National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for gas xtl fuels

  1. XTL Converter

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2015-10-07

    "XTL Converter" is a short Python script for electron microscopy simulation. The program takes an input crystal file in the VESTA *.XTL format and converts it to a text format readable by the multislice simulation program ìSTEM. The process of converting a crystal *.XTL file to the format used by the ìSTEM simulation program is quite tedious; it generally requires the user to select dozens or hundreds of atoms, rearranging and reformatting their position. Headermore » information must also be reformatted to a specific style to be read by ìSTEM. "XTL Converter" simplifies this process, saving the user time and allowing for easy batch processing of crystals.« less

  2. Fuel gas conditioning process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2000-01-01

    A process for conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas, so that it can be used as combustion fuel to run gas-powered equipment, including compressors, in the gas field or the gas processing plant. Compared with prior art processes, the invention creates lesser quantities of low-pressure gas per unit volume of fuel gas produced. Optionally, the process can also produce an NGL product.

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fuel Basics

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuel Basics to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fuel Basics on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fuel Basics on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fuel Basics on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fuel Basics on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fuel Basics on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fuel Basics on

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fuel Safety

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuel Safety to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fuel Safety on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fuel Safety on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fuel Safety on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fuel Safety on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fuel Safety on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fuel Safety on

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fueling Stations

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Natural Gas Fueling Stations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fueling Stations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fueling Stations on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fueling Stations on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fueling Stations on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fueling Stations on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data

  6. Fuel gas desulfurization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Ralph T.; Shen, Ming-Shing

    1981-01-01

    A method for removing sulfurous gases such as H.sub.2 S and COS from a fuel gas is disclosed wherein limestone particulates containing iron sulfide provide catalytic absorption of the H.sub.2 S and COS by the limestone. The method is effective at temperatures of 400.degree. C. to 700.degree. C. in particular.

  7. Natural Gas Fuel Basics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Only about one-tenth of 1% of all the natural gas in the United States is currently used for transportation fuel. About one-third goes to residential and commercial uses, one-third to industrial uses, and one-third to electric power production.

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Compressed Natural Gas Fueling Stations

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Natural Gas Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Compressed Natural Gas Fueling Stations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Compressed Natural Gas Fueling Stations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Compressed Natural Gas Fueling Stations on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Compressed Natural Gas Fueling Stations on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Compressed Natural Gas Fueling

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fueling Station Locations

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Station Locations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fueling Station Locations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fueling Station Locations on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fueling Station Locations on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fueling Station Locations on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fueling Station Locations on Digg Find More places to

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Vehicles » Natural Gas Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fueling Infrastructure

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Development Infrastructure Development to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fueling Infrastructure Development on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fueling Infrastructure Development on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fueling Infrastructure Development on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fueling Infrastructure Development on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center:

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicles

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

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  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Distribution

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

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  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Benefits

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Benefits to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Benefits on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Benefits on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Benefits on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Benefits on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Benefits on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Benefits on AddThis.com... More in this

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Production

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Production to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Production on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Production on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Production on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Production on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Production on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Production on AddThis.com... More

  16. ,"Minnesota Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Minnesota Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption ... 7:09:42 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Minnesota Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption ...

  17. ,"Virginia Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Virginia Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption ... 12:00:27 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Virginia Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption ...

  18. Fuel cell gas management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DuBose, Ronald Arthur

    2000-01-11

    A fuel cell gas management system including a cathode humidification system for transferring latent and sensible heat from an exhaust stream to the cathode inlet stream of the fuel cell; an anode humidity retention system for maintaining the total enthalpy of the anode stream exiting the fuel cell equal to the total enthalpy of the anode inlet stream; and a cooling water management system having segregated deionized water and cooling water loops interconnected by means of a brazed plate heat exchanger.

  19. Compressed gas fuel storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wozniak, John J.; Tiller, Dale B.; Wienhold, Paul D.; Hildebrand, Richard J.

    2001-01-01

    A compressed gas vehicle fuel storage system comprised of a plurality of compressed gas pressure cells supported by shock-absorbing foam positioned within a shape-conforming container. The container is dimensioned relative to the compressed gas pressure cells whereby a radial air gap surrounds each compressed gas pressure cell. The radial air gap allows pressure-induced expansion of the pressure cells without resulting in the application of pressure to adjacent pressure cells or physical pressure to the container. The pressure cells are interconnected by a gas control assembly including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and means for connecting the fuel storage system to a vehicle power source and a refueling adapter. The gas control assembly is enclosed by a protective cover attached to the container. The system is attached to the vehicle with straps to enable the chassis to deform as intended in a high-speed collision.

  20. Gas only nozzle fuel tip

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bechtel, William Theodore; Fitts, David Orus; DeLeonardo, Guy Wayne

    2002-01-01

    A diffusion flame nozzle gas tip is provided to convert a dual fuel nozzle to a gas only nozzle. The nozzle tip diverts compressor discharge air from the passage feeding the diffusion nozzle air swirl vanes to a region vacated by removal of the dual fuel components, so that the diverted compressor discharge air can flow to and through effusion holes in the end cap plate of the nozzle tip. In a preferred embodiment, the nozzle gas tip defines a cavity for receiving the compressor discharge air from a peripheral passage of the nozzle for flow through the effusion openings defined in the end cap plate.

  1. Minnesota Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Minnesota Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price Minnesota Natural Gas Prices Natural Gas ...

  2. California Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) California Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price California Natural Gas Prices Natural Gas ...

  3. DIGESTER GAS - FUEL CELL - PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr.-Eng. Dirk Adolph; Dipl.-Eng. Thomas Saure

    2002-03-01

    GEW has been operating the first fuel cell in Europe producing heat and electricity from digester gas in an environmentally friendly way. The first 9,000 hours in operation were successfully concluded in August 2001. The fuel cell powered by digester gas was one of the 25 registered ''Worldwide projects'' which NRW presented at the EXPO 2000. In addition to this, it is a key project of the NRW State Initiative on Future Energies. All of the activities planned for the first year of operation were successfully completed: installing and putting the plant into operation, the transition to permanent operation as well as extended monitoring till May 2001.

  4. California Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) California Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption California Natural Gas Consumption by ...

  5. Fission gas retention in irradiated metallic fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fenske, G.R.; Gruber, E.E.; Kramer, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Theoretical calculations and experimental measurements of the quantity of retained fission gas in irradiated metallic fuel (U-5Fs) are presented. The calculations utilize the Booth method to model the steady-state release of gases from fuel grains and a simplified grain-boundary gas model to predict the gas release from intergranular regions. The quantity of gas retained in as-irradiated fuel was determined by collecting the gases released from short segments of EBR-II driver fuel that were melted in a gas-tight furnace. Comparison of the calculations to the measurements shows quantitative agreement with both the magnitude and the axial variation of the retained gas content.

  6. California Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    California Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 ... Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption California Natural Gas Consumption by End Use ...

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Colorado Airport Relies on Natural Gas

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fueling Stations Colorado Airport Relies on Natural Gas Fueling Stations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Colorado Airport Relies on Natural Gas Fueling Stations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Colorado Airport Relies on Natural Gas Fueling Stations on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Colorado Airport Relies on Natural Gas Fueling Stations on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Colorado Airport Relies on Natural Gas

  8. ,"Maine Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Maine Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","0930...

  9. ,"Maine Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Maine Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","930...

  10. ,"Washington Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Washington Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","930...

  11. ,"Washington Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Washington Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","09...

  12. ,"Hawaii Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Hawaii Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","0930...

  13. ,"Hawaii Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Hawaii Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","930...

  14. ,"Texas Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","930...

  15. ,"Texas Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","930...

  16. ,"Texas Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","0930...

  17. ,"Texas Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","930...

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Related Links

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Natural Gas Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Related Links to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Related Links on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Related Links on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Related Links on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Related Links on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas

  19. Fuel Interchangeability Considerations for Gas Turbine Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferguson, D.H.

    2007-10-01

    In recent years domestic natural gas has experienced a considerable growth in demand particularly in the power generation industry. However, the desire for energy security, lower fuel costs and a reduction in carbon emissions has produced an increase in demand for alternative fuel sources. Current strategies for reducing the environmental impact of natural gas combustion in gas turbine engines used for power generation experience such hurdles as flashback, lean blow-off and combustion dynamics. These issues will continue as turbines are presented with coal syngas, gasified coal, biomass, LNG and high hydrogen content fuels. As it may be impractical to physically test a given turbine on all of the possible fuel blends it may experience over its life cycle, the need to predict fuel interchangeability becomes imperative. This study considers a number of historical parameters typically used to determine fuel interchangeability. Also addressed is the need for improved reaction mechanisms capable of accurately modeling the combustion of natural gas alternatives.

  20. Alternative fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    1998-08-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  1. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter J. Tijrn

    2000-03-31

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  2. Alternative Fuels and Chemicals from Synthesis Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter Tijrn

    2003-01-02

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  3. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-10-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  4. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    1999-04-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  5. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    1999-01-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  6. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2000-10-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  7. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter J. Tijrn

    2000-09-30

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicle Emissions

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Natural Gas Vehicle Emissions to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicle Emissions on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicle Emissions on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicle Emissions on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicle Emissions on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicle Emissions on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data

  9. Opportunities for Micropower and Fuel Cell/Gas Turbine Hybrid...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Fuel CellGas Turbine Hybrid Systems in Industrial Applications - Volume I, January 2000 Opportunities for Micropower and Fuel CellGas Turbine Hybrid Systems in Industrial ...

  10. Workshop Agenda: Compressed Natural Gas and Hydrogen Fuels, Lesssons...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Agenda: Compressed Natural Gas and Hydrogen Fuels, Lesssons Learned for the Safe Deployment of Vehicles Workshop Agenda: Compressed Natural Gas and Hydrogen Fuels, Lesssons Learned ...

  11. ,"West Virginia Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","West Virginia Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption ... PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: West Virginia Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption ...

  12. Quadrogen Gas Clean-Up Technology for Fuel Cell Applications

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to: Quadrogen Gas Clean-up Technology for Fuel Cell Applications Presented by: Alakh ... Quadrogen Overview Developed proprietary gas clean-up technology for fuel cell ...

  13. Natural Gas Fuel Cells: Technology, Advances, and Opportunities

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Natural Gas Fuel Cells: Technology, Advantages and Opportunities March 4, 2014 Overview Introduction - Fuel Cell Basics - Fuel Cell Benefits Potential Applications - ...

  14. Gas-phase propane fuel delivery system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clements, J.

    1991-04-30

    This patent describes a gas-phase fuel delivery system for delivering a vapor phase fuel independent of exterior temperatures. It comprises:a storage tank for storing a volume of fuel; a regulator in fluid communication with the tank for receiving fuel from the tank and for outputting the fuel in a vapor phase; a pressure sensor in fluid communication with the tank for monitoring pressure within the tank, the pressure sensor being operative to generate a pump enable signal when the pressure within the tank is less than a predetermined threshold; a pump in fluid communication with the tank.

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicle Availability

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Availability to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicle Availability on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicle Availability on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicle Availability on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicle Availability on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicle Availability on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicle Conversions

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Conversions to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicle Conversions on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicle Conversions on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicle Conversions on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicle Conversions on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicle Conversions on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center:

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Conventional Natural Gas Production

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Conventional Natural Gas Production to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Conventional Natural Gas Production on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Conventional Natural Gas Production on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Conventional Natural Gas Production on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Conventional Natural Gas Production on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Conventional Natural Gas Production on Digg Find More

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Phoenix Cleans Up with Natural Gas

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Phoenix Cleans Up with Natural Gas to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Phoenix Cleans Up with Natural Gas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Phoenix Cleans Up with Natural Gas on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Phoenix Cleans Up with Natural Gas on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Phoenix Cleans Up with Natural Gas on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Phoenix Cleans Up with Natural Gas on Digg Find More places to

  19. Compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas as alternative fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moussavi, M.; Al-Turk, M. . Civil Engineering Dept.)

    1993-12-01

    The use of alternative fuels in the transportation industry has gained a strong support in recent years. In this paper an attempt was made to evaluate the use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and compressed natural gas (NG) by 25 LPG-bifuel and 14 NG-bifuel vehicles that are operated by 33 transit systems throughout Nebraska. A set of performance measures such as average fuel efficiency in kilometers per liter, average fuel cost per kilometer, average oil consumption, and average operation and maintenance cost for alternatively fueled vehicles were calculated and compared with similar performance measures of gasoline powered vehicles. The results of the study showed that the average fuel efficiency of gasoline is greater than those of LPG and NG, and the average fuel costs (dollars per kilometer) for LPG and NG are smaller than those for gasoline for most of the vehicles under this study.

  20. Optima: Low Greenhouse Gas Fuels

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    fuel targets being evaluated through different conversion pathways, evaluation and assessment through combustion platforms, performance, toxicity, TEA and LCA. 4 Example: ...

  1. Fuel Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the Natural Gas System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Natural Gas System; Sankey Diagram Methodology Fuel Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the Natural Gas System; Sankey Diagram Methodology As natural gas travels through ...

  2. Alternative Fuels and Chemicals from Synthesis Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-12-02

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE�s LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  3. Fuel Cells on Bio-Gas (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Remick, R. J.

    2009-03-04

    The conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Fuel cells operating on bio-gas offer a pathway to renewable electricity generation; (2) With federal incentives of $3,500/kW or 30% of the project costs, reasonable payback periods of less than five years can be achieved; (3) Tri-generation of electricity, heat, and hydrogen offers an alternative route to solving the H{sub 2} infrastructure problem facing fuel cell vehicle deployment; and (4) DOE will be promoting bio-gas fuel cells in the future under its Market Transformation Programs.

  4. Minnesota Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Minnesota Natural Gas Input Supplemental ... Total Supplemental Supply of Natural Gas Minnesota Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas ...

  5. The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimize Fuel Economy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimize Fuel Economy and Minimize Emissions in Engines Operating on E85 Fuel The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimize Fuel Economy ...

  6. SOLID GAS SUSPENSION NUCLEAR FUEL ASSEMBLY

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schluderberg, D.C.; Ryon, J.W.

    1962-05-01

    A fuel assembly is designed for use in a gas-suspension cooled nuclear fuel reactor. The coolant fluid is an inert gas such as nitrogen or helium with particles such as carbon suspended therein. The fuel assembly is contained within an elongated pressure vessel extending down into the reactor. The fuel portion is at the lower end of the vessel and is constructed of cylindrical segments through which the coolant passes. Turbulence promotors within the passageways maintain the particles in agitation to increase its ability to transfer heat away from the outer walls. Shielding sections and alternating passageways above the fueled portion limit the escape of radiation out of the top of the vessel. (AEC)

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicle Maintenance and Safety

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Vehicle Maintenance and Safety to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicle Maintenance and Safety on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicle Maintenance and Safety on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicle Maintenance and Safety on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicle Maintenance and Safety on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicle Maintenance

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Natural Gas (Biomethane)

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Production Renewable Natural Gas (Biomethane) Production to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Natural Gas (Biomethane) Production on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Natural Gas (Biomethane) Production on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Natural Gas (Biomethane) Production on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Natural Gas (Biomethane) Production on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data

  9. LIQUID NATURAL GAS (LNG): AN ALTERNATIVE FUEL FROM LANDFILL GAS (LFG) AND WASTEWATER DIGESTER GAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VANDOR,D.

    1999-03-01

    This Research and Development Subcontract sought to find economic, technical and policy links between methane recovery at landfill and wastewater treatment sites in New York and Maryland, and ways to use that methane as an alternative fuel--compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquid natural gas (LNG) -- in centrally fueled Alternative Fueled Vehicles (AFVs).

  10. Solid fuel volatilization to produce synthesis gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Lanny D.; Dauenhauer, Paul J.; Degenstein, Nick J.; Dreyer, Brandon J.; Colby, Joshua L.

    2014-07-29

    A method comprising contacting a carbon and hydrogen-containing solid fuel and a metal-based catalyst in the presence of oxygen to produce hydrogen gas and carbon monoxide gas, wherein the contacting occurs at a temperature sufficiently high to prevent char formation in an amount capable of stopping production of the hydrogen gas and the carbon monoxide gas is provided. In one embodiment, the metal-based catalyst comprises a rhodium-cerium catalyst. Embodiments further include a system for producing syngas. The systems and methods described herein provide shorter residence time and high selectivity for hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

  11. Gas Test Loop Booster Fuel Hydraulic Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gas Test Loop Hydraulic Testing Staff

    2006-09-01

    The Gas Test Loop (GTL) project is for the design of an adaptation to the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to create a fast-flux test space where fuels and materials for advanced reactor concepts can undergo irradiation testing. Incident to that design, it was found necessary to make use of special booster fuel to enhance the neutron flux in the reactor lobe in which the Gas Test Loop will be installed. Because the booster fuel is of a different composition and configuration from standard ATR fuel, it is necessary to qualify the booster fuel for use in the ATR. Part of that qualification is the determination that required thermal hydraulic criteria will be met under routine operation and under selected accident scenarios. The Hydraulic Testing task in the GTL project facilitates that determination by measuring flow coefficients (pressure drops) over various regions of the booster fuel over a range of primary coolant flow rates. A high-fidelity model of the NW lobe of the ATR with associated flow baffle, in-pile-tube, and below-core flow channels was designed, constructed and located in the Idaho State University Thermal Fluids Laboratory. A circulation loop was designed and constructed by the university to provide reactor-relevant water flow rates to the test system. Models of the four booster fuel elements required for GTL operation were fabricated from aluminum (no uranium or means of heating) and placed in the flow channel. One of these was instrumented with Pitot tubes to measure flow velocities in the channels between the three booster fuel plates and between the innermost and outermost plates and the side walls of the flow annulus. Flow coefficients in the range of 4 to 6.5 were determined from the measurements made for the upper and middle parts of the booster fuel elements. The flow coefficient for the lower end of the booster fuel and the sub-core flow channel was lower at 2.3.

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Automakers Innovate With Clean Gas

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Technologies Automakers Innovate With Clean Gas Technologies to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Automakers Innovate With Clean Gas Technologies on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Automakers Innovate With Clean Gas Technologies on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Automakers Innovate With Clean Gas Technologies on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Automakers Innovate With Clean Gas Technologies on Delicious Rank Alternative

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Liquefied Natural Gas Powers Trucks in

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Connecticut Liquefied Natural Gas Powers Trucks in Connecticut to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Liquefied Natural Gas Powers Trucks in Connecticut on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Liquefied Natural Gas Powers Trucks in Connecticut on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Liquefied Natural Gas Powers Trucks in Connecticut on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Liquefied Natural Gas Powers Trucks in Connecticut on Delicious

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Street Sweepers Improve Air

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Quality in New York Natural Gas Street Sweepers Improve Air Quality in New York to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Street Sweepers Improve Air Quality in New York on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Street Sweepers Improve Air Quality in New York on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Street Sweepers Improve Air Quality in New York on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Street

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Natural Gas From Landfill Powers

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Refuse Vehicles Renewable Natural Gas From Landfill Powers Refuse Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Natural Gas From Landfill Powers Refuse Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Natural Gas From Landfill Powers Refuse Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Natural Gas From Landfill Powers Refuse Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Natural Gas From

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ryder Opens Natural Gas Vehicle Maintenance

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Facility Ryder Opens Natural Gas Vehicle Maintenance Facility to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ryder Opens Natural Gas Vehicle Maintenance Facility on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ryder Opens Natural Gas Vehicle Maintenance Facility on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ryder Opens Natural Gas Vehicle Maintenance Facility on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ryder Opens Natural Gas Vehicle Maintenance Facility on

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Trucks Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas Trucks to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas Trucks on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas Trucks on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas Trucks on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas Trucks on Delicious

  18. Opportunities for Micropower and Fuel Cell/Gas Turbine Hybrid...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Micropower and Fuel CellGas Turbine Hybrid Systems in Industrial Applications Volume .........110 6.3 Small Fuel Cell Systems......

  19. Reducing Light Duty Vehicle Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gas...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: The Combined Potential of Hybrid Technology and Behavioral Adaptation Title Reducing Light Duty Vehicle Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gas...

  20. Compressed Natural Gas and Hydrogen Fuels Workshop | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Compressed Natural Gas and Hydrogen Fuels Workshop Compressed Natural Gas and Hydrogen Fuels Workshop Fuel experts from China, India, and the United States shared lessons learned about deploying CNG- and hydrogen-fueled vehicles in public transit fleets and the consumer sector at the Compressed Natural Gas and Hydrogen Fuels: Lessons Learned for the Safe Deployment of Vehicles workshop. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) hosted the workshop on

  1. OPTIMA: Low Greenhouse Gas Fuels | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    OPTIMA: Low Greenhouse Gas Fuels OPTIMA: Low Greenhouse Gas Fuels Plenary IV: Fuels of the Future: Accelerating the Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines OPTIMA: Low Greenhouse Gas Fuels Blake Simmons, Biofuels Program Lead, Sandia National Laboratories PDF icon simmons_bioenergy_2015.pdf More Documents & Publications Co-Optima Stakeholder Listening Day Summary Report Optima Stakeholder Listening Day Agenda Optima Program Overview

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center: States Enact Natural Gas Vehicle and

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Infrastructure Incentives States Enact Natural Gas Vehicle and Infrastructure Incentives to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: States Enact Natural Gas Vehicle and Infrastructure Incentives on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: States Enact Natural Gas Vehicle and Infrastructure Incentives on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: States Enact Natural Gas Vehicle and Infrastructure Incentives on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center:

  3. Major Fuels","Electricity","Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (million square feet)","Total of Major Fuels","Electricity","Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District Heat" "All Buildings ...",4657,67338,81552,66424,10...

  4. "Economic","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Natural Gas...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7.4;" " Unit: Percents." " ",," "," ",," "," " ,,"Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and" "Economic","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Natural Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coal" ...

  5. Major Fuels","Electricity",,"Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of Buildings (thousand)","Floorspace (million square feet)","Sum of Major Fuels","Electricity",,"Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District Heat" ,,,,"Primary","Site" "All Buildings...

  6. Minimising greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freund, P.

    1997-07-01

    Combustion of fossil fuels is the main anthropogenic source of carbon dioxide, the principal greenhouse gas. Generation of electricity is the single largest user of fossil fuels, world-wide. If there is international agreement about the need to make substantial reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, then having access to suitable, effective technology would be important. This would help avoid the need for precipitate action, such as radical changes in the energy supply systems. Capture and disposal of greenhouse gases from flue gases can achieve substantial reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. This can be realized with known technology. In this paper, the range of options will be summarized and steps needed to achieve further progress will be identified. Emissions of other gases, such as methane, are also expected to influence the climate. Methane is emitted from many anthropogenic sources; the IEA Greenhouse Gas programme is investigating ways of reducing these emissions. Opportunities for abatement of methane emissions associated with coal mining will be described. Reduction in emissions from drainage gas is relatively straightforward and can, in appropriate circumstances, generate useful income for the none operator. More substantial amounts of methane are discharged in mine ventilation air but these are more difficult to deal with. In this paper, a summary will be given of recent progress in reducing methane emissions. Opportunities will be examined for further research to progress these technologies.

  7. City in Colorado Fueling Vehicles with Gas Produced from Wastewater

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Treatment Facility | Department of Energy in Colorado Fueling Vehicles with Gas Produced from Wastewater Treatment Facility City in Colorado Fueling Vehicles with Gas Produced from Wastewater Treatment Facility April 29, 2015 - 6:05pm Addthis Grand Junction's CNG station fuels the city's fleets and county buses and is available to fuel public vehicles as well. Pictured above, a Grand Valley Transit bus is preparing to refuel. Grand Junction's CNG station fuels the city's fleets and county

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Liquefied Natural Gas Allows for Cleaner

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Refuse Collection in Sacramento Liquefied Natural Gas Allows for Cleaner Refuse Collection in Sacramento to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Liquefied Natural Gas Allows for Cleaner Refuse Collection in Sacramento on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Liquefied Natural Gas Allows for Cleaner Refuse Collection in Sacramento on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Liquefied Natural Gas Allows for Cleaner Refuse Collection in Sacramento on

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Minibuses Help New Jersey

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Recover From Hurricane Sandy Natural Gas Minibuses Help New Jersey Recover From Hurricane Sandy to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Minibuses Help New Jersey Recover From Hurricane Sandy on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Minibuses Help New Jersey Recover From Hurricane Sandy on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Minibuses Help New Jersey Recover From Hurricane Sandy on Google Bookmark Alternative

  10. Biomass and Natural Gas to Liquid Transportation Fuels | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy and Natural Gas to Liquid Transportation Fuels Biomass and Natural Gas to Liquid Transportation Fuels Breakout Session 1: New Developments and Hot Topics Session 1-D: Natural Gas & Biomass to Liquids Josephine Elia, Graduate Student, Princeton University PDF icon b13_elia_1-d.pdf More Documents & Publications Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production Exploring the Optimum Role of Natural Gas in Biofuels Production GBTL Workshop Attendees

  11. Feasibility of a digester gas fuel production facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dakes, G.; Greene, D.S.; Sheehan, J.F.

    1982-03-01

    Results of studies on the feasibility of using digester gas produced from wastewater sludge to fuel vehicles are reported. Availability and suitability of digester gas as well as digester gas production records and test analyses on digester gas were reviewed. The feasibility of the project based on economic and environmental considerations is reported and compared to possible alternative uses of the digester gas.

  12. Development of Fuel-Flexible Combustion Systems Utilizing Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-12-01

    General Electric Global Research will define, develop, and test new fuel nozzle technology concepts for gas turbine operation on a wide spectrum of opportunity fuels and/or fuel blends. This will enable gas turbine operation on ultra-low Btu fuel streams such as very weak natural gas, highly-diluted industrial process gases, or gasified waste streams that are out of the capability range of current turbine systems.

  13. Connecticut Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Connecticut Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

  14. Maine Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Maine Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

  15. Maine Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Maine Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

  16. Fuel Cell/Gas Turbine System Performance Studies

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Natural gas, indirect-fired, carbonate fuel cell bottomed, combined cycle (NG-IFCFC) and the topping natural gassolid oxide fuel cell combined cycle (NG-SOFCCC) novel power plant ...

  17. Arizona Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Arizona Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

  18. Arizona Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Arizona Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

  19. Arizona Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Arizona Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

  20. Coaxial fuel and air premixer for a gas turbine combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    York, William D; Ziminsky, Willy S; Lacy, Benjamin P

    2013-05-21

    An air/fuel premixer comprising a peripheral wall defining a mixing chamber, a nozzle disposed at least partially within the peripheral wall comprising an outer annular wall spaced from the peripheral wall so as to define an outer air passage between the peripheral wall and the outer annular wall, an inner annular wall disposed at least partially within and spaced from the outer annular wall, so as to define an inner air passage, and at least one fuel gas annulus between the outer annular wall and the inner annular wall, the at least one fuel gas annulus defining at least one fuel gas passage, at least one air inlet for introducing air through the inner air passage and the outer air passage to the mixing chamber, and at least one fuel inlet for injecting fuel through the fuel gas passage to the mixing chamber to form an air/fuel mixture.

