to a distillation process is at a significantly higher temperature than the reboiler temperature, there is unused availability (ability to perform work) in the heat supplied to the reboiler. Similarly, if the reflux...

  18. An analysis of a reversed absorption heat pump for low temperature waste heat utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wade, Glenn William

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AN ANALYSIS OF A REVERSED ABSORPTION HEAT PUMP FOR LOW TEMPERATURE WASTE HEAT UTILIZATION A Thesis by GLENN WILLIAM WADE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1979 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering AN ANALYSIS OF A REVERSED ABSORPTION HEAT PUMP FOR LOW TEMPERATURE WASTE HEAT UTILIZATION A Thesis by GLENN WILLIAM WADE Approved as to style and content by: Chai n of Committee...

  19. Triple loop heat exchanger for an absorption refrigeration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A triple loop heat exchanger for an absorption refrigeration system is disclosed. The triple loop heat exchanger comprises portions of a strong solution line for conducting relatively hot, strong solution from a generator to a solution heat exchanger of the absorption refrigeration system, conduit means for conducting relatively cool, weak solution from the solution heat exchanger to the generator, and a bypass system for conducting strong solution from the generator around the strong solution line and around the solution heat exchanger to an absorber of the refrigeration system when strong solution builds up in the generator to an undesirable level. The strong solution line and the conduit means are in heat exchange relationship with each other in the triple loop heat exchanger so that, during normal operation of the refrigeration system, heat is exchanged between the relatively hot, strong solution flowing through the strong solution line and the relatively cool, weak solution flowing through the conduit means. Also, the strong solution line and the bypass system are in heat exchange relationship in the triple loop heat exchanger so that if the normal flow path of relatively hot, strong solution flowing from the generator to an absorber is blocked, then this relatively, hot strong solution which will then be flowing through the bypass system in the triple loop heat exchanger, is brought into heat exchange relationship with any strong solution which may have solidified in the strong solution line in the triple loop heat exchanger to thereby aid in desolidifying any such solidified strong solution.

  20. Electric and Gas Fired Radiant Tubes 'ERT'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nilsen, E. K.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper covers a unique development by the Surface Division of Midland Ross of a radiant tube heating element which will heat an industrial furnace with either gas or electric without any down time or physical conversion required...

  1. Electric and Gas Fired Radiant Tubes 'ERT' 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nilsen, E. K.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper covers a unique development by the Surface Division of Midland Ross of a radiant tube heating element which will heat an industrial furnace with either gas or electric without any down time or physical conversion required...

  2. Coupled dual loop absorption heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sarkisian, Paul H. (Watertown, MA); Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY); Biermann, Wendell J. (Fayetteville, NY)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A coupled dual loop absorption system which utilizes two separate complete loops. Each individual loop operates at three temperatures and two pressures. This low temperature loop absorber and condenser are thermally coupled to the high temperature loop evaporator, and the high temperature loop condenser and absorber are thermally coupled to the low temperature generator.

  3. Phases I-C, I-D and I-E development of Kinematic Stirling/Rankine commercial gas-fired heat pump system. Final report, January 1986-September 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monahan, R.E.

    1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Kinematic Stirling/Rankine gas-heat-pump concept is based on the application of a Stirling engine under development for over a decade. The engine was converted to natural gas and is characterized with many thousand hours of operating experience. The goal of the project is to develop a commercial-size Stirling engine-driven gas heat pump with a cooling capacity of 10-tons, a COP (heating) of 1.8 and a COP (cooling) of 1.1. The project is a multi-phase development with commercialization planned for 1990. In these phases, an HVAC systems manufacturer (York International) has been working with SPS to develop a prototype gas-heat-pump system. To date, two generations of prototype GHP systems have been built and tested and have demonstrated significant operating cost savings over the conventional electric heat pump. Data are presented for environmental laboratory testing of both prototype gas heat pumps as well as durability, reliability, performance, and emission testing of the V160 Stirling engine. A number of design and manufacturing process changes were made to the engine to reduce costs and improve endurance and shaft efficiency and are described.

  4. 500°F Absorption Heat Pump Under Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davidson, W. F.; Erickson, D. C.

    up to SOOoF, or mild steel up to 430 o F. Heat transfer properties are comparable to those of the conventional LiBr-H 2 0 system. Paired with water as the working fluid, laboratory tests have shown that useful temperature lifts of over 162 0 F... applicability maps. 1 NTRODUCTI ON ? LiBr JWlic3Jle 60 U ~.50t---+-----,r---1------A e .... ...J ., 40 J-o--+-- S .., '" ... ., 30 ! 10 o0~--L..----,,-----...L...--8.L0--'---...J12'-'-O--...J.--...L16-0-...J...----J200 Waste Heat Temperature...

  5. Absorption Heat Pump Basics | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently20,000 RussianBy:Whether you're a16-17, 201529, 2015 8:00AM EDT toTheWith693Absorption

  6. Simulating a 4-effect absorption chiller

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grossman, G. [Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa (Israel). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Zaltash, A.; Adcock, P.W.; DeVault, R.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Energy Div.

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Absorption chillers are heat-operated refrigeration machines that operate on one of the earliest known principles of refrigeration. Current absorption chillers typically use either steam or a gas-fired burner as the energy source. All current gas-fired absorption cooling systems are based on the well known single-effect or double-effect cycles. To further improve utilization of the high temperature heat available from natural gas, a variety of triple-effect cycles have been proposed and are being developed that are capable of substantial performance improvement over equivalent double-effect cycles. This article describes a study that investigated the possibility of even further improving utilization of the high temperature heat available from natural gas combustion. During the study, performance simulation was conducted for a 4-effect lithium bromide/water cycle. From an environmental perspective, absorption chillers provide several benefits. They use absorption pairs (such as lithium bromide/water) as the working fluids, rather than chlorofluorocarbons or hydrochlorofluorocarbons, which contribute to ozone depletion and global warming.

  7. Development of an Ionic-Liquid Absorption Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Don

    2011-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar Fueled Products (SFP) is developing an innovative ionic-liquid absorption heat pump (ILAHP). The development of an ILAHP is extremely significant, as it could result in annual savings of more than 190 billion kW h of electrical energy and $19 billion. This absorption cooler uses about 75 percent less electricity than conventional cooling and heating units. The ILAHP also has significant environmental sustainability benefits, due to reduced CO2 emissions. Phase I established the feasibility and showed the economic viability of an ILAHP with these key accomplishments: • Used the breakthrough capabilities provided by ionic liquids which overcome the key difficulties of the common absorption coolers. • Showed that the theoretical thermodynamic performance of an ILAHP is similar to existing absorption-cooling systems. • Established that the half-effect absorption cycle reduces the peak generator temperature, improving collector efficiency and reducing collector area. • Component testing demonstrated that the most critical components, absorber and generator, operate well with conventional heat exchangers. • Showed the economic viability of an ILAHP. The significant energy savings, sustainability benefits, and economic viability are compelling reasons to continue the ILAHP development.

  8. Waste Heat Powered Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Unit for LPG Recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald C, Energy Concepts Co.; Lauber, Eric, Western Refining Co.

    2008-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An emerging DOE-sponsored technology has been deployed. The technology recovers light ends from a catalytic reformer plant using waste heat powered ammonia absorption refrigeration. It is deployed at the 17,000 bpd Bloomfield, New Mexico refinery of Western Refining Company. The technology recovers approximately 50,000 barrels per year of liquefied petroleum gas that was formerly being flared. The elimination of the flare also reduces CO2 emissions by 17,000 tons per year, plus tons per year reductions in NOx, CO, and VOCs. The waste heat is supplied directly to the absorption unit from the Unifiner effluent. The added cooling of that stream relieves a bottleneck formerly present due to restricted availability of cooling water. The 350oF Unifiner effluent is cooled to 260oF. The catalytic reformer vent gas is directly chilled to minus 25oF, and the FCC column overhead reflux is chilled by 25oF glycol. Notwithstanding a substantial cost overrun and schedule slippage, this project can now be considered a success: it is both profitable and highly beneficial to the environment. The capabilities of directly-integrated waste-heat powered ammonia absorption refrigeration and their benefits to the refining industry have been demonstrated.

  9. Heat exchanger bypass system for an absorption refrigeration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat exchanger bypass system for an absorption refrigeration system is disclosed. The bypass system operates to pass strong solution from the generator around the heat exchanger to the absorber of the absorption refrigeration system when strong solution builds up in the generator above a selected level indicative of solidification of strong solution in the heat exchanger or other such blockage. The bypass system includes a bypass line with a gooseneck located in the generator for controlling flow of strong solution into the bypass line and for preventing refrigerant vapor in the generator from entering the bypass line during normal operation of the refrigeration system. Also, the bypass line includes a trap section filled with liquid for providing a barrier to maintain the normal pressure difference between the generator and the absorber even when the gooseneck of the bypass line is exposed to refrigerant vapor in the generator. Strong solution, which may accumulate in the trap section of the bypass line, is diluted, to prevent solidification, by supplying weak solution to the trap section from a purge system for the absorption refrigeration system.

  10. advanced natural gas-fired: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Drum Dryer for Food Processing Applications is the final report 8 A Case Study from Norway on Gas-Fired Power Plants, Carbon Sequestration, and Politics Environmental Sciences...

  11. Present and Future Uses of Industrial Absorption Heat Pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erickson, D. C.; Davidson, W. F.

    industries are available now. These use the H 2 0-LiBr fluid working pair, manufacturers and Japanese industry lead in but this is where their similarity with the the developmpnt ~nd use of industrial AHPs famili.ar absorption chiller ends. Japanese... and other code require~ents economically. Finally, absorptl0n chil ler units incorporate designs which are sub-optimal for industrial heat pumping. For'example in stock LiBr chillers the surface area in the evaporator and absorber tends to be about...

  12. High power laser heating of low absorption materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, K.; Talghader, J., E-mail: joey@umn.edu [Electrical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Ogloza, A. [Naval Postgraduate School, 1 University Cir, Monterey, California 93943 (United States); Thomas, J. [Electro Optics Center, Pennsylvania State University, 222 Northpointe Blvd., Freeport, Pennsylvania 16229 (United States)

    2014-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A model is presented and confirmed experimentally that explains the anomalous behavior observed in continuous wave (CW) excitation of thermally isolated optics. Distributed Bragg Reflector (DBR) high reflective optical thin film coatings of HfO{sub 2} and SiO{sub 2} were prepared with a very low absorption, about 7?ppm, measured by photothermal common-path interferometry. When illuminated with a 17?kW CW laser for 30 s, the coatings survived peak irradiances of 13?MW/cm{sup 2}, on 500??m diameter spot cross sections. The temperature profile of the optical surfaces was measured using a calibrated thermal imaging camera for illuminated spot sizes ranging from 500??m to 5?mm; about the same peak temperatures were recorded regardless of spot size. This phenomenon is explained by solving the heat equation for an optic of finite dimensions and taking into account the non-idealities of the experiment. An analytical result is also derived showing the relationship between millisecond pulse to CW laser operation where (1) the heating is proportional to the laser irradiance (W/m{sup 2}) for millisecond pulses, (2) the heating is proportional to the beam radius (W/m) for CW, and (3) the heating is proportional to W/m??tan{sup ?1}(?(t)/m) in the transition region between the two.

  13. Gas-Fired Distributed Energy Resource Technology Characterizations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldstein, L.; Hedman, B.; Knowles, D.; Freedman, S. I.; Woods, R.; Schweizer, T.

    2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is directing substantial programs in the development and encouragement of new energy technologies. Among them are renewable energy and distributed energy resource technologies. As part of its ongoing effort to document the status and potential of these technologies, DOE EERE directed the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to lead an effort to develop and publish Distributed Energy Technology Characterizations (TCs) that would provide both the department and energy community with a consistent and objective set of cost and performance data in prospective electric-power generation applications in the United States. Toward that goal, DOE/EERE - joined by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) - published the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations in December 1997.As a follow-up, DOE EERE - joined by the Gas Research Institute - is now publishing this document, Gas-Fired Distributed Energy Resource Technology Characterizations.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF SOLAR DRIVEN ABSORPTION AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dao, K.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ROAD BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA OBJECTIVE AND APPROACH The objective of this project is the development of absorption refrigeration systems for solar

  15. Use of an open-cycle absorption system for heating and cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlepp, D. R.; Collier, R. K.

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar cooling for commercial applications using open-cycle absorption refrigeration systems has been investigated and found to be feasible. If an open-cycle absorption system can be operated as a chemical heat pump for winter heating operation, the system would offer year-round operation that could make the system economically viable for many regions of the US. An analysis of heating operation for the open-cycle system is presented using a computer program that simulates heat and mass transfer processes for any environmental condition. The open-cycle absorption refrigeration system can be operated as a chemical heat pump. Simulations for winter heating operation were run for five US cities, with solar COP's in the range of .06 to .16. At these levels, the OCAR system can provide full heating and cooling operation for office buildings in many southern US cities.

  16. absorption heat exchange: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heat Exchangers, Heat Transfer, Energy, Phase Change and multiphase process, Renewable energy (Solan, Tidal), Energy Storage, Conversion Cessi, Paola 63 Dealing with...

  17. Direct Refrigeration from Heat Recovery Using 2-Stage Absorption Chillers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hufford, P. E.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although the cost of some fossil fuels has moderated, the importance of energy conservation by heat recovery has not diminished. The application of waste heat generated steam to produce chilled water is not new. However, there is a newly developed...

  18. Relative radiant heat absorption characteristics of two types of mirror shields and a polished aluminum shield 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herron, Steven Douglas

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    RELATIVE RADIANT HEAT ABSORPTION CHARACTERISTICS OF TWO TYPES OF MIRROR SHIELDS AND A POLISHED ALUMINUM SHIELD A Thesis by STEVEN DOUGLAS HERRON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1973 Major Subject: Industrial Hygiene RELATIVE RADIANT HEAT ABSORPTION CHARACTERISTICS OF TWO TYPES OF MIRROR SHIELDS AND A POLISHED ALUMINUM SHIELD A Thesis by STEVEN DOUGLAS HERRON Approved...

  19. advanced absorption heat: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    usually a gas flame, is applied to the generator and low temperature heat is absorbed... Pressure - enthalpy path of ammonia in example problem CHAPTER U CONCLUSIONS ANO...

  20. Testing of Crystallization Temperature of a New Working Fluid for Absorption Heat Pump Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Kai [ORNL] [ORNL; Kisari, Padmaja [ORNL] [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL] [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL] [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithium bromide/water (LiBr/water) absorption systems are potential candidates for absorption heat pump water heating applications since they have been widely commercialized for cooling applications. One drawback to LiBr/water absorption water heater systems is that they are unable to operate at typical water heating temperatures due to solution crystallization hazards. Binary or ternary mixtures, serving as working fluids, were reported (Ally, 1988; Herold et al., 1991; Iyoki and Uemura, 1981; Yasuhide Nemoto et al., 2010; Zogg et al., 2005) to help improve the absorption performance or avoid crystallization of absorption heat pump systems. A recent development (De Lucas et al., 2007) investigated the use of a ternary mixture of aqueous mixture of lithium bromide and sodium formate (CHO2Na). The new working fluid composition maintains a ratio of LiBr/CHO2Na of 2 by weight. This new working fluid is a potential competitor to aqueous LiBr solution in absorption system due to higher water vapor absorption rates and lower generation temperature needed (De Lucas et al., 2004). There exists data on equilibrium performance and other physical properties of this new working fluid. However, there is no available data on crystallization behavior. Crystallization temperature is crucial for the design of absorption heat pump water heater in order to avoid crystallization hazards during operation. We have therefore conducted a systematic study to explore the crystallization temperature of LiBr/CHO2Na water solution and compared it against aqueous LiBr solutions. These results were then used to evaluate the feasibility of using the new working fluid in water heating applications showing limited potential.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF SOLAR DRIVEN ABSORPTION AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dao, K.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS K. Dao, M. Wahlig, E. Wali,are liquid paths. DM: multistage pump driver, driven by highvapor. DW: main circulation pump driven by strong absorbent.

  2. An Economic Analysis of Industrial Absorption Heat Pumps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaplan, S. I.; Huntley, W. R.; Perez-Blanco, H.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SIIlall market segment in the Viewed as a block diagram, (Fig. la) a Type I heat U.S., but also we know of no industrial heat pump pump inputs process heat and waste heat, delivering applications to date. This lack of interest in the the sum of both... , MC = 0.4 (SA - S) (1 - TR) SPIfF (10,A) 1 , 10.250 + 0.4[(1 - TR) PVI(7,7,A) + PVP(7,7,~)] + , 0.093[(1 - lR) PVI(9.6,7,A) + PV(9.6,7,A?) + 0.04 (1 - lR) SPIfF (lO,A) - PlfD (10,A.)}L (13) I Where PlfD (10,A.) represents the present wort~ fac...

  3. United States Department of Energy large commercial absorption chiller development program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garland, P.W.; DeVault, R.C.; Zaltash, A.

    1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is working with partners from the gas cooling industry to improve energy efficiency and US competitiveness by using advanced absorption technologies that eliminate the use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), refrigerants that contribute to ozone depletion and global warming. Absorption cooling uses natural gas as the heat source, which produces much lower NO{sub x} emissions than oil- or coal-generated electricity. Gas-fired chillers also have the advantage of helping reduce peak electrical usage during summer months. To assist industry in developing advanced absorption cooling technologies, DOE sponsors the Large Commercial Chiller Development Program. The goal of the program is to improve chiller cooling efficiency by 30--50% compared with the best currently available absorption systems.

  4. Rigorous modeling of the acid gas heat of absorption in alkanolamine solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emilie Blanchon le Bouhelec; Pascal Mougin; Alain Barreau; Roland Solimando [Institut Francais du Petrole, Rueil-Malmaison (France). Departement Thermodynamique et Modelisation Moleculaire

    2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, we are interested in the estimation of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S heats of absorption in aqueous solutions of alkanolamine: monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), and methyldiethanolamine (MDEA). Two methods can be used to calculate the heat release during the absorption phenomenon. The easier which consists of applying the integration of the Gibbs-Helmholtz expression remains inaccurate. The second one, more rigorous, evaluates the heat transfer through an internal energy balance for an open system. The balance expression contains partial molar enthalpies of species in the liquid phase which are calculated from the electrolyte nonrandom-two-liquid (NRTL) excess Gibbs energy model. The calculations carried out in this method can be considered as predictive regarding the NRTL model because its interaction parameters were previously and solely fitted on vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data and not on experimental heat of absorption data. The comparison between both methods and experimental data for the three alkanolamines shows the contribution of this rigorous calculation to better estimate both properties (i.e., solubility and heat) and its usefulness to improve processes. Heats of absorption calculated with the second method can be used in addition to VLE data to fit NRTL parameters. This procedure leads to less-correlated parameters and allows extrapolating the model with more confidence. 63 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. A Novel Absorption Cycle for Combined Water Heating, Dehumidification, and Evaporative Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CHUGH, Devesh [University of Florida, Gainesville; Gluesenkamp, Kyle R [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Moghaddam, Saeed [University of Florida, Gainesville

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, development of a novel system for combined water heating, dehumidification, and space evaporative cooling is discussed. Ambient water vapor is used as a working fluid in an open system. First, water vapor is absorbed from an air stream into an absorbent solution. The latent heat of absorption is transferred into the process water that cools the absorber. The solution is then regenerated in the desorber, where it is heated by a heating fluid. The water vapor generated in the desorber is condensed and its heat of phase change is transferred to the process water in the condenser. The condensed water can then be used in an evaporative cooling process to cool the dehumidified air exiting the absorber, or it can be drained if primarily dehumidification is desired. Essentially, this open absorption cycle collects space heat and transfers it to process water. This technology is enabled by a membrane-based absorption/desorption process in which the absorbent is constrained by hydrophobic vapor-permeable membranes. Constraining the absorbent film has enabled fabrication of the absorber and desorber in a plate-and-frame configuration. An air stream can flow against the membrane at high speed without entraining the absorbent, which is a challenge in conventional dehumidifiers. Furthermore, the absorption and desorption rates of an absorbent constrained by a membrane are greatly enhanced. Isfahani and Moghaddam (Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 2013) demonstrated absorption rates of up to 0.008 kg/m2s in a membrane-based absorber and Isfahani et al. (Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 2013) have reported a desorption rate of 0.01 kg/m2s in a membrane-based desorber. The membrane-based architecture also enables economical small-scale systems, novel cycle configurations, and high efficiencies. The absorber, solution heat exchanger, and desorber are fabricated on a single metal sheet. In addition to the open arrangement and membrane-based architecture, another novel feature of the cycle is recovery of the solution heat energy exiting the desorber by process water (a process-solution heat exchanger ) rather than the absorber exiting solution (the conventional solution heat exchanger ). This approach has enabled heating the process water from an inlet temperature of 15 C to 57 C (conforming to the DOE water heater test standard) and interfacing the process water with absorbent on the opposite side of a single metal sheet encompassing the absorber, process-solution heat exchanger, and desorber. The system under development has a 3.2 kW water heating capacity and a target thermal coefficient of performance (COP) of 1.6.

  6. Computer simulation of a lithium bromide-water absorption heat pump for temperature boosting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grossman, G.; Childs, K.W.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A computer-simulation model has been developed to predict the performance of an absorption heat pump for temperature boosting of low-grade heat. The model simulated a single-stage, lithium bromide-water system currently being constructed. Te effects of waste-heat temperature, cooling-water temperature, and solution circulation rate were investigated. The temperature boost and delivered capacity increased almost linearly with an increase in the waste-heat temperature or a decrease in the cooling-water temperature. The system's coefficient of performance (COP) increases slightly under either of these conditions.

  7. A Case Study from Norway on Gas-Fired Power Plants, Carbon Sequestration, and Politics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Norwegian pollution laws. But the Labour Party and other opposition politicians insisted that regulations contended the gas-fired plants would slow Norway's dependence on imported electricity from Denmark, which is generated from even more carbon-intensive coal-fired plants. Over Bondevik objections, the parliament voted

  8. Comparative Assessment of Coal-and Natural Gas-fired Power Plants under a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Comparative Assessment of Coal- and Natural Gas-fired Power Plants under a CO2 Emission Performance standard (EPS) for pulverized coal (PC) and natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) power plants; · Evaluate · Coal-fired Power Plant: Supercritical pulverized coal (SC PC) Illinois #6 Coal Capacity Factor 75

  9. Relative radiant heat absorption characteristics of two types of mirror shields and a polished aluminum shield

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herron, Steven Douglas

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    compared. The relative absorptivities of two types of rear?silvered safety plate mirrors and a polished aluminum sheet will be compared in this research. LITERATURE REVIEW Modes of Heat Transmission It is well understood that heat may flow only... of vasomotor tone, peripheral venous blood pooling, hypotension, and cerebral anoxia. This instability results in nausea, giddi- 19 ness, universal discomfort, acute physical fatigue, and sometimes fainting. Salt deficiency from any of several possible...

  10. State-of-the-Art Review on Crystallization Control Technologies for water/LiBr Absorption Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Kai [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Kisari, Padmaja [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The key technical barrier to using water/lithium bromide (LiBr) as the working fluid in aircooled absorption chillers and absorption heat-pump systems is the risk of crystallization when the absorber temperature rises at fixed evaporating pressure. This article reviews various crystallization control technologies available to resolve this problem: chemical inhibitors, heat and mass transfer enhancement methods, thermodynamic cycle modifications, and absorption system-control strategies. Other approaches, such as boosting absorber pressure and J-tube technology, are reviewed as well. This review can help guide future efforts to develop water/LiBr air-cooled absorption chillers and absorption heatpump systems.

  11. PERFORMANCE OF A STIRLING ENGINE POWERED HEAT ACTIVATED HEAT PUMP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    PERFORMANCE OF A STIRLING ENGINE POWERED HEAT ACTIVATED HEAT PUMP W. D. C. Richards and W. L. Auxer) which employs a natural gas fired Stirling engine to drive a Rankine cycle vapor compressor is presently by the heat pump effect. The Stirling engine/Rankine cycle refrigeration loop heat pump being developed would

  12. An Embedded Boundary Method for the Modeling of Unsteady Combustion in an Industrial GasFired Furnace \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An Embedded Boundary Method for the Modeling of Unsteady Combustion in an Industrial Gas the simulation of an experimental natural gas­fired furnace are shown. \\Lambda This work was performed under

  13. Life Cycle cost Analysis of Waste Heat Operated Absorption Cooling Systems for Building HVAC Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saravanan, R.; Murugavel, V.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    effect from CO2 emission resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels in utility power plants and the use of chlorofluorocarbon refrigerants, which is currently thought to affect depletion of the ozone layer. The ban on fluorocarbon fluids has been...LIFE CYCLE COST ANALYSIS OF WASTE HEAT OPERATED ABSORPTION COOLING SYSTEMS FOR BUILDING HVAC APPLICATIONS V. Murugavel and R. Saravanan Refrigeration and Air conditioning Laboratory Department of Mechanical Engineering, Anna University...

  14. Printed in the United States of America. Available from National Technical Information Service

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    -24610/3 DEVELOPMENT OF A RESIDENTIAL GAS FIRED ABSORPTION HEAT PUMP FINAL REPORT COMPONENT DEVELOPMENT AND FIELD TRIAL Ioport Date Development of a Residential Gas Fired Absorption Heat Pump. May, 1983 Component Development on the development of absorption type gas fired heat pumps using organic working fluids. The residential heat pumps

  15. Resonant Absorption of Transverse Oscillations and Associated Heating in a Solar Prominence. I- Observational aspects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Okamoto, Takenori J; De Pontieu, Bart; Uitenbroek, Han; Van Doorsselaere, Tom; Yokoyama, Takaaki

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transverse magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves have been shown to be ubiquitous in the solar atmosphere and can in principle carry sufficient energy to generate and maintain the Sun's million-degree outer atmosphere or corona. However, direct evidence of the dissipation process of these waves and subsequent heating has not yet been directly observed. Here we report on high spatial, temporal, and spectral resolution observations of a solar prominence that show a compelling signature of so-called resonant absorption, a long hypothesized mechanism to efficiently convert and dissipate transverse wave energy into heat. Aside from coherence in the transverse direction, our observations show telltale phase differences around 180 degrees between transverse motions in the plane-of-sky and line-of-sight velocities of the oscillating fine structures or threads, and also suggest significant heating from chromospheric to higher temperatures. Comparison with advanced numerical simulations support a scenario in which transverse...

  16. Refinery Waste Heat Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Plant (WHAARP) Recovers LPG's and Gasoline, Saves Energy, and Reduces Air Pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brant, B.; Brueske, S.; Erickson, D.; Papar, R.

    A first-of-its-kind Waste Heat Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Plant (WHAARP™) was installed by Planetec Utility Services Co., Inc. in partnership with Energy Concepts Co. at Ultramar Diamond Shamrock's 30,000 barrel per day refinery in Denver...

  17. Accounting for fuel price risk: Using forward natural gas prices instead of gas price forecasts to compare renewable to natural gas-fired generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Golove, William

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    vs. AEO 2001 Price Forecast Natural Gas Price (nominal $/if forwards forecasts) or natural gas-fired generation (ifs reference case forecast of natural gas prices delivered to

  18. Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater - 2013 Peer Review | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1 A Strategic26-OPAMATTENDEEES:ofDepartmentAbsorption Heat Pump Water

  19. Validation of a PC based program for single stage absorption heat pump. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaltash, A.; Ally, M.R.

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An interactive computer code was developed to evaluate single stage absorption heat pump performance for temperature amplifier and heat amplifier modes using water as the refrigerant. This program performs the cycle calculations for single stage cycles based on the polynomial expressions developed to correlate experimental vapor-liquid-equilibrium (VLE) and specific enthalpy-concentration data for LiBr/water and (Li, K, Na)NO{sub 3}/water systems as well as the properties of pure water. The operating parameters obtained by this program were tested against mass and energy balances in documented cases and the results show that the maximum deviation between coefficient of performance (COP) values obtained by this software and the ones previously calculated is less than 3%. In addition, this program was used to study the effect of solution temperature leaving the absorber on the other operating parameters. This type of analysis could be used to improve and optimize cycle design. 4 refs.

  20. Validation of a PC based program for single stage absorption heat pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaltash, A.; Ally, M.R.

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An interactive computer code was developed to evaluate single stage absorption heat pump performance for temperature amplifier and heat amplifier modes using water as the refrigerant. This program performs the cycle calculations for single stage cycles based on the polynomial expressions developed to correlate experimental vapor-liquid-equilibrium (VLE) and specific enthalpy-concentration data for LiBr/water and (Li, K, Na)NO{sub 3}/water systems as well as the properties of pure water. The operating parameters obtained by this program were tested against mass and energy balances in documented cases and the results show that the maximum deviation between coefficient of performance (COP) values obtained by this software and the ones previously calculated is less than 3%. In addition, this program was used to study the effect of solution temperature leaving the absorber on the other operating parameters. This type of analysis could be used to improve and optimize cycle design. 4 refs.

  1. Heat absorption in sedimentary cover in some areas of the USA and Canada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pilchin, A.N.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For study of geothermal state and presence of heat absorption intervals (HAI) in some areas of the USA and Canada the methods of HAI discovery in sedimentary cover (Pilchin 1978, 1983) were used. HAI are determined on the Paleozoic surface of all areas in the Southern Alberta and in the north part of Williston Basin (Canada). In the Swan Hills area the HAI are observed in Grosmont and Beaverhile intervals. In the USA the HAI have been found in sedimentary cover of areas Fifth Water Site (Utah), Valles Caldera (New Mexico) and also in Michigan Basin, Central Ventura Basin and Salton Sea. Average heat generation is -0.04 mW/m{sup 3} in Cretaceous-Paleocene of Fifth Water Site area, -0.11 mW/m{sup 3} in VC-1 Well (Valles Caldera, 20-760 m), -0.06 mW/m{sup 3} in State 2-14 Well (Salton Sea, 300-900 m). In Michigan Basin the HAI are discovered in upper Michigan Formation, Sunbury Shale, Clinton Shale. In Central Ventura Basin the average heat generation is -0.007 mW/m{sup 3} and -0.018 mW/m{sup 3} correspondingly for Pfeiler-10 and Diedrich-1 Wells (Oxnard Field) and 0 for Lloyd-26 and Lloyd-161 Wells (Ventura Avenue Field). The conducted investigations show that in all studied regions the HAI are present.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF FINE PARTICULATE EMISSION FACTORS AND SPECIATION PROFILES FOR OIL AND GAS FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenn England; Oliver Chang; Stephanie Wien

    2002-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides results from the second year of this three-year project to develop dilution measurement technology for characterizing PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometers) and precursor emissions from stationary combustion sources used in oil, gas and power generation operation. Detailed emission rate and chemical speciation tests results for a gas turbine, a process heater, and a commercial oil/gas fired boiler are presented. Tests were performed using a research dilution sampling apparatus and traditional EPA methods. A series of pilot tests were conducted to identify the constraints to reduce the size of current research dilution sampler for future stack emission tests. Based on the test results, a bench prototype compact dilution sampler developed and characterized in GE EER in August 2002.

  3. absorption-type heat pumps: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    12;Canada's Context for Heat Pumps Impacts avenues: Ground source heat pumps for cold climates (heating and cooling) Reversible air source heat Oak Ridge National Laboratory...

  4. absorption-sorption heat pumps: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    12;Canada's Context for Heat Pumps Impacts avenues: Ground source heat pumps for cold climates (heating and cooling) Reversible air source heat Oak Ridge National Laboratory...

  5. Gas Powered Air Conditioning Absorption vs. Engine-Drive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, J. N.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It used to be that the only alternative to costly electric air conditioning was the double-effect gas-fired absorption chiller/heaters. Beginning in the 1980's, they were the "star" equipment promoted by gas companies throughout the nation. Although...

  6. Electromagnetic absorption mechanisms in metal nanospheres: Bulk and surface effects in radiofrequency-terahertz heating of nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanson, George

    in radiofrequency-terahertz heating of nanoparticles G. W. Hanson,1,a) R. C. Monreal,2 and S. P. Apell3 1 Department on the absorption of electromagnetic radiation by metallic nanoparticles in the radio and far infrared frequency by which nonmagnetic metallic nanoparticles can absorb low frequency radiation, including both classical

  7. Two component absorption/phase separation chemical heat pump to provide temperature amplification to waste heat streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, T.C.; Kaplan, S.I.

