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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas-a colorless odorless" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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1

Combating An Odorless, Tasteless, Unseen Problem in Nebraska Drinking Water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Combating An Odorless, Tasteless, Unseen Problem in Nebraska Drinking Water By Steve Ress You can with the specter of arsenic contamination in their drinking water. For more than 60 years, the maximum allowable limit for arsenic in public drinking water supplies has been 50 parts per billion (ppb) and most public

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

2

Safetygram #9- Liquid Hydrogen  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Hydrogen is colorless as a liquid. Its vapors are colorless, odorless, tasteless, and highly flammable.

3

New organization of jet calculus for colorless-cluster computations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We write equations for a new set of leading-logarithmic parton "propagators." These differ from past "color-connecting" propagators in that they keep explicit track of the momentum of the gluons associated with the quarks in the colorless cluster. Because of this, the new functions lead in a simple and natural way to computation of the x distribution and mass distribution of colorless clusters in jets. Hence they should prove more useful for phenomenological calculations.

B. Crespi and L. M. Jones

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Fully Integrated NxN MEMS Wavelength Selective Switch with 100% Colorless Add-Drop Ports  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fully Integrated NxN MEMS Wavelength Selective Switch with 100% Colorless Add-Drop Ports Shifu Yuan/drop ports. © 2007 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: (060.2330) Fiber optics communications; (060 multi-port wavelength selective switches using liquid crystal devices. Micro-Electro-Mechanical System

Bowers, John

5

Carbon Monoxide Safety Tips  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Protect yourself and your family from the deadly effects of carbon monoxide--a colorless, odorless poisonous gas. This publication describes the warning signs of carbon monoxide exposure and includes a home safety checklist....

Shaw, Bryan W.; Garcia, Monica L.

1999-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

6

The Basics of Underground Natural Gas Storage  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

The Basics of Underground Natural Gas Storage The Basics of Underground Natural Gas Storage Latest update: August 2004 Natural gas-a colorless, odorless, gaseous hydrocarbon-may be stored in a number of different ways. It is most commonly held in inventory underground under pressure in three types of facilities. These are: (1) depleted reservoirs in oil and/or gas fields, (2) aquifers, and (3) salt cavern formations. (Natural gas is also stored in liquid form in above-ground tanks. A discussion of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is beyond the scope of this report. For more information about LNG, please see the EIA report, The Global Liquefied Natural Gas Market: Status & Outlook.) Each storage type has its own physical characteristics (porosity, permeability, retention capability) and economics (site preparation and

7

inAir: A Longitudinal study of Indoor Air Quality Measurements and Visualizations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

pollutants are colorless and odorless, while many activities are inconspicuous and routine. We implemented inAir. Among those, air pollution and its effects on health have been researched extensively over past several decades [13]. In particular, the health effects of air pollution cover a wide variety of respiratory

Mankoff, Jennifer

8

Investing in Oil and Natural Gas A Few Key Issues  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Strategic Advisors in Global Energy Strategic Advisors in Global Energy Strategic Advisors in Global Energy Strategic Advisors in Global Energy Investing in Oil and Natural Gas: A Few Key Issues Prepared for EIA Conference Susan Farrell, Senior Director PFC Energy April 8, 2009 Investing in Oil and Gas| PFC Energy| Page 2 The Top 20 IOCs and Top 20 NOCs Account for Over Half of E&P Spend Source: PFC Energy, Global E&P Surveys Investing in Oil and Gas| PFC Energy| Page 3 Oil Prices Rose, But So Did Costs + 52% $0 $20 $40 $60 $80 $100 $120 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 WTI $/barrel Annual averages Large Gulf of Mexico Facility Costs by Segment Avg $28.31 Avg $59.13 Source: PFC Energy Investing in Oil and Gas| PFC Energy| Page 4 Near term Spending Cuts will be Significant

9

The nonequilibrium Ehrenfest gas: a chaotic model with flat obstacles?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is known that the non-equilibrium version of the Lorentz gas (a billiard with dispersing obstacles, electric field and Gaussian thermostat) is hyperbolic if the field is small. Differently the hyperbolicity of the non-equilibrium Ehrenfest gas constitutes an open problem, since its obstacles are rhombi and the techniques so far developed rely on the dispersing nature of the obstacles. We have developed analytical and numerical investigations which support the idea that this model of transport of matter has both chaotic (positive Lyapunov exponent) and non-chaotic steady states with a quite peculiar sensitive dependence on the field and on the geometry, not observed before. The associated transport behaviour is correspondingly highly irregular, with features whose understanding is of both theoretical and technological interest.

Carlo Bianca; Lamberto Rondoni

2008-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

10

Safe Operation of Backup Power Generators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

E-395 04/06 Portable generators are useful when temporary or remote electric power is needed, but they can also be deadly. The primary hazards to avoid when us- ing a generator are carbon monoxide (CO) poison- ing from generator exhaust fumes..., electrocution and fire. Carbon monoxide danger Carbon monoxide is an odorless, colorless gas byproduct of incomplete combustion of fuels, such as natural gas, heating oil and diesel. This toxic gas interferes with the blood?s ability to carry oxygen...

Smith, David

2006-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

11

The Basics of Underground Natural Gas Storage  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Analysis > The Basics of Underground Natural Gas Storage Analysis > The Basics of Underground Natural Gas Storage The Basics of Underground Natural Gas Storage Latest update: August 2004 Printer-Friendly Version Natural gas-a colorless, odorless, gaseous hydrocarbon-may be stored in a number of different ways. It is most commonly held in inventory underground under pressure in three types of facilities. These are: (1) depleted reservoirs in oil and/or gas fields, (2) aquifers, and (3) salt cavern formations. (Natural gas is also stored in liquid form in above-ground tanks. A discussion of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is beyond the scope of this report. For more information about LNG, please see the EIA report, The Global Liquefied Natural Gas Market: Status & Outlook.) Each storage type has its own physical characteristics (porosity, permeability, retention capability) and economics (site preparation and maintenance costs, deliverability rates, and cycling capability), which govern its suitability to particular applications. Two of the most important characteristics of an underground storage reservoir are its capacity to hold natural gas for future use and the rate at which gas inventory can be withdrawn-its deliverability rate (see Storage Measures, below, for key definitions).

12

Investigating the Use of Biosorbents to Remove Arsenic from Water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

,2,3 ?...........................................................................?36? Table?9?Arsenic?removal?and?its?adsorption?capacity?for?various?adsorbents?.....?37? ? ? ? ? 1? ? ? ? 1. INTRODUCTION 1 ? Arsenic?is?a?colorless?and?odorless?Group?V?element?discovered?in?1250?AD.? Arsenic?has?an?atomic?number?of?33?and?is?the?20...?present?an?oxidant?must?be?added?to?oxidize?As(III)? to?As(V)?and?form?anions?in?solutions?[27].? 1.5.5.?Adsorption?? Arsenic?removal?is?also?achieved?through?adsorption?on?commercial? adsorbents...

Erapalli, Shreyas

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

13

Development of a combined model of tissue kinetics and radiation response of human bronchiolar epithelium with single cell resolution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cells of the airways due to internal exposure to alpha-particle emitters, e.g. radon. Inhalation of radon, a colorless and odorless gas, one of the products of the decay of uranium which occurs naturally in the earth?s crust, is the second major cause... epithelial tissue plays an important role in normal lung physiology. square4 lung epithelia are target tissues for occupational internal exposures and for radon exposure (26); square4 the epithelium of bronchioles appears to be the origin...

Ostrovskaya, Natela Grigoryevna

2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

14

An Inexpensive CO Sensor  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6 6 An Inexpensive CO Sensor A schematic of the prototype CO passive sensor. Carbon moNOxide is a colorless, odorless, toxic gas whose primary source indoor is the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels. This gas can be a potential problem in any house that uses combustion appliances for space or water heating, cooking, or idling an automobile in an attached garage. Although most appliances work correctly, a problem can exist in houses when the appliance is unventilated or its ventilation system does not properly eliminate exhaust gases from the house. Since Americans spend 90% of their time indoors and 65 to 70% in their residences, understanding how and when CO builds up indoors could save lives. We have very little systematic data on how CO hazards are distrubuted in the indoor environment, but mortality

15

Glossary: Energy-Related Carbon Emissions  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Glossary: Energy-Related Carbon Emissions Glossary: Energy-Related Carbon Emissions Glossary: Energy-Related Carbon Emissions For additional terms, refer to: the Glossary of Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998 for additional greenhouse gas related terms, the Glossary of Manufacturing Consumption of Energy 1994 for additional manufacturing terms, and Appendix F of Manufacturing Consumption of Energy 1994 for descriptions of the major industry groups. British Thermal Unit: The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 pound of water by 1 degree Fahrenheit. One quadrillion Btu is 1015 Btu, or 1.055 exajoules. Btu: See British Thermal Unit. Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless, non-poisonous gas that is a normal part of Earth's atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is a product of fossil-fuel combustion as well as other processes. It is considered a greenhouse gas as it traps heat radiated into the atmosphere and thereby contributes to the potential for global warming.

16

 

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Better Water through Ion Interactions? Better Water through Ion Interactions? Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory have discovered surprising information about the way ions interact with mineral surfaces in water, opening the door to new knowledge on how contaminants travel in the environment. The insight, published in Physical Review Letters, may lead to a better understanding of the factors that determine water quality. Water - colorless, odorless and tasteless - may seem simple, but its interactions with minerals can be difficult to study. Ions, which range from nutrients such as calcium, to contaminants such as lead, are present in natural waters, but their transport is often limited by adsorption to mineral surfaces. The more scientists can understand about the interaction

17

Definition: Liquid natural gas | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Liquid natural gas Liquid natural gas Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Liquid natural gas Natural gas (primarily methane) that has been liquefied by reducing its temperature to -260 degrees Fahrenheit at atmospheric pressure.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Liquefied natural gas or LNG is natural gas that has been converted to liquid form for ease of storage or transport. Liquefied natural gas takes up about 1/600th the volume of natural gas in the gaseous state. It is odorless, colorless, non-toxic and non-corrosive. Hazards include flammability after vaporization into a gaseous state, freezing and asphyxia. The liquefaction process involves removal of certain components, such as dust, acid gases, helium, water, and heavy hydrocarbons, which could cause difficulty downstream. The natural gas is then condensed into a

18

Transportation Fuel Basics - Propane | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Propane Propane Transportation Fuel Basics - Propane July 30, 2013 - 4:31pm Addthis Photo of a man standing next to a propane fuel pump with a tank in the background. Propane, also known as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG or LP-gas), or autogas in Europe, is a high-energy alternative fuel. It has been used for decades to fuel light-duty and heavy-duty propane vehicles. Propane is a three-carbon alkane gas (C3H8). Stored under pressure inside a tank, propane turns into a colorless, odorless liquid. As pressure is released, the liquid propane vaporizes and turns into gas that is used for combustion. An odorant, ethyl mercaptan, is added for leak detection. Propane has a high octane rating and excellent properties for spark-ignited internal combustion engines. It is nontoxic and presents no threat to soil,

19

MS_NatGas_Studyguide.indd  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

GAS-FUELING THE GAS-FUELING THE BLUE FLAME Natural Gas: It is colorless, shapeless, and in its pure form, odorless. For many years, it was discarded as worthless. Even today, some countries (although not the United States) still get rid of it by burning it in giant fl ares, so large they can be seen from the Space Shuttle. Yet, it is one of the most valuable fuels we have. Natural gas is made up mainly of a chemical called methane: a simple compound that has a carbon atom surrounded by four hydrogen atoms. Methane is highly fl ammable and burns almost completely. Th ere is no ash and very little air pollution. Natural gas provides nearly one-quarter of all the energy used in the United States. It is especially important in homes, where it supplies nearly half of all the energy used for cooking,

20

Anaerobic Digestion Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Anaerobic Digestion Basics Anaerobic Digestion Basics Anaerobic Digestion Basics August 14, 2013 - 1:07pm Addthis Anaerobic digestion is a common technology in today's agriculture, municipal waste, and brewing industries. It uses bacteria to break down waste organic materials into methane and other gases, which can be used to produce electricity or heat. Methane and Anaerobic Bacteria Methane is a gas that contains molecules of methane with one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen (CH4). It is the major component of the natural gas used in many homes for cooking and heating. It is odorless, colorless, and yields about 1,000 British thermal units (Btu) [252 kilocalories (kcal)] of heat energy per cubic foot (0.028 cubic meters) when burned. Natural gas is a fossil fuel that was created eons ago by the anaerobic

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas-a colorless odorless" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

NREL: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Research - Safety, Codes, and Standards  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Safety, Codes, and Standards Safety, Codes, and Standards NREL's hydrogen safety, codes, and standards projects focus on ensuring safe operation, handling, and use of hydrogen and hydrogen systems through safety sensors and codes and standards for buildings and equipment. Safety Sensors To facilitate hydrogen safety, NREL is testing hydrogen sensors that detect leaks and monitor gas purity at the Safety Sensor Testing Laboratory. Because hydrogen is colorless and odorless, sensors are important for safe hydrogen fueling stations, equipment, and facilities. NREL researchers are testing fiber-optic sensor configurations resistant to electromagnetic interference. They also are testing protective and self-cleaning overlayer coatings for sensors. For remote hydrogen sensing, NREL is assessing sensor requirements and design options for innovative

22

E-Print Network 3.0 - air quality case Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Interaction Institute, Carnegie... quality with bare human perception as air pollutants are mostly invisible and odorless. We believe... that computing technologies can...

23

E-Print Network 3.0 - air quality index Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Interaction Institute, Carnegie... quality with bare human perception as air pollutants are mostly invisible and odorless. We believe... that computing technologies can...

24

Home Safety: Radon Gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Every home should be tested for radon, an invisible, odorless, radioactive gas that occurs naturally. This publication explains the health risks, testing methods, and mitigation and reduction techniques....

Shaw, Bryan W.; Denny, Monica L.

1999-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

25

Membrane-based carbon capture from flue gas: A review  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract There has been an increasing interest in the application of membranes to flue gas separation, primarily driven by the need of carbon capture for significantly reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Historically, there has not been general consensus about the advantage of membranes against other methods such as liquid solvents for carbon capture. However, recent research indicates that advances in materials and process designs could significantly improve the separation performance of membrane capture systems, which make membrane technology competitive with other technologies for carbon capture. This paper mainly reviews membrane separation for the application to post-combustion CO2 capture with a focus on the developments and breakthroughs in membrane material design, process engineering, and engineering economics.

Rajab Khalilpour; Kathryn Mumford; Haibo Zhai; Ali Abbas; Geoff Stevens; Edward S. Rubin

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Energy Economizer for Low Temperature Stack Gas: A Case Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bartlesville (Oklahoma) Energy Technology Center (BETC) engineers made a study of recycling waste heat from one of the Power Plant boilers. The study showed that a system could be designed that would reclaim this waste heat and then utilize...

Tipton, J. A.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Gas: A Neglected Phase in Remediation of Metals and Radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

The gas phase is generally ignored in remediation of metals and radionuclides because it is assumed that there is no efficient way to exploit it. In the literal sense, all remediations involve the gas phase because this phase is linked to the liquid and solid phases by vapor pressure and thermodynamic relationships. Remediation methods that specifically use the gas phase as a central feature have primarily targeted volatile organic contaminants, not metals and radionuclides. Unlike many organic contaminants, the vapor pressure and Henry's Law constants of metals and radionuclides are not generally conducive to direct air stripping of dissolved contaminants. Nevertheless, the gas phase can play an important role in remediation of inorganic contaminants and provide opportunities for efficient, cost effective remediation. The objective here is to explore ways in which manipulation of the gas phase can be used to facilitate remediation of metals and radionuclides.

Denham, Miles E.; Looney, Brian B

2005-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

28

Bioenergy recovery from landfill gas: A case study in China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Landfill gas (LFG) utilization which means a synergy...3/h and the methane concentration was above 90%. The process and optimization of the pilot-scale test were also reported in the paper. The product gas was of...

Wei Wang; Yuxiang Luo; Zhou Deng

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Date Issue Brief # ISSUE BRIEF Natural Gas: A Bridge to a Low?Carbon Future?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Issue Brief 09?11Resources for the Future Resources for the Future is an independent, nonpartisan think tank that, through its social science research, enables policymakers and stakeholders to make better, more informed decisions about energy, environmental, natural resource, and public health issues. Headquartered in Washington, DC, its research scope comprises programs in nations around the world.

Stephen P. A. Brown; Alan J. Krupnick; Margaret A. Walls; Stephen P. A. Brown; Alan J. Krupnick; Margaret A. Walls

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Formation of laser plasma channels in a stationary gas A. Dunaevsky  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a high-current arc discharge leads to overdense plasma near the front pinhole and further refraction-current glow discharge initiated in the chamber improves the uniformity of the plasma channel slightly, while fluctuation of the plasma density is nez ne a0 p , 1 where a0=eE/mc is normalized electric field in the beam

31

Backward Raman amplification in a partially ionized gas A. A. Balakin,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

was accessed 10,11 . The experimental success was achieved using a gas jet of propane, subse- quently ionized of propane opens up the question of coupling in a partially ionized gas. Any additional ionization during

32

Life cycle greenhouse gas footprint of shale gas: a probabilistic approach  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

With the increase in natural gas (NG) production in recent years, primarily from shale gas, some sources, including the US Environmental ... the data from the Montney and Horn River shale gas basins in the Northe...

Anjuman Shahriar; Rehan Sadiq

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Gaussian fluctuations in an ideal bose-gas -- a simple model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Based on the canonical ensemble, we suggested the simple scheme for taking into account Gaussian fluctuations in a finite system of ideal boson gas. Within framework of scheme we investigated the influence of fluctuations on the particle distribution in Bose -gas for two cases - with taking into account the number of particles in the ground state and without this assumption. The temperature and fluctuation parameter dependences of the modified Bose- Einstein distribution have been determined. Also the dependence of the condensation temperature on the fluctuation distribution parameter has been obtained.

A Petrova; O Nedopekin; D Tayurskii; Q A Wang

2012-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

34

Utilization of low-quality natural gas: A current assessment. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this report is to evaluate the low quality natural gas (LQNG) resource base, current utilization of LQNG, and environmental issues relative to its use, to review processes for upgrading LQNG to pipeline quality, and to make recommendations of research needs to improve the potential for LQNG utilization. LQNG is gas from any reservoir which contains amounts of nonhydrocarbon gases sufficient to lower the heating value or other properties of the gas below commercial, pipeline standards. For the purposes of this study, LQNG is defined as natural gas that contains more than 2% carbon dioxide, more than 4% nitrogen, or more than 4% combined CO{sub 2} plus N{sub 2}. The other contaminant of concern is hydrogen sulfide. A minor contaminant in some natural gases is helium, but this inert gas usually presents no problems.

Acheson, W.P.; Hackworth, J.H.; Kasper, S.; McIlvried, H.G.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Hibernation - Not! | Jefferson Lab  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

work for Hall D was hampered by the ample rainfall. Jokes circulated about the Hall D swimming pool. Since Christmas, the precipitation has changed from colorless to white....

36

E-Print Network 3.0 - anthocyanins rich extract-induced Sample...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and colorless... .; Noda, T.; Tanaka, H.; Fukushima, M. Anthocyanin-rich purple potato flake extract has antioxidant Source: Tang, Juming - Department of Biological Systems...

37

Author's personal copy Microelectronics Journal 38 (2007) 12111216  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

], solid oxide fuel cells [3,4], H2 engine cars [1], etc. However, H2 is a hazardous, odorless and highly grown by a cost-effective and fast synthesis route using an aqueous solution method and rapid thermal. These analyses indicate high quality ZnO nanorods. Furthermore, our synthesis technique permits branched nanorods

Chow, Lee

38

Listening to Air Quality Sunyoung Kim & Eric Paulos  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cities of the developing world, urban air pollution has worsened, which has been detrimental quality with bare human perception as air pollutants are mostly invisible and odorless. We believe in surroundings. INTRODUCTION Urban air pollution is higher in developing countries because they often depend more

Paulos, Eric

39

Dynamics of the electric current in an ideal electron gas: a sound mode inside the quasi-particles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the equation of motion for the Noether current in an electron gas within the framework of the Schwinger-Keldysh Closed-Time-Path formalism. The equation is shown to be highly non-linear and irreversible even for a non-interacting, ideal gas of electrons at non-zero density. We truncate the linearised equation of motion, written as the Laurent series in Fourier space, so that the resulting expressions are local in time, both at zero and at small finite temperatures. Furthermore, we show that the one-loop Coulomb interactions only alter the physical picture quantitatively, while preserving the characteristics of the dynamics that the electric current exhibits in the absence of interactions. As a result of the composite nature of the Noether current, composite sound waves are found to be the dominant IR collective excitations at length scales between the inverse Fermi momentum and the mean free path that would exist in an interacting electron gas. We also discuss the difference and the transition betwee...

Grozdanov, Sao

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Dynamics of the electric current in an ideal electron gas: a sound mode inside the quasi-particles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the equation of motion for the Noether current in an electron gas within the framework of the Schwinger-Keldysh Closed-Time-Path formalism. The equation is shown to be highly non-linear and irreversible even for a non-interacting, ideal gas of electrons at non-zero density. We truncate the linearised equation of motion, written as the Laurent series in Fourier space, so that the resulting expressions are local in time, both at zero and at small finite temperatures. Furthermore, we show that the one-loop Coulomb interactions only alter the physical picture quantitatively, while preserving the characteristics of the dynamics that the electric current exhibits in the absence of interactions. As a result of the composite nature of the Noether current, composite sound waves are found to be the dominant IR collective excitations at length scales between the inverse Fermi momentum and the mean free path that would exist in an interacting electron gas. We also discuss the difference and the transition between the hydrodynamical regime of an ideal gas, defined in this work, and the hydrodynamical regime in phenomenological hydrodynamics, which is normally used for the description of interacting gases.

Sao Grozdanov; Janos Polonyi

2015-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas-a colorless odorless" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Published on Web 12/23/2007 Matrix Isolation Chemistry in a Porous Metal-Organic Framework  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Published on Web 12/23/2007 Matrix Isolation Chemistry in a Porous Metal-Organic Framework, during which time the colorless solid turned dark red, indicating the attachment of Cr(CO)3 units. Upon

42

Darstellung und Struktur von Pyrazolyl-Kationen mit Polymethin- und Methan-Gerst  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The 4-pyrazoline-3-one1 reacts with 4-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde to yield the stable asymmetric cyanine dye2b which reacts with1 to give the colorless (aryl) (dipyrazolyl) methane3b. Using aldehydes with less cati...

Eyup Akgn; Thomas Kmpchen; Ulf Pindur

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid hydrazone dpktch Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4865 solution of the acid 17 (250 mg, 0.79 mmol) in THF (15... (silica gel, ethyl acetate as eluant) to obtain the acid 24 (67 mg, 61%) as colorless crystals: mp 168... in the...

44

Heavy quarks in the jet calculus  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper we explore a method for treating heavy quarks such as c and b quarks within the jet calculus. These quarks are differentiated from the more common u, d, and s quarks by the requirement that the gluons never branch into heavy-quark pairs during the jet development. We compute and discuss the charmed-quark "propagators"; the x distribution of colorless clusters containing a charmed quark, a noncharmed antiquark, and gluons; and the mass distribution of the parent partons giving rise to these colorless clusters.

L. M. Jones

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

A Preliminary Evaluation of Alternative Liquid Desiccants for a Hybrid Desiccant Air Conditioner  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. The candidate desiccants have toxicity ratings from moderate (LiC1) to low (CaC12) to relatively nontoxic (TEG). One measure of toxicity is the ID50 dose, which is the lethal dose that will result in fatality 60% of the time. Lithium chloride has an LD50..., thereby maintaining the deaiccant in solution. Table 2 Figures of Merit for Safety ID50 Relative Desiccant (02) Weight LiCl 1.23 7 LiBr 4.03 8 The saline desiccants are described aa odorless, while trietheylene glycol is described as having a mild...

Studak, J. W.; Peterson, J. L.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Simple Method for Culturing Anaerobes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...colorless water of condensation formed in the bottles...added to the boiling water immediately after addition...primary criteria: (i) recovery of bacteria that did...of the specimen to atmospheric oxygen must be avoided...specimen and the media to atmospheric oxy- gen. The glove...

C. E. Davis; W. J. Hunter; J. L. Ryan; A. I. Braude

1973-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Alternative Fuel Tool Kit How to Implement: Propane  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, colorless gas that is a byproduct of natural gas production and crude oil refining. Propane autogas What is Liquefied Petroleum Gas? Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is commonly referred to as propane energy storage, propane is stored as a liquid in a pressurized tank onboard the vehicle, typically at 100

48

Glossary of Volatile Organic Compounds Ethylbenzene Carbon tetrachloride  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

;Ethylbenzene Ethylbenzene is a colorless, flammable liquid found in natural products such as coal tar and petroleum. It is also found in manufactured products such as inks, insecticides, and paints. Ethylbenzene in the air. In surface water, ethylbenzene breaks down by reacting with other chemicals found naturally

49

Synthetic receptors as models for alkali metal cation-? binding sites in proteins  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Chemistry, University of Missouri, 601 South College Avenue...calculations (1012), gas phase studies (1315...vacuo to afford a yellow oil. The oil was purified by flash column...product as a colorless oil. After 24 h under high...

Stephen L. De Wall; Eric S. Meadows; Leonard J. Barbour; George W. Gokel

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Chiral N-salicylidene vanadyl carboxylate-catalyzed enantioselective aerobic oxidation of ?-hydroxy esters and amides  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...reaction mixture became homogeneous by heating at 80 o C for 15 min and then gradually...96 %) of benzyl mandelate as colorless oil. OH O H N S16 Analytical data for benzyl-aryl...5951. (28) (a) Hughes, A. D.; Price, D. A.; Simpkins, N.l S. J. Chem...

Shiue-Shien Weng; Mei-Wen Shen; Jun-Qi Kao; Yogesh S. Munot; Chien-Tien Chen

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

E-Print Network 3.0 - adamantane Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(2.36 g, 9.06 mmol, 2 equiv) was added to a suspension of 1,3,5, 7... colorless crystals of 1,3,5,7-tetrakis(4-iodophenyl)adamantane (1.90 g, 2.01 mmol, 44%). Rf 0 Source:...

52

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Natural Gas Plant Net Stocks Natural Gas Plant Net Stocks Definitions Key Terms Definition Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Butylene (C4H8) An olefinic hydrocarbon recovered from refinery processes. Ethane (C2H6) A normally gaseous straight-chain hydrocarbon. It is a colorless paraffinic gas that boils at a temperature of -127.48º F. It is extracted from natural gas and refinery gas streams. Isobutane (C4H10) A normally gaseous branch-chain hydrocarbon. It is a colorless paraffinic gas that boils at a temperature of 10.9º F. It is extracted from natural gas or refinery gas streams. Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG) A group of hydrocarbon-based gases derived from crude oil refining or nautral gas fractionation. They include: ethane, ethylene, propane, propylene, normal butane, butylene, isobutane, and isobutylene. For convenience of transportation, these gases are liquefied through pressurization.

53

Microsoft Word - Zn-DTPA Insert_2 Pages.doc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

zinc trisodium injection contains the sodium salt of zinc diethylenetriaminepentaacetate. Pentetate zinc zinc trisodium injection contains the sodium salt of zinc diethylenetriaminepentaacetate. Pentetate zinc trisodium is also known as trisodium zinc diethylenetriaminepentaacetate and is commonly referred to as Zn- DTPA. It has a molecular formula of Na3ZnC14H18N3O10 and a molecular weight of 522.7 Daltons. It is represented by the following structural formula: Zn-DTPA is supplied as a clear, colorless, hyperosmolar (1260 mOsmol/kg) solution in a colorless ampoule containing 5 mL. The ampoule contents are sterile, non-pyrogenic and suitable for intravenous administration. Each mL of solution contains the equivalent of 200 mg pentetate zinc trisodium (obtained from 150.51 mg pentetic acid, 31.14 mg zinc oxide and NaOH) and water for injection, USP. The pH of the solution is adjusted

54

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Plant Field Production Plant Field Production Definitions Key Terms Definition Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Butylene (C4H8) An olefinic hydrocarbon recovered from refinery processes. Ethane (C2H6) A normally gaseous straight-chain hydrocarbon. It is a colorless paraffinic gas that boils at a temperature of -127.48º F. It is extracted from natural gas and refinery gas streams. Field Production Represents crude oil production on leases, natural gas liquids production at natural gas processing plants, new supply of other hydrocarbons/oxygenates and motor gasoline blending components, and fuel ethanol blended into finished motor gasoline. Isobutane (C4H10) A normally gaseous branch-chain hydrocarbon. It is a colorless paraffinic gas that boils at a temperature of 10.9º F. It is extracted from natural gas or refinery gas streams.

55

An economic appraisal of the small and cottage industries in East Pakistan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

~, . ;::-, . ' ';-, ;: ' 'tte'5s' gn': Ches j 4@p8n j '. '71%$1e8'), ' X'Salg 'an4. 'X~~PBJcketan ' j , . ', ::. :-:::: t8ie; i j~g:gkagde'od-:the. @@XI'e~ -, eiXh':. -eo~-. seej'e4e' -tao . ' colorless. ; XtqM4s. whke4 md te' ou; isis~ 1~m. the:@lan@a' to Xska@4es Shah...~, . ;::-, . ' ';-, ;: ' 'tte'5s' gn': Ches j 4@p8n j '. '71%$1e8'), ' X'Salg 'an4. 'X~~PBJcketan ' j , . ', ::. :-:::: t8ie; i j~g:gkagde'od-:the. @@XI'e~ -, eiXh':. -eo~-. seej'e4e' -tao . ' colorless. ; XtqM4s. whke4 md te' ou; isis~ 1~m. the:@lan@a' to Xska@4es Shah...

Zoha, Syed Shamsuz

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

56

Metabolic labeling enables selective photocrosslinking of O-GlcNAc-modified proteins to their binding partners  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...1606 . 28 Finlay DR Newmeyer DD Price TM Forbes DJ ( 1987 ) Inhibition of...staining the TLC was done by heating with ceric ammonium molybdate...Ac3GlcNDAz-1-P Ac-SATE 2 as a colorless oil (145 mg, 86%).1 H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3): 1...beads with 2 loading dye by heating at 95 C for 7 min. The eluted...