  1. Costs Associated With Compressed Natural Gas Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Costs Associated With Compressed Natural Gas Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure Factors to consider in the implementation of fueling stations and equipment Margaret Smith, New West Technologies (DOE HQ Technical Support) John Gonzales, National Renewable Energy Laboratory This document has been peer reviewed by the natural gas industry. September 2014 2 Introduction This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with fueling infrastructure for compressed natural gas

  2. Opportunities for Micropower and Fuel Cell/Gas Turbine Hybrid...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Micropower and Fuel CellGas Turbine Hybrid Systems in Industrial Applications - Volume II ... The report was prepared by Arthur D. Little for Lockheed Martin Energy Research ...

  3. NETL - Petroleum-Based Fuels Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: NETL - Petroleum-Based Fuels Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis 2005 Baseline Model AgencyCompany Organization: National Energy Technology...

  4. ,"New Mexico Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","930...

  5. ,"New Mexico Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","930...

  6. ,"New Mexico Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)",1,"Annual",1998 ,"Release...

  7. ,"New Mexico Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","0930...

  8. ,"New Mexico Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2012...

  9. ,"New Mexico Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","930...

  10. ,"Washington Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Washington Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release...

  11. ,"Florida Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Florida Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release...

  12. ,"Ohio Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Ohio Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release...

  13. ,"Mississippi Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Mississippi Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release...

  14. ,"Massachusetts Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Massachusetts Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release...

  15. ,"Pennsylvania Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Pennsylvania Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release...

  16. ,"Arkansas Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Arkansas Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release...

  17. ,"Utah Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Utah Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release...

  18. ,"Maryland Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Maryland Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release...

  19. ,"Connecticut Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Connecticut Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release...

  20. ,"Missouri Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Missouri Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release...

  1. ,"Colorado Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Colorado Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release...

  2. ,"Virginia Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Virginia Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release...

  3. ,"Texas Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release...

  4. ,"Nevada Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ame","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Nevada Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release...

  5. ,"Delaware Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Delaware Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release...

  6. ,"Georgia Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Georgia Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release...

  7. ,"Kentucky Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Kentucky Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release...

  8. ,"Oklahoma Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Oklahoma Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release...

  9. ,"Montana Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Montana Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release...

  10. ,"Alabama Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Alabama Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release...

  11. ,"Louisiana Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Louisiana Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release...

  12. ,"Indiana Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Indiana Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release...

  13. ,"Kansas Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ame","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Kansas Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release...

  14. ,"Minnesota Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Minnesota Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release...

  15. ,"Idaho Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Idaho Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release...

  16. ,"Arizona Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Arizona Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release...

  17. ,"Michigan Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Michigan Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release...

  18. ,"California Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release...

  19. ,"Nebraska Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Nebraska Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release...

  20. ,"Oregon Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ame","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Oregon Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release...

  1. ,"Tennessee Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Tennessee Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release...

  2. Automotive Fuel Efficiency Improvement via Exhaust Gas Waste...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to Electricity Automotive Fuel Efficiency Improvement via Exhaust Gas Waste Heat Conversion to Electricity Working to expand the usage of thermoelectric technology beyond seat ...

  3. Fuel burner and combustor assembly for a gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leto, Anthony

    1983-01-01

    A fuel burner and combustor assembly for a gas turbine engine has a housing within the casing of the gas turbine engine which housing defines a combustion chamber and at least one fuel burner secured to one end of the housing and extending into the combustion chamber. The other end of the fuel burner is arranged to slidably engage a fuel inlet connector extending radially inwardly from the engine casing so that fuel is supplied, from a source thereof, to the fuel burner. The fuel inlet connector and fuel burner coact to anchor the housing against axial movement relative to the engine casing while allowing relative radial movement between the engine casing and the fuel burner and, at the same time, providing fuel flow to the fuel burner. For dual fuel capability, a fuel injector is provided in said fuel burner with a flexible fuel supply pipe so that the fuel injector and fuel burner form a unitary structure which moves with the fuel burner.

  4. Fuel nozzle for a combustor of a gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Belsom, Keith Cletus; McMahan, Kevin Weston; Thomas, Larry Lou

    2016-03-22

    A fuel nozzle for a gas turbine generally includes a main body having an upstream end axially separated from a downstream end. The main body at least partially defines a fuel supply passage that extends through the upstream end and at least partially through the main body. A fuel distribution manifold is disposed at the downstream end of the main body. The fuel distribution manifold includes a plurality of axially extending passages that extend through the fuel distribution manifold. A plurality of fuel injection ports defines a flow path between the fuel supply passage and each of the plurality of axially extending passages.

  5. Liquid Fuels and Natural Gas in the Americas

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Liquid Fuels and Natural Gas in the Americas report, published today, is a Congressionally-requested study examining the energy trends and developments in the Americas over the past decade. The report focuses on liquid fuels and natural gasparticularly reserves and resources, production, consumption, trade, and investmentgiven their scale and significance to the region.

  6. Method and apparatus for fuel gas moisturization and heating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ranasinghe, Jatila; Smith, Raub Warfield

    2002-01-01

    Fuel gas is saturated with water heated with a heat recovery steam generator heat source. The heat source is preferably a water heating section downstream of the lower pressure evaporator to provide better temperature matching between the hot and cold heat exchange streams in that portion of the heat recovery steam generator. The increased gas mass flow due to the addition of moisture results in increased power output from the gas and steam turbines. Fuel gas saturation is followed by superheating the fuel, preferably with bottom cycle heat sources, resulting in a larger thermal efficiency gain compared to current fuel heating methods. There is a gain in power output compared to no fuel heating, even when heating the fuel to above the LP steam temperature.

  7. Indirect-fired gas turbine dual fuel cell power cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Micheli, Paul L.; Williams, Mark C.; Sudhoff, Frederick A.

    1996-01-01

    A fuel cell and gas turbine combined cycle system which includes dual fuel cell cycles combined with a gas turbine cycle wherein a solid oxide fuel cell cycle operated at a pressure of between 6 to 15 atms tops the turbine cycle and is used to produce CO.sub.2 for a molten carbonate fuel cell cycle which bottoms the turbine and is operated at essentially atmospheric pressure. A high pressure combustor is used to combust the excess fuel from the topping fuel cell cycle to further heat the pressurized gas driving the turbine. A low pressure combustor is used to combust the excess fuel from the bottoming fuel cell to reheat the gas stream passing out of the turbine which is used to preheat the pressurized air stream entering the topping fuel cell before passing into the bottoming fuel cell cathode. The CO.sub.2 generated in the solid oxide fuel cell cycle cascades through the system to the molten carbonate fuel cell cycle cathode.

  8. SULFUR REMOVAL FROM PIPE LINE NATURAL GAS FUEL: APPLICATION TO FUEL CELL POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, David L.; Birnbaum, Jerome C.; Singh, Prabhakar

    2003-11-21

    Pipeline natural gas is being considered as the fuel of choice for utilization in fuel cell-based distributed generation systems because of its abundant supply and the existing supply infrastructure (1). For effective utilization in fuel cells, pipeline gas requires efficient removal of sulfur impurities (naturally occurring sulfur compounds or sulfur bearing odorants) to prevent the electrical performance degradation of the fuel cell system. Sulfur odorants such as thiols and sulfides are added to pipeline natural gas and to LPG to ensure safe handling during transportation and utilization. The odorants allow the detection of minute gas line leaks, thereby minimizing the potential for explosions or fires.

  9. South Dakota Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    South Dakota Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption South Dakota Natural Gas Consumption by End Use Plant Fuel Consumption of Natural Gas

  10. Solid fuel combustion system for gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilkes, Colin; Mongia, Hukam C.

    1993-01-01

    A solid fuel, pressurized fluidized bed combustion system for a gas turbine engine includes a carbonizer outside of the engine for gasifying coal to a low Btu fuel gas in a first fraction of compressor discharge, a pressurized fluidized bed outside of the engine for combusting the char residue from the carbonizer in a second fraction of compressor discharge to produce low temperature vitiated air, and a fuel-rich, fuel-lean staged topping combustor inside the engine in a compressed air plenum thereof. Diversion of less than 100% of compressor discharge outside the engine minimizes the expense of fabricating and maintaining conduits for transferring high pressure and high temperature gas and incorporation of the topping combustor in the compressed air plenum of the engine minimizes the expense of modifying otherwise conventional gas turbine engines for solid fuel, pressurized fluidized bed combustion.

  11. Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkatesan, Krishna

    2011-11-30

    The purpose of this program was to develop low-emissions, efficient fuel-flexible combustion technology which enables operation of a given gas turbine on a wider range of opportunity fuels that lie outside of current natural gas-centered fuel specifications. The program encompasses a selection of important, representative fuels of opportunity for gas turbines with widely varying fundamental properties of combustion. The research program covers conceptual and detailed combustor design, fabrication, and testing of retrofitable and/or novel fuel-flexible gas turbine combustor hardware, specifically advanced fuel nozzle technology, at full-scale gas turbine combustor conditions. This project was performed over the period of October 2008 through September 2011 under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-08NT05868 for the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (USDOE/NETL) entitled "Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines". The overall objective of this program was met with great success. GE was able to successfully demonstrate the operability of two fuel-flexible combustion nozzles over a wide range of opportunity fuels at heavy-duty gas turbine conditions while meeting emissions goals. The GE MS6000B ("6B") gas turbine engine was chosen as the target platform for new fuel-flexible premixer development. Comprehensive conceptual design and analysis of new fuel-flexible premixing nozzles were undertaken. Gas turbine cycle models and detailed flow network models of the combustor provide the premixer conditions (temperature, pressure, pressure drops, velocities, and air flow splits) and illustrate the impact of widely varying fuel flow rates on the combustor. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were employed to compare some fundamental combustion characteristics of the target fuels, including flame speeds and lean blow-out behavior. Perfectly premixed combustion experiments were conducted to provide experimental combustion data of our target fuels at gas turbine conditions. Based on an initial assessment of premixer design requirements and challenges, the most promising sub-scale premixer concepts were evaluated both experimentally and computationally. After comprehensive screening tests, two best performing concepts were scaled up for further development. High pressure single nozzle tests were performed with the scaled premixer concepts at target gas turbine conditions with opportunity fuels. Single-digit NOx emissions were demonstrated for syngas fuels. Plasma-assisted pilot technology was demonstrated to enhance ignition capability and provide additional flame stability margin to a standard premixing fuel nozzle. However, the impact of plasma on NOx emissions was observed to be unacceptable given the goals of this program and difficult to avoid.

  12. The DOE Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Petti

    2010-09-01

    The high outlet temperatures and high thermal-energy conversion efficiency of modular High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs) enable an efficient and cost effective integration of the reactor system with non-electricity generation applications, such as process heat and/or hydrogen production, for the many petrochemical and other industrial processes that require temperatures between 300C and 900C. The Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the HTGR concept for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project as a transformative application of nuclear energy that will demonstrate emissions-free nuclear-assisted electricity, process heat, and hydrogen production, thereby reducing greenhouse-gas emissions and enhancing energy security. The objective of the DOE Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification program is to qualify tristructural isotropic (TRISO)-coated particle fuel for use in HTGRs. The Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program consists of five elements: fuel manufacture, fuel and materials irradiations, post-irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing, fuel performance modeling, and fission-product transport and source term evaluation. An underlying theme for the fuel development work is the need to develop a more complete, fundamental understanding of the relationship between the fuel fabrication process and key fuel properties, the irradiation and accident safety performance of the fuel, and the release and transport of fission products in the NGNP primary coolant system. An overview of the program and recent progress is presented.

  13. Fuel cell power supply with oxidant and fuel gas switching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McElroy, James F.; Chludzinski, Paul J.; Dantowitz, Philip

    1987-01-01

    This invention relates to a fuel cell vehicular power plant. Fuel for the fuel stack is supplied by a hydrocarbon (methanol) catalytic cracking reactor and CO shift reactor. A water electrolysis subsystem is associated with the stack. During low power operation part of the fuel cell power is used to electrolyze water with hydrogen and oxygen electrolysis products being stored in pressure vessels. During peak power intervals, viz, during acceleration or start-up, pure oxygen and pure hydrogen from the pressure vessel are supplied as the reaction gases to the cathodes and anodes in place of air and methanol reformate. This allows the fuel cell stack to be sized for normal low power/air operation but with a peak power capacity several times greater than that for normal operation.

  14. Fuel cell power supply with oxidant and fuel gas switching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McElroy, J.F.; Chludzinski, P.J.; Dantowitz, P.

    1987-04-14

    This invention relates to a fuel cell vehicular power plant. Fuel for the fuel stack is supplied by a hydrocarbon (methanol) catalytic cracking reactor and CO shift reactor. A water electrolysis subsystem is associated with the stack. During low power operation part of the fuel cell power is used to electrolyze water with hydrogen and oxygen electrolysis products being stored in pressure vessels. During peak power intervals, viz, during acceleration or start-up, pure oxygen and pure hydrogen from the pressure vessel are supplied as the reaction gases to the cathodes and anodes in place of air and methanol reformate. This allows the fuel cell stack to be sized for normal low power/air operation but with a peak power capacity several times greater than that for normal operation. 2 figs.

  15. Alaska Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: Total Supplemental Supply of Natural Gas Alaska Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas Supplies of Natural Gas Supplemental Fuels (Annual

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Smith Dairy Deploys Natural Gas Vehicles and

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fueling Infrastructure in the Midwest Smith Dairy Deploys Natural Gas Vehicles and Fueling Infrastructure in the Midwest to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Smith Dairy Deploys Natural Gas Vehicles and Fueling Infrastructure in the Midwest on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Smith Dairy Deploys Natural Gas Vehicles and Fueling Infrastructure in the Midwest on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Smith Dairy Deploys Natural Gas Vehicles and

  17. GE, Clean Energy Fuels Partner to Expand Natural Gas Highway...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GE, Clean Energy Fuels Partner to Expand Natural Gas Highway Home > Groups > Clean and Renewable Energy Jessi3bl's picture Submitted by Jessi3bl(15) Member 16 December, 2012 -...

  18. Alternative fuel and chemicals from synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-05-01

    Development of a reliable and cost-effective method of wax/catalyst separation is a key step toward a commercially viable slurry reactor process with iron oxide-based catalyst for Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis of hydrocarbon transportation fuels. Although a variety of suitable catalysts (including, for example, cobalt-based catalysts) are available, iron oxide-based catalysts are preferred for coal-derived, CO-rich syngas because, in addition to catalyzing the F-T reaction, they simultaneously catalyze the reaction stifling CO to H{sub 2}, obviating a separate shift process block and associated costs. Because of the importance of development of this wax/catalyst separation, a study was initiated in February 1991. P. Z. Zhou of Burns and Roe reviewed the status of F-T wax/catalyst separation techniques. This led to the selection of a filtration system for the separation. Pilot tests were conducted by Mott Porous Metal Products in 1992 to develop this system. Initial results were good, but problems were encountered in follow-up testing. As a result of the testing, a filter was selected for use on the pilot plant. In LaPorte, Texas, APCI has been operating a pilot plant for the development of various synthesis gas technologies with DOE and industry support. The APCI F-T program builds on the DOE-sponsored laboratory-scale work by Mobil, reported in the mid-1980s, which used an iron oxide catalyst to produce high-quality F-T liquids in relatively compact reactors. Separation of the catalyst solids from the wax still represents a challenge. In the summer of 1992, testing of the selected filter was begun as part of the pilot plant testing. The filter performed poorly. Separation of the catalyst was primarily by sedimentation. It was recommended that the wax/catalyst separation be developed further.

  19. NREL Document Profiles Natural Gas Fueling, Fleet Operation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Document Profiles Natural Gas Fueling, Fleet Operation Media may contact: George Douglas, 303-275-4096 email: George Douglas Steve Ginter, Mack, 610-709-3259 Golden, Colo., June 7, 2000 - A unique and successful natural gas fueling and fleet operation involving trash haulers is discussed in a recent document issued by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The NREL document, Waste Management's LNG Truck Fleet Start-Up Experience, offers solid evidence that

  20. Costs Associated With Compressed Natural Gas Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M.; Gonzales, J.

    2014-09-01

    This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with fueling infrastructure for compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles. It provides estimated cost ranges for various sizes and types of CNG fueling stations and an overview of factors that contribute to the total cost of an installed station. The information presented is based on input from professionals in the natural gas industry who design, sell equipment for, and/or own and operate CNG stations.

  1. Liquid Fuels and Natural Gas in the Americas

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Liquid Fuels and Natural Gas in the Americas report, published today, is a Congressionally-requested study examining the energy trends and developments in the Americas over the past decade. The report focuses on liquid fuels and natural gas—particularly reserves and resources, production, consumption, trade, and investment—given their scale and significance to the region.

  2. National Fuel (Gas)- Small Commercial Conservation Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    National Fuel has partnered with Blue Spring Energy to provide outreach, education, and technical assistance services to small business customers. Blue Spring energy will provide consultation at no...

  3. Tennessee Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Tennessee Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 6 3 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 148 145 150 142 128 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption

  4. Vermont Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Vermont Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0 0 0 2000's 0 1 1 1 1 0 W 1 1 2010's 1 3 3 3 3 3 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Delivered to Vehicle Fuel Consumers Vermont

  5. Maine Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Maine Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0 100 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2010's 1 1 1 1 1 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Delivered to Vehicle Fuel Consumers Maine Natural

  6. Maryland Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Maryland Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1990's 1 0 0 1 1 1 3 3 1 1 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 1 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption

  7. Missouri Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Missouri Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption

  8. Nebraska Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Nebraska Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 34 35 30 19 31 21 13 1990's 0 14 9 0 3 2 3 7 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Plant Fuel

  9. Nevada Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Nevada Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 0 0 1990's 0 53 30 21 16 13 11 9 9 8 2000's 7 7 6 6 5 5 5 5 4 4 2010's 4 3 4 3 3 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption

  10. A small scale biomass fueled gas turbine engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig, J.D.; Purvis, C.R.

    1999-01-01

    A new generation of small scale (less than 20 MWd) biomass fueled, power plants are being developed based on a gas turbine (Brayton cycle) prime mover. These power plants are expected to increase the efficiency and lower the cost of generating power from fuels such as wood. The new power plants are also expected to economically utilize annual plant growth materials (such as rice hulls, cotton gin trash, nut shells, and various straws, grasses, and animal manures) that are not normally considered as fuel for power plants. This paper summarizes the new power generation concept with emphasis on the engineering challenges presented by the gas turbine component.

  11. Fuel cell generator containing a gas sealing means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makiel, J.M.

    1987-02-03

    A high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical generator is made, operating with flowing fuel gas and oxidant gas, the generator having a thermal insulation layer, and a sealing means contacting or contained within the insulation, where the sealing means is effective to control the contact of the various gases utilized in the generator. 5 figs.

  12. Fuel cell generator containing a gas sealing means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makiel, Joseph M. (Monroeville, PA)

    1987-01-01

    A high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical generator is made, operating with flowing fuel gas and oxidant gas, the generator having a thermal insulation layer, and a sealing means contacting or contained within the insulation, where the sealing means is effective to control the contact of the various gases utilized in the generator.

  13. Workshop on Gas Clean-Up for Fuel Cell Applications - Agenda

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on Gas Clean-Up for Fuel Cell Applications Sponsored by The Fuel Cell Technologies Office, ... USDOE D. Papageorgopoulos 11:00 AM Natural Gas Fuel Cells: Technology, Advantages and ...

  14. FUEL INTERCHANGEABILITY FOR LEAN PREMIXED COMBUSTION IN GAS TURBINE ENGINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Don Ferguson; Geo. A. Richard; Doug Straub

    2008-06-13

    In response to environmental concerns of NOx emissions, gas turbine manufacturers have developed engines that operate under lean, pre-mixed fuel and air conditions. While this has proven to reduce NOx emissions by lowering peak flame temperatures, it is not without its limitations as engines utilizing this technology are more susceptible to combustion dynamics. Although dependent on a number of mechanisms, changes in fuel composition can alter the dynamic response of a given combustion system. This is of particular interest as increases in demand of domestic natural gas have fueled efforts to utilize alternatives such as coal derived syngas, imported liquefied natural gas and hydrogen or hydrogen augmented fuels. However, prior to changing the fuel supply end-users need to understand how their system will respond. A variety of historical parameters have been utilized to determine fuel interchangeability such as Wobbe and Weaver Indices, however these parameters were never optimized for todays engines operating under lean pre-mixed combustion. This paper provides a discussion of currently available parameters to describe fuel interchangeability. Through the analysis of the dynamic response of a lab-scale Rijke tube combustor operating on various fuel blends, it is shown that commonly used indices are inadequate for describing combustion specific phenomena.

  15. Method of cooling gas only nozzle fuel tip

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bechtel, William Theodore; Fitts, David Orus; DeLeonardo, Guy Wayne

    2002-01-01

    A diffusion flame nozzle gas tip is provided to convert a dual fuel nozzle to a gas only nozzle. The nozle tip diverts compressor discharge air from the passage feeding the diffusion nozzle air swirl vanes to a region vacated by removal of the dual fuel components, so that the diverted compressor discharge air can flow to and through effusion holes in the end cap plate of the nozzle tip. In a preferred embodiment, the nozzle gas tip defines a cavity for receiving the compressor discharge air from a peripheral passage of the nozzle for flow through the effusion openings defined in the end cap plate.

  16. Method for making hydrogen rich gas from hydrocarbon fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumpelt, M.; Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Doshi, R.

    1999-07-27

    A method of forming a hydrogen rich gas from a source of hydrocarbon fuel in which the hydrocarbon fuel contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion at a temperature not less than about 400 C for a time sufficient to generate the hydrogen rich gas while maintaining CO content less than about 5 volume percent. There is also disclosed a method of forming partially oxidized hydrocarbons from ethanes in which ethane gas contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion for a time and at a temperature sufficient to form an oxide. 4 figs.

  17. Method for making hydrogen rich gas from hydrocarbon fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumpelt, Michael; Ahmed, Shabbir; Kumar, Romesh; Doshi, Rajiv

    1999-01-01

    A method of forming a hydrogen rich gas from a source of hydrocarbon fuel in which the hydrocarbon fuel contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion at a temperature not less than about 400.degree. C. for a time sufficient to generate the hydrogen rich gas while maintaining CO content less than about 5 volume percent. There is also disclosed a method of forming partially oxidized hydrocarbons from ethanes in which ethane gas contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion for a time and at a temperature sufficient to form an oxide.

  18. Fuel Development For Gas-Cooled Fast Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. K. Meyer

    2006-06-01

    The Generation IV Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) concept is proposed to combine the advantages of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (such as efficient direct conversion with a gas turbine and the potential for application of high-temperature process heat), with the sustainability advantages that are possible with a fast-spectrum reactor. The latter include the ability to fission all transuranics and the potential for breeding. The GFR is part of a consistent set of gas-cooled reactors that includes a medium-term Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR)-like concept, or concepts based on the Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR), and specialized concepts such as the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR), as well as actinide burning concepts [ ]. To achieve the necessary high power density and the ability to retain fission gas at high temperature, the primary fuel concept proposed for testing in the United States is a dispersion coated fuel particles in a ceramic matrix. Alternative fuel concepts considered in the U.S. and internationally include coated particle beds, ceramic clad fuel pins, and novel ceramic honeycomb structures. Both mixed carbide and mixed nitride-based solid solutions are considered as fuel phases.

  19. National Fuel (Gas)- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    All measures must be installed by a licensed contractor. New construction is not eligible for rebates. Low-income customers may be eligible for free weatherization assistance, and National Fuel...

  20. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Fuel Use

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    use (i.e., "lease fuel") is reported by the EIA. As explained below, this assumes a global warming potential of 25 for methane. 6 of the source rock (regional or play **...

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Safety after a Traffic Accident

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Safety after a Traffic Accident to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Safety after a Traffic Accident on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Safety after a Traffic Accident on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Safety after a Traffic Accident on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Safety after a Traffic Accident on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Safety after a

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Central Ohio Turns Trash Into Natural Gas

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Central Ohio Turns Trash Into Natural Gas to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Central Ohio Turns Trash Into Natural Gas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Central Ohio Turns Trash Into Natural Gas on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Central Ohio Turns Trash Into Natural Gas on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Central Ohio Turns Trash Into Natural Gas on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Central Ohio Turns Trash

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Cities Make the Clean Switch to Natural Gas

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Cities Make the Clean Switch to Natural Gas to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Cities Make the Clean Switch to Natural Gas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Cities Make the Clean Switch to Natural Gas on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Cities Make the Clean Switch to Natural Gas on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Cities Make the Clean Switch to Natural Gas on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Cities Make the

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Natural Gas

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Natural Gas Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Natural Gas to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Natural Gas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Natural Gas on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Natural Gas on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Hampshire Fleet Revs up With Natural Gas

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    New Hampshire Fleet Revs up With Natural Gas to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Hampshire Fleet Revs up With Natural Gas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Hampshire Fleet Revs up With Natural Gas on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Hampshire Fleet Revs up With Natural Gas on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Hampshire Fleet Revs up With Natural Gas on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: New

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Pennsylvania School Buses Run on Natural Gas

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Pennsylvania School Buses Run on Natural Gas to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Pennsylvania School Buses Run on Natural Gas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Pennsylvania School Buses Run on Natural Gas on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Pennsylvania School Buses Run on Natural Gas on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Pennsylvania School Buses Run on Natural Gas on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Pennsylvania

  7. Fission gas induced fuel swelling in low and medium burnup fuel during high temperature transients. [PWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vinjamuri, K.

    1980-01-01

    The behavior of light water reactor fuel elements under postulated accident conditions is being studied by the EG and G Idaho, Inc., Thermal Fuels Behavior Program for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. As a part of this program, unirradiated and previously irradiated, pressurized-water-reactor type fuel rods were tested under power-cooling-mismatch (PCM) conditions in the Power Burst Facility (PBF). During these integral in-reactor experiments, film boiling was produced on the fuel rods which created high fuel and cladding temperatures. Fuel rod diameters increased in the film boiling region to a greater extent for irradiated rods than for unirradiated rods. The purpose of the study was to investigate and assess the fuel swelling which caused the fuel rod diameter increases and to evaluate the ability of an analytical code, the Gas Release and Swelling Subroutine - Steady-State and Transient (GRASS-SST), to predict the results.

  8. Synergies in Natural Gas and Hydrogen Fuels

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Brian Bonner, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., at the Natural Gas and Hydrogen Infrastructure Opportunities Workshop held October 18-19, 2011, in Lemont, Illinois.