    1987-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical heat pump that utilizes liquid/liquid phase separation rather than evaporation to separate two components in a heat of mixing chemical heat pump process. 3 figs.

  8. Heating from free-free absorption and the mass-loss rate of the progenitor stars to supernovae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Björnsson, C.-I.; Lundqvist, P., E-mail: bjornsson@astro.su.se, E-mail: peter@astro.su.se [Department of Astronomy, AlbaNova University Center, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An accurate determination of the mass-loss rate of the progenitor stars to core-collapse supernovae is often limited by uncertainties pertaining to various model assumptions. It is shown that under conditions when the temperature of the circumstellar medium is set by heating due to free-free absorption, observations of the accompanying free-free optical depth allow a direct determination of the mass-loss rate from observed quantities in a rather model-independent way. The temperature is determined self-consistently, which results in a characteristic time dependence of the free-free optical depth. This can be used to distinguish free-free heating from other heating mechanisms. Since the importance of free-free heating is quite model dependent, this also makes possible several consistency checks of the deduced mass-loss rate. It is argued that the free-free absorption observed in SN 1993J is consistent with heating from free-free absorption. The deduced mass-loss rate of the progenitor star is, approximately, 10{sup –5} M {sub ?} yr{sup –1} for a wind velocity of 10 km s{sup –1}.

  9. Solar heating, cooling, and domestic hot water system installed at Kaw Valley State Bank and Trust Company, Topeka, Kansas. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The building has approximately 5600 square feet of conditioned space. Solar energy is used for space heating, space cooling, and preheating domestic hot water (DHW). The solar energy system has an array of evacuated tube-type collectors with an area of 1068 square feet. A 50/50 solution of ethylene glycol and water is the transfer medium that delivers solar energy to a tube-in-shell heat exchanger that in turn delivers solar-heated water to a 1100 gallon pressurized hot water storage tank. When solar energy is insufficient to satisfy the space heating and/or cooling demand, a natural gas-fired boiler provides auxiliary energy to the fan coil loops and/or the absorption chillers. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, and installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  10. The cyclo-synchrotron process and particle heating through the absorption of photons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Katarzynski; G. Ghisellini; R. Svensson; J. Gracia

    2006-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a new approximation for the cyclo-synchrotron emissivity of a single electron. In the second part of this work, we discuss a simple application for our approximation, and investigate the heating of electrons through the self-absorption process. Finally, we investigate the self-absorbed part of the spectrum produced by a power-law population of electrons. In comparison to earlier approximations, our formula provides a few significant advantages. Integration of the emissivity over the whole frequency range, starting from the proper minimal emitting frequency, gives the correct cooling rate for any energy particle. Further, the spectrum of the emission is well approximated over the whole frequency range, even for relatively low particle energies (beta energy particles, independent of the shape of the particle distribution responsible for the self-absorbed synchrotron emission. We find that the energy gains for low energy particles are always higher than energy losses by cyclo-synchrotron emission. We show also that the spectral index of the self-absorbed part of the spectrum at very low frequencies differs significantly from the well known standard relation I(nu) ~ nu^(5/2).

  11. Results of gas-fired flash-smelting tests. Phase 1-3. Topical technical report, November 1987-April 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pusateri, J.F.

    1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A natural gas-fired burner for the HRD FLAME REACTOR Process was designed and successfully tested on over 450 tons of Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) dust, and over a wide range of operating conditions. The coal/coke-fired FLAME REACTOR Process has already been demonstrated as an efficient and economic means of recovering zinc from EAF dust as a salable oxide product, and a salable nonhazardous, iron-rich slag product. The results of the work indicate that the natural gas-fired process has a higher zinc capacity for a given reactor size, with zinc recoveries 5-10 percentage points higher than coal/coke processing at high throughputs. Gas-fired capital costs are about 15% less than coal for a 20,000 STPY EAF dust plant. Smaller plants show even higher break-even costs. Net processing costs are about $100/ton of EAF dust, which is extremely competitive with land-filling and other recycling options.

  12. Seven-effect absorption refrigeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeVault, Robert C. (Knoxville, TN); Biermann, Wendell J. (Fayetteville, NY)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit.

  13. Seven-effect absorption refrigeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeVault, R.C.; Biermann, W.J.

    1989-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit. 1 fig.

  14. Research and development of a high efficiency gas-fired water heater. Volume 2. Task reports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasilakis, A.D.; Pearson, J.F.; Gerstmann, J.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Design and development of a cost-effective high efficiency gas-fired water heater to attain a service efficiency of 70% (including the effect of exfiltration) and a service efficiency of 78% (excluding exfiltration) for a 75 GPD draw at a 90/sup 0/F temperature rise, with a stored water to conditioned air temperature difference of 80/sup 0/F, are described in detail. Based on concept evaluation, a non-powered natural draft water heater was chosen as the most cost-effective design to develop. The projected installed cost is $374 compared to $200 for a conventional unit. When the project water heater is compared to a conventional unit, it has a payback of 3.7 years and life cycle savings of $350 to the consumer. A prototype water heater was designed, constructed, and tested. When operated with sealed combustion, the unit has a service efficiency of 66.4% (including the effect of exfiltration) below a burner input of 32,000 Btu/h. In the open combustion configuration, the unit operated at a measured efficiency of 66.4% Btu/h (excluding exfiltration). This compares with a service efficiency of 51.3% for a conventional water heater and 61% for a conventional high efficiency unit capable of meeting ASHRAE 90-75. Operational tests showed the unit performed well with no evidence of stacking or hot spots. It met or exceeded all capacity or usage tests specified in the program test plan and met all emission goals. Future work will concentrate on designing, building, and testing pre-production units. It is anticipated that both sealed combustion and open draft models will be pursued.

  15. The Homopolar Pulse Billet Heating Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keith, R. E.; Weldon, W. F.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    - or gas-fired furnace machine. (7) Also during 1981, under the heating. Although most billet heating sponsorship of the Electric Power Research today is done using fuel-fired furnaces, Institute (EPRI), CEM-UT carried out a electric heating... obtained frDm Electromechanics at The University of Texas the EPRI study. at Austin (CEM-UT) has been engaged in research on large pulsed power supplies for use in experiments leading to controlled TEMPERATURE GRADIENTS IN BILLET HEATING...

  16. L- and M-shell absorption measurements of radiatively heated Fe plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Jiyan; Li Hang; Zhao Yang; Xiong Gang; Yuan Zheng; Zhang Haiying; Yang Guohong; Yang Jiamin; Liu Shenye; Jiang Shaoen; Ding Yongkun; Zhang Baohan; Zheng Zhijian [Research Center of Laser Fusion, P. O. Box 919-986, Mianyang 621900 (China); Xu Yan; Meng Xujun; Yan Jun [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China)

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurements of iron-plasma absorption spectrum over 150-1200 eV photon energy range were reported at temperature T = (72 {+-} 4) eV. The electron temperature was diagnosed with the absorption spectrum of aluminum mixed with iron. The density was not diagnosed directly but obtained from a radiative hydrodynamic simulation with the Multi-1D code. The broad photon energy range enables simultaneous observation of the L-shell and M-shell transitions that dominate the radiation transport at this temperature. The spectrally resolved transmission data were compared to the detailed-configuration-accounting model calculations and reasonable agreement was found.

  17. an-04-07 absorption-sorption heat: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 12;Solar air heating...

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF FINE PARTICULATE EMISSION FACTORS AND SPECIATION PROFILES FOR OIL AND GAS-FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenn C. England; Stephanie Wien; Mingchih O. Chang

    2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides results from the first year of this three-year project to develop dilution measurement technology for characterizing PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometers) and precursor emissions from stationary combustion sources used in oil, gas and power generation operations. Detailed emission rate and chemical speciation test results for a refinery gas-fired process heater and plans for cogeneration gas turbine tests and pilot-scale tests are presented. Tests were performed using a research dilution sampling apparatus and traditional EPA methods to compare PM2.5 mass and chemical speciation. Test plans are presented for a gas turbine facility that will be tested in the fourth quarter of 2002. A preliminary approach for pilot-scale tests is presented that will help define design constraints for a new dilution sampler design that is smaller, lighter, and less costly to use.

  19. The Modeling of a Laboratory Natural GasFired Furnace with a HigherOrder Projection Method for Unsteady Combustion \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    method for axisymmetric, unsteady, low­ Mach number combustion is used to model a natural gas flame fromThe Modeling of a Laboratory Natural Gas­Fired Furnace with a Higher­Order Projection Method of Pember et al. [1] by using it to simulate a natural gas flame from a 300kW IFRF burner in the Burner

  20. Elevated Temperature Materials for Power Generation and Propulsion The energy industry is designing higher-efficiency land-based turbines for natural gas-fired

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Mo

    Elevated Temperature Materials for Power Generation and Propulsion The energy industry is designing higher-efficiency land-based turbines for natural gas-fired power generation systems. The high inlet materials for these aggressive environments. For example, Ni-base superalloys are used to fabricate blades

  1. The Cost of CCS forThe Cost of CCS for Natural GasNatural Gas--Fired Power PlantsFired Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    regulations for coal plants New concerns about nuclear power after Fukushima · Recent studies also show emissions · Most CCS cost studies have focused on coal-based power plants; relatively few on NGCC with CCS1 The Cost of CCS forThe Cost of CCS for Natural GasNatural Gas--Fired Power PlantsFired Power

  2. The Cost of CCS forThe Cost of CCS for Natural GasNatural Gas--Fired Power PlantsFired Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 The Cost of CCS forThe Cost of CCS for Natural GasNatural Gas--Fired Power PlantsFired Power, Pennsylvania Presentation to the Natural Gas CCS Forum Washington, DC November 4, 2011 E.S. Rubin, Carnegie Mellon MotivationMotivation · Electric utilities again looking to natural gas combined cycle (NGCC

  3. Performance of Gas-fired Water Heaters in a 10-home Field Study

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was given at the Summer 2012 DOE Building America meeting on July 25, 2012, and addressed the question "Are high-efficiency hot water heating systems worth the cost?"

  4. Heat loads from ICRF and LH wave absorption in the SOL: characterization on JET and implications for the ITER-Like Wall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colas, L.; Arnoux, G.; Goniche, M. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Jacquet, Ph.; Mayoral, M.-L.; Brix, M.; Fursdon, M.; Graham, M.; Mailloux, J.; Monakhov, I.; Noble, C.; Sirinelli, A.; Riccardo, V.; Vizvary, Z. [Euratom/CCFE Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Bobkov, V. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Assoziation, Garching (Germany); Lerche, E.; Ongena, J. [Association EURATOM-Belgian State, ERM-KMS, Brussels (Belgium); Petrzilka, V. [Association EURATOM-IPP. CR, Za Slovankou 3, 182 21 Praha 8 (Czech Republic)

    2011-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat loads from ICRF and LH wave absorption in the SOL are characterized on JET from the de-convolution of surface temperatures measured by infrared thermography. The spatial localization, quantitative estimates, parametric dependence and physical origin of the observed heat fluxes are documented. Implications of these observations are discussed for the operation of JET with an ITER-Like Wall, featuring Beryllium tiles with reduced power handling capability.

  5. Two Stage Vapor Compression Heat Pump with Solution Circuits: Catering to Simultaneous Chilling and Water Heating Needs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rane, M. V.; Radermacher, R.

    results indicate that the two stage VCHSC can achiev~ cooling coefficient of performances as high as 1.04 while pumping heat through a lift of 194?F (10S0C). Comparison is made with a system consisting of a vapor compressor chiller and a gas fired... conditioning and hot water for various uses will be assessed. comparison is made with a system consisting of a vapor compressor chiller and a gas fired furnace (option 2). The basis for comparison being: a) the total primary energy usage, b) the cost...

  6. Measurements of heat and mass transfer coefficients during absorption of water vapor by lithium bromide and (Li,K,Na)NO sub 3 mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaltash, A.; Ally, M.R.; Linkous, R.L.; Klatt, L.N.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A knowledge of heat and mass transfer coefficients in heat pump fluids, plays an important role in the design of absorption machines. Heat and mass transfer coefficients as well as subcooling are measured for absorption of water vapor in (Li, K, Na)No{sub 3} and Lithium Bromide (LiBr) mixtures.The rate of absorption of water vapor is obtained from the difference in concentration of mixtures between inlet and outlet streams across the absorber. In situ concentrations of aqueous salt mixtures over temperature ranges between 80 to 135 {degrees}C were calculated from density measurements. This technique of measurement is a reliable and convenient but not a very accurate ({plus minus}0.8 wt% salt) method of measuring the in situ salt concentration. Results show that the subcooling at the absorber exit is not only a property of the fluid, but depends strongly on the process conditions. The subcooling in LiBr mixtures without additive is shown to vary between 2.2 and 24.3 {degrees}C and the film heat transfer coefficient between 1365.2 and 801.1 W/m{sup 2}.K respectively, depending upon process conditions. These empirical results will prove to be of value to heat pump manufacturers because they have a strong bearing on costs and performance. Heat and mass transfer coefficients in aqueous salt solutions ate presented as a function of dimensionless numbers. 12 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. The Beckett System Recovery and Utilization of Low Grade Waste Heat From Flue Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, W. R.; DeBiase, J. F.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . During low demand periods, the unit is gas-fired and produces 150 psi steam at high efficiency. In the fall, the heat exchanger is converted to accept flue gas from the large original water tube boilers. The flue gas heats water, which preheats make...

  8. Advanced turbine systems program conceptual design and product development task 5 -- market study of the gas fired ATS. Topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar Turbines Incorporated (Solar), in partnership with the Department of Energy, will develop a family of advanced gas turbine-based power systems (ATS) for widespread commercialization within the domestic and international industrial marketplace, and to the rapidly changing electric power generation industry. The objective of the jointly-funded Program is to introduce an ATS with high efficiency, and markedly reduced emissions levels, in high numbers as rapidly as possible following introduction. This Topical Report is submitted in response to the requirements outlined in Task 5 of the Department of Energy METC Contract on Advanced Combustion Systems, Contract No, DE AC21-93MC30246 (Contract), for a Market Study of the Gas Fired Advanced Turbine System. It presents a market study for the ATS proposed by Solar, and will examine both the economic and siting constraints of the ATS compared with competing systems in the various candidate markets. Also contained within this report is an examination and analysis of Solar`s ATS and its ability to compete in future utility and industrial markets, as well as factors affecting the marketability of the ATS.

  9. A microsecond time resolved x-ray absorption near edge structure synchrotron study of phase transitions in Fe undergoing ramp heating at high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marini, C.; Mathon, O.; Pascarelli, S. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, BP220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Occelli, F.; Torchio, R.; Recoules, V.; Loubeyre, P. [CEA, Bruyeres le Chatel, 91297 Arpajon Cedex (France)

    2014-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a microsecond time-resolved x-ray absorption near edge structure study using synchrotron radiation to dynamically detect structural phase transitions in Fe undergoing rapid heating along a quasi-isochoric path. Within a few ms, we observed two structural phase transitions, which transform the ambient bcc phase of Fe into the fcc phase, and then into the liquid phase. This example illustrates the opportunities offered by energy dispersive x-ray absorption spectroscopy in the study of matter under extreme dynamic conditions. Advanced simulations are compared to these data.

  10. Economic Options for Upgrading Waste Heat 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erickson, D. C.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are at least six major types of equipment that upgrade waste heat: (1) thermocompressor; (2) electric drive compressor heat pump; (3) absorption heat pump; (4) high temperature heat powered compressor heat pump; (5) reverse absorption heat...

  11. Economic Options for Upgrading Waste Heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erickson, D. C.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are at least six major types of equipment that upgrade waste heat: (1) thermocompressor; (2) electric drive compressor heat pump; (3) absorption heat pump; (4) high temperature heat powered compressor heat pump; (5) reverse absorption heat...

  12. Accounting for fuel price risk: Using forward natural gas prices instead of gas price forecasts to compare renewable to natural gas-fired generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Golove, William

    2003-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Against the backdrop of increasingly volatile natural gas prices, renewable energy resources, which by their nature are immune to natural gas fuel price risk, provide a real economic benefit. Unlike many contracts for natural gas-fired generation, renewable generation is typically sold under fixed-price contracts. Assuming that electricity consumers value long-term price stability, a utility or other retail electricity supplier that is looking to expand its resource portfolio (or a policymaker interested in evaluating different resource options) should therefore compare the cost of fixed-price renewable generation to the hedged or guaranteed cost of new natural gas-fired generation, rather than to projected costs based on uncertain gas price forecasts. To do otherwise would be to compare apples to oranges: by their nature, renewable resources carry no natural gas fuel price risk, and if the market values that attribute, then the most appropriate comparison is to the hedged cost of natural gas-fired generation. Nonetheless, utilities and others often compare the costs of renewable to gas-fired generation using as their fuel price input long-term gas price forecasts that are inherently uncertain, rather than long-term natural gas forward prices that can actually be locked in. This practice raises the critical question of how these two price streams compare. If they are similar, then one might conclude that forecast-based modeling and planning exercises are in fact approximating an apples-to-apples comparison, and no further consideration is necessary. If, however, natural gas forward prices systematically differ from price forecasts, then the use of such forecasts in planning and modeling exercises will yield results that are biased in favor of either renewable (if forwards < forecasts) or natural gas-fired generation (if forwards > forecasts). In this report we compare the cost of hedging natural gas price risk through traditional gas-based hedging instruments (e.g., futures, swaps, and fixed-price physical supply contracts) to contemporaneous forecasts of spot natural gas prices, with the purpose of identifying any systematic differences between the two. Although our data set is quite limited, we find that over the past three years, forward gas prices for durations of 2-10 years have been considerably higher than most natural gas spot price forecasts, including the reference case forecasts developed by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). This difference is striking, and implies that resource planning and modeling exercises based on these forecasts over the past three years have yielded results that are biased in favor of gas-fired generation (again, presuming that long-term stability is desirable). As discussed later, these findings have important ramifications for resource planners, energy modelers, and policy-makers.

  13. Feasibility Study of Using Ground Source Heat Pumps in Two Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    , it was assumed that natural gas-fired water heaters would replace the steam converters that presently provide hot water for the buildings. It would also be possible to use dedicated water-to-water ground source heat pumps to provide hot water. #12; 2 II. BACKGROUND AND BASE CASE A. Background on McCormick Center

  14. Simulation of energy use in residential water heating systems Carolyn Dianarose Schneyer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    around BC: Kamloops, Victoria and Williams Lake. Electric and gas-fired tank water heaters of various The resulting data is presented from a variety of angles, including the relative impacts of water heater ratingSimulation of energy use in residential water heating systems by Carolyn Dianarose Schneyer B

  15. Evaluation and Analysis of an Integrated PEM Fuel Cell with Absorption Cooling and Water Heating System for Sustainable Building Operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gadalla, M.; Ratlamwala, T.; Dincer, I.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, a parametric study of a PEM fuel cell integrated with a double effect absorption system is carried out in order to study the effect of different operating conditions on the efficiency of the PEM fuel cell, utilization factor...

  16. An Embedded Boundary Method for the Modeling of Unsteady Combustion in an Industrial GasFired Furnace \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for the convective, viscous, and radiative heat transport terms in the mixed cells, while a finite element [20] which accounts for species diffusion, convective and radiative heat transfer, viscous transportAn Embedded Boundary Method for the Modeling of Unsteady Combustion in an Industrial Gas

  17. Design, fabrication and testing of a 15-kW gas-fired liquid-metal evaporator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adkins, D.R.; Rawlinson, K.S.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the development and testing of a compact heat- pipe heat exchanger that is designed to transfer thermal energy from hot combustion gases to the heater tubes of a 25-kW{sub e} Stirling engine. In this system, sodium evaporates from a surface that is heated by a stream of hot gases and the liquid metal then condenses on the heater tubes of a Stirling engine where energy is transferred to the engine's helium working fluid. Recent tests on a prototype unit illustrated that a compact (8 cm {times} 13 cm {times} 16 cm) sodium evaporator can routinely transfer 15-kW{sub t} of energy at an operating vapor temperature of 760{degrees}C. Four of these prototype units will eventually be used to power a 25-kW{sub e} Stirling engine system. Design details and test results from the prototype unit are presented in this paper.

  18. Design, fabrication and testing of a 15-kW gas-fired liquid-metal evaporator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adkins, D.R.; Rawlinson, K.S.

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the development and testing of a compact heat- pipe heat exchanger that is designed to transfer thermal energy from hot combustion gases to the heater tubes of a 25-kW{sub e} Stirling engine. In this system, sodium evaporates from a surface that is heated by a stream of hot gases and the liquid metal then condenses on the heater tubes of a Stirling engine where energy is transferred to the engine`s helium working fluid. Recent tests on a prototype unit illustrated that a compact (8 cm {times} 13 cm {times} 16 cm) sodium evaporator can routinely transfer 15-kW{sub t} of energy at an operating vapor temperature of 760{degrees}C. Four of these prototype units will eventually be used to power a 25-kW{sub e} Stirling engine system. Design details and test results from the prototype unit are presented in this paper.

  19. chemeng_lic.enl Page 1 Ahlstrm, A. F. "Katalysatorer Fr Frbrnning Av Dieselsot." 1989.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Bernstad, Anna. "Environmental Evaluation of Solid Household Waste Management - the Augustenborg Ecocity Processes." 1994. Christensson, Rolf. "Aspects on Decentralized Natural Gas Fired Liquid Heating." 1991. "Nox Modelling of a Complete Diesel Engine/Scr System." 2007. Eriksson, Katarina. "Absorption Heat

  20. Advanced Turbine Systems Program conceptual design and product development. Task 3.0, Selection of natural gas-fired Advanced Turbine System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents results of Task 3 of the Westinghouse ATS Phase II program. Objective of Task 3 was to analyze and evaluate different cycles for the natural gas-fired Advanced Turbine Systems in order to select one that would achieve all ATS program goals. About 50 cycles (5 main types) were evaluated on basis of plant efficiency, emissions, cost of electricity, reliability-availability-maintainability (RAM), and program schedule requirements. The advanced combined cycle was selected for the ATS plant; it will incorporate an advanced gas turbine engine as well as improvements in the bottoming cycle and generator. Cost and RAM analyses were carried out on 6 selected cycle configurations and compared to the baseline plant. Issues critical to the Advanced Combined Cycle are discussed; achievement of plant efficiency and cost of electricity goals will require higher firing temperatures and minimized cooling of hot end components, necessitating new aloys/materials/coatings. Studies will be required in combustion, aerodynamic design, cooling design, leakage control, etc.

  1. The Future of Absorption Technology in America: A Critical Look...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The Future of Absorption Technology in America: A Critical Look at the Impact of Building, Cooling, Heating, and Power (BCHP) and Innovation, June 2000 The Future of Absorption...

  2. ABSORPTION HEAT PUMP IN THE DISTRICT HEATING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    · decrease of the CO2 emission - 1580 quotas · installation of closed cycle cooling circuits · decrease Lower operational costs Extra electricity costs Steam from already existing steam boiler More working

  3. Generator-absorber-heat exchange heat transfer apparatus and method and use thereof in a heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Benjamin A. (Benton Harbor, MI); Zawacki, Thomas S. (St. Joseph, MI); Marsala, Joseph (Glen Ellyn, IL)

    1994-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Numerous embodiments and related methods for generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) are disclosed, particularly for absorption heat pump systems. Such embodiments and related methods use the working solution of the absorption system for the heat transfer medium.

  4. Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1 A Strategic26-OPAMATTENDEEES:ofDepartment

  5. Gas-Fired Reciprocating Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The reciprocating, or piston-driven, engine is a widespread and well-known technology. Also called internal combustion engines, reciprocating engines require fuel, air, compression, and a combustion source to function. Depending on the ignition source, they generally fall into two categories: (1) spark-ignited engines, typically fueled by gasoline or natural gas, and (2) compression-ignited engines, typically fueled by diesel oil fuel.

  6. Gas fired Advanced Turbine System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LeCren, R.T.; White, D.J.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of the first phase of the Advanced Gas Turbine System (ATS) program was the concept definition of an advanced engine system that meets efficiency and emission goals far exceeding those that can be provided with today`s equipment. The thermal efficiency goal for such an advanced industrial engine was set at 50% some 15 percentage points higher than current equipment levels. Exhaust emissions goals for oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO), and unburned hydrocarbons (UH) were fixed at 8 parts per million by volume (ppmv), 20 ppmv, and 20 ppmv respectively, corrected to 15% oxygen (O{sub 2}) levels. Other goals had to be addressed; these involved reducing the cost of power produced by 10 percent and improving or maintaining the reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) at current levels. This advanced gas turbine was to be fueled with natural gas, and it had to embody features that would allow it bum coal or coal derived fuels.

  7. Independent Validation and Verification of Process Design and Optimization Technology Diagnostic and Control of Natural Gas Fired Furnaces via Flame Image Analysis Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, Daryl [ORNL

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States Department of Energy, Industrial Technologies Program has invested in emerging Process Design and Optimizations Technologies (PDOT) to encourage the development of new initiatives that might result in energy savings in industrial processes. Gas fired furnaces present a harsh environment, often making accurate determination of correct air/fuel ratios a challenge. Operation with the correct air/fuel ratio and especially with balanced burners in multi-burner combustion equipment can result in improved system efficiency, yielding lower operating costs and reduced emissions. Flame Image Analysis offers a way to improve individual burner performance by identifying and correcting fuel-rich burners. The anticipated benefit of this technology is improved furnace thermal efficiency, and lower NOx emissions. Independent validation and verification (V&V) testing of the FIA technology was performed at Missouri Forge, Inc., in Doniphan, Missouri by Environ International Corporation (V&V contractor) and Enterprise Energy and Research (EE&R), the developer of the technology. The test site was selected by the technology developer and accepted by Environ after a meeting held at Missouri Forge. As stated in the solicitation for the V&V contractor, 'The objective of this activity is to provide independent verification and validation of the performance of this new technology when demonstrated in industrial applications. A primary goal for the V&V process will be to independently evaluate if this technology, when demonstrated in an industrial application, can be utilized to save a significant amount of the operating energy cost. The Seller will also independently evaluate the other benefits of the demonstrated technology that were previously identified by the developer, including those related to product quality, productivity, environmental impact, etc'. A test plan was provided by the technology developer and is included as an appendix to the summary report submitted by Environ (Appendix A). That plan required the V&V contractor to: (1) Establish the as-found furnace operating conditions; (2) Tune the furnace using currently available technology to establish baseline conditions; (3) Tune the furnace using the FIA technology; and (4) Document the improved performance that resulted from application of the FIA technology. It is important to note that the testing was not designed to be a competition or comparison between two different methodologies that could be used for furnace tuning. Rather, the intent was to quantify improvements in furnace performance that could not be achieved with existing technology. Therefore, the measure of success is improvement beyond the furnace efficiency obtainable using existing furnace optimization methods rather than improvement from the as found condition.

  8. On the sub-band gap optical absorption in heat treated cadmium sulphide thin film deposited on glass by chemical bath deposition technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chattopadhyay, P.; Karim, B.; Guha Roy, S. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Calcutta, 92, A.P.C. Road, Kolkata 700009 (India)

    2013-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The sub-band gap optical absorption in chemical bath deposited cadmium sulphide thin films annealed at different temperatures has been critically analyzed with special reference to Urbach relation. It has been found that the absorption co-efficient of the material in the sub-band gap region is nearly constant up to a certain critical value of the photon energy. However, as the photon energy exceeds the critical value, the absorption coefficient increases exponentially indicating the dominance of Urbach rule. The absorption coefficients in the constant absorption region and the Urbach region have been found to be sensitive to annealing temperature. A critical examination of the temperature dependence of the absorption coefficient indicates two different kinds of optical transitions to be operative in the sub-band gap region. After a careful analyses of SEM images, energy dispersive x-ray spectra, and the dc current-voltage characteristics, we conclude that the absorption spectra in the sub-band gap domain is possibly associated with optical transition processes involving deep levels and the grain boundary states of the material.

  9. Extension of the Phoenix/City of Colorado Springs solar-assisted heat-pump project. Technical progress report No. 18, sixth quarterly report, 1 October 1980-31 January 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Three gas-driven heat pumps are being considered, which are a Wisconsin engine drive heat pump, a Stirling engine drive heat pump, and a gas turbine drive heat pump. Also considered is an electric driven heat pump. Cost effectiveness of both the electric driven and gas fired solar-assisted heat pumps is demonstrated by comparing the present value of the system over its 20 year life with the present value of the fuel saved in Denver and Colorado Springs. The opinions of the local electric utilities for both cities and the natural gas pipeline company are briefly discussed. (LEW)

  10. Printed in the United States of America. Available from National Technical Information Service

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    OF A RESIDENTIAL GAS FIRED ABSORPTION HEAT PUMP FINAL REPORT PHYSICAL AND THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF R123A Heat Pump. November 1983 Physical and Thermodynamic Properties of R123a/ETFE, System Development sized absorption heat pump using organic type working fluids. This report covers the development work

  11. Advanced Chemical Heat Pumps Using Liquid-Vapor Reactions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirol, L.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical heat pumps utilizing liquid-vapor reactions can be configured in forms analogous to electric drive vapor-compression heat pumps and heat activated absorption heat pumps. Basic thermodynamic considerations eliminate some heat pumps and place...

  12. Industrial heat pumps in Germany -potentials, technological development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    jet nozzle Closed Cycles: Absorption/Adsorption heat pump thermal compressor driven by waste heat, waste heat, waste water/air (heat recovery) Refrigerant R134a, R407C, R410A, R717 Heating capacity [k

  13. The development of a kinematic Stirling-engine-driven heat pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monahan, R.E.; Kountz, K.J.; Clinch, J.M.

    1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The continuing development of a 10-ton light commercial natural-gas-fired kinematic Stirling-engine-driven heat pump system is described. Basic Stirling cycle thermodynamics are presented, and a complete engine heat balance is shown to detail the inherent advantages of the V160 Stirling engine as a prime mover in a heat pump package. Results from environmental laboratory testing of a breadboard prototype are reviewed, and the test procedures used in the evaluation are explained. Seasonal performance of the heat pump package was predicted using a bin-temperature method based on Chicago and Dallas climatic data. Annual energy costs, as predicted by the seasonal performance analytical computer program, have been calculated for a gas furnace, standard electric heat pump, and the Stirling engine-driven prototype heat pump package. These computed costs for these systems are listed and compared.

  14. Generator-absorber-heat exchange heat transfer apparatus and method and use thereof in a heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Benjamin A. (Benton Harbor, MI); Zawacki, Thomas S. (St. Joseph, MI)

    1996-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Numerous embodiments and related methods for generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) are disclosed, particularly for absorption heat pump systems. Such embodiments and related methods use the working solution of the absorption system for the heat transfer medium. A combination of weak and rich liquor working solution is used as the heat transfer medium.

  15. Low Level Heat Recovery Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Brien, W. J.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    level heat recovery technology. This paper discusses heat distribution systems, latest developments in absorption refrigeration and organic Rankine cycles, and pressure, minimization possibilities. The relative merits and economics of the various...

  16. Tushino - 3 district heating project/Moscow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayer, H.W.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The contract for supply and installation of Honeywell control equipment at the district heating plant in Moscow suburb of Tushino was signed between the Mayor of Moscow and Honeywell in December 1991. Total contract value is US$3 million. The aim is to demonstrate on a pilot project the potential energy savings and improved pleat safety which can be achieved by means of electronic control of latest design. The Honeywell contract basically covers modernization of instrumentation and control of the gas fired heating plant, comprising water preparation and 4 boilers, of 100 Gcal/h each, i.e., 400 Gcal/h total. The plant is feeding the hot water network which has 60 heat exchanger stations connected. The heat exchangers (thermal rating between 2 to 10 Gcal/h each) supply hot water mainly to residential building blocks for apartment heating and domestic hot water. Honeywell`s responsibility covers engineering, supply of TDC 3000 micro-processor based control system for the boilers and DeltaNet Excel control for the Heat Exchangers. The contract also includes installation and start-up of the total control system.

  17. absorption solar receiver: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    which exhibit a broadband absorption enhancement over 2 An Air-Based Cavity-Receiver for Solar Trough Concentrators Roman Bader Renewable Energy Websites Summary: for a heat...