Seok-Ho Yu; Michael Boyce; Amberlyn M. Wands; Michelle R. Bond; Carolyn R. Bertozzi; Jennifer J. Kohler

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Apostomatous ciliate association with the antarctic krill, Euphausia superba  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(kinetics) (Bradbury 1966a); this detorsion characterizes the beginning of the protomont stage. While the macronucleus centers itself in the cell, the infraciliature elongates in the direction of the two poles, during the protomont stage. During... the protomont stage, feeding ceases and the cell transforms into colorless or pigmented vitelloid plaquettes (series of yolk-like plates) (Bradbury 1966a). The tomont is a result of protomont encystation and is characterized by binary fission which produces...

Banas, Paul Thomas

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

58

Reliability models for finger joint strength and stiffness properties in Douglas-fir visual laminating grades  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

combination of formaldehyde, phenol, resorcinol, melamine, or urea. Two of the most common are melamine-urea resins and phenol-resorcinol resins. Melamine-urea resins are colorless liquids and are prepared by mixing powdered resins at a 60:40 melamine... . This curing is usually accomplished with r adiofr equency (RF ) heating. Phenol-resorcinol resins are dark reddish liquids and are prepared by adding powdered hardeners such as formaldehyde. They are popular in the laminating industry because they can...

Burk, Allan Gerard

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Recirculation of Factory Heat and Air to Reduce Energy Consumption  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-makeup ventilation systems. First we must distinguish between gaseous and particulate contaminants in order to select appropriate types of air cleaning equipment. Next the physical (and chemical) char acteristics of those specific contaminants must be considered... particles. (Note that most gases and vapors are colorless and invisible ?...suspended particulates are almost the only visible air con taminants .) Because the chemical vapor pressure of the nuisance contaminants which create visibly polluted factory...

Thiel, G. R.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Haze Formation and Behavior in Liquid-Liquid Extraction Processes  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous haze formation and behavior was studied in the liquid-liquid system tri-n-butyl phosphate in odorless kerosene and 3M nitric acid with uranyl nitrate and cesium nitrate representing the major solute and an impurity, respectively. A pulsed column, mixer-settler and centrifugal contactor were chosen to investigate the effect of different turbulence characteristics on the manifestation of haze since these contactors exhibit distinct mixing phenomena. The dispersive processes of drop coalescence and breakage, and water precipitation in the organic phase were observed to lead to the formation of haze drops of {approx}1 um in diameter. The interaction between the haze and primary drops of the dispersion was critical to the separation efficiency of the liquid-liquid extraction equipment. Conditions of high power input and spatially homogeneous mixing enabled the haze drops to become rapidly assimilated within the dispersion to maximize the scrub performance and separation efficiency of the equipment.

Arm, Stuart T.; Jenkins, J. A.

2006-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas-a colorless odorless" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fuel Basics  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel Fuel Basics to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fuel Basics on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fuel Basics on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fuel Basics on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fuel Basics on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fuel Basics on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fuel Basics on AddThis.com... More in this section... Natural Gas Basics Production & Distribution Related Links Benefits & Considerations Stations Vehicles Laws & Incentives Natural Gas Fuel Basics Photo of a natural gas fuel pump. Natural gas is an odorless, nontoxic, gaseous mixture of hydrocarbons-predominantly methane (CH4). It accounts for about a quarter

62

Coal liquefaction process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range. 1 fig.

Wright, C.H.

1986-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

63

Coal liquefaction process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range.

Wright, Charles H. (Overland Park, KS)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Sources and distribution of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni in turkeys  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Characteristics Cam lobacter s ecies C. ~e uni C. coli C. fetus subsp. fetus C. fetus subsp. venerealis Oxidase Ferment sugars N03 reduction N02 reduction H2S (SIN) H2S (strip)a Hippurate hydrolysis Growth with: 1% glycine 3. 5X NaCl Growth at: 25 C 30.... These plates were incubated at 42 C for 48 h in an atmosphere of 5% 02, 1+ 002, and 85K N2. Suspect colonies (smooth, convex, translucent, colorless to cream-colored, pin-point to 1-1. 2 mm in diameter or often spreading colonies) of C. fetus subsp. jejuni...

Acuff, Gary Royce

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Preparation of brightness stabilization agent for lignin containing pulp from biomass pyrolysis oils  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for producing a brightness stabilization mixture of water-soluble organic compounds from biomass pyrolysis oils comprising: a) size-reducing biomass material and pyrolyzing the size-reduced biomass material in a fluidized bed reactor; b) separating a char/ash component while maintaining char-pot temperatures to avoid condensation of pyrolysis vapors; c) condensing pyrolysis gases and vapors, and recovering pyrolysis oils by mixing the oils with acetone to obtain an oil-acetone mixture; d) evaporating acetone and recovering pyrolysis oils; e) extracting the pyrolysis oils with water to obtain a water extract; f) slurrying the water extract with carbon while stirring, and filtering the slurry to obtain a colorless filtrate; g) cooling the solution and stabilizing the solution against thermally-induced gelling and solidification by extraction with ethyl acetate to form an aqueous phase lower layer and an organic phase upper layer; h) discarding the upper organic layer and extracting the aqueous layer with ethyl acetate, and discarding the ethyl acetate fraction to obtain a brown-colored solution not susceptible to gelling or solidification upon heating; i) heating the solution to distill off water and other light components and concentrating a bottoms fraction comprising hydroxyacetaldehyde and other non-volatile components having high boiling points; and j) decolorizing the stabilized brown solution with activated carbon to obtain a colorless solution.

Agblevor, Foster A. (Blacksburg, VA); Besler-Guran, Serpil (Flemington, NJ)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

The Screech Owl  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Screech Owl Screech Owl Nature Bulletin No. 100 January 25, 1947 Forest Preserve District of Cook County William N. Erickson, President Roberts Mann, Superintendent of Conservation THE SCREECH OWL At the foot of a dead oak where we hoped to find some winter mushrooms beneath the grass and fallen leaves, we spied several pellets about the size and shape of the end of your thumb. They were clean and odorless, each containing the skull and bones of a mouse tightly wrapped in a layer of the animal's fur. Owls and hawks swallow their prey whole or in large pieces and later spit out the indigestible matter in the form of pellets. Up in this tree was a woodpecker hole from which the round unwinking yellow eyes of a screech owl glared at us. A screech owl, about the size of a robin but much chunkier, is our only small owl with ear tufts like "horns". They prey on mice, chipmunks and ground squirrels, fish, crayfish, amphibians, small snakes, angleworms, and large insects. When other food is scarce, and their fuzzy white young -- usually four in number -- require much food, they frequently kill birds but apparently not enough to seriously affect the bird population. No owl, of any species, should be killed.

67

The Risk Assessment Information System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Condensed Toxicity Summary for ETHYLBENZENE Condensed Toxicity Summary for ETHYLBENZENE NOTE: Although the toxicity values presented in these toxicity profiles were correct at the time they were produced, these values are subject to change. Users should always refer to the Toxicity Value Database for the current toxicity values. Prepared by: Dennis M. Opresko, Ph.D., Chemical Hazard Evaluation Group in the Biomedical and Environmental Information Analysis Section, Health Sciences Research Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory*. Prepared for: Oak Ridge Reservation Environmental Restoration Program. *Managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC05-84OR21400. Ethylbenzene is a colorless, flammable liquid with a pungent odor (Cavender 1994). The water solubility of ethylbenzene is 0.014 g/100 mL and its vapor

68

Data Safer than Ever with FM-200 Installation | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Data Safer than Ever with FM-200 Installation Data Safer than Ever with FM-200 Installation Data Safer than Ever with FM-200 Installation October 22, 2013 - 6:04pm Addthis What does this project do? Goal 2. Preserve, protect, and share records and information The consolidated data center at the Legacy Management Business Center (LMBC) in Morgantown, West Virginia, is now guarded by a state-of-the-art FM-200® Fire Suppression System. Installation of the new system began on June 11, 2013, and the system became operational on July 18. FM-200® Fire Suppression System The "Clean Agent" system offers several advantages over traditional fire suppression. FM-200 is a clean, colorless, and environmentally friendly fire suppressant that is electronically non-conductive and safe for humans. The fire suppression system extinguishes flames primarily

69

Alternative Fuels Data Center: P-Series  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

P-Series to someone by P-Series to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: P-Series on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: P-Series on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: P-Series on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: P-Series on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: P-Series on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: P-Series on AddThis.com... More in this section... Biobutanol Drop-In Biofuels Methanol P-Series Renewable Natural Gas xTL Fuels P-Series P-Series fuels are blends of natural gas liquids (pentanes plus), ethanol, and methyltetrahydrofuran (MeTHF), a biomass co-solvent. P-Series fuels are clear, colorless, 89-93 octane, liquid blends used either alone or mixed with gasoline in any proportion in flexible fuel vehicles. These fuels are

70

Dacite Melt at the Puna Geothermal Venture Wellfield, Big Island of Hawaii  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Dacite Melt at the Puna Geothermal Venture Wellfield, Big Island of Hawaii Dacite Melt at the Puna Geothermal Venture Wellfield, Big Island of Hawaii Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Dacite Melt at the Puna Geothermal Venture Wellfield, Big Island of Hawaii Abstract During the drilling of injection well KS-13 in 2005 at the Puna Geothermal Venture (PGV) well field, on the island of Hawaii, a 75-meter interval of diorite containing brown glass inclusions was penetrated at a depth of 2415 m. At a depth of 2488 m a melt of dacitic composition was encountered. The melt flowed up the well bore and was repeatedly re-drilled over a depth interval of 8 m, producing several kilograms of clear, colorless vitric cuttings at the surface. The dacitic glass cuttings have a perlitic texture, a silica content of 67 wgt.%, are enriched in alkalis and nearly

71

Definition: Ethanol | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ethanol Ethanol A colorless, flammable liquid produced by fermentation of sugars. While it is also the alcohol found in alcoholic beverages, it can be denatured for fuel use. Fuel ethanol is used principally for blending in low concentrations with motor gasoline as an oxygenate or octane enhancer. In high concentrations, it is used to fuel alternative-fuel vehicles specially designed for its use.[1][2][3] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Ethanol fuel is ethanol (ethyl alcohol), the same type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages. It is most often used as a motor fuel, mainly as a biofuel additive for gasoline. World ethanol production for transport fuel tripled between 2000 and 2007 from 17 billion to more than 52 billion liters. From 2007 to 2008, the share of ethanol in global gasoline type

72

Moss Animals  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Moss Animals Moss Animals Nature Bulletin No. 138 January 17, 1948 Forest Preserve District of Cook County William N. Erickson, President Roberts Mann, Supt. of Conservation MOSS ANIMALS Last summer, several visitors in the forest preserves were puzzled by finding masses of jelly-like substance stuck to sunken sticks in certain ponds and lakes. These masses were usually round or egg-shaped, ranging in size from that of a tennis ball to that of a football. On the outside they were covered by a grayish scum with faint lines in a coarse design. Inside there was apparently nothing but a clear colorless jelly that quivered and shook like a well-chilled gelatin dessert. One man guessed that it was some sort of garbage; another, reasonably, that it was some strange plant growth.

73

Fermilab | Science at Fermilab | Experiments & Projects | Intensity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Intensity Frontier Intensity Frontier Experiments at the Intensity Frontier ArgoNeuT MINERvA MiniBooNE MINOS NOvA LBNE Cosmic Frontier Proposed Projects and Experiments ArgoNeuT ArgoNeut detector at Proton Assembly Building Intensity Frontier ArgoNeuT The Argon Neutrino Teststand or ArgoNeuT detector, nicknamed for Jason and the Argonauts of Greek mythology, is a liquid argon neutrino detector at Fermilab. Argon is a noble, non-toxic element that in its gaseous form constitutes about 1 percent of air. It exists as a colorless liquid only in the narrow temperature range of minus 186 to minus 189 degrees Celsius. Neutrinos passing through a large volume of argon can interact with an argon atom, producing secondary particles such as muons and protons, which then ionize other argon atoms. An electric field within the detector causes

74

An experience of electron beam (EB) irradiated gemstones in Malaysian nuclear agency  

SciTech Connect

In Nuclear Malaysia, a study on gemstone irradiation using beta particle is conducted. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the gemstone colour enhancement by using different kind of precious and non-precious gemstones. By using irradiation technique, selected gemstones are exposed to highly ionizing radiation electron beam to knock off electrons to generate colour centres culminating in the introduction of deeper colours. The colour centres may be stable or unstable depending on the nature of colour centre produced. The colour change of irradiated stones were measured by HunterLab colour measurement. At 50 kGy, Topaz shows changes colour from colourless to golden. Meanwhile pearl shows changes from pale colour to grey. Kunzite and amethyst shows colour changes from colorless to green and pale colour to purple. Gamma survey meter measurement confirmed that irradiation treatment with 3 MeV electron beam machine does not render any activation that activate the gems to become radioactive.

Idris, Sarada, E-mail: sarada@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Hairaldin, Siti Zulaiha, E-mail: sarada@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Tajau, Rida, E-mail: sarada@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Karim, Jamilah, E-mail: sarada@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Jusoh, Suhaimi, E-mail: sarada@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Ghazali, Zulkafli, E-mail: sarada@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Ahmad, Shamshad [School of Chemicals and Material Engineering, NUST Islamabad (Pakistan)

2014-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

75

Spin-Flavor van der Waals Forces and NN interaction  

SciTech Connect

A major goal in Nuclear Physics is the derivation of the Nucleon-Nucleon (NN) interaction from Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). In QCD the fundamental degrees of freedom are colored quarks and gluons which are confined to form colorless strongly interacting hadrons. Because of this the resulting nuclear forces at sufficiently large distances correspond to spin-flavor excitations, very much like the dipole excitations generating the van der Waals (vdW) forces acting between atoms. We study the Nucleon-Nucleon interaction in the Born-Oppenheimer approximation at second order in perturbation theory including the Delta resonance as an intermediate state. The potential resembles strongly chiral potentials computed either via soliton models or chiral perturbation theory and has a van der Waals like singularity at short distances which is handled by means of renormalization techniques. Results for the deuteron are discussed.

Alvaro Calle Cordon, Enrique Ruiz Arriola

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Quantum-mechanical description of in-medium fragmentation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a quantum-mechanical description of quark-hadron fragmentation in a nuclear environment. It employs the path-integral formulation of quantum mechanics, which takes care of all phases and interferences, and which contains all relevant time scales, like production, coherence, formation, etc. The cross section includes the probability of pre-hadron (colorless dipole) production both inside and outside the medium. Moreover, it also includes inside-outside production, which is a typical quantum-mechanical interference effect (like twin-slit electron propagation). We observe a substantial suppression caused by the medium, even if the pre-hadron is produced outside the medium and no energy loss is involved. This important source of suppression is missed in the usual energy-loss scenario interpreting the effect of jet quenching observed in heavy ion collisions. This may be one of the reasons of a too large gluon density, reported by such analyzes.

B. Z. Kopeliovich; H. -J. Pirner; I. K. Potashnikova; Ivan Schmidt; A. V. Tarasov; O. O. Voskresenskaya

2008-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

77

The need for a novel method for achieving zero effluent-discharge status for ethanol distilleries: spentwash colour removal by reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sustained industrial scale production of ethanol in India is dependent on the earliest possible implementation of zero effluent discharge. High pollution parameters of effluent made it commercially impossible. An urgent need for developing a method to attain a zero discharge status for distilleries was essential. The presently tried and tested methods had limitations for conclusive disposal of spentwash effluent. Application of Reverse Osmosis was tried. However, only Rochem's DT Reverse Osmosis configuration was effective. It reduced the effluent volume. The reduced volume effluent could be conclusively composted. It also enabled recovery of reuse-quality colorless water to the extent of 50% of original volume of effluent. This technique succeeded in achieving commercially viable means for zero-discharge.

Harshvardhan Madhusudan Modak; Prayas Kamlesh Goel

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

STATEMENT OF CONSIDERATIONS REQUEST BY 3M COMPANY FOR AN ADVANCE WAIVER OF DOMESTIC AND  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOMESTIC AND DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN INVENTION RIGHTS UNDER DOE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NO. DE- EE0003837, W(A)-2011-057, CH-1633 The Petitioner, 3M Company (3M) was awarded this cooperative agreement for the performance of work entitled , "Polymeric Multilayer Infrared Reflecting Film Development". The pu rpose of the agreement is to develop a polymeric multilayer infrared reflecting film that is essentially clear and colorless in the visible portion of the electromagnetic spectra (visible light transmission of about 89%) while reflecting 90-95% of the infrared energy in the 850 nm to 1830 nm specified spectra. The film will have a nominal thickness of 3 mils, be polymeric in nature (contains no metals, metal oxides, or other material types) and be essentially clear in appearance.

79

Data Safer than Ever with FM-200 Installation | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Data Safer than Ever with FM-200 Installation Data Safer than Ever with FM-200 Installation Data Safer than Ever with FM-200 Installation October 22, 2013 - 6:04pm Addthis What does this project do? Goal 2. Preserve, protect, and share records and information The consolidated data center at the Legacy Management Business Center (LMBC) in Morgantown, West Virginia, is now guarded by a state-of-the-art FM-200® Fire Suppression System. Installation of the new system began on June 11, 2013, and the system became operational on July 18. FM-200® Fire Suppression System The "Clean Agent" system offers several advantages over traditional fire suppression. FM-200 is a clean, colorless, and environmentally friendly fire suppressant that is electronically non-conductive and safe for humans. The fire suppression system extinguishes flames primarily

80

Hot Springs, Virginia  

SciTech Connect

Three major springs are located in the Warm Springs Valley of the Allegheny Mountains in western Virginia along US route 220--the Warm, Hot and Healing--all now owned by Virginia Hot Springs, Inc. The Homestead, a large and historic luxurious resort, is located at Hot Springs. The odorless mineral water used at The Homestead spa flows from several springs at temperatures ranging from 39{degrees}C to 41{degrees}C (102{degrees} to 106{degrees}F) (Loam and Gersh, 1992). It is piped to individual, one-person bathtubs in separate men`s and women`s bathhouses, where is is mixed to provide an ideal temperature of 40{degrees}C (104{degrees}F). Tubs are drained and refilled after each use so that no chemical treatment is necessary. Mineral water from the same springs is used in an indoor swimming pool maintained at 29{degrees}C (84{degrees}F), and an outdoor swimming pool maintained at 22{degrees}C (72{degrees}F). Eight kilometers (5 miles) away to the northeast, but still within the 6,000-ha (15,000-acre) Homestead property, are the Warm Springs, which flow at 36{degrees}C (96{degrees}F). The rate of discharge is so great, 63 L/s (1000 gpm) (Muffler, 1979) that the two large Warm Springs pools, in separate men`s and women`s buildings, maintain the temperature on a flow-through basis requiring no chemical treatment. The men`s pool was designed by Thomas Jefferson and opened in 1761; the ladies` pool was opened in 1836. The adjacent {open_quotes}drinking spring{close_quotes} and the two covered pools have been preserved in their original condition.

Lund, J.W.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas-a colorless odorless" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Evaluation of factors that influence microbial communities and methane production in coal microcosms.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Vast reserves of coal represent a largely untapped resource that can be used to produce methane gas, a cleaner energy alternative compared to burning oil (more)

Gallagher, Lisa K.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Sea-Change from Bush to Clinton: Setting a New Course for Offshore Oil Development and U.S. Energy Policy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

renewable energy, advanced nuclear reactors, fu- sion, coal, natural gas, a natural resource policy, basic science and moderating world population growth." ' '

Wilder, Robert Jay

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Ice  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ice Ice Nature Bulletin No. 661-A january 7, 1978 Forest Preserve District of Cook County George W. Dunne, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation ICE There was a time when ice, cut on frozen ponds and lakes, was transported by fast clipper ships from New England to New Orleans where it was worth its weight in gold. Nowadays this cold brittle colorless substance is commonplace everywhere. Few people, however, know that ice is one of the strangest of all solids; and that, because of its unique properties, life on earth is what it is. Those properties are due to the distinctive structure of a molecule of water, formed of three elemental particles or atoms -- two of hydrogen and one of oxygen -- expressed by the familiar symbol, H2O. The three atoms are held together by two chemical bonds expressed by another symbol, H-O-H. Briefly, the unique properties of water, water vapor, and ice arise from that bonding and the arrangement of electron pairs around the oxygen atom.

84

Lichens  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lichens Lichens Nature Bulletin No. 131 November 15, 1947 Forest Preserve District of Cook County William N. Erickson, President Roberts Mann, Supt. of Conservation LICHENS When winter comes with its fogs, rains, and melting snow, the lichens flourish. In the country we find them on the bark of trees, boulders and patches of barren earth, but rarely in cities because they are very sensitive to poisonous gases in the smoky air. In Iceland and Greenland, and the vast tundras of the arctics, they are the dominant forms of plant life. A lichen is the partnership of a colorless plant and a green one: a fungus and an alga. The two exchange food materials. Fungus has remarkable power to absorb and store moisture. The alga, using that water, and using carbon dioxide from the air, manufactures food. The fungus absorbs the excess food and produces an acid which eats into the earth or wood or rock upon which it grows, anchoring it firmly in place.

85

Deconfinement of neutron star matter within the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model  

SciTech Connect

We study the deconfinement transition of hadronic matter into quark matter under neutron star conditions assuming color and flavor conservation during the transition. We use a two-phase description. For the hadronic phase we use different parametrizations of a nonlinear Walecka model which includes the whole baryon octet. For the quark-matter phase we use an SU(3){sub f} Nambu-Jona-Lasinio effective model including color superconductivity. Deconfinement is considered to be a first order phase transition that conserves color and flavor. It gives a short-lived transitory colorless-quark phase that is not in {beta} equilibrium, and decays to a stable configuration in {tau}{approx}{tau}{sub weak}{approx}10{sup -8} s. However, in spite of being very short lived, the transition to this intermediate phase determines the onset of the transition inside neutron stars. We find the transition free-energy density for temperatures typical of neutron star interiors. We also find the critical mass above which compact stars should contain a quark core and below which they are safe with respect to a sudden transition to quark matter. Rather independently on the stiffness of the hadronic equation of state (EOS) we find that the critical mass of hadronic stars (without trapped neutrinos) is in the range of {approx}1.5-1.8 solar masses. This is in coincidence with previous results obtained within the MIT bag model.

Lugones, G. [Universidade Federal do ABC, Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas, Rua Santa Adelia, 166, 09210-170, Santo Andre (Brazil); Grunfeld, A. G. [CONICET, Rivadavia 1917, (1033) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departmento de Fisica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, (1429) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Department of Physics, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36 Al-Khode 123 Muscat (Oman); Scoccola, N. N. [CONICET, Rivadavia 1917, (1033) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departmento de Fisica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, (1429) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad Favaloro, Solis 453, (1078) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Villavicencio, C. [Departmento de Fisica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, (1429) Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

86

The photocatalysis of Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} under the irradiation of blue LED  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: - Highlights: OH trap and hole sink were involved to investigate the active radicals. Holes play a more important role in the degradation of RhB. The OH were related to the decomposition of phenol. The O{sub 2}-played a leading role in the photodegradation of phenol. Blue LED is competitive and promising alternative for the future application. - Abstract: Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} has been reported as a promising photocatalyst in wastewater treatment. The active radicals generated over the Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} during the photocatalytic process were thought to be hydroxyl radical (OH) but have not been proved. Herein, Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} with nanoplate like morphology was synthesized and its photocatalytic performances in the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) and phenol as colored and colorless model pollutants respectively were evaluated under the irradiation of blue light emitting diode (LED). The tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) as a OH trap and ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) as a hole sink were involved to investigate the main active groups that are generated on Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} and function during the photodegradation of RhB and phenol. In addition, it is a competitive and promising alternative plan to use blue LED as light source for the future practical application in environmental remediation.

Sun, Yuanyuan; Wang, Wenzhong, E-mail: wzwang@mail.sic.ac.cn; Zhang, Ling; Sun, Songmei

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

87

Blood  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Blood Blood Nature Bulletin No. 584-A December 6, 1975 Forest Preserve District of Cook County George W. Dunne, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation BLOOD Not all blood is red. We are so accustomed to the idea that blood is red that some of us are surprised to learn that it comes in other colors. It is true that all animals with backbones have red blood -- mammals, birds, turtles, snakes, frogs, salamanders and fish. However, among lower animals we find blood that is colorless, blue or green -- as well as a few with red blood. If an animal is large enough to be seen with the naked eye, it is almost certain to have some sort of a circulatory system. Usually, this is a plumbing system with pipes, valves and pumps which brings nourishment and oxygen to the living cells of the animal's body and carries away waste products. The fluid flowing in this plumbing system is blood. In man and the higher animals this blood stream is completely enclosed in the heart, arteries, veins and their smaller branches. That is called a closed circulatory system.

88

COMMENT AND CRITICISM  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...to the Cape, and to Cyprus; but those officers...1884. PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS AS FOUND IN OHIO. THE introduction of natural gas into Pittsburg and other...knowledge of petroleum and natural gas. A few of the leading...

1886-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

89

Table C2. Energy Consumption Estimates for Major Energy Sources...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

in Physical Units, 2012 State Coal Natural Gas a Petroleum Nuclear Electric Power Hydro- electric Power f Fuel Ethanol g Distillate Fuel Oil Jet Fuel b LPG c Motor Gasoline d...

90

Microsoft Word - NWTC Final SWEA 5.6.2014  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

LLC on June 13, 2008. These mineral rights apply to the extraction of coal, shale, oil, and natural gas. A company mining the property immediately adjacent to the NWTC's...

91

Russias Natural Gas Export Potential up to 2050  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent increases in natural gas reserve estimates and advances in shale gas technology make natural gas a fuel with good prospects to serve a bridge to a low-carbon world. Russia is an important energy supplier as it holds ...

Paltsev, Sergey

92

SPENT SHALE AS A CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR OIL SHALE RETORT WATER. ANNUAL REPORT FOR PERIOD OCTOBER 1, 1978 - SEPTEMBER 30, 1979.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Control Technology for Shale Oil Wastewaters,~~ inpyrolysized to produce shale oil, gas, a solid referred towaters are co-produced with shale oil and separated from it

Fox, J.P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

4271 pipeline [n  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

envir. (Long-distance pipe for conveying natural gas, oil, potable water, etc.; specific terms gas pipeline, oil pipeline); spipeline [m] (Conducto destinado al transporte de petrleo o gas a larg...

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1978  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

wt. %) from the oil shale to the water, gas and oil are Cd,waters, oils and gases from in situ oil shale processes andretorting produces shale oil, a low BTU gas, a sol'id waste

Cairns, E.L.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Ties That Do Not Bind: Russia and the International Liberal Order  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

it less dependent on Russian gas, such as LNG and shale gas.in the extraction of shale gas, which is extracted fromboast large reserves of shale gas. A report by the Baker

Krickovic, Andrej

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

1  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

existed over the Four Corners area of the US Southwest for almost a decade, confirmed by remote regional-scale ground measurements of the gas. "A detailed analysis indicates that...

97

Demonstration of Natural Gas Engine Driven Air Compressor Technology at Department of Defense Industrial Facilities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are offset by differences in prevailing utility rates, efficiencies of partial load operation, reductions in peak demand, heat recovery, and avoiding the cost of back-up generators. Natural gas, a clean-burning fuel, is abundant and readily available...

Lin, M.; Aylor, S. W.; Van Ormer, H.

98

Correlation between homogeneous propane pyrolysis and pyrocarbon deposition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and silicon-bearing species such as silanes or chlorosilanes, possibly diluted in a carrier gas) a recombination of these species up to the synthesis of light aromatic compounds, and (iii) an evolution

Boyer, Edmond

99

Demand and Price Volatility: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

analysis of the demand for oil in the Middle East. EnergyEstimates elasticity of demand for crude oil, not gasoline.World crude oil and natural gas: a demand and supply model.

Scott, K. Rebecca

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Demand and Price Uncertainty: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

analysis of the demand for oil in the Middle East. EnergyEstimates elasticity of demand for crude oil, not gasoline.World crude oil and natural gas: a demand and supply model.

Scott, K. Rebecca

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas-a colorless odorless" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Occurrence of pore-filling halite in carbonate rocks, Nesson Anticline, Williston basin, North Dakota  

SciTech Connect

Clear, colorless pore-filling halite of late diagenetic origin occurs locally in the Devonian Dawson Bay, Winnipegosis, and Ashern Formations, the Silurian Interlake Formation, and the Ordovician Red River Formation. The halite occludes a variety of pore types and individual pores are filled with single crystals or aggregates of only a few crystals. This halite is present in quantities ranging from a trace to approximately 12%. Cores from McGregor field, Williams County, show the Winnipegosis Formation consists of mixed-skeletal lime wackestones and mudstones. These contain vugs up to 4 in. (10 cm) in size, intraparticle pores, and shelter porosity within pelecypod shells, up to 4 in. (10 cm) in size, which are occluded with halite. Halite also fills common small discontinuous vertical fractures. The upper 200 ft (61 m) of the Interlake Formation locally exhibits the most striking occurrences of pore-filling halite. These dolostones consist predominantly of intraclast-peloid mudstones, wackestones, packstones, occasional grainstones, algal boundstones, and solution-collapse breccias containing vug, fenestral, interparticle, shelter, intercrystalline, moldic, channel, breccia, and fracture porosity types. All porosity types, except intercrystalline, can be halite filled. A rare occurrence of pore-filling halite exists in Red River cores from Blue Buttes field, McKenzie County, where a dolomitic, mixed-skeletal, lime mudstone and wackestone lithofacies contains vugs, discontinuous vertical fractures, and intraparticle porosity types occluded with halite. In most occurrences, the pore systems were noneffective prior to halite infilling and had no potential as hydrocarbon reservoirs. However, it has been demonstrated that halite plugging in the Interlake Formation has locally formed updip seals to hydrocarbon migration.

Bucher, E.J.