  9. Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Program's TRISO Particle Fuel Sets A New World Record For Irradiation Performance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As part of the Office of Nuclear Energy's Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Program, the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development Program has achieved a new international record for...

  10. Evaluation of Ultra Clean Fuels from Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Abbott; Edward Casey; Etop Esen; Douglas Smith; Bruce Burke; Binh Nguyen; Samuel Tam; Paul Worhach; Mahabubul Alam; Juhun Song; James Szybist; Ragini Acharya; Vince Zello; David Morris; Patrick Flynn; Stephen Kirby; Krishan Bhatia; Jeff Gonder; Yun Wang; Wenpeng Liu; Hua Meng; Subramani Velu; Jian-Ping Shen, Weidong Gu; Elise Bickford; Chunshan Song; Chao-Yang Wang; Andre' Boehman

    2006-02-28

    ConocoPhillips, in conjunction with Nexant Inc., Penn State University, and Cummins Engine Co., joined with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) in a cooperative agreement to perform a comprehensive study of new ultra clean fuels (UCFs) produced from remote sources of natural gas. The project study consists of three primary tasks: an environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), a Market Study, and a series of Engine Tests to evaluate the potential markets for Ultra Clean Fuels. The overall objective of DOE's Ultra Clean Transportation Fuels Initiative is to develop and deploy technologies that will produce ultra-clean burning transportation fuels for the 21st century from both petroleum and non-petroleum resources. These fuels will: (1) Enable vehicles to comply with future emission requirements; (2) Be compatible with the existing liquid fuels infrastructure; (3) Enable vehicle efficiencies to be significantly increased, with concomitantly reduced CO{sub 2} emissions; (4) Be obtainable from a fossil resource, alone or in combination with other hydrocarbon materials such as refinery wastes, municipal wastes, biomass, and coal; and (5) Be competitive with current petroleum fuels. The objectives of the ConocoPhillips Ultra Clean Fuels Project are to perform a comprehensive life cycle analysis and to conduct a market study on ultra clean fuels of commercial interest produced from natural gas, and, in addition, perform engine tests for Fisher-Tropsch diesel and methanol in neat, blended or special formulations to obtain data on emissions. This resulting data will be used to optimize fuel compositions and engine operation in order to minimize the release of atmospheric pollutants resulting from the fuel combustion. Development and testing of both direct and indirect methanol fuel cells was to be conducted and the optimum properties of a suitable fuel-grade methanol was to be defined. The results of the study are also applicable to coal-derived FT liquid fuels. After different gas clean up processes steps, the coal-derived syngas will produce FT liquid fuels that have similar properties to natural gas derived FT liquids.

  11. Natural Gas Treatment and Fuel Gas Conditioning: Membrane Technology...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Membrane modules are needed to selectively recover the heavy hydrocarbons, which can be ... revenues, especially for applications in the shale oil and shale gas production areas. ...

  12. Stratified charge injection for gas-fueled rotary engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, S.R.

    1992-03-10

    This patent describes a stratified charge injection for gas-fueled rotary engines having an air intake stroke, a compression stroke, a power stroke, and an exhaust stroke. It comprises a rotor housing, the housing including an air intake port and an exhaust port, and an outer perimeter, a rotor rotatable in the housing, a gaseous fuel injector supplying all of the fuel is connected to the housing between 270{degrees} and 360{degrees} of the rotor rotation after compression top dead center and downstream of the air intake port, the injector providing gaseous fuel at a pressure less than peak compression pressure, the injector located in the middle of the width of the outer perimeter of the housing, spark ignition means in the housing downstream of the injector, and means connected to the fuel injector responsive to the compression pressure for controlling the rate and duration of fuel injection.

  13. Middle East fuel supply & gas exports for power generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, G.K.; Newendorp, T.

    1995-12-31

    The Middle East countries that border on, or are near, the Persian Gulf hold over 65% of the world`s estimated proven crude oil reserves and 32% of the world`s estimated proven natural gas reserves. In fact, approximately 5% of the world`s total proven gas reserves are located in Qatar`s offshore North Field. This large natural gas/condensate field is currently under development to supply three LNG export projects, as well as a sub-sea pipeline proposal to export gas to Pakistan. The Middle East will continue to be a major source of crude oil and oil products to world petroleum markets, including fuel for existing and future base load, intermediate cycling and peaking electric generation plants. In addition, as the Persian Gulf countries turn their attention to exploiting their natural gas resources, the fast-growing need for electricity in the Asia-Pacific and east Africa areas offers a potential market for both pipeline and LNG export opportunities to fuel high efficiency, gas-fired combustion turbine power plants. Mr. Mitchell`s portion of this paper will discuss the background, status and timing of several Middle Eastern gas export projects that have been proposed. These large gas export projects are difficult and costly to develop and finance. Consequently, any IPP developers that are considering gas-fired projects which require Mid-East LNG as a fuel source, should understand the numerous sources and timing to securing project debt, loan terms and conditions, and, restrictions/credit rating issues associated with securing financing for these gas export projects. Mr. Newendorp`s section of the paper will cover the financing aspects of these projects, providing IPP developers with additional considerations in selecting the primary fuel supply for an Asian-Pacific or east African electric generation project.

  14. Fuel Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the Natural Gas System; Sankey Diagram Methodology

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As natural gas travels through infrastructure, from well-head to customer meter, small portions are routinely used as fuel, vented, flared, or inadvertently leaked to the atmosphere. This paper describes the analytical and methodological basis for three diagrams that illustrate the natural gas losses and greenhouse gas emissions that result from these processes. The paper examines these emissions in some detail, focusing in particular on the production, processing, transmission and storage, and distribution segments of natural gas infrastructure.

  15. Cover and startup gas supply system for solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Prabhakar; George, Raymond A.

    1999-01-01

    A cover and startup gas supply system for a solid oxide fuel cell power generator is disclosed. Hydrocarbon fuel, such as natural gas or diesel fuel, and oxygen-containing gas are supplied to a burner. Combustion gas exiting the burner is cooled prior to delivery to the solid oxide fuel cell. The system mixes the combusted hydrocarbon fuel constituents with hydrogen which is preferably stored in solid form to obtain a non-explosive gas mixture. The system may be used to provide both non-explosive cover gas and hydrogen-rich startup gas to the fuel cell.

  16. Cover and startup gas supply system for solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, P.; George, R.A.

    1999-07-27

    A cover and startup gas supply system for a solid oxide fuel cell power generator is disclosed. Hydrocarbon fuel, such as natural gas or diesel fuel, and oxygen-containing gas are supplied to a burner. Combustion gas exiting the burner is cooled prior to delivery to the solid oxide fuel cell. The system mixes the combusted hydrocarbon fuel constituents with hydrogen which is preferably stored in solid form to obtain a non-explosive gas mixture. The system may be used to provide both non-explosive cover gas and hydrogen-rich startup gas to the fuel cell. 4 figs.

  17. LOW NOx EMISSIONS IN A FUEL FLEXIBLE GAS TURBINE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raymond Drnevich; James Meagher; Vasilis Papavassiliou; Troy Raybold; Peter Stuttaford; Leonard Switzer; Lee Rosen

    2004-08-01

    In alignment with Vision 21 goals, a study is presented here on the technical and economic potential for developing a gas turbine combustor that is capable of generating less that 2 ppm NOx emissions, firing on either coal synthesis gas or natural gas, and being implemented on new and existing systems. The proposed solution involves controlling the quantity of H2 contained in the fuel. The presence of H2 leads to increased flame stability such that the combustor can be operated at lower temperatures and produce less thermal NOx. Coal gas composition would be modified using a water gas shift converter, and natural gas units would implement a catalytic partial oxidation (CPOX) reactor to convert part of the natural gas feed to a syngas before fed back into the combustor. While both systems demonstrated technical merit, the economics involved in implementing such a system are marginal at best. Therefore, Praxair has decided not to pursue the technology any further at this time.

  18. Indirect-fired gas turbine bottomed with fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Micheli, Paul L.; Williams, Mark C.; Parsons, Edward L.

    1995-01-01

    An indirect-heated gas turbine cycle is bottomed with a fuel cell cycle with the heated air discharged from the gas turbine being directly utilized at the cathode of the fuel cell for the electricity-producing electrochemical reaction occurring within the fuel cell. The hot cathode recycle gases provide a substantial portion of the heat required for the indirect heating of the compressed air used in the gas turbine cycle. A separate combustor provides the balance of the heat needed for the indirect heating of the compressed air used in the gas turbine cycle. Hot gases from the fuel cell are used in the combustor to reduce both the fuel requirements of the combustor and the NOx emissions therefrom. Residual heat remaining in the air-heating gases after completing the heating thereof is used in a steam turbine cycle or in an absorption refrigeration cycle. Some of the hot gases from the cathode can be diverted from the air-heating function and used in the absorption refrigeration cycle or in the steam cycle for steam generating purposes.

  19. Indirect-fired gas turbine bottomed with fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Micheli, P.L.; Williams, M.C.; Parsons, E.L.

    1995-09-12

    An indirect-heated gas turbine cycle is bottomed with a fuel cell cycle with the heated air discharged from the gas turbine being directly utilized at the cathode of the fuel cell for the electricity-producing electrochemical reaction occurring within the fuel cell. The hot cathode recycle gases provide a substantial portion of the heat required for the indirect heating of the compressed air used in the gas turbine cycle. A separate combustor provides the balance of the heat needed for the indirect heating of the compressed air used in the gas turbine cycle. Hot gases from the fuel cell are used in the combustor to reduce both the fuel requirements of the combustor and the NOx emissions therefrom. Residual heat remaining in the air-heating gases after completing the heating thereof is used in a steam turbine cycle or in an absorption refrigeration cycle. Some of the hot gases from the cathode can be diverted from the air-heating function and used in the absorption refrigeration cycle or in the steam cycle for steam generating purposes. 1 fig.

  20. South Dakota Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) South Dakota Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 0 0 1990's 0 2 5 7 5 4 4 10 8 10 2000's 10 13 13 16 18 0 W 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Delivered

  1. Delaware Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Delaware Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 21 27 33 2000's 37 46 46 56 63 9 6 5 4 1 2010's 1 1 1 1 1 1 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Delivered to

  2. North Dakota Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) North Dakota Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 0 0 1990's 0 1 3 8 8 12 15 41 40 49 2000's 54 67 68 83 93 3 1 1 1 2010's 1 1 1 0 1 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Delivered

  3. Louisiana Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Louisiana Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 2010's 249 435 553 560 517 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: Total Supplemental Supply of Natural Gas Louisiana Supplemental Supplies of

  4. Montana Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Montana Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 0 0 1990's 0 2 2 4 6 8 13 40 31 38 2000's 43 53 54 66 74 4 2 1 1 1 2010's 1 0 1 1 1 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Delivered to

  5. Safeguards Guidance for Prismatic Fueled High Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGR)

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    5) August 2012 Guidance for High Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGRs) with Prismatic Fuel INL/CON-12-26130 Revision 0 Safeguards-by-Design: Guidance for High Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGRs) With Prismatic Fuel Philip Casey Durst (INL Consultant) August 2012 DISCLAIMER This information was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the U.S. Government. Neither the U.S. Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, expressed or implied, or assumes

  6. A natural-gas fuel processor for a residential fuel cell system.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adachi, H.; Ahmed, S.; Lee, S. H. D.; Papadias, D.; Ahluwalia, R. K.; Bendert, J. C.; Kanner, S. A.; Yamazaki, Y.; Japan Institute of Energy

    2009-03-01

    A system model was used to develop an autothermal reforming fuel processor to meet the targets of 80% efficiency (higher heating value) and start-up energy consumption of less than 500 kJ when operated as part of a 1-kWe natural-gas fueled fuel cell system for cogeneration of heat and power. The key catalytic reactors of the fuel processor--namely the autothermal reformer, a two-stage water gas shift reactor and a preferential oxidation reactor--were configured and tested in a breadboard apparatus. Experimental results demonstrated a reformate containing {approx} 48% hydrogen (on a dry basis and with pure methane as fuel) and less than 5 ppm CO. The effects of steam-to-carbon and part load operations were explored.

  7. Gas block mechanism for water removal in fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Issacci, Farrokh; Rehg, Timothy J.

    2004-02-03

    The present invention is directed to apparatus and method for cathode-side disposal of water in an electrochemical fuel cell. There is a cathode plate. Within a surface of the plate is a flow field comprised of interdigitated channels. During operation of the fuel cell, cathode gas flows by convection through a gas diffusion layer above the flow field. Positioned at points adjacent to the flow field are one or more porous gas block mediums that have pores sized such that water is sipped off to the outside of the flow field by capillary flow and cathode gas is blocked from flowing through the medium. On the other surface of the plate is a channel in fluid communication with each porous gas block mediums. The method for water disposal in a fuel cell comprises installing the cathode plate assemblies at the cathode sides of the stack of fuel cells and manifolding the single water channel of each of the cathode plate assemblies to the coolant flow that feeds coolant plates in the stack.

  8. Liquid Fuels and Natural Gas in the Americas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Liquid Fuels and Natural Gas in the Americas EIA Conference July 14, 2014 | Washington, DC Liquid fuels production in the Americas surpassed the Middle East in 2013 liquid fuels production by region million barrels per day Source: EIA, International Energy Statistics 2 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Americas Middle East Former Soviet Union Africa Asia and Oceania Europe EIA Conference July 14, 2014 The Americas are the second largest region in oil reserves

  9. Interface ring for gas turbine fuel nozzle assemblies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Timothy A.; Schilp, Reinhard

    2016-03-22

    A gas turbine combustor assembly including a combustor liner and a plurality of fuel nozzle assemblies arranged in an annular array extending within the combustor liner. The fuel nozzle assemblies each include fuel nozzle body integral with a swirler assembly, and the swirler assemblies each include a bellmouth structure to turn air radially inwardly for passage into the swirler assemblies. A radially outer removed portion of each of the bellmouth structures defines a periphery diameter spaced from an inner surface of the combustor liner, and an interface ring is provided extending between the combustor liner and the removed portions of the bellmouth structures at the periphery diameter.

  10. Fuel injection staged sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogt, Robert L.

    1981-01-01

    A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is described. The combustor comprises a plurality of individual combustor chambers. Each combustor chamber has a main burning zone and a pilot burning zone. A pipe for the low-BTU coal gas is connected to the upstream end of the pilot burning zone; this pipe surrounds a liquid fuel source and is in turn surrounded by an air supply pipe; swirling means are provided between the liquid fuel source and the coal gas pipe and between the gas pipe and the air pipe. Additional preheated air is provided by counter-current coolant air in passages formed by a double wall arrangement of the walls of the main burning zone communicating with passages of a double wall arrangement of the pilot burning zone; this preheated air is turned at the upstream end of the pilot burning zone through swirlers to mix with the original gas and air input (and the liquid fuel input when used) to provide more efficient combustion. One or more fuel injection stages (second stages) are provided for direct input of coal gas into the main burning zone. The countercurrent air coolant passages are connected to swirlers surrounding the input from each second stage to provide additional oxidant.

  11. Fuel injection staged sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogt, Robert L.

    1985-02-12

    A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is described. The combustor comprises a plurality of individual combustor chambers. Each combustor chamber has a main burning zone and a pilot burning zone. A pipe for the low-BTU coal gas is connected to the upstream end of the pilot burning zone: this pipe surrounds a liquid fuel source and is in turn surrounded by an air supply pipe: swirling means are provided between the liquid fuel source and the coal gas pipe and between the gas pipe and the air pipe. Additional preheated air is provided by counter-current coolant air in passages formed by a double wall arrangement of the walls of the main burning zone communicating with passages of a double wall arrangement of the pilot burning zone: this preheated air is turned at the upstream end of the pilot burning zone through swirlers to mix with the original gas and air input (and the liquid fuel input when used) to provide more efficient combustion. One or more fuel injection stages (second stages) are provided for direct input of coal gas into the main burning zone. The countercurrent air coolant passages are connected to swirlers surrounding the input from each second stage to provide additional oxidant.

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Golden Eagle Delivers Beer With Natural Gas

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Trucks Golden Eagle Delivers Beer With Natural Gas Trucks to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Golden Eagle Delivers Beer With Natural Gas Trucks on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Golden Eagle Delivers Beer With Natural Gas Trucks on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Golden Eagle Delivers Beer With Natural Gas Trucks on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Golden Eagle Delivers Beer With Natural Gas Trucks on Delicious Rank

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Powers Milk Delivery Trucks in

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Indiana Natural Gas Powers Milk Delivery Trucks in Indiana to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Powers Milk Delivery Trucks in Indiana on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Powers Milk Delivery Trucks in Indiana on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Powers Milk Delivery Trucks in Indiana on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Powers Milk Delivery Trucks in Indiana on Delicious Rank

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas School Buses Help Kansas City

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Save Money Natural Gas School Buses Help Kansas City Save Money to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas School Buses Help Kansas City Save Money on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas School Buses Help Kansas City Save Money on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas School Buses Help Kansas City Save Money on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas School Buses Help Kansas City Save Money on

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Cleans up With Natural Gas Refuse

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Trucks Virginia Cleans up With Natural Gas Refuse Trucks to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Cleans up With Natural Gas Refuse Trucks on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Cleans up With Natural Gas Refuse Trucks on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Cleans up With Natural Gas Refuse Trucks on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Cleans up With Natural Gas Refuse Trucks on Delicious Rank

  16. A Life-Cycle Assessment Comparing Select Gas-to-Liquid Fuels...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Shell Gas to Liquids in the context of a Future Fuel Strategy - Technical Marketing Aspects Verification of Shell GTL Fuel as CARB Alternative Diesel Assessment of Environmental ...

  17. Enabling Clean Consumption of Low Btu and Reactive Fuels in Gas...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuels ADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE Enabling Clean Combustion of Low-Btu and Reactive Fuels in Gas Turbines By enabling ultralow-emission, lean premixed combustion of a ...

  18. Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-12-16

    At an international conference on global warming, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the United States committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% over its 1990 level by the year 2012. To help achieve that goal, transportation GHG emissions need to be reduced. Using Argonne's fuel-cycle model, I estimated GHG emissions reduction potentials of various near- and long-term transportation technologies. The estimated per-mile GHG emissions results show that alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies can help significantly reduce transportation GHG emissions. Of the near-term technologies evaluated in this study, electric vehicles; hybrid electric vehicles; compression-ignition, direct-injection vehicles; and E85 flexible fuel vehicles can reduce fuel-cycle GHG emissions by more than 25%, on the fuel-cycle basis. Electric vehicles powered by electricity generated primarily from nuclear and renewable sources can reduce GHG emissions by 80%. Other alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, offer limited, but positive, GHG emission reduction benefits. Among the long-term technologies evaluated in this study, conventional spark ignition and compression ignition engines powered by alternative fuels and gasoline- and diesel-powered advanced vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by 10% to 30%. Ethanol dedicated vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by over 40%. Spark ignition engines and fuel-cell vehicles powered by cellulosic ethanol and solar hydrogen (for fuel-cell vehicles only) can reduce GHG emissions by over 80%. In conclusion, both near- and long-term alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies can play a role in reducing the United States GHG emissions.

  19. Flexible fuel cell gas manifold system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cramer, Michael; Shah, Jagdish; Hayes, Richard P.; Kelley, Dana A.

    2005-05-03

    A fuel cell stack manifold system in which a flexible manifold body includes a pan having a central area, sidewall extending outward from the periphery of the central area, and at least one compound fold comprising a central area fold connecting adjacent portions of the central area and extending between opposite sides of the central area, and a sidewall fold connecting adjacent portions of the sidewall. The manifold system further includes a rail assembly for attachment to the manifold body and adapted to receive pins by which dielectric insulators are joined to the manifold assembly.

  20. Gas turbine fuel from low-rank coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maas, D.J.; Smith, F.J.

    1986-06-01

    Five low-rank coals from the western United States were cleaned in a bench-scale heavy media separation procedures followed by acid leaching and hydrothermal processing. The objective of these cleaning steps was to determine the amenability of preparing gas turbine quality fuel from low-rank coal. The best candidate for scale-up was determined to be a Wyoming subbituminous coal from the eagle Butte mine. Two hundred thirty kilograms of cleaned and micronized coal/water fuel were prepared in pilot-scale equipment to determine process parameters and fuel characteristics. After establishing operating conditions, two thousand kilograms of cleaned and micronized coal/water and powdered coal fuel were produced for testing in a pilot-scale gas turbine combustor. An economic analysis was completed for a commercial-scale plant designed to produce clean gas turbine fuel from low-rank coal using the most promising process steps identified form the bench- and pilot-scale studies. 21 refs., 12 figs., 20 tabs.

  1. Integrated production of fuel gas and oxygenated organic compounds from synthesis gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Robert B.; Hegarty, William P.; Studer, David W.; Tirados, Edward J.

    1995-01-01

    An oxygenated organic liquid product and a fuel gas are produced from a portion of synthesis gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and sulfur-containing compounds in a integrated feed treatment and catalytic reaction system. To prevent catalyst poisoning, the sulfur-containing compounds in the reactor feed are absorbed in a liquid comprising the reactor product, and the resulting sulfur-containing liquid is regenerated by stripping with untreated synthesis gas from the reactor. Stripping offgas is combined with the remaining synthesis gas to provide a fuel gas product. A portion of the regenerated liquid is used as makeup to the absorber and the remainder is withdrawn as a liquid product. The method is particularly useful for integration with a combined cycle coal gasification system utilizing a gas turbine for electric power generation.

  2. Maine Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Maine Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2010 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2011 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2012...

  3. Fission gas retention and axial expansion of irradiated metallic fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fenske, G.R.; Emerson, J.E.; Savoie, F.E.; Johanson, E.W.

    1986-05-01

    Out-of-reactor experiments utilizing direct electrical heating and infrared heating techniques were performed on irradiated metallic fuel. The results indicate accelerated expansion can occur during thermal transients and that the accelerated expansion is driven by retained fission gases. The results also demonstrate gas retention and, hence, expansion behavior is a function of axial position within the pin.

  4. Plasma reforming and partial oxidation of hydrocarbon fuel vapor to produce synthesis gas and/or hydrogen gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C.; Detering, Brent A.

    2003-08-19

    Methods and systems for treating vapors from fuels such as gasoline or diesel fuel in an internal combustion engine, to form hydrogen gas or synthesis gas, which can then be burned in the engine to produce more power. Fuel vapor, or a mixture of fuel vapor and exhaust gas and/or air, is contacted with a plasma, to promote reforming reactions between the fuel vapor and exhaust gas to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas, partial oxidation reactions between the fuel vapor and air to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas, or direct hydrogen and carbon particle production from the fuel vapor. The plasma can be a thermal plasma or a non-thermal plasma. The plasma can be produced in a plasma generating device which can be preheated by contact with at least a portion of the hot exhaust gas stream, thereby decreasing the power requirements of the plasma generating device.

  5. Plasma Reforming And Partial Oxidation Of Hydrocarbon Fuel Vapor To Produce Synthesis Gas And/Or Hydrogen Gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C.; Detering, Brent A.

    2004-10-19

    Methods and systems are disclosed for treating vapors from fuels such as gasoline or diesel fuel in an internal combustion engine, to form hydrogen gas or synthesis gas, which can then be burned in the engine to produce more power. Fuel vapor, or a mixture of fuel vapor and exhaust gas and/or air, is contacted with a plasma, to promote reforming reactions between the fuel vapor and exhaust gas to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas, partial oxidation reactions between the fuel vapor and air to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas, or direct hydrogen and carbon particle production from the fuel vapor. The plasma can be a thermal plasma or a non-thermal plasma. The plasma can be produced in a plasma generating device which can be preheated by contact with at least a portion of the hot exhaust gas stream, thereby decreasing the power requirements of the plasma generating device.

  6. No loss fueling station for liquid natural gas vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cieslukowski, R.E.

    1992-06-16

    This patent describes a no loss fueling station for delivery of liquid natural gas (LNG) to a use device such as a motor vehicle. It comprises: a pressure building tank holding a quantity of LNG and gas head; means for delivering LNG to the pressure building tank; means for selectively building the pressure in the pressure building tank; means for selectively reducing the pressure in the pressure building tank; means for controlling the pressure building and pressure reducing means to maintain a desired pressure in the pressure building tank without venting natural gas to the atmosphere; and means for delivering the LNG from the pressure building tank to the use device.

  7. Bioconversion of natural gas to liquid fuel: Opportunities and challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fei, Q; Guarnieri, MT; Tao, L; Laurens, LML; Dowe, N; Pienkos, PT

    2014-05-01

    Natural gas is a mixture of low molecular weight hydrocarbon gases that can be generated from either fossil or anthropogenic resources. Although natural gas is used as a transportation fuel, constraints in storage, relatively low energy content (MJ/L), and delivery have limited widespread adoption. Advanced utilization of natural gas has been explored for biofuel production by microorganisms. In recent years, the aerobic bioconversion of natural gas (or primarily the methane content of natural gas) into liquid fuels (Bio-GTL) by biocatalysts (methanotrophs) has gained increasing attention as a promising alternative for drop-in biofuel production. Methanotrophic bacteria are capable of converting methane into microbial lipids, which can in turn be converted into renewable diesel via a hydrotreating process. In this paper, biodiversity, catalytic properties and key enzymes and pathways of these microbes are summarized. Bioprocess technologies are discussed based upon existing literature, including cultivation conditions, fermentation modes, bioreactor design, and lipid extraction and upgrading. This review also outlines the potential of Bio-GTL using methane as an alternative carbon source as well as the major challenges and future research needs of microbial lipid accumulation derived from methane, key performance index, and techno-economic analysis. An analysis of raw material costs suggests that methane-derived diesel fuel has the potential to be competitive with petroleum-derived diesel. (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Impacts of Increasing Natural Gas Fueled CHP from 20 to 35 Percent...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Impacts of Increasing Natural Gas Fueled CHP from 20 to 35 Percent of Total Electricity Production in Texas, April 2011 Impacts of Increasing Natural Gas Fueled CHP from 20 to 35 ...

  9. Shell Gas to Liquids in the context of a Future Fuel Strategy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Shell Gas to Liquids in the context of a Future Fuel Strategy - Technical Marketing Aspects Shell Gas to Liquids in the context of a Future Fuel Strategy - Technical Marketing ...