  18. The development of a solar thermal water purification, heating, and power generation system: A case study.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Mingshen

    implemented in several desalination systems through the use of coal or gas-fired boilers. To date, however

  19. aerodynamic heating: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of multiple local optima, and most importantly Stanford University 205 ABSORPTION HEAT PUMP IN THE DISTRICT HEATING Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization Websites...

  20. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Promoting Combined Heat and...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    residential applications the heat can be used for domestic hot water, space heating, absorption cooling, or dehumidifying at the building where it is produced. CHP systems consist...

  1. CONFIDENTIAL Saint-Gobain and Versailles : a long story starting in 1665...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    Microturbines #12;Projects : Construction and Renovation CERAMIC IGNITERS (Gas Fired Heating and Cooking) FIBER

  2. Generator-absorber-heat exchange heat transfer apparatus and method and use thereof in a heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Benjamin A. (Benton Harbor, MI); Zawacki, Thomas S. (St. Joseph, MI)

    1998-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Numerous embodiments and related methods for generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) are disclosed, particularly for absorption heat pump systems. Such embodiments and related methods use, as the heat transfer medium, the working fluid of the absorption system taken from the generator at a location where the working fluid has a rich liquor concentration.

  3. Generator-absorber-heat exchange heat transfer apparatus and method and use thereof in a heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, B.A.; Zawacki, T.S.

    1998-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Numerous embodiments and related methods for generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) are disclosed, particularly for absorption heat pump systems. Such embodiments and related methods use, as the heat transfer medium, the working fluid of the absorption system taken from the generator at a location where the working fluid has a rich liquor concentration. 5 figs.

  4. Triple effect absorption chiller utilizing two refrigeration circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeVault, Robert C. (Knoxville, TN)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A triple effect absorption method and apparatus having a high coefficient of performance. Two single effect absorption circuits are combined with heat exchange occurring between a condenser and absorber of a high temperature circuit, and a generator of a low temperature circuit. The evaporators of both the high and low temperature circuits provide cooling to an external heat load.

  5. Heat-pipe gas-combustion system endurance test for Stirling engine. Final report, May 1990-September 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahrle, P.

    1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Stirling Thermal Motors, Inc., (STM) has been developing a general purpose Heat Pipe Gas Combustion System (HPGC) suitable for use with the STM4-120 Stirling engine. The HPGC consists of a parallel plate recuperative preheater, a finned heat pipe evaporator and a film cooled gas combustor. A principal component of the HPGC is the heat pipe evaporator which collects and distributes the liquid sodium over the heat transfer surfaces. The liquid sodium evaporates and flows to the condensers where it delivers its latent heat. The report presents test results of endurance tests run on a Gas-Fired Stirling Engine (GFSE). Tests on a dynamometer test stand yielded 67 hours of engine operation at power levels over 10 kW (13.5 hp) with 26 hours at power levels above 15 kW (20 hp). Total testing of the engine, including both motoring tests and engine operation, yielded 245 hours of engine run time.

  6. AN AMMONIA-WATER ABSORPTION-HIAT-PUMP CYCLE Donald Kuhlenschmidt, Member ASHRAE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    to an air-source heating- only heat-pump cycle which delivers its heat in- doors via circulating liquid,000 Btuh) input unit reported. KLY WORDS Absorption Heat-pump Air conditioning heating Ammonia Donald conditioning chillers. The authors are involved in a project to use this cycle in an air source heat pump

  7. 500°F Absorption Heat Pump Under Development 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davidson, W. F.; Erickson, D. C.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    stainless steels having corrosion rates of less than 1 mil per year at temperatures up to approximately the chemical stability limit, and mild steel at temperatures about lOOoe lower. Also, the alkali metal nitrates are routinely added to aqueous... vacuums measurements were also taken. Three materials were tested: mild steel (A36), stainless steel (304), and pack aluminized stainless steel. The latter has been found to be effective in resisting anhydrous nitrate corrosion at temperatures above...

  8. Absorption Heat Pumps | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you sure you want toworldPower 2010 1A Potential Path toDepartmentUsus About

  9. Absorption Heat Pumps | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube platform is alwaysISO 50001 Energy Management Standard »Cooling

  10. Final Report: Assessment of Combined Heat and Power Premium Power Applications in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norwood, Zack; Lipman, Tim; Marnay, Chris; Kammen, Dan

    2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report analyzes the current economic and environmental performance of combined heat and power (CHP) systems in power interruption intolerant commercial facilities. Through a series of three case studies, key trade-offs are analyzed with regard to the provision of black-out ridethrough capability with the CHP systems and the resutling ability to avoid the need for at least some diesel backup generator capacity located at the case study sites. Each of the selected sites currently have a CHP or combined heating, cooling, and power (CCHP) system in addition to diesel backup generators. In all cases the CHP/CCHP system have a small fraction of the electrical capacity of the diesel generators. Although none of the selected sites currently have the ability to run the CHP systems as emergency backup power, all could be retrofitted to provide this blackout ride-through capability, and new CHP systems can be installed with this capability. The following three sites/systems were used for this analysis: (1) Sierra Nevada Brewery - Using 1MW of installed Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells operating on a combination of digestor gas (from the beer brewing process) and natural gas, this facility can produce electricty and heat for the brewery and attached bottling plant. The major thermal load on-site is to keep the brewing tanks at appropriate temperatures. (2) NetApp Data Center - Using 1.125 MW of Hess Microgen natural gas fired reciprocating engine-generators, with exhaust gas and jacket water heat recovery attached to over 300 tons of of adsorption chillers, this combined cooling and power system provides electricity and cooling to a data center with a 1,200 kW peak electrical load. (3) Kaiser Permanente Hayward Hospital - With 180kW of Tecogen natural gas fired reciprocating engine-generators this CHP system generates steam for space heating, and hot water for a city hospital. For all sites, similar assumptions are made about the economic and technological constraints of the power generation system. Using the Distributed Energy Resource Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, we model three representative scenarios and find the optimal operation scheduling, yearly energy cost, and energy technology investments for each scenario below: Scenario 1 - Diesel generators and CHP/CCHP equipment as installed in the current facility. Scenario 1 represents a baseline forced investment in currently installed energy equipment. Scenario 2 - Existing CHP equipment installed with blackout ride-through capability to replace approximately the same capacity of diesel generators. In Scenario 2 the cost of the replaced diesel units is saved, however additional capital cost for the controls and switchgear for blackout ride-through capability is necessary. Scenario 3 - Fully optimized site analysis, allowing DER-CAM to specify the number of diesel and CHP/CCHP units (with blackout ride-through capability) that should be installed ignoring any constraints on backup generation. Scenario 3 allows DER-CAM to optimize scheduling and number of generation units from the currently available technologies at a particular site. The results of this analysis, using real data to model the optimal schedulding of hypothetical and actual CHP systems for a brewery, data center, and hospital, lead to some interesting conclusions. First, facilities with high heating loads will typically prove to be the most appropriate for CHP installation from a purely economic standpoint. Second, absorption/adsorption cooling systems may only be economically feasible if the technology for these chillers can increase above current best system efficiency. At a coefficient of performance (COP) of 0.8, for instance, an adsorption chiller paired with a natural gas generator with waste heat recovery at a facility with large cooling loads, like a data center, will cost no less on a yearly basis than purchasing electricity and natural gas directly from a utility. Third, at marginal additional cost, if the reliability of CHP systems proves to be at

  11. Oral Drug Absorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamashita, Shinji

    2006-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    properties ? membrane permeability ? metabolic stability ? enzyme inhibition or induction ? protein binding ? transporter affinity ?. Chemical Optimization DDS technology 4 Strategy of Drug Delivery Absorption Distribution Metabolism Excretion Improve of drug... absorption absorption enhancement controlled releasecontrolled release new administration route Drug targeting to the tissue to the cell to the organelle Dr. Shinji Yamashita (Setsunan University) Issue: Oral Drug Absorption Dr. Valentino J. Stella...

  12. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard (2750-C Segerstrom Ave., Santa Ana, CA 92704)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer. The heat pump part of the system heats or cools a house or other structure through a combination of evaporation and absorption or, conversely, condensation and desorption, in a pair of containers. A set of automatic controls change the system for operation during winter and summer months and for daytime and nighttime operation to satisfactorily heat and cool a house during an entire year. The absorber chamber is subjected to solar heating during regeneration cycles and is covered by one or more layers of glass or other transparent material. Daytime home air used for heating the home is passed at appropriate flow rates between the absorber container and the first transparent cover layer in heat transfer relationship in a manner that greatly reduce eddies and resultant heat loss from the absorbant surface to ambient atmosphere.

  13. Innovative Miniaturized Heat Pumps for Buildings: Modular Thermal Hub for Building Heating, Cooling and Water Heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BEETIT Project: Georgia Tech is using innovative components and system design to develop a new type of absorption heat pump. Georgia Tech’s new heat pumps are energy efficient, use refrigerants that do not emit greenhouse gases, and can run on energy from combustion, waste heat, or solar energy. Georgia Tech is leveraging enhancements to heat and mass transfer technology possible in microscale passages and removing hurdles to the use of heat-activated heat pumps that have existed for more than a century. Use of microscale passages allows for miniaturization of systems that can be packed as monolithic full-system packages or discrete, distributed components enabling integration into a variety of residential and commercial buildings. Compared to conventional heat pumps, Georgia Tech’s design innovations will create an absorption heat pump that is much smaller, has higher energy efficiency, and can also be mass produced at a lower cost and assembly time.

  14. Un nouveau type de pompe chaleur : la PAC compression-absorption fonctionnement altern

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    de l'électricité. Abstract 2014 The new heat pump, here proposed, is intermediate between a compression heat pump and an absorp- tion heat pump. Like the absorption heat pump, it uses a binary mixture made of a volatile solvent and a non-volatile solute. Like the compression heat pump, it uses

  15. La pompe chaleur compression-absorption. Influence des diffrences de prix de l'lectricit nuit/jour sur le cot d'exploitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    « heures creuses » pendant une journée de 24 heures. Abstract. - The Compression-Absorption Heat Pump Alternatively Working (CAHPAW) is a new type of heat pump, described previously (Ref. [1]) and is midway between the Compression heat pump and the Absorption heat pump. Compared to a standard compression heat pump, the CAHPAW

  16. Techno-economic analysis of using corn stover to supply heat and power to a corn ethanol plant - Part 2: Cost of heat and power generation systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mani, Sudhagar [University of Georgia; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Togore, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL

    2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a techno-economic analysis of corn stover fired process heating (PH) and the combined heat and power (CHP) generation systems for a typical corn ethanol plant (ethanol production capacity of 170 dam3). Discounted cash flow method was used to estimate both the capital and operating costs of each system and compared with the existing natural gas fired heating system. Environmental impact assessment of using corn stover, coal and natural gas in the heat and/or power generation systems was also evaluated. Coal fired process heating (PH) system had the lowest annual operating cost due to the low fuel cost, but had the highest environmental and human toxicity impacts. The proposed combined heat and power (CHP) generation system required about 137 Gg of corn stover to generate 9.5 MW of electricity and 52.3 MW of process heat with an overall CHP efficiency of 83.3%. Stover fired CHP system would generate an annual savings of 3.6 M$ with an payback period of 6 y. Economics of the coal fired CHP system was very attractive compared to the stover fired CHP system due to lower fuel cost. But the greenhouse gas emissions per Mg of fuel for the coal fired CHP system was 32 times higher than that of stover fired CHP system. Corn stover fired heat and power generation system for a corn ethanol plant can improve the net energy balance and add environmental benefits to the corn to ethanol biorefinery.

  17. Absorption Cycle Fundamentals and Applications Guidelines for Distillation Energy Savings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erickson, D. C.; Davidson, W. F.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The absorption cycle offers one of the most economic and widely applicable technologies for waste heat upgrading. It can use off-the-shelf hardware that is available now, at any required capacity rating. Fractional distillations, as a class...

  18. absorption cycle cooling: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Life Cycle cost Analysis of Waste Heat Operated Absorption Cooling Systems for Building HVAC Applications Texas A&M University - TxSpace...

  19. Heat transfer from nanoparticles: a corresponding state analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    temperatures using laser heating of nanoparticles [8, 9, 10], even reaching the melting point of gold particles is relevant to experiments in which a fluid is locally heated using selective absorption of radiation by solid surfaces, lo- cal heating of fluids by selective absorption from nanoparti- cles, with possible biomedical

  20. Heat and mass transfer considerations in advanced heat pump systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panchal, C.B.; Bell, K.J.

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advanced heat-pump cycles are being investigated for various applications. However, the working media and associated thermal design aspects require new concepts for maintaining high thermal effectiveness and phase equilibrium for achieving maximum possible thermodynamic advantages. In the present study, the heat- and mass-transfer processes in two heat-pump systems -- those based on absorption processes, and those using refrigerant mixtures -- are analyzed. The major technical barriers for achieving the ideal performance predicted by thermodynamic analysis are identified. The analysis provides general guidelines for the development of heat- and mass-transfer equipment for advanced heat-pump systems.

  1. Heat and mass transfer considerations in advanced heat pump systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panchal, C.B.; Bell, K.J.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advanced heat-pump cycles are being investigated for various applications. However, the working media and associated thermal design aspects require new concepts for maintaining high thermal effectiveness and phase equilibrium for achieving maximum possible thermodynamic advantages. In the present study, the heat- and mass-transfer processes in two heat-pump systems -- those based on absorption processes, and those using refrigerant mixtures -- are analyzed. The major technical barriers for achieving the ideal performance predicted by thermodynamic analysis are identified. The analysis provides general guidelines for the development of heat- and mass-transfer equipment for advanced heat-pump systems.

  2. Advanced regenerative absorption refrigeration cycles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dao, Kim (14 Nace Ave., Piedmont, CA 94611)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Multi-effect regenerative absorption cycles which provide a high coefficient of performance (COP) at relatively high input temperatures. An absorber-coupled double-effect regenerative cycle (ADR cycle) (10) is provided having a single-effect absorption cycle (SEA cycle) (11) as a topping subcycle and a single-effect regenerative absorption cycle (1R cycle) (12) as a bottoming subcycle. The SEA cycle (11) includes a boiler (13), a condenser (21), an expansion device (28), an evaporator (31), and an absorber (40), all operatively connected together. The 1R cycle (12) includes a multistage boiler (48), a multi-stage resorber (51), a multisection regenerator (49) and also uses the condenser (21), expansion device (28) and evaporator (31) of the SEA topping subcycle (11), all operatively connected together. External heat is applied to the SEA boiler (13) for operation up to about 500 degrees F., with most of the high pressure vapor going to the condenser (21) and evaporator (31) being generated by the regenerator (49). The substantially adiabatic and isothermal functioning of the SER subcycle (12) provides a high COP. For higher input temperatures of up to 700 degrees F., another SEA cycle (111) is used as a topping subcycle, with the absorber (140) of the topping subcycle being heat coupled to the boiler (13) of an ADR cycle (10). The 1R cycle (12) itself is an improvement in that all resorber stages (50b-f) have a portion of their output pumped to boiling conduits (71a-f) through the regenerator (49), which conduits are connected to and at the same pressure as the highest pressure stage (48a) of the 1R multistage boiler (48).

  3. Cascade heat recovery with coproduct gas production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, William R. (Zionsville, PA); Cassano, Anthony A. (Allentown, PA); Dunbobbin, Brian R. (Allentown, PA); Rao, Pradip (Allentown, PA); Erickson, Donald C. (Annapolis, MD)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the integration of a chemical absorption separation of oxygen and nitrogen from air with a combustion process is set forth wherein excess temperature availability from the combustion process is more effectively utilized to desorb oxygen product from the absorbent and then the sensible heat and absorption reaction heat is further utilized to produce a high temperature process stream. The oxygen may be utilized to enrich the combustion process wherein the high temperature heat for desorption is conducted in a heat exchange preferably performed with a pressure differential of less than 10 atmospheres which provides considerable flexibility in the heat exchange.

  4. Cascade heat recovery with coproduct gas production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, W.R.; Cassano, A.A.; Dunbobbin, B.R.; Rao, P.; Erickson, D.C.

    1986-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the integration of a chemical absorption separation of oxygen and nitrogen from air with a combustion process is set forth wherein excess temperature availability from the combustion process is more effectively utilized to desorb oxygen product from the absorbent and then the sensible heat and absorption reaction heat is further utilized to produce a high temperature process stream. The oxygen may be utilized to enrich the combustion process wherein the high temperature heat for desorption is conducted in a heat exchange preferably performed with a pressure differential of less than 10 atmospheres which provides considerable flexibility in the heat exchange. 4 figs.

  5. Method and apparatus for aerosol particle absorption spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campillo, Anthony J. (Nesconset, NY); Lin, Horn-Bond (Manorville, NY)

    1983-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for determining the absorption spectra, and other properties, of aerosol particles. A heating beam source provides a beam of electromagnetic energy which is scanned through the region of the spectrum which is of interest. Particles exposed to the heating beam which have absorption bands within the band width of the heating beam absorb energy from the beam. The particles are also illuminated by light of a wave length such that the light is scattered by the particles. The absorption spectra of the particles can thus be determined from an analysis of the scattered light since the absorption of energy by the particles will affect the way the light is scattered. Preferably the heating beam is modulated to simplify the analysis of the scattered light. In one embodiment the heating beam is intensity modulated so that the scattered light will also be intensity modulated when the particles absorb energy. In another embodiment the heating beam passes through an interferometer and the scattered light reflects the Fourier Transform of the absorption spectra.

  6. acquired thermotolerance heat: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    face recognition. Kuang-chih Lee; Jeffrey Ho; David Kriegman 2005-01-01 47 ABSORPTION HEAT PUMP IN THE DISTRICT HEATING Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization Websites Summary:...

  7. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  8. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate intallation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  9. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to faciliate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  10. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  11. Solar selective absorption coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahoney, Alan R. (Albuquerque, NM); Reed, Scott T. (Albuquerque, NM); Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM); Martinez, F. Edward (Horseheads, NY)

    2004-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

  12. Solar selective absorption coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahoney, Alan R. (Albuquerque, NM); Reed, Scott T. (Albuquerque, NM); Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM); Martinez, F. Edward (Horseheads, NY)

    2003-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

  13. Optical absorption measurement system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draggoo, Vaughn G. (Livermore, CA); Morton, Richard G. (San Diego, CA); Sawicki, Richard H. (Pleasanton, CA); Bissinger, Horst D. (Livermore, CA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The system of the present invention contemplates a non-intrusive method for measuring the temperature rise of optical elements under high laser power optical loading to determine the absorption coefficient. The method comprises irradiating the optical element with a high average power laser beam, viewing the optical element with an infrared camera to determine the temperature across the optical element and calculating the absorption of the optical element from the temperature.

  14. Advanced Chemical Heat Pumps Using Liquid-Vapor Reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirol, L.

    ADVANCED CHEMICAL HEAT PUMPS USING LIQUID-VAPOR REACTIONS LANCE KIROL Senior Program Specialist Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Idaho Falls, Idaho . ABSTRACT Chemical heat pumps utilizing liquid-vapor reactions can be configured... in forms analogous to electric drive vapor-compression heat pumps and heat activated absorption heat pumps. Basic thermodynamic considerations eliminate some heat pumps and place restrictive working fluid requirements on others, but two thermodynam...

  15. Demand Side Management (DSM) Through Absorption Refrigeration Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chao, P. Y.; Shukla, D.; Amarnath, A.; Mergens, E.

    DEMAND SIDE MANAGEMENT (DSM) TIIROUGH ABSORPTION REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS Peter Y. Chao, PhD, Deepak Shukla, PhD, Sr. Process Engineers, TENSA Services, Inc. Ammi Amarnath, Sr. Project Manager, Electrical Power Research Institute Ed. Mergens.... They are Peak Clipping, Valley filling, Load Shifting, Strategic Conservation, Strategic Load Growth, and Flexible Load Shaping. Absorption Refrigeration from waste heat offers a viable option for DSM. This will either reduce the peak load (peak clipping...

  16. Preliminary Estimates of Combined Heat and Power Greenhouse Gas Abatement Potential for California in 2020

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Ryan; Ling, Frank; Marnay, Chris; Hamachi LaCommare, Kristina

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    generation: 50% of electricity from central grid natural gas plantsgeneration: 100% of electricity from central grid natural gas plantselectricity comes from central station natural-gas- fired combined cycle generation, and the other half comes from natural-gas-fired single cycle plants. •

  17. Combined Heat and Power System Achieves Millions in Cost Savings...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Cleary Builders and Jacobs Engineering Group, installed a 45 MW high-efficiency, natural gas-fired CHP system consisting of a 34 MW combustion turbine, a 210,000-pound-per-hour...

  18. STAFF PAPER THERMAL EFFICIENCY OF GASFIRED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ..................................................................... 6 List of Tables Page Table 1: California Natural GasFired Heat Rates for 2001 ­ 2010 (Btu 5: Heat Rates for California's Natural GasFired Power Plants (Btu/kWh) ...................... 8 per kilowatt hour (Btu/kWh) from 2001 to 2010. Table 1: California Natural Gas-Fired Heat Rates

  19. Cost reduction in absorption chillers: Phase 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leigh, R.W.

    1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A research program at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has addressed the possibility of dramatically lowering the first costs of absorption chillers through lowered material intensity and the use of lower cost materials, primarily in the heat exchangers which make up the bulk of the operating components of these systems. This must be done while retaining the best performance characteristics available today, a gross design point coefficient of performance (COP) of 1.3 and a net design (seasonal) average COP of 1.0 (0.90) in a directly fired, double effect unit. We have investigated several possible routes to these goals, and here report on these findings, focusing on the areas that appear most promising. The candidate technologies include the use of polymer film heat exchangers in several applications, the use of thin strips of new, corrosion resistant alloys to replace thicker, less impervious metals in applications exposed to gas flames, and copper or cupro-nickel foils in contact with system water. The use of such materials is only possible in the context of new heat exchanger and system designs, which are also discussed. To lend focus, we have concentrated on a directly fired double effect system providing capacity only. If successful, these techniques will also find wide applicability in heat pumps, cogeneration systems, solar cooling, heat recovery and chemical process heat transfer. 46 refs., 24 figs., 22 tabs.

  20. Absorption: an update In the Netherlands, a residential ab-is being incorporated now. As a conse-cepts prove to be economically viable, ab-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    . As a conse- cepts prove to be economically viable, ab- sorption heat pump isunder development quence Aachen. Computer models for the design research and development work on ab- tele Absorption Heat Pump and Performance of systems and the results indicate that we a High Temperature-Boost Absorption Heat Pump

  1. Demonstration of a 30-kW Microturbine with Heat Recovery in a 500-Soldier Barracks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedrich, Michele; Armstrong, Peter R.; Smith, David L.; Rowley, Steven

    2005-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A combined heat and power-configured microturbine system was evaluated as an alternative to grid-supplied electric power. While off-grid, the system provides auxiliary power for gas-fired boilers and a portion of the domestic hot water for a 500-man barracks and kitchen. One-time tests were made of sound levels, stack emissions and power quality. Steady-state generating capacity dropped faster than the ratings as the inlet air temperature approached 15°C, while generating efficiency, based on fuel higher heating value, did not drop as rapidly and was still almost 21% at 33°C. The microturbine must boost the fuel (natural gas) delivery pressure to 55 psig. During the one year of operation, four fuel compressors failed and there were repeated failures of the microturbine and heat recovery heat exchanger controls. Energy savings based on the measured performance and CY2003 utility rates were $2670 per year. This paper, which will be presented at the ASHRAE Annual Meeting in Orlando, Florida, Feb. 5-9, describes the results of this evaluation.

  2. Solar space heating for the visitors' center, Stephens College, Columbia, Missouri. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henley, Marion

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is the final report of the solar energy system located at the Visitors' Center on the Stephens College Campus, Columbia, Missouri. The system is installed in a four-story, 15,000 square foot building designed to include the college's Admission Office, nine guest rooms for overnight lodging for official guests of the college, a two-story art gallery, and a Faculty Lounge. The solar energy system is an integral design of the building and utilizes 176 Honeywell/Lennox hydronic flat-plate collectors which use a 50% water-ethylene glycol solution and water-to-water heat exchanger. Solar heated water is stored in a 5000 gallon water storage tank located in the basement equipment room. A natural gas fired hot water boiler supplies hot water when the solar energy heat supply fails to meet the demand. The designed solar contribution is 71% of the heating load. The demonstration period for this project ends June 30, 1984.

  3. Efficiency and supply resource options for the upgrade of the Plzen district heating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We examined options for meeting the district heating system steam and hot water heating loads associated with the Plzefi Central Heating Plant, two interconnected boilers serving the Kosutka and Bory regions, and the distributed systems in the Letna/Doubravka and Svetovar regions. The assessment applied integrated resource planning to combine the separate supply and demand-side assessments conducted for the system. Four system load scenarios were examined-high and low growth with and without programmatic efficiency. Hot water loads ranged from the current level of 277 megawatts thermal (MW{sub t}) to 320 MW{sub t} in a high growth scenario without efficiency to 253 MW{sub t} in a low growth scenario with programmatic efficiency. The high growth scenario includes an addition of approximately 50 MW{sub t} load from the connection of distributed boilers. An additional 250 MW{sub t} load served by distributed boilers may provide additional potential for system expansion. Steam loads are projected to increase from 93 MW{sub t} to 100 MW{sub t} in the high growth scenario and. decrease to 89 MW{sub t}, in the low growth scenario. Two system expansion cases were considered. The moderate system expansion provided for the Heat Line East I connection to serve the Letna/Doubravka region and the fall system expansion case further provided for the Heat Line East II connection to serve the Svetovar region. In the moderate case, the life of the Svetovar plant is extended to continue as a stand-alone system. Four central plant supply configurations providing for additional cogeneration capacity were applied to the load scenarios: 1. Life extension to existing facilities with a new coal-fired cogeneration unit in 2003, 2. Retirement of some existing units and a new coal-fired cogeneration unit in 1997, 3. Retirement of some existing units and a new gas- fired cogeneration unit in 1997, 4. Gas: Retirement of some exiting units a new gas-fired cogeneration unit in 1997.

  4. Generator-Absorber heat exchange transfer apparatus and method using an intermediate liquor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Benjamin A. (Benton Harbor, MI); Zawacki, Thomas S. (St. Joseph, MI)

    1996-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Numerous embodiments and related methods for generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) are disclosed, particularly for absorption heat pump systems. Such embodiments and related methods use the working solution of the absorption system for the heat transfer medium where the working solution has an intermediate liquor concentration.

  5. International Sorption Heat Pump Conference June 2224, 2005; Denver, CO, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    .S. Department of Energy ABSTRACT The value of "waste heat" is demonstrated by a 2,500-ton absorption chiller in the nation to use the approach of recycling waste heat to drive an absorption chiller. Capital cost; waste heat; thermal energy MODULAR INTEGRATED ENERGY SYSTEM (IES) DESCRIPTION The modular integrated

  6. Corrosion inhibitor for aqueous ammonia absorption system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Benjamin A. (Benton Harbor, MI); Whitlow, Eugene P. (St. Joseph, MI)

    1998-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of inhibiting corrosion and the formation of hydrogen and thus improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption refrigeration, air conditioning or heat pump system by maintaining the hydroxyl ion concentration of the aqueous ammonia working fluid within a selected range under anaerobic conditions at temperatures up to 425.degree. F. This hydroxyl ion concentration is maintained by introducing to the aqueous ammonia working fluid an inhibitor in an amount effective to produce a hydroxyl ion concentration corresponding to a normality of the inhibitor relative to the water content ranging from about 0.015 N to about 0.2 N at 25.degree. C. Also, working fluids for inhibiting the corrosion of carbon steel and resulting hydrogen formation and improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption system under anaerobic conditions at up to 425.degree. F. The working fluids may be aqueous solutions of ammonia and a strong base or aqueous solutions of ammonia, a strong base, and a specified buffer.

  7. Corrosion inhibitor for aqueous ammonia absorption system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, B.A.; Whitlow, E.P.

    1998-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for inhibiting corrosion and the formation of hydrogen and thus improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption refrigeration, air conditioning or heat pump system by maintaining the hydroxyl ion concentration of the aqueous ammonia working fluid within a selected range under anaerobic conditions at temperatures up to 425 F. This hydroxyl ion concentration is maintained by introducing to the aqueous ammonia working fluid an inhibitor in an amount effective to produce a hydroxyl ion concentration corresponding to a normality of the inhibitor relative to the water content ranging from about 0.015 N to about 0.2 N at 25 C. Also, working fluids for inhibiting the corrosion of carbon steel and resulting hydrogen formation and improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption system under anaerobic conditions at up to 425 F. The working fluids may be aqueous solutions of ammonia and a strong base or aqueous solutions of ammonia, a strong base, and a specified buffer. 5 figs.

  8. Intrinsic AGN Absorption Lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fred Hamann

    2000-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Strong absorption lines are common in rest-frame UV spectra of AGNs due to a variety of resonant transitions, for example the HI Lyman series lines (most notably Ly-alpha 1216) and high-ionization doublets like CIV 1549,1551. The lines are called ``intrinsic'' if the absorbing gas is physically related to the AGN, e.g. if the absorber resides broadly within the radius of the AGN's surrounding ``host'' galaxy. Intrinsic absorption lines are thus valuable probes of the kinematics, physical conditions and elemental abundances in the gas near AGNs. Studies of intrinsic absorbers have historically emphasized the broad absorption lines (BALs) in quasars. Today we recognize a wider variety of intrinsic lines in a wider range of objects. For example, we now know that Seyfert 1 galaxies (the less luminous cousins of quasars) have intrinsic absorption. We also realize that intrinsic lines can form in a range of AGN environments --- from the dynamic inner regions like the BALs, to the more quiescent outer host galaxies >10 kpc away. This article provides a brief introduction to current observational and theoretical work on intrinsic AGN absorbers.

  9. Solar Energy to Drive Absorption Cooling Systems Suitable for Small Building Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gomri, R.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    results and an overview of the performance of low capacity single stage and half-effect absorption cooling systems, suitable for residential and small building applications. The primary heat source is solar energy supplied from flat plate collectors...

  10. Solar Energy to Drive Absorption Cooling Systems Suitable for Small Building Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gomri, R.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    results and an overview of the performance of low capacity single stage and half-effect absorption cooling systems, suitable for residential and small building applications. The primary heat source is solar energy supplied from flat plate collectors...

  11. The Quantum Absorption Refrigerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amikam Levy; Ronnie Kosloff

    2011-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A quantum absorption refrigerator driven by noise is studied with the purpose of determining the limitations of cooling to absolute zero. The model consists of a working medium coupled simultaneously to hot, cold and noise baths. Explicit expressions for the cooling power are obtained for Gaussian and Poisson white noise. The quantum model is consistent with the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The third law is quantified, the cooling power J_c vanishes as J_c proportional to T_c^{alpha}, when T_c approach 0, where alpha =d+1 for dissipation by emission and absorption of quanta described by a linear coupling to a thermal bosonic field, where d is the dimension of the bath.

  12. Development of Updated ABsorption SIMulation Software (ABSIM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Zhiyao [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN; Tang, Xin [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN; Qu, Ming [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Gluesenkamp, Kyle R [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ABsorption SIMulation, ABSIM, was developed for the simulation of absorption systems by The Oak Ridge National Laboratory during 1980s and 1990s. ABSIM provides a platform for users to investigate various cycle configurations and working fluids, to calculate their operating parameters, to predict their performance, and to compare them with each other on a uniform basis. ABSIM is indeed a very useful and accurate tool for researchers to investigate various absorption systems. However, it has not been well maintained: it is incompatible with recent operating systems; the interface needs improved user-friendliness, and the system needs better parameter setting and debugging tools to help achieve convergence. Therefore, it is highly needed to update and improve ABSIM. The paper presents recent efforts to improve ABSIM s compatibility with current operating systems, user interface, and analysis capabilities. The paper details the features and functions of the newly updated ABSIM software. The new ABSIM still uses the previously validated calculation engine of the old ABSIM. The new graphic user interfaces (GUI) were developed in Qt, which is an open source license GUI software based on C++. XML was used as the database for data storage in the new ABSIM. The new ABSIM has been designed to be easily learned and used. It has enhanced editing and construction functions, plus enhanced analysis features including parametric tables, plotting, property plots, and master panels for debugging. A single effect water/LiBr absorption system is used as a case study in this paper to illustrate the features, capabilities, and functions of the new ABSIM. This case study was actually an example system available in the old ABSIM. The new version of ABSIM will be continuously developed to include additional subroutines for the components in liquid desiccant systems. The new ABSIM will be available to public for free. The ultimate goal of the new ABSIM is to allow it to become a simulation platform for both absorption heat pump and liquid desiccant systems.