1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Preparation, characterization and applications of novel carbon and nitrogen codoped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles from annealing TiN under CO atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: Carbon and nitrogen codoped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were firstly fabricated by calcining TiN powder under CO atmosphere at different temperatures between 400 and 600 C, both the improved photocatalytic activity for degradation of methylene blue and enhanced photovoltaic performance for dye sensitized solar cells were demonstrated. - Highlights: CN-codoped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were prepared by calcining TiN under CO atmosphere. More visible light response was confirmed by UVvis DRS and photocatalytic results. Enhanced conversion efficiency was observed for the DSSCs from CN-TiO{sub 2} photoanode. CN-codoping played an important role to improve the photocatalytic performance. - Abstract: Carbon and nitrogen codoped titania (CN-TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles were fabricated by calcining titanium nitride (TiN) nanoparticles under carbon monoxide (CO) atmosphere at four different temperatures in a range of 400600 C. The as-prepared samples were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Enhanced light absorption in both the UV and visible light region was observed for the resulted CN-TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles in ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UVvis DRS). Improved photocatalytic activity toward the degradation of methylene blue by the CN-TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles was demonstrated under UV and visible light, respectively. The highest degradation rate was achieved for CN-TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (13%) compared to N-TiO{sub 2} (10%) and the commercial P25 (5%) under visible light illumination for 40 min. Furthermore, the improved photocatalytic activity of CN-TiO{sub 2} was also confirmed by the degradation of colorless resorcinol under UVvis light irradiation. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated using P25, N-TiO{sub 2} and CN-TiO{sub 2} photoanodes, respectively. The highest conversion efficiency of 3.31% was achieved by the DSSCs based on the CN-TiO{sub 2} photoanodes in comparison with the commercial P25 (1.61%) and N-TiO{sub 2} (2.44%) photoanodes. This work demonstrates that thermal treatment of TiN nanoparticles under CO atmosphere has shown to be a rapid, direct and clean approach to synthesize photocatalysts with enhanced photocatalytic and photovoltaic performance.

Sun, Mingxuan; Song, Peng; Li, Jing; Cui, Xiaoli, E-mail: xiaolicui@fudan.edu.cn

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

103

PROCEEDINGS OF RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP ENTITLED "ODDERON SEARCHES AT RHIC" (VOLUME 76)  

SciTech Connect

The Odderon, a charge-conjugation-odd partner of the Pomeron, has been a puzzle ever since its introduction in 1973. The Pomeron describes a colorless exchange with vacuum quantum numbers in the t-channel of hadronic scattering at high energies. The concept was originally formulated for the non-perturbative regime of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). In perturbation theory, the simplest picture of the Poineron is that of a two-gluon exchange process, whereas an Odderon can be thought of as an exchange of three gluons. Both the Pomeron and the Odderon are expected in QCD. However, while there exists plenty of experimental data that could be successfully described by Pomeron exchanges (for example in electron-proton and hadron-hadron scattering at high energies), no experimental sign of the Odderon has been observed. One of the very few hints so far is the difference in the diffractive minima of elastic proton-proton and proton-antiproton scattering measured at the ISR. The Odderon has recently received renewed attention by QCD researchers, mainly for the following two reasons. First of all, RHIC has entered the scene, offering exciting unique new opportunities for Odderon searches. RHIC provides collisions of nuclei at center-of-mass energies far exceeding those at all previous experiments. RHIC also provides collisions of protons of the highest center-of-mass energy, and in the interval, which has not been explored previously in p {bar p} collisions. In addition, it also has the unique feature of polarization for the proton beams, promising to become a crucial tool in Odderon searches. Indeed, theorists have proposed possible signatures of the Odderon in some spin asymmetries measurable at RHIC. Qualitatively unique signals should be seen in these observables if the Odderon coupling is large. Secondly, the Odderon has recently been shown to naturally emerge from the Color Glass Condensate (CGC), a theory for the high-energy asymptotics of QCD. It has been argued that saturation/CGC effects tend to decrease the Odderon intercept, possibly providing an explanation for the lack of experimental evidence for the Odderon so far. This has added further motivation for pursuing searches for the Odderon. During the workshop the status of the Odderon in QCD and its phenomenology were reviewed. The participants also agreed on the most promising observables for the Odderon search at RHIC, which we list. The conclusion of the workshop is that the best available setup to address experimental questions related to the search for the Odderon at RHIC is the proposed combination of STAR experiment and Roman pots of pp2pp experiment, described in the proposal ''Physics with Tagged Forward Protons with the STAR detector at RHIC''.

ORGANIZERS: GURYN, W.; KOVCHEGOV, Y.; VOGELSANG, W.; TRUEMAN, L.

2005-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

104

Supersonic coal water slurry fuel atomizer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A supersonic coal water slurry atomizer utilizing supersonic gas velocities to atomize coal water slurry is provided wherein atomization occurs externally of the atomizer. The atomizer has a central tube defining a coal water slurry passageway surrounded by an annular sleeve defining an annular passageway for gas. A converging/diverging section is provided for accelerating gas in the annular passageway to supersonic velocities.

Becker, Frederick E. (Reading, MA); Smolensky, Leo A. (Concord, MA); Balsavich, John (Foxborough, MA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Influence of Detector Temperature on Sensitivity of Electron Absorbing Derivatives  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......provided by a Datapulse Model 102 pulse generator. The settings utilized were as follows: amplitude, 30 volts; width, 1.0 ,usec; and pulse interval, 100 psec. The carrier gas, a mixture of 10% methane and 90% argon, was passed through a trap containing......

B. C. Pettitt; P. G. Simmonds; A. Zlatkis

1969-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Journal of Power Sources 188 (2009) 8288 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of PEM fuel cell technology faces significant hurdles in terms of cost, durability, and reliability November 2008 Available online 27 November 2008 Keywords: PEM fuel cell Water management Porous plate Wick Heat pipe Dry gas a b s t r a c t We present a study of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells

Santiago, Juan G.

107

BIMA ARRAY DETECTIONS OF HCN IN COMETS LINEAR (C/2002 T7) AND NEAT (C/2001 Q4)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

al. 1997; Womack, Festou, & Stern 1997; Biver et al. 1999a), Comet Hale-Bopp (C/1995 O1) (e of the first interferometric observations of HCN in Comet Hale-Bopp. From the distribution and temporal). The deviations from the Haser model were explained by the existence of jets releasing HCN gas, a conclusion

Hogerheijde, Michiel

108

JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C1, supplement au no 3, Tome 48, mars 1987  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

8 in diameter made by gas evaporation method. B.HALE Can you estimate the temperature derivative OF ICES FROM THE INTERSTELLAR GAS A. KOUCHI Institute of Low Temperature Sciences, Hokkaido University of ices frm the interstellar gas. Hawever, phase relation of multi-capnent ices have not be investigated

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

109

WHAT IS A NETWORK? (Gas and Electricity) A complex, interconnected group or  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

WHAT IS A NETWORK? (Gas and Electricity) A complex, interconnected group or system Electricity and Gas: A system used to distribute electricity and gas around the world/certain area, by compromising to minimise costs and generate the most electricity and gas as possible, which maximises profits

Wright, Francis

110

Non-equilibrium and local detection of the normal fraction of a trapped two-dimensional Bose gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-dimensional Bose gas, a quantity that generally differs from the Bose-Einstein condensed fraction. The idea-Einstein condensation [7]. A possibil- ity explored in [8] is to look at the response of a gas in a toroidal trap for atomic samples, as the superfluid core co-exists with an external ring of normal gas [10]. In p

111

Observation of a shape resonance in the collision of two cold 87 H. M. J. M. Boesten,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A fascinating aspect of the recent successful Bose- Einstein condensation BEC experiments in cold-gas samples from a photoas- sociation experiment in a gas sample of doubly polarized 87 Rb atoms. Using it we of the properties that are fully deter- mined by a. It is believed that in a homogeneous gas a Bose condensate

Heinzen, Daniel J.

112

ccsd-00000540(version1):1Aug2003 Production of Long-Lived Ultracold Li2 Molecules from a Fermi gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

samples, the collapse of Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) for negative scattering length [4], solitonccsd-00000540(version1):1Aug2003 Production of Long-Lived Ultracold Li2 Molecules from a Fermi gas a degenerate two component Fermi gas by sweeping a magnetic field across a Feshbach resonance. The atom

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

113

Methanofullerene-coated tetrabenzoporphyrin organic field-effect transistors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-grade ethanol for 20 min and dried with nitrogen gas. A 0.7% weight precursor solu- tion was prepared-processable form of the organic semiconductor tetrabenzoporphyrin were fabricated with a top coating of a soluble n or postdeposition processing, namely the effects of absorbing oxygen,4 or water,5 or exposure to light.6 In the case

Kanicki, Jerzy

114

Effects of d,l-2-Difluoromethylornithine and Indomethacin on Mammary Tumor Promotion in Rats Fed High n-3 and/or n-6 Fat Diets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...522:5 n-3OthersCorn oil"11.22.125.059...respectively. The menhaden oil was provided by Dr. Tony...Chemical Co., St. Louis, Missouri. Corn oil was purchased from Seaway...were killed using CO: gas. A complete necropsy examination...

Soad H. Abou-El-Ela; Keith W. Prasse; Robert L. Farrell; Richard W. Carroll; Adelbert E. Wade; and Opal R. Bunce

1989-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

115

Catalytic study of SOFC electrode materials in engine exhaust gas Pauline Briaulta  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cathode materials, besides LSCF demonstrated a lower catalytic activity towards hydrocarbon partial corresponding to a composition of exhaust gas. A screening of four cathode materials was done, some well selected as the electrolyte material. Chemical stability tests and catalytic activity studies in the gas

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

116

Gaseous isotope separation using solar wind phenomena  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the use of light carrier gas, a necessity that greatly...the separative process. Gases with low molecular weight...manner similar to that of a turbine, can be placed just outside...the calculation of light gases, we have not included...the author was measuring solar wind parameters under...

Chia-Gee Wang

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Miscellaneous Analyses.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

tc .) ............ 6.39 6.97 37.53 NATURAL GAS. A t m any places in the Brazos bottom where artesian w ells are sunk , gas either issues first or a long w ith water. T lie gas is som etim es suffi? c ien t to burn w ith a strong steady...

Adriance, Duncan; Tilson, P. S.; Harrington, H. H.

1895-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

M Goldschmidt Abstracts 2012  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...a relatively large amount of gas (~20 cm3 ) so that we can make...repeat analyses of the same sample gas. A major component of our method...used directly in a combustion turbine. Field testing of CO2 storage...groundwater saturated with a CO2-H2S gas mixture obtained from a geothermal...

119

Synthetic Fuels: Will Government Lend the Oil Industry a Hand?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...500 million; production costs are pegged...4 and $6 per 42-galloni...feet of gas a day' (abouLt the...North American production w\\ithouLt...one Satur-day afternoon...30 November 1973). Some of...the Defense Production Act of 1950...thesis is that OPEC, like any cartel...

Robert Gillette

1974-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

120

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE, VOL. 34, NO. 3, JUNE 2006 855 Kinetics of Plasma Particles and Electron Transport  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the interelectrode gap. In a low-pressure gas, a high-current density discharge can be supported if the density Identifier 10.1109/TPS.2006.873250 In ablative wall discharges (e.g., metallic electrode ablation in arcs[2 of the vapor particles. The hydrodynamic pa- rameters (temperature, density, velocity) in the Knudsen layer

Kaganovich, Igor

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas-a colorless odorless" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Turkeys. Photo by Jeff Vanuga. Sow with piglet. Photo by Scott Bauer.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of "bio-gas," can be used to fuel a variety of cooking, heating, cooling, and lighting applications to promote bio-gas projects is known as Introduction..................... 1 Digestion Process........... 2 Bio-Gas: A Resource Requiring Care ................ 4 Energy Content and Relative Value of Bio

Laughlin, Robert B.

122

The Woodland Carbon Code  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Woodland Carbon Code While society must continue to make every effort to reduce greenhouse gas a role by removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The potential of woodlands to soak up carbon to help compensate for their carbon emissions. But before investing in such projects, people want to know

123

Chemicals from Biomass: Petrochemical Substitution Options  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...strategies to substitute for petrochemicals...COAL-BASED SYNGAS, CHEMTECH...SYNTHESIS GAS - A RAW-MATERIAL...strategies to substitute for petrochemicals...petroleum and natural gas liquids...programs to substitute bio-mass-derived...Petroleum and Natural Gas for Chemical...

E. S. Lipinsky

1981-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

124

Introduction The Sun is a mass of incandescent gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter 1 Introduction The Sun is a mass of incandescent gas A gigantic nuclear furnace Building that our bodies contain atoms that, like most elements and their isotopes in the Solar System, were part of the molecular cloud from which the Solar System condensed, and were trapped in primitive

Nittler, Larry R.

125

Why Does the Sun Shine? Is the Sun on Fire?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. · Total chemical potential would be 1045 ergs. · This is the solar luminosity for 4000 years. = 5 x 1044 A gigantic nuclear furnace where hydrogen is built into helium at a temperature of millions of degrees Yo ho of incandescent gas A gigantic nuclear furnace where hydrogen is built into helium at a temperature of millions

Walter, Frederick M.

126

Kapundaite, (Na,Ca)[subscript 2]Fe[subscript 4][superscript 3+](PO[subscript 4])[subscript 4](OH)[subscript 3]5H[subscript 2]O, a new phosphate species from Toms quarry, South Australia: Description and structural relationship to mlonjosephite  

SciTech Connect

Kapundaite, ideally (Na,Ca){sub 2}Fe{sub 4}{sup 3+}(PO{sub 4}){sub 4}(OH){sub 3}{center_dot}5H{sub 2}O, is a new mineral (IMA2009-047) from Toms phosphate quarry, Kapunda, South Australia, Australia. The new mineral occurs as cavernous aggregates of fibers up to several centimeters across, associated with leucophosphite, natrodufrenite, and meurigite-Na crystals and amorphous brown, black, and/or greenish coatings. Individual kapundaite crystals are very thin flattened fibers up to a few millimeters in length, but typically no more than a few micrometers in thickness. The main form observed is {l_brace}100{r_brace}; other forms in the [010] zone are present, but cannot be measured. Crystals of kapundaite are pale to golden yellow, transparent to translucent, have a yellow streak and silky luster, and are non-fluorescent. Mohs hardness is estimated to be about 3; no twinning or cleavage was observed. Kapundaite is biaxial (+), with indices of refraction = 1.717(3), {beta} = 1.737(3), and {gamma} = 1.790(3). 2V could not be measured; 2V{sub calc} is 64.7{sup o}. The optical orientation is Z = b, Y {approx} c with weak pleochroism: X = nearly colorless, Y = light brown, Z = pale brown; absorption: Y > Z > X. No dispersion was observed. The empirical chemical formula (mean of seven electron microprobe analyses) calculated on the basis of 24 O is (Ca{sub 1.13}Na{sub 0.95}){sub {Sigma}2.08}(Fe{sub 3.83}{sup 3+}Mn{sub 0.03}Al{sub 0.02}Mg{sub 0.01}){sub {Sigma}3.89}P{sub 3.92}O{sub 16}(OH){sub 3}{center_dot}5H{sub 2.11}O. Kapundaite is triclinic, space group P{sub {bar 1}}, a = 6.317(5), b = 7.698(6), c = 9.768(7) {angstrom}, {alpha} = 105.53(1){sup o}, {beta} = 99.24(2){sup o}, {gamma} = 90.09(2){sup o}, V = 451.2(6) {angstrom}{sup 3}, and Z = 1. The five strongest lines in the powder X-ray diffraction pattern are [d{sub obs} in {angstrom} (I) (hkl)]: 9.338 (100) (001), 2.753 (64) (2{sub {bar 1}}1), 5.173 (52) (011), 2.417 (48) ({sub {ovr 21}}3, 202, 0{sub {bar 1}}4), and 3.828 (45) (0{sub {bar 2}}1). The crystal structure was solved from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data using synchrotron radiation and refined to R{sub 1} = 0.1382 on the basis of 816 unique reflections with F{sub o} > 4{sub {sigma}}F. The structure of kapundaite is based on a unique corrugated octahedral-tetrahedral sheet, which is composed of two types of chains parallel to a. Kapundaite is structurally related to melonjosephite. The mineral is named for the nearest town to the quarry.

Mills, Stuart J.; Birch, William D.; Kampf, Anthony R.; Christy, Andrew G.; Pluth, Joseph J.; Pring, Allan; Raudsepp, Mati; Chen, Yu-Sheng (Museum Vic.); (SA Museum); (NHM-LA); (UC); (UBC); (ANU)

2010-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

127

A Renewable Boost for Natural Gas | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

A Renewable Boost for Natural Gas A Renewable Boost for Natural Gas A Renewable Boost for Natural Gas April 24, 2013 - 3:45pm Addthis The new hybrid solar-natural gas system from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) works through concentrating solar power, which uses a reflecting surface to concentrate the sun's rays like a magnifying glass. In the case of the new system from PNNL, a mirrored parabolic dish directs sunbeams to a central point, where a device absorbs the solar heat to make syngas.| Photo courtesy of PNNL. The new hybrid solar-natural gas system from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) works through concentrating solar power, which uses a reflecting surface to concentrate the sun's rays like a magnifying glass. In the case of the new system from PNNL, a mirrored parabolic dish directs

128

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Conversion Basics  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Vehicle Conversion Vehicle Conversion Basics to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Conversion Basics on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Conversion Basics on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Conversion Basics on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Conversion Basics on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Conversion Basics on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Conversion Basics on AddThis.com... Vehicle Conversion Basics Photo of a Ford Transit Connect converted to run on compressed natural gas. A Ford Transit Connect converted to run on compressed natural gas. A converted vehicle or engine is one modified to use a different fuel or

129

Apparatus for the liquefaction of natural gas and methods relating to same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for producing liquefied natural gas. A liquefaction plant may be coupled to a source of unpurified natural gas, such as a natural gas pipeline at a pressure letdown station. A portion of the gas is drawn off and split into a process stream and a cooling stream. The cooling stream passes through an expander creating work output. A compressor may be driven by the work output and compresses the process stream. The compressed process stream is cooled, such as by the expanded cooling stream. The cooled, compressed process stream is divided into first and second portions with the first portion being expanded to liquefy the natural gas. A gas-liquid separator separates the vapor from the liquid natural gas. The second portion of the cooled, compressed process stream is also expanded and used to cool the compressed process stream.

Wilding, Bruce M. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; McKellar, Michael G. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Turner, Terry D. (Ammon, ID) [Ammon, ID; Carney, Francis H. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

2009-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

130

Apparatus for the liquefaction of a gas and methods relating to same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatuses and methods are provided for producing liquefied gas, such as liquefied natural gas. In one embodiment, a liquefaction plant may be coupled to a source of unpurified natural gas, such as a natural gas pipeline at a pressure letdown station. A portion of the gas is drawn off and split into a process stream and a cooling stream. The cooling stream may be sequentially pass through a compressor and an expander. The process stream may also pass through a compressor. The compressed process stream is cooled, such as by the expanded cooling stream. The cooled, compressed process stream is expanded to liquefy the natural gas. A gas-liquid separator separates the vapor from the liquid natural gas. A portion of the liquid gas may be used for additional cooling. Gas produced within the system may be recompressed for reintroduction into a receiving line.

Turner, Terry D. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Wilding, Bruce M. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; McKellar, Michael G. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

2009-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

131

Vrme-och strmningsteknik / Thermal and flow engineering Massverfring & separationsteknik /  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-component gas-liquid system of a gas (A) (C2H4 for e = 0 or 1; H2 for e = 2 or 3; CO2 for e = 4 or 5; CH4 for e eller 1; H2 för e = 2 eller 3; CO2 för e = 4 eller 5; CH4 för e = 6 eller 7; H2S för e = 8 eller 9) och = a b c d e and z = max(c,d,e). 1201. Ett två-komponent gas-vätskesystem med en gas (A) (C2H4 för e = 0

Zevenhoven, Ron

132

 

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

8) 8) June 2010 State Energy Price and Expenditure Estimates 1970 Through 2008 2008 Price and Expenditure Summary Tables Table S1a. Energy Price Estimates by Source, 2008 (Dollars per Million Btu) State Primary Energy Electric Power Sector g,h Retail Electricity Total Energy g,i Coal Natural Gas a Petroleum Nuclear Fuel Biomass Total g,h,i Distillate Fuel Oil Jet Fuel b LPG c Motor Gasoline d Residual Fuel Oil Other e Total Wood and

133

Characterization of a soil contaminated by oilfield brine  

SciTech Connect

Brine contamination of soil is a common environmental problem associated with the onshore production of oil and gas. A site of extensive contamination in Oklahoma has been characterized using conductimetry, direct potentiometry (pH- and chloride-selective electrodes), and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (for Na{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+}) to determine the extent of the contamination and the efficacy of various remediation technologies.

Al-Mutairi, K.; Harris, T. [Univ. of Tulsa, OH (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Operating Experience with a Large Fluidized-Bed Gasifier of Woodwaste  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

OPERATING EXPERIENCE WITH A LARGE FLUIDIZED-BED GASIFIER OF WOODWASTE Robin F.W. Guard Omnifuel Gasification Systems Toronto, Ontario ABSTRACT The town of Hearst in northern Ontario is the lo cation of many forest product industries. One... Houston, TX, April 4-7, 1982 energy recovery systems before choosing gasification. The main reason for the choice was the need to be able to distribute the energy to four existing boilers in different locations, all working on natural gas. A secondary...

Guard, R. F. W.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Ris Energy Report 3 Hydrogen is a gas at ambient temperatures and pressures,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, hydrogen in the gaseous state has an extremely high ability to diffuse through solid materials be stored as a gas, a liquid or a solid. In the case of solid storage, the hydrogen exists as a chemical.0 70 10.0 141.0 Methanol 12.5 99 19.0 22.7 Gasoline 33.4 47.6 Lead/Acid Battery 0.2 Advanced battery 0

136

Investigation on Firing Behavior of the Spark-Ignition Engine Fueled with Methanol, Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), and Methanol/LPG During Cold Start  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It can be produced from synthesis gas (a mixture of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen) that is formed by steam reforming of natural gas, by gasification of coal, or from biomass, all of which are available in abundance or renewable. ... Liguang et al.,(16) based on cycle-by-cycle control strategy on an EFI (electronic fuel injection) LPG engine, studied how to control the ignition cycle and performed both single-cycle and multicycle tests. ...

Changming Gong; Baoqing Deng; Shu Wang; Yan Su; Qing Gao; Xunjun Liu

2008-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

137

Outlook dims for decontrol of natural gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Outlook dims for decontrol of natural gas ... A lot of people in the chemical industry are watching the nation's capital to see if, by some miracle, they will get some action on decontrol of natural gas prices. ... And there was a time when it appeared as if they would get their wishto get out from under the shackles of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 (NGPA) and switch to total, phased decontrol of natural gas prices. ...

EARL V. ANDERSON

1982-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

138

Enhanced Efficiency of Internal Combustion Engines By Employing Spinning Gas  

SciTech Connect

The efficiency of the internal combustion engine might be enhanced by employing spinning gas. A gas spinning at near sonic velocities has an effectively higher heat capacity, which allows practical fuel cycles, which are far from the Carnot efficiency, to approach more closely the Carnot efficiency. A gain in fuel efficiency of several percent is shown to be theoretically possible for the Otto and Diesel cycles. The use of a flywheel, in principle, could produce even greater increases in the efficiency.

Geyko, Vasily; Fisch, Nathaniel

2014-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

139

Investigation of the thermal conductivity of unconsolidated sand packs containing oil, water, and gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

INVESTIGATION OF THE THERNAL CONDUCTIVITY OF UNCONSOLIDATED SAND PACKS CONTAINING OIL, WATER, AND GAS A Thesis David E. Gore Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Nechanical College oi' Texas in Partial fulfillment.... EXPERIMENTAL EQUIPMENT AND PROCEDURE All tests were performed on unconsolidated sand packs containing either one, two, or three saturating fluids, Phys- ical properties of the sand and saturating fluids are shown in Tables I and II in the Appendix...

Gore, David Eugene

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

140

Gas insulated transmission line having tapered particle trapping ring  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas-insulated transmission line includes an outer sheath, an inner conductor, insulating supports and an insulating gas. A particle-trapping ring is secured to each insulating support, and it is comprised of a central portion and two tapered end portions. The ends of the particle trapping ring have a smaller diameter than the central portion of the ring, so as to enable the use of the particle trapping ring in a curved transmission line.

Cookson, Alan H. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas-a colorless odorless" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Word Pro - S1.lwp  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Cost of Fuels to End Users in Real (1982-1984) Dollars Costs, 1960-2012 Costs, August 2013 Residential Electricity, a Monthly Motor Gasoline, a Monthly Residential Natural Gas, a Monthly 14 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review November 2013 Residential Heating Oil b 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Dollars per Million Btu Residential Electricity a Motor Gasoline a Residential Natural Gas a J F M A M J J A S O N D 0 2 4 6 8 Dollars per Kilowatthour 2011 2012 2013 Electricity a 15.68 12.59 6.89 Residential Motor Residential 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 Dollars per Million Btu Gasoline a Natural Gas a J F M A M J J A S O N D 0.00 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 1.25 1.50 1.75 2.00 Dollars per Gallon 2011 2012 2013 J F M A M J J A S O N D 0 2 4 6 8 10 Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet 2011 2012 2013 a Includes taxes. b Excludes taxes.

142

NETL: LabNotes - July 2012  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

July 2012 July 2012 NETL's Recently Patented Technologies NETL Patent Addresses Catalyst Deactivation, Diesel Reformation When NETL researchers patented a unique hexaaluminate catalyst, they advanced the technology a long way toward solving problems associated with catalyst deactivation--a problem that had long inhibited processes such as diesel fuel reforming. Hexaaluminate unit cell illustration. Hexaaluminate unit cell illustration. Until the NETL patent, researchers wrestled with the problem that commercially available catalysts would deactivate in the presence of sulfur and aromatic compounds. As a result, the presence of those compounds in diesel fuel represented a major problem in reforming the fuel. If researchers were to successfully convert diesel fuel into synthesis gas--a

143

Apparatus for isotopic alteration of mercury vapor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for enriching the isotopic Hg content of mercury is provided. The apparatus includes a reactor, a low pressure electric discharge lamp containing a fill including mercury and an inert gas. A filter is arranged concentrically around the lamp. In a preferred embodiment, constant mercury pressure is maintained in the filter by means of a water-cooled tube that depends from it, the tube having a drop of mercury disposed in it. The reactor is arranged around the filter, whereby radiation from said lamp passes through the filter and into said reactor. The lamp, the filter and the reactor are formed of a material which is transparent to ultraviolet light.

Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); George, William A. (Gloucester, MA); Marcucci, Rudolph V. (Danvers, MA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Graphite Oxide/Polyoxometalate Nanocomposites as Adsorbents of Ammonia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Growing concerns about environmental problems lead researchers to look for efficient ways to adsorb various pollutants, as for instance ammonia. ... Since a good adsorbent for removal of toxic gases is characterized not only by the amount of gas adsorbed but also by the strength involved in its interactions with the pollutant gas, a reversible adsorption is obviously not a desired feature. ... The presence of water, either in the challenging gas or on the surface of the adsorbent, seems to have a different influence on the performance of the adsorbents. ...

Camille Petit; Teresa J. Bandosz

2009-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

145

Steam plasma jet for treatment of contaminated water with high-concentration 1,4-dioxane organic pollutants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A steam plasma jet (SPJ) by using both water and 1,4-dioxane aqueous solution (DAS) as working medium was injected into contaminated water to decompose 1,4-dioxane. The optical emission spectroscopy analysis showed that the formation of the excited species CH* and C2* depended on the concentration of 1,4-dioxane. The influences of SPJ gas temperatures for different working mediums were discussed. The 1,4-dioxane decomposition was enhanced when DAS was used as working medium and SPJ was injected into DAS. Synthesis gas (a mixture of H2 and CO) and CO2 were the main products in gaseous effluents.

G. H. Ni; Y. Zhao; Y. D. Meng; X. K. Wang; H. Toyoda

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

A Non-Aqueous Reduction Process for Purifying 153Gd Produced in Natural Europium Targets  

SciTech Connect

Gadolinium-153 is a low-energy gamma-emitter used in nuclear medicine imaging quality assurance. Produced in nuclear reactors using natural Eu2O3 targets, 153Gd is radiochemically separated from europium isotopes by europium reduction. However, conventional aqueous europium reduction produces hydrogen gas, a flammability hazard in radiological hot cells. We altered the traditional reduction method, using methanol as the process solvent to nearly eliminate hydrogen gas production. This new, non-aqueous reduction process demonstrates greater than 98% europium removal and gadolinium yields of 90%.

Johnsen, Amanda M.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Fisher, Darrell R.

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Gas energy meter for inferential determination of thermophysical properties of a gas mixture at multiple states of the gas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas energy meter that acquires the data and performs the processing for an inferential determination of one or more gas properties, such as heating value, molecular weight, or density. The meter has a sensor module that acquires temperature, pressure, CO2, and speed of sound data. Data is acquired at two different states of the gas, which eliminates the need to determine the concentration of nitrogen in the gas. A processing module receives this data and uses it to perform a "two-state" inferential algorithm.

Morrow, Thomas B. (San Antonio, TX); Kelner, Eric (San Antonio, TX); Owen, Thomas E. (Helotes, TX)

2008-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

148

Water-saving liquid-gas conditioning system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for treating a process gas with a liquid comprises contacting a process gas with a hygroscopic working fluid in order to remove a constituent from the process gas. A system for treating a process gas with a liquid comprises a hygroscopic working fluid comprising a component adapted to absorb or react with a constituent of a process gas, and a liquid-gas contactor for contacting the working fluid and the process gas, wherein the constituent is removed from the process gas within the liquid-gas contactor.

Martin, Christopher; Zhuang, Ye

2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

149

Investigation of Gas-Phase Reactions and Ignition Delay Occurring at Conditions Typical for Partial Oxidation of Methane to Synthesis Gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Investigation of Gas-Phase Reactions and Ignition Delay Occurring at Conditions Typical for Partial Oxidation of Methane to Synthesis Gas ... A detailed kinetic model based on a free-radical mechanism has been developed, which allows the adequate calculation of the feed conversions and product selectivities. ... The production of synthesis gas from natural gas by partial oxidation has been extensively investigated as an alternative for the steam-reforming process since it results directly in a H2/CO ratio of 2:1 which is required for methanol and Fischer?Tropsch synthesis. ...

R. J. Berger; G. B. Marin

1999-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

150

Electrically heated particulate filter with reduced stress  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system comprises a particulate matter (PM) filter comprising an inlet for receiving exhaust gas. A zoned heater is arranged in the inlet and comprises a resistive heater comprising N zones, where N is an integer greater than one. Each of the N zones comprises M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than one. A control module selectively activates one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones and deactivates others of the N zones.

Gonze, Eugene V.