  10. A Life-Cycle Assessment Comparing Select Gas-to-Liquid Fuels with

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Conventional Fuels in the Transportation Sector | Department of Energy A Life-Cycle Assessment Comparing Select Gas-to-Liquid Fuels with Conventional Fuels in the Transportation Sector A Life-Cycle Assessment Comparing Select Gas-to-Liquid Fuels with Conventional Fuels in the Transportation Sector 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: ConocoPhillips and Nexant Corporatin PDF icon 2004_deer_abbott.pdf More Documents & Publications Shell Gas to Liquids in

  11. Purge gas protected transportable pressurized fuel cell modules and their operation in a power plant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zafred, Paolo R.; Dederer, Jeffrey T.; Gillett, James E.; Basel, Richard A.; Antenucci, Annette B.

    1996-01-01

    A fuel cell generator apparatus and method of its operation involves: passing pressurized oxidant gas, (O) and pressurized fuel gas, (F), into fuel cell modules, (10 and 12), containing fuel cells, where the modules are each enclosed by a module housing (18), surrounded by an axially elongated pressure vessel (64), where there is a purge gas volume, (62), between the module housing and pressure vessel; passing pressurized purge gas, (P), through the purge gas volume, (62), to dilute any unreacted fuel gas from the modules; and passing exhaust gas, (82), and circulated purge gas and any unreacted fuel gas out of the pressure vessel; where the fuel cell generator apparatus is transpatable when the pressure vessel (64) is horizontally disposed, providing a low center of gravity.

  12. Low-NOx Gas Turbine Injectors Utilizing Hydrogen-Rich Opportunity Fuels- Fact Sheet, 2015

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Factsheet summarizing how this project will modify a gas turbine combustion system to operate on hydrogen-rich opportunity fuels

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Arkansas Launches Natural Gas-Powered Buses

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    and Refueling Station Arkansas Launches Natural Gas-Powered Buses and Refueling Station to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Arkansas Launches Natural Gas-Powered Buses and Refueling Station on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Arkansas Launches Natural Gas-Powered Buses and Refueling Station on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Arkansas Launches Natural Gas-Powered Buses and Refueling Station on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center: DeKalb County Turns Trash to Gas

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    DeKalb County Turns Trash to Gas to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: DeKalb County Turns Trash to Gas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: DeKalb County Turns Trash to Gas on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: DeKalb County Turns Trash to Gas on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: DeKalb County Turns Trash to Gas on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: DeKalb County Turns Trash to Gas on Digg Find More places to share

  15. Natural Gas as a Fuel Option for Heavy Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James E. Wegrzyn; Wai Lin Litzke; Michael Gurevich

    1999-04-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) is promoting the use of natural gas as a fuel option in the transportation energy sector through its natural gas vehicle program [1]. The goal of this program is to eliminate the technical and cost barriers associated with displacing imported petroleum. This is achieved by supporting research and development in technologies that reduce manufacturing costs, reduce emissions, and improve vehicle performance and consumer acceptance for natural gas fueled vehicles. In collaboration with Brookhaven National Laboratory, projects are currently being pursued in (1) liquefied natural gas production from unconventional sources, (2) onboard natural gas storage (adsorbent, compressed, and liquefied), (3) natural gas delivery systems for both onboard the vehicle and the refueling station, and (4) regional and enduse strategies. This paper will provide an overview of these projects highlighting their achievements and current status. In addition, it will discuss how the individual technologies developed are being integrated into an overall program strategic plan.

  16. Compressed natural gas fueled vehicles: The Houston experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The report describes the experience of the City of Houston in defining the compressed natural gas fueled vehicle research scope and issues. It details the ways in which the project met initial expectations, and how the project scope, focus, and duration were adjusted in response to unanticipated results. It provides examples of real world successes and failures in efforts to commercialize basic research in adapting a proven technology (natural gas) to a noncommercially proven application (vehicles). Phase one of the demonstration study investigates, develops, documents, and disseminates information regarding the economic, operational, and environmental implications of utilizing compressed natural gas (CNG) in various truck fueling applications. The four (4) truck classes investigated are light duty gasoline trucks, medium duty gasoline trucks, medium duty diesel trucks and heavy duty diesel trucks. The project researches aftermarket CNG conversions for the first three vehicle classes and original equipment manufactured (OEM) CNG vehicles for light duty gasoline and heavy duty diesel classes. In phase two of the demonstration project, critical issues are identified and assessed with respect to implementing use of CNG fueled vehicles in a large vehicle fleet. These issues include defining changes in local, state, and industry CNG fueled vehicle related codes and standards; addressing vehicle fuel storage limitations; using standardized vehicle emission testing procedures and results; and resolving CNG refueling infrastructure implementation issues and related cost factors. The report identifies which CNG vehicle fueling options were tried and failed and which were tried and succeeded, with and without modifications. The conclusions include a caution regarding overly optimistic assessments of CNG vehicle technology at the initiation of the project.

  17. Reactant gas composition for fuel cell potential control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bushnell, Calvin L.; Davis, Christopher L.

    1991-01-01

    A fuel cell (10) system in which a nitrogen (N.sub.2) gas is used on the anode section (11) and a nitrogen/oxygen (N.sub.2 /O.sub.2) gaseous mix is used on the cathode section (12) to maintain the cathode at an acceptable voltage potential during adverse conditions occurring particularly during off-power conditions, for example, during power plant shutdown, start-up and hot holds. During power plant shutdown, the cathode section is purged with a gaseous mixture of, for example, one-half percent (0.5%) oxygen (O.sub.2) and ninety-nine and a half percent (99.5%) nitrogen (N.sub.2) supplied from an ejector (21) bleeding in air (24/28) into a high pressure stream (27) of nitrogen (N.sub.2) as the primary or majority gas. Thereafter the fuel gas in the fuel processor (31) and the anode section (11) is purged with nitrogen gas to prevent nickel (Ni) carbonyl from forming from the shift catalyst. A switched dummy electrical load (30) is used to bring the cathode potential down rapidly during the start of the purges. The 0.5%/99.5% O.sub.2 /N.sub.2 mixture maintains the cathode potential between 0.3 and 0.7 volts, and this is sufficient to maintain the cathode potential at 0.3 volts for the case of H.sub.2 diffusing to the cathode through a 2 mil thick electrolyte filled matrix and below 0.8 volts for no diffusion at open circuit conditions. The same high pressure gas source (20) is used via a "T" juncture ("T") to purge the anode section and its associated fuel processor (31).

  18. South Carolina Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) South Carolina Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 74 184 63 73 62 87 31 22 191 201 1990's 17 47 26 34 154 62 178 10 0 18 2000's 63 6 3 15 2 86 75 0 2010's 0 0 1 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date:

  19. South Dakota Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) South Dakota Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 61 76 93 70 125 123 112 1990's 158 393 451 452 437 404 424 911 848 864 2000's 1,003 538 495 553 562 545 508 573 545 568 2010's 562 594 866 916 827 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release

  20. Tennessee Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Tennessee Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 113 153 138 98 93 60 45 1990's 68 41 39 49 44 47 37 45 31 26 2000's 29 48 80 47 46 68 66 109 161 235 2010's 214 231 335 335 142 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016

  1. Virginia Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Virginia Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 127 443 454 375 209 414 75 141 643 428 1990's 59 240 245 538 1,195 445 716 350 148 179 2000's 493 239 124 368 145 192 39 89 89 247 2010's 159 89 48 130 301 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of

  2. Washington Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Washington Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 440 326 1980's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: Natural

  3. Georgia Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Georgia Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 24 57 151 84 28 121 124 248 241 292 1990's 209 185 166 199 123 130 94 14 16 12 2000's 73 51 7 14 5 0 3 2 52 2010's 732 701 660 642 635 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data.

  4. Indiana Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Indiana Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4 12 11 10 7 12 10 1990's 13 5 5 6 2 5 8 12 13 18 2000's 23 26 51 38 74 97 108 101 161 211 2010's 283 433 506 506 177 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages:

  5. New Hampshire Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) New Hampshire Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 774 720 582 328 681 509 362 464 492 592 1990's 205 128 96 154 160 90 147 102 103 111 2000's 180 86 66 58 91 84 92 9 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company

  6. New York Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) New York Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 617 840 1,041 957 975 788 604 1990's 840 1,073 965 563 781 1,074 939 778 636 701 2000's 590 640 876 1,094 614 803 635 657 687 1,005 2010's 573 498 423 375 541 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next

  7. Ohio Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Ohio Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 50 63 71 69 96 88 87 1990's 14 14 16 20 36 32 37 39 40 42 2000's 43 40 37 17 18 12 8 5 0 0 2010's 0 0 127 202 468 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: Natural

  8. Oregon Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Oregon Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 0 0 120 131 130 115 59 1990's 93 60 68 118 95 66 40 0 0 0 2000's 49 42 40 43 27 21 24 23 26 26 2010's 31 39 44 44 25 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages:

  9. Pennsylvania Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 158 171 148 171 205 191 218 1990's 156 159 341 235 116 181 217 253 222 274 2000's 208 272 251 343 395 483 549 495 575 599 2010's 881 963 2,529 9,200 11,602 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next

  10. Kentucky Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Kentucky Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 7,025 7,165 6,940 4,056 852 830 627 1990's 657 702 707 689 611 702 682 641 548 641 2000's 419 475 535 536 617 698 653 691 587 391 2010's 772 278 641 280 278 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next

  11. Maryland Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Maryland Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 484 498 984 352 332 373 155 136 743 899 1990's 24 72 126 418 987 609 882 178 80 498 2000's 319 186 48 160 124 382 41 245 181 170 2010's 115 89 116 107 809 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of

  12. Mississippi Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Mississippi Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 2.82 1.63 2.51 2.76 2.79 2.91 2000's 3.75 7.85 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 2010's -- -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring

  13. Montana Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Montana Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 439 457 542 437 449 474 519 1990's 557 518 423 295 206 168 168 188 208 235 2000's 218 396 249 512 606 697 820 816 788 771 2010's 800 604 612 645 657 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release

  14. Nebraska Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Nebraska Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 60 70 57 40 43 26 21 1990's 26 17 31 56 86 58 43 38 37 29 2000's 31 29 295 286 302 236 176 182 395 359 2010's 331 287 194 194 62 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016

  15. Ambient Laboratory Coater for Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duane D. Bruns; Robert M. Counce; Irma D. Lima Rojas

    2010-06-09

    this research is targeted at developing improved experimentally-based scaling relationships for the hydrodynamics of shallow, gas-spouted beds of dense particles. The work is motivated by the need to more effctively scale up shallow spouted beds used in processes such as in the coating of nuclear fuel particles where precise control of solids and gas circulation is critically important. Experimental results reported here are for a 50 mm diameter spouted bed containing two different types of bed solids (alumina and zirconia) at different static bed depths and fluidized by air and helium. Measurements of multiple local average pressures, inlet gas pressure fluctuations, and spout height were used to characterize the bed hydrodynamics for each operating condition. Follow-on studies are planned that include additional variations in bed size, particle properties, and fluidizing gas. The ultimate objective is to identify the most important non-dimensional hydrodynamic scaling groups and possible spouted-bed design correlations based on these groups.

  16. Fuel control for gas turbine with continuous pilot flame

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swick, Robert M.

    1983-01-01

    An improved fuel control for a gas turbine engine having a continuous pilot flame and a fuel distribution system including a pump drawing fuel from a source and supplying a line to the main fuel nozzle of the engine, the improvement being a control loop between the pump outlet and the pump inlet to bypass fuel, an electronically controlled throttle valve to restrict flow in the control loop when main nozzle demand exists and to permit substantially unrestricted flow without main nozzle demand, a minimum flow valve in the control loop downstream of the throttle valve to maintain a minimum pressure in the loop ahead of the flow valve, a branch tube from the pilot flame nozzle to the control loop between the throttle valve and the minimum flow valve, an orifice in the branch tube, and a feedback tube from the branch tube downstream of the orifice to the minimum flow valve, the minimum flow valve being operative to maintain a substantially constant pressure differential across the orifice to maintain constant fuel flow to the pilot flame nozzle.

  17. Effects of Propane/Natural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Straub; D. Ferguson; K. Casleton; G. Richards

    2006-03-01

    U.S. natural gas composition is expected to be more variable in the future. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports to the U.S. are expected to grow significantly over the next 10-15 years. Unconventional gas supplies, like coal-bed methane, are also expected to grow. As a result of these anticipated changes, the composition of fuel sources may vary significantly from existing domestic natural gas supplies. To allow the greatest use of gas supplies, end-use equipment should be able to accommodate the widest possible gas composition. For this reason, the effect of gas composition on combustion behavior is of interest. This paper will examine the effects of fuel variability on pollutant emissions for premixed gas turbine conditions. The experimental data presented in this paper have been collected from a pressurized single injector combustion test rig at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The tests are conducted at 7.5 atm with a 589K air preheat. A propane blending facility is used to vary the Wobbe Index of the site natural gas. The results indicate that propane addition of about five (vol.) percent does not lead to a significant change in the observed NOx emissions. These results vary from data reported in the literature for some engine applications and potential reasons for these differences are discussed.

  18. Sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogt, Robert L.

    1980-01-01

    A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is disclosed. The combustor includes several separately removable combustion chambers each having an annular sectoral cross section and a double-walled construction permitting separation of stresses due to pressure forces and stresses due to thermal effects. Arrangements are described for air-cooling each combustion chamber using countercurrent convective cooling flow between an outer shell wall and an inner liner wall and using film cooling flow through liner panel grooves and along the inner liner wall surface, and for admitting all coolant flow to the gas path within the inner liner wall. Also described are systems for supplying coal gas, combustion air, and dilution air to the combustion zone, and a liquid fuel nozzle for use during low-load operation. The disclosed combustor is fully air-cooled, requires no transition section to interface with a turbine nozzle, and is operable at firing temperatures of up to 3000.degree. F. or within approximately 300.degree. F. of the adiabatic stoichiometric limit of the coal gas used as fuel.

  19. Gas-to-liquids synthetic fuels for use in fuel cells : reformability, energy density, and infrastructure compatibility.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmed, S.; Kopasz, J. P.; Russell, B. J.; Tomlinson, H. L.

    1999-09-08

    The fuel cell has many potential applications, from power sources for electric hybrid vehicles to small power plants for commercial buildings. The choice of fuel will be critical to the pace of its commercialization. This paper reviews the various liquid fuels being considered as an alternative to direct hydrogen gas for the fuel cell application, presents calculations of the hydrogen and carbon dioxide yields from autothermal reforming of candidate liquid fuels, and reports the product gas composition measured from the autothermal reforming of a synthetic fuel in a micro-reactor. The hydrogen yield for a synthetic paraffin fuel produced by a cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch process was found to be similar to that of retail gasoline. The advantages of the synthetic fuel are that it contains no contaminants that would poison the fuel cell catalyst, is relatively benign to the environment, and could be transported in the existing fuel distribution system.

  20. Estimating Externalities of Natural Gas Fuel Cycles, Report 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes methods for estimating the external costs (and possibly benefits) to human health and the environment that result from natural gas fuel cycles. Although the concept of externalities is far from simple or precise, it generally refers to effects on individuals' well being, that result from a production or market activity in which the individuals do not participate, or are not fully compensated. In the past two years, the methodological approach that this report describes has quickly become a worldwide standard for estimating externalities of fuel cycles. The approach is generally applicable to any fuel cycle in which a resource, such as coal, hydro, or biomass, is used to generate electric power. This particular report focuses on the production activities, pollution, and impacts when natural gas is used to generate electric power. In the 1990s, natural gas technologies have become, in many countries, the least expensive to build and operate. The scope of this report is on how to estimate the value of externalities--where value is defined as individuals' willingness to pay for beneficial effects, or to avoid undesirable ones. This report is about the methodologies to estimate these externalities, not about how to internalize them through regulations or other public policies. Notwithstanding this limit in scope, consideration of externalities can not be done without considering regulatory, insurance, and other considerations because these institutional factors affect whether costs (and benefits) are in fact external, or whether they are already somehow internalized within the electric power market. Although this report considers such factors to some extent, much analysis yet remains to assess the extent to which estimated costs are indeed external. This report is one of a series of reports on estimating the externalities of fuel cycles. The other reports are on the coal, oil, biomass, hydro, and nuclear fuel cycles, and on general methodology.

  1. Purge gas protected transportable pressurized fuel cell modules and their operation in a power plant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zafred, P.R.; Dederer, J.T.; Gillett, J.E.; Basel, R.A.; Antenucci, A.B.

    1996-11-12

    A fuel cell generator apparatus and method of its operation involves: passing pressurized oxidant gas and pressurized fuel gas into modules containing fuel cells, where the modules are each enclosed by a module housing surrounded by an axially elongated pressure vessel, and where there is a purge gas volume between the module housing and pressure vessel; passing pressurized purge gas through the purge gas volume to dilute any unreacted fuel gas from the modules; and passing exhaust gas and circulated purge gas and any unreacted fuel gas out of the pressure vessel; where the fuel cell generator apparatus is transportable when the pressure vessel is horizontally disposed, providing a low center of gravity. 11 figs.

  2. Enhanced catalyst for converting synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coughlin, Peter K.

    1986-01-01

    The conversion of synthesis gas to liquid molar fuels by means of a cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalyst composition is enhanced by the addition of molybdenum, tungsten or a combination thereof as an additional component of said composition. The presence of the additive component increases the olefinic content of the hydrocarbon products produced. The catalyst composition can advantageously include a support component, such as a molecular sieve, co-catalyst/support component or a combination of such support components.

  3. Catalyst for converting synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coughlin, Peter K.

    1986-01-01

    The addition of an inert metal component, such as gold, silver or copper, to a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst comprising cobalt enables said catalyst to convert synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels at about 240.degree.-370.degree. C. with advantageously reduced selectivity of said cobalt for methane in said conversion. The catalyst composition can advantageously include a support component, such as a molecular sieve, co-catalyst/support component or a combination of such support components.

  4. A Review of Materials for Gas Turbines Firing Syngas Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibbons, Thomas; Wright, Ian G

    2009-05-01

    Following the extensive development work carried out in the 1990's, gas turbine combined-cycle (GTCC) systems burning natural gas represent a reliable and efficient power generation technology widely used in many parts of the world. A critical factor was that, in order to operate at the high turbine entry temperatures required for high efficiency operation, aero-engine technology, i.e., single-crystal blades, thermal barrier coatings, and sophisticated cooling techniques had to be rapidly scaled up and introduced into these large gas turbines. The problems with reliability that resulted have been largely overcome, so that the high-efficiency GTCC power generation system is now a mature technology, capable of achieving high levels of availability. The high price of natural gas and concern about emission of greenhouse gases has focused attention on the desirability of replacing natural gas with gas derived from coal (syngas) in these gas turbine systems, since typical systems analyses indicate that IGCC plants have some potential to fulfil the requirement for a zero-emissions power generation system. In this review, the current status of materials for the critical hot gas path parts in large gas turbines is briefly considered in the context of the need to burn syngas. A critical factor is that the syngas is a low-Btu fuel, and the higher mass flow compared to natural gas will tend to increase the power output of the engine. However, modifications to the turbine and to the combustion system also will be necessary. It will be shown that many of the materials used in current engines will also be applicable to units burning syngas but, since the combustion environment will contain a greater level of impurities (especially sulfur, water vapor, and particulates), the durability of some components may be prejudiced. Consequently, some effort will be needed to develop improved coatings to resist attack by sulfur-containing compounds, and also erosion.

  5. PRESSURIZED SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL/GAS TURBINE POWER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W.L. Lundberg; G.A. Israelson; R.R. Moritz; S.E. Veyo; R.A. Holmes; P.R. Zafred; J.E. King; R.E. Kothmann

    2000-02-01

    Power systems based on the simplest direct integration of a pressurized solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) generator and a gas turbine (GT) are capable of converting natural gas fuel energy to electric power with efficiencies of approximately 60% (net AC/LHV), and more complex SOFC and gas turbine arrangements can be devised for achieving even higher efficiencies. The results of a project are discussed that focused on the development of a conceptual design for a pressurized SOFC/GT power system that was intended to generate 20 MWe with at least 70% efficiency. The power system operates baseloaded in a distributed-generation application. To achieve high efficiency, the system integrates an intercooled, recuperated, reheated gas turbine with two SOFC generator stages--one operating at high pressure, and generating power, as well as providing all heat needed by the high-pressure turbine, while the second SOFC generator operates at a lower pressure, generates power, and provides all heat for the low-pressure reheat turbine. The system cycle is described, major system components are sized, the system installed-cost is estimated, and the physical arrangement of system components is discussed. Estimates of system power output, efficiency, and emissions at the design point are also presented, and the system cost of electricity estimate is developed.

  6. Apparatus for hot-gas desulfurization of fuel gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bissett, Larry A. (Morgantown, WV)

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for removing sulfur values from a hot fuel gas stream in a fdized bed contactor containing particulate sorbent material by employing a riser tube regeneration arrangement. Sulfur-laden sorbent is continuously removed from the fluidized bed through a stand pipe to the riser tube and is rapidly regenerated in the riser tube during transport of the sorbent therethrough by employing an oxygen-containing sorbent regenerating gas stream. The riser tube extends from a location below the fluidized bed to an elevation above the fluidized bed where a gas-solid separating mechanism is utilized to separate the regenerated particulate sorbent from the regeneration gases and reaction gases so that the regenerated sorbent can be returned to the fluidized bed for reuse.

  7. Fuel leak detection apparatus for gas cooled nuclear reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burnette, Richard D.

    1977-01-01

    Apparatus is disclosed for detecting nuclear fuel leaks within nuclear power system reactors, such as high temperature gas cooled reactors. The apparatus includes a probe assembly that is inserted into the high temperature reactor coolant gaseous stream. The probe has an aperture adapted to communicate gaseous fluid between its inside and outside surfaces and also contains an inner tube for sampling gaseous fluid present near the aperture. A high pressure supply of noncontaminated gas is provided to selectively balance the pressure of the stream being sampled to prevent gas from entering the probe through the aperture. The apparatus includes valves that are operable to cause various directional flows and pressures, which valves are located outside of the reactor walls to permit maintenance work and the like to be performed without shutting down the reactor.

  8. Efficient Use of Natural Gas Based Fuels in Heavy-Duty Engines | Department

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of Energy Natural gas and other liquid feedstocks for transportation fuels are compared for use in a dual-fuel engine. Benefits include economic stability, national security, environment, and cost. PDF icon deer12_kargul.pdf More Documents & Publications A Universal Dual-Fuel Controller for OEM/Aftermarket Diesel Engineswith Comprehensive Fuel & Emission Control Natural Gas Basics, Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP) (Fact Sheet) Characterization of Dual-Fuel Reactivity Controlled

  9. Fission gas release from UO{sub 2+x} in defective light water reactor fuel rods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skim, Y. S.

    1999-11-12

    A simplified semi-empirical model predicting fission gas release form UO{sub 2+x} fuel to the fuel rod plenum as a function of stoichiometry excess (x) is developed to apply to the fuel of a defective LWR fuel rod in operation. The effect of fuel oxidation in enhancing gas diffusion is included as a parabolic dependence of the stoichiometry excess. The increase of fission gas release in a defective BWR fuel rod is at the most 3 times higher than in an intact fuel rod because of small extent of UO{sub 2} oxidation. The major enhancement contributor in fission gas release of UO{sub 2+x} fuel is the increased diffusivity due to stoichiometry excess rather than the higher temperature caused by degraded fuel thermal conductivity.

  10. New Report Describes Joint Opportunities for Natural Gas and Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle Markets

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Sandia National Laboratories, supported by the DOE’s Vehicle Technologies and Fuel Cell Technologies Offices, recently released the workshop report “Transitioning the Transportation Sector: Exploring the Intersection of Hydrogen Fuel Cell and Natural Gas Vehicles.” Held in September 2014, the workshop considered common opportunities and challenges in expanding the use of hydrogen and natural gas as transportation fuels.

  11. Compounded turbocharged rotary internal combustion engine fueled with natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenkins, P.E.

    1992-10-15

    This patent describes a compounded engine. It comprises: a first Wankel engine having a housing with a trochoidal inner surface containing a generally triangular shaped rotor, the engine containing a fuel supply system suitable for operating the engine with natural gas as a fuel; a turbocharge compressing air for combustion by the engine, the turbocharger being driven by the exhaust gases which exit from the engine; a combustion chamber in fluid communication with the exhaust from the engine after that exhaust has passed through the turbocharger, the chamber having an ignition device suitable for igniting hydrocarbons in the engine exhaust, whereby the engine timing, and the air and fuel mixture of the engine are controlled so that when the engine exhaust reaches the combustion chamber the exhaust contains a sufficient amount of oxygen and hydrocarbons to enable ignition and combustion of the engine exhaust in the combustion chamber without the addition of fuel or air, and whereby the engine operating conditions are controlled to vary the performance of the secondary combustor; and a controllable ignition device to ignite the exhaust gases in the combustion chamber at predetermined times.

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Delivery Vans Support McShan

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Florist Natural Gas Delivery Vans Support McShan Florist to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Delivery Vans Support McShan Florist on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Delivery Vans Support McShan Florist on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Delivery Vans Support McShan Florist on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Delivery Vans Support McShan Florist on Delicious Rank Alternative

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ozinga Adds 14 Natural Gas Concrete Mixers

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    to Its Fleet Ozinga Adds 14 Natural Gas Concrete Mixers to Its Fleet to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ozinga Adds 14 Natural Gas Concrete Mixers to Its Fleet on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ozinga Adds 14 Natural Gas Concrete Mixers to Its Fleet on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ozinga Adds 14 Natural Gas Concrete Mixers to Its Fleet on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ozinga Adds 14 Natural Gas Concrete Mixers to

  14. Effects of Propane/Natural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Straub, D.L.; Ferguson, D.H.; Casleton, K.H.; Richards, G.A.

    2007-03-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports to the U.S. are expected to grow significantly over the next 10-15 years. Likewise, it is expected that changes to the domestic gas supply may also introduce changes in natural gas composition. As a result of these anticipated changes, the composition of fuel sources may vary significantly from conventional domestic natural gas supplies. This paper will examine the effects of fuel variability on pollutant emissions for premixed gas turbine conditions. The experimental data presented in this paper have been collected from a pressurized single injector combustion test rig at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The tests are conducted at 7.5 atm with a 588 K air preheat. A propane blending facility is used to vary the Wobbe Index of the site natural gas. The results indicate that propane addition of about five (vol.) percent does not lead to a significant change in the observed NOx or CO emissions. These results are different from data collected on some engine applications and potential reasons for these differences will be described.