  13. Thermophoretic interaction of heat releasing particles Yu. Dolinskya)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elperin, Tov

    Thermophoretic interaction of heat releasing particles Yu. Dolinskya) and T. Elperinb) Department investigates thermophoretic force acting at heat releasing absorbing particles near the interface between two of the thermophoretic force is proportional to the rate of heat release absorption by the particle, and its direction

  14. A Numerical Model for the Dynamic Simulation of a Recirculation Single-Effect Absorption Chiller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A Numerical Model for the Dynamic Simulation of a Recirculation Single- Effect Absorption Chiller A dynamic model for the simulation of a new single-effect water/lithium bromide absorption chiller is developed. The chiller is driven by two distinct heat sources, includes a custom integrated falling film

  15. Novel Controls for Economic Dispatch of Combined Cooling, Heating and Power (CCHP) Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The emergence of technologies that efficiently convert heat into cooling, such as absorption chillers, has opened up many new opportunities and markets for combined heat and power systems. These...

  16. Municipal District Heating and Cooling Co-generation System Feasibility Research 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, W.; Guan, W.; Pan, Y.; Ding, G.; Song, X.; Zhang, Y.; Li, Y.; Wei, H.; He, Y.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In summer absorption refrigerating machines provide cold water using excess heat from municipal thermoelectric power plant through district heating pipelines, which reduces peak electric load from electricity networks in summer. The paper simulates...

  17. Municipal District Heating and Cooling Co-generation System Feasibility Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, W.; Guan, W.; Pan, Y.; Ding, G.; Song, X.; Zhang, Y.; Li, Y.; Wei, H.; He, Y.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In summer absorption refrigerating machines provide cold water using excess heat from municipal thermoelectric power plant through district heating pipelines, which reduces peak electric load from electricity networks in summer. The paper simulates...

  18. Antiproton Absorption in Nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu. T. Kiselev; E. Ya. Paryev

    2006-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the analysis of experimental data on forward antiproton production on nuclei. The calculations are done in the framework of a folding model which takes properly into account both incoherent direct proton-nucleon and cascade pion-nucleon antiproton production processes as well as internal nucleon momentum distribution. The effective antiproton-nucleon cross section in nuclear matter and the imaginary part of the antiproton nuclear optical potential are estimated to be 25-45 mb and -(38-56) MeV at normal nuclear matter density, respectively. The results of the performed analysis evidence for the decreasing of antiproton absorption in the nuclear medium.

  19. Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

  20. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,602 1,397...

  1. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All...

  2. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,870 1,276...

  3. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings ... 2,037...

  4. Experimental Investigation of the Effect Of Zeolite Coating Thickness on the Performance of a Novel Zeolite-Water Adsorption Heat Pump Module

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dawoud, B.; Hofle, P.; Chmielewski, S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel zeolite-water absorption heat pump module comprising an adsorber, an evaporator and a condenser heat exchanger as well as a module non-return valve in a hermetically sealed vessel is introduced. The investigated adsorber heat exchanger...

  5. Heating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishman, P.J.

    1983-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A heating system utilizing solar panels and buried ground conduits to collect and store heat which is delivered to a heatpump heat exchanger. A heat-distribution fluid continuously circulates through a ground circuit to transfer heat from the ground to the heat exchanger. The ground circuit includes a length of buried ground conduit, a pump, a check valve and the heat exchanger. A solar circuit, including a solar panel and a second pump, is connected in parallel with the check valve so that the distribution fluid transfers solar heat to the heat exchanger for utilization and to the ground conduit for storage when the second pump is energized. A thermostatically instrumented control system energizes the second pump only when the temperature differential between the solar panel inlet and outlet temperatures exceeds a predetermined value and the ground temperature is less than a predetermined value. Consequently, the distribution fluid flows through the solar panel only when the panel is capable of supplying significant heat to the remainder of the system without causing excessive drying of the ground.

  6. Near-Infrared Laser Absorption of Poly(vinyl chloride) at Elevated Temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van de Ven, James D.

    Near-Infrared Laser Absorption of Poly(vinyl chloride) at Elevated Temperatures James D. Van de Ven polymer, pigments, and fillers. Because of the complex phase transition that occurs when heating the charac- teristics of heating owing to the laser radiation. This paper discusses an experiment measuring

  7. A Comparative Economic Evaluation of Industrial Heat Pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, J. I.; Bliem, C. J.; Chappell, R. N.

    )st of delivering process heat with state-of t:ll(:-iJrt heat pump systems. Sixteen heat pump systems w~re configured for relative cost comparisons. These systheat pumps of the open, semiopen and closed type. In addition, a waste energy driven absorption heat pump was analyzed. A conceptual 11{~sign of each system was created using off-the-shelf components generally available to engineering firms...

  8. Glass heat pipe evacuated tube solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McConnell, Robert D. (Lakewood, CO); Vansant, James H. (Tracy, CA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A glass heat pipe is adapted for use as a solar energy absorber in an evacuated tube solar collector and for transferring the absorbed solar energy to a working fluid medium or heat sink for storage or practical use. A capillary wick is formed of granular glass particles fused together by heat on the inside surface of the heat pipe with a water glass binder solution to enhance capillary drive distribution of the thermal transfer fluid in the heat pipe throughout the entire inside surface of the evaporator portion of the heat pipe. Selective coatings are used on the heat pipe surface to maximize solar absorption and minimize energy radiation, and the glass wick can alternatively be fabricated with granular particles of black glass or obsidian.

  9. absorption heat transformers: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    multilayer foils Jonathan C. Trenkle,1 Physics Websites Summary: August 2008 We have used self-propagating exothermic reactions in AlNi multilayers as a means to explore the...

  10. absorption heat transformer: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    multilayer foils Jonathan C. Trenkle,1 Physics Websites Summary: August 2008 We have used self-propagating exothermic reactions in AlNi multilayers as a means to explore the...

  11. Commercial Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T, Inc.'sEnergyTexas1.Space Data Corporation Commentsto Section 934

  12. Residential Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China 2015of 2005UNS Electric,RMPipeline FirstSpent NuclearHowResearchNobelPhoto credit:

  13. Energy Saving Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8, 2000Consumption Survey (CBECS) Data 210EnergyEnergy Saver

  14. J.\\.rticl It California Administrative Code

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    "luously burning rilot lights. (4) AI gas-fired swimming pool heaters. (5) All gas-fired low-pressure steam and hot water heating boilers designed for use on swimming pools and outdoor installation. For purposes heaters. (6) All gas-fired fan type direct vent and vented wall furnace!. except those designed to burn

  15. 7, 71717233, 2007 Aerosol absorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    black carbon refractive indices, new cloud radiative properties considering the effect of aerosol absorption and radiative forcing. The effect of the usage of more accurate effective medium approximations radiative properties re- sults in a small global annual-mean all-sky absorption of 0.05 W m-2 and a positive

  16. Optical absorption of silicon nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, T. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Display and System Application, Shanghai University, 149 Yanchang Road, Shanghai 200072 (China); Institut d'Electronique et de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologies, IEMN (CNRS, UMR 8520), Groupe de Physique, Cite scientifique, avenue Poincare, 59652 Villeneuve d'Ascq (France); Lambert, Y.; Krzeminski, C.; Grandidier, B.; Stievenard, D.; Leveque, G.; Akjouj, A.; Pennec, Y.; Djafari-Rouhani, B. [Institut d'Electronique et de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologies, IEMN (CNRS, UMR 8520), Groupe de Physique, Cite scientifique, avenue Poincare, 59652 Villeneuve d'Ascq (France)

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on simulations and measurements of the optical absorption of silicon nanowires (NWs) versus their diameter. We first address the simulation of the optical absorption based on two different theoretical methods: the first one, based on the Green function formalism, is useful to calculate the scattering and absorption properties of a single or a finite set of NWs. The second one, based on the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method, is well-adapted to deal with a periodic set of NWs. In both cases, an increase of the onset energy for the absorption is found with increasing diameter. Such effect is experimentally illustrated, when photoconductivity measurements are performed on single tapered Si nanowires connected between a set of several electrodes. An increase of the nanowire diameter reveals a spectral shift of the photocurrent intensity peak towards lower photon energies that allow to tune the absorption onset from the ultraviolet radiations to the visible light spectrum.

  17. Final Report: Assessment of Combined Heat and Power Premium Power Applications in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zack

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    pdf/E-20.pdf, May 2008. PG&E natural gas tariffs. http://pdf/G-NT.pdf, May 2008. PG&E natural gas tariffs. http://than less expensive natural gas fired reciprocating engine

  18. Eta absorption by mesons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. Liu; C. M. Ko; L. W. Chen

    2005-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the $[SU(3)_{\\mathrm{L}} \\times SU(3)_{\\mathrm{R}}]_{\\mathrm{global}% }\\times [SU(3)_V]_{\\mathrm{local}}$ chiral Lagrangian with hidden local symmetry, we evaluate the cross sections for the absorption of eta meson ($% \\eta$) by pion ($\\pi$), rho ($\\rho$), omega ($\\omega$), kaon ($K$), and kaon star ($K^*$) in the tree-level approximation. With empirical masses and coupling constants as well as reasonable values for the cutoff parameter in the form factors at interaction vertices, we find that most cross sections are less than 1 mb, except the reactions $\\rho\\eta\\to K\\bar K^*(\\bar KK^*)$, $\\omega\\eta\\to K\\bar K^*(\\bar KK^*)$, $K^*\\eta\\to\\rho K$, and $K^*\\eta\\to\\omega K$, which are a few mb, and the reactions $\\pi\\eta\\to K\\bar K$ and $K\\eta\\to\\pi K$, which are more than 10 mb. Including these reactions in a kinetic model based on a schematic hydrodynamic description of relativistic heavy ion collisions, we find that the abundance of eta mesons likely reaches chemical equilibrium with other hadrons in nuclear collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider.

  19. Active Humidity Control Through Gas-Fired Desiccant Humidity Pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Novosel, D.; Griffiths, W. C.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High equipment first cost and high operating costs, if electricity is used to drive such a system, have prohibited the application of active humidity control equipment in comfort conditioning in the past. Instead, passive techniques have been...

  20. Active Humidity Control Through Gas-Fired Desiccant Humidity Pump 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Novosel, D.; Griffiths, W. C.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    applied. A comparison of passive capacity control methods to control humidity shows that only the combined face and bypass and variable air volume system shows improved performance with respect to space humidity control, dew point depression, and response...

  1. Gas-Fired Boilers and Furnaces | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently20,000 RussianBy: Thomas P. D'Agostino, Undersecretary11-161-LNGGary M. Mignogna -GasA

  2. Gas-Fired Boilers and Furnaces | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently Asked Questions for DOE FY 2011Talley,GENII Code GENII CodeDepartment

  3. IHT: Tools for Computing Insolation Absorption by Particle Laden Flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grout, R. W.

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes IHT, a toolkit for computing radiative heat exchange between particles. Well suited for insolation absorption computations, it is also has potential applications in combustion (sooting flames), biomass gasification processes and similar processes. The algorithm is based on the 'Photon Monte Carlo' approach and implemented in a library that can be interfaced with a variety of computational fluid dynamics codes to analyze radiative heat transfer in particle-laden flows. The emphasis in this report is on the data structures and organization of IHT for developers seeking to use the IHT toolkit to add Photon Monte Carlo capabilities to their own codes.

  4. Corrosive resistant heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richlen, Scott L. (Annandale, VA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A corrosive and errosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is conveyed through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium.

  5. Counterflow absorber for an absorption refrigeration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An air-cooled, vertical tube absorber for an absorption refrigeration system is disclosed. Strong absorbent solution is supplied to the top of the absorber and refrigerant vapor is supplied to the bottom of the absorber to create a direct counterflow of refrigerant vapor and absorbent solution in the absorber. The refrigeration system is designed so that the volume flow rate of refrigerant vapor in the tubes of the absorber is sufficient to create a substantially direct counterflow along the entire length of each tube in the absorber. This provides several advantages for the absorber such as higher efficiency and improved heat transfer characteristics, and allows improved purging of non-condensibles from the absorber.

  6. Heat collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrigan, Michael A. (Santa Cruz, NM)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

  7. Heat collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrigan, M.A.

    1981-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

  8. Electromagnetic scattering and absorption by aerosol agglomerates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Hsingyi.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Calculation of scattering and absorption by smoke aerosols is required in many applications, including characterization of atmospheric aerosols, prediction of climatic impact of smoke, evaluation of smoke effectiveness in obscuration, calculation of heat transfer from flames, and evaluation of various scenarios of nuclear winter. In this dissertation two procedures were developed to accurately make these calculations utilizing realistic models of smoke agglomerates including oriented chains and fractal geometries. First the Iterative Extended Boundary Condition Method (IEBCM) was utilized to calculate the electromagnetic (EM) scattering and absorption of elongated aerosol particles. The computation efficiency and capability of IEBCM were improved by implementing the sectioning and the segmentation procedures. The sectioning procedure resulted in improving the computational efficiency and the segmentation method made it possible to make calculations for particles with aspect ratios as high as 250. The other procedure employed the Volume Integral Equation Formulation (VIEF) to compute the EM scattering and absorption by agglomerates of complex geometries. The validity of the procedure was checked first by comparing the obtained results with those obtained from the Mie solution for a spherical object and with the IEBCM for nonspherical objects. The comparison between results showed excellent agreement and hence validated the accuracy of the VIEF. The VIEF solution was then used to make calculations for five types of fractal agglomerates of smoke aerosol particles with fractal dimensions in the range from 1.7 to 1.9. The results obtained were compared with those based on the fractal theory recently published by Berry and Percival, and some differences were observed.

  9. Adsorption and Reaction of NO on Cu(100): An Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopic Study at 25 K

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Wayne

    Adsorption and Reaction of NO on Cu(100): An Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopic Study oxide (NO) on a Cu(100) surface at 25 K has been studied using infrared reflection absorption to the Cu(100) surface. Heating to 55 K leads to reorientation of the dimer molecules in the multilayer

  10. absorptivity: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    confondre Absorption Adsorption Mathematics Websites Summary: Ne pas confondre Absorption Adsorption et Quand des molcules sont amenes en contact avec un'attachent...

  11. Proceedings of HT2005 2005 ASME Summer Heat Transfer Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguilar, Guillermo

    Proceedings of HT2005 2005 ASME Summer Heat Transfer Conference July 17-22, 2005, San Francisco absorption and increasing the thickness of the protected region. A 2D finite volume numerical code based interface location density (kg m-3 ) 1 Copyright © 2005 by ASME Proceedings of HT2005 2005 ASME Summer Heat

  12. Cost reductions in absorption chillers. Final report, June 1984-May 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leigh, R.W.

    1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Absorption chillers have great difficulty competing with the electric-driven compression alternative, due in part to modest operating efficiencies and largely to high first costs. This project is an assessment of the possibility of lowering the costs of absorption chillers dramatically by the use of low material intensity in the design of a new generation of these machines. Breakeven costs for absorption chillers, their heat exchangers and heat exchanger materials were established which will allow commercial success. Polymeric and metallic materials appropriate to particular components and which meet the cost goals were identified. A subset of these materials were tested and ordered by success in tolerating conditions and materials found in absorption chiller applications. Conceptual designs which indicate the practicality of the low material intensity approach were developed. The work reported here indicates that there is a high probability that this apporach will be successful.

  13. Heating System Specification Specification of Heating System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Day, Nancy

    Appendix A Heating System Specification /* Specification of Heating System (loosely based */ requestHeat : Room ­? bool; 306 #12; APPENDIX A. HEATING SYSTEM SPECIFICATION 307 /* user inputs */ livingPattern : Room ­? behaviour; setTemp : Room ­? num; heatSwitchOn, heatSwitchOff, userReset : simple

  14. LiCl Dehumidifier LiBr absorption chiller hybrid air conditioning system with energy recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ko, Suk M. (Huntsville, AL)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a hybrid air conditioning system that combines a solar powered LiCl dehumidifier with a LiBr absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier removes the latent load by absorbing moisture from the air, and the sensible load is removed by the absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier is coupled to a regenerator and the desiccant in the regenerator is heated by solar heated hot water to drive the moisture therefrom before being fed back to the dehumidifier. The heat of vaporization expended in the desiccant regenerator is recovered and used to partially preheat the driving fluid of the absorption chiller, thus substantially improving the overall COP of the hybrid system.

  15. Neutron behavior, reactor control, and reactor heat transfer. Volume four

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Volume four covers neutron behavior (neutron absorption, how big are nuclei, neutron slowing down, neutron losses, the self-sustaining reactor), reactor control (what is controlled in a reactor, controlling neutron population, is it easy to control a reactor, range of reactor control, what happens when the fuel burns up, controlling a PWR, controlling a BWR, inherent safety of reactors), and reactor heat transfer (heat generation in a nuclear reactor, how is heat removed from a reactor core, heat transfer rate, heat transfer properties of the reactor coolant).

  16. Transient absorption spectroscopy of laser shocked explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mcgrane, Shawn D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dang, Nhan C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whitley, Von H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bolome, Cindy A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Moore, D S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transient absorption spectra from 390-890 nm of laser shocked RDX, PETN, sapphire, and polyvinylnitrate (PVN) at sub-nanosecond time scales are reported. RDX shows a nearly linear increase in absorption with time after shock at {approx}23 GPa. PETN is similar, but with smaller total absorption. A broad visible absorption in sapphire begins nearly immediately upon shock loading but does not build over time. PVN exhibits thin film interference in the absorption spectra along with increased absorption with time. The absorptions in RDX and PETN are suggested to originate in chemical reactions happening on picosecond time scales at these shock stresses, although further diagnostics are required to prove this interpretation.

  17. Quasistellar Objects: Intervening Absorption Lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jane C. Charlton; Christopher W. Churchill

    2000-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We briefly review, at a level appropriate for graduate students and non-specialists, the field of quasar absorption lines (QALs). Emphasis is on the intervening absorbers. We present the anatomy of a quasar spectrum due to various classes of intervening absorption systems, and a brief historical review of each absorber class (Lyman-alpha forest and Lyman limit systems, and metal-line and damped Lyman-alpha absorbers). We also provide several heuristic examples on how the physical properties of both the intergalactic medium and the gaseous environments associated with earlier epoch galaxies can be inferred from QALs. The evolution of these environments from z=4 are discussed.

  18. Saturable absorption and 'slow light'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adrian C Selden

    2006-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantitative evaluation of some recent 'slow light' experiments based on coherent population oscillations (CPO) shows that they can be more simply interpreted as saturable absorption phenomena. Therefore they do not provide an unambiguous demonstration of 'slow light'. Indeed a limiting condition on the spectral bandwidth is not generally satisfied, such that the requirements for burning a narrow spectral hole in the homogeneously broadened absorption line are not met. Some definitive tests of 'slow light' phenomena are suggested, derived from analysis of phase shift and pulse delay for a saturable absorber

  19. Ne pas confondre Absorption Adsorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liège, Université de

    Ne pas confondre Absorption Adsorption et Quand des molécules sont amenées en contact avec un'attachent simplement à la surface du solide on parle d'adsorption. L'adsorption est donc le « collage » de molécules à la surface d'un solide. Quand le charbon nettoie Principes physiques de l'adsorption Cédric Gommes

  20. Ultrasonic absorption in liquid mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, James Madison

    1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    snd water and of methanol and water, Since Storey's work on ethanol and water at 0 C showed that for the three different frequencies at, which his investigation wms carried outx the ratio of ths absorption to the frequency squared increased...

  1. Interferometric tunability of the absorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vittorio Giovannetti; Seth Lloyd; Lorenzo Maccone

    2006-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose an interferometric setup that permits to tune the quantity of radiation absorbed by an object illuminated by a fixed light source. The method can be used to selectively irradiate portions of an object based on their transmissivities or to accurately estimate the transmissivities from rough absorption measurements.

  2. Heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swenson, Paul F. (Cleveland, OH); Moore, Paul B. (Fedhaurn, FL)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion-type refrigeration circuit and a heat engine. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The heat engine includes a heat rejection circuit having a source of rejected heat and a primary heat exchanger connected to the source of rejected heat. The heat rejection circuit also includes an evaporator in heat exchange relation with the primary heat exchanger, a heat engine indoor heat exchanger, and a heat engine outdoor heat exchanger. The indoor heat exchangers are disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine indoor heat exchanger being disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit indoor heat exchanger. The outdoor heat exchangers are also disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine outdoor heat exchanger disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit outdoor heat exchanger. A common fluid is used in both of the indoor heat exchanges and in both of the outdoor heat exchangers. In a first embodiment, the heat engine is a Rankine cycle engine. In a second embodiment, the heat engine is a non-Rankine cycle engine.

  3. Geothermal heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aureille, M.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of the study is to demonstrate the viability of geothermal heating projects in energy and economic terms and to provide nomograms from which an initial estimate may be made without having to use data-processing facilities. The effect of flow rate and temperature of the geothermal water on drilling and on the network, and the effect of climate on the type of housing are considered.

  4. Water and Space Heating Heat Pumps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kessler, A. F.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the design and operation of the Trane Weathertron III Heat Pump Water Heating System and includes a comparison of features and performance to other domestic water heating systems. Domestic water is generally provided through...

  5. Water and Space Heating Heat Pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kessler, A. F.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the design and operation of the Trane Weathertron III Heat Pump Water Heating System and includes a comparison of features and performance to other domestic water heating systems. Domestic water is generally provided through...

  6. Industrial Waste Heat Recovery Using Heat Pipes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruch, M. A.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For almost a decade now, heat pipes with secondary finned surfaces have been utilized in counter flow heat exchangers to recover sensible energy from industrial exhaust gases. Over 3,000 such heat exchangers are now in service, recovering...

  7. THE ABSORPTION OF HYDROGEN ON LOW PRESSURE HYDRIDE MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, G.; Korinko, P.

    2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    For this study, hydrogen getter materials (Zircaloy-4 and pure zirconium) that have a high affinity for hydrogen (and low overpressure) have been investigated to determine the hydrogen equilibrium pressure on Zircaloy-4 and pure zirconium. These materials, as with most getter materials, offered significant challenges to overcome given the low hydrogen equilibrium pressure for the temperature range of interest. Hydrogen-zirconium data exists for pure zirconium at 500 C and the corresponding hydrogen overpressure is roughly 0.01 torr. This manuscript presents the results of the equilibrium pressures for the absorption and desorption of hydrogen on zirconium materials at temperatures ranging from 400 C to 600 C. The equilibrium pressures in this temperature region range from 150 mtorr at 600 C to less than 0.1 mtorr at 400 C. It has been shown that the Zircaloy-4 and zirconium samples are extremely prone to surface oxidation prior to and during heating. This oxidation precludes the hydrogen uptake, and therefore samples must be heated under a minimum vacuum of 5 x 10{sup -6} torr. In addition, the Zircaloy-4 samples should be heated at a sufficiently low rate to maintain the system pressure below 0.5 mtorr since an increase in pressure above 0.5 mtorr could possibly hinder the H{sub 2} absorption kinetics due to surface contamination. The results of this study and the details of the testing protocol will be discussed.

  8. Heating systems for heating subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

    2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and systems for heating a subsurface formation are described herein. A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a sealed conduit positioned in an opening in the formation and a heat source. The sealed conduit includes a heat transfer fluid. The heat source provides heat to a portion of the sealed conduit to change phase of the heat transfer fluid from a liquid to a vapor. The vapor in the sealed conduit rises in the sealed conduit, condenses to transfer heat to the formation and returns to the conduit portion as a liquid.

  9. ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT DIVISION. ANNUAL REPORT FY 1980

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    et al. , Thermosiphon Water Heaters with Heat Exchangers,Refrigerators and Water Heaters, May 1977; and S. Talbert,Gas-Fired Furnaces and Water Heaters," ASHRAE Transactions,

  10. advanced combined cycle: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 Combined Cycle Combustion Turbine Background Primary Components Gas-fired combustion turbine (s) Heat recovery steam generator (s) - HRSG with or without duct firing Natural gas...

  11. Water-lithium bromide double-effect absorption cooling analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vliet, G.C.; Lawson, M.B.; Lithgow, R.A.

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This investigation involved the development of a numerical model for the transient simulation of the double-effect, water-lithium bromide absorption cooling machine, and the use of the model to determine the effect of the various design and input variables on the absorption unit performance. The performance parameters considered were coefficient of performance and cooling capacity. The sensitivity analysis was performed by selecting a nominal condition and determining performance sensitivity for each variable with others held constant. The variables considered in the study include source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water temperatures; source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water flow rates; solution circulation rate; heat exchanger areas; pressure drop between evaporator and absorber; solution pump characteristics; and refrigerant flow control methods. The performance sensitivity study indicated in particular that the distribution of heat exchanger area among the various (seven) heat exchange components is a very important design consideration. Moreover, it indicated that the method of flow control of the first effect refrigerant vapor through the second effect is a critical design feature when absorption units operate over a significant range of cooling capacity. The model was used to predict the performance of the Trane absorption unit with fairly good accuracy. The dynamic model should be valuable as a design tool for developing new absorption machines or modifying current machines to make them optimal based on current and future energy costs.

  12. Energy Saving with Absorption Refrigeration Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, R. C.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Absorption refrigeration technology can be an economical and cost effective means of reducing energy cost and/or improving the efficiency and output of your process. We believe the potential benefits of absorption refrigeration technology have...

  13. Dead heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oppenheimer, M.; Boyle, R.H.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on the prospect of global warming. This paper proposes a workable solution, and a road map for getting there. The author explains how we became addicted to fossil fuels and evokes a bleak picture should this dependence continue. But the book also explores how industry can become a vehicle for solving, instead of precipitating, the global environmental crisis. The decoupling of energy from pollution can be accomplished without sacrificing prosperity by powering the economy with solar energy. Dead Heat takes us step by step to a greenhouse-friendly world fueled only by the sun.

  14. Mid-infrared absorption properties of green wood Anna Dupleix Domingos De Sousa Meneses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ORIGINAL Mid-infrared absorption properties of green wood Anna Dupleix · Domingos De Sousa Meneses and the amount of energy absorbed by green wood under infrared (IR) radiation. This lack of knowledge is a potential barrier to the development of IR heating as an alternative to soaking as a means of warming logs

  15. Cloud cover increase with increasing aerosol absorptivity: A counterexample to the conventional semidirect aerosol effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    humidity. The net effect is more low cloud cover with increasing aerosol absorption. The higher specific by dust radiative heating. Although in some areas our model exhibits a reduction of low cloud cover due are expected to have a similar effect. Citation: Perlwitz, J., and R. L. Miller (2010), Cloud cover increase

  16. CO2 CAPTURE BY ABSORPTION WITH POTASSIUM CARBONATE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary T. Rochelle; Eric Chen; J. Tim Cullinane; Marcus Hilliard; Babatunde Oyenekan; Terraun Jones

    2003-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. A rigorous thermodynamic model has been further developed with a standalone FORTRAN code to represent the CO{sub 2} vapor pressure and speciation of the new solvent. Gas chromatography has been used to measure the oxidative degradation of piperazine. The heat exchangers for the pilot plant have been received. The modifications are on schedule for start-up in November 2003.

  17. CO2 CAPTURE BY ABSORPTION WITH POTASSIUM CARBONATE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary T. Rochelle; Eric Chen; J. Tim Cullinane; Marcus Hilliard; Terraun Jones

    2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. A rigorous thermodynamic model has been developed with a stand-alone FORTRAN code to represent the CO{sub 2} vapor pressure and speciation of the new solvent. Parameters have been developed for use of the electrolyte NRTL model in AspenPlus. Analytical methods have been developed using gas chromatography and ion chromatography. The heat exchangers for the pilot plant have been ordered.

  18. Absorption properties of identical atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedro Sancho

    2013-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Emission rates and other optical properties of multiparticle systems in collective and entangled states differ from those in product ones. We show the existence of similar effects in the absorption probabilities for (anti)symmetrized states of two identical atoms. The effects strongly depend on the overlapping between the atoms and differ for bosons and fermions. We propose a viable experimental verification of these ideas.

  19. Development and proof-testing of advanced absorption refrigeration cycle concepts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Modahl, R.J.; Hayes, F.C. (Trane Co., La Crosse, WI (United States). Applied Unitary/Refrigeration Systems Div.)

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objectives of this project are to evaluate, develop, and proof-test advanced absorption refrigeration cycles that are applicable to residential and commercial heat pumps for space conditioning. The heat pump system is to be direct-fired with natural gas and is to use absorption working fluids whose properties are known. Target coefficients of performance (COPs) are 1.6 at 47{degrees}F and 1.2 at 17{degrees} in the heating mode, and 0.7 at 95{degree}F in the cooling mode, including the effect of flue losses. The project is divided into three phases. Phase I entailed the analytical evaluation of advanced cycles and included the selection of preferred concepts for further development. Phase II involves the development and testing of critical components and of a complete laboratory breadboard version of the selected system. Phase III calls for the development of a prototype unit and is contingent on the successful completion of Phase II. This report covers Phase I work on the project. In Phase 1, 24 advanced absorption cycle/fluid combinations were evaluated, and computer models were developed to predict system performance. COP, theoretical pump power, and internal heat exchange were calculated for each system, and these calculations were used as indicators of operating and installed costs in order to rank the relative promise of each system. The highest ranking systems involve the cycle concept of absorber/generator heat exchange, generator heat exchanger/absorber heat exchange, regeneration, and resorption/desorption, in combination with the NH{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O/LiBr ternary absorption fluid mixture or with the NH{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O binary solution. Based upon these conclusions, the recommendation was made to proceed to Phase II, the laboratory breadboard proof-of- concept.

  20. Heat-activated cooling devices: A guidebook for general audiences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiltsee, G.

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat-activated cooling is refrigeration or air conditioning driven by heat instead of electricity. A mill or processing facility can us its waste fuel to air condition its offices or plant; using waste fuel in this way can save money. The four basic types of heat-activated cooling systems available today are absorption cycle, desiccant system, steam jet ejector, and steam turbine drive. Each is discussed, along with cool storage and biomass boilers. Steps in determining the feasibility of heat-activated cooling are discussed, as are biomass conversion, system cost and integration, permits, and contractor selection. Case studies are given.

  1. Dual source heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L. (Dallas, TX); Pietsch, Joseph A. (Dallas, TX)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; at least two refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid and a second for effecting heat exchange between refrigerant and a heat exchange fluid and the ambient air; a compressor for efficiently compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve for throttling liquid refrigerant; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and direction of flow of the refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. The heat exchange fluid provides energy for defrosting the second heat exchanger when operating in the air source mode and also provides a alternate source of heat.

  2. Segmented heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean (Lafayette, IN); Willi, Martin Leo (Dunlap, IL); Fiveland, Scott Byron (Metamara, IL); Timmons, Kristine Ann (Chillicothe, IL)

    2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

  3. Thermochemical Analysis of Hydrogen Absorption in Welding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eagar, Thomas W.

    '' .' j I ~l Thermochemical Analysis of Hydrogen Absorption in Welding A new model that addresses the shortcomings of Sievert's law for predicting hydrogen absorption is proposed ABSTRACT. A systematic review of diatomic hydrogen) to calcu· late the hydrogen absorption reaction temperature in the weld pool is invalid

  4. Absorption cross section in Lifshitz black hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taeyoon Moon; Yun Soo Myung

    2012-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive the absorption cross section of a minimally coupled scalar in the Lifshitz black hole obtained from the new massive gravity. The absorption cross section reduces to the horizon area in the low energy and massless limit of s-wave mode propagation, indicating that the Lifshitz black hole also satisfies the universality of low energy absorption cross section for black holes.

  5. Low Temperature Heat Recovery for Boiler Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shook, J. R.; Luttenberger, D. B.

    be economically heated to within 50 0 F of the entering flue gas temperature. Other less common, but practical, uses for energy include driving a low-temperature electric turbine cycle or an absorption chilling cycle. An improvement in boiler efficiency of 3...% to 8% can normally be realized by cooling boiler flue gasses down to llO o F_200 0 F. This recovers a large quantity of the available sensible heat in most boiler flue gas streams. Efficiency can be improv ed by up to 10% if flue gas is cooled down...