2013-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

151

Environmental information volume: Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) project  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the commercial viability of the Liquid Phase Methanol Process using coal-derived synthesis gas, a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. This report describes the proposed actions, alternative to the proposed action, the existing environment at the coal gasification plant at Kingsport, Tennessee, environmental impacts, regulatory requirements, offsite fuel testing, and DME addition to methanol production. Appendices include the air permit application, solid waste permits, water permit, existing air permits, agency correspondence, and Eastman and Air Products literature.

NONE

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Methods For Delivering Liquified Gas To An Engine  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquified gas delivery system for a motorized platform includes a holding tank configured to receive liquified gas. A first conduit extends from a vapor holding portion of the tank to a valve device. A second conduit extends from a liquid holding portion of the tank to the valve device. Fluid coupled to the valve device is a vaporizer which is in communication with an engine. The valve device selectively withdraws either liquified gas or liquified gas vapor from the tank depending on the pressure within the vapor holding portion of the tank. Various configurations of the delivery system can be utilized for pressurizing the tank during operation.

Bingham, Dennis N. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wilding, Bruce M. (Idaho Falls, ID); O'Brien, James E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Siahpush, Ali S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Brown, Kevin B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2003-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

153

Methods For Delivering Liquified Gas To An Engine  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquified gas delivery system for a motorized platform includes a holding tank configured to receive liquified gas. A first conduit extends from a vapor holding portion of the tank to a valve device. A second conduit extends from a liquid holding portion of the tank to the valve device. Fluid coupled to the valve device is a vaporizer which is in communication with an engine. The valve device selectively withdraws either liquified gas or liquified gas vapor from the tank depending on the pressure within the vapor holding portion of the tank. Various configurations of the delivery system can be utilized for pressurizing the tank during operation.

Bingham, Dennis N. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wilding, Bruce M. (Idaho Falls, ID); O'Brien, James E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Siahpush, Ali S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Brown, Kevin B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2005-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

154

Apparatus For The Liquefaaction Of Natural Gas And Methods Relating To Same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for producing liquefied natural gas. A liquefaction plant may be coupled to a source of unpurified natural gas, such as a natural gas pipeline at a pressure letdown station. A portion of the gas is drawn off and split into a process stream and a cooling stream. The cooling stream passes through a turbo expander creating work output. A compressor is driven by the work output and compresses the process stream. The compressed process stream is cooled, such as by the expanded cooling stream. The cooled, compressed process stream is divided into first and second portions with the first portion being expanded to liquefy the natural gas. A gas-liquid separator separates the vapor from the liquid natural gas. The second portion of the cooled, compressed process stream is also expanded and used to cool the compressed process stream. Additional features and techniques may be integrated with the liquefaction process including a water clean-up cycle and a carbon dioxide (CO2) clean-up cycle.

Wilding, Bruce M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Bingham, Dennis N. (Idaho Falls, ID); McKellar, Michael G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Turner, Terry D. (Ammon, ID); Rateman, Kevin T. (Idaho Falls, ID); Palmer, Gary L. (Shelley, ID); Klinger, Kerry M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Vranicar, John J. (Concord, CA)

2005-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

155

Apparatus For The Liquefaaction Of Natural Gas And Methods Relating To Same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for producing liquefied natural gas. A liquefaction plant may be coupled to a source of unpurified natural gas, such as a natural gas pipeline at a pressure letdown station. A portion of the gas is drawn off and split into a process stream and a cooling stream. The cooling stream passes through a turbo expander creating work output. A compressor is driven by the work output and compresses the process stream. The compressed process stream is cooled, such as by the expanded cooling stream. The cooled, compressed process stream is divided into first and second portions with the first portion being expanded to liquefy the natural gas. A gas-liquid separator separates the vapor from the liquid natural gas. The second portion of the cooled, compressed process stream is also expanded and used to cool the compressed process stream. Additional features and techniques may be integrated with the liquefaction process including a water clean-up cycle and a carbon dioxide (CO2) clean-up cycle.

Wilding, Bruce M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Bingham, Dennis N. (Idaho Falls, ID); McKellar, Michael G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Turner, Terry D. (Ammon, ID); Raterman, Kevin T. (Idaho Falls, ID); Palmer, Gary L. (Shelley, ID); Klingler, Kerry M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Vranicar, John J. (Concord, CA)

2005-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

156

Apparatus For The Liquefaaction Of Natural Gas And Methods Relating To Same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for producing liquefied natural gas. A liquefaction plant may be coupled to a source of unpurified natural gas, such as a natural gas pipeline at a pressure letdown station. A portion of the gas is drawn off and split into a process stream and a cooling stream. The cooling stream passes through a turbo expander creating work output. A compressor is driven by the work output and compresses the process stream. The compressed process stream is cooled, such as by the expanded cooling stream. The cooled, compressed process stream is divided into first and second portions with the first portion being expanded to liquefy the natural gas. A gas-liquid separator separates the vapor from the liquid natural gas. The second portion of the cooled, compressed process stream is also expanded and used to cool the compressed process stream. Additional features and techniques may be integrated with the liquefaction process including a water clean-up cycle and a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) clean-up cycle.

Wilding, Bruce M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Bingham, Dennis N. (Idaho Falls, ID); McKellar, Michael G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Turner, Terry D. (Ammon, ID); Raterman, Kevin T. (Idaho Falls, ID); Palmer, Gary L. (Shelley, ID); Klingler, Kerry M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Vranicar, John J. (Concord, CA)

2003-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

157

Apparatus for the liquefaction of natural gas and methods relating to same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for producing liquefied natural gas. A liquefaction plant may be coupled to a source of unpurified natural gas, such as a natural gas pipeline at a pressure letdown station. A portion of the gas is drawn off and split into a process stream and a cooling stream. The cooling stream passes through a turbo expander creating work output. A compressor is driven by the work output and compresses the process stream. The compressed process stream is cooled, such as by the expanded cooling stream. The cooled, compressed process stream is divided into first and second portions with the first portion being expanded to liquefy the natural gas. A gas-liquid separator separates the vapor from the liquid natural gas. The second portion of the cooled, compressed process stream is also expanded and used to cool the compressed process stream. Additional features and techniques may be integrated with the liquefaction process including a water clean-up cycle and a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) clean-up cycle.

Wilding, Bruce M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Bingham, Dennis N. (Idaho Falls, ID); McKellar, Michael G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Turner, Terry D. (Ammon, ID); Raterman, Kevin T. (Idaho Falls, ID); Palmer, Gary L. (Shelley, ID); Klingler, Kerry M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Vranicar, John J. (Concord, CA)

2007-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

158

Natural Gas - CNG & LNG  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural gas pump Natural gas, a fossil fuel comprised mostly of methane, is one of the cleanest burning alternative fuels. It can be used in the form of compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied natural gas (LNG) to fuel cars and trucks. Dedicated natural gas vehicles are designed to run on natural gas only, while dual-fuel or bi-fuel vehicles can also run on gasoline or diesel. Dual-fuel vehicles allow users to take advantage of the wide-spread availability of gasoline or diesel but use a cleaner, more economical alternative when natural gas is available. Since natural gas is stored in high-pressure fuel tanks, dual-fuel vehicles require two separate fueling systems, which take up passenger/cargo space. Natural gas vehicles are not available on a large scale in the U.S.-only

159

C:\ANNUAL\Vol2chps.v8\ANNUAL2.VP  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7 7 Glossary Aquifer Field: A sub-surface facility for storing natural gas consisting of water-bearing sands topped by an imper- meable cap rock. Balancing Item: Represents differences between the sum of the components of natural gas supply and the sum of the components of natural gas disposition. These differences may be due to quantities lost or to the effects of data-reporting problems. Reporting problems include differences due to the net result of conversions of flow data metered at varying temperature and pressure bases and con- verted to a standard temperature and pressure base; the effect of variations in company accounting and billing practices; differences between billing cycle and calendar period time frames; and imbalances resulting from the merger of data-reporting systems that vary in scope, format, definitions, and type of respondents. Biomass Gas: A medium Btu

160

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

International & Interstate Movements by State International & Interstate Movements by State Definitions Key Terms Definition Deliveries The physical transfer of natural, synthetic, and/or supplemental gas from facilities operated by the responding company to facilities operated by others or to consumers. Exports Natural Gas deliveries out of the Continental United States and Alaska to foreign countries. Imports Natural Gas received in the Continental United States (including Alaska) from a foreign country. Natural Gas A gaseous mixture of hydrocarbon compounds, the primary one being methane. Net Imports and Receipts The amount by which imports and receipts exceed exports and deliveries. Receipts Deliveries of fuel to an electric plant ; Purchases of fuel ; All revenues received by an exporter for the reported quantity exported.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas-a colorless odorless" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Underground Storage - All Operators Underground Storage - All Operators Definitions Key Terms Definition AGA Eastern Consuming Region All States east of the Mississippi River less Mississippi and Alabama, plus Iowa, Nebraska and Missouri. AGA Western Consuming Region All States west of the Mississippi River less the Producing Region and Iowa, Nebraska and Missouri. AGA Producing Region Alabama, Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. Base (cushion) Gas The volume of gas needed as a permanent inventory to maintain adequate reservoir pressures and deliverability rates throughout the withdrawal season. All native gas is included in the base gas volume. Natural Gas A gaseous mixture of hydrocarbon compounds, the primary one being methane. Net Withdrawals The amount by which storage withdrawals exceed storage injections.

162

NETL: News Release -  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

, 2006 , 2006 DOE-Funded Technology to Upgrade Low-Quality Natural Gas Commercialized Research Targets Subquality Gas Resource Comprising a Third of U.S. Gas Reserves TULSA, OK- A new Department of Energy-funded technology to upgrade low-quality natural gas-a resource that accounts for almost one-third of America's known gas reserves-has been successfully commercialized and is now a multimillion-dollar business. A large portion of the nation's natural gas production stream comes out of the ground contaminated by water, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, or nitrogen and other inert gases. These contaminants must be removed from the production stream in order to provide pipeline-quality natural gas for delivery to consumers. This low-quality natural gas resource has been estimated at more than 60 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of the Nation's total proved gas reserves of more than 192 Tcf.

163

Energy Department Authorizes Additional Volume at Proposed Freeport LNG  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energy Department Authorizes Additional Volume at Proposed Freeport Energy Department Authorizes Additional Volume at Proposed Freeport LNG Facility to Export Liquefied Natural Gas Energy Department Authorizes Additional Volume at Proposed Freeport LNG Facility to Export Liquefied Natural Gas November 15, 2013 - 3:00pm Addthis NEWS MEDIA CONTACT (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON - The Energy Department announced today that it has conditionally authorized Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P. and FLNG Liquefaction, LLC (Freeport) to export additional volumes of domestically produced liquefied natural gas (LNG) to countries that do not have a Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with the United States from the Freeport LNG Terminal in Quintana Island, Texas. Freeport previously received approval to export 1.4 billion cubic feet of natural gas a day (Bcf/d) of LNG from this

164

FE Carbon Capture and Storage News  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

carbon-capture-storage-news Office of Fossil Energy carbon-capture-storage-news Office of Fossil Energy Forrestal Building 1000 Independence Avenue, SW Washington, DC 20585202-586-6503 en Energy Department Invests to Drive Down Costs of Carbon Capture, Support Reductions in Greenhouse Gas Pollution http://energy.gov/articles/energy-department-invests-drive-down-costs-carbon-capture-support-reductions-greenhouse-gas <a href="/articles/energy-department-invests-drive-down-costs-carbon-capture-support-reductions-greenhouse-gas" class="title-link">Energy Department Invests to Drive Down Costs of Carbon Capture, Support Reductions in Greenhouse Gas Pollution

165

NREL: News - Release Archives 2008  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Printable Version Printable Version News Release Archives 2008 News releases covering laboratory activities, scientific discoveries, projects and more are archived below, chronologically. For more information about NREL and its research in renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies, e-mail public_affairs@nrel.gov. December 11, 2008 Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicle Data Center Creates New Tool to Calculate Ways to Cut Gas Use A business owner with a fleet of 10 heavy-duty diesel trucks wants to cut diesel use by 10 percent. Would using a biodiesel blend or investing in onboard power sources that reduce engine idling achieve the biggest drop in petroleum use? An average driver, using 600 gallons of gas a year in a typical sedan, wants to reduce gas consumption by 20 percent. Would using

166

One Man's Trash is Another Man's Fuel | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

One Man's Trash is Another Man's Fuel One Man's Trash is Another Man's Fuel One Man's Trash is Another Man's Fuel September 16, 2010 - 7:08pm Addthis Dennis A. Smith Director, National Clean Cities The average American throws away more than 900 pounds of trash every year. Organic waste degrading in landfills produces methane gas - a gas 21 times more potent as a greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide. Although most landfills vent this gas in the atmosphere, some facilities are exploring how to use it to fuel trash haulers and other vehicles. The Department of Energy's Clean Cities program recognizes the potential of these new facilities to generate sustainable fuel from methane gas and thus is working to support landfill gas projects across the country. Landfill gas is a type of biogas, a natural gas produced by biological

167

All Consumption Tables.vp  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

6 6 State Energy Data 2011: Consumption Table C11. Energy Consumption by Source, Ranked by State, 2011 Rank Coal Natural Gas a Petroleum b Retail Electricity Sales State Trillion Btu State Trillion Btu State Trillion Btu State Trillion Btu 1 Texas 1,695.2 Texas 3,756.9 Texas 5,934.3 Texas 1,283.1 2 Indiana 1,333.4 California 2,196.6 California 3,511.4 California 893.7 3 Ohio 1,222.6 Louisiana 1,502.9 Louisiana 1,925.7 Florida 768.0 4 Pennsylvania 1,213.0 New York 1,246.9 Florida 1,680.3 Ohio 528.0 5 Illinois 1,052.2 Florida 1,236.6 New York 1,304.0 Pennsylvania 507.6 6 Kentucky 1,010.6 Pennsylvania 998.6 Pennsylvania 1,255.6 New York 491.5

168

NETL: News Release - Energy Department Awards $66.7 Million for Large-Scale  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

29, 2008 29, 2008 DOE Report: Alaska North Slope Has Plenty of Potential Report Examines Future of Oil and Natural Gas Resources in Arctic Alaska Washington, D.C. - The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy has issued a comprehensive new report Alaska North Slope Oil and Gas: A Promising Future or an Area in Decline? To answer this question, the report examines the potential for Arctic Alaska to remain a major contributor to the Nation's domestic energy supply under different development scenarios. MORE INFO Read the Summary Report [PDF-3MB] Read the Full Report [PDF-7MB] Future projections were viewed from two perspectives, an oil-centered near term (2005 to 2015) and a long term (2015 to 2050) marked by the emergence of gas as a major factor in exploration and development activities. Key

169

Business Owners: Prepare for Utility Disruptions | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

for Utility Disruptions for Utility Disruptions Business Owners: Prepare for Utility Disruptions Business Owners: Prepare for Utility Disruptions Have a plan in place in case a natural disaster or other hazard knocks out your business's electricity or natural gas service. Identify energy utilities-The utilities that are absolutely necessary to running your business. How might a disaster impact the availability of those utilities? Determine backup options-Contact your utility companies to discuss potential backup options, such as portable generators to provide power. Learn how and when to turn off utilities-For example, if you turn off your natural gas, a professional technician must turn it back on. Learn more Consider using backup generators-Generators can power the most important aspects of your business in an emergency. This will involve:

170

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

U.S. Underground Storage by Type U.S. Underground Storage by Type Definitions Key Terms Definition Base (cushion) gas The volume of gas needed as a permanent inventory to maintain adequate reservoir pressures and deliverability rates throughout the withdrawal season. All native gas is included in the base gas volume. Gas in storage The sum of base gas plus working gas. Injections The volume of gas injected into storage reservoirs. Natural Gas A gaseous mixture of hydrocarbon compounds, the primary one being methane. Net Withdrawals The amount by which storage withdrawals exceed storage injections. Salt Cavern Storage Field A storage facility that is a cavern hollowed out in either a salt "bed" or "dome" formation. Withdrawals The volume of gas withdrawn from storage reservoirs.

171

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Futures Prices Futures Prices Definitions Key Terms Definition Contract 1 A futures contract specifying the earliest delivery date. Natural gas contracts expire three business days prior to the first calendar day of the delivery month. Thus, the delivery month for Contract 1 is the calendar month following the trade date. Contract 2-4 Represent the successive delivery months following Contract 1. Futures Price The price quoted for delivering a specified quantity of a commodity at a specified time and place in the future. Natural Gas A gaseous mixture of hydrocarbon compounds, the primary one being methane. NGL Composite Price The natural gas liquids (NGL) composite price is derived from daily Bloomberg spot price data for natural gas liquids at Mont Belvieu, Texas, weighted by gas processing plant production volumes of each product as reported on Form EIA-816, "Monthly Natural Gas Liquids Report."

172

C:\ANNUAL\VENTCHAP.V8\NGA.VP  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

51 51 Glossary Balancing Item: Represents differences between the sum of the components of natural gas supply and the sum of the components of natural gas disposition. These differ- ences may be due to quantities lost or to the effects of data-reporting problems. Reporting problems include dif- ferences due to the net result of conversions of flow data metered at varying temperature and pressure bases and converted to a standard temperature and pressure base; the effect of variations in company accounting and billing practices; differences between billing cycle and calendar period time frames; and imbalances resulting from the merger of data-reporting systems that vary in scope, for- mat, definitions, and type of respondents. Biomass Gas: A medium Btu gas containing methane and carbon dioxide, resulting from the action of microor- ganisms on organic materials such as a landfill.

173

Glossary Balancing Item: Represents  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Balancing Balancing Item: Represents differences between the sum of the components of natural gas supply and the sum of the components of natural gas disposition. These differences may be due to quantities lost or to the effects of data-report- ing problems. Reporting problems include differences due to the net result of conversions of flow data metered at varying temperature and pressure bases and converted to a standard temperature and pressure base; the effect of vari- ations in company accounting and billing practices; differ- ences between billing cycle and calendar period time frames; and imbalances resulting from the merger of data- reporting systems that vary in scope, format, definitions, and type of respondents. Biomass Gas: A medium Btu gas containing methane and carbon dioxide, resulting from the action of microorganisms on organic materials such as a landfill. British Thermal

174

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Supplemental Supplies Supplemental Supplies Definitions Key Terms Definition Biomass Gas A medium Btu gas containing methane and carbon dioxide, resulting from the action of microorganisms on organic materials such as a landfill. Blast-furnace Gas The waste combustible gas generated in a blast furnace when iron ore is being reduced with coke to metallic iron. It is commonly used as a fuel within steel works. British Thermal Unit (Btu) The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 pound of liquid water by 1 degree Fahrenheit at the temperature at which water has its greatest density (approximately 39 degrees Fahrenheit). Coke-oven Gas The mixture of permanent gases produced by the carbonization of coal in a coke oven at temperatures in excess of 1,000 degrees Celsius.

175

Liquefied Natural Gas | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Liquefied Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Natural gas plays a vital role in the U.S. energy supply and in achieving the nation's economic and environmental goals. One of several supply options involves increasing imports of liquefied natural gas (LNG) to ensure that American consumers have adequate supplies of natural gas for the future. Natural gas consumption in the United States is expected to increase slightly from about 24.3 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) in 2011 to 26.6 Tcf by 2035. Currently, most of the demand for natural gas in the United States is met with domestic production and imports via pipeline from Canada. A small percentage of gas supplies are imported and received as liquefied natural gas. A significant portion of the world's natural gas resources are

176

Photo of the Week: A Driving Force for Natural Gas | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

A Driving Force for Natural Gas A Driving Force for Natural Gas Photo of the Week: A Driving Force for Natural Gas September 28, 2012 - 3:04pm Addthis Since 1977, the people of the U.S. Department of Energy have been delivering the science, innovation and expertise required to advance America's energy, economic and national security. In this photo taken in June 1988, former Secretary of Energy John Herrington takes the wheel of a clean natural gas vehicle in front of the Energy Department in Washington, DC. Today, natural gas powers over 112,000 vehicles in the United States and roughly 14.8 million vehicles worldwide. Natural gas vehicles, which can run on compressed natural gas, are a good option for high-mileage, centrally-fueled fleets that operate within a limited area. | Photo courtesy of the Department of Energy.

177

Energy Department Authorizes Additional Volume at Proposed Freeport LNG  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Additional Volume at Proposed Freeport Additional Volume at Proposed Freeport LNG Facility to Export Liquefied Natural Gas Energy Department Authorizes Additional Volume at Proposed Freeport LNG Facility to Export Liquefied Natural Gas November 15, 2013 - 3:00pm Addthis NEWS MEDIA CONTACT (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON - The Energy Department announced today that it has conditionally authorized Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P. and FLNG Liquefaction, LLC (Freeport) to export additional volumes of domestically produced liquefied natural gas (LNG) to countries that do not have a Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with the United States from the Freeport LNG Terminal in Quintana Island, Texas. Freeport previously received approval to export 1.4 billion cubic feet of natural gas a day (Bcf/d) of LNG from this facility to non-FTA countries on May 17, 2013. The Freeport Expansion

178

Definition: Therm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Therm Therm Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Therm A unit of heat containing 100,000 British thermal units (Btu).[1][2] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Natural Gas is usually measured by volume in the United States and is stated in cubic feet. A cubic foot of gas is the amount of gas needed to fill a volume of one cubic foot under set conditions of pressure and temperature. To measure larger amounts of natural gas, a "therm" is used to denote 100 cubic feet, and "mcf" is used to denote 1,000 cubic feet. To provide greater accuracy in comparing fuels, energy content is measured in terms of "British Thermal Units (BTU's). " A BTU is the amount of heat required to raise one pound of water (approximately a pint), one degree

179

ALASKA NORTH SLOPE OIL AND GAS RESOURCES  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

FFf Task 222.01.01 FFf Task 222.01.01 ADDENDUM REPORT Alaska North Slope Oil and Gas A Promising Future or an Area in Decline? DOE/NETL-2009/1385 April 2009 ii Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe probably owned rights. References herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement,

180

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Natural Gas Used as Feedstock for Hydrogen Production Natural Gas Used as Feedstock for Hydrogen Production Definitions Key Terms Definition Hydrogen The lightest of all gases, occurring chiefly in combination with oxygen in water; exists also in acids, bases, alcohols, petroleum, and other hydrocarbons. Natural Gas A gaseous mixture of hydrocarbon compounds, the primary one being methane. Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) Districts Geographic aggregations of the 50 States and the District of Columbia into five districts by the Petroleum Administration for Defense in 1950. These districts were originally defined during World War II for purposes of administering oil allocation. Description and maps of PAD Districts and Refining Districts. For definitions of related energy terms, refer to the EIA Energy Glossary.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas-a colorless odorless" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

NGA98fin5.vp  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 Energy Information Administration / Natural Gas Annual 1998 Glossary Balancing Item: Represents differences between the sum of the components of natural gas supply and the sum of the components of natural gas disposition. These differ- ences may be due to quantities lost or to the effects of data-reporting problems. Reporting problems include dif- ferences due to the net result of conversions of flow data metered at varying temperature and pressure bases and converted to a standard temperature and pressure base; the effect of variations in company accounting and billing practices; differences between billing cycle and calendar period time frames; and imbalances resulting from the merger of data-reporting systems that vary in scope, for- mat, definitions, and type of respondents. Biomass Gas: A medium Btu gas containing methane and carbon dioxide, resulting from the action

182

Dark Energy and Search for the Generalized Second Law  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The discovery of accelerated Hubble expansion in the SNIa data and the observed power spectrum of the microwave background radiation provide an ample support for Dark energy and Dark matter. Except for the so far well-known facts that cold dark matter (or simply dark matter) is pressureless, and dark energy has a negative pressure, the nature of these two still remains a complete mystery. The mystery facilitates different consideration. In one hand, dark matter and dark energy are assumed as distinct entities, and other interpretation is that both are different manifestation of a common structure, often referred as quartessence. Chaplygin gas, a perfect fluid also favours the second interpretation. Here, we consider modified chaplygin gas as dark energy candidate. Taking into account the existence of the observer's event horizon in accelerated universe, we find the condition where the generalized second law of gravitational thermodynamics is valid and the positivity of the temperature of the phantom fluid remains intact.

Balendra Kr. Dev Choudhury; Julie Saikia

2009-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

183

Foam for improving sweep efficiency in subterranean oil-bearing formations  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a conformance improvement treatment process for a subterranean oil-bearing formation having a region of higher permeability and a region of lower permeability. It comprises injecting a foam into the region of higher permeability to reduce the permeability therein, the foam comprising a crosslinkable carboxylate-containing polymer, a crosslinking agent capable of crosslinking the polymer, a surfactant, a liquid solvent, and a foaming gas. A process for recovering oil from a subterranean oil-bearing formation by improving the mobility of a displacement fluid, the process. It comprises preparing a flowing mobility control foam comprising a crosslinkable polymer, a crosslinking agent capable of crosslinking the polymer, a surfactant, a liquid solvent, and a foaming gas; and displacing the foam through the formation by the displacement fluid to control the mobility of the displacement fluid in the formation.

Sydansk, R.D.

1992-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

184

Synthesis of Ozone at Atmospheric Pressure by a Quenched Induction-Coupled Plasma Torch  

SciTech Connect

The technical feasibility of using an induction-coupled plasma (ICP) torch to synthesize ozone at atmospheric pressure is explored. Ozone concentrations up to ~250 ppm were produced using a thermal plasma reactor system based on an ICP torch operating at 2.5 MHz and ~11 kVA with an argon/oxygen mixture as the plasma-forming gas. A gaseous oxygen quench formed ozone by rapid mixing of molecular oxygen with atomic oxygen produced by the torch. The ozone concentration in the reaction chamber was measured by Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy over a wide range of experimental configurations. The geometry of the quench gas flow, the quench flow velocity, and the quench flow rate played important roles in determining the ozone concentration. The ozone concentration was sensitive to the torch RF power, but was insensitive to the torch gas flow rates. These observations are interpreted within the framework of a simple model of ozone synthesis.

A. Blutke; B.C. Stratton; D.R. Mikkelsen; J. Vavruska; R. Knight

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Systems for delivering liquified natural gas to an engine  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel delivery system includes a fuel tank configured to receive liquid natural gas. A first conduit extends from a vapor holding portion of the fuel tank to an economizer valve. A second conduit extends from a liquid holding portion of the fuel tank to the economizer valve. Fluid coupled to the economizer valve is a vaporizer which is heated by coolant from the engine and is positioned below the fuel tank. The economizer valve selectively withdraws either liquid natural gas or vaporized natural gas from the fuel tank depending on the pressure within the vapor holding portion of the fuel tank. A delivery conduit extends from the vaporizer to the engine. A return conduit having a check valve formed therein extends from the delivery conduit to the vapor holding portion of the fuel tank for pressurizing the fuel tank.

Bingham, Dennis N. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wilding, Bruce M. (Idaho Falls, ID); O'Brien, James E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Siahpush, Ali S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Brown, Kevin B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Supplementary Paper SP 3.1: Russias Natural Gas Export Potential up to 2050  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent increases in natural gas reserve estimates and advances in shale gas technology make natural gas a fuel with good prospects to serve a bridge to a low-carbon world. Russia is an important energy supplier as it holds the world largest natural gas reserves and it is the worlds largest exporter of natural gas. Energy was one of the driving forces of Russias recent economic recovery from the economic collapse of 1990s. The country enjoyed more that 5 percent annual real economic growth for the period of 2000-2008. The robust growth with ever increasing energy prices had contributed to a sense of a long-term economic stability in Russia. These

Sergey Paltsev

187

Mitigating the effect of siloxanes on internal combustion engines using landfill gasses  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A waste gas combustion method that includes providing a combustible fuel source, in which the combustible fuel source is composed of at least methane and siloxane gas. A sodium source or magnesium source is mixed with the combustible fuel source. Combustion of the siloxane gas of the combustible fuel source produces a silicon containing product. The sodium source or magnesium source reacts with the silicon containing product to provide a sodium containing glass or sodium containing silicate, or a magnesium containing silicate. By producing the sodium containing glass or sodium containing silicate, or the magnesium containing silicate, or magnesium source for precipitating particulate silica instead of hard coating, the method may reduce or eliminate the formation of silica deposits within the combustion chamber and the exhaust components of the internal combustion engine.

Besmann, Theodore M

2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

188

Self-gravitating clouds of generalized Chaplygin and modified anti-Chaplygin Gases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Chaplygin gas has been proposed as a possible dark energy, dark matter candidate. As a working fluid in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe, it exhibits early behavior reminiscent of dark matter, but at later times is more akin to a cosmological constant. In any such universe, however, one can expect local perturbations to form. Here we obtain the general equations for a self-gravitating relativistic Chaplygin gas. We solve these equations and obtain the mass-radius relationship for such structures, showing that only in the phantom regime is the mass-radius relationship large enough to be a serious candidate for highly compact massive objects at the galaxy core. In addition, we study the cosmology of a modified anti-Chaplygin gas. A self-gravitating cloud of this matter is an exact solution to Einstein's equations.

T. C. Lipscombe

2008-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

189

Gas turbine topping combustor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A combustor for burning a mixture of fuel and air in a rich combustion zone, in which the fuel bound nitrogen in converted to molecular nitrogen. The fuel rich combustion is followed by lean combustion. The products of combustion from the lean combustion are rapidly quenched so as to convert the fuel bound nitrogen to molecular nitrogen without forming NOx. The combustor has an air radial swirler that directs the air radially inward while swirling it in the circumferential direction and a radial fuel swirler that directs the fuel radially outward while swirling it in the same circumferential direction, thereby promoting vigorous mixing of the fuel and air. The air inlet has a variable flow area that is responsive to variations in the heating value of the fuel, which may be a coal-derived fuel gas. A diverging passage in the combustor in front of a bluff body causes the fuel/air mixture to recirculate with the rich combustion zone.

Beer, Janos (Winchester, MA); Dowdy, Thomas E. (Orlando, FL); Bachovchin, Dennis M. (Delmont, PA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Higher modulus compositions incorporating particulate rubber  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Rubber particles, to be used as fillers or extenders for various composite polymer systems, are chlorinated by a gas-solid phase reaction with a chlorine-containing gas. A composite polymer containing the chlorinated rubber fillers or extenders exhibits a higher flexural modulus than if prepared using an unchlorinated rubber filler or extender. Chlorination of the rubber particles is carried out by contacting the finely divided rubber particles with a chlorine-containing gas comprising at least about 5 volume percent chlorine. Advantageously, the chlorine can be diluted with air, nitrogen or other essentially inert gases and may contain minor amounts of fluorine. Improved performance is obtained with nitrogen dilution of the chlorine gas over air dilution. Improved polymer composite systems having higher flexural modulus result from the use of the chlorinated rubber particles as fillers instead of unchlorinated rubber particles. 2 figs.