  15. Rhode Island Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Rhode Island Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 257 951 718 594 102 130 182 109 391 219 1990's 51 92 155 126 0 27 42 18 1 1 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date:

  16. South Dakota Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) South Dakota Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 9 24 50 1 0 0 0 0 10 16 1990's 10 3 10 9 61 37 87 30 4 5 2000's 13 5 3 57 5 4 0 1 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next

  17. Tennessee Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Tennessee Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 12 42 90 39 25 36 13 26 36 78 1990's 3 8 12 13 84 33 73 19 4 11 2000's 13 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next

  18. Texas Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Texas Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 0 1 14 2 9 19 4 4 9 1990's 1,240 1,076 1 3 1 1 0 0 0 17 2000's 0 1,505 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release

  19. Texas Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Texas Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 183,870 204,390 193,822 189,173 229,053 200,239 163,218 1990's 228,485 125,198 123,111 130,916 139,427 178,827 177,508 144,787 176,262 136,708 2000's 141,785 135,786 114,919 123,585 129,825 134,434 138,558 154,323 166,500 169,631 2010's 157,751 147,268 163,325 198,208 213,481 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not

  20. Texas Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Texas Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 123,847 122,272 113,937 113,093 126,712 118,683 128,759 1990's 166,120 172,035 170,734 165,507 158,826 154,721 153,039 157,013 153,966 144,544 2000's 144,971 128,836 133,427 123,383 127,356 133,306 140,414 139,262 142,476 152,948 2010's 151,818 155,358 171,359 178,682 184,723 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not

  1. Utah Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Utah Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 1,806 5,621 6,286 6,775 8,970 7,970 6,596 1990's 10,573 4,597 3,866 3,241 3,322 18,520 18,570 16,478 19,481 15,930 2000's 16,394 14,578 17,163 16,398 15,802 17,216 20,221 21,715 18,169 20,222 2010's 22,022 23,209 28,165 28,165 25,336 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to

  2. Utah Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Utah Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 2,732 2,754 2,715 6,514 8,701 8,919 9,615 1990's 9,146 9,141 8,745 9,285 9,951 8,492 8,549 8,141 7,985 7,880 2000's 8,276 5,436 4,534 4,481 3,370 3,914 3,739 2,779 2,206 1,573 2010's 1,616 3,063 3,031 5,996 4,782 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of

  3. Vermont Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Vermont Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 6 3 4 9 4 5 6 0 1 2000's 7 104 2 10 12 9 2 2 1 2 2010's 1 2 3 3 5 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date:

  4. Virginia Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Virginia Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 124 272 443 438 669 536 425 1990's 489 327 653 1,120 1,102 1,296 1,183 1,330 1,243 1,519 2000's 1,820 1,641 3,000 2,108 3,307 2,749 3,809 3,143 4,406 6,040 2010's 6,121 7,206 8,408 8,408 7,252 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company

  5. Washington Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Washington Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 15 13 15 11 11 9 10 21 79 154 1990's 181 154 180 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next

  6. West Virginia Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) West Virginia Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3,720 4,377 4,270 3,849 5,480 5,017 4,203 1990's 6,427 4,353 4,807 3,749 4,815 4,846 4,292 4,500 4,549 3,705 2000's 6,720 6,384 7,420 4,881 4,277 6,729 8,339 6,483 8,423 11,348 2010's 11,348 15,571 21,569 28,682 27,853 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid

  7. West Virginia Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) West Virginia Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 2,106 2,855 2,920 2,809 3,355 3,326 3,679 1990's 3,204 3,391 3,290 3,316 3,272 3,199 2,262 2,710 2,344 2,209 2000's 2,505 2,342 2,186 1,361 723 281 315 309 283 698 2010's 810 1,153 1,812 3,429 6,776 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual

  8. Wisconsin Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Wisconsin Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 2 4 13 2 6 14 1 1 2 5 1990's 1 1 1 3 5 2 21 5 21 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date:

  9. Arkansas Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Arkansas Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 7 8 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date:

  10. Arkansas Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Arkansas Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4,402 4,956 5,362 4,353 5,720 5,469 3,940 1990's 6,464 1,218 5,570 6,053 4,283 5,083 5,124 6,349 7,980 1,822 2000's 1,468 849 536 615 1,364 1,288 1,351 1,502 2,521 4,091 2010's 5,340 6,173 6,599 6,605 6,452 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of

  11. California Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) California Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 14,569 17,498 17,575 15,868 18,066 14,370 11,065 1990's 14,754 96,442 84,220 80,210 63,251 62,160 63,297 69,386 68,370 61,810 2000's 60,757 49,766 41,878 39,452 37,337 37,865 57,234 56,936 64,689 63,127 2010's 64,931 44,379 51,154 49,846 54,288 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W =

  12. Colorado Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Colorado Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4,943 5,500 5,586 4,991 6,380 6,081 5,630 1990's 8,888 14,802 8,936 12,969 11,865 11,570 12,598 17,150 18,874 23,695 2000's 23,790 26,907 27,708 32,886 34,178 35,866 38,088 39,347 44,231 64,873 2010's 66,083 78,800 76,462 71,105 74,402 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld

  13. Colorado Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Colorado Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 5,057 5,060 5,243 4,406 5,715 5,541 6,591 1990's 8,455 9,081 12,233 11,863 12,482 13,560 14,894 12,435 12,200 12,863 2000's 13,064 13,871 15,904 15,927 17,093 15,641 16,347 16,218 18,613 21,288 2010's 25,090 28,265 29,383 25,806 30,873 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld

  14. Connecticut Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Connecticut Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 12.45 8.97 7.74 6.08 6.66 5.68 5.21 5.11 2000's 7.51 8.84 8.84 10.72 12.65 14.60 18.39 20.57 24.04 15.26 2010's 16.31 18.59 13.70 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date:

  15. Delaware Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Delaware Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 55 135 56 20 13 12 9 0 2 18 1990's 4,410 4,262 3,665 3,597 3,032 1 1 2 0 0 2000's 6 0 0 7 17 0 W 5 2 2 2010's 1 0 6 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016

  16. District of Columbia Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) District of Columbia Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 2 1 46 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016

  17. Florida Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Florida Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 1 3 1 0 3 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date:

  18. Florida Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Florida Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 668 422 392 278 313 241 208 1990's 250 2,413 3,819 476 653 620 2,049 2,321 2,200 2,240 2000's 2,307 2,154 1,262 1,133 1,178 987 896 654 897 94 2010's 4,512 4,896 6,080 5,609 6,551 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release

  19. Florida Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Florida Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 7,852 7,425 6,782 5,878 7,250 7,034 8,734 1990's 1,466 1,338 1,315 1,241 167 145 125 113 129 147 2000's 157 127 124 112 102 286 796 671 83 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 272 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next

  20. Hawaii Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Hawaii Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3,190 2,993 2,899 2,775 2,449 2,655 2,630 2,461 2,801 2,844 1990's 2,817 2,725 2,711 2,705 2,831 2,793 2,761 2,617 2,715 2,752 2000's 2,769 2,689 2,602 2,602 2,626 2,606 2,613 2,683 2,559 2,447 2010's 2,472 2,467 2,510 2,658 2,743 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W =

  1. Illinois Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Illinois Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 36,713 29,509 19,005 19,734 17,308 19,805 22,980 12,514 9,803 9,477 1990's 8,140 6,869 8,042 9,760 7,871 6,256 3,912 4,165 2,736 2,527 2000's 1,955 763 456 52 14 15 13 11 15 20 2010's 17 1 1 63 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W =

  2. Indiana Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Indiana Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 1,602 5,056 3,496 4,142 4,027 2,711 2,351 3,890 4,243 3,512 1990's 3,015 3,077 3,507 3,232 2,457 3,199 3,194 3,580 3,149 5,442 2000's 5,583 5,219 1,748 2,376 2,164 1,988 1,642 635 30 1 2010's 1 5 1 6 69 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  3. Iowa Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Iowa Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 57 64 68 23 53 45 44 40 34 82 1990's 81 46 45 84 123 96 301 137 17 12 2000's 44 39 23 143 30 31 46 40 27 3 2010's 2 1 0 0 1 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date:

  4. Kansas Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Kansas Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 12,471 14,232 15,160 13,269 15,701 16,571 13,965 1990's 18,415 13,814 17,424 20,363 15,623 18,772 18,752 20,641 13,068 11,611 2000's 13,338 11,598 17,693 10,861 8,589 11,734 13,681 10,232 12,803 15,169 2010's 13,461 12,781 17,017 17,110 14,851 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W =

  5. Kansas Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Kansas Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 25,430 25,873 27,297 25,616 28,804 29,357 29,665 1990's 22,499 30,800 26,312 36,294 28,988 28,510 30,444 26,205 20,921 19,321 2000's 16,664 10,928 11,723 9,706 6,460 8,100 7,541 5,439 2,331 2,126 2010's 2,102 2,246 2,268 2,189 1,983 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to

  6. New Jersey Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) New Jersey Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 9,574 11,504 9,786 9,896 8,616 13,421 12,099 13,774 14,846 14,539 1990's 9,962 14,789 14,362 14,950 7,737 7,291 6,778 6,464 9,082 5,761 2000's 8,296 12,330 3,526 473 530 435 175 379 489 454 2010's 457 392 139 255 530 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable;

  7. New Mexico Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) New Mexico Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date:

  8. New Mexico Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) New Mexico Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 26,231 29,787 27,294 20,497 28,958 23,288 20,828 1990's 32,573 11,826 14,805 12,832 18,476 16,134 17,901 18,476 17,728 16,738 2000's 38,944 37,094 34,686 36,339 40,977 41,815 44,880 47,525 49,753 49,655 2010's 49,070 47,556 47,696 47,018 49,406 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W =

  9. New Mexico Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) New Mexico Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 21,399 20,875 19,415 15,118 19,180 18,418 21,396 1990's 33,316 32,940 38,892 36,826 36,310 36,455 63,850 45,982 41,926 39,345 2000's 41,863 39,501 38,973 37,620 42,601 35,508 33,435 35,600 36,571 36,827 2010's 35,289 38,331 37,195 33,121 35,269 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W =

  10. New York Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) New York Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 3,226 4,722 2,350 1,646 1,792 1,797 707 416 728 1,239 1990's 385 678 1,190 1,638 1,460 1,490 1,259 881 699 459 2000's 858 970 1 18 8 14 4 13 7 6 2010's 2 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of

  11. North Carolina Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) North Carolina Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 7 42 58 59 60 43 43 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 2 4 3 0 0 0 0 21 2000's 2 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next

  12. North Dakota Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) North Dakota Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 196 417 102 0 8,335 40,370 49,847 51,543 49,014 54,408 1990's 53,144 52,557 58,496 57,680 57,127 57,393 55,867 53,179 54,672 53,185 2000's 49,190 51,004 53,184 53,192 47,362 51,329 54,361 51,103 50,536 53,495 2010's 54,813 51,303 52,541 45,736 48,394 - = No

  13. North Dakota Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) North Dakota Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 2,086 2,165 2,216 1,957 2,737 2,112 2,005 1990's 4,835 4,777 4,753 4,734 5,059 4,542 4,283 4,420 4,471 4,553 2000's 4,738 3,874 5,141 4,548 4,602 4,816 4,364 4,323 4,283 4,521 2010's 4,294 5,473 5,887 6,707 5,736 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure

  14. Ohio Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Ohio Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 69,169 69,850 64,812 62,032 43,866 24,444 5,182 18 44 348 1990's 849 891 1,051 992 1,432 904 1,828 1,423 1,194 1,200 2000's 1,442 1,149 79 1,002 492 579 423 608 460 522 2010's 353 296 366 416 641 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W =

  15. Ohio Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Ohio Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4,327 5,678 5,371 5,174 5,706 4,781 3,789 1990's 5,115 1,462 1,434 1,346 1,296 1,251 1,193 1,162 1,085 1,035 2000's 986 983 972 936 894 833 855 872 840 879 2010's 773 781 836 1,079 4,247 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data.

  16. Oklahoma Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 49,480 60,470 57,064 54,495 68,664 60,418 51,833 1990's 72,318 46,200 53,278 60,658 55,607 45,946 37,803 51,042 35,509 32,868 2000's 41,032 38,916 30,281 40,292 35,875 35,989 36,396 38,229 42,250 40,164 2010's 39,489 40,819 43,727 45,581 50,621 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W =

  17. Oklahoma Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 29,750 31,237 31,121 29,705 35,751 40,508 38,392 1990's 39,249 42,166 39,700 39,211 35,432 34,900 35,236 30,370 26,034 25,055 2000's 25,934 28,266 25,525 26,276 27,818 27,380 28,435 28,213 27,161 24,089 2010's 23,238 24,938 27,809 32,119 36,231 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W =

  18. Oregon Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Oregon Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 24 3 6 6 10 10 6 3 1990's 3 4 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 3 2000's 2 2 5 5 2 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date:

  19. Pennsylvania Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 3,127 10,532 5,621 3,844 82 221 196 247 254 305 1990's 220 222 132 110 252 75 266 135 80 119 2000's 261 107 103 126 131 132 124 145 123 205 2010's 4 2 2 3 20 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of

  20. Pennsylvania Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3,385 5,065 4,427 4,544 5,594 4,792 4,549 1990's 5,875 3,343 3,040 3,910 3,136 2,888 3,082 2,022 1,484 3,675 2000's 5,111 5,469 6,154 4,156 4,277 4,341 5,855 5,112 6,801 11,753 2010's 19,805 46,784 79,783 115,630 112,847 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid

  1. Pennsylvania Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 2,270 1,530 1,924 1970's 2,251 2,419 2,847 2,725 1,649 1,760 3,043 3,210 2,134 2,889 1980's 1,320 1,580 3,278 3,543 5,236 4,575 4,715 5,799 4,983 4,767 1990's 6,031 3,502 3,381 4,145 3,252 3,069 3,299 2,275 1,706 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W =

  2. Pennsylvania Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 4.88 5.26 5.97 8.28 6.46 7.24 4.14 5.00 5.02 5.93 2000's 4.90 8.64 6.75 7.10 9.30 9.95 13.53 10.83 8.30 5.15 2010's 3.76 3.40 7.96 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date:

  3. Kentucky Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Kentucky Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 42 2 131 259 94 4 1 0 6 44 1990's 2 2 5 16 50 6 45 24 2 3 2000's 10 2 1 98 0 15 3 124 15 18 2010's 5 8 1 29 52 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next

  4. Kentucky Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Kentucky Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 1,336 1,873 2,155 2,279 2,402 2,112 1,718 1990's 2,492 1,730 2,105 2,573 2,162 1,945 1,744 1,816 1,777 1,615 2000's 2,075 1,980 3,442 2,278 2,044 2,879 3,524 2,676 3,914 4,862 2010's 5,626 5,925 6,095 6,095 4,388 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of

  5. Louisiana Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Louisiana Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 153,850 179,291 153,777 141,098 178,271 150,519 121,991 1990's 175,439 111,793 134,088 147,888 140,571 133,825 144,486 156,387 131,595 111,203 2000's 130,550 37,811 34,285 51,254 48,308 45,543 49,124 61,368 52,941 56,656 2010's 59,336 80,983 54,463 57,549 58,034 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA =

  6. Louisiana Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Louisiana Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 121,848 123,993 104,292 102,185 123,008 121,936 134,132 1990's 82,828 83,733 86,623 74,925 66,600 75,845 69,235 71,155 63,368 68,393 2000's 69,174 63,137 63,031 56,018 55,970 45,837 46,205 51,499 42,957 39,002 2010's 40,814 42,633 42,123 34,179 30,527 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  7. Massachusetts Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Massachusetts Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 15,366 21,828 17,586 10,732 6,545 3,668 2,379 1,404 876 692 1990's 317 120 105 61 154 420 426 147 68 134 2000's 26 16 137 324 80 46 51 15 13 10 2010's 0 3 8 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of

  8. Massachusetts Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Massachusetts Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 3.59 3.90 3.65 4.97 2.32 4.22 4.51 3.70 2.41 4.65 2000's 2.72 6.88 4.99 7.09 5.94 10.33 13.05 12.84 13.80 12.99 2010's 12.48 4.28 14.63 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date:

  9. Michigan Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Michigan Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 3 3,038 2,473 2,956 2,773 2,789 2,754 2,483 2,402 2,402 1990's 19,106 15,016 14,694 12,795 13,688 21,378 21,848 22,238 21,967 20,896 2000's 12,423 4,054 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld

  10. Michigan Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Michigan Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4,135 4,574 4,053 3,778 5,251 4,354 3,862 1990's 5,882 6,252 4,178 4,889 6,399 6,198 5,478 9,386 6,160 5,954 2000's 7,689 6,799 10,925 6,309 5,755 8,276 7,932 7,588 5,447 6,841 2010's 6,626 5,857 7,428 7,248 5,948 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of

  11. Michigan Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Michigan Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3,995 4,136 4,142 3,831 4,365 3,896 4,141 1990's 3,212 3,343 3,096 3,282 3,367 3,337 3,011 2,674 3,073 2,912 2000's 2,455 2,587 2,445 2,798 2,419 2,318 2,363 2,076 1,982 1,686 2010's 1,684 1,303 1,174 1,071 1,152 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of

  12. Mississippi Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Mississippi Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 5,777 6,372 5,655 5,971 7,706 6,802 4,741 1990's 6,636 3,877 4,372 4,291 3,169 3,108 3,202 3,280 3,347 3,283 2000's 2,962 3,304 3,818 4,243 4,559 4,718 5,473 7,068 8,976 9,090 2010's 10,388 2,107 3,667 2,663 1,487 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure

  13. Mississippi Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Mississippi Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 8,582 9,158 8,521 1970's 7,893 5,840 9,153 6,152 5,357 7,894 4,836 4,979 5,421 8,645 1980's 4,428 4,028 7,236 6,632 7,202 6,296 6,562 8,091 7,100 5,021 1990's 7,257 4,585 4,945 4,829 3,632 3,507 3,584 3,652 3,710 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W =

  14. Mississippi Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Mississippi Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 855 830 641 591 385 298 280 1990's 621 708 573 538 463 399 382 372 363 638 2000's 786 722 758 251 895 1,018 1,138 1,196 1,140 1,150 2010's 1,155 1,042 1,111 1,103 1,310 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date:

  15. Missouri Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Missouri Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 65 60 2,129 1,278 326 351 1 1 2 1,875 1990's 0 0 0 0 371 4 785 719 40 207 2000's 972 31 62 1,056 917 15 78 66 6 10 2010's 18 172 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release

  16. Montana Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Montana Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 1,531 1,612 1,596 1,371 1,639 1,520 1,247 1990's 1,705 1,162 1,448 2,084 2,037 2,070 2,233 2,089 1,792 798 2000's 2,360 2,644 3,113 3,543 3,933 4,502 4,864 4,327 4,067 3,371 2010's 3,265 2,613 3,845 3,845 1,793 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of

  17. Nebraska Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Nebraska Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 9 1,838 63 2,006 2,470 2,689 2,142 2,199 1,948 2,088 1990's 2,361 2,032 1,437 791 890 15 315 134 11 4 2000's 339 6 1 13 39 16 19 33 28 18 2010's 12 9 4 2 376 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of

  18. Nevada Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Nevada Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 4 0 2 2 2 4 11 11 32 37 1990's 125 0 30 38 9 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date:

  19. Alabama Natural Gas % of Total Vehicle Fuel Deliveries (Percent)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Fuel Deliveries (Percent) Alabama Natural Gas % of Total Vehicle Fuel Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.44 0.20 0.15 0.08 0.71 0.57 0.57 2000's 0.57 0.52 0.52 0.52 0.52 0.67 0.47 0.36 0.32 0.29 2010's 0.37 0.64 0.64 0.63 0.63 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages:

  20. Alabama Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Alabama Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 50 23 91 9 54 14 3 2 17 16 1990's 320 332 171 410 69 0 18 21 2 4 2000's 0 0 0 22 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next

  1. Alabama Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Alabama Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3,600 4,154 4,227 4,139 5,314 5,021 4,277 1990's 6,171 4,907 8,391 8,912 9,381 10,468 10,492 7,020 7,650 9,954 2000's 10,410 9,593 9,521 11,470 11,809 11,291 12,045 11,345 11,136 10,460 2010's 10,163 10,367 12,389 12,456 10,055 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid

  2. Alabama Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Alabama Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 1,129 1,178 1,249 1,303 1,564 1,634 1,875 1990's 3,710 3,720 4,477 4,453 3,747 3,806 2,827 2,468 2,391 5,336 2000's 5,377 3,491 4,148 3,293 3,914 3,740 6,028 6,269 6,858 6,470 2010's 6,441 6,939 6,616 6,804 6,462 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of

  3. Alaska Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Alaska Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 96,603 109,333 62,341 71,104 112,404 151,280 189,702 1990's 166,155 187,106 197,975 202,199 200,809 253,695 255,500 230,578 242,271 224,355 2000's 226,659 229,206 241,469 255,701 237,530 259,829 218,153 227,374 211,878 219,161 2010's 211,918 208,531 214,335 219,190 219,451 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not

  4. Alaska Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Alaska Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 1,225 1,736 1,807 1,582 4,278 2,390 2,537 1990's 27,720 36,088 36,741 35,503 37,347 39,116 40,334 40,706 39,601 41,149 2000's 42,519 42,243 44,008 44,762 44,016 43,386 38,938 41,197 40,286 39,447 2010's 37,316 35,339 37,397 36,638 36,707 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld

  5. Wyoming Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Wyoming Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 124 222 518 373 271 316 339 303 291 167 1990's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next

  6. Wyoming Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Wyoming Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 15,438 18,274 17,619 16,966 25,122 23,252 20,541 1990's 29,233 20,988 27,382 7,592 4,676 4,570 4,252 4,099 3,477 3,125 2000's 3,236 4,032 4,369 4,590 4,823 5,010 5,279 33,309 35,569 36,290 2010's 34,459 39,114 33,826 32,004 21,811 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to

  7. Wyoming Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Wyoming Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 12,572 16,185 17,090 13,633 16,249 17,446 19,820 1990's 12,182 14,154 13,217 13,051 13,939 14,896 15,409 15,597 16,524 19,272 2000's 20,602 20,991 25,767 28,829 24,053 24,408 23,868 25,276 23,574 25,282 2010's 27,104 28,582 29,157 27,935 25,782 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W =

  8. Fuel injector for use in a gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiebe, David J.

    2012-10-09

    A fuel injector in a combustor apparatus of a gas turbine engine. An outer wall of the injector defines an interior volume in which an intermediate wall is disposed. A first gap is formed between the outer wall and the intermediate wall. The intermediate wall defines an internal volume in which an inner wall is disposed. A second gap is formed between the intermediate wall and the inner wall. The second gap receives cooling fluid that cools the injector. The cooling fluid provides convective cooling to the intermediate wall as it flows within the second gap. The cooling fluid also flows through apertures in the intermediate wall into the first gap where it provides impingement cooling to the outer wall and provides convective cooling to the outer wall. The inner wall defines a passageway that delivers fuel into a liner downstream from a main combustion zone.

  9. Excess fuel gas. Recover H/sub 2//LPG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banks, R.; Isalski, W.H.

    1987-10-01

    Refiners have traditionally been isolated from low temperature cryogenic processing. Energy conservation measures can be complemented by highly efficient cryogenic turbo-expander technology to remove almost all C/sub 3/ and C/sub 4/ components from the fuel header in a separated modular gas processing plant. When appropriate, ethane and ethylene can be accommodated by this technology without the necessity for revamp of existing equipment. The wide experience of cryogenic technology worldwide makes it an excellent means of improving refinery efficiency.

  10. Combined catalysts for the combustion of fuel in gas turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anoshkina, Elvira V.; Laster, Walter R.

    2012-11-13

    A catalytic oxidation module for a catalytic combustor of a gas turbine engine is provided. The catalytic oxidation module comprises a plurality of spaced apart catalytic elements for receiving a fuel-air mixture over a surface of the catalytic elements. The plurality of catalytic elements includes at least one primary catalytic element comprising a monometallic catalyst and secondary catalytic elements adjacent the primary catalytic element comprising a multi-component catalyst. Ignition of the monometallic catalyst of the primary catalytic element is effective to rapidly increase a temperature within the catalytic oxidation module to a degree sufficient to ignite the multi-component catalyst.

  11. Statistical Methods Handbook for Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. J. Einerson

    2005-05-01

    Fuel materials such as kernels, coated particles, and compacts are being manufactured for experiments simulating service in the next generation of high temperature gas reactors. These must meet predefined acceptance specifications. Many tests are performed for quality assurance, and many of these correspond to criteria that must be met with specified confidence, based on random samples. This report describes the statistical methods to be used. The properties of the tests are discussed, including the risk of false acceptance, the risk of false rejection, and the assumption of normality. Methods for calculating sample sizes are also described.

  12. Natural Gas as a Fuel for Heavy Trucks: Issues and Incentives (released in AEO2010)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    Environmental and energy security concerns related to petroleum use for transportation fuels, together with recent growth in U.S. proved reserves and technically recoverable natural gas resources, including shale gas, have sparked interest in policy proposals aimed at stimulating increased use of natural gas as a vehicle fuel, particularly for heavy trucks.

  13. Impact study on the use of biomass-derived fuels in gas turbines for power generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moses, C.A.; Bernstein, H.

    1994-01-01

    This report evaluates the properties of fuels derived from biomass, both gaseous and liquid, against the fuel requirements of gas turbine systems for gernating electrical power. The report attempts to be quantitative rather than merely qualitative to establish the significant variations in the properties of biomass fuels from those of conventional fuels. Three general categories are covered: performance, durability, and storage and handling.

  14. Workshop Notes from ""Compressed Natural Gas and Hydrogen Fuels...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Overview of DOE - DOT December 2009 CNG and Hydrogen Fuels Workshop Safety and Regulatory Structure for CNG, CNG-Hydrogen Vehicles and Fuels in India International Hydrogen Fuel ...

  15. Opportunities for Micropower and Fuel Cell/Gas Turbine Hybrid Systems in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Industrial Applications - Volume I, January 2000 | Department of Energy Opportunities for Micropower and Fuel Cell/Gas Turbine Hybrid Systems in Industrial Applications - Volume I, January 2000 Opportunities for Micropower and Fuel Cell/Gas Turbine Hybrid Systems in Industrial Applications - Volume I, January 2000 In this January 2000 report, Arthur D. Little provides an assessment of the opportunities for micropower and fuel cell/gas turbine hybrid technologies in the industrial sector for

  16. Transitioning the Transportation Sector: Exploring the Intersection of Hydrogen Fuel Cell and Natural Gas Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Proceedings for the Transitioning the Transportation Sector: Exploring the Intersection of Hydrogen Fuel Cell and Natural Gas Vehicles workshop held September 9, 2014.

  17. Natural Gas as a Transportation Fuel: Benefits, Challenges, and Implementation (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2007-07-01

    Presentation for the Clean Cities Website highlighting the benefits, challenges, and implementation considerations when utilizing natural gas as a transportation fuel.

  18. Low-NOx Gas Turbine Injectors Utilizing Hydrogen-Rich Opportunity Fuels

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Gas turbines are commonly used in industry for onsite power and heating needs because of their high efficiency and clean environmental performance. Natural gas is the fuel most frequently used to...