  6. CO{sub 2} CAPTURE BY ABSORPTION WITH POTASSIUM CARBONATE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary T. Rochelle; J.Tim Cullinane; Marcus Hilliard; Eric Chen; Babatunde Oyenekan; Ross Dugas

    2005-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. Thermodynamic modeling predicts that the heat of desorption of CO{sub 2} from 5m K+/2.5 PZ from 85 kJ/mole at 40 C to 30 kJ/mole at 120 C. Mass transfer modeling of this solvent suggests that carbonate and general salt concentration play a major role in catalyzing the rate of reaction of CO{sub 2} with piperazine. Stripper modeling suggests that with the multipressure stripper, the energy consumption with a generic solvent decreases by 15% as the heat of desorption is decreased from 23.8 to 18.5 kcal/gmol. A second pilot plant campaign with 5m K+/2.5 PZ was successfully completed.

  7. CO2 CAPTURE BY ABSORPTION WITH POTASSIUM CARBONATE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary T. Rochelle; Eric Chen; Jennifer Lu; Babatunde Oyenekan; Ross Dugas

    2005-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. Stripper modeling suggests the energy requirement with a simple stripper will be about the same for 5 m K{sup +}/2.5 m PZ and 7 m MEA. Modeling with a generic solvent shows that the optimum heat of CO{sub 2} desorption to minimize heat duty lies between 15 and 25 kcal/gmol. On-line pH and density measurements are effective indicators of loading and total alkalinity for the K+/PZ solvent. The baseline pilot plant campaign with 30% MEA has been started.

  8. Geothermal heat pumps for heating and cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garg, S.C.

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) has been tasked by Naval Shore Facilities Energy Office to evaluate the NAS Patuxent River ground-source heat pump (GHP) installation. A large part of a building`s energy consumption consists of heating and air conditioning for occupant comfort. The space heating requirements are normally met by fossil-fuel-fired equipment or electric resistance heating. Cooling is provided by either air conditioners or heat pumps, both using electricity as an energy source.

  9. Heat-Of-Reaction Chemical Heat Pumps--Possible Configurations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirol, L. D.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical heat pumps utilize working fluids which undergo reversible chemical changes. Mechanically driven reactive heat pump cycles or, alternatively, heat driven heat pumps in which either heat engine or heat pump working fluid is reactive...

  10. Multiple source heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L. (Duncanville, TX)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating a fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid, at least three refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid, a second for effecting heat exchange with a heat exchange fluid, and a third for effecting heat exchange with ambient air; a compressor for compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve connected at the inlet side of a heat exchanger in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circuit and pump for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and directional flow of refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. Also disclosed are a variety of embodiments, modes of operation, and schematics therefor.

  11. Heat-pump-centered Integrated Community Energy Systems: systems development, Consolidated Natural Gas Service Company. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, N.R.; Donakowski, T.D.; Foster, R.B.; Sala, D.L.; Tison, R.R.; Whaley, T.P.; Yudow, B.D.; Swenson, P.F.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Heat-Actuated Heat Pump Centered Integrated Community Energy System (HAHP-ICES) utilizes a gas-fired, engine-driven, heat pump and commercial buildings, and offers several advantages over the more conventional equipment it is intended to supplant. The general non-site-specific application assumes a hypothetical community of one 59,000 ft/sup 2/ office building and five 24-unit, low-rise apartment buildings located in a region with a climate similar to Chicago. This community serves as a starting point - the base case - upon which various sensitivity analyses are performed and through which the performance characteristics of the HAHP are explored. The results of these analyses provided the selection criteria for the site-specific application of the HAHP-ICES concept to a real-world community. The site-specific community consists of 42 townhouses; five 120-unit, low-rise apartment buildings; five 104-unit high-rise apartment buildings; one 124,000 ft/sup 2/ office building; and a single 135,000 ft/sup 2/ retail building located in Monroeville, Pa. The base-case analyses confirmed that the HAHP-ICES has significant potentials for reducing the primary energy consumption and pollutant emissions associated with space conditioning when compared with a conventional system. Primary energy consumption was reduced by 30%, while emission reductions ranged from 39 to 77%. The results of the site-specific analysis indicate that reductions in energy consumption of between 15 and 22% are possible when a HAHP-ICES is selected as opposed to conventional HVAC equipment.

  12. A nonlinear study of laser heating for NDE 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Machiraju, Ravi Shanker Srinivas

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of a scanning laser beam at the surface of a semi- infinite metallic solid, while a generalized scanning laser heating model has been developed by Chen and Lees. All of the models mentioned above, assume constant thermophysical properties..., and this is true only for metals, whereas most non-metals have a finite depth of heat penetration. This thesis attempts to approach the temperature dependent thermal solution for the absorption laser radiation at the surface of a semi-infinite solid in a...

  13. San Bernardino District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    San Bernardino District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility San Bernardino District Heating Sector Geothermal energy Type District Heating...

  14. Philip District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Philip District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Philip District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  15. Boise City Geothermal District Heating District Heating Low Temperatur...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Boise City Geothermal District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Boise City Geothermal District Heating District Heating...

  16. Pagosa Springs District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pagosa Springs District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Pagosa Springs District Heating District Heating Low...

  17. Midland District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Midland District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Midland District Heating Sector Geothermal energy Type District Heating Location Midland,...

  18. Kethcum District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kethcum District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Kethcum District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  19. Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System Heating Oil, PIA Office...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System Heating Oil, PIA Office of Fossil Energy Headquaters Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System Heating Oil, PIA Office of Fossil Energy...

  20. Heat Pump for High School Heat Recovery 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, K.; Wang, H.; Zhou, X.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The heat pump system used for recycling and reusing waste heat in s high school bathroom was minutely analyzed in its coefficient of performance, onetime utilization ratio of energy, economic property and so on. The results showed that this system...

  1. Industrial Waste Heat Recovery Using Heat Pipes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruch, M. A.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -expanding variety of industrial processes. One notable application in recent years has been for combustion airs preheat of fired heaters in petroleum refineries and petrochemical plants. Another recent development has been a waste heat recovery boiler using heat...

  2. Locating Heat Recovery Opportunities 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waterland, A. F.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Basic concepts of heat recovery are defined as they apply to the industrial community. Methods for locating, ranking, and developing heat recovery opportunities are presented and explained. The needs for useful heat 'sinks' are emphasized as equal...

  3. Locating Heat Recovery Opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waterland, A. F.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Basic concepts of heat recovery are defined as they apply to the industrial community. Methods for locating, ranking, and developing heat recovery opportunities are presented and explained. The needs for useful heat 'sinks' are emphasized as equal...

  4. Photovoltaic roof heat flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samady, Mezhgan Frishta

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    transient the heat transfer model. T h i s required the roofto develop and calibrate heat transfer models to be able toE S station, the heat transfer models described i n sections

  5. Silicate absorption in heavily obscured galaxy nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. F. Roche; C. Packham; D. K. Aitken; R. E. Mason

    2006-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Spectroscopy at 8-13 microns with T-ReCS on Gemini-S is presented for 3 galaxies with substantial silicate absorption features, NGC 3094, NGC 7172 and NGC 5506. In the galaxies with the deepest absorption bands, the silicate profile towards the nuclei is well represented by the emissivity function derived from the circumstellar emission from the red supergiant, mu Cephei which is also representative of the mid-infrared absorption in the diffuse interstellar medium in the Galaxy. There is spectral structure near 11.2 microns in NGC 3094 which may be due to a component of crystalline silicates. In NGC 5506, the depth of the silicate absorption increases from north to south across the nucleus, suggestive of a dusty structure on scales of 10s of parsecs. We discuss the profile of the silicate absorption band towards galaxy nuclei and the relationship between the 9.7 micron silicate and 3.4 micron hydrocarbon absorption bands.

  6. Woven heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piscitella, R.R.

    1984-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a heat exchanger for waste heat recovery from high temperature industrial exhaust streams. In a woven ceramic heat exchanger using the basic tube-in-shell design, each heat exchanger consisting of tube sheets and tube, is woven separately. Individual heat exchangers are assembled in cross-flow configuration. Each heat exchanger is woven from high temperature ceramic fiber, the warp is continuous from tube to tube sheet providing a smooth transition and unitized construction.

  7. Total Space Heat-

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration...

  8. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Revised: December, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings...

  9. Radiative Heat Transfer between Neighboring Particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alejandro Manjavacas; F. Javier Garcia de Abajo

    2012-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The near-field interaction between two neighboring particles is known to produce enhanced radiative heat transfer. We advance in the understanding of this phenomenon by including the full electromagnetic particle response, heat exchange with the environment, and important radiative corrections both in the distance dependence of the fields and in the particle absorption coefficients. We find that crossed terms of electric and magnetic interactions dominate the transfer rate between gold and SiC particles, whereas radiative corrections reduce it by several orders of magnitude even at small separations. Radiation away from the dimer can be strongly suppressed or enhanced at low and high temperatures, respectively. These effects must be taken into account for an accurate description of radiative heat transfer in nanostructured environments.

  10. Combining Feedback Absorption Spectroscopy, Amplified Resonance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Compounds in Automotive Emissions Discusses a novel combination of multi-component scanning direct absorption spectroscopy, resonant cavity and low-pressure sampling to...

  11. Direct and quantitative absorptive spectroscopy of nanowires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tong, Jonathan Kien-Kwok

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photonic nanostructures exhibit unique optical properties that are attractive in many different applications. However, measuring the optical properties of individual nanostructures, in particular the absorptive properties, ...

  12. Advanced Low Temperature Absorption Chiller Module Integrated...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Advanced Low Temperature Absorption Chiller Module Integrated with a CHP System at a Distributed Data Center - Presentation by Exergy Partners Corp., June 2011 Advanced Low...

  13. Neutrino heating of a shock wave within magnetorotational model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. A. Gvozdev; I. S. Ognev

    2006-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on the magnetorotational model of a supernova explosion with core collapse, we investigate the significant processes of neutrino heating of the supernova shock. These processes should be taken into account in self-consistent modeling, since the neutrino heating mechanism is capable of increasing the explosion efficiency. We show that, even in the presence of a strong magnetic field in the shock formation region, the heating rate is determined with good accuracy by the absorption and emission of neutrinos in direct URCA processes. Moreover, the influence on them of a magnetic field is reduced to insignificant corrections.

  14. Rotary magnetic heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirol, Lance D. (Shelly, ID)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation.

  15. Rotary magnetic heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirol, L.D.

    1987-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation. 5 figs.

  16. Mass and Heat Recovery 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hindawai, S. M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the last few years heat recovery was under spot and in air conditioning fields usually we use heat recovery by different types of heat exchangers. The heat exchanging between the exhaust air from the building with the fresh air to the building...

  17. INCREASED LEAD ABSORPTION AND LEAD POISONING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    INCREASED LEAD ABSORPTION AND LEAD POISONING IN YOUNG CHILDREN A STATDIE:"IT BY THE CEJde slnt:t! the Surgeon GenerJi's Statement. "~edicJI Aspects of Childhood Lead POisoning," was issued:ld absorption Jnd lead poisoning. Such JCtivities for children will continue to be necessary until sources

  18. Broadband solar absorption enhancement via periodic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Province, 230009, P. R. China. Solution processed colloidal quantum dot (CQD) solar cells have greatBroadband solar absorption enhancement via periodic nanostructuring of electrodes Michael M. Adachi demonstrate a bottom- illuminated periodic nanostructured CQD solar cell that enhances broadband absorption

  19. Lyman-alpha Absorption from Heliosheath Neutrals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brian E. Wood; Vladislav V. Izmodenov; Jeffrey L. Linsky; Yury G. Malama

    2006-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We assess what information HST observations of stellar Ly-alpha lines can provide on the heliosheath, the region of the heliosphere between the termination shock and heliopause. To search for evidence of heliosheath absorption, we conduct a systematic inspection of stellar Ly-alpha lines reconstructed after correcting for ISM absorption (and heliospheric/astrospheric absorption, if present). Most of the stellar lines are well centered on the stellar radial velocity, as expected, but the three lines of sight with the most downwind orientations relative to the ISM flow (Chi1 Ori, HD 28205, and HD 28568) have significantly blueshifted Ly-alpha lines. Since it is in downwind directions where heliosheath absorption should be strongest, the blueshifts are almost certainly caused by previously undetected heliosheath absorption. We make an initial comparison between the heliosheath absorption and the predictions of a pair of heliospheric models. A model with a complex multi-component treatment of plasma within the heliosphere predicts less absorption than a model with a simple single-fluid treatment, which leads to better agreement with the data. Finally, we find that nonplanetary energetic neutral atom (ENA) fluxes measured by the ASPERA-3 instrument on board Mars Express, which have been interpreted as being from the heliosheath, are probably too high to be consistent with the relative lack of heliosheath absorption seen by HST. This would argue for a local interplanetary source for these ENAs instead of a heliosheath source.

  20. absorption: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    absorption First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Planning of Axiom Absorptions CiteSeer...

  1. Thulium-170 heat source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walter, Carl E. (Pleasanton, CA); Van Konynenburg, Richard (Livermore, CA); VanSant, James H. (Tracy, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An isotopic heat source is formed using stacks of thin individual layers of a refractory isotopic fuel, preferably thulium oxide, alternating with layers of a low atomic weight diluent, preferably graphite. The graphite serves several functions: to act as a moderator during neutron irradiation, to minimize bremsstrahlung radiation, and to facilitate heat transfer. The fuel stacks are inserted into a heat block, which is encased in a sealed, insulated and shielded structural container. Heat pipes are inserted in the heat block and contain a working fluid. The heat pipe working fluid transfers heat from the heat block to a heat exchanger for power conversion. Single phase gas pressure controls the flow of the working fluid for maximum heat exchange and to provide passive cooling.

  2. California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Space Heaters Water Heaters and Plumbing Fittings Amended December 22, 1977 #12;'- TABLJ-4 1557 Gas-Fired 3\\.;imming Pool Heaters '- 1558 Gas-Fired Low Pressure Steam and Hot Water Heating conditioning(HVAC) equipment and water heating equipment. These regulations apply to: Hotels Motels Apartment

  3. Novel absorption detection techniques for capillary electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xue, Y.

    1994-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) has emerged as one of the most versatile separation methods. However, efficient separation is not sufficient unless coupled to adequate detection. The narrow inner diameter (I.D.) of the capillary column raises a big challenge to detection methods. For UV-vis absorption detection, the concentration sensitivity is only at the {mu}M level. Most commercial CE instruments are equipped with incoherent UV-vis lamps. Low-brightness, instability and inefficient coupling of the light source with the capillary limit the further improvement of UV-vis absorption detection in CE. The goals of this research have been to show the utility of laser-based absorption detection. The approaches involve: on-column double-beam laser absorption detection and its application to the detection of small ions and proteins, and absorption detection with the bubble-shaped flow cell.

  4. Thermoelectric heat exchange element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Callas, James J. (Peoria, IL); Taher, Mahmoud A. (Peoria, IL)

    2007-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermoelectric heat exchange module includes a first substrate including a heat receptive side and a heat donative side and a series of undulatory pleats. The module may also include a thermoelectric material layer having a ZT value of 1.0 or more disposed on at least one of the heat receptive side and the heat donative side, and an electrical contact may be in electrical communication with the thermoelectric material layer.

  5. Mass and Heat Recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hindawai, S. M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    - 1 - MASS AND HEAT RECOVERY SYSTEM SALAH MAHMOUD HINDAWI DIRECTOR HINDAWI FOR ENGINEERING SERVICES & CONTRACTING NEW DAMIETTA , EGYPT ABSTRACT : In the last few years heat recovery was under spot . and in air conditioning fields... ) as a heat recovery . and I use the water as a mass recovery . The source of mass and heat recovery is the condensate water which we were dispose and connect it to the drain lines . THE BENEFIT OF THIS SYSTEM ARE : 1) Using the heat energy from...

  6. Synthesis and enhanced light absorption of alumina matrix nanocomposites containing multilayer oxide nanorods and silver nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gan, Yong X., E-mail: yong.gan@utoledo.edu [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Zeng, Xianwu; Su, Lusheng; Yang, Lu [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States)] [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Gan, Bo J. [Ottawa Hills High School, 2532 Evergreen Road, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States)] [Ottawa Hills High School, 2532 Evergreen Road, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Zhang, Lihua [Center for Functional Nanomaterials, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)] [Center for Functional Nanomaterials, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: {yields} Multilayer oxide nanorods (nanocables) were obtained via chemical processing. {yields} Ag nanoparticles were deposited between the core and shell layers of the nanorods. {yields} The structure and composition of the nanorods were analyzed by SEM and TEM. {yields} CoO nanorods and Ag nanoparticles enhance light absorption of the nanocomposites. -- Abstract: In this paper, multilayer oxide nanorods were deposited in the nanopores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) via solution infiltration followed by heat treatment. The nanorods have a core-shell structure. First, the shell (nanotube) with the thickness of about 40 nm was made of TiO{sub 2} through the hydrolysis of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}TiF{sub 6}. Second, silver nanoparticles with the diameter of about 3 nm were added into the TiO{sub 2} layer through thermal decomposition of AgNO{sub 3} at elevated temperatures. Then, cylindrical cores (nanorods) of CoO and ZnO with 200 nm diameter were prepared, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize the structure and composition of the nanorods. UV-vis light absorption measurements in the wavelength range from 350 to 1000 nm were performed to study the effect of nanorod and nanoparticle addition on the light absorption property of the alumina nanocomposites. It is found that CoO nanorods increase the light absorption of the alumina matrix composite in the wavelength range from 500 nm to 800 nm, but the TiO{sub 2} shell does not increase the light absorption much. The ZnO nanorods do not change the light absorption either. However, the addition of silver nanoparticles significantly enhances light absorption of both AAO/TiO{sub 2}/Ag/CoO and AAO/TiO{sub 2}/Ag/ZnO nanocomposites. This increase in the visible light absorption reveals that there exists surface plasmon around the fine silver nanoparticles in the nanorods.

  7. Internal dissipation and heat leaks in quantum thermodynamic cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luis A. Correa; José P. Palao; Daniel Alonso

    2015-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The direction of the steady-state heat currents across a generic quantum system connected to multiple baths may be engineered so as to realize virtually any thermodynamic cycle. In spite of their versatility such continuous energy-conversion systems are generally unable to operate at maximum efficiency due to non-negligible sources of irreversible entropy production. In this paper we introduce a minimal model of irreversible absorption chiller. We identify and characterize the different mechanisms responsible for its irreversibility, namely heat leaks and internal dissipation, and gauge their relative impact in the overall cooling performance. We also propose reservoir engineering techniques to minimize these detrimental effects. Finally, by looking into a known three-qubit embodiment of the absorption cooling cycle, we illustrate how our simple model may help to pinpoint the different sources of irreversibility naturally arising in more complex practical heat devices.

  8. Annual DOE active solar heating and cooling contractors' review meeting. Premeeting proceedings and project summaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None,

    1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ninety-three project summaries are presented which discuss the following aspects of active solar heating and cooling: Rankine solar cooling systems; absorption solar cooling systems; desiccant solar cooling systems; solar heat pump systems; solar hot water systems; special projects (such as the National Solar Data Network, hybrid solar thermal/photovoltaic applications, and heat transfer and water migration in soils); administrative/management support; and solar collector, storage, controls, analysis, and materials technology. (LEW)

  9. Heat Integrate Heat Engines in Process Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hindmarsh, E.; Boland, D.; Townsend, D. W.

    ~C. T min Table 3. Problem Table Algorithm Applied to Petrochemicals Process Interval GJ ltiour 'Temperatures ! C! 2 ) ? ~ Cold. Hot Aecumulated Heat Heat FJ.owa Interval Streams StrePlS Deficit. Input OUtput -OUtt!utInput. 20 30 -2... of heat which can be passed on in this manner is performed in column 2 and column 3 of Table 3. It is initially assumed that the heat input from external utilities is zero. This is represented in Table 3 by a zero input to the top interval. Having...

  10. Experimental Research on Solar Assisted Heat Pump Heating System with Latent Heat Storage 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Z.; Zheng, M.; Liu, W.; Wang, F.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Assisted Heat Pump Heating System with Latent Heat Storage. In this system, solar energy is the major heat source for a heat pump, and the supplementary heat source is soil. The disagreement in time between the space heat load and heat collected by solar...

  11. Utilization of Structured Packing for Energy Savings in Distillation and Absorption Columns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berven, O. J.; Howard, W. E.

    "UTILIZATION OF STRUCTURED PACKING FOR ENERGY SAVINGS IN DISTILLATION AND ABSORPTION COLUMNS" O. Jeffrey Berven and Wendell E. Howard Koch Engineering Company, Inc. Wi chita, Kansas As the need to reduce production costs causes... manufacturers to re-evaluate process ing schemes, hi gh efficiency structured packings are increasingly recognized as an effective alternative for reducing energy consumption in heat and mass transfer operations. In distillation, the high efficiency and low...

  12. Total absorption {gamma}-ray spectroscopy of beta delayed neutron emitters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valencia, E.; Algora, A.; Tain, J. L.; Agramunt, J.; Jordan, M. D.; Molina, F.; Estevez, E.; Rubio, B.; Perez, A. [IFIC, CSIC - Univ. Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Rice, S.; Bowry, M.; Gelletly, W.; Podolyak, Zs.; Regan, P. H.; Farrelly, G. F. [Univ. Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom); Zakari-Issoufou, A.-A.; Porta, A.; Fallot, M.; Bui, V. M. [Subatech, CNRS/INP2P3, Nantes, EMN, Nantes (France); Caballero-Folch, R. [Univ. Pol. Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); and others

    2013-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Preliminary results of the data analysis of the beta decay of {sup 94}Rb using a novel - segmented- total absorption spectrometer are shown in this contribution. This result is part of a systematic study of important contributors to the decay heat problem in nuclear reactors. In this particular case the goal is to determine the beta intensity distribution below the neutron separation energy and the gamma/beta competition above.

  13. A small quantum absorption refrigerator with reversed couplings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ralph Silva; Paul Skrzypczyk; Nicolas Brunner

    2015-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Small quantum absorption refrigerators have recently attracted renewed attention. Here we present a missing design of a two-qubit fridge, the main feature of which is that one of the two machine qubits is itself maintained at a temperature colder than the cold bath. This is achieved by 'reversing' the couplings to the baths compared to previous designs, where only a transition is maintained cold. We characterize the working regime and the efficiency of the fridge. We demonstrate the soundness of the model by deriving and solving a master equation. Finally, we discuss the performance of the fridge, in particular the heat current extracted from the cold bath. We show that our model performs comparably to the standard three-level quantum fridge, and thus appears appealing for possible implementations of nano thermal machines.

  14. CO2 CAPTURE BY ABSORPTION WITH POTASSIUM CARBONATE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary T. Rochelle; Eric Chen; J.Tim Cullinane; Marcus Hilliard; Jennifer Lu; Babatunde Oyenekan; Ross Dugas

    2004-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. CO{sub 2} mass transfer rates are second order in piperazine concentration and increase with ionic strength. Modeling of stripper performance suggests that 5 m K{sup +}/2.5 m PZ will require 25 to 46% less heat than 7 m MEA. The first pilot plant campaign was completed on June 24. The CO{sub 2} penetration through the absorber with 20 feet of Flexipac{trademark} 1Y varied from 0.6 to 16% as the inlet CO{sub 2} varied from 3 to 12% CO{sub 2} and the gas rate varied from 0.5 to 3 kg/m{sup 2}-s.

  15. Thermally Induced Nonlinear Optical Absorption in Metamaterial Perfect Absorbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guddala, Sriram; Ramakrishna, S Anantha

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A metamaterial perfect absorber consisting of a tri-layer (Al/ZnS/Al) metal-dielectric-metal system with top aluminium nano-disks is fabricated by laser-interference lithography and lift-off processing. The metamaterial absorber had peak resonant absorbance at 1090 nm and showed nonlinear absorption for 600ps laser pulses at 1064 nm wavelength. A nonlinear saturation of reflectance was measured to be dependent on the average laser power incident and not the peak laser intensity. The nonlinear behaviour is shown to arise from the heating due to the absorbed radiation and photo-thermal changes in the dielectric properties of aluminium. The metamaterial absorber is seen to be damage resistant at large laser intensities of 25 MW/cm2.

  16. Development and proof-testing of advanced absorption refrigeration cycle concepts. Report on Phases 1 and 1A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Modahl, R.J.; Hayes, F.C. [Trane Co., La Crosse, WI (United States). Applied Unitary/Refrigeration Systems Div.

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objectives of this project are to evaluate, develop, and proof-test advanced absorption refrigeration cycles that are applicable to residential and commercial heat pumps for space conditioning. The heat pump system is to be direct-fired with natural gas and is to use absorption working fluids whose properties are known. Target coefficients of performance (COPs) are 1.6 at 47{degrees}F and 1.2 at 17{degrees} in the heating mode, and 0.7 at 95{degree}F in the cooling mode, including the effect of flue losses. The project is divided into three phases. Phase I entailed the analytical evaluation of advanced cycles and included the selection of preferred concepts for further development. Phase II involves the development and testing of critical components and of a complete laboratory breadboard version of the selected system. Phase III calls for the development of a prototype unit and is contingent on the successful completion of Phase II. This report covers Phase I work on the project. In Phase 1, 24 advanced absorption cycle/fluid combinations were evaluated, and computer models were developed to predict system performance. COP, theoretical pump power, and internal heat exchange were calculated for each system, and these calculations were used as indicators of operating and installed costs in order to rank the relative promise of each system. The highest ranking systems involve the cycle concept of absorber/generator heat exchange, generator heat exchanger/absorber heat exchange, regeneration, and resorption/desorption, in combination with the NH{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O/LiBr ternary absorption fluid mixture or with the NH{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O binary solution. Based upon these conclusions, the recommendation was made to proceed to Phase II, the laboratory breadboard proof-of- concept.

  17. Total absorption by degenerate critical coupling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piper, Jessica R., E-mail: jrylan@stanford.edu; Liu, Victor; Fan, Shanhui, E-mail: shanhui@stanford.edu [Ginzton Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider a mirror-symmetric resonator with two ports. We show that, when excited from a single port, complete absorption can be achieved through critical coupling to degenerate resonances with opposite symmetry. Moreover, any time two resonances with opposite symmetry are degenerate in frequency and absorption is always significantly enhanced. In contrast, when two resonances with the same symmetry are nearly degenerate, there is no absorption enhancement. We numerically demonstrate these effects using a graphene monolayer on top of a photonic crystal slab, illuminated from a single side in the near-infrared.

  18. HEATING6 verification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryan, C.B.; Childs, K.W.; Giles, G.E.

    1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The HEATING series of general purpose, finite-difference, conduction heat transfer codes have been in use for many years. During this time the codes have been used extensively, and a general confidence has been developed in regard to their accuracy. However, there has never been a formal verification in a published, citable document. This report documents just such a verification study for the latest code in the HEATING series, HEATING6. This study confirms that HEATING6 is capable of producing accurate results for a large class of heat transfer problems. 11 refs., 170 figs., 82 tabs.

  19. Heat Pump for High School Heat Recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, K.; Wang, H.; Zhou, X.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) [3] Yayun FAN. Experimental study on a heat pump technology in solar thermal utilization[J]. Acta Energiae Solaris Sinica, Oct.,2002; Vol.23,No.5 ? 581-585.(In Chinese) [4] Nengxi JIANG. Air-conditioning Heat Pump Technology and Its Applications...

  20. Consolidated Electric Cooperative- Heat Pump and Water Heating Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Consolidated Electric Cooperative provides rebates to residential customers who install electric water heaters, dual-fuel heating system or geothermal heat pumps. A dual-fuel heating systems...

  1. Heat pumping with optically driven excitons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gauger, Erik M

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a theoretical study showing that an optically driven excitonic two-level system in a solid state environment acts as a heat pump by means of repeated phonon emission or absorption events. We derive a master equation for the combined phonon bath and two-level system dynamics and analyze the direction and rate of energy transfer as a function of the externally accessible driving parameters. We discover that if the driving laser is detuned from the exciton transition, cooling the phonon environment becomes possible.

  2. Heat pumping with optically driven excitons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erik M. Gauger; Joachim Wabnig

    2010-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a theoretical study showing that an optically driven excitonic two-level system in a solid state environment acts as a heat pump by means of repeated phonon emission or absorption events. We derive a master equation for the combined phonon bath and two-level system dynamics and analyze the direction and rate of energy transfer as a function of the externally accessible driving parameters. We discover that if the driving laser is detuned from the exciton transition, cooling the phonon environment becomes possible.

  3. Variable effect desorber-resorber absorption cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Biermann, Wendell J. (Fayetteville, NY)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An absorption refrigeration system has an intermediate temperature desorber-resorber pair. A valve between the desorber-resorber pair is modulated to control the capacity for load matching.

  4. Visible spectrometer utilizing organic thin film absorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tiefenbruck, Laura C. (Laura Christine)

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, I modeled and developed a spectrometer for the visible wavelength spectrum, based on absorption characteristics of organic thin films. The device uses fundamental principles of linear algebra to reconstruct ...

  5. Absorption chillers: Part of the solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Occhionero, A.J. (American Gas Cooling Center, Arlington, VA (United States)); Hughes, P.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Reid, E.A. (Columbia Gas Distribution Co., Columbus, OH (United States))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Acid rain, ozone depletion, global warming, and implementation economics are considered as they relate to the advisability of expanding the application of absorption chillers. Introductory and background information are provided to put the discussion in the proper context. Then all four issues are discussed separately as they relate to absorption chillers. Acid rain and ozone depletion concerns, and implementation economics, are found to support the expanded use of absorption chillers. The global warming concern is found to be more of a gray area, but the areas of benefit correspond well with the conditions of greatest economic advantage. All things considered, absorption chillers are believed to be part of the environmental and economic solution. It is further believed that integrated resource planning (IRP) processes that consider electric and gas technologies on an equal footing would come to the same conclusion for many regions of the United States. 9 refs., 3 tabs.

  6. Reduction in biomass burning aerosol light absorption upon humidificat...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in biomass burning aerosol light absorption upon humidification: Roles of inorganically-induced hygroscopicity, Reduction in biomass burning aerosol light absorption upon...

  7. acoustic power absorption: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The distribution of acoustic power over sunspots shows an enhanced absorption near the umbra--penumbra boundary. Earlier studies revealed that the region of enhanced absorption...

  8. Photovoltaic roof heat flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samady, Mezhgan Frishta

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    designs (relatively) Photovoltaic Solar P a n e l AtmosphereCALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO Photovoltaic Roof Heat Flux A ThesisABSTRACT OF T H E THESIS Photovoltaic Roof Heat Flux by

  9. DistrictHeating Nuevasaladecalderasydistribucin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraguela, Basilio B.

    DistrictHeating Nuevasaladecalderasydistribución decaloreneláreauniversitariade AZapateira Jesús, difusión. DISTRICT HEATING O CALEFACCIÓN DE BARRIO #12;MATERIALIZACIÓN INTEGRACIÓN VISUAL DE ELEMENTOS rendimiento global de la instalación. - Contabilización de pérdidas en tuberías de distribución. #12;DISTRICT

  10. HEAT TRANSFER FLUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lenert, Andrej

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The choice of heat transfer fluids has significant effects on the performance, cost, and reliability of solar thermal systems. In this chapter, we evaluate existing heat transfer fluids such as oils and molten salts based ...

  11. Absorption cross section of RN black hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sini R.; V. C. Kuriakose

    2007-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The behavior of a charged scalar field in the RN black hole space time is studied using WKB approximation. In the present work it is assumed that matter waves can get reflected from the event horizon. Using this effect, the Hawking temperature and the absorption cross section for RN black hole placed in a charged scalar field are calculated. The absorption cross section $\\sigma _{abs}$ is found to be inversely proportional to square of the Hawking temperature of the black hole.

  12. MA HEAT Loan Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presents information on the success of Massachusetts's HEAT loan offerings and how the financing tool is funded.

  13. Abrasion resistant heat pipe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ernst, Donald M. (Leola, PA)

    1984-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A specially constructed heat pipe for use in fluidized bed combustors. Two distinct coatings are spray coated onto a heat pipe casing constructed of low thermal expansion metal, each coating serving a different purpose. The first coating forms aluminum oxide to prevent hydrogen permeation into the heat pipe casing, and the second coating contains stabilized zirconium oxide to provide abrasion resistance while not substantially affecting the heat transfer characteristics of the system.