Bauman, B.D.; Williams, M.A.; Bagheri, R.

1997-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

191

Higher modulus compositions incorporating particulate rubber  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Rubber particles, to be used as fillers or extenders for various composite polymer systems, are chlorinated by a gas-solid phase reaction with a chlorine-containing gas. A composite polymer containing the chlorinated rubber fillers or extenders exhibits a higher flexural modulus than if prepared using an unchlorinated rubber filler or extender. Chlorination of the rubber particles is carried out by contacting the finely divided rubber particles with a chlorine-containing gas comprising at least about 5 volume percent chlorine. Advantageously, the chlorine can be diluted with air, nitrogen or other essentially inert gases and may contain minor amounts of fluorine. Improved performance is obtained with nitrogen dilution of the chlorine gas over air dilution. Improved polymer composite systems having higher flexural modulus result from the use of the chlorinated rubber particles as fillers instead of unchlorinated rubber particles.

Bauman, Bernard D. (Emmaus, PA); Williams, Mark A. (Souderton, PA); Bagheri, Reza (Bethlehem, PA)

1997-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

192

Hypersonic gasdynamic laser system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a visible, or near to mid infra-red, hypersonic gas dynamic laser system. It comprises: a hypersonic vehicle for carrying the hypersonic gas dynamic laser system, and also providing high energy ram air for thermodynamic excitation and supply of the laser gas; a laser cavity defined within the hypersonic vehicle and having a laser cavity inlet for the laser cavity formed by an opening in the hypersonic vehicle, such that ram air directed through the laser cavity opening supports gas dynamic lasing operations at wavelengths less than 10.6{mu} meters in the laser cavity; and an optical train for collecting the laser radiation from the laser cavity and directing it as a substantially collimated laser beam to an output aperture defined by an opening in the hypersonic vehicle to allow the laser beam to be directed against a target.

Foreman, K.M.; Maciulaitis, A.

1990-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

193

Part-Per-Trillion Level SF6 Detection Using a Quartz Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy-Based Sensor with Single-Mode Fiber-Coupled Quantum Cascade Laser Excitation  

SciTech Connect

A sensitive spectroscopic sensor based on a hollow-core fiber-coupled quantum cascade laser (QCL) emitting at 10.54 m and quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) technique is reported. The design and realization of mid-infrared fiber and coupler optics has ensured single-mode QCL beam delivery to the QEPAS sensor . The collimation optics was designed to produce a laser beam of significantly reduced beam size and waist so as to prevent illumination of the quartz tuning fork and micro-resonator tubes. SF6 was selected as the target gas. A minimum detection sensitivity of 50 parts per trillion in 1 s was achieved with a QCL power of 18 mW, corresponding to a normalized noise-equivalent absorption of 2.7x10-10 Wcm-1/Hz1/2.

Spagnolo, V.; Patimisco, P.; Borri, Simone; Scamarcio, G.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Kriesel, J.M.

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

194

Premixing direct injector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel injection nozzle comprises a body member having an upstream wall opposing a downstream wall, a baffle member having an upstream surface and a downstream surface, a first chamber, a second chamber, a fuel inlet communicative with the first chamber operative to emit a first gas into the first chamber, and a plurality of mixing tubes, each of the mixing tubes having a tube inner surface, a tube outer surface, a first inlet communicative with an aperture in the upstream wall operative to receive a second gas, a second inlet communicative with the tube outer surface and the tube inner surface operative to translate the first gas into the mixing tube, a mixing portion operative to mix the first gas and the second gas, and an outlet communicative with an aperture in the downstream wall operative to emit the mixed first and second gasses.

Johnson, Thomas Edward (Greer, SC); Stevenson, Christian Xavier (Inman, SC); York, William David (Greer, SC); Ziminsky, Willy Steve (Simpsonville, SC)

2012-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

195

Plant for producing an oxygen-containing additive as an ecologically beneficial component for liquid motor fuels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A plant for producing an oxygen-containing additive for liquid motor fuels comprises an anaerobic fermentation vessel, a gasholder, a system for removal of sulphuretted hydrogen, and a hotwell. The plant further comprises an aerobic fermentation vessel, a device for liquid substance pumping, a device for liquid aeration with an oxygen-containing gas, a removal system of solid mass residue after fermentation, a gas distribution device; a device for heavy gases utilization; a device for ammonia adsorption by water; a liquid-gas mixer; a cavity mixer, a system that serves superficial active and dispersant matters and a cooler; all of these being connected to each other by pipelines. The technical result being the implementation of a process for producing an oxygen containing additive, which after being added to liquid motor fuels, provides an ecologically beneficial component for motor fuels by ensuring the stability of composition fuel properties during long-term storage.

Siryk, Yury Paul; Balytski, Ivan Peter; Korolyov, Volodymyr George; Klishyn, Olexiy Nick; Lnianiy, Vitaly Nick; Lyakh, Yury Alex; Rogulin, Victor Valery

2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

196

Container and method for absorbing and reducing hydrogen concentration  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for absorbing hydrogen from an enclosed environment comprising providing a vessel; providing a hydrogen storage composition in communication with a vessel, the hydrogen storage composition further comprising a matrix defining a pore size which permits the passage of hydrogen gas while blocking the passage of gaseous poisons; placing a material within the vessel, the material evolving hydrogen gas; sealing the vessel; and absorbing the hydrogen gas released into the vessel by the hydrogen storage composition. A container for absorbing evolved hydrogen gas comprising: a vessel having an interior and adapted for receiving materials which release hydrogen gas; a hydrogen absorbing composition in communication with the interior, the composition defining a matrix surrounding a hydrogen absorber, the matrix permitting the passage of hydrogen gas while excluding gaseous poisons; wherein, when the vessel is sealed, hydrogen gas, which is released into the vessel interior, is absorbed by the hydrogen absorbing composition.

Wicks, George G. (Aiken, SC); Lee, Myung W. (North Augusta, SC); Heung, Leung K. (Aiken, SC)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Filter for isotopic alteration of mercury vapor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A filter for enriching the .sup.196 Hg content of mercury, including a reactor, a low pressure electric discharge lamp containing a fill of mercury and an inert gas. A filter is arranged concentrically around the lamp. The reactor is arranged around said filter, whereby radiation from said lamp passes through the filter and into said reactor. The lamp, the filter and the reactor are formed of quartz, and are transparent to ultraviolet light. The .sup.196 Hg concentration in the mercury fill is less than that which is present in naturally occurring mercury, that is less than about 0.146 atomic weight percent. Hydrogen is also included in the fill and serves as a quenching gas in the filter, the hydrogen also serving to prevent disposition of a dark coating on the interior of the filter.

Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); George, William A. (Gloucestor, MA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Filter for isotopic alteration of mercury vapor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A filter is described for enriching the [sup 196]Hg content of mercury, including a reactor, a low pressure electric discharge lamp containing a fill of mercury and an inert gas. A filter is arranged concentrically around the lamp. The reactor is arranged around said filter, whereby radiation from said lamp passes through the filter and into said reactor. The lamp, the filter and the reactor are formed of quartz, and are transparent to ultraviolet light. The [sup 196]Hg concentration in the mercury fill is less than that which is present in naturally occurring mercury, that is, less than about 0.146 atomic weight percent. Hydrogen is also included in the fill and serves as a quenching gas in the filter, the hydrogen also serving to prevent disposition of a dark coating on the interior of the filter. 9 figs.

Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

1989-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

199

Process and system for removing impurities from a gas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fluidized reactor system for removing impurities from a gas and an associated process are provided. The system includes a fluidized absorber for contacting a feed gas with a sorbent stream to reduce the impurity content of the feed gas; a fluidized solids regenerator for contacting an impurity loaded sorbent stream with a regeneration gas to reduce the impurity content of the sorbent stream; a first non-mechanical gas seal forming solids transfer device adapted to receive an impurity loaded sorbent stream from the absorber and transport the impurity loaded sorbent stream to the regenerator at a controllable flow rate in response to an aeration gas; and a second non-mechanical gas seal forming solids transfer device adapted to receive a sorbent stream of reduced impurity content from the regenerator and transfer the sorbent stream of reduced impurity content to the absorber without changing the flow rate of the sorbent stream.

Henningsen, Gunnar; Knowlton, Teddy Merrill; Findlay, John George; Schlather, Jerry Neal; Turk, Brian S

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

200

Heat Treating Apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for heat treating a heat treatable material including a housing having an upper opening for receiving a heat treatable material at a first temperature, a lower opening, and a chamber therebetween for heating the heat treatable material to a second temperature higher than the first temperature as the heat treatable material moves through the chamber from the upper to the lower opening. A gas supply assembly is operatively engaged to the housing at the lower opening, and includes a source of gas, a gas delivery assembly for delivering the gas through a plurality of pathways into the housing in countercurrent flow to movement of the heat treatable material, whereby the heat treatable material passes through the lower opening at the second temperature, and a control assembly for controlling conditions within the chamber to enable the heat treatable material to reach the second temperature and pass through the lower opening at the second temperature as a heated material.

De Saro, Robert (Annandale, NJ); Bateman, Willis (Sutton Colfield, GB)

2002-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas-a colorless odorless" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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201

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Capacity Capacity Definitions Key Terms Definition Aquifer Storage Field A sub-surface facility for storing natural gas, consisting of water-bearing sands topped by an impermeable cap rock. Depleted Reservoir Storage Field A sub-surface natural geological reservoir, usually a depleted gas or oil field, used for storing natural gas. Natural Gas A gaseous mixture of hydrocarbon compounds, the primary one being methane. Salt Dome Storage Field (Salt Cavern) A storage facility that is a cavern hollowed out in either a salt "bed" or "dome" formation. Storage Capacity The present developed maximum operating capacity. Working Gas Capacity The volume of total natural gas storage capacity that contains natural gas available for withdrawal. For definitions of related energy terms, refer to the EIA Energy Glossary.

202

Definition: Natural gas | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Definition Definition Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Definition: Natural gas Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Natural gas A hydrocarbon gas obtained from underground sources, often in association with petroleum and coal deposits.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly includes varying amounts of other higher alkanes and even a lesser percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and hydrogen sulfide. Natural gas is an energy source often used for heating, cooking, and electricity generation. It is also used as fuel for vehicles and as a chemical feedstock in the manufacture of plastics and other commercially important organic chemicals. Natural gas is found in

203

NETL F 451.1-1/1 Categorical Exclusion (CX) Designation Form  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Technologies Institute Technologies Institute EE DE-EE0003779 Power & Vehicles Technologies 2011,2012,2013, Perf Pd. 9/202010-3/30/2013 Alan Blosser Integrated CHP Systems Corp. 50 Washington Rd. Princeton Junction Area of Interest 3 Deployment of FlexCHP System (FOA0000016) Mercer Co., New Jersey 08550 Validation phase of the FlexCHP Combined Heat and Power system, testing a microturbine coupled to an Ultra Low NOx burner,, and a boiler to burn the exhaust gas a second time to reduce emissions. 06 25 2010 Alan L. Blosser Digitally signed by Alan L. Blosser DN: cn=Alan L. Blosser, o=Power and Vehicle Technologies Division, ou=NETL-DOE, email=alan.blosser@netl.doe.gov, c=US Reason: I am the author of this document Date: 2010.06.25 11:03:58 -04'00' 06 30 2010 Mark Lusk

204

Memory effect in uniformly heated granular gases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We evidence a Kovacs-like memory effect in a uniformly driven granular gas. A system of inelastic hard particles, in the low density limit, can reach a non-equilibrium steady state when properly forced. By following a certain protocol for the drive time dependence, we prepare the gas in a state where the granular temperature coincides with its long time value. The temperature subsequently does not remain constant, but exhibits a non-monotonic evolution with either a maximum or a minimum, depending on the dissipation, and on the protocol. We present a theoretical analysis of this memory effect, at Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck equation level, and show that when dissipation exceeds a threshold, the response can be coined anomalous. We find an excellent agreement between the analytical predictions and direct Monte Carlo simulations.

E. Trizac; A. Prados

2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

205

Hydraulic accumulator-compressor for geopressured enhanced oil recovery  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hydraulic accumulator-compressor vessel using geothermal brine under pressure as a piston to compress waste (CO.sub.2 rich) gas is used in a system having a plurality of gas separators in tandem to recover pipeline quality gas from geothermal brine. A first high pressure separator feeds gas to a membrance separator which separates low pressure waste gas from high pressure quality gas. A second separator produces low pressure waste gas. Waste gas from both separators is combined and fed into the vessel through a port at the top as the vessel is drained for another compression cycle. High pressure brine is then admitted into the vessel through a port at the bottom of the vessel. Check valves control the flow of low pressure waste gas into the vessel and high pressure waste gas out of the vessel.

Goldsberry, Fred L. (Spring, TX)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Microsoft PowerPoint - 04-10 DC_Ruhl.ppt [Compatibility Mode]  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Markets: The Long And The Markets: The Long And The Short Term Christof Rühl, Group Chief Economist, BP plc. Washington, April 2010 Outline Long term context Long term context Structural change in oil markets Natural gas: a new game   How does it matter? Conclusion © BP 2010 The Long Term: Real Commodity Prices 400 Oil Wheat Iron & Steel Index: average 1970-2008 = 100 300 350 200 250 100 150 0 50 © BP 2010 1972 1975 1978 1981 1984 1987 1990 1993 1996 1999 2002 2005 2009 The Long Term: Contributions to Growth 5-year moving average GDP Primary energy 4% OECD Non-OECD OECD Non-OECD 2% 3% 1% 2% 0% © BP 2010 1993 1996 1999 2002 2005 2008 1993 1996 1999 2002 2005 2008 Energy Demand Growth Mboe/d Gas Oil Mboe/d Coal Mboe/d 70 80 90 OECD Non-OECD 70 80 90 OECD Non-OECD 70 80 90 OECD Non-OECD 50 60 70 50 60 70 50 60 70 2016 20 30 40 30 40 20 30 40 2008 1988 0 10 20 0 10 20 0 10

207

NETL F 451.1-1/1 Categorical Exclusion (CX) Designation Form  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Vehicle Technologies 2011,2012,2013 Vehicle Technologies 2011,2012,2013 Alan Blosser 9/1/2010 to 3/30/2013 Gas Technology Institute Area of Interest 3 Deployment of Flex CHP System (FOA 0000016) 1700 S. Mt. Prospect Rd. Des Plains, IL Validation phase of the Flex Combined Heat and Power system, testing a microturbine coupled to an Ultra Low NOx burner, and a boiler to burn the exhaust gas a second time to reduce emissions. 06 01 2010 Alan L. Blosser Digitally signed by Alan L. Blosser DN: cn=Alan L. Blosser, o=Power and Vehicle Technologies Division, ou=NETL-DOE, email=alan.blosser@netl.doe.gov, c=US Reason: I am the author of this document Date: 2010.06.01 11:24:21 -04'00' 06 21 2010 Mark Lusk Digitally signed by Mark Lusk DN: cn=Mark Lusk, o=NETL-DOE, ou=140 OPFC, email=mark.lusk@netl.doe.gov, c=US

208

NETL F 451.1-1/1 Categorical Exclusion (CX) Designation Form  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Vehicles Technologies Vehicles Technologies 2011,2012,2013 Alan Blosser 9/01/2010 to 3/30/2013 Accu Chem Conversions Inc., 605 North 3rd Area of Interest 3 Deployment of Flex CHP System (FOA0000016) Street, El Centro, CA 92243 Validation phase of the Flex Combined Heat and Power system, testing a microturbine coupled to an Ultra Low NOx burner, and a boiler to burn the exhaust gas a second time to reduce emissions. 06 01 2010 Alan L. Blosser Digitally signed by Alan L. Blosser DN: cn=Alan L. Blosser, o=Power and Vehicle Technologies Division, ou=NETL-DOE, email=alan.blosser@netl.doe.gov, c=US Reason: I am the author of this document Date: 2010.06.01 14:11:37 -04'00' 06 21 2010 Mark Lusk Digitally signed by Mark Lusk DN: cn=Mark Lusk, o=NETL-DOE, ou=140 OPFC, email=mark.lusk@netl.doe.gov, c=US

209

All Price Tables.vp  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1) 1) June 2013 State Energy Price and Expenditure Estimates 1970 Through 2011 2011 Price and Expenditure Summary Tables Table E1. Primary Energy, Electricity, and Total Energy Price Estimates, 2011 (Dollars per Million Btu) State Primary Energy Electric Power Sector g,h Retail Electricity Total Energy g,i Coal Natural Gas a Petroleum Nuclear Fuel Biomass Total g,h,i Distillate Fuel Oil Jet Fuel b LPG c Motor Gasoline d Residual Fuel Oil Other e Total Wood and Waste f Alabama 3.09 5.66 26.37 22.77 25.54 27.12 13.18 19.42 25.90 0.61 3.01 8.75 2.56 27.08 19.85 Alaska 3.64 6.70 29.33 23.12 29.76 31.60 20.07 34.62 26.61 - 14.42 20.85 6.36 47.13 25.17 Arizona 1.99 7.07 27.73 22.84 31.95 26.97 17.00 17.23 26.71 0.75 6.31 10.79 2.16 28.46 25.23 Arkansas 1.93 6.94 26.37 22.45 26.66 27.35 17.35 33.22

210

 

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

9) 9) June 2011 State Energy Price and Expenditure Estimates 1970 Through 2009 2009 Price and Expenditure Summary Tables Table E1. Primary Energy, Electricity, and Total Energy Price Estimates, 2009 (Dollars per Million Btu) State Primary Energy Electric Power Sector g,h Retail Electricity Total Energy g,i Coal Natural Gas a Petroleum Nuclear Fuel Biomass Total g,h,i Distillate Fuel Oil Jet Fuel b LPG c Motor Gasoline d Residual Fuel Oil Other e Total Wood and Waste f Alabama 2.81 6.63 16.38 12.88 21.25 17.63 9.62 13.88 16.73 0.55 2.82 6.88 2.24 26.23 16.18 Alaska 2.81 6.39 20.85 13.24 26.28 22.73 10.74 24.01 17.57 - 9.57 14.30 4.26 44.29 18.23 Arizona 1.83 6.38 16.14 12.50 27.59 18.28 - 11.60 17.18 0.59 7.83 7.67 2.04 28.01 19.66 Arkansas 1.73 7.82 16.07 12.42 20.51 17.40 6.65 21.59 17.08 0.66

211

U.S. Energy Information Administration State Energy Data  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

21 21 Table CT1. Energy Consumption Estimates for Major Energy Sources in Physical Units, Selected Years, 1960-2011, United States Year Coal Net Imports of Coal Coke Natural Gas a Petroleum Nuclear Electric Power Hydro- electric Power f Fuel Ethanol g Distillate Fuel Oil Jet Fuel b LPG c Motor Gasoline d Residual Fuel Oil Other e Total Million Short Tons Billion Cubic Feet Million Barrels Billion Kilowatthours Million Barrels 1960 398 (s) 11,967 685 136 227 1,453 559 525 3,586 1 149 NA 1965 472 -1 15,280 776 220 307 1,676 587 636 4,202 4 197 NA 1970 523 -2 21,139 927 353 447 2,111 804 722 5,364 22 251 NA 1971 502 -1 21,793 971 369 457 2,195 838 722 5,553 38 270 NA 1972 524 -1 22,101 1,066 382 520 2,334 926 762 5,990 54 276 NA 1973 563 (s) 22,049 1,129 387 529 2,436 1,030 807 6,317 83 275 NA 1974 558 2 21,223 1,076 363 513 2,386 963 777 6,078 114 304 NA 1975 563 1 19,538 1,041 365

212

Questions and Answers - What is plasma?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Why do protons and neutronshave the same mass? Why do protons and neutrons<br>have the same mass? Previous Question (Why do protons and neutrons have the same mass?) Questions and Answers Main Index Next Question (How do you know plasma is real if you can't see it?) How do you know plasmais real if you can't see it? What is plasma? Plasma is the fourth state of matter. Many places teach that there are three states of matter; solid, liquid and gas, but there are actually four. The fourth is plasma. To put it very simply, a plasma is an ionized gas, a gas into which sufficient energy is provided to free electrons from atoms or molecules and to allow both species, ions and electrons, to coexist. The funny thing about that is, that as far as we know, plasmas are the most common state of matter in the universe. They are even common here on earth.

213

Synthesis of higher alcohols from carbon monoxide and hydrogen in a slurry reactor  

SciTech Connect

Higher, i.e. C{sub 2{sup +}}, alcohols are desired as gasoline additives, feedstocks for producing ethers and as alternative fuels for automobiles. In all cases, the backbone branching of an alcohol improves octane rating, which is essential for good engine performance. These types of branched, higher alcohols are the desired products for a process converting synthesis gas, a CO and H{sub 2} mixture, often generated from coal gasification. Based on this premise, promoted ZnCr oxide catalysts appear to be as one of the best avenues for further investigation. Once this investigation is complete, a natural extension is to replace the Cr in the ZnCr oxide catalyst with Mo and W, both in the same elemental triad with Cr. Mo has already been shown as an active HAS catalyst, both on a SiO{sub 2} support and in the MoS{sub 2} form. The three catalyst combinations, ZnMo, ZnW, and MnCr oxides will be tested in the stirred autoclave system. However, if none of the three indicate any comparable activity and/or selectivity toward higher alcohols as compared with other HAS catalysts, then an investigation of the effects of Cs promotion on the ZnCr oxide methanol catalysts will be executed.

McCutchen, M.S.

1992-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

214

Double-winding Wilson loops and monopole confinement mechanisms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider "double-winding" Wilson loops in SU(2) gauge theory. These are contours which wind once around a loop $C_1$ and once around a loop $C_2$, where the two co-planar loops share one point in common, and where $C_1$ lies entirely in (or is displaced slightly from) the minimal area of $C_2$. We discuss the expectation value of such double-winding loops in abelian confinement pictures, where the spatial distribution of confining abelian fields is controlled by either a monopole Coulomb gas, a caloron ensemble, or a dual abelian Higgs model, and argue that in such models an exponential falloff in the sum of areas $A_1+A_2$ is expected. In contrast, in a center vortex model of confinement, the behavior is an exponential falloff in the difference of areas $A_2-A_1$. We compute such double-winding loops by lattice Monte Carlo simulation, and find that the area law falloff follows a difference-in-areas law. The conclusion is that even if confining gluonic field fluctuations are, in some gauge, mainly abelian ...

Greensite, Jeff

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Double-winding Wilson loops and monopole confinement mechanisms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider "double-winding" Wilson loops in SU(2) gauge theory. These are contours which wind once around a loop $C_1$ and once around a loop $C_2$, where the two co-planar loops share one point in common, and where $C_1$ lies entirely in (or is displaced slightly from) the minimal area of $C_2$. We discuss the expectation value of such double-winding loops in abelian confinement pictures, where the spatial distribution of confining abelian fields is controlled by either a monopole Coulomb gas, a caloron ensemble, or a dual abelian Higgs model, and argue that in such models an exponential falloff in the sum of areas $A_1+A_2$ is expected. In contrast, in a center vortex model of confinement, the behavior is an exponential falloff in the difference of areas $A_2-A_1$. We compute such double-winding loops by lattice Monte Carlo simulation, and find that the area law falloff follows a difference-in-areas law. The conclusion is that even if confining gluonic field fluctuations are, in some gauge, mainly abelian in character, the spatial distribution of those abelian fields cannot be the distribution predicted by the simple monopole gas, caloron ensemble, or dual abelian Higgs actions, which have been used in the past to explain the area law falloff of Wilson loops.

Jeff Greensite; Roman Hllwieser

2014-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

216

Raman-dressed spin-1 spin-orbit-coupled quantum gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The recently realized spin-orbit-coupled quantum gases [Lin et al., Nature (London) 471, 83 (2011); Wang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 095301 (2012); Cheuk et al., Phys.Rev. Lett. 109, 095302 (2012)] mark a breakthrough in the cold atom community. In these experiments, two hyperfine states are selected from a hyperfine manifold to mimic a pseudospin-1/2 spin-orbit-coupled system by the method of Raman dressing, which is applicable to both bosonic and fermionic gases. In this paper, we show that the method used in these experiments can be generalized to create any large pseudospin spin-orbit-coupled gas if more hyperfine states are coupled equally by the Raman lasers. As an example, we study, in detail, a quantum gas with three hyperfine states coupled by the Raman lasers and show, when the state-dependent energy shifts of the three states are comparable, triple-degenerate minima will appear at the bottom of the band dispersions, thus, realizing a spin-1 spin-orbit-coupled quantum gas. A novel feature of this three-minima regime is that there can be two different kinds of stripe phases with different wavelengths, which has an interesting connection to the ferromagnetic and polar phases of spin-1 spinor Bose-Einstein condensates without spin-orbit coupling.

Zhihao Lan and Patrik hberg

2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

217

Scenario for world energy transformation in XXI century: natural gas dominated  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract For how long do we have natural gas resources? Is natural gas a renewable source of energy? Scientific considerations about the genesis of hydrocarbons provide an understanding of the presence of enormous, virtually inexhaustible resources of hydrocarbons and particularly natural gas in our planet. Confirming by recently published experimental results and a number of geological facts obtained during the last decades, these considerations are combined in the theory of the abyssal abiogenic origin of petroleum. According to this theory hydrocarbon compounds are generated in the mantle and migrate through the migration channels into the Earth's crust where they form oil and gas deposits in any kind of rock in any kind of structural position. The accumulation of oil and gas is considered as a part of the natural process of the Earth's outgassing, which was in turn responsible for creation of its hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere. The main goal of the paper is to provide convincing arguments supporting the theory of abyssal abiogenic origin of petroleum and to show that this theory allows us to develop a realistic scenario for development of energy transformation in the XXI century the scenario where natural gas is a dominant source of energy.

Vladimir G. Kutcherov

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Characteristics of high-purity Cu thin films deposited on polyimide by radio-frequency Ar/H2 atmospheric-pressure plasma jet  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

With a view to fabricating future flexible electronic devices an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet driven by 13.56?MHz radio-frequency power is developed for depositing Cu thin films on polyimide where a Cu wire inserted inside the quartz tube was used as the evaporation source. A polyimide substrate is placed on a water-cooled copper heat sink to prevent it from being thermally damaged. With the aim of preventing oxidation of the deposited Cu film we investigated the effect of adding H2 to Ar plasma on film characteristics. Theoretical fitting of the OH emission line in OES spectrum revealed that adding H2 gas significantly increased the rotational temperature roughly from 800 to 1500?K. The LMM Auger spectroscopy analysis revealed that higher-purity Cu films were synthesized on polyimide by adding hydrogen gas. A possible explanation for the enhancement in the Cu film deposition rate and improvement of purity of Cu films by H2 gas addition is that atomic hydrogen produced by the plasma plays important roles in heating the gas to promote the evaporation of Cu atoms from the Cu wire and removing oxygen from copper oxide components via reduction reaction.

P. Zhao; W. Zheng; Y. D. Meng; M. Nagatsu

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Role of methyl nitrate in plasma exhaust treatment  

SciTech Connect

There is growing interest in the use of a nonthermal plasma combined with a catalyst for NO{sub x} removal from diesel engine exhaust streams. Such exhaust streams contain excess oxygen (typically 6--10%), low concentrations of hydrocarbons (typically 100--1,000 ppm), and significant concentrations of water (typically 5--12%). Conversion of NO{sub x} to environmentally acceptable compounds, without requiring a scrubber or an added reductant, is the desired end result. In their research the authors observe the formation of substantial amounts of methyl nitrate (CH{sub 3}ONO{sub 2}) in the plasma-catalyst system. CH{sub 3}ONO{sub 2} was prepared and added to the gas blend on test equipment simulating a diesel exhaust gas. A dielectric barrier plasma discharge was followed by a zeolite-based catalyst. Methyl nitrate introduced upstream of the plasma discharge is largely unreacted upon passing through the plasma. CH{sub 3}ONO{sub 2} arriving at the catalyst is converted to methanol and NO{sub 2}. While methyl nitrate was shown to be formed in this system, it is not a significant intermediate in the mechanism of conversion of NO{sub x} to nitrogen.

Hoard, J.W.; Wallington, T.J.; Ball, J.C.; Hurley, M.D.; Wodzisz, K.; Balmer, M.L.

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Russias Natural Gas Export Potential up to 2050  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent increases in natural gas reserve estimates and advances in shale gas technology make natural gas a fuel with good prospects to serve a bridge to a low-carbon world. Russia is an important energy supplier as it holds the world largest natural gas reserves and it is the worlds largest exporter of natural gas. Energy was one of the driving forces of Russias recent economic recovery from the economic collapse of 1990s. These prospects have changed drastically with a global recession and the collapse of oil and gas prices from their peaks of 2008. An additional factor is an ongoing surge in a liquefied natural gas (LNG) capacity and a development of Central Asias and the Middle East gas supplies that can compete with Russian gas in its traditional (European) and potential (Asian) markets. To study the long-term prospects for Russian natural gas, we employ the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, a computable general equilibrium model of the world economy. While we consider the updated reserve estimates for all world regions, in this paper we focus on the results for Russian natural gas trade. The role of natural gas is explored in the context of several policy assumptions: with no greenhouse gas mitigation policy and scenarios of emissions targets in developed countries. Scenarios where Europe takes on an even more restrictive target of 80

Sergey Paltsev; Sergey Paltsev

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas-a colorless odorless" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

High-pressure late cycle direct injection of natural gas in a rail medium speed diesel engine  

SciTech Connect

The performance of an Electro-Motive Division (EMD) 567B, two-cylinder locomotive research engine, when operated on high-pressure/late-cycle injection of natural gas, is presented in this paper. A redesign and fabrication of the fuel system was undertaken to facilitate the consumption of natural gas. A small percentage of No.2 diesel fuel (DF-2) was used to ignite the natural gas. Engine performance, while running natural gas, resulted in matching rated speed and power with slightly lower thermal efficiency. Full power was achieved with a ratio of 99 percent natural gas and 1 percent diesel fuel. However, at high natural gas to diesel fuel ratios, audible knock was detected. The primary objective of the project was to establish technical feasibility of, and basic technology for, operating medium-speed rail diesel engines on high-pressure natural gas. Secondary objectives were to attain adequate engine performance levels for rail application, develop a system oriented toward retrofit of in-service locomotives, and realize any potential improvements in thermal efficiency due to use of the high-pressure/late-cycle approach.