  19. Fact #724: April 23, 2012 Gas Guzzler Tax Levied on New Cars with Low Fuel Economy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The "Gas Guzzler Tax" is collected from the public for each new car purchased with fuel economy less than 22.5 miles per gallon (mpg). The Gas Guzzler Tax does not apply to light trucks, only cars....

  20. Air/fuel supply system for use in a gas turbine engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, Timothy A; Schilp, Reinhard; Gambacorta, Domenico

    2014-06-17

    A fuel injector for use in a gas turbine engine combustor assembly. The fuel injector includes a main body and a fuel supply structure. The main body has an inlet end and an outlet end and defines a longitudinal axis extending between the outlet and inlet ends. The main body comprises a plurality of air/fuel passages extending therethrough, each air/fuel passage including an inlet that receives air from a source of air and an outlet. The fuel supply structure communicates with and supplies fuel to the air/fuel passages for providing an air/fuel mixture within each air/fuel passage. The air/fuel mixtures exit the main body through respective air/fuel passage outlets.

  1. Fuel Performance Experiments and Modeling: Fission Gas Bubble Nucleation and Growth in Alloy Nuclear Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDeavitt, Sean; Shao, Lin; Tsvetkov, Pavel; Wirth, Brian; Kennedy, Rory

    2014-04-07

    Advanced fast reactor systems being developed under the DOE's Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative are designed to destroy TRU isotopes generated in existing and future nuclear energy systems. Over the past 40 years, multiple experiments and demonstrations have been completed using U-Zr, U-Pu-Zr, U-Mo and other metal alloys. As a result, multiple empirical and semi-empirical relationships have been established to develop empirical performance modeling codes. Many mechanistic questions about fission as mobility, bubble coalescience, and gas release have been answered through industrial experience, research, and empirical understanding. The advent of modern computational materials science, however, opens new doors of development such that physics-based multi-scale models may be developed to enable a new generation of predictive fuel performance codes that are not limited by empiricism.

  2. FUEL CONSUMPTION AND COST SAVINGS OF CLASS 8 HEAVY-DUTY TRUCKS POWERED BY NATURAL GAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Zhiming; LaClair, Tim J; Daw, C Stuart; Smith, David E

    2013-01-01

    We compare the fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of natural gas and diesel heavy-duty (HD) class 8 trucks under consistent simulated drive cycle conditions. Our study included both conventional and hybrid HD trucks operating with either natural gas or diesel engines, and we compare the resulting simulated fuel efficiencies, fuel costs, and payback periods. While trucks powered by natural gas engines have lower fuel economy, their CO2 emissions and costs are lower than comparable diesel trucks. Both diesel and natural gas powered hybrid trucks have significantly improved fuel economy, reasonable cost savings and payback time, and lower CO2 emissions under city driving conditions. However, under freeway-dominant driving conditions, the overall benefits of hybridization are considerably less. Based on payback period alone, non-hybrid natural gas trucks appear to be the most economic option for both urban and freeway driving environments.

  3. North Dakota Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2010 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2011 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2012 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2013 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2014 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2015 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2016 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Delivered to

  4. South Dakota Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2010 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2011 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2012 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2013 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2014 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2015 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2016 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Delivered to

  5. Maine Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Maine Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2010 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2011 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2012 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2013 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2014 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2015 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2016 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages:

  6. Montana Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Montana Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2010 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2011 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2012 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2013 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2014 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2015 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2016 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages:

  7. Delaware Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Delaware Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2010 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2011 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2012 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2013 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2014 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2015 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2016 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages:

  8. Vermont Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vermont Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2010 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2011 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2012 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2013 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2014 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2015 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2016 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages:

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter J. Tijrn

    2003-05-31

    This Final Report for Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC22-95PC93052, the ''Development of Alternative Fuels and Chemicals from Synthesis Gas,'' was prepared by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products), and covers activities from 29 December 1994 through 31 July 2002. The overall objectives of this program were to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture primarily of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and carbon monoxide (CO), to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at the LaPorte, Texas Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). Laboratory work was performed by Air Products and a variety of subcontractors, and focused on the study of the kinetics of production of methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas, the production of DME using the Liquid Phase Dimethyl Ether (LPDME{trademark}) Process, the conversion of DME to fuels and chemicals, and the production of other higher value products from syngas. Four operating campaigns were performed at the AFDU during the performance period. Tests of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Process and the LPDME{trademark} Process were made to confirm results from the laboratory program and to allow for the study of the hydrodynamics of the slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR) at a significant engineering scale. Two campaigns demonstrated the conversion of syngas to hydrocarbon products via the slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process. Other topics that were studied within this program include the economics of production of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), the identification of trace components in coal-derived syngas and the means to economically remove these species, and the study of systems for separation of wax from catalyst in the F-T process. The work performed under this Cooperative Agreement has continued to promote the development of technologies that use clean syngas produced from any one of a variety of sources (including coal) for the production of a spectrum of alternative fuels (hydrocarbons and oxygenate fuels), octane enhancers, and chemicals and chemical intermediates. In particular, the data from the 1995 LPMEOH{trademark} campaign provided confirmation of assumptions used in the design of the catalyst reduction system at the Kingsport LPMEOH{trademark} Commercial Demonstration Project, and the alternate methanol catalyst has been in use there since late 1998. The kinetic model was also expanded to allow for more accurate prediction of methanol production and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) conversion, and more accurate modeling of by-product formation for the alternate methanol catalyst. The outstanding performance results of the LPMEOH{trademark} Process at Kingsport can be attributed in large part to the body of work performed since 1981 in collaboration between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products. In addition, a pilot-plant-tested LPDME{trademark} Process has been demonstrated, and the product cost of DME from coal-derived syngas can be competitive in certain locations and applications. The need for liquid fuels will continue to be a critical concern for this nation in the 21st century. Efforts are needed to ensure the development and demonstration of economically competitive, efficient, environmentally responsible technologies that produce clean fuels and chemicals from coal under DOE's Vision 21 concept. These liquids will be a component of the fuel mix that will provide the transition from the current reliance on carbon-based fuels to the ultimate use of H{sub 2} as a means of energy transport. Indirect liquefaction, which converts the syngas (H{sub 2} and CO) produced by the gasification of coal to sulfur- and nitrogen-free liquid products, is a key component of the Vision 21 initiative. The results from this current program provide continued support to the objectives for the conversion of domestic coal to electric power and co-produced clean liquid fuels and chemicals in an environmentally superior manner.

  10. Colorado Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Colorado Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 9,868 9,133 8,877 7,927 9,137 8,934 8,095 8,612 10,322 9,190 1990's 15,379 6,778 7,158 8,456 8,168 7,170 6,787 6,314 5,292 4,526 2000's 4,772 5,625 5,771 5,409 5,308 5,285 6,149 6,869 6,258 7,527 2010's 5,148 4,268 4,412 4,077 4,120 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not

  11. [Fuel substitution of vehicles by natural gas: Summaries of four final technical reports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-05-01

    This report contains summary information on three meetings and highlights of a fourth meeting held by the Society of Automotive Engineers on natural gas fueled vehicles. The meetings covered the following: Natural gas engine and vehicle technology; Safety aspects of alternately fueled vehicles; Catalysts and emission control--Meeting the legislative standards; and LNG--Strengthening the links.

  12. Analytical model for transient gas flow in nuclear fuel rods. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rowe, D.S.; Oehlberg, R.N.

    1981-08-01

    An analytical model for calculating gas flow and pressure inside a nuclear fuel rod is presented. Such a model is required to calculate the pressure loading of cladding during ballooning that could occur for postulated reactor accidents. The mathematical model uses a porous media (permeability) concept to define the resistance to gas flow along the fuel rod. 7 refs.

  13. Workshop on Gas Clean-Up for Fuel Cell Applications | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Workshop on Gas Clean-Up for Fuel Cell Applications Workshop on Gas Clean-Up for Fuel Cell Applications The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) hosted the Workshop on Gas Clean-Up for Fuel Cell Applications on March 6-7, 2014, in Argonne, Illinois. The workshop was sponsored by the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office and included participants from industry, academia, national labs, government agencies, and other stakeholders. The objectives of the workshop were to

  14. DOE Issues Request for Information on Gas Clean-Up for Fuel Cell

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Applications | Department of Energy Gas Clean-Up for Fuel Cell Applications DOE Issues Request for Information on Gas Clean-Up for Fuel Cell Applications June 1, 2015 - 10:37am Addthis The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Fuel Cell Technologies Office has issued a request for information (RFI) to obtain feedback and opinions from industry, academia, research laboratories, government agencies, and other stakeholders on the report findings from the Gas Clean-up for Fuel Cell Applications

  15. The Case for Natural Gas Fueled Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power Systems for Distributed Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chick, Lawrence A.; Weimar, Mark R.; Whyatt, Greg A.; Powell, Michael R.

    2015-02-01

    Natural-gas-fueled solid oxide fuel cell (NGSOFC) power systems yield electrical conversion efficiencies exceeding 60% and may become a viable alternative for distributed generation (DG) if stack life and manufacturing economies of scale can be realized. Currently, stacks last approximately 2 years and few systems are produced each year because of the relatively high cost of electricity from the systems. If mass manufacturing (10,000 units per year) and a stack life of 15 years can be reached, the cost of electricity from an NGSOFC system is estimated to be about 7.7 ¢/kWh, well within the price of commercial and residential retail prices at the national level (9.9-10¢/kWh and 11-12 ¢/kWh, respectively). With an additional 5 ¢/kWh in estimated additional benefits from DG, NGSOFC could be well positioned to replace the forecasted 59-77 gigawatts of capacity loss resulting from coal plant closures due to stricter emissions regulations and low natural gas prices.

  16. Method for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clawson, Lawrence G.; Mitchell, William L.; Bentley, Jeffrey M.; Thijssen, Johannes H. J.

    2000-01-01

    A method for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide within a reformer 10 is disclosed. According to the method, a stream including an oxygen-containing gas is directed adjacent to a first vessel 18 and the oxygen-containing gas is heated. A stream including unburned fuel is introduced into the oxygen-containing gas stream to form a mixture including oxygen-containing gas and fuel. The mixture of oxygen-containing gas and unburned fuel is directed tangentially into a partial oxidation reaction zone 24 within the first vessel 18. The mixture of oxygen-containing gas and fuel is further directed through the partial oxidation reaction zone 24 to produce a heated reformate stream including hydrogen gas and carbon monoxide. Steam may also be mixed with the oxygen-containing gas and fuel, and the reformate stream from the partial oxidation reaction zone 24 directed into a steam reforming zone 26. High- and low-temperature shift reaction zones 64,76 may be employed for further fuel processing.

  17. Gas Diffusion Electrodes for Fuel Cells - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    methanol fuel cells have an advantage over hydrogen fuel cells because the liquid methanol has high energy density and is easily transportable. However, one of the...

  18. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS. FINAL QUARTERLY STATUS REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-04-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  19. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS. FINAL QUARTERLY STATUS REPORT NO. 10

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-11-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  20. Nebraska Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Nebraska Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 4.67 2010's 15.10 15.29 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price Nebraska Natural Gas Prices Natural Gas

  1. Federal Offshore--Gulf of Mexico Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Million Cubic Feet) Gulf of Mexico Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption Gulf of Mexico Natural Gas Consumption by End Use Plant Fuel Consumption of Natural Gas

  2. Method of fabricating an integral gas seal for fuel cell gas distribution assemblies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dettling, Charles J.; Terry, Peter L.

    1988-03-22

    A porous gas distribution plate assembly for a fuel cell, such as a bipolar assembly, includes an inner impervious region wherein the bipolar assembly has good surface porosity but no through-plane porosity and wherein electrical conductivity through the impervious region is maintained. A hot-pressing process for forming the bipolar assembly includes placing a layer of thermoplastic sealant material between a pair of porous, electrically conductive plates, applying pressure to the assembly at elevated temperature, and allowing the assembly to cool before removing the pressure whereby the layer of sealant material is melted and diffused into the porous plates to form an impervious bond along a common interface between the plates holding the porous plates together. The distribution of sealant within the pores along the surface of the plates provides an effective barrier at their common interface against through-plane transmission of gas.

  3. Integral gas seal for fuel cell gas distribution assemblies and method of fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dettling, Charles J.; Terry, Peter L.

    1985-03-19

    A porous gas distribution plate assembly for a fuel cell, such as a bipolar assembly, includes an inner impervious region wherein the bipolar assembly has good surface porosity but no through-plane porosity and wherein electrical conductivity through the impervious region is maintained. A hot-pressing process for forming the bipolar assembly includes placing a layer of thermoplastic sealant material between a pair of porous, electrically conductive plates, applying pressure to the assembly at elevated temperature, and allowing the assembly to cool before removing the pressure whereby the layer of sealant material is melted and diffused into the porous plates to form an impervious bond along a common interface between the plates holding the porous plates together. The distribution of sealant within the pores along the surface of the plates provides an effective barrier at their common interface against through-plane transmission of gas.

  4. Application of Phase-field Method in Predicting Gas Bubble Microstructure Evolution in Nuclear Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Shenyang Y.; Li, Yulan; Sun, Xin; Gao, Fei; Devanathan, Ramaswami; Henager, Charles H.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2010-04-30

    Fission product accumulation and gas bubble microstructure evolution in nuclear fuels strongly affect thermo-mechanical properties such as thermal conductivity, gas release, volumetric swelling and cracking, and hence the fuel performance. In this paper, a general phase-field model is developed to predict gas bubble formation and evolution. Important materials processes and thermodynamic properties including the generation of gas atoms and vacancies, sinks for vacancies and gas atoms, the elastic interaction among defects, gas re-solution, and inhomogeneity of elasticity and diffusivity are accounted for in the model. The simulations demonstrate the potential application of the phase-field method in investigating 1) heterogeneous nucleation of gas bubbles at defects; 2) effect of elastic interaction, inhomogeneity of material properties, and gas re-solution on gas bubble microstructures; and 3) effective properties from the output of phase-field simulations such as distribution of defects, gas bubbles, and stress fields.

  5. Development of the Low Swirl Injector for Fuel-Flexible GasTurbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Littlejohn, D.; Cheng, R.K.; Nazeer,W.A.; Smith, K.O

    2007-02-14

    Industrial gas turbines are primarily fueled with natural gas. However, changes in fuel cost and availability, and a desire to control carbon dioxide emissions, are creating pressure to utilize other fuels. There is an increased interest in the use of fuels from coal gasification, such as syngas and hydrogen, and renewable fuels, such as biogas and biodiesel. Current turbine fuel injectors have had years of development to optimize their performance with natural gas. The new fuels appearing on the horizon can have combustion properties that differ substantially from natural gas. Factors such as turbulent flame speed, heat content, autoignition characteristics, and range of flammability must be considered when evaluating injector performance. The low swirl injector utilizes a unique flame stabilization mechanism and is under development for gas turbine applications. Its design and mode of operation allow it to operate effectively over a wide range of conditions. Studies conducted at LBNL indicate that the LSI can operate on fuels with a wide range of flame speeds, including hydrogen. It can also utilize low heat content fuels, such as biogas and syngas. We will discuss the low swirl injector operating parameters, and how the LSC performs with various alternative fuels.

  6. Development of a Liquid to Compressed Natural Gas (LCNG) Fueling Station. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, J. A.

    1999-06-30

    The program objective was the development of equipment and processes to produce compressed natural gas (CNG) from liquified natural gas (LNG) for heavy duty vehicular applications. The interest for this technology is a result of the increased use of alternative fuels for the reduction of emissions and dependency of foreign energy. Technology of the type developed under this program is critical for establishing natural gas as an economical alternative fuel.

  7. Power plant including an exhaust gas recirculation system for injecting recirculated exhaust gases in the fuel and compressed air of a gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy; Shaffer, Jason Brian; York, William David

    2014-05-13

    A power plant is provided and includes a gas turbine engine having a combustor in which compressed gas and fuel are mixed and combusted, first and second supply lines respectively coupled to the combustor and respectively configured to supply the compressed gas and the fuel to the combustor and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system to re-circulate exhaust gas produced by the gas turbine engine toward the combustor. The EGR system is coupled to the first and second supply lines and configured to combine first and second portions of the re-circulated exhaust gas with the compressed gas and the fuel at the first and second supply lines, respectively.

  8. Grain Boundary Percolation Modeling of Fission Gas Release in Oxide Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul C. Millett; Michael R. Tonks; S. B. Biner

    2012-05-01

    We present a new approach to fission gas release modeling in oxide fuels based on grain boundary network percolation. The method accounts for variability in the bubble growth and coalescence rates on individual grain boundaries, and the resulting effect on macroscopic fission gas release. Two-dimensional representa- tions of fuel pellet microstructures are considered, and the resulting gas release rates are compared with traditional two-stage Booth models, which do not account for long-range percolation on grain boundary net- works. The results show that the requirement of percolation of saturated grain boundaries can considerably reduce the total gas release rates, particularly when gas resolution is considered.

  9. Method And Apparatus For Converting Hydrocarbon Fuel Into Hydrogen Gas And Carbon Dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clawson, Lawrence G. (Dover, MA); Mitchell, William L. (Belmont, MA); Bentley, Jeffrey M. (Westford, MA); Thijssen, Johannes H. J. (Cambridge, MA)

    2001-03-27

    A hydrocarbon fuel reforming method is disclosed suitable for producing synthesis hydrogen gas from reactions with hydrocarbons fuels, oxygen, and steam. A first mixture of an oxygen-containing gas and a first fuel is directed into a first tube 108 to produce a first reaction reformate. A second mixture of steam and a second fuel is directed into a second tube 116 annularly disposed about the first tube 108 to produce a second reaction reformate. The first and second reaction reformates are then directed into a reforming zone 144 and subject to a catalytic reforming reaction. In another aspect of the method, a first fuel is combusted with an oxygen-containing gas in a first zone 108 to produce a reformate stream, while a second fuel under steam reforming in a second zone 116. Heat energy from the first zone 108 is transferred to the second zone 116.

  10. Estimating household fuel oil/kerosine, natural gas, and LPG prices by census region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poyer, D.A.; Teotia, A.P.S.

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this research is to estimate individual fuel prices within the residential sector. The data from four US Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, residential energy consumption surveys were used to estimate the models. For a number of important fuel types - fuel oil, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas - the estimation presents a problem because these fuels are not used by all households. Estimates obtained by using only data in which observed fuel prices are present would be biased. A correction for this self-selection bias is needed for estimating prices of these fuels. A literature search identified no past studies on application of the selectivity model for estimating prices of residential fuel oil/kerosine, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas. This report describes selectivity models that utilize the Dubin/McFadden correction method for estimating prices of residential fuel oil/kerosine, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas in the Northeast, Midwest, South, and West census regions. Statistically significant explanatory variables are identified and discussed in each of the models. This new application of the selectivity model should be of interest to energy policy makers, researchers, and academicians.

  11. Simulated Coal-Gas-Fueled Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Development Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    This final report summarizes the technical work performed under Department of Energy Contract DE-AC21-91MC27393, Simulated Coal- Gas-Fueled Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Development Program.'' This work consists of five major tasks and their respective subtasks as listed below. A brief description of each task is also provided. The Stack Design Requirements task focused on requirements and specification for designing, constructing, and testing a nominal 100-kilowatt integrated stack and on requirements for the balance-of-plant equipment to support a 1000-kilowatt integrated stack demonstrator. The Stack Design Preparation task focused on the mechanical design of a 100-kilowatt stack comprised of 8-ft[sup 2] cells incorporating the new cell configuration and component technology improvements developed in the previous DOE MCFC contract. Electrode Casting focused on developing a faster drying solvent for use in the electrode tape casting process. Electrode Heat Treatment was directed at scaling up the laboratory continuous debinding process to a new full-size IFC debinding oven coupled to a continuous belt furnace that will both debind and sinter the electrodes in one continuous process train. Repeat Part Quality Assurance and Testing provided the appropriate effort to ensure consistent, high-quality, reproducible and comparable repeat parts.

  12. Simulated Coal-Gas-Fueled Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Development Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    This final report summarizes the technical work performed under Department of Energy Contract DE-AC21-91MC27393, ``Simulated Coal- Gas-Fueled Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Development Program.`` This work consists of five major tasks and their respective subtasks as listed below. A brief description of each task is also provided. The Stack Design Requirements task focused on requirements and specification for designing, constructing, and testing a nominal 100-kilowatt integrated stack and on requirements for the balance-of-plant equipment to support a 1000-kilowatt integrated stack demonstrator. The Stack Design Preparation task focused on the mechanical design of a 100-kilowatt stack comprised of 8-ft{sup 2} cells incorporating the new cell configuration and component technology improvements developed in the previous DOE MCFC contract. Electrode Casting focused on developing a faster drying solvent for use in the electrode tape casting process. Electrode Heat Treatment was directed at scaling up the laboratory continuous debinding process to a new full-size IFC debinding oven coupled to a continuous belt furnace that will both debind and sinter the electrodes in one continuous process train. Repeat Part Quality Assurance and Testing provided the appropriate effort to ensure consistent, high-quality, reproducible and comparable repeat parts.

  13. New Hampshire Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) New Hampshire Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 6.21 6.16 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price New Hampshire Natural Gas Prices

  14. Alternative-fueled truck demonstration natural gas program: Caterpillar G3406LE development and demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-06-01

    In 1990, the California Energy Commission, the South Coast Air Quality Management District, and the Southern California Gas Company joined together to sponsor the development and demonstration of compressed natural gas engines for Class 8 heavy-duty line-haul trucking applications. This program became part of an overall Alternative-Fueled Truck Demonstration Program, with the goal of advancing the technological development of alternative-fueled engines. The demonstration showed natural gas to be a technically viable fuel for Class 8 truck engines.

  15. City in Colorado Fueling Vehicles with Gas Produced from Wastewater...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    April 29, 2015 - 6:05pm Addthis Grand Junction's CNG station fuels the city's fleets and county buses and is available to fuel public vehicles as well. Pictured above, a Grand ...

  16. Gas Clean-Up for Fuel Cell Applications Workshop Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... in pos eum quo con et grid electricity is unavailable and the fuel effciency, reliability and environment friendliness of the fuel cell is of greatest beneft to the client. ...

  17. Flame holding tolerant fuel and air premixer for a gas turbine combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    York, William David; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Ziminsky, Willy Steve

    2012-11-20

    A fuel nozzle with active cooling is provided. It includes an outer peripheral wall, a nozzle center body concentrically disposed within the outer wall in a fuel and air pre-mixture. The fuel and air pre-mixture includes an air inlet, a fuel inlet and a premixing passage defined between the outer wall in the center body. A gas fuel flow passage is provided. A first cooling passage is included within the center body in a second cooling passage is defined between the center body and the outer wall.

  18. SUBTASK 3.12 - GASIFICATION, WARM-GAS CLEANUP, AND LIQUID FUELS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Other: SUBTASK 3.12 - GASIFICATION, WARM-GAS CLEANUP, AND LIQUID FUELS PRODUCTION WITH ILLINOIS COAL Citation Details In-Document Search Title: SUBTASK 3.12 - GASIFICATION, ...

  19. Cheyenne Light, Fuel and Power (Gas)- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cheyenne Light, Fuel and Power offers incentives to gas customers who construct new energy efficient homes or install energy efficient equipment in existing homes. Incentives are available for:

  20. Cheyenne Light, Fuel and Power (Gas)- Commercial and Industrial Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cheyenne Light, Fuel and Power (CLFP) offers incentives to commercial and industrial gas customers who install energy efficient equipment in existing buildings. Incentives are available for boilers...

  1. Workshop Agenda: Compressed Natural Gas and Hydrogen Fuels, Lesssons Learned for the Safe Deployment of Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This agenda provides information about the Compressed Natural Gas and Hydrogen Fuels workshop hosted by the U.S. departments of Energy and Transportation on December 10-11, 2009 in Washington, D.C.

  2. Apparatus for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clawson, Lawrence G. (Dover, MA); Mitchell, William L. (Belmont, MA); Bentley, Jeffrey M. (Westford, MA); Thijssen, Johannes H. J. (Cambridge, MA)

    2001-01-01

    A hydrocarbon fuel reformer (200) is disclosed suitable for producing synthesis hydrogen gas from reactions with hydrocarbons fuels, oxygen, and steam. The reformer (200) comprises first and second tubes (208,218). The first tube (208) includes a first catalyst (214) and receives a first mixture of steam and a first fuel. The second tube (218) is annularly disposed about the first tube (208) and receives a second mixture of an oxygen-containing gas and a second fuel. In one embodiment, a third tube (224) is annularly disposed about the second tube (218) and receives a first reaction reformate from the first tube (208) and a second reaction reformate from the second tube (218). A catalyst reforming zone (260) annularly disposed about the third tube (224) may be provided to subject reformate constituents to a shift reaction. In another embodiment, a fractionator is provided to distill first and second fuels from a fuel supply source.

  3. Impacts of Increasing Natural Gas Fueled CHP from 20 to 35 Percent of Total

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electricity Production in Texas, April 2011 | Department of Energy Impacts of Increasing Natural Gas Fueled CHP from 20 to 35 Percent of Total Electricity Production in Texas, April 2011 Impacts of Increasing Natural Gas Fueled CHP from 20 to 35 Percent of Total Electricity Production in Texas, April 2011 This report is an examination of the possible impacts, implications, and practicality of increasing the amount of electrical energy produced from combined heat and power (CHP) facilities

  4. Method of generating hydrocarbon reagents from diesel, natural gas and other logistical fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Herling, Darrell R.; Aardahl, Chris L.; Rozmiarek, Robert T.; Rappe, Kenneth G.; Wang, Yong; Holladay, Jamelyn D.

    2010-06-29

    The present invention provides a process for producing reagents for a chemical reaction by introducing a fuel containing hydrocarbons into a flash distillation process wherein the fuel is separated into a first component having a lower average molecular weight and a second component having a higher average molecular weight. The first component is then reformed to produce synthesis gas wherein the synthesis gas is reacted catalytically to produce the desire reagent.

  5. Method of Generating Hydrocarbon Reagents from Diesel, Natural Gas and Other Logistical Fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Herling, Darrell R [Richland, WA; Aardahl, Chris L. [Richland, WA; Rozmiarek, Robert T. [Middleton, WI; Rappe, Kenneth G. [Richland, WA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; Holladay, Jamelyn D. [Kennewick, WA

    2008-10-14

    The present invention provides a process for producing reagents for a chemical reaction by introducing a fuel containing hydrocarbons into a flash distillation process wherein the fuel is separated into a first component having a lower average molecular weight and a second component having a higher average molecular weight. The first component is then reformed to produce synthesis gas wherein the synthesis gas is reacted catalytically to produce the desire reagent.