  14. Solar heat receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Arlon J. (Oakland, CA); Hansen, Leif J. (Berkeley, CA); Evans, David B. (Orinda, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A receiver for converting solar energy to heat a gas to temperatures from 700.degree.-900.degree. C. The receiver is formed to minimize impingement of radiation on the walls and to provide maximum heating at and near the entry of the gas exit. Also, the receiver is formed to provide controlled movement of the gas to be heated to minimize wall temperatures. The receiver is designed for use with gas containing fine heat absorbing particles, such as carbon particles.

  15. Solar heat receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, A.J.; Hansen, L.J.; Evans, D.B.

    1982-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A receiver is described for converting solar energy to heat a gas to temperatures from 700 to 900/sup 0/C. The receiver is formed to minimize impingement of radiation on the walls and to provide maximum heating at and near the entry of the gas exit. Also, the receiver is formed to provide controlled movement of the gas to be heated to minimize wall temperatures. The receiver is designed for use with gas containing fine heat absorbing particles, such as carbon particles.

  16. Industrial Waste Heat Recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ward, M. E.; Solomon, N. G.; Tabb, E. S.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    INDUSTRIAL WASTE HEAT RECOVREY M. E. Ward and N. G. Solomon E. S. Tabb Solar Turbines International and Gas Research Institute San Diego, California Chicago, Illinois ABSTRACT i I One hundred fifty reports were reviewed along with interviews... tests, promising low temperature heat exchanger tube alloys and coated surfaces were identified. 1INTROUCTION of advanced technology heat recovery techniques 1_ Recovering waste heat from the flue gases of the pr~ary objective. Specific objectives...

  17. Resonant absorption and not-so-resonant absorption in short, intense laser irradiated plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ge, Z. Y.; Zhuo, H. B.; Ma, Y. Y.; Yang, X. H.; Yu, T. P.; Zou, D. B.; Yin, Y.; Shao, F. Q. [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)] [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Yu, W.; Luan, S. X. [Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)] [Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Zhou, C. T. [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China) [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China); Peng, X. J. [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China)] [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China)

    2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An analytical model for laser-plasma interaction during the oblique incidence by an ultrashort ultraintense p-polarized laser on a solid-density plasma is proposed. Both the resonant absorption and not-so-resonant absorption are self-consistently included. Different from the previous theoretical works, the physics of resonant absorption is found to be valid in more general conditions as the steepening of the electron density profile is considered. Even for a relativistic intensity laser, resonant absorption can still exist under certain plasma scale length. For shorter plasma scale length or higher laser intensity, the not-so-resonant absorption tends to be dominant, since the electron density is steepened to a critical level by the ponderomotive force. The laser energy absorption rates for both mechanisms are discussed in detail, and the difference and transition between these two mechanisms are presented.

  18. Synthesis and Enhanced Light Absorption of Alumina Matrix Nanocomposites Containing Multilayer Oxide Nanorods and Silver Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gan, Y.X.; Zhang, L.; Zeng, X.; Su, L.; Yang, L.; Gan, B.J.

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, multilayer oxide nanorods were deposited in the nanopores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) via solution infiltration followed by heat treatment. The nanorods have a core-shell structure. First, the shell (nanotube) with the thickness of about 40 nm was made of TiO{sub 2} through the hydrolysis of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}TiF{sub 6}. Second, silver nanoparticles with the diameter of about 3 nm were added into the TiO{sub 2} layer through thermal decomposition of AgNO{sub 3} at elevated temperatures. Then, cylindrical cores (nanorods) of CoO and ZnO with 200 nm diameter were prepared, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize the structure and composition of the nanorods. UV-vis light absorption measurements in the wavelength range from 350 to 1000 nm were performed to study the effect of nanorod and nanoparticle addition on the light absorption property of the alumina nanocomposites. It is found that CoO nanorods increase the light absorption of the alumina matrix composite in the wavelength range from 500 nm to 800 nm, but the TiO{sub 2} shell does not increase the light absorption much. The ZnO nanorods do not change the light absorption either. However, the addition of silver nanoparticles significantly enhances light absorption of both AAO/TiO{sub 2}/Ag/CoO and AAO/TiO{sub 2}/Ag/ZnO nanocomposites. This increase in the visible light absorption reveals that there exists surface plasmon around the fine silver nanoparticles in the nanorods.

  19. A corrosive resistant heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richlen, S.L.

    1987-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A corrosive and erosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is pumped through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Acoustic Heating Peter Ulmschneider

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulmschneider, Peter

    mechanisms. 1. The acoustic heating theory Only a few years after Edlen's (1941) discovery that the solar acoustic wave radiation- · b. field acoustic wave Figure 1. Panel a: Acoustic heating in late-type stars: effective temperature TeJ f, gravity g and mixing length parameter fr. Panel b: Acoustic heating in early

  1. Heat Transfer Guest Editorial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kandlikar, Satish

    Journal of Heat Transfer Guest Editorial We are indeed delighted in bringing out this special issue was showcased in diverse areas such as traditional heat and mass transfer, lab-on-chip, sensors, biomedical applica- tions, micromixers, fuel cells, and microdevices. Selected papers in the field of heat transfer

  2. Pioneering Heat Pump Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objectives: To install and monitor an innovative WaterFurnace geothermal system that is technologically advanced and evolving; To generate hot water heating from a heat pump that uses non-ozone depleting refrigerant CO2. To demonstrate the energy efficiency of this system ground source heat pump system.

  3. Liquid heat capacity lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Scheibner, Karl F. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

  4. The impact of water flow configuration on crystallisation in LiBr/H2O absorption water heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Kai [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithium Bromide (LiBr) strong solution entering the absorber tends to crystallise when the absorber temperature is increased for a fixed evaporating pressure. This is considered the key technical barrier for the development of a LiBr absorption heat pump water heater. There are several approaches to avoid the crystallisation problem, such as chemical crystallisation inhibitors, heat and mass transfer enhancement and thermodynamic cycle modification. This paper investigates and compares two flow configurations of LiBr absorption heat pump water heater to evaluate the allowable operating conditions for each. The simulation results indicated that introducing the process water through the absorber first results in lower absorber temperature and hence less tendency for crystallisation.

  5. Evaluation of Gas, Oil and Wood Pellet Fueled Residential Heating System Emissions Characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, R.

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study has measured the emissions from a wide range of heating equipment burning different fuels including several liquid fuel options, utility supplied natural gas and wood pellet resources. The major effort was placed on generating a database for the mass emission rate of fine particulates (PM 2.5) for the various fuel types studied. The fine particulates or PM 2.5 (less than 2.5 microns in size) were measured using a dilution tunnel technique following the method described in US EPA CTM-039. The PM 2.5 emission results are expressed in several units for the benefit of scientists, engineers and administrators. The measurements of gaseous emissions of O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} were made using a combustion analyzer based on electrochemical cells These measurements are presented for each of the residential heating systems tested. This analyzer also provides a steady state efficiency based on stack gas and temperature measurements and these values are included in the report. The gaseous results are within the ranges expected from prior emission studies with the enhancement of expanding these measurements to fuels not available to earlier researchers. Based on measured excess air levels and ultimate analysis of the fuel's chemical composition the gaseous emission results are as expected and fall within the range provided for emission factors contained in the US-EPA AP 42, Emission Factors Volume I, Fifth Edition. Since there were no unexpected findings in these gaseous measurements, the bulk of the report is centered on the emissions of fine particulates, or PM 2.5. The fine particulate (PM 2.5) results for the liquid fuel fired heating systems indicate a very strong linear relationship between the fine particulate emissions and the sulfur content of the liquid fuels being studied. This is illustrated by the plot contained in the first figure on the next page which clearly illustrates the linear relationship between the measured mass of fine particulate per unit of energy, expressed as milligrams per Mega-Joule (mg/MJ) versus the different sulfur contents of four different heating fuels. These were tested in a conventional cast iron boiler equipped with a flame retention head burner. The fuels included a typical ASTM No. 2 fuel oil with sulfur below 0.5 percent (1520 average ppm S), an ASTM No. 2 fuel oil with very high sulfur content (5780 ppm S), low sulfur heating oil (322 ppm S) and an ultra low sulfur diesel fuel (11 ppm S). Three additional oil-fired heating system types were also tested with normal heating fuel, low sulfur and ultralow sulfur fuel. They included an oil-fired warm air furnace of conventional design, a high efficiency condensing warm air furnace, a condensing hydronic boiler and the conventional hydronic boiler as discussed above. The linearity in the results was observed with all of the different oil-fired equipment types (as shown in the second figure on the next page). A linear regression of the data resulted in an Rsquared value of 0.99 indicating that a very good linear relationship exits. This means that as sulfur decreases the PM 2.5 emissions are reduced in a linear manner within the sulfur content range tested. At the ultra low sulfur level (15 ppm S) the amount of PM 2.5 had been reduced dramatically to an average of 0.043 mg/MJ. Three different gas-fired heating systems were tested. These included a conventional in-shot induced draft warm air furnace, an atmospheric fired hydronic boiler and a high efficiency hydronic boiler. The particulate (PM 2.5) measured ranged from 0.011 to 0.036 mg/MJ. depending on the raw material source used in their manufacture. All three stoves tested were fueled with premium (low ash) wood pellets obtained in a single batch to provide for uniformity in the test fuel. Unlike the oil and gas fired systems, the wood pellet stoves had measurable amounts of particulates sized above the 2.5-micron size that defines fine particulates (less than 2.5 microns). The fine particulate emissions rates ranged from 22 to 30 mg/ MJ with an average value

  6. Applied heat transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganapathy, V.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat transfer principles are discussed with emphasis on the practical aspects of the problems. Correlations for heat transfer and pressure drop from several worldwide sources for flow inside and outside of tubes, including finned tubes are presented, along with design and performance calculations of heat exchangers economizers, air heaters, condensers, waste-heat boilers, fired heaters, superheaters, and boiler furnaces. Vibration analysis for tube bundles and heat exchangers are also discussed, as are estimating gas-mixture properties at atmospheric and elevated pressures and life-cycle costing techniques. (JMT)

  7. Heat pump apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL); Horowitz, Jeffrey S. (Woodridge, IL)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat pump apparatus including a compact arrangement of individual tubular reactors containing hydride-dehydride beds in opposite end sections, each pair of beds in each reactor being operable by sequential and coordinated treatment with a plurality of heat transfer fluids in a plurality of processing stages, and first and second valves located adjacent the reactor end sections with rotatable members having multiple ports and associated portions for separating the hydride beds at each of the end sections into groups and for simultaneously directing a plurality of heat transfer fluids to the different groups. As heat is being generated by a group of beds, others are being regenerated so that heat is continuously available for space heating. As each of the processing stages is completed for a hydride bed or group of beds, each valve member is rotated causing the heat transfer fluid for the heat processing stage to be directed to that bed or group of beds. Each of the end sections are arranged to form a closed perimeter and the valve member may be rotated repeatedly about the perimeter to provide a continuous operation. Both valves are driven by a common motor to provide a coordinated treatment of beds in the same reactors. The heat pump apparatus is particularly suitable for the utilization of thermal energy supplied by solar collectors and concentrators but may be used with any source of heat, including a source of low-grade heat.

  8. Active microchannel heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y. (Pasco, WA) [Pasco, WA; Roberts, Gary L. (West Richland, WA) [West Richland, WA; Call, Charles J. (Pasco, WA) [Pasco, WA; Wegeng, Robert S. (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA; Wang, Yong (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is an active microchannel heat exchanger with an active heat source and with microchannel architecture. The microchannel heat exchanger has (a) an exothermic reaction chamber; (b) an exhaust chamber; and (c) a heat exchanger chamber in thermal contact with the exhaust chamber, wherein (d) heat from the exothermic reaction chamber is convected by an exothermic reaction exhaust through the exhaust chamber and by conduction through a containment wall to the working fluid in the heat exchanger chamber thereby raising a temperature of the working fluid. The invention is particularly useful as a liquid fuel vaporizer and/or a steam generator for fuel cell power systems, and as a heat source for sustaining endothermic chemical reactions and initiating exothermic reactions.

  9. Nitrogen Dioxide Absorption and Sulfite Oxidation in Aqueous Sulfite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    Nitrogen Dioxide Absorption and Sulfite Oxidation in Aqueous Sulfite C H E N H . S H E N A N D G by absorption in sulfite solution in existing scrubbers for desulfurization. Rates of NO2 absorption and sulfite absorption initiates sulfite oxidation in the presence of oxygen, and this study quantified the effect

  10. Policies supporting Heat Pump Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Policies supporting Heat Pump Technologies in Canada IEA Heat Pump Workshop London, UK November 13 in the world, with an average of 16,995 kilowatt-hours per annum. #12;Canada's Context for Heat Pumps Impacts avenues: Ground source heat pumps for cold climates (heating and cooling) Reversible air source heat

  11. Optimization of Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivan Catton

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research is to develop tools to design and optimize heat exchangers (HE) and compact heat exchangers (CHE) for intermediate loop heat transport systems found in the very high temperature reator (VHTR) and other Generation IV designs by addressing heat transfer surface augmentation and conjugate modeling. To optimize heat exchanger, a fast running model must be created that will allow for multiple designs to be compared quickly. To model a heat exchanger, volume averaging theory, VAT, is used. VAT allows for the conservation of mass, momentum and energy to be solved for point by point in a 3 dimensional computer model of a heat exchanger. The end product of this project is a computer code that can predict an optimal configuration for a heat exchanger given only a few constraints (input fluids, size, cost, etc.). As VAT computer code can be used to model characteristics )pumping power, temperatures, and cost) of heat exchangers more quickly than traditional CFD or experiment, optimization of every geometric parameter simultaneously can be made. Using design of experiment, DOE and genetric algorithms, GE, to optimize the results of the computer code will improve heat exchanger disign.

  12. Heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swenson, Paul F.; Moore, Paul B.

    1983-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion type refrigeration circuit and a vapor power circuit. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The vapor power circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the indoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger and the other of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the outdoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger. Fans powered by electricity generated by a vapor power circuit alternator circulate indoor air through the two indoor heat exchangers and circulate outside air through the two outdoor heat exchangers. The system is assembled as a single roof top unit, with a vapor power generator and turbine and compressor thermally insulated from the heat exchangers, and with the indoor heat exchangers thermally insulated from the outdoor heat exchangers.

  13. Heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swenson, Paul F. (Shaker Heights, OH); Moore, Paul B. (Fedhaven, FL)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion type refrigeration circuit and a vapor power circuit. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The vapor power circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the indoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger and the other of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the outdoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger. Fans powered by electricity generated by a vapor power circuit alternator circulate indoor air through the two indoor heat exchangers and circulate outside air through the two outdoor heat exchangers. The system is assembled as a single roof top unit, with a vapor power generator and turbine and compressor thermally insulated from the heat exchangers, and with the indoor heat exchangers thermally insulated from the outdoor heat exchangers.

  14. Fluidized bed heat treating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ripley, Edward B; Pfennigwerth, Glenn L

    2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems for heat treating materials are presented. The systems typically involve a fluidized bed that contains granulated heat treating material. In some embodiments a fluid, such as an inert gas, is flowed through the granulated heat treating medium, which homogenizes the temperature of the heat treating medium. In some embodiments the fluid may be heated in a heating vessel and flowed into the process chamber where the fluid is then flowed through the granulated heat treating medium. In some embodiments the heat treating material may be liquid or granulated heat treating material and the heat treating material may be circulated through a heating vessel into a process chamber where the heat treating material contacts the material to be heat treated. Microwave energy may be used to provide the source of heat for heat treating systems.

  15. Summer HeatSummer Heat Heat stress solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    occur (then drink a lightly salted beverage like a sports drink). The water's temperature should be cool How should gardeners avoid becoming a safety threat to themselves and others when it's hot? Start to the heat. Become a weather watcher. Set up a small weather station (with a high/low thermom eter, rain

  16. California Administrative Code Chapter 2. STATE ENERGY RESOURCES CONSERVATION AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -fired swimming pool heaters. (5) Allgas-fired low-pressure steam and hot water heating boilers designed for use be considered the same type of appliance as gas-fired swimming pool heaters. (6) All gas-fired fan type direct

  17. Plasmon absorption modulator systems and methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kekatpure, Rohan Deodatta; Davids, Paul

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Plasmon absorption modulator systems and methods are disclosed. A plasmon absorption modulator system includes a semiconductor substrate, a plurality of quantum well layers stacked on a top surface of the semiconductor substrate, and a metal layer formed on a top surface of the stack of quantum well layers. A method for modulating plasmonic current includes enabling propagation of the plasmonic current along a metal layer, and applying a voltage across the stack of quantum well layers to cause absorption of a portion of energy of the plasmonic current by the stack of quantum well layers. A metamaterial switching system includes a semiconductor substrate, a plurality of quantum well layers stacked on a top surface of the semiconductor substrate, and at least one metamaterial structure formed on a top surface of the stack of quantum well layers.

  18. Absolute absorption spectroscopy based on molecule interferometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefan Nimmrichter; Klaus Hornberger; Hendrik Ulbricht; Markus Arndt

    2008-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a new method to measure the absolute photon absorption cross section of neutral molecules in a molecular beam. It is independent of our knowledge of the particle beam density, nor does it rely on photo-induced fragmentation or ionization. The method is based on resolving the recoil resulting from photon absorption by means of near-field matter-wave interference, and it thus applies even to very dilute beams with low optical densities. Our discussion includes the possibility of internal state conversion as well as fluorescence. We assess the influence of various experimental uncertainties and show that the measurement of absolute absorption cross sections is conceivable with high precision and using existing technologies.

  19. Potassium emission absorption system. Topical report 12

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauman, L.E.

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Potassium Emission Absorption System is one of the advanced optical diagnostics developed at Mississippi State University to provide support for the demonstration of prototype-scale coal-fired combustion magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electrical power generation. Intended for application in the upstream of an MHD flow, the system directly measures gas temperature and neutral potassium atom number density through spectroscopic emission absorption techniques. From these measurements the electron density can be inferred from a statistical equilibrium calculation and the electron conductivity in the MHD channel found by use of an electron mobility model. The instrument has been utilized for field test measurements on MHD facilities for almost a decade and has been proven to provide useful measurements as designed for MHD nozzle, channel, and diffuser test sections. The theory of the measurements, a system description, its capabilities, and field test measurement results are reported here. During the development and application of the instrument several technical issues arose which when addressed advanced the state of the art in emission absorption measurement. Studies of these issues are also reported here and include: two-wavelength measurements for particle-laden flows, potassium D-line far wing absorption coefficient, bias in emission absorption measurements arising from dirty windows and misalignments, non-coincident multiwavelength emission absorption sampling errors, and lineshape fitting for boundary layer flow profile information. Although developed for NLHD application, the instrument could be applied to any high temperature flow with a resonance line in the 300 to 800 nm range, for instance other types of flames, rocket plumes or low temperature plasmas.

  20. Absorption coefficient of aluminum near the critical point and the consequences on high-power nanosecond laser ablation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu Benxin; Shin, Yung C. [Center for Laser-based Manufacturing, School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

    2006-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    During nanosecond laser ablation, the absorption coefficient determines the laser energy deposition in the target, the accurate knowledge of which near the material critical point is crucial for understanding the fundamental physics of high-power nanosecond laser ablation. In this letter, the absorption coefficient of aluminum near the critical point is calculated through the Drude model based on the measured electrical conductivity data, and its effect on laser ablation is investigated numerically using a heat transfer model. The result supports the experimental observations that phase explosion occurs for the ablation of aluminum by sufficiently intense laser pulses, and the model predicted phase explosion threshold is consistent with experimental measurements.

  1. Water-heating dehumidifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomlinson, John J. (Knoxville, TN)

    2006-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A water-heating dehumidifier includes a refrigerant loop including a compressor, at least one condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator including an evaporator fan. The condenser includes a water inlet and a water outlet for flowing water therethrough or proximate thereto, or is affixed to the tank or immersed into the tank to effect water heating without flowing water. The immersed condenser design includes a self-insulated capillary tube expansion device for simplicity and high efficiency. In a water heating mode air is drawn by the evaporator fan across the evaporator to produce cooled and dehumidified air and heat taken from the air is absorbed by the refrigerant at the evaporator and is pumped to the condenser, where water is heated. When the tank of water heater is full of hot water or a humidistat set point is reached, the water-heating dehumidifier can switch to run as a dehumidifier.

  2. Electron cyclotron heating of a tokamak reactor at down-shifted frequencies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fidone, I.; Giruzzi, G.; Mazzucato, E.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The absorption of electron cyclotron waves in a hot and dense tokamak plasma is investigated for the case of the extraordinary mode for outside launching. It is shown that, for electron temperatures T/sub e/ greater than or equal to 5 keV, strong absorption occurs for oblique propagation at frequencies significantly below the electron gyrofrequency at the plasma center. A new density dependence of the wave absorption is found which is more favorable for plasma heating than the familiar n/sub e//sup -1/ scaling.

  3. The 4000 A absorption system of formaldehyde

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, James Ralph

    1957-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE $000 A ABSORPTION SYSTEM OF FORMALDEHYDE JAMES RALPH HENDERSON A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... May i 1957 Ma]or Subject: Physics THE 4000 A ABSORPTION SYSTEM OF FORMALDEHYDE A Thesis JAMES RALPH HENDERSON Approved as to style and content bye rlllan 0 OIllK e e ea o epar men May, l957 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page I. Introduction...

  4. Multi-plasmon absorption in graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marinko Jablan; Darrick E. Chang

    2015-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that graphene possesses a strong nonlinear optical response in the form of multi-plasmon absorption, with exciting implications in classical and quantum nonlinear optics. Specifically, we predict that graphene nano-ribbons can be used as saturable absorbers with low saturation intensity in the far-infrared and terahertz spectrum. Moreover, we predict that two-plasmon absorption and extreme localization of plasmon fields in graphene nano-disks can lead to a plasmon blockade effect, in which a single quantized plasmon strongly suppresses the possibility of exciting a second plasmon.

  5. Modified discrete random walk with absorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Theo van Uem

    2009-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We obtain expected number of arrivals, probability of arrival, absorption probabilities and expected time before absorption for a modified discrete random walk on the (sub)set of integers. In a [pqrs] random walk the particle can move one step forward or backward, stay for a moment in the same state or it can be absorbed immediately in the current state. M[pqrs] is a modified version, where probabilities on both sides of a multiple function barrier M are of different [pqrs] type.

  6. Anomalous Light Absorption by Small Particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael I. Tribelsky

    2009-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A new type of resonant light absorption by a small particle (nanocluster) is reported. The problem cannot be described within the commonly used dipole scattering approximation and should be studied with methods based upon the exact Mie solution. It is shown that the absorption cross-section has giant maxima realized at small values of the imaginary part of the complex dielectric permittivity of the particle. The maxima are situated in the vicinity of the plasmon (polariton) resonances and correspond to the regions where the dissipative damping equals the radiative one. The case is similar to the recently introduced anomalous scattering [PRL vol. 97, 263902 (2006)] and exhibits similar peculiarities.

  7. Laser isotope separation by multiple photon absorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robinson, C. Paul (Los Alamos, NM); Rockwood, Stephen D. (Los Alamos, NM); Jensen, Reed J. (Los Alamos, NM); Lyman, John L. (Los Alamos, NM); Aldridge, III, Jack P. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Multiple photon absorption from an intense beam of infrared laser light may be used to induce selective chemical reactions in molecular species which result in isotope separation or enrichment. The molecular species must have a sufficient density of vibrational states in its vibrational manifold that, is the presence of sufficiently intense infrared laser light tuned to selectively excite only those molecules containing a particular isotope, multiple photon absorption can occur. By this technique, for example, intense CO.sub.2 laser light may be used to highly enrich .sup.34 S in natural SF.sub.6 and .sup.11 B in natural BCl.sub.3.

  8. Laser isotope separation by multiple photon absorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robinson, C.P.; Rockwood, S.D.; Jensen, R.J.; Lyman, J.L.; Aldridge, J.P. III.

    1987-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Multiple photon absorption from an intense beam of infrared laser light may be used to induce selective chemical reactions in molecular species which result in isotope separation or enrichment. The molecular species must have a sufficient density of vibrational states in its vibrational manifold that, is the presence of sufficiently intense infrared laser light tuned to selectively excite only those molecules containing a particular isotope, multiple photon absorption can occur. By this technique, for example, intense CO[sub 2] laser light may be used to highly enrich [sup 34]S in natural SF[sub 6] and [sup 11]B in natural BCl[sub 3]. 8 figs.

  9. Heat storage duration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Both the amount and duration of heat storage in massive elements of a passive building are investigated. Data taken for one full winter in the Balcomb solar home are analyzed with the aid of sub-system simulation models. Heat storage duration is tallied into one-day intervals. Heat storage location is discussed and related to overall energy flows. The results are interpreted and conclusions drawn.

  10. Oil production response to in situ electrical resistance heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDougal, Fred William

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the electric power through electrical resistance heating with a very small electromagnetic power absorption component. The oil viscosity decreases as the temperature increases thus stimulating oil production. DEDICATION I would like to dedicate this thesis... PROFILE FOR CASE S-2 INTRODUCTION Oil production can be stimulated by applying electrical power to the formation. The electrical power causes a temperature increase that reduces oil viscosity, resulting in increased oil production rates. Electrical...

  11. HEATS: Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HEATS Project: The 15 projects that make up ARPA-E’s HEATS program, short for “High Energy Advanced Thermal Storage,” seek to develop revolutionary, cost-effective ways to store thermal energy. HEATS focuses on 3 specific areas: 1) developing high-temperature solar thermal energy storage capable of cost-effectively delivering electricity around the clock and thermal energy storage for nuclear power plants capable of cost-effectively meeting peak demand, 2) creating synthetic fuel efficiently from sunlight by converting sunlight into heat, and 3) using thermal energy storage to improve the driving range of electric vehicles (EVs) and also enable thermal management of internal combustion engine vehicles.

  12. Heat and mass exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowenstein, Andrew (Princeton, NJ); Sibilia, Marc J. (Princeton, NJ); Miller, Jeffrey A. (Hopewell, NJ); Tonon, Thomas (Princeton, NJ)

    2007-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A mass and heat exchanger includes at least one first substrate with a surface for supporting a continuous flow of a liquid thereon that either absorbs, desorbs, evaporates or condenses one or more gaseous species from or to a surrounding gas; and at least one second substrate operatively associated with the first substrate. The second substrate includes a surface for supporting the continuous flow of the liquid thereon and is adapted to carry a heat exchange fluid therethrough, wherein heat transfer occurs between the liquid and the heat exchange fluid.

  13. Heat and mass exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowenstein, Andrew (Princeton, NJ); Sibilia, Marc J. (Princeton, NJ); Miller, Jeffrey A. (Hopewell, NJ); Tonon, Thomas (Princeton, NJ)

    2011-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A mass and heat exchanger includes at least one first substrate with a surface for supporting a continuous flow of a liquid thereon that either absorbs, desorbs, evaporates or condenses one or more gaseous species from or to a surrounding gas; and at least one second substrate operatively associated with the first substrate. The second substrate includes a surface for supporting the continuous flow of the liquid thereon and is adapted to carry a heat exchange fluid therethrough, wherein heat transfer occurs between the liquid and the heat exchange fluid.

  14. Waste Heat Recovery

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    DRAFT - PRE-DECISIONAL - DRAFT 1 Waste Heat Recovery 1 Technology Assessment 2 Contents 3 1. Introduction to the TechnologySystem ......

  15. Passive solar space heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An overview of passive solar space heating is presented indicating trends in design, new developments, performance measures, analytical design aids, and monitored building results.

  16. Heat rejection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Gregory C. (Richland, WA); Tokarz, Richard D. (Richland, WA); Parry, Jr., Harvey L. (Richland, WA); Braun, Daniel J. (Richland, WA)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cooling system for rejecting waste heat consists of a cooling tower incorporating a plurality of coolant tubes provided with cooling fins and each having a plurality of cooling channels therein, means for directing a heat exchange fluid from the power plant through less than the total number of cooling channels to cool the heat exchange fluid under normal ambient temperature conditions, means for directing water through the remaining cooling channels whenever the ambient temperature rises above the temperature at which dry cooling of the heat exchange fluid is sufficient and means for cooling the water.

  17. Heating dynamics of CO{sub 2}-laser irradiated silica particles with evaporative shrinking: Measurements and modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elhadj, S.; Qiu, S. R.; Stolz, C. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Monterrosa, A. M. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94704 (United States)

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The heating dynamics of CO{sub 2}-laser heated micron-sized particles were determined for temperatures <3500 K measured using infrared imaging. A coupled mass and energy conservation model is derived to predict single particle temperatures and sizes, which were compared with data from particles deposited on non-absorbing substrates to assess the relevant heat transfer processes. Analysis reveals substrate conduction dominates all other heat losses, while laser absorption determined from Mie theory is strongly modulated by particle evaporative shrinking. This study provides insights into the light coupling and heating of particle arrays where the material optical properties are temperature-dependent and particle size changes are significant.

  18. Model Order Reduction Techniques Problem Set 5 Parabolic Problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and hot water for industrial process and elec- trical energy generation. They transmit heat by combustion. It is a dual fuel (oil/gas) fired unit used for heating and generating electric power. The plant has 4 inputs

  19. Deep Mid-Infrared Silicate Absorption as a Diagnostic of Obscuring Geometry Toward Galactic Nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. A. Levenson; M. M. Sirocky; L. Hao; H. W. W. Spoon; J. A. Marshall; M. Elitzur; J. R. Houck

    2006-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The silicate cross section peak near 10um produces emission and absorption features in the spectra of dusty galactic nuclei observed with the Spitzer Space Telescope. Especially in ultraluminous infrared galaxies, the observed absorption feature can be extremely deep, as IRAS 08572+3915 illustrates. A foreground screen of obscuration cannot reproduce this observed feature, even at large optical depth. Instead, the deep absorption requires a nuclear source to be deeply embedded in a smooth distribution of material that is both geometrically and optically thick. In contrast, a clumpy medium can produce only shallow absorption or emission, which are characteristic of optically-identified active galactic nuclei. In general, the geometry of the dusty region and the total optical depth, rather than the grain composition or heating spectrum, determine the silicate feature's observable properties. The apparent optical depth calculated from the ratio of line to continuum emission generally fails to accurately measure the true optical depth. The obscuring geometry, not the nature of the embedded source, also determines the far-IR spectral shape.

  20. Ammonia and ammonium hydroxide sensors for ammonia/water absorption machines: Literature review and data compilation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anheier, N.C. Jr.; McDonald, C.E.; Cuta, J.M.; Cuta, F.M.; Olsen, K.B.

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes an evaluation of various sensing techniques for determining the ammonia concentration in the working fluid of ammonia/water absorption cycle systems. The purpose of this work was to determine if any existing sensor technology or instrumentation could provide an accurate, reliable, and cost-effective continuous measure of ammonia concentration in water. The resulting information will be used for design optimization and cycle control in an ammonia-absorption heat pump. PNL researchers evaluated each sensing technology against a set of general requirements characterizing the potential operating conditions within the absorption cycle. The criteria included the physical constraints for in situ operation, sensor characteristics, and sensor application. PNL performed an extensive literature search, which uncovered several promising sensing technologies that might be applicable to this problem. Sixty-two references were investigated, and 33 commercial vendors were identified as having ammonia sensors. The technologies for ammonia sensing are acoustic wave, refractive index, electrode, thermal, ion-selective field-effect transistor (ISFET), electrical conductivity, pH/colormetric, and optical absorption. Based on information acquired in the literature search, PNL recommends that follow-on activities focus on ISFET devices and a fiber optic evanescent sensor with a colormetric indicator. The ISFET and fiber optic evanescent sensor are inherently microminiature and capable of in situ measurements. Further, both techniques have been demonstrated selective to the ammonium ion (NH{sub 4}{sup +}). The primary issue remaining is how to make the sensors sufficiently corrosion-resistant to be useful in practice.