Wakenell, J.F.; O'Neal, G.B.; Baker, Q.A.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

DESIGN OF A CONTAINMENT VESSEL CLOSURE FOR SHIPMENT OF TRITIUM GAS  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a design summary of the containment vessel closure for the Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP). This new package is a replacement for a package that has been used to ship tritium in a variety of content configurations and forms since the early 1970s. The new design is based on changes in the regulatory requirements. The BTSP design incorporates many improvements over its predecessor by implementing improved testing, handling, and maintenance capabilities, while improving manufacturability and incorporating new engineered materials that enhance the package's ability to withstand dynamic loading and thermal effects. This paper will specifically summarize the design philosophy and engineered features of the BTSP containment vessel closure. The closure design incorporates a concave closure lid, metallic C-Ring seals for containing tritium gas, a metal bellows valve and an elastomer O-Ring for leak testing. The efficient design minimizes the overall vessel height and protects the valve housing from damage during postulated drop and crush scenarios. Design features will be discussed.

Eberl, K; Paul Blanton, P

2007-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

223

Gas turbine topping combustor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A combustor is described for burning a mixture of fuel and air in a rich combustion zone, in which the fuel bound nitrogen in converted to molecular nitrogen. The fuel rich combustion is followed by lean combustion. The products of combustion from the lean combustion are rapidly quenched so as to convert the fuel bound nitrogen to molecular nitrogen without forming NOx. The combustor has an air radial swirler that directs the air radially inward while swirling it in the circumferential direction and a radial fuel swirler that directs the fuel radially outward while swirling it in the same circumferential direction, thereby promoting vigorous mixing of the fuel and air. The air inlet has a variable flow area that is responsive to variations in the heating value of the fuel, which may be a coal-derived fuel gas. A diverging passage in the combustor in front of a bluff body causes the fuel/air mixture to recirculate with the rich combustion zone. 14 figs.

Beer, J.; Dowdy, T.E.; Bachovchin, D.M.

1997-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

224

Process for removing a nitrogen gas from mixture comprising N/sub 2/ and CO or CO/sub 2/ and CO  

SciTech Connect

Processes are disclosed for removing N/sub 2/ from a feed gas comprising CO+N/sub 2/ or CO, CO/sub 2/+N/sub 2/ through PSA by using at least two adsorption columns containing an adsorbent exhibiting selective adsorb property to carbon monoxide which comprises: a step of pressurizing an adsorption column by the feed gas; a step of introducing the feed gas into the adsorption column, in which step was previously completed, so as to adsorb CO, or CO+CO/sub 2/ on or in the adsorbent; a step of connecting the adsorption column, in which step was previously completed, to the other adsorption column in which step was previously completed, to reduce the pressure in the former adsorption column to one atmosphere or a pressure close to it; a step of purging nitrogen by passing product gas through the adsorption column; a step of desorbing carbon monoxide adsorbed on or in the adsorbent of the adsorption column, by vacuum pump to recover a product gas; and a step of a connecting the adsorption column, in which step was previously completed, to the other adsorption column in which step was previously completed to increase pressure in the former column, periodically switching the flow between or among said adsorption columns so as to repeat the above steps in all the adsorption columns.

Matsui, S.; Hayashi, S.; Kumagai, M.; Tukahara, Y.

1984-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

225

National Ignition Campaign Hohlraum Energetics  

SciTech Connect

The first series of experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [E. I. Moses, R. N. Boyd, B. A. Remington, C. J. Keane, and R. Al-Ayat, 'The National Ignition Facility: ushering in a new age for high energy density science,' Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)] tested ignition hohlraum 'energetics,' a term described by four broad goals: (1) Measurement of laser absorption by the hohlraum; (2) Measurement of the x-ray radiation flux (T{sub RAD}{sup 4}) on the surrogate ignition capsule; (3) Quantitative understanding of the laser absorption and resultant x-ray flux; and (4) Determining whether initial hohlraum performance is consistent with requirements for ignition. This paper summarizes the status of NIF hohlraum energetics experiments. The hohlraum targets and experimental design are described, as well as the results of the initial experiments. The data demonstrate low backscattered energy (< 10%) for hohlraums filled with helium gas. A discussion of our current understanding of NIF hohlraum x-ray drive follows, including an overview of the computational tools, i.e., radiation-hydrodynamics codes, that have been used to design the hohlraums. The performance of the codes is compared to x-ray drive and capsule implosion data from the first NIF experiments. These results bode well for future NIF ignition hohlraum experiments.

Meezan, N B; Atherton, L J; Callahan, D A; Dewald, E L; Dixit, S N; Dzenitis, E G; Edwards, M J; Haynam, C A; Hinkel, D E; Jones, O S; Landen, O; London, R A; Michel, P A; Moody, J D; Milovich, J L; Schneider, M B; Thomas, C A; Town, R J; Warrick, A L; Weber, S V; Widmann, K; Glenzer, S H; Suter, L J; MacGowan, B J; Kline, J L; Kyrala, G A; Nikroo, A

2009-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

226

Optimization and heat integration of hollow fiber based thermal swing adsorption process for CO2 capture from flue gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This work studies the optimization of a hollow fiber contactor operated in a rapid temperature swing adsorption (RTSA) mode for CO2 capture from flue gas. A hollow fiber contactor enables rapid heat and mass transfer and an efficient heat integration whereby parasitic loads on power plants can be reduced significantly compared to the traditional thermal swing adsorption processes. In this paper we employ a dynamic optimization strategy to predict the optimal operating conditions of a hollow fiber RTSA process for different process design objectives. The objective function considered was to maximize the feed throughput of the process with constraints for the required CO2 purity and recovery. Furthermore, the external heat and cold utilities must be minimized. The optimization requires a dynamic heat integration i.e. redistributing the hot and cold stream outlet between different parts of a cycle which is challenging and unconventional. This has been performed using a binary decision variable which switches the outlet water stream between hot and cold tanks. We also show that a multi- objective optimization approach can be employed to determine the optimal trade-off between heat duty and process throughput. Optimization was performed using a single discretization approach within gPROMS.

Subramanian Swernath; Fateme Rezaei; Jayashree Kalyanaraman; Ryan. P. Lively; Matthew J. Realff; Yoshiaki Kawajiri

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Thermal and Bulk Comptonization in Accretion-powered X-Ray Pulsars  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We develop a new theoretical model for the spectral formation process in accretion-powered X-ray pulsars based on a detailed treatment of the bulk and thermal Comptonization occurring in the accreting, shocked gas. A rigorous eigenfunction expansion method is employed to obtain the analytical solution for the Green's function describing the scattering of radiation injected into the column from a monochromatic source located at an arbitrary height above the stellar surface. The emergent spectrum is calculated by convolving the Green's function with source terms corresponding to bremsstrahlung, cyclotron, and blackbody emission. The energization of the photons in the shock, combined with cyclotron absorption, naturally produces an X-ray spectrum with a relatively flat continuum shape and a high-energy quasi-exponential cutoff. We demonstrate that the new theory successfully reproduces the phase-averaged spectra of the bright pulsars Her X-1, LMC X-4, and Cen X-3. In these luminous sources, it is shown that the emergent spectra are dominated by Comptonized bremsstrahlung emission.

Peter A. Becker; Michael T. Wolff

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Portable tester for determining gas content within a core sample  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A portable tester is provided for reading and displaying the pressure of a gas released from a rock core sample stored within a sealed container and for taking a sample of the released pressurized gas for chemical analysis thereof for subsequent use in a modified direct method test which determines the volume of gas and specific type of gas contained within the core sample. The portable tester includes a pair of low and high range electrical pressure transducers for detecting a gas pressure; a pair of low and high range display units for displaying the pressure of the detected gas- a selector valve connected to the low and high range pressure transducers, a selector knob for selecting gas flow to one of the flow paths; control valve having an inlet connection to the sealed container, and outlets connected to: a sample gas canister, a second outlet port connected to the selector valve means for reading the pressure of the gas from the sealed container to either the low range or high range pressure transducers, and a connection for venting gas contained within the sealed container to the atmosphere. A battery is electrically connected to and supplies the power for operating the unit. The pressure transducers, display units, selector and control valve means and the battery is mounted to and housed within a protective casing for portable transport and use.

Garcia, Jr., Fred (Donora, PA); Schatzel, Steven J. (Bethel Park, PA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Portable tester for determining gas content within a core sample  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A portable tester is provided for reading and displaying the pressure of a gas released from a rock core sample stored within a sealed container and for taking a sample of the released pressurized gas for chemical analysis thereof for subsequent use in a modified direct method test which determines the volume of gas and specific type of gas contained within the core sample. The portable tester includes a pair of low and high range electrical pressure transducers for detecting a gas pressure; a pair of low and high range display units for displaying the pressure of the detected gas; a selector valve connected to the low and high range pressure transducers and a selector knob for selecting gas flow to one of the flow paths; control valve having an inlet connection to the sealed container; and outlets connected to: a sample gas canister, a second outlet port connected to the selector valve means for reading the pressure of the gas from the sealed container to either the low range or high range pressure transducers, and a connection for venting gas contained within the sealed container to the atmosphere. A battery is electrically connected to and supplies the power for operating the unit. The pressure transducers, display units, selector and control valve means and the battery is mounted to and housed within a protective casing for portable transport and use. 5 figs.

Garcia, F. Jr.; Schatzel, S.J.

1998-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

230

Conversion of coal to gasoline in one single synthesis loop  

SciTech Connect

The process scheme for the conversion of syngas to gasoline via methanol (MeOH) developed by Mobil consists in essence of two independent synthesis loops, a MeOH and a gasoline loop. The first is a conventional MeOH-plant which produces raw MeOH. The raw MeOH is evaporated into a second synthesis loop, the methanol to gasoline (MTG) synthesis. This scheme is already in commercial operation in New Zealand. The syngas is produced by steam reforming of natural gas. A further development of this technology based on integration of the two syntheses is demonstrated in the Topsoe-Integrated-Gasoline-Synthesis, TIGAS. The main difference between the two schemes is that in the TIGAS process, the two loops, the MeOH synthesis and the Mobil MTG-process, are integrated into one single synthesis loop without isolation of MeOH as an intermediate. This results in a simple flow scheme and, hence, in substantial savings in investments and energy consumption.

Topp-Jorgensen, J.; Rostrup-Nielsen, J.R.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Combined heat recovery and make-up water heating system  

SciTech Connect

A cogeneration plant is described comprising in combination: a first stage source of hot gas; a duct having an inlet for receiving the hot gas and an outlet stack open to the atmosphere; a second stage recovery heat steam generator including an evaporator situated in the duct, and economizer in the duct downstream of the evaporator, and steam drum fluidly connected to the evaporator and the economizer; feedwater supply means including a deaerator heater and feedwater pump for supplying deaerated feedwater to the steam drum through the economizer; makeup water supply means including a makeup pump for delivering makeup water to the deaerator heater; means fluidly connected to the steam drum for supplying auxiliary steam to the deaerator heater; and heat exchanger means located between the deaerator and the economizer, for transferring heat from the feedwater to the makeup water, thereby increasing the temperature of the makeup water delivered to the deaerator and decreasing the temperature of the feedwater delivered to the economizer, without fluid exchange.

Kim, S.Y.

1988-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

232

Model methodology and data description of the Production of Onshore Lower 48 Oil and Gas model  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the methodology and data used in the Production of Onshore Lower 48 Oil and Gas (PROLOG) model. The model forecasts annual oil and natural gas production on a regional basis. Natural gas is modeled by gas category, generally conforming to categories defined by the Natural Gas Policy Act (NGPA) of 1978, as well as a category representing gas priced by way of a spot market (referred to as ''spot'' gas). A linear program is used to select developmental drilling activities for conventional oil and gas and exploratory drilling activities for deep gas on the basis of their economic merit, subject to constraints on available rotary rigs and constraints based on historical drilling patterns. Using exogenously specified price paths for oil and gas, net present values are computed for fixed amounts of drilling activity for oil and gas development and deep gas exploration in each of six onshore regions. Through maximizing total net present value, the linear program provides forecasts of drilling activities, reserve additions, and production. Oil and shallow gas exploratory drilling activities are forecast on the basis of econometrically derived equations, which are dependent on specified price paths for the two fuels. 10 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.

Not Available

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Treatment of nitrous off-gas from dissolution of sludges  

SciTech Connect

Several configurations have been reviewed for the NO{sub x} removal of dissolver off-gas. A predesign has been performed and operating conditions have been optimized. Simple absorption columns seems to be sufficient. NHC is in charge of the treatment of sludges containing mainly uranium dioxide and metallic uranium. The process is based on the following processing steps a dissolution step to oxidize the pyrophoric materials and to dissolve radionuclides (uranium, plutonium, americium and fission products), a solid/liquid separation to get rid of the insoluble solids (to be disposed at ERDF), an adjustment of the acid liquor with neutronic poisons, and neutralization of the acid liquor with caustic soda. The dissolution step generates a flow of nitrous fumes which was evaluated in a previous study. This NO{sub x} flow has to be treated. The purpose of this report is to study the treatment process of the nitrous vapors and to 0482 perform a preliminary design. Several treatment configurations are studied and the most effective process option with respect to the authorized level of discharge into atmosphere is discussed. As a conclusion, recommendations concerning the unit preliminary design are given.

Flament, T.A.

1998-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

234

NETL F 451.1-1/1 Categorical Exclusion (CX) Designation Form  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Technology Institute Technology Institute EE DE-EE0003779 Power & Vehicles Technologies 2011,2012,2013 Alan Blosser 9/1/2010 to 3/30/2013 Cannon Boiler, 510 Constitution Blvd. Area of Interest 3 Deployment of FlexCHP System (FOA 0000016) New Kensington PA 15068 Validation phase of the Flex Combined Heat and Power System, testing a microturbine coupled to an Ultra Low NOx burner, and a boiler to burn the exhaust gas a second time to reduce emissions. 06 25 2010 Alan L. Blosser Digitally signed by Alan L. Blosser DN: cn=Alan L. Blosser, o=Power and Vehicle Technologies Division, ou=NETL-DOE, email=alan.blosser@netl.doe.gov, c=US Reason: I am the author of this document Date: 2010.06.25 10:41:57 -04'00' 06 30 2010 Mark Lusk Digitally signed by Mark Lusk DN: cn=Mark Lusk, o=NETL-DOE, ou=140 OPFC, email=mark.lusk@netl.doe.gov, c=US

235

Distillation sequence for the purification and recovery of hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is an improved distillation sequence for the separation and purification of ethylene from a cracked gas. A hydrocarbon feed enters a C2 distributor column. The top of the C2 distributor column is thermally coupled to an ethylene distributor column, and the bottoms liquid of a C2 distributor column feeds a deethanizer column. The C2 distributor column utilizes a conventional reboiler. The top of the ethylene distributor is thermally coupled with a demethanizer column, and the bottoms liquid of the ethylene distributor feeds a C2 splitter column. The ethylene distributor column utilizes a conventional reboiler. The deethanizer and C2 splitter columns are also thermally coupled and operated at a substantially lower pressure than the C2 distributor column, the ethylene distributor column, and the demethanizer column. Alternatively, a hydrocarbon feed enters a deethanizer column. The top of the deethanizer is thermally coupled to an ethylene distributor column, and the ethylene distributor column utilizes a conventional reboiler. The top of the ethylene distributor column is thermally coupled with a demethanizer column, and the bottoms liquid of the ethylene distributor column feeds a C2 splitter column. The C2 splitter column operates at a pressure substantially lower than the ethylene distributor column, the demethanizer column, and the deethanizer column.

Reyneke, Rian (Katy, TX); Foral, Michael (Aurora, IL); Papadopoulos, Christos G. (Naperville, IL); Logsdon, Jeffrey S. (Naperville, IL); Eng, Wayne W. Y. (League City, TX); Lee, Guang-Chung (Houston, TX); Sinclair, Ian (Warrington, GB)

2007-12-25T23:59:59.000Z

236

All Price Tables.vp  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1. Commercial Sector Energy Expenditure Estimates, 2011 1. Commercial Sector Energy Expenditure Estimates, 2011 (Million Dollars) State Primary Energy Retail Electricity Total Energy f Coal Natural Gas a Petroleum Biomass Total f Distillate Fuel Oil Kerosene LPG b Motor Gasoline c Residual Fuel Oil Total d Wood and Waste e Alabama - 310.9 164.6 0.3 63.1 6.3 - 234.3 4.0 549.2 2,331.4 2,880.6 Alaska 36.0 146.0 268.7 3.1 14.9 21.0 - 307.8 1.8 491.7 430.9 922.6 Arizona - 326.0 168.7 0.1 36.7 17.7 - 223.1 2.6 551.7 2,802.8 3,354.5 Arkansas - 355.9 86.2 (s) 28.7 10.2 - 125.1 5.8 486.7 911.1 1,397.8 California - 2,038.0 1,205.8 4.6 216.1 40.6 - 1,467.2 49.6 3,554.8 16,018.1 19,572.9 Colorado 8.2 437.8 138.1 0.5 62.7 6.1 - 207.4 8.0 661.4 1,878.0 2,539.4 Connecticut - 380.2 325.3 1.5 92.5 6.2 0.8 426.2 4.3 810.7 2,037.9 2,848.6 Delaware - 142.3 23.7 0.3 26.6 1.0 - 51.6 0.8 194.7 453.2 647.8 Dist. of Col. 0.2

237

All Consumption Tables.vp  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2 2 State Energy Data 2011: Consumption Table C9. Electric Power Sector Consumption Estimates, 2011 (Trillion Btu) State Coal Natural Gas a Petroleum Nuclear Electric Power Hydroelectric Power b Biomass Geothermal Solar/PV d Wind Net Electricity Imports e Total f Distillate Fuel Oil Petroleum Coke Residual Fuel Oil Total Wood and Waste c Alabama ............. 586.1 349.4 1.1 0.0 0.0 1.1 411.8 86.3 4.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1,439.3 Alaska ................. 6.0 42.3 3.3 0.0 1.5 4.8 0.0 13.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 (s) 66.3 Arizona ............... 449.9 183.9 0.6 0.0 0.0 0.6 327.3 89.1 2.4 0.0 0.8 2.5 1.5 1,057.9 Arkansas ............. 300.5 109.2 0.5 0.0 0.1 0.6 148.5 28.7 1.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 588.9 California ............ 19.7 630.1 0.4 11.1 (s) 11.5 383.6 413.4 69.0 122.0 8.4 75.3 20.1 1,753.1 Colorado ............. 362.4 88.1 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.0 20.2 0.9

238

All Price Tables.vp  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

E2. Total End-Use Energy Price Estimates, 2011 E2. Total End-Use Energy Price Estimates, 2011 (Dollars per Million Btu) State Primary Energy Retail Electricity Total Energy g Coal Natural Gas a Petroleum Biomass Total g Distillate Fuel Oil Jet Fuel b LPG c Motor Gasoline d Residual Fuel Oil Other e Total Wood and Waste f Alabama 5.05 8.14 26.40 22.77 25.54 27.12 13.18 19.42 25.91 3.03 17.63 27.08 19.85 Alaska 3.81 8.66 29.58 23.12 29.76 31.60 17.33 34.62 26.69 14.42 23.53 47.13 25.17 Arizona 2.75 11.12 27.75 22.84 31.95 26.97 17.00 17.23 26.72 11.92 23.93 28.46 25.23 Arkansas 3.25 8.63 26.39 22.45 26.66 27.35 15.63 33.22 27.03 3.33 18.97 22.02 19.63 California 3.64 8.19 27.34 22.51 31.21 30.02 20.92 23.47 27.60 6.72 21.50 38.35 24.14 Colorado 2.31 7.47 26.87 22.41 26.35 27.21 - 19.97 26.25 14.80 19.48 27.61 21.07 Connecticut - 10.42 26.69 22.95 32.04 28.99 15.83 28.58 28.10 8.15 23.26

239

All Price Tables.vp  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

E7. Electric Power Sector Energy Price Estimates, 2011 E7. Electric Power Sector Energy Price Estimates, 2011 (Dollars per Million Btu) State Coal Natural Gas a Petroleum Nuclear Fuel Biomass Electricity Imports c,d Total Energy e Distillate Fuel Oil Petroleum Coke Residual Fuel Oil Total Wood and Waste b Alabama 2.87 4.28 22.05 - - 22.05 0.61 2.43 - 2.56 Alaska 3.35 4.97 23.21 - 20.89 22.50 - - 12.44 6.36 Arizona 1.98 4.94 23.18 - - 23.18 0.75 2.43 12.44 2.16 Arkansas 1.91 4.64 21.73 - 20.44 21.55 0.64 2.43 - 2.13 California 2.21 4.61 23.74 2.88 25.21 3.56 0.71 3.60 12.44 3.32 Colorado 1.72 4.80 23.63 - - 23.63 - 2.43 12.44 2.33 Connecticut 3.68 4.97 22.15 - 17.75 18.40 0.65 2.43 12.44 2.76 Delaware 3.41 4.94 21.93 - 17.24 20.99 - 2.43 - 4.51 Dist. of Col. - 4.98 21.93 - - 21.93 - - - 15.33 Florida 3.53 5.77 21.99 3.82 17.27 9.99 0.77 2.43 - 4.53 Georgia 3.75 4.64 22.85 - 19.14 22.56 0.75 2.43 - 3.03 Hawaii 1.66 -

240

All Price Tables.vp  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

E4. Commercial Sector Energy Price Estimates, 2011 E4. Commercial Sector Energy Price Estimates, 2011 (Dollars per Million Btu) State Primary Energy Retail Electricity Total Energy f Coal Natural Gas a Petroleum Biomass Total f Distillate Fuel Oil Kerosene LPG b Motor Gasoline c Residual Fuel Oil Total d Wood and Waste e Alabama - 12.17 23.42 25.42 23.23 27.12 - 23.46 11.31 15.30 30.70 25.76 Alaska 3.82 8.66 26.53 30.13 23.15 31.60 - 26.67 15.22 12.95 44.25 19.34 Arizona - 9.86 24.91 32.11 24.68 26.97 - 25.02 11.48 13.07 27.83 23.48 Arkansas - 8.77 23.87 25.91 23.68 27.35 - 24.08 10.40 10.50 21.98 15.92 California - 8.12 25.18 32.46 24.94 30.02 - 25.27 3.91 11.05 38.24 26.43 Colorado 2.58 7.60 23.44 26.09 21.42 27.21 - 22.89 15.22 9.40 27.67 18.37 Connecticut - 8.25 26.27 29.35 26.34 28.99 17.52 26.31 9.07 12.92 45.64 26.52 Delaware - 13.20 22.31 26.41 25.04 28.08 - 23.76 11.31 14.95 31.18 23.51

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241

Data:Dc4f43be-be61-4b71-9d3c-a255e2e1abee | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

f43be-be61-4b71-9d3c-a255e2e1abee f43be-be61-4b71-9d3c-a255e2e1abee No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of College Station, Texas (Utility Company) Effective date: 2012/02/23 End date if known: Rate name: Schedule SRE - (Small Renewable Energy Customers Conencting Single Phase Distributed Generation from Renewable Sources less than or equal to twenty (20) kW) Sector: Description: Applicable to any retail customer receiving single phase electric service under a City of College Station electric rate schedule who owns and operates an on-site generating system powered by a renewable energy technology capable of producing not more than twenty (20) kW of power and who interconnects with the City of College Station's electric distribution system. Renewable energy technology is any technology that exclusively relies on an energy source that is naturally regenerated over a short time and derived directly from the sun, indirectly from the sun, or from moving water or other natural movements and mechanisms of the environment. Renewable energy technologies include those that rely on energy derived directly from the sun, wind, geothermal source, hydroelectric source, wave or tidal energy; or on biomass or biomass based waste products including landfill gas. A renewable energy technology does not rely on energy resources derived from fossil fuels, waste products from fossil fuels, or waste products from inorganic sources. This section applies to a retail customer owned generation system that primarily offsets part or all of the customer's electric service provided by the City of College Station.

242

All Consumption Tables.vp  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

C4. Total End-Use Energy Consumption Estimates, 2011 C4. Total End-Use Energy Consumption Estimates, 2011 (Trillion Btu) State Coal Natural Gas a Petroleum Hydro- electric power f Biomass Geo- thermal Solar/PV i Retail Electricity Sales Net Energy j,k Electrical System Energy Losses l Total j,k Distillate Fuel Oil Jet Fuel b LPG c Motor Gasoline d Residual Fuel Oil Other e Total Wood and Waste g Losses and Co- products h Alabama ........... 65.0 265.4 155.4 13.4 12.8 319.8 13.4 49.1 563.8 0.0 154.1 0.0 0.1 0.2 303.7 1,352.2 579.1 1,931.3 Alaska ............... 9.5 294.7 81.8 118.2 1.3 34.6 0.4 28.6 265.0 0.0 2.3 0.0 0.2 (s) 21.6 593.2 44.7 637.9 Arizona ............. 10.0 109.8 151.3 21.5 9.1 323.4 (s) 21.1 526.5 0.0 4.4 3.1 0.3 7.9 255.7 917.8 513.7 1,431.5 Arkansas ........... 5.6 179.4 134.5 5.9 9.4 175.6 0.1 19.8 345.4 0.0 82.6 0.0 0.7 0.2 163.5 777.4 339.8 1,117.1 California ..........

243

All Consumption Tables.vp  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

State State Energy Data 2011: Consumption 11 Table C8. Transportation Sector Energy Consumption Estimates, 2011 (Trillion Btu) State Coal Natural Gas a Petroleum Retail Electricity Sales Net Energy Electrical System Energy Losses e Total Aviation Gasoline Distillate Fuel Oil Jet Fuel b LPG c Lubricants Motor Gasoline d Residual Fuel Oil Total Alabama ............. 0.0 23.5 0.4 124.4 13.4 0.3 2.3 316.3 6.7 463.7 0.0 487.2 0.0 487.2 Alaska ................. 0.0 3.5 0.8 44.4 118.2 (s) 0.4 32.9 0.4 197.2 0.0 200.7 0.0 200.7 Arizona ............... 0.0 15.6 1.0 111.3 21.5 0.8 1.6 318.2 0.0 454.5 0.0 470.1 0.0 470.1 Arkansas ............. 0.0 11.5 0.4 99.7 5.9 0.4 2.0 171.3 0.0 279.8 (s) 291.2 (s) 291.2 California ............ 0.0 25.7 1.9 440.9 549.7 3.8 13.3 1,770.1 186.9 2,966.5 2.8 2,995.1 5.5 3,000.5 Colorado ............. 0.0 14.7 0.6 83.2 58.3 0.3

244

All Consumption Tables.vp  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

9 9 Table C6. Commercial Sector Energy Consumption Estimates, 2011 (Trillion Btu) State Coal Natural Gas a Petroleum Hydro- electric Power e Biomass Geothermal Retail Electricity Sales Net Energy g Electrical System Energy Losses h Total g Distillate Fuel Oil Kerosene LPG b Motor Gasoline c Residual Fuel Oil Total d Wood and Waste f Alabama ............. 0.0 25.5 7.0 (s) 2.7 0.2 0.0 10.0 0.0 0.9 0.0 75.9 112.4 144.8 257.2 Alaska ................. 9.4 16.9 10.1 0.1 0.6 0.7 0.0 11.5 0.0 0.3 0.1 9.7 48.0 20.2 68.2 Arizona ............... 0.0 33.1 6.8 (s) 1.5 0.7 0.0 8.9 0.0 0.5 (s) 100.7 143.2 202.3 345.5 Arkansas ............. 0.0 40.6 3.6 (s) 1.2 0.4 0.0 5.2 0.0 1.3 0.0 41.4 88.6 86.1 174.7 California ............ 0.0 250.9 47.9 0.1 8.7 1.4 0.0 58.1 (s) 17.4 0.7 418.9 746.2 809.9 1,556.1 Colorado ............. 3.2 57.6 5.9 (s) 2.9 0.2 0.0 9.1 0.0 1.2 0.2

245

All Price Tables.vp  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7) 7) August 2009 State Energy Price and Expenditure Estimates 1970 Through 2007 2007 Price and Expenditure Summary Tables Table S1a. Energy Price Estimates by Source, 2007 (Nominal Dollars per Million Btu) State Primary Energy Electric Power Sector e,f Retail Electricity Total Energy e,g Coal Natural Gas a Petroleum Nuclear Fuel Biomass Total e,f,g Distillate Fuel Oil Jet Fuel LPG b Motor Gasoline Residual Fuel Oil Other c Total Wood and Waste d Alabama 2.17 9.06 19.43 16.20 21.84 21.26 8.46 14.19 19.62 0.42 2.71 7.47 2.29 22.46 16.01 Alaska 2.34 5.76 19.43 16.35 28.63 22.14 11.51 23.69 17.97 - 10.51 14.88 4.94 38.96 17.87 Arizona 1.61 8.44 19.84 16.24 27.16 21.95 10.04 11.27 20.50 0.57 10.86 9.61 2.78 25.02 20.72 Arkansas 1.65 9.33 19.63 15.73 21.10 21.54 8.65 18.76 20.42 0.57 2.66 9.45 1.98 20.57

246

NETL: Gasification - Development of Ion-Transport Membrane Oxygen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Feed Systems Feed Systems Recovery Act: Development of Ion-Transport Membrane Oxygen Technology for Integration in IGCC and Other Advanced Power Generation Systems Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. Project Number: FC26-98FT40343 Project Description Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. is developing, scaling-up, and demonstrating a novel air separation technology for large-scale production of oxygen (O2) at costs that are approximately one-third lower than conventional cryogenic plants. An Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) Oxygen plant co-produces power and oxygen. A phased technology RD&D effort is underway to demonstrate all necessary technical and economic requirements for scale-up and industrial commercialization. The ITM Oxygen production technology is a radically different approach to producing high-quality tonnage oxygen and to enhance the performance of integrated gasification combined cycle and other advanced power generation systems. Instead of cooling air to cryogenic temperatures, oxygen is extracted from air at temperatures synergistic with power production operations. Process engineering and economic evaluations of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants comparing ITM Oxygen with a state-of-the-art cryogenic air separation unit are aimed to show that the installed capital cost of the air separation unit and the installed capital of IGCC facility are significantly lower compared to conventional technologies, while improving power plant output and efficiency. The use of low-cost oxygen in combustion processes would provide cost-effective emission reduction and carbon management opportunities. ITM Oxygen is an enabling module for future plants for producing coal derived shifted synthesis gas (a mixture of hydrogen [H2] and carbon dioxide [CO2]) ultimately for producing clean energy and fuels. Oxygen-intensive industries such as steel, glass, non-ferrous metallurgy, refineries, and pulp and paper may also realize cost and productivity benefits as a result of employing ITM Oxygen.