  6. Fission gas release restrictor for breached fuel rod

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kadambi, N. Prasad; Tilbrook, Roger W.; Spencer, Daniel R.; Schwallie, Ambrose L.

    1986-01-01

    In the event of a breach in the cladding of a rod in an operating liquid metal fast breeder reactor, the rapid release of high-pressure gas from the fission gas plenum may result in a gas blanketing of the breached rod and rods adjacent thereto which impairs the heat transfer to the liquid metal coolant. In order to control the release rate of fission gas in the event of a breached rod, the substantial portion of the conventional fission gas plenum is formed as a gas bottle means which includes a gas pervious means in a small portion thereof. During normal reactor operation, as the fission gas pressure gradually increases, the gas pressure interiorly of and exteriorly of the gas bottle means equalizes. In the event of a breach in the cladding, the gas pervious means in the gas bottle means constitutes a sufficient restriction to the rapid flow of gas therethrough that under maximum design pressure differential conditions, the fission gas flow through the breach will not significantly reduce the heat transfer from the affected rod and adjacent rods to the liquid metal heat transfer fluid flowing therebetween.

  7. Alternative fuel trucks case studies: Running refuse haulers on compressed natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norton, P.; Kelly, K.

    1996-07-01

    This document details the experience of New York City`s compressed natural gas refuse haulers. These 35 ton vehicles have engines that displace 10 liters and provide 240 horsepower. Fuel economy, range, cost, maintenance, repair issues, and emissions are discussed. Photographs and figures illustrate the attributes of these alternative fuel vehicles.

  8. Impact of Fuel Interchangeability on dynamic Instabilities in Gas Turbine Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferguson, D.H.; Straub, D.L.; Richards, G.A.; Robey, E.H.

    2007-03-01

    Modern, low NOx emitting gas turbines typically utilize lean pre-mixed (LPM) combustion as a means of achieving target emissions goals. As stable combustion in LPM systems is somewhat intolerant to changes in operating conditions, precise engine tuning on a prescribed range of fuel properties is commonly performed to avoid dynamic instabilities. This has raised concerns regarding the use of imported liquefied natural gas (LNG) and natural gas liquids (NGL’s) to offset a reduction in the domestic natural gas supply, which when introduced into the pipeline could alter the fuel BTU content and subsequently exacerbate problems such as combustion instabilities. The intent of this study is to investigate the sensitivity of dynamically unstable test rigs to changes in fuel composition and heat content. Fuel Wobbe number was controlled by blending methane and natural gas with various amounts of ethane, propane and nitrogen. Changes in combustion instabilities were observed, in both atmospheric and pressurized test rigs, for fuels containing high concentrations of propane (> 62% by vol). However, pressure oscillations measured while operating on typical “LNG like” fuels did not appear to deviate significantly from natural gas and methane flame responses. Mechanisms thought to produce changes in the dynamic response are discussed.

  9. Gas Cleaning for Remote Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Applications

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    opportunities and impurity issues Gas Cleaning for Remote SOFC Applications ... Sulfur Cleaning - Well head and Associated Gas Sulfur makeup g g g ge e e en n n ne e e er ...

  10. Hazard analysis of compressed natural gas fueling systems and fueling procedures used at retail gasoline service stations. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-04-28

    An evaluation of the hazards associated with operations of a typical compressed natural gas (CNG) fueling station is presented. The evaluation includes identification of a typical CNG fueling system; a comparison of the typical system with ANSI/NFPA (American National Standards Institute/National Fire Protection Association) Standard 52, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Vehicular Fuel System, requirements; a review of CNG industry safety experience as identified in current literature; hazard identification of potential internal (CNG system-specific causes) and external (interface of co-located causes) events leading to potential accidents; and an analysis of potential accident scenarios as determined from the hazard evaluation. The study considers CNG dispensing equipment and associated equipment, including the compressor station, storate vessels, and fill pressure sensing system.

  11. Durability Prediction of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode Material under Thermo-Mechanical and Fuel Gas Contaminants Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iqbal, Gulfam; Guo, Hua; Kang , Bruce S.; Marina, Olga A.

    2011-01-10

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) operate under harsh environments, which cause deterioration of anode material properties and service life. In addition to electrochemical performance, structural integrity of the SOFC anode is essential for successful long-term operation. The SOFC anode is subjected to stresses at high temperature, thermal/redox cycles, and fuel gas contaminants effects during long-term operation. These mechanisms can alter the anode microstructure and affect its electrochemical and structural properties. In this research, anode material degradation mechanisms are briefly reviewed and an anode material durability model is developed and implemented in finite element analysis. The model takes into account thermo-mechanical and fuel gas contaminants degradation mechanisms for prediction of long-term structural integrity of the SOFC anode. The proposed model is validated experimentally using a NexTech ProbostatTM SOFC button cell test apparatus integrated with a Sagnac optical setup for simultaneously measuring electrochemical performance and in-situ anode surface deformation.

  12. Apparatus for mixing fuel in a gas turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Johnson, Thomas Edward

    2015-04-21

    A combustor nozzle includes an inlet surface and an outlet surface downstream from the inlet surface, wherein the outlet surface has an indented central portion. A plurality of fuel channels are arranged radially outward of the indented central portion, wherein the plurality of fuel channels extend through the outlet surface.

  13. Small scale biomass fueled gas turbine power plant. Report for February 1992--October 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Purvis, C.R.; Craig, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    The paper discusses a new-generation, small-scale (<20 MWe) biomass-fueled power plant that is being developed based on a gas turbine (Brayton cycle) prime mover. Such power plants are expected to increase the efficiency and lower the cost of generating power from fuels such as wood. The new power plants are also expected to economically utilize annual plant growth material (e.g., straw, grass, rice hulls, animal manure, cotton gin trash, and nut shells) that are not normally considered as fuel for power plants. The paper summarizes the new power generation concept with emphasis on the engineering challenges presented by the gas turbine component.

  14. SUBTASK 3.12 - GASIFICATION, WARM-GAS CLEANUP, AND LIQUID FUELS

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    PRODUCTION WITH ILLINOIS COAL (Other) | SciTech Connect Other: SUBTASK 3.12 - GASIFICATION, WARM-GAS CLEANUP, AND LIQUID FUELS PRODUCTION WITH ILLINOIS COAL Citation Details In-Document Search Title: SUBTASK 3.12 - GASIFICATION, WARM-GAS CLEANUP, AND LIQUID FUELS PRODUCTION WITH ILLINOIS COAL The goal of this project was to evaluate the performance of Illinois No. 6 coal blended with biomass in a small-scale entrained-flow gasifier and demonstrate the production of liquid fuels under three

  15. Systems and methods for detecting a flame in a fuel nozzle of a gas turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Storey, James Michael; Lipinski, John; Mestroni, Julio Enrique; Williamson, David Lee; Marshall, Jason Randolph; Krull, Anthony

    2013-05-07

    A system may detect a flame about a fuel nozzle of a gas turbine. The gas turbine may have a compressor and a combustor. The system may include a first pressure sensor, a second pressure sensor, and a transducer. The first pressure sensor may detect a first pressure upstream of the fuel nozzle. The second pressure sensor may detect a second pressure downstream of the fuel nozzle. The transducer may be operable to detect a pressure difference between the first pressure sensor and the second pressure sensor.

  16. Workshop Notes from ""Compressed Natural Gas and Hydrogen Fuels: Lessons Learned for the Safe Deployment of Vehicles"" Workshop, December 10-11, 2009

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These notes provide information about the Compressed Natural Gas and Hydrogen Fuels workshop in December 2009.

  17. Liquid natural gas as a transportation fuel in the heavy trucking industry. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutton, W.H.

    1997-06-30

    This report encompasses the second year of a proposed three year project with emphasis focused on fundamental research issues in Use of Liquid Natural Gas as a Transportation Fuel in the Heavy Trucking Industry. These issues may be categorized as (1) direct diesel replacement with LNG fuel, and (2) long term storage/utilization of LNG vent gases produced by tank storage and fueling/handling operation. The results of this work are expected to enhance utilization of LNG as a transportation fuel. The paper discusses the following topics: (A) Fueling Delivery to the Engine, Engine Considerations, and Emissions: (1) Atomization and/or vaporization of LNG for direct injection diesel-type natural gas engines; (2) Fundamentals of direct replacement of diesel fuel by LNG in simulated combustion; (3) Distribution of nitric oxide and emissions formation from natural gas injection; and (B) Short and long term storage: (1) Modification by partial direct conversion of natural gas composition for improved storage characteristics; (2) LNG vent gas adsorption and recovery using activate carbon and modified adsorbents; (3) LNG storage at moderate conditions.

  18. Porous nuclear fuel element for high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Youchison, Dennis L.; Williams, Brian E.; Benander, Robert E.

    2011-03-01

    Porous nuclear fuel elements for use in advanced high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors (HTGR's), and to processes for fabricating them. Advanced uranium bi-carbide, uranium tri-carbide and uranium carbonitride nuclear fuels can be used. These fuels have high melting temperatures, high thermal conductivity, and high resistance to erosion by hot hydrogen gas. Tri-carbide fuels, such as (U,Zr,Nb)C, can be fabricated using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) to simultaneously deposit each of the three separate carbides, e.g., UC, ZrC, and NbC in a single CVI step. By using CVI, the nuclear fuel may be deposited inside of a highly porous skeletal structure made of, for example, reticulated vitreous carbon foam.

  19. Methods for manufacturing porous nuclear fuel elements for high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Youchison, Dennis L.; Williams, Brian E.; Benander, Robert E.

    2010-02-23

    Methods for manufacturing porous nuclear fuel elements for use in advanced high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors (HTGR's). Advanced uranium bi-carbide, uranium tri-carbide and uranium carbonitride nuclear fuels can be used. These fuels have high melting temperatures, high thermal conductivity, and high resistance to erosion by hot hydrogen gas. Tri-carbide fuels, such as (U,Zr,Nb)C, can be fabricated using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) to simultaneously deposit each of the three separate carbides, e.g., UC, ZrC, and NbC in a single CVI step. By using CVI, a thin coating of nuclear fuel may be deposited inside of a highly porous skeletal structure made, for example, of reticulated vitreous carbon foam.

  20. Porous nuclear fuel element with internal skeleton for high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Youchison, Dennis L.; Williams, Brian E.; Benander, Robert E.

    2013-09-03

    Porous nuclear fuel elements for use in advanced high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors (HTGR's), and to processes for fabricating them. Advanced uranium bi-carbide, uranium tri-carbide and uranium carbonitride nuclear fuels can be used. These fuels have high melting temperatures, high thermal conductivity, and high resistance to erosion by hot hydrogen gas. Tri-carbide fuels, such as (U,Zr,Nb)C, can be fabricated using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) to simultaneously deposit each of the three separate carbides, e.g., UC, ZrC, and NbC in a single CVI step. By using CVI, the nuclear fuel may be deposited inside of a highly porous skeletal structure made of, for example, reticulated vitreous carbon foam.

  1. An investigation of the use of odorants in liquefied natural gas used as a vehicle fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, T.; Williams, T.

    1994-12-31

    Interest in liquefied natural gas (LNG) as an alternative vehicle fuel has increased significantly. Its greater storage density relative to compressed natural gas makes it an attractive option for both volume and weight constrained vehicle applications. The public transportation market, specifically transit bus properties, have been very aggressive in pursuing LNG as an alternative vehicle fuel. Naturally, when dealing with the general public and a new transportation fuel, the issue of safety must be addressed. With this in mind, the Gas Research Institute has initiated a number of safety related studies including an investigation of the use of odorants in LNG. This paper presents the preliminary results of an investigation performed by the Institute of Gas Technology to determine both the applicability and effectiveness of odorizing LNG. This includes an overview of the current state-of-the-art in LNG vehicle fueling and safety systems as well as a discussion of an LNG odorization program conducted by San Diego Gas & Electric in the mid 70`s. Finally, the paper discusses the results of the modeling effort to determine whether conventional odorants used in natural gas can be injected and remain soluble in LNG at temperatures and pressures encountered in LNG fueling and on-board storage systems.

  2. Fuel nozzle assembly for use as structural support for a duct structure in a combustor of a gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiebe, David J; Fox, Timothy A

    2015-03-31

    A fuel nozzle assembly for use in a combustor apparatus of a gas turbine engine. An outer housing of the fuel nozzle assembly includes an inner volume and provides a direct structural connection between a duct structure and a fuel manifold. The duct structure defines a flow passage for combustion gases flowing within the combustor apparatus. The fuel manifold defines a fuel supply channel therein in fluid communication with a source of fuel. A fuel injector of the fuel nozzle assembly is provided in the inner volume of the outer housing and defines a fuel passage therein. The fuel passage is in fluid communication with the fuel supply channel of the fuel manifold for distributing the fuel from the fuel supply channel into the flow passage of the duct structure.

  3. Gas separation process using membranes with permeate sweep to remove CO.sub.2 from gaseous fuel combustion exhaust

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wijmans Johannes G.; Merkel, Timothy C.; Baker, Richard W.

    2012-05-15

    A gas separation process for treating exhaust gases from the combustion of gaseous fuels, and gaseous fuel combustion processes including such gas separation. The invention involves routing a first portion of the exhaust stream to a carbon dioxide capture step, while simultaneously flowing a second portion of the exhaust gas stream across the feed side of a membrane, flowing a sweep gas stream, usually air, across the permeate side, then passing the permeate/sweep gas back to the combustor.

  4. SEP Success Story: City in Colorado Fueling Vehicles with Gas...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    April 29, 2015 - 8:00pm Addthis Grand Junction's CNG station fuels the city's fleets and ... Pictured above, a Grand Valley Transit bus is preparing to refuel. Grand Junction's CNG ...

  5. Natural Gas Pathways and Fuel Economy Guide Comparison

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Bob Wimmer, Toyota, at the Natural Gas and Hydrogen Infrastructure Opportunities Workshop held October 18-19, 2011, in Lemont, Illinois.

  6. Fuel Cell/Gas Turbine System Performance Studies

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... of the environmentally clean and low noise ... introduction of the technology. electrical efficiencies ... GTRC- 5 MW Gas Turbine Recup C 43 40 PCFGD Pulverised Coal...

  7. The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimize Fuel Economy and Minimize Emission in Engines Operating on E85 Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2011-12-31

    This report summarizes activities conducted for the project The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimized Fuel Economy and Minimize Emissions in Engines Operating on E85 Fuel under COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-FC26-07NT43271, which are as outlined in the STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated March 2007 and in the supplemental SOPO dated October 2010. The project objective was to develop and demonstrate an internal combustion engine that is optimized for E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline) fuel operation to achieve substantially improved fuel economy while operating with E85 fuel and that is also production viable in the near- to medium-term. The key engine technology selected for research and development was turbocharging, which is known to improve fuel economy thru downsizing and is in particular capable of exploiting ethanol fuels characteristics of high octane number and high latent heat of vaporization. The engine further integrated synergistic efficiency improving technologies of cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), direct fuel injection and dual continuously variable intake and exhaust cam phasers. On the vehicle level, fuel economy was furthered thru powertrain system optimization by mating a state-of-the-art six-speed automatic transmission to the engine. In order to achieve the projects objective of near- to medium-term production viability, it was essential to develop the engine to be flex-fuel capable of operating with fuels ranging from E0 (0% ethanol and 100% gasoline) to E85 and to use three-way type of catalyst technology for exhaust aftertreatment. Within these scopes, various technologies were developed through systems approach to focus on ways to help accelerate catalyst light-off. Significant amount of development took place during the course of the project within General Motors, LLC. Many prototype flex-fuel engines were designed, built and developed with various hardware configurations selected to achieve the project goals. Several flex-fuel demonstration vehicles were designed and built for carrying out calibration development and final testing to quantify the technology merits. Based on the extensive test results collected from dynamometer and vehicle testing, the fuel economy benefits of cooled EGR from the intended level of turbocharger technology were quantified. When combined with turbo downsizing, the FE benefits are considered large enough for E0 fuel as well as for E85 fuel to warrant further development of the technology beyond the current proof-of-concept level to a level that can meet production driveability quality and durability requirements in order to meet customers expectations. Cold-start cart test results from the emissions segment of the project were positive, confirming the assumption of faster thermal response of turbo exhaust system for emissions reductions for both E0 and E85 fuels. Vehicle emissions test results directionally correlated to the cold-start cart findings. The limited number of test runs did demonstrate the potentials of meeting stringent emission standards, however, they did not comprehend the factors such as hardware variability and long-term durability, 3 which are essential for mass production to satisfy customers expectations. It is therefore recommended, moving forward, durability concerns over turbocharger, EGR system and aftertreatment system, which would likely impact production viability, should be addressed. The data moreover suggested that further FE increase is likely with turbocharger technology advancement.

  8. Safety of natural gas dual-fueled vehicles: Addendum to safety analysis of natural gas vehicles transiting highway tunnels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaaban, S.H.; Zalak, V.M. )

    1991-01-01

    A safety analysis was performed to assess the relative hazard of vehicles containing both compressed natural gas (CNG) and gasoline, referred to as dual-fueled vehicles, compared to the hazard of a dedicated CNG vehicle. This study expands upon previous work that examined the safety of CNG vehicles transiting highway tunnels. The approach was to examine operational data, test results and to perform thermal analyses to determine if there are any synergistic effects where the total consequences of fuel release might be greater than the sum of the two fuels released separately. This study concluded that a dual-fueled vehicle poses a slightly greater risk than a dedicated CNG vehicle; however, this marginal increase in risk is small and is within the bounds of risk posed by gasoline-powered vehicles. 4 refs.

  9. Apparatus for converting garbage into a fuel gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szloboda, D.T.

    1982-10-05

    Garbage to be converted is fed into the upper end of a vertical chamber. A gas collection chamber is provided around the upper end of the chamber and a blower is used for lowering the pressure in this gas collection chamber. The lower pressure causes a draw within a combustion zone defined at the lower end of the garbage chamber. The draw promotes combustion of garbage in the combustion zone much in the same manner that the draw by a pipe smoker will promote combustion within the bowl of his pipe. The gas collected in the gas chamber is delivered through a water filled cleaner or filter. The gas discharged from the upper end of the filter is ready for use in a power device or a furnace, or it may be collected and compressed or even liquified, into a storage container, for easy mobility and later use.

  10. Analysis of fission gas release in LWR fuel using the BISON code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Pastore; J.D. Hales; S.R. Novascone; D.M. Perez; B.W. Spencer; R.L. Williamson

    2013-09-01

    Recent advances in the development of the finite-element based, multidimensional fuel performance code BISON of Idaho National Laboratory are presented. Specifically, the development, implementation and testing of a new model for the analysis of fission gas behavior in LWR-UO2 fuel during irradiation are summarized. While retaining a physics-based description of the relevant mechanisms, the model is characterized by a level of complexity suitable for application to engineering-scale nuclear fuel analysis and consistent with the uncertainties pertaining to some parameters. The treatment includes the fundamental features of fission gas behavior, among which are gas diffusion and precipitation in fuel grains, growth and coalescence of gas bubbles at grain faces, grain growth and grain boundary sweeping effects, thermal, athermal, and transient gas release. The BISON code incorporating the new model is applied to the simulation of irradiation experiments from the OECD/NEA International Fuel Performance Experiments database, also included in the IAEA coordinated research projects FUMEX-II and FUMEX-III. The comparison of the results with the available experimental data at moderate burn-up is presented, pointing out an encouraging predictive accuracy, without any fitting applied to the model parameters.

  11. Evaluation of fission gas release in high-burnup light water reactor fuel rods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barner, J.O.; Cunningham, M.E.; Freshley, M.D.; Lanning, D.D. )

    1993-05-01

    Research to define the behavior of Zircaloy-clad light water reactor (LWR) UO[sub 2] fuel irradiated to high burnup levels was conducted as part of the High Burnup Effects Program (HBEP). The HBEP was a 12-yr program that ultimately acquired, characterized, irradiated, and examined after irradiation 82 LWR fuel rods ranging in rod-average fuel burnup from 22 to 69 MWd/kgM with a peak pellet burnup of 83 MWd/kg M. A principal emphasis of the HBEP was to evaluate the effect of high burnup on fission gas release. It was confirmed that fission gas release remained as dependent on design and irradiation history parameters at high burnup levels as at low to moderate burnup levels. One observed high-burnup effect was the development of a burnup-dependent microstructure at the fuel pellet surface when pellet-edge burnup exceeded 65 MWd/kgM. This low-temperature rim region' was characterized by a loss of optically definable grain structure, a high volume of porosity, and diffusion of fission gas from the UO[sub 2] matrix to the porosity. Although the rim region has the potential for enhanced fission gas release, it is concluded that no significant enhancement of rod-average fission gas release at high burnup levels was observed for the examined fuel rods.

  12. Major Fuels","Electricity",,"Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Total Energy Consumption by Major Fuel for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"All Buildings*",,"Total Energy Consumption (trillion Btu)" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)","Floorspace...

  13. Major Fuels","Site Electricity","Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    C1. Total Energy Consumption by Major Fuel, 1999" ,"All Buildings",,"Total Energy Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Primary Electricity (trillion Btu)" ,"Number of Buildings...

  14. No loss fueling station for liquid natural gas vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gustafson, K.

    1993-07-20

    A no loss liquid natural gas (LNG) delivery system is described comprising: (a) means for storing LNG and natural gas at low pressure; (b) means for delivering LNG from the means for storing to a use device including means for sub-cooling the LNG; (c) means for pre-cooling the means for sub-cooling before the LNG is delivered to the use device to substantially reduce vaporization of the initial LNG delivered to the use device; and (d) means for delivering a selectable quantity of the natural gas in said storing means to said use device with the LNG.

  15. Texas Bi-Fuel Liquefied Petroleum Gas Pickup Study: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Y.; Matthews, R. D.; Popova, E. T.

    1999-05-24

    Alternative fuels may be an effective means for decreasing America's dependence on imported oil; creating new jobs; and reducing emissions of greenhouse gases, exhaust toxics, and ozone-forming hydrocarbons. However, data regarding in-use fuel economy and maintenance characteristics of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) have been limited in availability. This study was undertaken to compare the operating and maintenance characteristics of bi-fuel vehicles (which use liquefied petroleum gas, or propane, as the primary fuel) to those of nominally identical gasoline vehicles. In Texas, liquefied petroleum gas is one of the most widely used alternative fuels. The largest fleet in Texas, operated by the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT), has hundred of bi-fuel (LPG and gasoline) vehicles operating in normal daily service. The project was conducted over a 2-year period, including 18 months (April 1997-September 1998) of data collection on operations, maintenance, and fuel consumption of the vehicles under study. This report summarizes the project and its results.

  16. Environmental implications of alternative-fueled automobiles: Air quality and greenhouse gas tradeoffs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MaClean, H.L.; Lave, L.B.

    2000-01-15

    The authors analyze alternative fuel-powerstrain options for internal combustion engine automobiles. Fuel/engine efficiency, energy use, pollutant discharges, and greenhouse gas emissions are estimated for spark and compression ignited, direct injected (DI), and indirect injected (II) engines fueled by conventional and reformulated gasoline, reformulated diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), and alcohols. Since comparisons of fuels and technologies in dissimilar vehicles are misleading, the authors hold emissions level, range, vehicle size class, and style constant. At present, CNG vehicles have the best exhaust emissions performance while DI diesels have the worst. Compared to a conventional gasoline fueled II automobile, greenhouse gases could be reduced by 40% by a DI CNG automobile and by 25% by a DI diesel. Gasoline- and diesel-fueled automobiles are able to attain long ranges with little weight or fuel economy penalty. CNG vehicles have the highest penalty for increasing range, due to their heavy fuel storage systems, but are the most attractive for a 160-km range. DI engines, particularly diesels, may not be able to meet strict emissions standards, at least not without lowering efficiency.

  17. Soot blower using fuel gas as blowing medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tanca, Michael C. (Tariffville, CT)

    1982-01-01

    A soot blower assembly (10) for use in combination with a coal gasifier (14). The soot blower assembly is adapted for use in the hot combustible product gas generated in the gasifier as the blowing medium. The soot blower lance (20) and the drive means (30) by which it is moved into and out of the gasifier is housed in a gas tight enclosure (40) which completely surrounds the combination. The interior of the enclosure (40) is pressurized by an inert gas to a pressure level higher than that present in the gasifier so that any combustible product gas leaking from the soot blower lance (20) is forced into the gasifier rather than accumulating within the enclosure.

  18. SEP Success Story: City in Colorado Fueling Vehicles with Gas...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pictured above, a Grand Valley Transit bus is preparing to refuel. The City of Grand Junction built a 5-mile underground pipeline to transport compressed natural gas (CNG) from a ...

  19. Fuel Flexibility: Landfill Gas Contaminant Mitigation for Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storey, John Morse; Theiss, Timothy J; Kass, Michael D; FINNEY, Charles E A; Lewis, Samuel; Kaul, Brian C; Besmann, Theodore M; Thomas, John F; Rogers, Hiram; Sepaniak, Michael

    2014-04-01

    This research project focused on the mitigation of silica damage to engine-based renewable landfill gas energy systems. Characterization of the landfill gas siloxane contamination, combined with characterization of the silica deposits in engines, led to development of two new mitigation strategies. The first involved a novel method for removing the siloxanes and other heavy contaminants from the landfill gas prior to use by the engines. The second strategy sought to interrupt the formation of hard silica deposits in the engine itself, based on inspection of failed landfill gas engine parts. In addition to mitigation, the project had a third task to develop a robust sensor for siloxanes that could be used to control existing and/or future removal processes.

  20. A novel configuration for coproducing transportation fuels and power from coal and natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, D.; Tomlinson, G.

    1998-07-01

    The US Department of Energy and Mitretek Systems have evolved and evaluated a concept that combines the use of gas and coal for the highly efficient production of electric power and high quality transportation fuels. In its simplest form, this coproduction cofeed (CoCo) concept consists of diverting coal-derived synthesis gas from the combined cycle power block of an Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) unit to a slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis reactor. The unreacted synthesis gas from the F-T reactor, and imported natural gas are then combusted in the downstream combined cycle power generation unit. Combining processes in this manner accomplishes the equivalent of natural gas to liquid synthesis while eliminating the conversion losses associated with the production of synthesis gas from natural gas. The paper discusses the benefits of coproduction.

  1. Apparatus for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clawson, Lawrence G.; Mitchell, William L.; Bentley, Jeffrey M.; Thijssen, Johannes H. J.