  1. IMPLEMENTING GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP AND GROUND LOOP HEAT EXCHANGER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IMPLEMENTING GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP AND GROUND LOOP HEAT EXCHANGER MODELS IN THE ENERGYPLUS #12;ii IMPLEMENTING GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP AND GROUND LOOP HEAT EXCHANGER MODELS IN THE ENERGYPLUS............................................................... 2 1.3. Overview of the Parameter Estimation Water-to-Water Heat Pump Model ........... 5 1

  2. Heat pipes and use of heat pipes in furnace exhaust

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Polcyn, Adam D. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2010-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    An array of a plurality of heat pipe are mounted in spaced relationship to one another with the hot end of the heat pipes in a heated environment, e.g. the exhaust flue of a furnace, and the cold end outside the furnace. Heat conversion equipment is connected to the cold end of the heat pipes.

  3. First university owned district heating system using biomass heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    Highlights · First university owned district heating system using biomass heat · Capacity: 15 MMBtu Main Campus District Heating Performance · Avoided: 3500 tonnes of CO2 · Particulate: less than 10 mg District Heating Goals To displace 85% of natural gas used for core campus heating. Fuel Bunker Sawmill

  4. Absorption features of high redshift galactic winds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. P. M. Fangano; A. Ferrara; P. Richter

    2007-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The environment of high-redshift galaxies is characterized by both wind-driven outflowing gas and gravitationally infalling streams. To investigate such galaxy-IGM interplay we have generated synthetic optical absorption line spectra piercing the volume surrounding a starbursting analog of a Lyman Break Galaxy selected in a $z \\approx 3$ output from a SPH simulation, including a detailed treatment of mechanical feedback from winds. Distributions for several observable species (HI, CIII, CIV, SiII, SiIII, SiIV, OVI, OVII, and OVIII) have been derived by post-processing the simulation outputs. The hot wind material is characterized by the presence of high-ionization species such as OVI, OVII, and OVIII (the latter two observable only in X-ray bands); the colder ($Tgas clumps. However, both line profile and Pixel Optical Depth analysis of the synthetic spectra show that the intergalactic filament in which the wind-blowing galaxy is embedded produces absorption signatures that closely mimic those of the wind environment. We conclude that may be difficult to clearly identify wind-blowing galaxies and their complex gaseous environment at high redshift in optical QSO absorption-line spectra based solely on the observed ion absorption patterns.

  5. SUPPLY-SIDE OPTIMIZATION : MAXIMIZING ABSORPTIVE RATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jumars, Pete

    and Piglet walked home thoughtfully together in the golden evening, and for a long time they were silent The World of Pooh INTRODUCTION The complexities of feeding behavior extend far beyond the simple priorities source of the material and energy for this escalation in heterotrophs with digestive tracts is absorption

  6. Absorption machine with desorber-resorber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Biermann, Wendell J. (Fayetteville, NY)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An absorption refrigeration system utilizing a low temperature desorber and intermediate temperature resorber. The system operates at three temperatures and three pressures to increase the efficiency of the system and is capable of utilizing a lower generator temperature than previously used.

  7. Absorption of solar radiation by solar neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Duplancic; P. Minkowski; J. Trampetic

    2004-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculate the absorption probability of photons radiated from the surface of the Sun by a left-handed neutrino with definite mass and a typical momentum for which we choose |p_1|=0.2 MeV, producing a heavier right-handed antineutrino. Considering two transitions the \

  8. Polymer microcantilevers fabricated via multiphoton absorption polymerization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teich, Malvin C.

    Polymer microcantilevers fabricated via multiphoton absorption polymerization Z. Bayindir, Y. Sun polymer cantilevers. Atomic force microscopy has been used to characterize the mechanical properties orders of magnitude smaller than would be predicted from the properties of the bulk polymer.6 If correct

  9. Solar Radiative Heating in First Year Sea Ice M.J. McGuinness 1 , K.A. Landman 2 , H.J. Trodahl 3 , A.E. Pantoja 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solar Radiative Heating in First Year Sea Ice M.J. McGuinness 1 , K.A. Landman 2 , H.J. Trodahl 3 ice show daily oscillations consistent with heating by solar radiation. We present and solve a heat for solar power absorption based on Monte Carlo scatter­ ing simulations of penetrating photons. We observe

  10. Microchannel heat sink assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonde, W.L.; Contolini, R.J.

    1992-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a microchannel heat sink with a thermal range from cryogenic temperatures to several hundred degrees centigrade. The heat sink can be used with a variety of fluids, such as cryogenic or corrosive fluids, and can be operated at a high pressure. The heat sink comprises a microchannel layer preferably formed of silicon, and a manifold layer preferably formed of glass. The manifold layer comprises an inlet groove and outlet groove which define an inlet manifold and an outlet manifold. The inlet manifold delivers coolant to the inlet section of the microchannels, and the outlet manifold receives coolant from the outlet section of the microchannels. In one embodiment, the manifold layer comprises an inlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the inlet manifold, and an outlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the outlet manifold. Coolant is supplied to the heat sink through a conduit assembly connected to the heat sink. A resilient seal, such as a gasket or an O-ring, is disposed between the conduit and the hole in the heat sink in order to provide a watertight seal. In other embodiments, the conduit assembly may comprise a metal tube which is connected to the heat sink by a soft solder. In still other embodiments, the heat sink may comprise inlet and outlet nipples. The present invention has application in supercomputers, integrated circuits and other electronic devices, and is suitable for cooling materials to superconducting temperatures. 13 figs.

  11. Simulation and performance analysis of a quadruple-effect lithium bromide-water absorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grossman, G. [Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa (Israel). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering; Zaltash, A.; DeVault, R.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to investigate the possibility of improving utilization of high temperature heat sources, such as natural gas, for absorption chillers, performance simulation has been conducted for a quadruple-effect lithium bromide-water cycle, capable of substantial performance improvement over state-of-the-art double-effect cycles. The system investigated includes four condensers and four desorbers coupled together, forming an extension of the conventional double-effect cycle; based on prior experience, a parallel flow system was perferred over series flow, and double-condenser coupling (DCC) was employed, extending from triple-effect cycles, to further improve performance. A modular computer code for simulation of absorption systems (ABSIM) was used to investigate the performances of the cycle. The simulation was carried out over a range of operating conditions, including investigation of the influence of some major design parameters. A coefficient of performance in the neighborhood of 2.0 (cooling) was calculated at the design point, with a heat supply temperature of 600{degrees}F at the solution outlet from the high temperature desorber. With some optimization of the weak (pumped) solution flowrate and of the solution split among the four desorbers, this COP may be raised above 2.2, without any increase in the heat transfer surface of the system`s components.

  12. Solar heating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schreyer, James M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dorsey, George F. (Concord, TN)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved solar heating system in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75.degree. to 180.degree. F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing and releasing heat for distribution.

  13. Knudsen heat capacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babac, Gulru, E-mail: babac@itu.edu.tr [Institute of Energy, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul 34469 (Turkey)] [Institute of Energy, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul 34469 (Turkey); Reese, Jason M. [School of Engineering, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JL (United Kingdom)] [School of Engineering, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JL (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a “Knudsen heat capacity” as a more appropriate and useful fluid property in micro/nanoscale gas systems than the constant pressure heat capacity. At these scales, different fluid processes come to the fore that are not normally observed at the macroscale. For thermodynamic analyses that include these Knudsen processes, using the Knudsen heat capacity can be more effective and physical. We calculate this heat capacity theoretically for non-ideal monatomic and diatomic gases, in particular, helium, nitrogen, and hydrogen. The quantum modification for para and ortho hydrogen is also considered. We numerically model the Knudsen heat capacity using molecular dynamics simulations for the considered gases, and compare these results with the theoretical ones.

  14. Improved solar heating systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schreyer, J.M.; Dorsey, G.F.

    1980-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved solar heating system is described in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75 to 180/sup 0/F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing ad releasing heat for distribution.

  15. Cascade Reverse Osmosis Air Conditioning System: Cascade Reverse Osmosis and the Absorption Osmosis Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BEETIT Project: Battelle is developing a new air conditioning system that uses a cascade reverse osmosis (RO)-based absorption cycle. Analyses show that this new cycle can be as much as 60% more efficient than vapor compression, which is used in 90% of air conditioners. Traditional vapor-compression systems use polluting liquids for a cooling effect. Absorption cycles use benign refrigerants such as water, which is absorbed in a salt solution and pumped as liquid—replacing compression of vapor. The refrigerant is subsequently separated from absorbing salt using heat for re-use in the cooling cycle. Battelle is replacing thermal separation of refrigerant with a more efficient reverse osmosis process. Research has shown that the cycle is possible, but further investment will be needed to reduce the number of cascade reverse osmosis stages and therefore cost.

  16. Measuring optical absorption coefficient of pure water in UV using the integrating cavity absorption meter. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Ling

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    of the instrument is only several centimeters. The long effective total path length ensures a high sensitivity that enables the ICAM to measure liquid mediums with low absorption. Compared to the conventional transmission type of instruments that were used...

  17. Heat Flow, Heat Transfer And Lithosphere Rheology In Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    heat flow values as high as several watts per meter squared can be found. Systematic interpretation of heat flow patterns sheds light on heat transfer mechanisms at depth on...

  18. Heat-Of-Reaction Chemical Heat Pumps--Possible Configurations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirol, L. D.

    for water and gas connections, and temperature variations. Recent work on heat pump cycles using complex compound reactions includes development of energy storage systems at laboratories in Europe (11) and the United States (12), and residential...ABSTRACT Chemical heat pumps utilize working fluids which undergo reversible chemical changes. Mechanically driven reactive heat pump cycles or, alternatively, hl~a: driven heat pumps in which either heat engine or heat pump working fluid...

  19. ELECTRIC CO-HEATING: A METHOD FOR EVALUATING SEASONAL HEATING EFFICIENCIES AND HEAT LOSS RATES IN DWELLINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modera, M.P.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Effi~ ciency of Fossil~Fired Heating Systems for LabelingInfo. Division, Ext. 6782 Electric Co-heating: A Methodfor Evaluating Seasonal Heating Efficiencies and Heat Loss

  20. Workshop on Condensing Heating and Water Heating Equipment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Workshop on Condensing Heating and Water Heating Equipment Thursday, October 9, 2014 List of Attendees OrganizationAttendees DOE - John Cymbalsky - Ashley Armstrong - Johanna...

  1. City of Klamath Falls District Heating District Heating Low Temperatur...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name City of Klamath Falls District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility City of Klamath Falls...

  2. Condensing Heating and Water Heating Equipment Workshop Location...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Condensing Heating and Water Heating Equipment Workshop Location: Washington Gas Light Appliance Training Facility 6801 Industrial Road Springfield, VA Date: October 9, 2014 Time:...

  3. Desiccant-based, heat-actuated cooling assessment for DHC (District Heating and Cooling) systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patch, K.D.; DiBella, F.A.; Becker, F.E.

    1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An assessment has been completed of the use of desiccant-based, heat-actuated cooling for District Heating and Cooling (DHC) systems, showing that such desiccant-based cooling (DBC) systems are generally applicable to District Heating (DH) systems. Since the DH system only has to supply hot water (or steam) to its customers, systems that were designed as conventional two-pipe DH systems can now be operated as DHC systems without major additional capital expense. Desiccant-based DHC systems can be operated with low-grade DH-supplied heat, at temperatures below 180{degree}F, without significant loss in operating capacity, relative to absorption chillers. During this assessment, a systems analysis was performed, an experimental investigation was conducted, developmental requirements for commercializing DBC systems were examined, and two case studies were conducted. As a result of the case studies, it was found that the operating cost of a DBC system was competitive with or lower than the cost of purchasing DHC-supplied chilled water. However, because of the limited production volume and the current high capital costs of desiccant systems, the payback period is relatively long. In this regard, through the substitution of low-cost components specifically engineered for low-temperature DHC systems, the capital costs should be significantly reduced and overall economics made attractive to future users. 17 figs.

  4. Proceedings: Heat exchanger workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat transfer processes are of controlling importance in the operation of a thermal power plant. Heat exchangers are major cost items and are an important source of problems causing poor power plant availability and performance. A workshop to examine the improvements that can be made to heat exchangers was sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) on June 10-11, 1986, in Palo Alto, California. This workshop was attended by 25 engineers and scientists representing EPRI-member utilities and EPRI consultants. A forum was provided for discussions related to the design, operation and maintenance of utility heat transfer equipment. The specific objectives were to identify research directions that could significantly improve heat exchanger performance, reliability and life cycle economics. Since there is a great diversity of utility heat transfer equipment in use, this workshop addressed two equipment categories: Boiler Feedwater Heaters (FWH) and Heat Recovery Steam Generators (HRSG). The workshop was divided into the following panel sessions: functional design, mechanical design, operation, suggested research topics, and prioritization. Each panel session began with short presentations by experts on the subject and followed by discussions by the attendees. This report documents the proceedings of the workshop and contains recommendations of potentially valuable areas of research and development. 4 figs.

  5. Micro heat barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marshall, Albert C.; Kravitz, Stanley H.; Tigges, Chris P.; Vawter, Gregory A.

    2003-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A highly effective, micron-scale micro heat barrier structure and process for manufacturing a micro heat barrier based on semiconductor and/or MEMS fabrication techniques. The micro heat barrier has an array of non-metallic, freestanding microsupports with a height less than 100 microns, attached to a substrate. An infrared reflective membrane (e.g., 1 micron gold) can be supported by the array of microsupports to provide radiation shielding. The micro heat barrier can be evacuated to eliminate gas phase heat conduction and convection. Semi-isotropic, reactive ion plasma etching can be used to create a microspike having a cusp-like shape with a sharp, pointed tip (<0.1 micron), to minimize the tip's contact area. A heat source can be placed directly on the microspikes. The micro heat barrier can have an apparent thermal conductivity in the range of 10.sup.-6 to 10.sup.-7 W/m-K. Multiple layers of reflective membranes can be used to increase thermal resistance.

  6. Integrating preconcentrator heat controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bouchier, Francis A. (Albuquerque, NM); Arakaki, Lester H. (Edgewood, NM); Varley, Eric S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for controlling the electric resistance heating of a metallic chemical preconcentrator screen, for example, used in portable trace explosives detectors. The length of the heating time-period is automatically adjusted to compensate for any changes in the voltage driving the heating current across the screen, for example, due to gradual discharge or aging of a battery. The total deposited energy in the screen is proportional to the integral over time of the square of the voltage drop across the screen. Since the net temperature rise, .DELTA.T.sub.s, of the screen, from beginning to end of the heating pulse, is proportional to the total amount of heat energy deposited in the screen during the heating pulse, then this integral can be calculated in real-time and used to terminate the heating current when a pre-set target value has been reached; thereby providing a consistent and reliable screen temperature rise, .DELTA.T.sub.s, from pulse-to-pulse.

  7. Advanced cogeneration and absorption chillers potential for service to Navy bases. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, J.W.; Butcher, T.A.; Leigh, R.W.; McDonald, R.J.; Pierce, B.L.

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US military uses millions of Btu`s of thermal energy to heat, cool and deliver process thermal energy to buildings on military bases, much of which is transmitted through a pipeline system incorporating thousands of miles of pipe. Much of this pipeline system is in disrepair and is nearing the end of its useful life, and the boilers which supply it are old and often inefficient. In 1993, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) proposed to SERDP a three-year effort to develop advanced systems of coupled diesel cogenerators and absorption chillers which would be particularly useful in providing a continuation of the services now provided by increasingly antiquated district systems. In mid-February, 1995, BNL learned that all subsequent funding for our program had been canceled. BNL staff continued to develop the Program Plan and to adhere to the requirements of the Execution Plan, but began to look for ways in which the work could be made relevant to Navy and DoD energy needs even without the extensive development plan formerly envisioned. The entire program was therefore re-oriented to look for ways in which small scale cogeneration and absorption chilling technologies, available through procurement rather than development, could provide some solutions to the problem of deteriorated district heating systems. The result is, we believe, a striking new approach to the provision of building services on military bases: in many cases, serious study should be made of the possibility that the old district heating system should be removed or abandoned, and small-scale cogenerators and absorption chillers should be installed in each building. In the remainder of this Summary, we develop the rationale behind this concept and summarize our findings concerning the conditions under which this course of action would be advisable and the economic benefits which will accrue if it is followed. The details are developed in the succeeding sections of the report.

  8. Complex Compound Chemical Heat Pumps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rockenfeller, U.; Langeliers, J.; Horn, G.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Complex-compound solid-vapor fluid pairs can be used in heat of reaction heat pumps for temperature amplifier (TA) as well as heat amplifier (HA) cycle configurations. This report describes the conceptual hardware design for complex compound...

  9. Energy 101: Geothermal Heat Pumps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    An energy-efficient heating and cooling alternative, the geothermal heat pump system moves heat from the ground to a building (or from a building to the ground) through a series of flexible pipe ...

  10. Complex Compound Chemical Heat Pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rockenfeller, U.; Langeliers, J.; Horn, G.

    Complex-compound solid-vapor fluid pairs can be used in heat of reaction heat pumps for temperature amplifier (TA) as well as heat amplifier (HA) cycle configurations. This report describes the conceptual hardware design for complex compound...

  11. Optimization of Heat Exchanger Cleaning 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegell, J. H.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance of heat integration systems is quantified in terms of the amount of heat that is recovered. This decreases with time due to increased fouling of the heat exchange surface. Using the "Total Fouling Related Expenses (TFRE)" approach...

  12. The digestive adaptation of flying vertebrates: High intestinal paracellular absorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mladenoff, David

    The digestive adaptation of flying vertebrates: High intestinal paracellular absorption compensates analysis. Significantly greater amplification of digestive surface area by villi in small birds, also in actively flying vertebrates. digestion gut morphometrics nutrient absorption paracellular uptake Birds have

  13. autonomous solar absorption: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    N; Teng, M; Cryan, M J 2012-01-01 4 WEATHER MODIFICATION BY CARBON DUST ABSORPTION OF SOLAR ENERGY Geosciences Websites Summary: WEATHER MODIFICATION BY CARBON DUST ABSORPTION...

  14. Infrared absorption spectra, radiative efficiencies, and global warming potentials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Infrared absorption spectra, radiative efficiencies, and global warming potentials absorption spectra, radiative efficiencies, and global warming potentials of perfluorocarbons: Comparison. (1995) and combined with atmospheric lifetimes from the literature to determine global warming

  15. absorption integrals measured: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 The development of an integrating cavity absorption meter to measure optical absorption of pure waters and suspended particulates Texas...

  16. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate First Quarterly Report 2007 Quarterly Progress of this work is to improve the process for CO2 capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing

  17. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate Fourth Quarterly Report 2006 Quarterly Progress of this work is to improve the process for CO2 capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing

  18. atomic absorption spectrophotometric: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    atomic absorption spectrophotometric First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Absorption...

  19. Investigating Methods of Heat Recovery from Low-Temperature PEM Fuel Cells in CHP Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jalalzadeh-Azar, A. A.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat recovery from low-temperature proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells poses a number of challenges. In response to these challenges, thermodynamic assessments of proposed heat recovery methods are studied in the context of combined heat and power (CHP) for building applications. Preheating combustion air in conjunction with desiccant dehumidification and absorption cooling technologies is one of the two strategies examined in this study. The other approach integrates the PEM fuel cell with a water-loop heat pump (WLHP) for direct heat recovery. As the primary objective, energy-saving potentials of the adopted heat recovery strategies are estimated with respect to various benchmarks. The quantified energy-saving potentials are translated into effective CHP performance indices and compared with those typically specified by the manufacturers for service hot water applications. The need for developing CHP performance protocols is also discussed in light of the proposed energy recovery techniques - thereby, accomplishing the secondary objective.

  20. Heat treatment furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seals, Roland D; Parrott, Jeffrey G; DeMint, Paul D; Finney, Kevin R; Blue, Charles T

    2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A furnace heats through both infrared radiation and convective air utilizing an infrared/purge gas design that enables improved temperature control to enable more uniform treatment of workpieces. The furnace utilizes lamps, the electrical end connections of which are located in an enclosure outside the furnace chamber, with the lamps extending into the furnace chamber through openings in the wall of the chamber. The enclosure is purged with gas, which gas flows from the enclosure into the furnace chamber via the openings in the wall of the chamber so that the gas flows above and around the lamps and is heated to form a convective mechanism in heating parts.

  1. Molecular heat pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dvira Segal; Abraham Nitzan

    2005-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a novel molecular device that pumps heat against a thermal gradient. The system consists of a molecular element connecting two thermal reservoirs that are characterized by different spectral properties. The pumping action is achieved by applying an external force that periodically modulates molecular levels. This modulation affects periodic oscillations of the internal temperature of the molecule and the strength of its coupling to each reservoir resulting in a net heat flow in the desired direction. The heat flow is examined in the slow and fast modulation limits and for different modulation waveforms, thus making it possible to optimize the device performance.

  2. Specifying Waste Heat Boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganapathy, V.

    or hydrochloric acid vapor should be mentioned upfront so the HRSG designer can take proper precauations while designing the unit.Material selection is also impacted by the presence of corrosive gases.If partial pressure of hydrogen is high in the gas stream...SPECIFYING WASTE HEAT BOILERS V.Ganapathy.ABCO Industries Abilene,Texas ABSTRACT Waste heat boilers or Heat Recovery Steam 'Generators(HRSGs) as they are often called are used to recover energy from waste gas streams in chemical plants...

  3. Integrated vacuum absorption steam cycle gas separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Shiaguo (Champaign, IL); Lu, Yonggi (Urbana, IL); Rostam-Abadi, Massoud (Champaign, IL)

    2011-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and systems for separating a targeted gas from a gas stream emitted from a power plant. The gas stream is brought into contact with an absorption solution to preferentially absorb the targeted gas to be separated from the gas stream so that an absorbed gas is present within the absorption solution. This provides a gas-rich solution, which is introduced into a stripper. Low pressure exhaust steam from a low pressure steam turbine of the power plant is injected into the stripper with the gas-rich solution. The absorbed gas from the gas-rich solution is stripped in the stripper using the injected low pressure steam to provide a gas stream containing the targeted gas. The stripper is at or near vacuum. Water vapor in a gas stream from the stripper is condensed in a condenser operating at a pressure lower than the stripper to concentrate the targeted gas. Condensed water is separated from the concentrated targeted gas.

  4. Triple-effect absorption refrigeration system with double-condenser coupling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeVault, R.C.; Biermann, W.J.

    1993-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A triple effect absorption refrigeration system is provided with a double-condenser coupling and a parallel or series circuit for feeding the refrigerant-containing absorbent solution through the high, medium, and low temperature generators utilized in the triple-effect system. The high temperature condenser receiving vaporous refrigerant from the high temperature generator is double coupled to both the medium temperature generator and the low temperature generator to enhance the internal recovery of heat within the system and thereby increase the thermal efficiency thereof.

  5. Triple-effect absorption refrigeration system with double-condenser coupling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeVault, Robert C. (Knoxville, TN); Biermann, Wendell J. (Fayetteville, NY)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A triple effect absorption refrigeration system is provided with a double-condenser coupling and a parallel or series circuit for feeding the refrigerant-containing absorbent solution through the high, medium, and low temperature generators utilized in the triple-effect system. The high temperature condenser receiving vaporous refrigerant from the high temperature generator is double coupled to both the medium temperature generator and the low temperature generator to enhance the internal recovery of heat within the system and thereby increase the thermal efficiency thereof.

  6. NGNP Process Heat Utilization: Liquid Metal Phase Change Heat Exchanger

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Mike Patterson; Vivek Utgikar; Fred Gunnerson

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One key long-standing issue that must be overcome to fully realize the successful growth of nuclear power is to determine other benefits of nuclear energy apart from meeting the electricity demands. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will most likely be producing electricity and heat for the production of hydrogen and/or oil retrieval from oil sands and oil shale to help in our national pursuit of energy independence. For nuclear process heat to be utilized, intermediate heat exchange is required to transfer heat from the NGNP to the hydrogen plant or oil recovery field in the most efficient way possible. Development of nuclear reactor - process heat technology has intensified the interest in liquid metals as heat transfer media because of their ideal transport properties. Liquid metal heat exchangers are not new in practical applications. An important rational for considering liquid metals is the potential convective heat transfer is among the highest known. Thus explains the interest in liquid metals as coolant for intermediate heat exchange from NGNP. For process heat it is desired that, intermediate heat exchangers (IHX) transfer heat from the NGNP in the most efficient way possible. The production of electric power at higher efficiency via the Brayton Cycle, and hydrogen production, requires both heat at higher temperatures and high effectiveness compact heat exchangers to transfer heat to either the power or process cycle. Compact heat exchangers maximize the heat transfer surface area per volume of heat exchanger; this has the benefit of reducing heat exchanger size and heat losses. High temperature IHX design requirements are governed in part by the allowable temperature drop between the outlet and inlet of the NGNP. In order to improve the characteristics of heat transfer, liquid metal phase change heat exchangers may be more effective and efficient. This paper explores the overall heat transfer characteristics and pressure drop of the phase change heat exchanger with Na as the heat exchanger coolant. In order to design a very efficient and effective heat exchanger one must optimize the design such that we have a high heat transfer and a lower pressure drop, but there is always a trade-off between them. Based on NGNP operational parameters, a heat exchanger analysis with the sodium phase change will be presented to show that the heat exchanger has the potential for highly effective heat transfer, within a small volume at reasonable cost.

  7. Split-flow regeneration in absorptive air separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weimer, Robert F. (Allentown, PA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical absorptive separation of air in multiple stage of absorption and desorption is performed with partial recycle of absorbent between stages of desorption necessary to match equilibrium conditions in the various stages of absorption. This allows reduced absorbent flow, reduced energy demand and reduced capital costs.

  8. Split-flow regeneration in absorptive air separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weimer, R.F.

    1987-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical absorptive separation of air in multiple stage of absorption and desorption is performed with partial recycle of absorbent between stages of desorption necessary to match equilibrium conditions in the various stages of absorption. This allows reduced absorbent flow, reduced energy demand and reduced capital costs. 4 figs.

  9. Chukwuemeka I. Okoye Carbon Dioxide Solubility and Absorption Rate in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    Copyright by Chukwuemeka I. Okoye 2005 #12;Carbon Dioxide Solubility and Absorption Rate _______________________ Nicholas A. Peppas #12;Carbon Dioxide Solubility and Absorption Rate in Monoethanolamine/Piperazine/H2O for. #12;iii Carbon Dioxide Solubility and Absorption Rate in Monoethanolamine/Piperazine/H2O

  10. On the Absorption and Emission Properties of Interstellar Grains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aigen Li

    2005-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Our current understanding of the absorption and emission properties of interstellar grains are reviewed. The constraints placed by the Kramers-Kronig relation on the wavelength-dependence and the maximum allowable quantity of the dust absorption are discussed. Comparisons of the opacities (mass absorption coefficients) derived from interstellar dust models with those directly estimated from observations are presented.

  11. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate Third Quarterly Report 2005 Quarterly Progress absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K2CO3 promoted by piperazine. Modeling.................................................................................................................................. 11 Task 1 ­ Modeling Performance of Absorption/Stripping of CO2 with Aqueous K2CO3 Promoted

  12. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate First Quarterly Report 2006 Quarterly Progress the process for CO2 capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous.................................................................................................................................... 8 Task 1 ­ Modeling Performance of Absorption/Stripping of CO2 with Aqueous K2CO3 Promoted

  13. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate Third Quarterly Report 2006 Quarterly Progress of this work is to improve the process for CO2 capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing...................................................................................................................................11 Task 1 ­ Modeling Performance of Absorption/Stripping of CO2 with Aqueous K2CO3 Promoted

  14. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate Second Quarterly Report 2006 Quarterly Progress of this work is to improve the process for CO2 capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing.................................................................................................................................. 10 Task 1 ­ Modeling Performance of Absorption/Stripping of CO2 with Aqueous K2CO3 Promoted

  15. Application of Quantitative Fluorescence and Absorption-Edge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Application of Quantitative Fluorescence and Absorption-Edge Computed Microtomography to Image, Chicago, Illinois 60637 This paper shows that synchrotron-based fluorescence and absorption-edge computed, which had a well-correlated metal coating. Absorption-edge CMT showed the three-dimensional distribution

  16. The role of solar absorption in climate and climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 The role of solar absorption in climate and climate change William Collins UC Berkeley Research Boulder, Colorado, USA #12;2 Prior Research on Absorption and Climate Field Experiments: · Central · Climate with enhanced cloud absorption Synthesis of models and aerosol observations: · Development

  17. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate Fourth Quarterly Report 2005 Quarterly Progress absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K2CO3 promoted by piperazine. In Campaign.................................................................................................................................... 9 Task 1 ­ Modeling Performance of Absorption/Stripping of CO2 with Aqueous K2CO3 Promoted

  18. Absorption of Carbon Dioxide in Aqueous Piperazine/Methyldiethanolamine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    Absorption of Carbon Dioxide in Aqueous Piperazine/Methyldiethanolamine Sanjay Bishnoi and Gary T dioxide absorption in 0.6 M piperazine PZ r4 M methyldiethanolamine ( )MDEA was measured in a wetted wall loading. The absorption rate did not follow pseudo first-order beha®ior except at ®ery low loading. All

  19. Liquid Phase Heating Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mordt, E. H.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Temperature Water (HTW) central district heating systems are far superior to steam systems in large, spread out installations such as airports, universities and office complexes. Water, pressurized to keep it in the liquid state, is distributed at 400o...

  20. Composite heat damage assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janke, C.J.; Wachter, E.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Philpot, H.E. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States); Powell, G.L. [Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, TN (United States)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of heat damage were determined on the residual mechanical, physical, and chemical properties of IM6/3501-6 laminates, and potential nondestructive techniques to detect and assess material heat damage were evaluated. About one thousand preconditioned specimens were exposed to elevated temperatures, then cooled to room temperature and tested in compression, flexure, interlaminar shear, shore-D hardness, weight loss, and change in thickness. Specimens experienced significant and irreversible reduction in their residual properties when exposed to temperatures exceeding the material upper service temperature of this material (350{degrees}F). The Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform and Laser-Pumped Fluorescence techniques were found to be capable of rapid, in-service, nondestructive detection and quantitation of heat damage in IM6/3501- 6. These techniques also have the potential applicability to detect and assess heat damage effects in other polymer matrix composites.

  1. Mechanical Compression Heat Pumps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apaloo, T. L.; Kawamura, K.; Matsuda, J.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to develop, design and test compressors built to meet the needs of the mechanically demanding industrial heat pump applications which often require high compression ratios and temperatures in excess of 200 degrees F. This paper will review the theoretical...

  2. Photovoltaic roof heat flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samady, Mezhgan Frishta

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    e l Atmosphere ceiling, back panel roof, exposed roof insideSAN DIEGO Photovoltaic Roof Heat Flux A Thesis submitted i no n Convection Exposed Roof Temperature Seasonal Temperature

  3. Photovoltaic roof heat flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samady, Mezhgan Frishta

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    under the offset unit's solar panel, the hf formula (16) wasdrop below the angle unit's solar panel at night time. D u rfor both the units, the solar panel covered roof was a heat

  4. Passive solar heating analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.; Jones, R.W.; Mc Farland, R.D.; Wray, W.O.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This book discusses about the design of solar heating systems. The terms and symbols are clearly defined. Step-by-step procedures are indicated. Worked examples are given with tables, graphs, appendixes.

  5. Absorption of solar radiation by the cloudy atmosphere: Further interpretations of collocated aircraft measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    J. Vitko Jr. , Absorption of solar radiation by the cloudyet al. , Absorption of solar radiation by clouds: Observa-1999 Absorption of solar radiation by the cloudy atmosphere:

  6. Methanol-based heat pump for solar heating, cooling, and storage. Phase III. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Offenhartz, P O'D; Rye, T V; Malsberger, R E; Schwartz, D

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The reaction of CH/sub 3/OH vapor with solid (pellet) CaCl/sub 2/ to form the solid phase compound CaCll/sub 2/ . 2CH/sub 3/OH can be used as the basis of a combined solar heat pump/thermal energy storage system. Such a system is capable of storing heat indefinitely at ambient temperature, and can be used for space and domestic hot water heating, and for air conditioning with forced air (dry) heat rejection. It combines all features required of a residential or commercial space conditioning system except for solar collection. A detailed thermal analysis shows that the coefficient of performance for heating is greater than 1.5, and for cooling, greater than 0.5. This has been confirmed by direct experimental measurement on an engineering development test unit (EDTU). The experimental rate of CH/sub 3/OH absorption is a strong function of the absorber-evaporator temperature difference. The minimum practical hourly rate, 0.10 moles CH/sub 3/OH per mole CaCl/sub 2/, was observed with the salt-bed heat transfer fluid at 40/sup 0/C and the CH/sub 3/OH evaporator at -15/sup 0/C. a detailed performance and economic analysis was carried out for a system operated in Washington, DC. With 25 square meters of evacuated tube solar collectors, the CaCl/sub 2/-CH/sub 3/OH chemical heat pump should be capable of meeting over 90% of the cooling load, 80% of the heating load, and 70% of the domestic hot water load with nonpurchased energy in a typical well-insulated single family residence, thus saving about $600 per year. In small-scale production, the installed cost of the system, including solar collectors and backup, is estimated to be about $10,000 greater than a conventional heating and cooling system, and a much lower cost should be possible in the longer term.