247

All Price Tables.vp  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4. Electric Power Sector Energy Expenditure Estimates, 2011 4. Electric Power Sector Energy Expenditure Estimates, 2011 (Million Dollars) State Coal Natural Gas a Petroleum Nuclear Fuel Biomass Electricity Imports c Total Energy d Distillate Fuel Oil Petroleum Coke Residual Fuel Oil Total Wood and Waste b Alabama 1,681.9 1,494.8 24.0 - - 24.0 250.1 11.2 - 3,462.0 Alaska 20.0 210.4 76.7 - 30.5 107.3 - - (s) 337.7 Arizona 889.7 908.5 13.0 - - 13.0 245.4 5.8 21.1 2,083.4 Arkansas 574.1 506.2 10.3 - 1.6 11.9 95.7 3.2 - 1,191.1 California 43.5 2,904.0 8.7 32.1 0.2 41.0 270.9 248.2 266.1 3,773.8 Colorado 622.0 422.5 5.9 - - 5.9 - 2.2 (s) 1,052.6 Connecticut 22.4 549.2 5.9 - 27.1 33.0 107.6 30.4 99.7 842.3 Delaware 61.0 196.7 6.6 - 1.3 7.9 - 4.3 - 269.9 Dist. of Col. - 5.1 35.2 - - 35.2 - - - 40.3 Florida 1,905.3 6,116.6 102.6 79.9 173.7 356.3 177.9 122.0 - 8,678.0 Georgia 2,271.3 927.4 21.5 - 1.5 23.1 252.5 7.0 - 3,481.3 Hawaii

248

All Price Tables.vp  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

E9. Total End-Use Energy Expenditure Estimates, 2011 E9. Total End-Use Energy Expenditure Estimates, 2011 (Million Dollars) State Primary Energy Retail Electricity Total Energy g Coal Natural Gas a Petroleum Biomass Total g Distillate Fuel Oil Jet Fuel b LPG c Motor Gasoline d Residual Fuel Oil Other e Total Wood and Waste f Alabama 327.8 1,585.7 4,101.1 304.0 326.5 8,674.5 175.9 741.8 14,323.8 396.0 16,633.3 7,846.1 24,479.3 Alaska 36.2 324.0 2,412.4 2,733.2 38.5 1,093.7 7.6 74.8 6,360.2 14.2 6,734.6 1,004.6 7,739.3 Arizona 27.5 1,073.0 4,197.6 491.8 291.8 8,720.8 0.7 363.3 14,066.0 19.6 15,186.1 7,278.6 22,464.7 Arkansas 18.1 1,286.3 3,545.7 133.0 251.0 4,803.7 2.2 330.9 9,066.5 229.2 10,600.1 3,446.6 14,046.7 California 129.5 11,451.7 15,459.5 12,374.8 2,059.9 54,072.7 3,910.0 2,397.4 90,274.3 321.9 102,177.3 33,919.1 136,096.4 Colorado 15.0 1,906.7 3,007.6 1,306.2 607.7

249

All Consumption Tables.vp  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0 0 State Energy Data 2011: Consumption Table C7. Industrial Sector Energy Consumption Estimates, 2011 (Trillion Btu) State Coal Natural Gas a Petroleum Hydro- electric power e Biomass Geo- thermal Retail Electricity Sales Net Energy h,i Electrical System Energy Losses j Total h,i Distillate Fuel Oil LPG b Motor Gasoline c Residual Fuel Oil Other d Total Wood and Waste f Losses and Co- products g Alabama ............. 65.0 179.1 23.9 3.7 3.3 6.7 46.3 83.9 0.0 147.2 0.0 (s) 115.1 590.4 219.5 810.0 Alaska ................. 0.1 253.8 19.2 0.1 1.0 0.0 27.1 47.4 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 4.5 306.0 9.4 315.4 Arizona ............... 10.0 22.0 33.2 1.4 4.6 (s) 18.4 57.6 0.0 1.4 3.1 0.2 42.1 136.5 84.7 221.2 Arkansas ............. 5.6 93.1 31.1 2.6 4.0 0.1 17.4 55.1 0.0 72.7 0.0 (s) 58.0 284.5 120.5 405.0 California ............ 35.6 767.4 77.2 23.9 29.6 (s) 312.5

250

All Price Tables.vp  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

. Primary Energy, Electricity, and Total Energy Price Estimates, 2011 . Primary Energy, Electricity, and Total Energy Price Estimates, 2011 (Dollars per Million Btu) State Primary Energy Electric Power Sector g,h Retail Electricity Total Energy g,i Coal Natural Gas a Petroleum Nuclear Fuel Biomass Total g,h,i Distillate Fuel Oil Jet Fuel b LPG c Motor Gasoline d Residual Fuel Oil Other e Total Wood and Waste f Alabama 3.09 5.66 26.37 22.77 25.54 27.12 13.18 19.42 25.90 0.61 3.01 8.75 2.56 27.08 19.85 Alaska 3.64 6.70 29.33 23.12 29.76 31.60 20.07 34.62 26.61 - 14.42 20.85 6.36 47.13 25.17 Arizona 1.99 7.07 27.73 22.84 31.95 26.97 17.00 17.23 26.71 0.75 6.31 10.79 2.16 28.46 25.23 Arkansas 1.93 6.94 26.37 22.45 26.66 27.35 17.35 33.22 27.02 0.64 3.31 10.54 2.13 22.02 19.63 California 3.13 7.08 27.34 22.51 31.21 30.02 20.92 21.45 27.51 0.71 4.88 17.99 3.32 38.35 24.14 Colorado 1.73 6.79 26.86 22.41 26.35

251

S  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

S S o u t h w e s t e r n R a d i o l o g i Depatfment oi ~ i e a l t h , . c a l I i e a l t h L a b o r a t o r y E d u c a t i o n & W e l f a r e Pt1b1.i.c ileal C h S e r v i c e DISCLAIMER Portions of this document may be illegible in electronic image products. Images are produced from the best available original document. TABLE OF CONTENTS OPERATIONAL GUIDE A . K e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s n r B . O r g a n i z a t i o n 1 . C r i t e r i a rx\ A( r:- A x r Sampling B \ : ~ D T S ime tr L J no. 1 C. M i l 9 Sampling 6 l i D. Water Sampling 7 L L t E . A n i m z l - a n d A J i l d l i f e Sampling 8 F. vegetatiotk/dncl S o i l Sampling I L - J \ G. Gas ~ a m ~ ~ f i i @ ~ 8 H. A e r i a l ~ o n i t o r ~ i ' ; r & 8 \\ I V . SUPPORT REQUIREFENTS"., 9 \si A . F l e t e r o l n g i c a l S u p p o r t 9 (~3 B. S p e c i a l 'Jkansportat20.n=~-, 9 C . Plume Marking - 2 10 i"l D. R a d i o C o n m ~ u n i c a t i o n Nctwork 1 0

252

ADVANCED, LOW/ZERO EMISSION BOILER DESIGN AND OPERATION  

SciTech Connect

This document reviews the work performed during the quarter January-March 2003. The main objectives of the project are: To demonstrate the feasibility of the full-oxy combustion with flue gas recirculation on Babcock & Wilcox's 1.5MW pilot boiler, To measure its performances in terms of emissions and boiler efficiency while selecting the right oxygen injection strategies, To perform an economical feasibility study, comparing this solution with alternate technologies, and To design a new generation, full oxy-fired boiler. The main objective of this quarter was to initiate the project, primarily the experimental tasks. The contractor and its subcontractors have defined a working plan, and the first tasks have been started. Task 1 (Site Preparation) is now in progress, defining the modifications to be implemented to the boiler and oxygen delivery system. The changes are required in order to overcome some current limitations of the existing system. As part of a previous project carried out in 2002, several changes have already been made on the pilot boiler, including the enrichment of the secondary and tertiary air with oxygen or the replacement of these streams with oxygen-enriched recycled flue gas. A notable modification for the current project involves the replacement of the primary air with oxygen-enriched flue gas. Consequently, the current oxygen supply and flue gas recycle system is being modified to meet this new requirement. Task 2 (Combustion and Emissions Performance Optimization) has been initiated with a preliminary selection of four series of tests to be performed. So far, the project schedule is on-track: site preparation (Task 1) should be completed by August 1st, 2003 and the tests (Task 2) are planned for September-October 2003. The Techno-Economic Study (Task 3) will be initiated in the following quarter.

Ovidiu Marin; Fabienne Chatel-Pelage

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Turbulent mixing of a slightly supercritical van der Waals fluid at low-Mach number  

SciTech Connect

Supercritical fluids near the critical point are characterized by liquid-like densities and gas-like transport properties. These features are purposely exploited in different contexts ranging from natural products extraction/fractionation to aerospace propulsion. Large part of studies concerns this last context, focusing on the dynamics of supercritical fluids at high Mach number where compressibility and thermodynamics strictly interact. Despite the widespread use also at low Mach number, the turbulent mixing properties of slightly supercritical fluids have still not investigated in detail in this regime. This topic is addressed here by dealing with Direct Numerical Simulations of a coaxial jet of a slightly supercritical van der Waals fluid. Since acoustic effects are irrelevant in the low Mach number conditions found in many industrial applications, the numerical model is based on a suitable low-Mach number expansion of the governing equation. According to experimental observations, the weakly supercritical regime is characterized by the formation of finger-like structures the so-called ligaments in the shear layers separating the two streams. The mechanism of ligament formation at vanishing Mach number is extracted from the simulations and a detailed statistical characterization is provided. Ligaments always form whenever a high density contrast occurs, independently of real or perfect gas behaviors. The difference between real and perfect gas conditions is found in the ligament small-scale structure. More intense density gradients and thinner interfaces characterize the near critical fluid in comparison with the smoother behavior of the perfect gas. A phenomenological interpretation is here provided on the basis of the real gas thermodynamics properties.

Battista, F.; Casciola, C. M. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Sapienza University, via Eudossiana 18, 00184 Rome (Italy); Picano, F. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Padova, via Venezia 1, 35131 Padova (Italy)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

254

Influence of processing gases on the properties of cold atmospheric plasma SiOxCy coatings  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Thin layers of SiOxCy (y=4?x and 3?x?4) were applied using a cold atmospheric plasma torch on glass substrates. The aim was to investigate using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (Tof-Sims) the influence of the gases used on the morphology and composition of the deposits. A hexamethyldisilane (HMDS) precursor was injected in post-discharge in an air or nitrogen plasma using a carrier gas (air or nitrogen) and was applied on the substrate previously pre-treated by an air or nitrogen plasma. The carrier gas and plasma gas flows and the distance between the substrate and the plasma torch, the scanning speed, and the precursor flows were kept constant during the study. The gas used during activation pre-treatment showed no particular influence on the characteristics of the deposit. When air is used both as plasma and carrier gas, the coating layer is thicker (96nm) than when nitrogen is used (64nm). It was also evidenced that the gas carrying the precursor has little influence on the hydrophobicity of the coating, contrary to the plasma gas. The latter significantly influences the surface characteristics of the coatings. When air is used as plasma gas, a compact coating layer is obtained and the surface has a water contact angle (WCA) of 82. When nitrogen is used, the deposit is more hydrophobic (WCA of 100) and the deposit morphology is different. This increase in hydrophobicity could be correlated to the increase of SiOC bonds in the upper surface layers evidenced by XPS analyzes. This observation was then confirmed by Tof-Sims analyzes carried out on these thin layers. A uniform distribution of Carbons in the siloxane coating could also be observed using Tof-Sims 2D reconstruction images of cross sections of the deposited layers.

H. Hamze; M. Jimenez; D. Deresmes; A. Beaurain; N. Nuns; M. Traisnel

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Multi-fuel reformers for fuel cells used in transportation. Multi-fuel reformers: Phase 1 -- Final report  

SciTech Connect

DOE has established the goal, through the Fuel Cells in Transportation Program, of fostering the rapid development and commercialization of fuel cells as economic competitors for the internal combustion engine. Central to this goal is a safe feasible means of supplying hydrogen of the required purity to the vehicular fuel cell system. Two basic strategies are being considered: (1) on-board fuel processing whereby alternative fuels such as methanol, ethanol or natural gas stored on the vehicle undergo reformation and subsequent processing to produce hydrogen, and (2) on-board storage of pure hydrogen provided by stationary fuel processing plants. This report analyzes fuel processor technologies, types of fuel and fuel cell options for on-board reformation. As the Phase 1 of a multi-phased program to develop a prototype multi-fuel reformer system for a fuel cell powered vehicle, the objective of this program was to evaluate the feasibility of a multi-fuel reformer concept and to select a reforming technology for further development in the Phase 2 program, with the ultimate goal of integration with a DOE-designated fuel cell and vehicle configuration. The basic reformer processes examined in this study included catalytic steam reforming (SR), non-catalytic partial oxidation (POX) and catalytic partial oxidation (also known as Autothermal Reforming, or ATR). Fuels under consideration in this study included methanol, ethanol, and natural gas. A systematic evaluation of reforming technologies, fuels, and transportation fuel cell applications was conducted for the purpose of selecting a suitable multi-fuel processor for further development and demonstration in a transportation application.

Not Available

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

ENGINEERING A NEW MATERIAL FOR HOT GAS CLEANUP  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is the engineering development of a reusable calcium-based sorbent for desulfurizing hot coal gas. A two-step pelletization method has been employed to produce relatively strong, ''core-in-shell,'' spherical pellets. Each pellet consists of a highly reactive core surrounded by a strong, inert, porous shell. A suitable core is composed largely of CaO which reacts with H{sub 2}S to form CaS. Pellet cores have been prepared by pelletizing either pulverized limestone or plaster of Paris, and shells have been made of various materials. The most suitable shell material has been formed from a mixture of alumina and limestone particles. The core-in-shell pellets require treatment at high temperature to convert the core material to CaO and to partially sinter the shell material. Pellet cores derived from plaster of Paris have proved superior to those derived from limestone because they react more rapidly with H{sub 2}S and their reactivity does not seem to decline with repeated loading and regeneration. The rate of reaction of H{sub 2}S with CaO derived from either material is directly proportional to H{sub 2}S concentration. The rate of reaction does not appear to be affected significantly by temperature in the range of 1113 K (840 C) to 1193 K (920 C) but decreases markedly at 1233 K (960 C). The rate is not affected by shell thickness within the range tested, which also provides adequate compressive strength.

T.D. Wheelock; L.K. Doraiswamy; K. Constant

2001-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

257

Permitting and solid waste management issues for the Bailly Station wet limestone Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) system  

SciTech Connect

Pure Air (a general partnership between Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries America, Inc.). is constructing a wet limestone co-current advanced flue gas desulfurization (AFGD) system that has technological and commercial advantages over conventional FGD systems in the United States. The AFGD system is being installed at the Northern Indiana Public Service Company's Bailly Generating Station near Gary, Indiana. The AFGD system is scheduled to be operational by the Summer, 1992. The AFGD system will remove at least 90 percent of the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) in the flue gas from Boilers 7 and 8 at the Station while burning 3.2 percent sulfur coal. Also as part of testing the AFGD system, 95 percent removal of SO{sub 2} will be demonstrated on coals containing up to 4.5 percent sulfur. At the same time that SO{sub 2} is removed from the flue gas, a gypsum by-product will be produced which will be used for wallboard manufacturing. Since the AFGD system is a pollution control device, one would expect its installation to be received favorably by the public and regulatory agencies. Although the project was well received by regulatory agencies, on public group (Save the Dunes Council) was initially concerned since the project is located adjacent to the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. The purpose of this paper is to describe the project team's experiences in obtaining permits/approvals from regulatory agencies and in dealing with the public. 1 ref., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Bolinsky, F.T. (Pure Air, Allentown, PA (United States)); Ross, J. (Northern Indiana Public Service Co., Hammond, IN (United States)); Dennis, D.S. (United Engineers and Constructors, Inc., Denver, CO (United States). Stearns-Roger Div.); Huston, J.S. (Environmental Alternatives, Inc., Warren NJ (USA))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

RP-5 Renewable Energy Efficiency Project  

SciTech Connect

This is the fourth quarterly technical report for the RP-5 Renewable Energy Efficiency Project. The report summarizes the work progress, effort and activities that took place during the period of April 1, 2003 to June 30, 2003. However, IEUA is preparing a Supplemental report that will be mailed to the Department of Energy (DOE) by August 1, 2003, that provides additional information regarding IEUA's plan to expedite certain project activities. The report has been prepared in accordance with the Department of Energy (DOE) Guidelines. This technical report covers all meetings, discussions, and engineering and design activities that took place to finalize the project scope of work and complete the Request for Proposal (RFP) for the RP-5 Renewable Energy Efficiency Project. IEUA has decided to invite three more consulting engineering firms besides CH2M Hill, the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Consultant, to submit proposals for the design of the energy efficiency project. The proposals are currently in the evaluation phase and a decision is expected by the end of July. IEUA moved to its new headquarters building on June 13, 2003. The central plant is the system that supplies cooling and heating water to the headquarters building, and it primarily consists of equipment listed in the cooperative agreement under ''Chiller and Heater''. The central plant equipment was successfully installed and started. Other activities include gas analysis of three sources of low quality digester gas and foul air which could be used as fuel for an innovative flex microturbine. IEUA is also working with Stirling Energy Systems to determine if the Agency should be a host site for their equipment for testing the engine's operation on digester and natural gas. A matching funds update is also included in the Results and Discussion section, which presents the work effort performed by the PIER Consultant and the associated costs that serve as matching funds for the RP-5 Project during this report period.

Neil Clifton; Eliza Jane Whitman; Jamal A. Zughbi

2003-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

259

Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the US transportation sector. Technical report twelve: Economic analysis of alternative uses for Alaskan North Slope natural gas  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Altemative Fuels Assessment, the Department of Energy (DOE) is studying the use of derivatives of natural gas, including compressed natural gas and methanol, as altemative transportation fuels. A critical part of this effort is determining potential sources of natural gas and the economics of those sources. Previous studies in this series characterized the economics of unutilized gas within the lower 48 United States, comparing its value for methanol production against its value as a pipelined fuel (US Department of Energy 1991), and analyzed the costs of developing undeveloped nonassociated gas reserves in several countries (US Department of Energy 1992c). This report extends those analyses to include Alaskan North Slope natural gas that either is not being produced or is being reinjected. The report includes the following: A description of discovered and potential (undiscovered) quantities of natural gas on the Alaskan North Slope. A discussion of proposed altemative uses for Alaskan North Slope natural gas. A comparison of the economics of the proposed alternative uses for Alaskan North Slope natural gas. The purpose of this report is to illustrate the costs of transporting Alaskan North Slope gas to markets in the lower 48 States as pipeline gas, liquefied natural gas (LNG), or methanol. It is not intended to recommend one alternative over another or to evaluate the relative economics or timing of using North Slope gas in new tertiary oil recovery projects. The information is supplied in sufficient detail to allow incorporation of relevant economic relationships (for example, wellhead gas prices and transportation costs) into the Altemative Fuels Trade Model, the analytical framework DOE is using to evaluate various policy options.

Not Available

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

IGNITION IMPROVEMENT OF LEAN NATURAL GAS MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work performed during a thirty month project which involves the production of dimethyl ether (DME) on-site for use as an ignition-improving additive in a compression-ignition natural gas engine. A single cylinder spark ignition engine was converted to compression ignition operation. The engine was then fully instrumented with a cylinder pressure transducer, crank shaft position sensor, airflow meter, natural gas mass flow sensor, and an exhaust temperature sensor. Finally, the engine was interfaced with a control system for pilot injection of DME. The engine testing is currently in progress. In addition, a one-pass process to form DME from natural gas was simulated with chemical processing software. Natural gas is reformed to synthesis gas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide), converted into methanol, and finally to DME in three steps. Of additional benefit to the internal combustion engine, the offgas from the pilot process can be mixed with the main natural gas charge and is expected to improve engine performance. Furthermore, a one-pass pilot facility was constructed to produce 3.7 liters/hour (0.98 gallons/hour) DME from methanol in order to characterize the effluent DME solution and determine suitability for engine use. Successful production of DME led to an economic estimate of completing a full natural gas-to-DME pilot process. Additional experimental work in constructing a synthesis gas to methanol reactor is in progress. The overall recommendation from this work is that natural gas to DME is not a suitable pathway to improved natural gas engine performance. The major reasons are difficulties in handling DME for pilot injection and the large capital costs associated with DME production from natural gas.

Jason M. Keith

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

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261

Partial oxidation process for producing a stream of hot purified gas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A partial oxidation process for the production of a stream of hot clean gas substantially free from particulate matter, ammonia, alkali metal compounds, halides and sulfur-containing gas for use as synthesis gas, reducing gas, or fuel gas. A hydrocarbonaceous fuel comprising a solid carbonaceous fuel with or without liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel or gaseous hydrocarbon fuel, wherein said hydrocarbonaceous fuel contains halides, alkali metal compounds, sulfur, nitrogen and inorganic ash containing components, is reacted in a gasifier by partial oxidation to produce a hot raw gas stream comprising H.sub.2, CO, CO.sub.2, H.sub.2 O, CH.sub.4, NH.sub.3, HCl, HF, H.sub.2 S, COS, N.sub.2, Ar, particulate matter, vapor phase alkali metal compounds, and molten slag. The hot raw gas stream from the gasifier is split into two streams which are separately deslagged, cleaned and recombined. Ammonia in the gas mixture is catalytically disproportionated into N.sub.2 and H.sub.2. The ammonia-free gas stream is then cooled and halides in the gas stream are reacted with a supplementary alkali metal compound to remove HCl and HF. Alkali metal halides, vaporized alkali metal compounds and residual fine particulate matter are removed from the gas stream by further cooling and filtering. The sulfur-containing gases in the process gas stream are then reacted at high temperature with a regenerable sulfur-reactive mixed metal oxide sulfur sorbent material to produce a sulfided sorbent material which is then separated from the hot clean purified gas stream having a temperature of at least 1000.degree. F.

Leininger, Thomas F. (Chino Hills, CA); Robin, Allen M. (Anaheim, CA); Wolfenbarger, James K. (Torrance, CA); Suggitt, Robert M. (Wappingers Falls, NY)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Modeling of thermal plasma arc technology FY 1994 report  

SciTech Connect

The thermal plasma arc process is under consideration to thermally treat hazardous and radioactive waste. A computer model for the thermal plasma arc technology was designed as a tool to aid in the development and use of the plasma arc-Joule beating process. The value of this computer model is to: (a) aid in understanding the plasma arc-Joule beating process as applied to buried waste or exhumed buried waste, (b) help design melter geometry and electrode configuration, (c) calculate the process capability of vitrifying waste (i.e., tons/hour), (d) develop efficient plasma and melter operating conditions to optimize the process and/or reduce safety hazards, (e) calculate chemical reactions during treatment of waste to track chemical composition of off-gas products, and composition of final vitrified waste form and (f) help compare the designs of different plasma-arc facilities. A steady-state model of a two-dimensional axisymmetric transferred plasma arc has been developed and validated. A parametric analysis was performed that studied the effects of arc length, plasma gas composition, and input power on the temperatures and velocity profiles of the slag and plasma gas. A two-dimensional transient thermo-fluid model of the US Bureau of Mines plasma arc melter has been developed. This model includes the growth of a slag pool. The thermo-fluid model is used to predict the temperature and pressure fields within a plasma arc furnace. An analysis was performed to determine the effects of a molten metal pool on the temperature, velocity, and voltage fields within the slag. A robust and accurate model for the chemical equilibrium calculations has been selected to determine chemical composition of final waste form and off-gas based on the temperatures and pressures within the plasma-arc furnace. A chemical database has been selected. The database is based on the materials to be processed in the plasma arc furnaces.

Hawkes, G.L.; Nguyen, H.D.; Paik, S.; McKellar, M.G.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

X-RAY SCALING RELATION IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES: DARK MATTER AS A PRIMARY FACTOR IN RETAINING HOT GAS  

SciTech Connect

We have revisited the X-ray scaling relations of early-type galaxies (ETG) by investigating, for the first time, the L{sub X,Gas}-M{sub Total} relation in a sample of 14 ETGs. In contrast to the large scatter (a factor of 10{sup 2}-10{sup 3}) in the L{sub X,Total}-L{sub B} relation, we found a tight correlation between these physically motivated quantities with an rms deviation of a factor of three in L{sub X,Gas} = 10{sup 38}-10{sup 43} erg s{sup 1} or M{sub Total} = a few 10{sup 10} to a few 10{sup 12} M{sub ?}. More striking, this relation becomes even tighter with an rms deviation of a factor of 1.3 among the gas-rich galaxies (with L{sub X,Gas} > 10{sup 40} erg s{sup 1}). In a simple power-law form, the new relation is (L{sub X,Gas}/10{sup 40} erg s{sup 1}) = (M{sub Total}/3.2 10{sup 11} M{sub ?}){sup 3}. This relation is also consistent with the steep relation between the gas luminosity and temperature, L{sub X,Gas} ? T{sub Gas} {sup 4.5}, identified by Boroson et al., if the gas is virialized. Our results indicate that the total mass of an ETG is the primary factor in regulating the amount of hot gas. Among the gas-poor galaxies (with L{sub X,Gas} < a few 10{sup 39} erg s{sup 1}), the scatter in the L{sub X,Gas}-M{sub Total} (and L{sub X,Gas}-T{sub Gas}) relation increases, suggesting that secondary factors (e.g., rotation, flattening, star formation history, cold gas, environment, etc.) may become important.

Kim, Dong-Woo; Fabbiano, Giuseppina [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2013-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

264

Demonstration of the enrichment of medium quality gas from gob wells through interactive well operating practices. Final report, June--December, 1995  

SciTech Connect

Methane released to the atmosphere during coal mining operations is believed to contribute to global warming and represents a waste of a valuable energy resource. Commercial production of pipeline-quality gob well methane through wells drilled from the surface into the area above the gob can, if properly implemented, be the most effective means of reducing mine methane emissions. However, much of the gas produced from gob wells is vented because the quality of the gas is highly variable and is often below current natural gas pipeline specifications. Prior to the initiation of field-testing required to further understand the operational criteria for upgrading gob well gas, a preliminary evaluation and assessment was performed. An assessment of the methane gas in-place and producible methane resource at the Jim Walter Resources, Inc. No. 4 and No. 5 Mines established a potential 15-year supply of 60 billion cubic feet of mien methane from gob wells, satisfying the resource criteria for the test site. To understand the effect of operating conditions on gob gas quality, gob wells producing pipeline quality (i.e., < 96% hydrocarbons) gas at this site will be operated over a wide range of suction pressures. Parameters to be determined will include absolute methane quantity and methane concentration produced through the gob wells; working face, tailgate and bleeder entry methane levels in the mine; and the effect on the economics of production of gob wells at various levels of methane quality. Following this, a field demonstration will be initiated at a mine where commercial gob gas production has not been attempted. The guidelines established during the first phase of the project will be used to design the production program. The economic feasibility of various utilization options will also be tested based upon the information gathered during the first phase. 41 refs., 41 figs., 12 tabs.

Blackburn, S.T.; Sanders, R.G.; Boyer, C.M. II; Lasseter, E.L.; Stevenson, J.W.; Mills, R.A.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

All Price Tables.vp  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

E5. Industrial Sector Energy Price Estimates, 2011 E5. Industrial Sector Energy Price Estimates, 2011 (Dollars per Million Btu) State Primary Energy Retail Electricity Total Energy f Coal Natural Gas a Petroleum Biomass Total f Coking Coal Steam Coal Total Distillate Fuel Oil LPG b Motor Gasoline c Residual Fuel Oil Other d Total Wood and Waste e Alabama 6.55 3.51 5.05 5.47 23.50 20.64 27.12 15.33 16.04 19.15 2.86 7.07 18.31 9.35 Alaska - 3.14 3.14 3.79 29.30 28.31 31.60 - 16.62 29.00 1.68 28.83 46.04 31.77 Arizona - 2.75 2.75 6.77 24.82 30.18 26.97 17.00 11.76 20.94 1.73 15.37 19.21 16.60 Arkansas - 3.25 3.25 7.33 23.96 21.04 27.35 15.63 23.43 23.98 2.85 9.64 16.51 11.09 California - 3.64 3.64 6.91 25.09 30.50 30.02 15.24 16.13 22.74 2.78 10.53 29.62 13.48 Colorado - 2.05 2.05 6.23 24.57 27.92 27.21 - 12.42 21.99 1.73 12.77 20.69 15.14 Connecticut - - - 8.91 24.08 32.13 28.99 17.52 21.70 25.08 1.68

266

All Price Tables.vp  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2. Industrial Sector Energy Expenditure Estimates, 2011 2. Industrial Sector Energy Expenditure Estimates, 2011 (Million Dollars) State Primary Energy Retail Electricity Total Energy f Coal Natural Gas a Petroleum Biomass Total f Coking Coal Steam Coal Total Distillate Fuel Oil LPG b Motor Gasoline c Residual Fuel Oil Other d Total Wood and Waste e Alabama 214.7 113.1 327.8 721.8 560.3 76.3 90.0 102.6 568.9 1,398.2 365.7 2,813.5 1,853.2 4,666.7 Alaska - 0.2 0.2 - 555.0 3.6 32.0 - 11.1 601.6 0.1 602.0 197.7 799.7 Arizona - 27.5 27.5 149.0 823.4 41.7 123.1 0.7 216.4 1,205.3 0.6 1,382.4 809.7 2,192.1 Arkansas - 18.1 18.1 543.6 742.2 54.6 109.1 2.2 175.7 1,083.7 185.6 1,831.1 841.7 2,672.8 California - 129.5 129.5 4,212.1 1,908.2 690.6 888.1 (s) 1,390.5 4,877.4 58.9 9,278.0 4,772.8 14,050.8 Colorado - 6.8 6.8 392.8 559.2 210.9 133.8 - 167.7 1,071.7 0.2 1,471.4 1,021.1 2,492.6 Connecticut - - - 237.4

267

POLARIMETRIC OBSERVATIONS OF {sigma} ORIONIS E  

SciTech Connect

Some massive stars possess strong magnetic fields that confine plasma in the circumstellar environment. These magnetospheres have been studied spectroscopically, photometrically, and, more recently, interferometrically. Here we report on the first firm detection of a magnetosphere in continuum linear polarization, as a result of monitoring {sigma} Ori E at the Pico dos Dias Observatory. The non-zero intrinsic polarization indicates an asymmetric structure whose minor elongation axis is oriented 150. Degree-Sign 0 east of the celestial north. A modulation of the polarization was observed with a period of half of the rotation period, which supports the theoretical prediction of the presence of two diametrally opposed, corotating blobs of gas. A phase lag of -0.085 was detected between the polarization minimum and the primary minimum of the light curve, suggestive of a complex shape of the plasma clouds. We present a preliminary analysis of the data with the Rigidly Rotating Magnetosphere model, which could not reproduce simultaneously the photometric and polarimetric data. A toy model comprising two spherical corotating blobs joined by a thin disk proved more successful in reproducing the polarization modulation. With this model we were able to determine that the total scattering mass of the thin disk is similar to the mass of the blobs (2M{sub b}/M{sub d} = 1.2) and that the blobs are rotating counterclockwise on the plane of the sky. This result shows that polarimetry can provide a diagnostic of the geometry of clouds, which will serve as an important constraint for improving the Rigidly Rotating Magnetosphere model.

Carciofi, A. C.; Faes, D. M. [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao 1226, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Townsend, R. H. D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Sterling Hall, 475 N. Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Bjorkman, J. E., E-mail: carciofi@usp.br [Ritter Observatory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States)

2013-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

268

Cooperative Research in C1 Chemistry  

SciTech Connect

C1 chemistry refers to the conversion of simple carbon-containing materials that contain one carbon atom per molecule into valuable products. The feedstocks for C1 chemistry include natural gas, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methanol and synthesis gas (a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Synthesis gas, or syngas, is produced primarily by the reaction of natural gas, which is principally methane, with steam. It can also be produced by gasification of coal, petroleum coke, or biomass. The availability of syngas from coal gasification is expected to increase significantly in the future because of increasing development of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generation. Because of the abundance of remote natural gas, the advent of IGCC, and environmental advantages, C1 chemistry is expected to become a major area of interest for the transportation fuel and chemical industries in the relatively near future. The CFFLS will therefore perform a valuable national service by providing science and engineering graduates that are trained in this important area. Syngas is the source of most hydrogen. Approximately 10 trillion standard cubic feet (SCF) of hydrogen are manufactured annually in the world. Most of this hydrogen is currently used for the production of ammonia and in a variety of refining and chemical operations. However, utilization of hydrogen in fuel cells is expected to grow significantly in the next century. Syngas is also the feedstock for all methanol and Fischer-Tropsch plants. Currently, world consumption of methanol is over 25 million tons per year. There are many methanol plants in the U.S. and throughout the world. Methanol and oxygenated transportation fuel products play a significant role in the CFFLS C1 program. Currently, the only commercial Fischer-Tropsch plants are overseas, principally in South Africa (SASOL). However, new plants are being built or planned for a number of locations. One possible location for future F-T plant development in the U.S. is in the Alaskan oil fields.

Gerald P. Huffman

2000-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

269

Table ET1. Primary Energy, Electricity, and Total Energy Price and Expenditure Estimates, Selected Years, 1970-2011, United States  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

ET1. Primary Energy, Electricity, and Total Energy Price and Expenditure Estimates, Selected Years, 1970-2011, United States ET1. Primary Energy, Electricity, and Total Energy Price and Expenditure Estimates, Selected Years, 1970-2011, United States Year Primary Energy Electric Power Sector h,j Retail Electricity Total Energy g,h,i Coal Coal Coke Natural Gas a Petroleum Nuclear Fuel Biomass Total g,h,i,j Coking Coal Steam Coal Total Exports Imports Distillate Fuel Oil Jet Fuel b LPG c Motor Gasoline d Residual Fuel Oil Other e Total Wood and Waste f,g Prices in Dollars per Million Btu 1970 0.45 0.36 0.38 1.27 0.93 0.59 1.16 0.73 1.43 2.85 0.42 1.38 1.71 0.18 1.29 1.08 0.32 4.98 1.65 1975 1.65 0.90 1.03 2.37 3.47 1.18 2.60 2.05 2.96 4.65 1.93 2.94 3.35 0.24 1.50 2.19 0.97 8.61 3.33 1980 2.10 1.38 1.46 2.54 3.19 2.86 6.70 6.36 5.64 9.84 3.88 7.04 7.40 0.43 2.26 4.57 1.77 13.95 6.89 1985 2.03 1.67 1.69 2.76 2.99 4.61 7.22 5.91 6.63 9.01 4.30 R 7.62 R 7.64 0.71 2.47 4.93 1.91 19.05

270

Technology on In-Situ Gas Generation to Recover Residual Oil Reserves  

SciTech Connect

This final technical report covers the period October 1, 1995 to February 29, 2008. This chapter begins with an overview of the history of Enhanced Oil Recovery techniques and specifically, CO2 flood. Subsequent chapters conform to the manner consistent with the Activities, Tasks, and Sub-tasks of the project as originally provided in Exhibit C1 in the Project Management Plan dated September 20, 1995. These chapters summarize the objectives, status and conclusions of the major project activities performed during the project period. The report concludes by describing technology transfer activities stemming from the project and providing a reference list of all publications of original research work generated by the project team or by others regarding this project. The overall objective of this project was a final research and development in the United States a technology that was developed at the Institute for Geology and Development of Fossil Fuels in Moscow, Russia. Before the technology can be convincingly adopted by United States oil and gas producers, the laboratory research was conducted at Mew Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. The experimental studies were conducted to measure the volume and the pressure of the CO{sub 2} gas generated according to the new Russian technology. Two experimental devices were designed, built and used at New Mexico Tech facilities for these purposes. The designed setup allowed initiating and controlling the reaction between the 'gas-yielding' (GY) and 'gas-forming' (GF) agents proposed by Russian technology. The temperature was controlled, and the generated gas pressure and volume were recorded during the reaction process. Additionally, the effect of surfactant addition on the effectiveness of the process was studied. An alternative GY reactant was tested in order to increase the efficiency of the CO2 gas generation process. The slim tube and the core flood experimental studies were conducted to define the sweep efficiency of the in-situ generated CO{sub 2} gas. A set of core flood experiments were conducted to define effect of surfactant on recovery efficiency. The results demonstrated obvious advantages of the foamy system over the brine solution in order to achieve higher sweep efficiency and recovery coefficient. It is shown that a slug injection is not an efficient method for mixing GY and GF solutions and it can't generate considerable gas inside the slim-tube.

Sayavur Bakhtiyarov

2008-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

271

IR diagnostics of embedded jets: velocity resolved observations of the HH34 and HH1 jets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present VLT-ISAAC medium resolution spectroscopy of the HH34 and HH1 jets. Our aim is to derive the kinematics and the physical parameters and to study how they vary with jet velocity. We use several important diagnostic lines such as [FeII] 1.644um, 1.600um and H2 2.122um. In the inner jet region of HH34 we find that both the atomic and molecular gas present two components at high and low velocity. The [FeII] LVC in HH34 is detected up to large distances from the source (>1000 AU), at variance with TTauri jets. In H2 2.122um, the LVC and HVC are spatially separated. We detect, for the first time, the fainter red-shifted counterpart down to the central source. In HH1, we trace the jet down to ~1" from the VLA1 driving source: the kinematics of this inner region is again characterised by the presence of two velocity components, one blue-shifted and one red-shifted with respect to the source LSR velocity. In the inner HH34 jet region, ne increases with decreasing velocity. Up to ~10" from the driving source, and along the whole HH1 jet an opposite behaviour is observed instead, with ne increasing with velocity. In both jets the mass flux is carried mainly by the high-velocity gas. A comparison between the position velocity diagrams and derived electron densities with models for MHD jet launching mechanisms has been performed for HH34. While the kinematical characteristics of the line emission at the jet base can be, at least qualitatively, reproduced by both X-winds and disc-wind models, none of these models can explain the extent of the LVC and the dependence of electron density with velocity that we observe. It is possible that the LVC in HH34 represents gas not directly ejected in the jet but instead denser ambient gas entrained by the high velocity collimated jet.

R. Garcia Lopez; B. Nisini; T. Giannini; J. Eisloeffel; F. Bacciotti; L. Podio

2008-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

272

APPLICATION OF CYCLIC CO2 METHODS IN AN OVER-MATURE MISICBLE CO2 PILOT PROJECT-WEST MALLALIEU FIELD, LINCOLN COUNTY, MS  

SciTech Connect

This progress report summarizes the results of a miscible cyclic CO{sub 2} project conducted at West Mallalieu Field Unit (WMU) Lincoln County, MS by J.P. Oil Company, Inc. Lafayette, LA. Information is presented regarding the verification of the mechanical integrity of the present candidate well, WMU 17-2B, to the exclusion of nearby more desirable wells from a reservoir standpoint. Engineering summaries of both the injection and flow back phases of the cyclic process are presented. The results indicate that the target volume of 63 MMCF of CO{sub 2} was injected into the candidate well during the month of August 2000 and a combined 73 MMCF of CO{sub 2} and formation gas were recovered during September, October, and November 2000. The fact that all of the injected CO{sub 2} was recovered is encouraging; however, only negligible volumes of liquid were produced with the gas. A number of different factors are explored in this report to explain the lack of economic success. These are divided into several groupings and include: Reservoir Factors, Process Factors, Mechanical Factors, and Special Circumstances Factors. It is impossible to understand precisely the one or combination of interrelated factors responsible for the failure of the experiment but I feel that the original reservoir quality concerns for the subject well WMU 17-2B were not surmountable. Based on the inferences made as to possible failure mechanisms, two future test candidates were selected, WMU 17-10 and 17-14. These lie a significant distance south of the WMU Pilot area and each have a much thicker and higher quality reservoir section than does WMU 17-2B. Both of these wells were productive on pumping units in the not too distant past. This was primary production not influenced by the distant CO{sub 2} injection. These wells are currently completed within somewhat isolated reservoir channels in the Lower Tuscaloosa ''A'' and ''B-2'' Sands that overlie the much more continuous and much larger Lower Tuscaloosa ''C'' Sand reservoir. The current proposal is to not only cycle the Lower Tuscaloosa ''C'' Sand in these wells but to also test the process on these discontinuous ''A'' and ''B-2'' reservoir pools to determine if miscible cyclic processes are applicable where continuous CO{sub 2} operations are not feasible.

Boyd Stevens Getz

2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Natural gas pipeline technology overview.  

SciTech Connect

The United States relies on natural gas for one-quarter of its energy needs. In 2001 alone, the nation consumed 21.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. A large portion of natural gas pipeline capacity within the United States is directed from major production areas in Texas and Louisiana, Wyoming, and other states to markets in the western, eastern, and midwestern regions of the country. In the past 10 years, increasing levels of gas from Canada have also been brought into these markets (EIA 2007). The United States has several major natural gas production basins and an extensive natural gas pipeline network, with almost 95% of U.S. natural gas imports coming from Canada. At present, the gas pipeline infrastructure is more developed between Canada and the United States than between Mexico and the United States. Gas flows from Canada to the United States through several major pipelines feeding U.S. markets in the Midwest, Northeast, Pacific Northwest, and California. Some key examples are the Alliance Pipeline, the Northern Border Pipeline, the Maritimes & Northeast Pipeline, the TransCanada Pipeline System, and Westcoast Energy pipelines. Major connections join Texas and northeastern Mexico, with additional connections to Arizona and between California and Baja California, Mexico (INGAA 2007). Of the natural gas consumed in the United States, 85% is produced domestically. Figure 1.1-1 shows the complex North American natural gas network. The pipeline transmission system--the 'interstate highway' for natural gas--consists of 180,000 miles of high-strength steel pipe varying in diameter, normally between 30 and 36 inches in diameter. The primary function of the transmission pipeline company is to move huge amounts of natural gas thousands of miles from producing regions to local natural gas utility delivery points. These delivery points, called 'city gate stations', are usually owned by distribution companies, although some are owned by transmission companies. Compressor stations at required distances boost the pressure that is lost through friction as the gas moves through the steel pipes (EPA 2000). The natural gas system is generally described in terms of production, processing and purification, transmission and storage, and distribution (NaturalGas.org 2004b). Figure 1.1-2 shows a schematic of the system through transmission. This report focuses on the transmission pipeline, compressor stations, and city gates.

Folga, S. M.; Decision and Information Sciences

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

The Disruption of Vessel-Spanning Bubbles with Sloped Fins in Flat-Bottom and 2:1 Elliptical-Bottom Vessels  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive sludge was generated in the K-East Basin and K-West Basin fuel storage pools at the Hanford Site while irradiated uranium metal fuel elements from the N Reactor were being stored and packaged. The fuel has been removed from the K Basins, and currently, the sludge resides in the KW Basin in large underwater Engineered Containers. The first phase to the Sludge Treatment Project being led by CH2MHILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) is to retrieve and load the sludge into sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs) and transport the sludge to T Plant for interim storage. The STSCs will be stored inside T Plant cells that are equipped with secondary containment and leak-detection systems. The sludge is composed of a variety of particulate materials and water, including a fraction of reactive uranium metal particles that are a source of hydrogen gas. If a situation occurs where the reactive uranium metal particles settle out at the bottom of a container, previous studies have shown that a vessel-spanning gas layer above the uranium metal particles can develop and can push the overlying layer of sludge upward. The major concern, in addition to the general concern associated with the retention and release of a flammable gas such as hydrogen, is that if a vessel-spanning bubble (VSB) forms in an STSC, it may drive the overlying sludge material to the vents at the top of the container. Then it may be released from the container into the cells secondary containment system at T Plant. A previous study demonstrated that sloped walls on vessels, both cylindrical coned-shaped vessels and rectangular vessels with rounded ends, provided an effective approach for disrupting a VSB by creating a release path for gas as a VSB began to rise. Based on the success of sloped-wall vessels, a similar concept is investigated here where a sloped fin is placed inside the vessel to create a release path for gas. A key potential advantage of using a sloped fin compared to a vessel with a sloped wall is that a small fin decreases the volume of a vessel available for sludge storage by a very small fraction compared to a cone-shaped vessel. The purpose of this study is to quantify the capability of sloped fins to disrupt VSBs and to conduct sufficient tests to estimate the performance of fins in full-scale STSCs. Experiments were conducted with a range of fin shapes to determine what slope and width were sufficient to disrupt VSBs. Additional tests were conducted to demonstrate how the fin performance scales with the sludge layer thickness and the sludge strength, density, and vessel diameter based on the gravity yield parameter, which is a dimensionless ratio of the force necessary to yield the sludge to its weight.( ) Further experiments evaluated the difference between vessels with flat and 2:1 elliptical bottoms and a number of different simulants, including the KW container sludge simulant (complete), which was developed to match actual K-Basin sludge. Testing was conducted in 5-in., 10-in., and 23-in.-diameter vessels to quantify how fin performance is impacted by the size of the test vessel. The most significant results for these scale-up tests are the trend in how behavior changes with vessel size and the results from the 23-in. vessel. The key objective in evaluating fin performance is to determine the conditions that minimize the volume of a VSB when disruption occurs because this reduces the potential for material inside the STSC from being released through vents.

Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Buchmiller, William C.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; Chun, Jaehun; Russell, Renee L.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Mastor, Michael M.

2010-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

275

Simultaneous Removal of NOx and Mercury in Low Temperature Selective Catalytic and Adsorptive Reactor  

SciTech Connect

The results of a 18-month investigation to advance the development of a novel Low Temperature Selective Catalytic and Adsorptive Reactor (LTSCAR), for the simultaneous removal of NO{sub x} and mercury (elemental and oxidized) from flue gases in a single unit operation located downstream of the particulate collectors, are reported. In the proposed LTSCAR, NO{sub x} removal is in a traditional SCR mode but at low temperature, and, uniquely, using carbon monoxide as a reductant. The concomitant capture of mercury in the unit is achieved through the incorporation of a novel chelating adsorbent. As conceptualized, the LTSCAR will be located downstream of the particulate collectors (flue gas temperature 140-160 C) and will be similar in structure to a conventional SCR. That is, it will have 3-4 beds that are loaded with catalyst and adsorbent allowing staged replacement of catalyst and adsorbent as required. Various Mn/TiO{sub 2} SCR catalysts were synthesized and evaluated for their ability to reduce NO at low temperature using CO as the reductant. It has been shown that with a suitably tailored catalyst more than 65% NO conversion with 100% N{sub 2} selectivity can be achieved, even at a high space velocity (SV) of 50,000 h-1 and in the presence of 2 v% H{sub 2}O. Three adsorbents for oxidized mercury were developed in this project with thermal stability in the required range. Based on detailed evaluations of their characteristics, the mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTS) adsorbent was found to be most promising for the capture of oxidized mercury. This adsorbent has been shown to be thermally stable to 200 C. Fixed-bed evaluations in the targeted temperature range demonstrated effective removal of oxidized mercury from simulated flue gas at very high capacity ({approx}>58 mg Hg/g adsorbent). Extension of the capability of the adsorbent to elemental mercury capture was pursued with two independent approaches: incorporation of a novel nano-layer on the surface of the chelating mercury adsorbent to achieve in situ oxidation on the adsorbent, and the use of a separate titania-supported manganese oxide catalyst upstream of the oxidized mercury adsorbent. Both approaches met with some success. It was demonstrated that the concept of in situ oxidation on the adsorbent is viable, but the future challenge is to raise the operating capacity beyond the achieved limit of 2.7 mg Hg/g adsorbent. With regard to the manganese dioxide catalyst, elemental mercury was very efficiently oxidized in the absence of sulfur dioxide. Adequate resistance to sulfur dioxide must be incorporated for the approach to be feasible in flue gas. A preliminary benefits analysis of the technology suggests significant potential economic and environmental advantages.

Neville G. Pinto; Panagiotis G. Smirniotis

2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

276

Mercury Calibration System  

SciTech Connect

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Performance Specification 12 in the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) states that a mercury CEM must be calibrated with National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST)-traceable standards. In early 2009, a NIST traceable standard for elemental mercury CEM calibration still does not exist. Despite the vacature of CAMR by a Federal appeals court in early 2008, a NIST traceable standard is still needed for whatever regulation is implemented in the future. Thermo Fisher is a major vendor providing complete integrated mercury continuous emissions monitoring (CEM) systems to the industry. WRI is participating with EPA, EPRI, NIST, and Thermo Fisher towards the development of the criteria that will be used in the traceability protocols to be issued by EPA. An initial draft of an elemental mercury calibration traceability protocol was distributed for comment to the participating research groups and vendors on a limited basis in early May 2007. In August 2007, EPA issued an interim traceability protocol for elemental mercury calibrators. Various working drafts of the new interim traceability protocols were distributed in late 2008 and early 2009 to participants in the Mercury Standards Working Committee project. The protocols include sections on qualification and certification. The qualification section describes in general terms tests that must be conducted by the calibrator vendors to demonstrate that their calibration equipment meets the minimum requirements to be established by EPA for use in CAMR monitoring. Variables to be examined include linearity, ambient temperature, back pressure, ambient pressure, line voltage, and effects of shipping. None of the procedures were described in detail in the draft interim documents; however they describe what EPA would like to eventually develop. WRI is providing the data and results to EPA for use in developing revised experimental procedures and realistic acceptance criteria based on actual capabilities of the current calibration technology. As part of the current effort, WRI worked with Thermo Fisher elemental mercury calibrator units to conduct qualification experiments to demonstrate their performance characteristics under a variety of conditions and to demonstrate that they qualify for use in the CEM calibration program. Monitoring of speciated mercury is another concern of this research. The mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants are comprised of both elemental and oxidized mercury. Current CEM analyzers are designed to measure elemental mercury only. Oxidized mercury must first be converted to elemental mercury prior to entering the analyzer inlet in order to be measured. CEM systems must demonstrate the ability to measure both elemental and oxidized mercury. This requires the use of oxidized mercury generators with an efficient conversion of the oxidized mercury to elemental mercury. There are currently two basic types of mercuric chloride (HgCl{sub 2}) generators used for this purpose. One is an evaporative HgCl{sub 2} generator, which produces gas standards of known concentration by vaporization of aqueous HgCl{sub 2} solutions and quantitative mixing with a diluent carrier gas. The other is a device that converts the output from an elemental Hg generator to HgCl{sub 2} by means of a chemical reaction with chlorine gas. The Thermo Fisher oxidizer system involves reaction of elemental mercury vapor with chlorine gas at an elevated temperature. The draft interim protocol for oxidized mercury units involving reaction with chlorine gas requires the vendors to demonstrate high efficiency of oxidation of an elemental mercury stream from an elemental mercury vapor generator. The Thermo Fisher oxidizer unit is designed to operate at the power plant stack at the probe outlet. Following oxidation of elemental mercury from reaction with chlorine gas, a high temperature module reduces the mercuric chloride back to elemental mercury. WRI conducted work with a custom laboratory configured stand-alone oxidized mercury generator unit prov

John Schabron; Eric Kalberer; Joseph Rovani; Mark Sanderson; Ryan Boysen; William Schuster

2009-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

277

Detection of Chemical/Biological Agents and Stimulants using Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Detection of Chemical/Biological Agents and Simulants A new detector for chemical and biological agents is being developed for the U. S. Army under the Chemical and Biological Mass Spectrometer Block II program. The CBMS Block II is designed to optimize detection of both chemical and biological agents through the use of direct sampling inlets [I], a multi- ported sampling valve and a turbo- based vacuum system to support chemical ionization. Unit mass resolution using air as the buffer gas [2] has been obtained using this design. Software to control the instrument and to analyze the data generated from the instrument has also been newly developed. Detection of chemical agents can be accomplished. using the CBMS Block II design via one of two inlets - a l/ I 6'' stainless steel sample line -Chemical Warfare Air (CW Air) or a ground probe with enclosed capillary currently in use by the US Army - CW Ground. The Block II design is capable of both electron ionization and chemical ionization. Ethanol is being used as the Cl reagent based on a study indicating best performance for the Biological Warfare (BW) detection task (31). Data showing good signal to noise for 500 pg of methyl salicylate injected into the CW Air inlet, 50 ng of dimethylmethylphosphonate exposed to the CW Ground probe and 5 ng of methyl stearate analyzed using the pyrolyzer inlet were presented. Biological agents are sampled using a ''bio-concentrator'' unit that is designed to concentrate particles in the low micron range. Particles are collected in the bottom of a quartz pyrolyzer tube. An automated injector is being developed to deliver approximately 2 pL of a methylating reagent, tetramethylamonium- hydroxide to 'the collected particles. Pyrolysis occurs by rapid heating to ca. 55OOC. Biological agents are then characterized by their fatty acid methyl ester profiles and by other biomarkers. A library of ETOH- Cl/ pyrolysis MS data of microorganisms used for a recently published study [3] has been expanded with additional bacteria and fungi. These spectra were acquired on a Finnigan Magnum ion trap using helium buffer gas. A new database of Cl spectra of microorganisms is planned using the CBMS Block II instrument and air as the buffer gas. Using the current database, the fatty acid composition of the organisms was compared using the percentage of the ion current attributable to fatty acids. The data presented suggest promising rules for discrimination of these organisms. Strain, growth media and vegetative state do contribute to some of the distributions observed in the data. However, the data distributions observed in the current study only reflect our experience to date and do not fully represent the variability that might be expected in practice: Acquisition of MS/ MS spectra has begun (using He and air buffer gas) of the protonated molecular ion of a variety of fatty acids and for a number of ions nominally assigned as fatty acids from microorganisms. These spectra will be used to help verify fatty acid .

Harmon, S.H.; Hart, K.J.; Vass, A.A.; Wise, M.B.; Wolf, D.A.

1999-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

278

A Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy Mercury Continuous Emission Monitor  

SciTech Connect

The Sensor Research & Development Corporation (SRD) has undertaken the development of a Continuous Emissions Monitor (CEM) for mercury based on the technique of Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRD). The project involved building an instrument for the detection of trace levels of mercury in the flue gas emissions from coal-fired power plants. The project has occurred over two phases. The first phase concentrated on the development of the ringdown cavity and the actual detection of mercury. The second phase dealt with the construction and integration of the sampling system, used to carry the sample from the flue stack to the CRD cavity, into the overall CRD instrument. The project incorporated a Pulsed Alexandrite Laser (PAL) system from Light Age Incorporated as the source to produce the desired narrow band 254 nm ultra-violet (UV) radiation. This laser system was seeded with a diode laser to bring the linewidth of the output beam from about 150 GHz to less than 60 MHz for the fundamental beam. Through a variety of non-linear optics the 761 nm fundamental beam is converted into the 254 nm beam needed for mercury detection. Detection of the mercury transition was verified by the identification of the characteristic natural isotopic structure observed at lower cavity pressures. The five characteristic peaks, due to both natural isotopic abundance and hyperfine splitting, provided a unique identifier for mercury. SRD scientists were able to detect mercury in air down below 10 parts-per-trillion by volume (pptr). This value is dependent on the pressure and temperature within the CRD cavity at the time of detection. Sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) absorbs UV radiation in the same spectral region as mercury, which is a significant problem for most mercury detection equipment. However, SRD has not only been able to determine accurate mercury concentrations in the presence of SO{sub 2}, but the CRD instrument can in fact determine the SO{sub 2} concentration as well. Detection of mercury down to the low hundreds of pptr has been accomplished in the presence of SO{sub 2} at concentration levels much higher than that found in typical flue gas emissions. SRD scientists extended the interferent testing to each individual component found in flue gas. It was found that only SO{sub 2} had a significant effect on the ring-down decay curve. Upon completion of testing the components of flue gas individually a simulated flue gas stream was used to test to the CRD instrument. The result showed accurate detection of mercury down to levels below 100 pptr in a simulated flue gas stream with the concentrations of the various components above that found in a typical untreated flue gas. A sampling system was designed and integrated into the CRD instrument to carry the sample from the flue gas stack to the CRD cavity. The sampling system was constructed so that it could be placed very close to the sampling port. SRD scientists were able to couple the UV laser light into an optical fiber, which is then sent to the sampling system. This allows the laser system to be isolated from the sampling system. Initial long-term testing revealed a couple of problems related to the stability of the output frequency of the laser system. These problems have been successfully dealt with by incorporating specific software solutions into the overall data acquisition program. The project culminated in a field test conducted at the DOE/NETL pilot plant facility in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The object of the test was the evaluation of a cavity ringdown spectrometer constructed for the detection of TOTAL vapor phase mercury as a continuous emission monitor (CEM). Although there is the potential for the instrument to determine the amount of speciation between neutral elemental mercury (Hg{sup (o)}) and oxidized mercury (Hg{sup (+2)}), the initial test plan was to concentrate on the measurement of the total mercury. Another added benefit is that the measurements will report the sulfur dioxide (SO 2) concentration throughout the test. This report concludes the technical work asso

Christopher C. Carter

2004-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

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Technology for the Recovery of Fuel and Adsorbent Carbons from Coal Burning Utility Ash Ponds and Landfills  

SciTech Connect

Several sampling techniques were evaluated to recover representative core samples from the ash ponds at Western Kentucky Energy's Coleman Station. The most successful was a combination of continuous-flight augers and specially designed soft-sediment sampling tubes driven by a Hammerhead drill mounted on an amphibious ARGO vehicle. A total of 51 core samples were recovered and analyzed in 3 ft sections and it was determined that there are 1,354,974 tons of ash in Pond C. Of the over 1.35M tons of ash present, 14% or 190K tons can be considered as coarse (+100 mesh). Pond C contains approximately 88K tons of carbon, nearly half of which is coarse and potentially recoverable with spiral concentration while the fine carbon (-100 mesh) is recoverable with froth flotation. There are 1.27M tons of carbon-free ash, 12% of which is coarse and potentially usable as block sand. Spiral concentration testing on bulk samples showed that product grade of 30 to 38% C (4200 to 5500 Btu/lb) was obtainable. When this product was cleaned again in an additional stage of spiral concentration, the product grade was improved to 7200 to 8200 Btu/lb with an accompanying 13 to 29% decrease in yield. Release analysis of hydraulically classified pond ash showed that froth flotation could provide froth products with as high a grade as 9000 Btu/lb with a yield of 5%. Increasing yield to 10% reduced froth grade to 7000 Btu/lb. Batch flotation provided froth grades as high as 6500 Btu/lb with yields of 7% with 1.5 lb/ton SPP and 1 lb/ton frother. Column flotation test results were similar to those achieved in batch flotation in terms of both grade and yield, however, carbon recoveries were lower (<70%). High airflow rate was required to achieve >50% carbon recovery and using wash water improved froth grade. Bottom ash samples were recovered from each of the units at Coleman Station. Characterization confirmed that sufficient quantity and quality of material is generated to produce a marketable lightweight aggregate and recover a high-grade fuel product. Spiral concentration provided acceptable grade lightweight aggregate with yields of only 10 to 20%. Incorporating a sieve bend into the process to recover coarse, porous ash particles from the outside race of the spirals increased aggregate yield to as high as 75%, however, the carbon content of the aggregate also increased. An opening size of 28 mesh on the sieve bend appeared to be sufficient. Lightweight concrete blocks (28 to 32 lbs) were produced from bottom ash and results show that acceptable strength could be attained with a cement/concrete ratio as low as 1/4. A mobile Proof-of-Concept (POC) field unit was designed and fabricated to meet the processing objectives of the project. The POC plant consisted of two trailer-mounted modules and was completely self sufficient with respect to power and water requirements. The POC unit was hauled to Coleman Station and operated at a feed rate of 2 tph. Results showed that the spirals operated similarly to previous pilot-scale operations and a 500 lb composite sample of coarse carbon was collected with a grade of 51.7% C or 7279 Btu/lb. Flotation results compared favorably with release analysis and 500 lbs of composite froth product was collected with a grade of 35% C or 4925 Btu/lb. The froth product was dewatered to 39% moisture with vacuum filtration. Pan pelletization and briquetting were evaluated as a means of minimizing handling concerns. Rotary pan pelletization produced uniform pellets with a compressive strength of 4 lbf without the use of any binder. Briquettes were produced by blending the coarse and fine carbon products at a ratio of 1:10, which is the proportion that the two products would be produced in a commercial operation. Using 3% lime as a binder produced the most desirable briquettes with respect to strength, attrition and drop testing. Additionally, the POC carbon products compared favorably with commercial activated carbon when used for removal of mercury from simulated flue gas. A business model was generated to summarize anti

J.G. Groppo; T.L. Robl

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z