  7. Mechanical Compression Heat Pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apaloo, T. L.; Kawamura, K.; Matsuda, J.

    dampened because there is a current abundance of the basic sources of industrial energy (namely oil and natural gas). Meanwhile, Mycom used the window of the current opportunities to develop, design and test compressors built to meet the needs... requirements of the compressors which constitute the heart and soul of the system. It will also provide a quick survey of the available types of compressors for heat pumping and some of the industrial processes where simultaneous heating and cooling...

  8. Intrinsically irreversible heat engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A class of heat engines based on an intrinsically irreversible heat transfer process is disclosed. In a typical embodiment the engine comprises a compressible fluid that is cyclically compressed and expanded while at the same time being driven in reciprocal motion by a positive displacement drive means. A second thermodynamic medium is maintained in imperfect thermal contact with the fluid and bears a broken thermodynamic symmetry with respect to the fluid. The second thermodynamic medium is a structure adapted to have a low fluid flow impedance with respect to the compressible fluid, and which is further adapted to be in only moderate thermal contact with the fluid. In operation, thermal energy is pumped along the second medium due to a phase lag between the cyclical heating and cooling of the fluid and the resulting heat conduction between the fluid and the medium. In a preferred embodiment the engine comprises an acoustical drive and a housing containing a gas which is driven at a resonant frequency so as to be maintained in a standing wave. Operation of the engine at acoustic frequencies improves the power density and coefficient of performance. The second thermodynamic medium can be coupled to suitable heat exchangers to utilize the engine as a simple refrigeration device having no mechanical moving parts. Alternatively, the engine is reversible in function so as to be utilizable as a prime mover by coupling it to suitable sources and sinks of heat.

  9. Intrinsically irreversible heat engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1984-12-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A class of heat engines based on an intrinsically irreversible heat transfer process is disclosed. In a typical embodiment the engine comprises a compressible fluid that is cyclically compressed and expanded while at the same time being driven in reciprocal motion by a positive displacement drive means. A second thermodynamic medium is maintained in imperfect thermal contact with the fluid and bears a broken thermodynamic symmetry with respect to the fluid. The second thermodynamic medium is a structure adapted to have a low fluid flow impedance with respect to the compressible fluid, and which is further adapted to be in only moderate thermal contact with the fluid. In operation, thermal energy is pumped along the second medium due to a phase lag between the cyclical heating and cooling of the fluid and the resulting heat conduction between the fluid and the medium. In a preferred embodiment the engine comprises an acoustical drive and a housing containing a gas which is driven at a resonant frequency so as to be maintained in a standing wave. Operation of the engine at acoustic frequencies improves the power density and coefficient of performance. The second thermodynamic medium can be coupled to suitable heat exchangers to utilize the engine as a simple refrigeration device having no mechanical moving parts. Alternatively, the engine is reversible in function so as to be utilizable as a prime mover by coupling it to suitable sources and sinks of heat. 11 figs.

  10. Intrinsically irreversible heat engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, John C. (Los Alamos, NM); Swift, Gregory W. (Los Alamos, NM); Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A class of heat engines based on an intrinsically irreversible heat transfer process is disclosed. In a typical embodiment the engine comprises a compressible fluid that is cyclically compressed and expanded while at the same time being driven in reciprocal motion by a positive displacement drive means. A second thermodynamic medium is maintained in imperfect thermal contact with the fluid and bears a broken thermodynamic symmetry with respect to the fluid. the second thermodynamic medium is a structure adapted to have a low fluid flow impedance with respect to the compressible fluid, and which is further adapted to be in only moderate thermal contact with the fluid. In operation, thermal energy is pumped along the second medium due to a phase lag between the cyclical heating and cooling of the fluid and the resulting heat conduction between the fluid and the medium. In a preferred embodiment the engine comprises an acoustical drive and a housing containing a gas which is driven at a resonant frequency so as to be maintained in a standing wave. Operation of the engine at acoustic frequencies improves the power density and coefficient of performance. The second thermodynamic medium can be coupled to suitable heat exchangers to utilize the engine as a simple refrigeration device having no mechanical moving parts. Alternatively, the engine is reversible in function so as to be utilizable as a prime mover by coupling it to suitable sources and sinks of heat.

  11. Convective heat flow probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn, J.C.; Hardee, H.C.; Striker, R.P.

    1984-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A convective heat flow probe device is provided which measures heat flow and fluid flow magnitude in the formation surrounding a borehole. The probe comprises an elongate housing adapted to be lowered down into the borehole; a plurality of heaters extending along the probe for heating the formation surrounding the borehole; a plurality of temperature sensors arranged around the periphery of the probe for measuring the temperature of the surrounding formation after heating thereof by the heater elements. The temperature sensors and heater elements are mounted in a plurality of separate heater pads which are supported by the housing and which are adapted to be radially expanded into firm engagement with the walls of the borehole. The heat supplied by the heater elements and the temperatures measured by the temperature sensors are monitored and used in providing the desired measurements. The outer peripheral surfaces of the heater pads are configured as segments of a cylinder and form a full cylinder when taken together. A plurality of temperature sensors are located on each pad so as to extend along the length and across the width thereof, with a heating element being located in each pad beneath the temperature sensors. An expansion mechanism driven by a clamping motor provides expansion and retraction of the heater pads and expandable packet-type seals are provided along the probe above and below the heater pads.

  12. Radial flow heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Valenzuela, Javier (Hanover, NH)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A radial flow heat exchanger (20) having a plurality of first passages (24) for transporting a first fluid (25) and a plurality of second passages (26) for transporting a second fluid (27). The first and second passages are arranged in stacked, alternating relationship, are separated from one another by relatively thin plates (30) and (32), and surround a central axis (22). The thickness of the first and second passages are selected so that the first and second fluids, respectively, are transported with laminar flow through the passages. To enhance thermal energy transfer between first and second passages, the latter are arranged so each first passage is in thermal communication with an associated second passage along substantially its entire length, and vice versa with respect to the second passages. The heat exchangers may be stacked to achieve a modular heat exchange assembly (300). Certain heat exchangers in the assembly may be designed slightly differently than other heat exchangers to address changes in fluid properties during transport through the heat exchanger, so as to enhance overall thermal effectiveness of the assembly.

  13. Environmental benefits of different types of heat pumps, available and expected

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, P.J.

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A brief overview of integrated resource planning (IRP) is provided, with emphasis on how stakeholders interact within the process and where the opportunities may lie for heat pump advocates in cold climates. Five heat pump options that represent various approaches for improving heat pump cold weather performance are included here in a comparative analysis: 2-speed electric air source heat pumps, variable-speed electric air source heat pumps, electric ground-source heat pumps, natural gas engine-driven heat pumps, and natural gas absorption heat pumps. The comparative analysis addresses seasonal performance, seasonal peak demand, air pollutant emissions, customer energy costs, and recognition of environmental externalities in IRP, all in the context of a residential application in the Great Lakes region of the US. Several actions that may be in the interest of heat pump stakeholders in cold climates were identified, including: development of improved software for utility planners, advocacy of a practical form of the Societal Test for use in IRP that credits heat pumps for the residential air pollutant emissions that they avoid, and development of practical methods to credit heat pumps with other environmental benefits for which they may be responsible.

  14. Improvement of the Performance for an Absorption Refrigeration System with Lithium bromide-water as Refrigerant by Increasing Absorption Pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, G.; Sheng, G.; Li, G.; Pan, S.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China HVAC Technologies for Energy Efficiency, Vol. IV-10-4 Improvement of the Performance for an Absorption Refrigerating System with Lithium bromide-water as Refrigerant by Increasing Absorption... in order to lay a theoretical foundation of improving the performance of whole LBAC. 2. THE PRINCIPLE OF ENHANCING ABSORPTION EFFICIENCY OF THE ABSORBER It is well known that the absorption of ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China HVAC...

  15. Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater - 2013 Peer Review | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China 2015ofDepartmentDepartment of2 of 5) ALARAManager(December 1982)

  16. Generated using version 3.0 of the official AMS LATEX template The seasonal cycle of atmospheric heating and temperature1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Battisti, David

    heating and temperature1 Aaron Donohoe Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 2 Institute of Technology, Dept. of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Room Number 54-918, 77 of the heating of the atmosphere is divided into a component due to direct5 solar absorption in the atmosphere

  17. Generated using version 3.1 of the official AMS LATEX template The seasonal cycle of atmospheric heating and temperature1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Battisti, David

    heating and temperature1 Aaron Donohoe Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 2 Institute of Technology, Dept. of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Room Number 54-918, 77 of the heating of the atmosphere is divided into a component due to direct5 solar absorption in the atmosphere

  18. Heat exchanger device and method for heat removal or transfer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koplow, Jeffrey P

    2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods for a forced-convection heat exchanger are provided. In one embodiment, heat is transferred to or from a thermal load in thermal contact with a heat conducting structure, across a narrow air gap, to a rotating heat transfer structure immersed in a surrounding medium such as air.

  19. Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 #12;Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating Søren Østergaard Jensen

  20. Heat exchanger device and method for heat removal or transfer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koplow, Jeffrey P. (San Ramon, CA)

    2012-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods for a forced-convection heat exchanger are provided. In one embodiment, heat is transferred to or from a thermal load in thermal contact with a heat conducting structure, across a narrow air gap, to a rotating heat transfer structure immersed in a surrounding medium such as air.

  1. Waste Heat Recovery Using a Circulating Heat Medium Loop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manning, E., Jr.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by a circulating heat medium loop where waste heat is recovered for useful purposes. The heat medium chosen is turbine fuel. It is pumped around the refinery to pick up heat at the crude distilling unit, the hydrocracker, the catalytic cracker...

  2. Resonant absorption in dissipative flux tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Safari, H; Karami, K; Sobouti, Y

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oscillations of coronal loops are believed to be the primary cause of the solar corona heating. We study the resonant absorbtion of MHD waves in magnetized flux tubes with graded densities across the cross section of the tube. Within the approximation that resistive and viscous processes are operative in thin layers surrounding the singularities of the MHD equations, we give the full spectrum of the eigenfrequencies, damping rates, as well as, the eigenfields of the normal MHD modes of the tube. Both surface and body modes are analyzed and the contribution of each class to heating of the corona is commented on.

  3. Dilution cycle control for an absorption refrigeration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A dilution cycle control system for an absorption refrigeration system is disclosed. The control system includes a time delay relay for sensing shutdown of the absorption refrigeration system and for generating a control signal only after expiration of a preselected time period measured from the sensed shutdown of the absorption refrigeration system, during which the absorption refrigeration system is not restarted. A dilution cycle for the absorption refrigeration system is initiated in response to generation of a control signal by the time delay relay. This control system is particularly suitable for use with an absorption refrigeration system which is frequently cycled on and off since the time delay provided by the control system prevents needless dilution of the absorption refrigeration system when the system is turned off for only a short period of time and then is turned back on.

  4. Toolbox Safety Talk Heat Stress

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    Toolbox Safety Talk Heat Stress Environmental Health & Safety Facilities Safety & Health Section for inducing heat stress. When the body is unable to cool itself by sweating, several heat-induced illnesses Stress · Know signs/symptoms of heat-related illnesses; monitor yourself and coworkers. · Block out

  5. temperature heat pumps applied to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    losses (waste heat) 250-300°C......1100°C ~ 100 TWh/year Low temperature thermal losses (waste heat) 25°C;Waste heat recovery (1) In a decreasing energetic interest order Achema 2012 Frankfurt June 21th 2012>>Twaste #12;Waste heat recovery (2) Achema 2012 Frankfurt June 21th 2012 There is no interesting thermal

  6. Cross section for charmonium absorption by nucleons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, W.; Ko, Che Ming; Lin, ZW.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    July 2001; publishe The cross section for J/c absorption by nucleons is with empirical particle masses, which has been used previousl by pion and r meson. Including both two-body and three-bod of 1 GeV at interaction vertices involving charm hadrons... and is consistent with that extracted from J/c productio DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevC.65.015203 PAC I. INTRODUCTION Two main mechanisms for J/c suppression observed in relativistic heavy ion collisions @1# are the dissociation by the quark-gluon plasma @2...

  7. Distributed Bragg Reflectors With Reduced Optical Absorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klem, John F. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2005-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A new class of distributed Bragg reflectors has been developed. These distributed Bragg reflectors comprise interlayers positioned between sets of high-index and low-index quarter-wave plates. The presence of these interlayers is to reduce photon absorption resulting from spatially indirect photon-assisted electronic transitions between the high-index and low-index quarter wave plates. The distributed Bragg reflectors have applications for use in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for use at 1.55 .mu.m and at other wavelengths of interest.

  8. Absorption of the $?$ and $?$ Mesons in Nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. H. Wood; R. Nasseripour; M. Paolone; C. Djalali; D. P. Weygand; the CLAS Collaboration

    2010-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to their long lifetimes, the $\\omega$ and $\\phi$ mesons are the ideal candidates for the study of possible modifications of the in-medium meson-nucleon interaction through their absorption inside the nucleus. During the E01-112 experiment at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, the mesons were photoproduced from $^{2}$H, C, Ti, Fe, and Pb targets. This paper reports the first measurement of the ratio of nuclear transparencies for the $e^{+}e^{-}$ channel. The ratios indicate larger in-medium widths compared with what have been reported in other reaction channels.

  9. SMB, X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection245C Unlimited ReleaseWelcome to theAbsorption Spectroscopy X-ray

  10. Heat distribution ceramic processing method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiegs, Terry N. (Lenoir City, TN); Kiggans, Jr., James O. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-layered heat distributor system is provided for use in a microwave process. The multi-layered heat distributors includes a first inner layer of a high thermal conductivity heat distributor material, a middle insulating layer and an optional third insulating outer layer. The multi-layered heat distributor system is placed around the ceramic composition or article to be processed and located in a microwave heating system. Sufficient microwave energy is applied to provide a high density, unflawed ceramic product.

  11. Heat and Power Systems Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spriggs, H. D.; Shah, J. V.

    HEAT AND POWER SYSTEMS DESIGN H. D. Spriggs and J. V. Shah, Leesburg. VA ABSTRACT The selection of heat and power systems usually does not include a thorough analysis of the process heating. cooling and power requirements. In most cases..., these process requirements are accepted as specifications before heat and power systems are selected and designed. In t~is article we describe how Process Integration using Pinch Technology can be used to understand and achieve the minimum process heating...

  12. Vertical-tube aqueous LiBr falling film absorption using advanced surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, W.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Perez-Blanco, H. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat and mass transfer test stand was fabricated and used to investigate nonisothermal falling film absorption of water vapor into a solution of aqueous lithium bromide. The absorber was made of borosilicate glass for visual inspection of the failing film. Experiments were conducted on internally cooled tubes of about 0.019 m outside diameter and of 1.53 m length. Testing evaluated a single absorber tube`s performance at varying operating conditions, namely different cooling-water flow rates, solution flow rates, pressures, temperatures, and concentrations. Advanced surfaces were identified that enhanced absorber load and the mass of absorbed vapor. A pin-fin tube with 6.4mm pitch absorbed about 225% more mass than did a smooth tube. A grooved tube was the d best performer with 175% enhancement over the smooth tube. Increasing the cooling water flow rate to 1.893 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} m{sup 3}/s caused about a 300% increase in the mass absorbed for the grooved tube compared with the smooth tube. Results showed that the pin-fin tube with 6.4-mm pitch and the grooved tubes may enhance absorption to levels comparable to chemical enhancement in horizontal smooth tube absorbers. Absorber load, the transport coefficients, and pertinent absorption data are presented as functions of dimensionless numbers. These experimental data will prove useful in formulating analytical tools to predict vertical-tube absorber performance.

  13. Estimated size and performance of a natural gas fired duplex Stirling for domestic refrigeration applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berchowitz, D.M. (Sunpower, Inc., Athens, OH (United States)); Shonder, J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Calibrated calculations are used to size an integrated Stirling cooler and engine (Duplex configuration). Fuel for the engine is natural gas and the working fluid is helium. The potential exists for long life and low noise. Performance is shown to be very competitive when compared to standard vapor compression systems. 10 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  14. An experimental study of gas-fired infrared drying of paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirtz, Jefferson

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    as the exposure time increased. The final investigation focused on the effects of varying emitter parameters. Flame temperature, sample mass, and internal temperature measurements were made for various air/fuel ratios and overall fuel consumption rates. Peak flame...

  15. An experimental study of gas-fired infrared drying of paper 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirtz, Jefferson

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    exchanger assembly with top plate removed. . . 39 40 14 Schematic of TAPPI 159 mm diameter handsheet machine (Asensio, 1992) 47 15 Barrel of TAPPI handsheet machine in the closed position with the agitator shown on the right and couch roll on the left...

  16. Overshooting by differential heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrássy, R

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On the long nuclear time scale of stellar main-sequence evolution, even weak mixing processes can become relevant for redistributing chemical species in a star. We investigate a process of "differential heating," which occurs when a temperature fluctuation propagates by radiative diffusion from the boundary of a convection zone into the adjacent radiative zone. The resulting perturbation of the hydrostatic equilibrium causes a flow that extends some distance from the convection zone. We study a simplified differential-heating problem with a static temperature fluctuation imposed on a solid boundary. The astrophysically relevant limit of a high Reynolds number and a low P\\'eclet number (high thermal diffusivity) turns out to be interestingly non-intuitive. We derive a set of scaling relations for the stationary differential heating flow. A numerical method adapted to a high dynamic range in flow amplitude needed to detect weak flows is presented. Our two-dimensional simulations show that the flow reaches a sta...

  17. Air heating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Primeau, John J. (19800 Seminole Rd., Euclid, OH 44117)

    1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A self-starting, fuel-fired, air heating system including a vapor generator, a turbine, and a condenser connected in a closed circuit such that the vapor output from the vapor generator is conducted to the turbine and then to the condenser where it is condensed for return to the vapor generator. The turbine drives an air blower which passes air over the condenser for cooling the condenser. Also, a condensate pump is driven by the turbine. The disclosure is particularly concerned with the provision of heat exchanger and circuitry for cooling the condensed fluid output from the pump prior to its return to the vapor generator.

  18. Acoustical heat pumping engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, John C. (Los Alamos, NM); Swift, Gregory W. (Los Alamos, NM); Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM)

    1983-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure is directed to an acoustical heat pumping engine without moving seals. A tubular housing holds a compressible fluid capable of supporting an acoustical standing wave. An acoustical driver is disposed at one end of the housing and the other end is capped. A second thermodynamic medium is disposed in the housing near to but spaced from the capped end. Heat is pumped along the second thermodynamic medium toward the capped end as a consequence both of the pressure oscillation due to the driver and imperfect thermal contact between the fluid and the second thermodynamic medium.

  19. Acoustical heat pumping engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1983-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure is directed to an acoustical heat pumping engine without moving seals. A tubular housing holds a compressible fluid capable of supporting an acoustical standing wave. An acoustical driver is disposed at one end of the housing and the other end is capped. A second thermodynamic medium is disposed in the housing near to but spaced from the capped end. Heat is pumped along the second thermodynamic medium toward the capped end as a consequence both of the pressure oscillation due to the driver and imperfect thermal contact between the fluid and the second thermodynamic medium. 2 figs.

  20. Solar industrial process heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lumsdaine, E.

    1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of the assessment reported is to candidly examine the contribution that solar industrial process heat (SIPH) is realistically able to make in the near and long-term energy futures of the United States. The performance history of government and privately funded SIPH demonstration programs, 15 of which are briefly summarized, and the present status of SIPH technology are discussed. The technical and performance characteristics of solar industrial process heat plants and equipment are reviewed, as well as evaluating how the operating experience of over a dozen SIPH demonstration projects is influencing institutional acceptance and economoc projections. Implications for domestic energy policy and international implications are briefly discussed. (LEW)

  1. Heat-transfer coefficients in agitated vessels. Latent heat models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumpinsky, E. [Ashland Chemical Co., Columbus, OH (United States)] [Ashland Chemical Co., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Latent heat models were developed to calculate heat-transfer coefficients in agitated vessels for two cases: (1) heating with a condensable fluid flowing through coils and jackets; (2) vacuum reflux cooling with an overhead condenser. In either case the mathematical treatment, based on macroscopic balances, requires no iterative schemes. In addition to providing heat-transfer coefficients, the models predict flow rates of service fluid through the coils and jackets, estimate the percentage of heat transfer due to latent heat, and compute reflux rates.

  2. Temperature distributions in the laser-heated diamond anvil cell from 3-D numerical modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rainey, E. S. G.; Kavner, A. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Hernlund, J. W. [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Earth-Life Science Institute, Megoro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

    2013-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We present TempDAC, a 3-D numerical model for calculating the steady-state temperature distribution for continuous wave laser-heated experiments in the diamond anvil cell. TempDAC solves the steady heat conduction equation in three dimensions over the sample chamber, gasket, and diamond anvils and includes material-, temperature-, and direction-dependent thermal conductivity, while allowing for flexible sample geometries, laser beam intensity profile, and laser absorption properties. The model has been validated against an axisymmetric analytic solution for the temperature distribution within a laser-heated sample. Example calculations illustrate the importance of considering heat flow in three dimensions for the laser-heated diamond anvil cell. In particular, we show that a “flat top” input laser beam profile does not lead to a more uniform temperature distribution or flatter temperature gradients than a wide Gaussian laser beam.

  3. Work measurement in an optomechanical quantum heat engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ying Dong; Keye Zhang; Francesco Bariani; Pierre Meystre

    2015-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze theoretically the measurement of the mean output work and its fluctuations in a recently proposed optomechanical quantum heat engine [K. Zhang {\\it et al.} Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf112}, 150602 (2014)]. After showing that this work can be evaluated by a continuous measurements of the intracavity photon number we discuss both dispersive and absorptive measurement schemes and analyze their back-action effects on the efficiency of the engine. Both measurements are found to reduce the efficiency of the engine, but their back-action is both qualitatively and quantitatively different. For dispersive measurements the efficiency decreases as a result of the mixing of photonic and phononic excitations, while for absorptive measurements, its reduction results from photon losses due to the interaction with the quantum probe.

  4. Single photon absorption by a single atom: from heralded absorption to polarization state mapping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicolas Piro; Jürgen Eschner

    2015-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Together with photon emission, the absorption of a single photon by a single atom is a fundamental process in matter-light interaction that manifests its quantum mechanical nature. As an experimentally controlled process, it is a key tool for the realization of quantum technologies. In particular, in an atom/photon based quantum network scenario, in which localized atomic particles are used as quantum information processing nodes while photons are used as carriers of quantum information between distant nodes, controlling both emission and absorption of single photons by single atoms is required for quantum coherent state mapping between the two entities. Most experimental efforts to date have focused on establishing the control of single photon emission by single trapped atoms, and the implementation of quantum networking protocols using this interaction. In this chapter, we describe experimental efforts to control the process of single photon absorption by single trapped ions. We describe a series of experiments in which polarization entangled photon pairs, generated by a spontaneous parametric down-conversion source, are coupled to a single ion. First the source is operated to generate heralded single photons, and coincidences between the absorption event of one photon of the pair and the detection of the heralding partner photon are observed. We then show how polarization control in the process is established, leading to the manifestation of the photonic polarization entanglement in the absorption process. Finally, we introduce protocols in which this interaction scheme is harnessed to perform tasks in a quantum network, such as entanglement distribution among distant nodes of the network, and we demonstrate a specific protocol for heralded, high-fidelity photon-to-atom quantum state transfer.

  5. Wastewater heat recovery apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W. (108 Independent Blvd., Aiken, SC 29801)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat recovery system with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature.

  6. Wastewater heat recovery apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat recovery system is described with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature. 6 figs.

  7. Behavior of microwave-heated silicon carbide particles at frequencies of 2.0–13.5?GHz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugawara, H.; Hayashi, M.; Ishihara, S. [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama 2-12-1, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Kashimura, K., E-mail: kashimura@isc.chubu.ac.jp [Chubu University, 1200 Matsumoto-cho, Kasugai, Aichi 487-8501 (Japan); Mitani, T.; Shinohara, N. [Kyoto University, Gokasyo, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Silicon carbide is a key material in microwave (MW) processing and is used widely as a thermal insulator and catalytic agent. In this study, we experimentally investigated the temperature dependence of the MW-absorption properties of SiC particles at frequencies of 2.0–13.5?GHz. We heated SiC particles of different sizes using MW radiation. The heating behaviors of the particles were then compared with their MW-absorption properties. The heating behavior of the particles was dependent on their radii; this result was in keeping with theoretical predictions. Furthermore, the ?-SiC particles exhibited anomalous behaviors when subjected to microwave heating at temperatures of 1100?°C and higher. These behaviors were attributable to the transformation of ?-SiC into the ?-phase. The underlying mechanism for this transformation is discussed on the basis of the results of X-ray diffraction analysis.

  8. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary T. Rochelle; Eric Chen; Babatunde Oyenekan; Andrew Sexton; Jason Davis; Marus Hiilliard; Qing Xu; David Van Wagener; Jorge M. Plaza

    2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. The best solvent and process configuration, matrix with MDEA/PZ, offers 22% and 15% energy savings over the baseline and improved baseline, respectively, with stripping and compression to 10 MPa. The energy requirement for stripping and compression to 10 MPa is about 20% of the power output from a 500 MW power plant with 90% CO{sub 2} removal. The stripper rate model shows that a ''short and fat'' stripper requires 7 to 15% less equivalent work than a ''tall and skinny'' one. The stripper model was validated with data obtained from pilot plant experiments at the University of Texas with 5m K{sup +}/2.5m PZ and 6.4m K{sup +}/1.6m PZ under normal pressure and vacuum conditions using Flexipac AQ Style 20 structured packing. Experiments with oxidative degradation at low gas rates confirm the effects of Cu{sup +2} catalysis; in MEA/PZ solutions more formate and acetate is produced in the presence of Cu{sup +2}. At 150 C, the half life of 30% MEA with 0.4 moles CO{sub 2}/mole amine is about 2 weeks. At 100 C, less than 3% degradation occurred in two weeks. The solubility of potassium sulfate in MEA solution increases significantly with CO{sub 2} loading and decreases with MEA concentration. The base case corrosion rate in 5 M MEA/1,2M PZ is 22 mpy. With 1 wt% heat stable salt, the corrosion rate increases by 50% to 160% in the order: thiosulfate< oxalate

  9. Continuous microwave regeneration apparatus for absorption media

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Douglas D. (Knoxville, TN)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for continuously drying and regenerating ceramic beads for use in process gas moisture drying operations such as glove boxes. A microwave energy source is coupled to a process chamber to internally heat the ceramic beads and vaporize moisture contained therein. In a preferred embodiment, the moisture laden ceramic beads are conveyed toward the microwave source by a screw mechanism. The regenerated beads flow down outside of the screw mechanism and are available to absorb additional moisture.

  10. Enhanced light absorption of solar cells and photodetectors by diffraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zaidi, Saleem H.; Gee, James M.

    2005-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Enhanced light absorption of solar cells and photodetectors by diffraction is described. Triangular, rectangular, and blazed subwavelength periodic structures are shown to improve performance of solar cells. Surface reflection can be tailored for either broadband, or narrow-band spectral absorption. Enhanced absorption is achieved by efficient optical coupling into obliquely propagating transmitted diffraction orders. Subwavelength one-dimensional structures are designed for polarization-dependent, wavelength-selective absorption in solar cells and photodetectors, while two-dimensional structures are designed for polarization-independent, wavelength-selective absorption therein. Suitable one and two-dimensional subwavelength periodic structures can also be designed for broadband spectral absorption in solar cells and photodetectors. If reactive ion etching (RIE) processes are used to form the grating, RIE-induced surface damage in subwavelength structures can be repaired by forming junctions using ion implantation methods. RIE-induced surface damage can also be removed by post RIE wet-chemical etching treatments.

  11. Heat exchange assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Sibilia, Marc; Miller, Jeffrey; Tonon, Thomas S.

    2004-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat exchange assembly comprises a plurality of plates disposed in a spaced-apart arrangement, each of the plurality of plates includes a plurality of passages extending internally from a first end to a second end for directing flow of a heat transfer fluid in a first plane, a plurality of first end-piece members equaling the number of plates and a plurality of second end-piece members also equaling the number of plates, each of the first and second end-piece members including a recessed region adapted to fluidly connect and couple with the first and second ends of the plate, respectively, and further adapted to be affixed to respective adjacent first and second end-piece members in a stacked formation, and each of the first and second end-piece members further including at least one cavity for enabling entry of the heat transfer fluid into the plate, exit of the heat transfer fluid from the plate, or 180.degree. turning of the fluid within the plate to create a serpentine-like fluid flow path between points of entry and exit of the fluid, and at least two fluid conduits extending through the stacked plurality of first and second end-piece members for providing first fluid connections between the parallel fluid entry points of adjacent plates and a fluid supply inlet, and second fluid connections between the parallel fluid exit points of adjacent plates and a fluid discharge outlet so that the heat transfer fluid travels in parallel paths through each respective plate.

  12. Low Level Heat Recovery Through Heat Pumps and Vapor Recompression 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, J.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of each approach as a function of the source and sink temperatures and magnitude of heat flow. Generic heat pumps and vapor recompression designs are explained, costed, estimated in performance, and evaluated as a function of the economic parameters...

  13. Modeling of Heat Transfer in Geothermal Heat Exchangers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, P.; Man, Y.; Fang, Z.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) systems have been gaining increasing popularity for space conditioning in residential and commercial buildings. The geothermal heat exchanger (GHE) is devised for extraction or injection of thermal energy from...

  14. HEAT TRANSFER IN UNDERGROUND HEATING EXPERIMENTS IN GRANITE, STRIPA, SWEDEN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, T.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Session on Heat Transfer in Nuclear Waste Disposal, C'.heat transfer processes associated with underground nuclear wasteheat transfer and related processes in an un­ derground environment similar to that expected in a mined nuclear waste

  15. TRANSPARENT HEAT MIRRORS FOR PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, S.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heating purposes. BACKGROUND The reduction of heat transfer rates by the use of thermal infraredheating applications should become available on the marketplace. Due to their high reflectivity to thermal infrared

  16. Low Level Heat Recovery Through Heat Pumps and Vapor Recompression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, J.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The intent of this paper is to examine the methods and economics of recovering low level heat through heat pumps and vapor recompression. Actual commercially available equipment is considered to determine the near-term and future economic viability...

  17. Heat Transfer Derivation of differential equations for heat transfer conduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Veress, Alexander

    ) or kW *h or Btu. U is the change in stored energy, in units of kW *h (kWh) or Btu. qx is the heat conducted (heat flux) into the control volume at surface edge x, in units of kW/m2 or Btu/(h-ft2). qx volume is positive), in kW/m3 or Btu/(h-ft3) (a heat sink, heat drawn out of the volume, is negative

  18. Energy Savings + Employee Comfort

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takach, J.

    not provide as efficient a system as possible. The investigation of alternate heating systems led to gas fired infra red heaters. This paper addresses the results from the installation of such heaters....

  19. CX-011121: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    ThermoLift - The Natural Gas Fired Air Conditioner & Heat Pump CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6 Date: 08/28/2013 Location(s): New York Offices(s): Golden Field Office

  20. PSNC Energy (Gas)- Energy-Efficient Appliance Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    PSNC offers rebates to customers who purchase energy-efficient natural gas water heaters or natural gas furnaces. The rebate is available only when existing natural gas-fired water heating or...