    2002-01-01

    Hydrocarbon fuel reformer 100 suitable for producing synthesis hydrogen gas from reactions with hydrocarbons fuels, oxygen, and steam. A first tube 108 has a first tube inlet 110 and a first tube outlet 112. The first tube inlet 110 is adapted for receiving a first mixture including an oxygen-containing gas and a first fuel. A partially oxidized first reaction reformate is directed out of the first tube 108 into a mixing zone 114. A second tube 116 is annularly disposed about the first tube 108 and has a second tube inlet 118 and a second tube outlet 120. The second tube inlet 118 is adapted for receiving a second mixture including steam and a second fuel. A steam reformed second reaction reformate is directed out of the second tube 116 and into the mixing zone 114. From the mixing zone 114, the first and second reaction reformates may be directed into a catalytic reforming zone 144 containing a reforming catalyst 147.

  2. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; When, C.S.

    1992-06-01

    This report covers the activity during the period from 2 June 1991 to 1 June 1992. The major areas of work include: the combustor sub-scale and full size testing, cleanup, coal fuel specification and processing, the Hot End Simulation rig and design of the engine parts required for use with the coal-fueled combustor island. To date Solar has demonstrated: Stable and efficient combustion burning coal-water mixtures using the Two Stage Slagging Combustor; Molten slag removal of over 97% using the slagging primary and the particulate removal impact separator; and on-site preparation of CWM is feasible. During the past year the following tasks were completed: The feasibility of on-site CWM preparation was demonstrated on the subscale TSSC. A water-cooled impactor was evaluated on the subscale TSSC; three tests were completed on the full size TSSC, the last one incorporating the PRIS; a total of 27 hours of operation on CWM at design temperature were accumulated using candle filters supplied by Refraction through Industrial Pump Filter; a target fuel specification was established and a fuel cost model developed which can identify sensitivities of specification parameters; analyses of the effects of slag on refractory materials were conducted; and modifications continued on the Hot End Simulation Rig to allow extended test times.

  3. Maintaining low exhaust emissions with turbocharged gas engines using a feedback air-fuel ratio control system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eckard, D.W.; Serve, J.V.

    1987-10-01

    Maintaining low exhaust emissions on a turbocharged, natural gas engine through the speed and load range requires precise control of the air-fuel ratio. Changes in ambient conditions or fuel heating value will cause the air-fuel ratio to change substantially. By combining air-gas pressure with preturbine temperature control, the air-fuel ratio can be maintained regardless of changes in the ambient conditions or the fuel's heating value. Design conditions and operating results are presented for an air-fuel controller for a turbocharged engine.

  4. Alternative fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-31

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE`s LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts. The paper reports the progress on the following tasks: engineering and modifications: AFDU shakedown, operations, deactivation and disposal; and research and development on new processes for DME, chemistry and catalyst development, and oxygenates via synthesis gas.

  5. SPEAR-BETA fuel-performance code system: fission-gas-release module. Final report. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christensen, R.

    1983-03-01

    The original SPEAR-BETA general description manual covers both mechanistic and statistical models for fuel reliability, but only mechanistic modeling of fission gas release. This addendum covers the SPEAR-BETA statistical model for fission gas release.

  6. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of fission gas behavior in engineering-scale fuel modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pastore, Giovanni; Swiler, L. P.; Hales, Jason D.; Novascone, Stephen R.; Perez, Danielle M.; Spencer, Benjamin W.; Luzzi, Lelio; Uffelen, Paul Van; Williamson, Richard L.

    2014-10-12

    The role of uncertainties in fission gas behavior calculations as part of engineering-scale nuclear fuel modeling is investigated using the BISON fuel performance code and a recently implemented physics-based model for the coupled fission gas release and swelling. Through the integration of BISON with the DAKOTA software, a sensitivity analysis of the results to selected model parameters is carried out based on UO2 single-pellet simulations covering different power regimes. The parameters are varied within ranges representative of the relative uncertainties and consistent with the information from the open literature. The study leads to an initial quantitative assessment of the uncertainty in fission gas behavior modeling with the parameter characterization presently available. Also, the relative importance of the single parameters is evaluated. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis is carried out based on simulations of a fuel rod irradiation experiment, pointing out a significant impact of the considered uncertainties on the calculated fission gas release and cladding diametral strain. The results of the study indicate that the commonly accepted deviation between calculated and measured fission gas release by a factor of 2 approximately corresponds to the inherent modeling uncertainty at high fission gas release. Nevertheless, higher deviations may be expected for values around 10% and lower. Implications are discussed in terms of directions of research for the improved modeling of fission gas behavior for engineering purposes.

  7. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of fission gas behavior in engineering-scale fuel modeling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pastore, Giovanni; Swiler, L. P.; Hales, Jason D.; Novascone, Stephen R.; Perez, Danielle M.; Spencer, Benjamin W.; Luzzi, Lelio; Uffelen, Paul Van; Williamson, Richard L.

    2014-10-12

    The role of uncertainties in fission gas behavior calculations as part of engineering-scale nuclear fuel modeling is investigated using the BISON fuel performance code and a recently implemented physics-based model for the coupled fission gas release and swelling. Through the integration of BISON with the DAKOTA software, a sensitivity analysis of the results to selected model parameters is carried out based on UO2 single-pellet simulations covering different power regimes. The parameters are varied within ranges representative of the relative uncertainties and consistent with the information from the open literature. The study leads to an initial quantitative assessment of the uncertaintymore » in fission gas behavior modeling with the parameter characterization presently available. Also, the relative importance of the single parameters is evaluated. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis is carried out based on simulations of a fuel rod irradiation experiment, pointing out a significant impact of the considered uncertainties on the calculated fission gas release and cladding diametral strain. The results of the study indicate that the commonly accepted deviation between calculated and measured fission gas release by a factor of 2 approximately corresponds to the inherent modeling uncertainty at high fission gas release. Nevertheless, higher deviations may be expected for values around 10% and lower. Implications are discussed in terms of directions of research for the improved modeling of fission gas behavior for engineering purposes.« less

  8. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of fission gas behavior in engineering-scale fuel modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Pastore; L.P. Swiler; J.D. Hales; S.R. Novascone; D.M. Perez; B.W. Spencer; L. Luzzi; P. Van Uffelen; R.L. Williamson

    2014-10-01

    The role of uncertainties in fission gas behavior calculations as part of engineering-scale nuclear fuel modeling is investigated using the BISON fuel performance code and a recently implemented physics-based model for the coupled fission gas release and swelling. Through the integration of BISON with the DAKOTA software, a sensitivity analysis of the results to selected model parameters is carried out based on UO2 single-pellet simulations covering different power regimes. The parameters are varied within ranges representative of the relative uncertainties and consistent with the information from the open literature. The study leads to an initial quantitative assessment of the uncertainty in fission gas behavior modeling with the parameter characterization presently available. Also, the relative importance of the single parameters is evaluated. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis is carried out based on simulations of a fuel rod irradiation experiment, pointing out a significant impact of the considered uncertainties on the calculated fission gas release and cladding diametral strain. The results of the study indicate that the commonly accepted deviation between calculated and measured fission gas release by a factor of 2 approximately corresponds to the inherent modeling uncertainty at high fission gas release. Nevertheless, higher deviations may be expected for values around 10% and lower. Implications are discussed in terms of directions of research for the improved modeling of fission gas behavior for engineering purposes.

  9. Delaware Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Delaware Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1980's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Lease and

  10. Idaho Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Idaho Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 38 5 6 22 4 1980's 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Lease and

  11. Missouri Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Missouri Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 494 0 1980's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas

  12. Nevada Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Nevada Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 0 168 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 53 30 21 16 1 11 9 9 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas

  13. Numerical simulation of gas dynamics and heat exchange tasks in fuel assemblies of the nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhuchenko, S. V.

    2014-11-12

    This report presents a PC-based program for solution gas dynamics and heat exchange mathematical tasks in fuel assemblies of the fast-neutron nuclear reactors. A fuel assembly consisting of bulk heat-generating elements, which are integrated together by the system of supply and pressure manifolds, is examined. Spherical heat-generating microelements, which contain nuclear fuel, are pulled into the heat-generating elements. Gaseous coolant proceed from supply manifolds to heat-generating elements, where it withdraws the nuclear reaction heat and assembles in pressure manifolds.

  14. High temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) graphite pebble fuel: Review of technologies for reprocessing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mcwilliams, A. J.

    2015-09-08

    This report reviews literature on reprocessing high temperature gas-cooled reactor graphite fuel components. A basic review of the various fuel components used in the pebble bed type reactors is provided along with a survey of synthesis methods for the fabrication of the fuel components. Several disposal options are considered for the graphite pebble fuel elements including the storage of intact pebbles, volume reduction by separating the graphite from fuel kernels, and complete processing of the pebbles for waste storage. Existing methods for graphite removal are presented and generally consist of mechanical separation techniques such as crushing and grinding chemical techniques through the use of acid digestion and oxidation. Potential methods for reprocessing the graphite pebbles include improvements to existing methods and novel technologies that have not previously been investigated for nuclear graphite waste applications. The best overall method will be dependent on the desired final waste form and needs to factor in the technical efficiency, political concerns, cost, and implementation.

  15. Feasibility study: utilization of landfill gas for a vehicle fuel system, Rossman's landfill, Clackamas County, Oregon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1981-01-01

    In 1978, a landfill operator in Oregon became interested in the technical and economic feasibility of recovering the methane generated in the landfill for the refueling of vehicles. DOE awarded a grant for a site-specific feasibility study of this concept. This study investigated the expected methane yield and the development of a conceptual gas-gathering system; gas processing, compressing, and storage systems; and methane-fueled vehicle systems. Cost estimates were made for each area of study. The results of the study are presented. Reasoning that gasoline prices will continue to rise and that approximately 18,000 vehicles in the US have been converted to operate on methane, a project is proposed to use this landfill as a demonstration site to produce and process methane and to fuel a fleet (50 to 400) vehicles with the gas produced in order to obtain performance and economic data on the systems used from gas collection through vehicle operation. (LCL)

  16. Solid oxide fuel cell having compound cross flow gas patterns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fraioli, Anthony V.

    1985-01-01

    A core construction for a fuel cell is disclosed having both parallel and cross flow passageways for the fuel and the oxidant gases. Each core passageway is defined by electrolyte and interconnect walls. Each electrolyte wall consists of cathode and anode materials sandwiching an electrolyte material. Each interconnect wall is formed as a sheet of inert support material having therein spaced small plugs of interconnect material, where cathode and anode materials are formed as layers on opposite sides of each sheet and are electrically connected together by the interconnect material plugs. Each interconnect wall in a wavy shape is connected along spaced generally parallel line-like contact areas between corresponding spaced pairs of generally parallel electrolyte walls, operable to define one tier of generally parallel flow passageways for the fuel and oxidant gases. Alternate tiers are arranged to have the passageways disposed normal to one another. Solid mechanical connection of the interconnect walls of adjacent tiers to the opposite sides of the common electrolyte wall therebetween is only at spaced point-like contact areas, 90 where the previously mentioned line-like contact areas cross one another.

  17. Solid oxide fuel cell having compound cross flow gas patterns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fraioli, A.V.

    1983-10-12

    A core construction for a fuel cell is disclosed having both parallel and cross flow passageways for the fuel and the oxidant gases. Each core passageway is defined by electrolyte and interconnect walls. Each electrolyte wall consists of cathode and anode materials sandwiching an electrolyte material. Each interconnect wall is formed as a sheet of inert support material having therein spaced small plugs of interconnect material, where cathode and anode materials are formed as layers on opposite sides of each sheet and are electrically connected together by the interconnect material plugs. Each interconnect wall in a wavy shape is connected along spaced generally parallel line-like contact areas between corresponding spaced pairs of generally parallel electrolyte walls, operable to define one tier of generally parallel flow passageways for the fuel and oxidant gases. Alternate tiers are arranged to have the passageways disposed normal to one another. Solid mechanical connection of the interconnect walls of adjacent tiers to the opposite sides of the common electrolyte wall therebetween is only at spaced point-like contact areas, 90 where the previously mentioned line-like contact areas cross one another.

  18. Rhode Island Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Million Cubic Feet) Rhode Island Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: Injections of Natural Gas into Underground Storage

  19. Edge seal for a porous gas distribution plate of a fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feigenbaum, Haim; Pudick, Sheldon; Singh, Rajindar

    1984-01-01

    In an improved seal for a gas distribution plate of a fuel cell, a groove is provided extending along an edge of the plate. A member of resinous material is arranged within the groove and a paste comprising an immobilized acid is arranged surrounding the member and substantially filling the groove. The seal, which is impervious to the gas being distributed, is resistant to deterioration by the electrolyte of the cell.

  20. Fuel-Cycle and Nuclear Material Disposition Issues Associated with High-Temperature Gas Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shropshire, D.E.; Herring, J.S.

    2004-10-03

    The objective of this paper is to facilitate a better understanding of the fuel-cycle and nuclear material disposition issues associated with high-temperature gas reactors (HTGRs). This paper reviews the nuclear fuel cycles supporting early and present day gas reactors, and identifies challenges for the advanced fuel cycles and waste management systems supporting the next generation of HTGRs, including the Very High Temperature Reactor, which is under development in the Generation IV Program. The earliest gas-cooled reactors were the carbon dioxide (CO2)-cooled reactors. Historical experience is available from over 1,000 reactor-years of operation from 52 electricity-generating, CO2-cooled reactor plants that were placed in operation worldwide. Following the CO2 reactor development, seven HTGR plants were built and operated. The HTGR came about from the combination of helium coolant and graphite moderator. Helium was used instead of air or CO2 as the coolant. The helium gas has a significant technical base due to the experience gained in the United States from the 40-MWe Peach Bottom and 330-MWe Fort St. Vrain reactors designed by General Atomics. Germany also built and operated the 15-MWe Arbeitsgemeinschaft Versuchsreaktor (AVR) and the 300-MWe Thorium High-Temperature Reactor (THTR) power plants. The AVR, THTR, Peach Bottom and Fort St. Vrain all used fuel containing thorium in various forms (i.e., carbides, oxides, thorium particles) and mixtures with highly enriched uranium. The operational experience gained from these early gas reactors can be applied to the next generation of nuclear power systems. HTGR systems are being developed in South Africa, China, Japan, the United States, and Russia. Elements of the HTGR system evaluated included fuel demands on uranium ore mining and milling, conversion, enrichment services, and fuel fabrication; fuel management in-core; spent fuel characteristics affecting fuel recycling and refabrication, fuel handling, interim storage, packaging, transportation, waste forms, waste treatment, decontamination and decommissioning issues; and low-level waste (LLW) and high-level waste (HLW) disposal.

  1. Graphite fuels combustion off-gas treatment options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirkham, R.J.; Lords, R.E.

    1993-03-01

    Scenarios for burning bulk graphite and for burning crushed fuel particles from graphite spent nuclear fuels have been considered. Particulates can be removed with sintered metal filters. Subsequent cooling would then condense semi-volatile fission products into or onto a particulate. These particulates would be trapped by a second sintered metal filter or downstream packed bed. A packed bed scrub column can be used to eliminate most of the iodine-129 and tritium. A molecular sieve bed is proposed to collect the residual {sup 129}I and other tramp radionuclides downstream (Ruthenium, etc.). Krypton-85 can be recovered, if need be, either by cryogenics or by the KALC process (Krypton Adsorption in Liquid Carbon dioxide). Likewise carbon-14 in the form of carbon dioxide could be collected with a caustic or lime scrub solution and incorporated into a grout. Sulfur dioxide present will be well below regulatory concern level of 4.0 tons per year and most of it would be removed by the scrubber. Carbon monoxide emissions will depend on the choice of burner and start-up conditions. Should the system exceed the regulatory concern level, a catalytic converter in the final packed bed will be provided. Radon and its daughters have sufficiently short half-lives (less than two minutes). If necessary, an additional holdup bed can be added before the final HEPA filters or additional volume can be added to the molecular sieve bed to limit radon emissions. The calculated total effective dose equivalent at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory boundary from a single release of all the {sup 3}, {sup 14}C, {sup 85}Kr, and {sup 129}I in the total fuel mass if 0.43 mrem/year.

  2. Vehicle Technologies Office: Transitioning the Transportation Sector- Exploring the Intersection of H2 Fuel Cell and Natural Gas Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The "Transitioning the Transportation Sector: Exploring the Intersection of Hydrogen Fuel Cell and Natural Gas Vehicles" workshop report by Sandia National Laboratory summarizes a workshop that discussed common opportunities and challenges in expanding the use of hydrogen (H2) and natural gas (CNG or LNG) as transportation fuels.

  3. Analysis of liquid natural gas as a truck fuel: a system dynamics approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bray, M.A.; Sebo, D.E.; Mason, T.L.; Mills, J.I.; Rice, R.E.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the potential for growth in use of liquid natural gas (LNG) fueled trucks. . A system dynamics model was constructed for the analysis and a variety of scenarios were investigated. The analysis considers the economics of LNG fuel in the context of the trucking industry to identify barriers to the increased use of LNG trucks and potential interventions or leverage points which may overcome these barriers. The study showed that today, LNG use in trucks is not yet economically viable. A large change in the savings from fuel cost or capital cost is needed for the technology to take off. Fleet owners have no way now to benefit from the environmental benefits of LNG fuel nor do they benefit from the clean burning nature of the fuel. Changes in the fuel cost differential between diesel and LNG are not a research issue. However, quantifying the improvements in reliability and wear from the use of clean fuel could support increased maintenance and warranty periods. Many people involved in the use of LNG for trucks believe that LNG has the potential to occupy a niche within the larger diesel truck business. But if LNG in trucks can become economic, the spread of fuel stations and technology improvements could lead to LNG trucks becoming the dominant technology. An assumption in our simulation work is that LNG trucks will be purchased when economically attractive. None of the simulation results show LNG becoming economic but then only to the level of a niche market.

  4. Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR)-5/6/7 Fuel Irradiation Experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Joseph Palmer; David A. Petti; S. Blaine Grover

    2014-04-01

    The United States Department of Energys Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program will be irradiating up to seven separate low enriched uranium (LEU) tri-isotopic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These irradiations and fuel development are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, to qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, to support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and to provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing. The experiments, which each consist of at least five separate capsules, are being irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line temperature monitoring and control of each capsule. The sweep gases also have on-line fission product monitoring the effluent from each capsule to track performance of the fuel during irradiation. The first two experiments (designated AGR-1 and AGR-2), have been completed. The third and fourth experiments have been combined into a single experiment designated AGR-3/4, which started its irradiation in December 2011 and is currently scheduled to be completed in April 2014. The design of the fuel qualification experiment, designated AGR-5/6/7, is well underway and incorporates lessons learned from the three previous experiments. Various design issues will be discussed with particular details related to selection of thermometry.

  5. Novel Application of Carbonate Fuel Cell for Capturing Carbon Dioxide from Flue Gas Streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jolly, Stephen; Ghezel-Ayagh, Hossein; Willman, Carl; Patel, Dilip; DiNitto, M.; Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Steen, William A.

    2015-09-30

    To address concerns about climate change resulting from emission of CO2 by coal-fueled power plants, FuelCell Energy, Inc. has developed the Combined Electric Power and Carbon-dioxide Separation (CEPACS) system concept. The CEPACS system utilizes Electrochemical Membrane (ECM) technology derived from the Company’s Direct FuelCell® products. The system separates the CO2 from the flue gas of other plants and produces electric power using a supplementary fuel. FCE is currently evaluating the use of ECM to cost effectively separate CO2 from the flue gas of Pulverized Coal (PC) power plants under a U.S. Department of Energy contract. The overarching objective of the project is to verify that the ECM can achieve at least 90% CO2 capture from the flue gas with no more than 35% increase in the cost of electricity. The project activities include: 1) laboratory scale operational and performance tests of a membrane assembly, 2) performance tests of the membrane to evaluate the effects of impurities present in the coal plant flue gas, in collaboration with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 3) techno-economic analysis for an ECM-based CO2 capture system applied to a 550 MW existing PC plant, in partnership with URS Corporation, and 4) bench scale (11.7 m2 area) testing of an ECM-based CO2 separation and purification system.

  6. ASU nitrogen sweep gas in hydrogen separation membrane for production of HRSG duct burner fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Panuccio, Gregory J.; Raybold, Troy M.; Jamal, Agil; Drnevich, Raymond Francis

    2013-04-02

    The present invention relates to the use of low pressure N2 from an air separation unit (ASU) for use as a sweep gas in a hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) to increase syngas H2 recovery and make a near-atmospheric pressure (less than or equal to about 25 psia) fuel for supplemental firing in the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) duct burner.

  7. Sampling and analysis plan for canister liquid and gas sampling at 105 KW fuel storage basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trimble, D.J.

    1996-08-09

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan describes the equipment,procedures and techniques for obtaining gas and liquid samples from sealed K West fuel canisters. The analytical procedures and quality assurance requirements for the subsequent laboratory analysis of the samples are also discussed.

  8. Method and apparatus for real-time measurement of fuel gas compositions and heating values

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zelepouga, Serguei; Pratapas, John M.; Saveliev, Alexei V.; Jangale, Vilas V.

    2016-03-22

    An exemplary embodiment can be an apparatus for real-time, in situ measurement of gas compositions and heating values. The apparatus includes a near infrared sensor for measuring concentrations of hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide, a mid infrared sensor for measuring concentrations of carbon monoxide and a semiconductor based sensor for measuring concentrations of hydrogen gas. A data processor having a computer program for reducing the effects of cross-sensitivities of the sensors to components other than target components of the sensors is also included. Also provided are corresponding or associated methods for real-time, in situ determination of a composition and heating value of a fuel gas.

  9. Thermal stability of fission gas bubble superlattice in irradiated U10Mo fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gan, J.; Keiser, D. D.; Miller, B. D.; Robinson, A. B.; Wachs, D. M.; Meyer, M. K.

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the thermal stability of the fission gas bubble superlattice, a key microstructural feature in both irradiated U-7Mo dispersion and U-10Mo monolithic fuel plates, a FIB-TEM sample of the irradiated U-10Mo fuel with a local fission density of 3.51021 fissions/cm3 was used for an in-situ heating TEM experiment. The temperature of the heating holder was raised at a ramp rate of approximately 10 C/min up to ~700 C, kept at that temperature for about 34 min, continued to 850 C with a reduced rate of 5 C/min. The result shows a high thermal stability of the fission gas bubble superlattice. The implication of this observation on the fuel microstructural evolution and performance under irradiation is discussed.

  10. Evaluation of aftermarket fuel delivery systems for natural gas and LPG vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willson, B. )

    1992-09-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of aftermarket fuel delivery systems for vehicles fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Most of the CNG and LPG vehicles studied were converted to the alternative fuel after purchase. There are wide variations in the quality of the conversion hardware and the installation. This leads to questions about the overall quality of the converted vehicles, in terms of emissions, safety, and performance. There is a considerable body of emissions data for converted light-duty vehicles, and a smaller amount for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles. However, very few of these data involve real world conditions, and there is growing concern about in-use emissions. This report also attempts to assess factors that could allow in-use emissions to vary from the best-case'' results normally reported. The study also addresses issues of fuel supply, fuel composition, performance, safety, and warranty waivers. The report is based on an extensive literature and product survey and on the author's experience with fuel delivery systems for light-duty vehicles.

  11. Evaluation of aftermarket fuel delivery systems for natural gas and LPG vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willson, B.

    1992-09-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of aftermarket fuel delivery systems for vehicles fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Most of the CNG and LPG vehicles studied were converted to the alternative fuel after purchase. There are wide variations in the quality of the conversion hardware and the installation. This leads to questions about the overall quality of the converted vehicles, in terms of emissions, safety, and performance. There is a considerable body of emissions data for converted light-duty vehicles, and a smaller amount for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles. However, very few of these data involve real world conditions, and there is growing concern about in-use emissions. This report also attempts to assess factors that could allow in-use emissions to vary from the ``best-case`` results normally reported. The study also addresses issues of fuel supply, fuel composition, performance, safety, and warranty waivers. The report is based on an extensive literature and product survey and on the author`s experience with fuel delivery systems for light-duty vehicles.

  12. THETRIS: A MICRO-SCALE TEMPERATURE AND GAS RELEASE MODEL FOR TRISO FUEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Ortensi; A.M. Ougouag

    2011-12-01

    The dominating mechanism in the passive safety of gas-cooled, graphite-moderated, high-temperature reactors (HTRs) is the Doppler feedback effect. These reactor designs are fueled with sub-millimeter sized kernels formed into TRISO particles that are imbedded in a graphite matrix. The best spatial and temporal representation of the feedback effect is obtained from an accurate approximation of the fuel temperature. Most accident scenarios in HTRs are characterized by large time constants and slow changes in the fuel and moderator temperature fields. In these situations a meso-scale, pebble and compact scale, solution provides a good approximation of the fuel temperature. Micro-scale models are necessary in order to obtain accurate predictions in faster transients or when parameters internal to the TRISO are needed. Since these coated particles constitute one of the fundamental design barriers for the release of fission products, it becomes important to understand the transient behavior inside this containment system. An explicit TRISO fuel temperature model named THETRIS has been developed and incorporated into the CYNOD-THERMIX-KONVEK suite of coupled codes. The code includes gas release models that provide a simple predictive capability of the internal pressure during transients. The new model yields similar results to those obtained with other micro-scale fuel models, but with the added capability to analyze gas release, internal pressure buildup, and effects of a gap in the TRISO. The analyses show the instances when the micro-scale models improve the predictions of the fuel temperature and Doppler feedback. In addition, a sensitivity study of the potential effects on the transient behavior of high-temperature reactors due to the presence of a gap is included. Although the formation of a gap occurs under special conditions, its consequences on the dynamic behavior of the reactor can cause unexpected responses during fast transients. Nevertheless, the strong Doppler feedback forces the reactor to quickly stabilize.

  13. Selection and preparation of activated carbon for fuel gas storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schwarz, James A.; Noh, Joong S.; Agarwal, Rajiv K.

    1990-10-02

    Increasing the surface acidity of active carbons can lead to an increase in capacity for hydrogen adsorption. Increasing the surface basicity can facilitate methane adsorption. The treatment of carbons is most effective when the carbon source material is selected to have a low ash content i.e., below about 3%, and where the ash consists predominantly of alkali metals alkali earth, with only minimal amounts of transition metals and silicon. The carbon is washed in water or acid and then oxidized, e.g. in a stream of oxygen and an inert gas at an elevated temperature.

  14. Expert system for identification of simultaneous and sequential reactor fuel failures with gas tagging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, K.C.

    1994-07-26

    Failure of a fuel element in a nuclear reactor core is determined by a gas tagging failure detection system and method. Failures are catalogued and characterized after the event so that samples of the reactor's cover gas are taken at regular intervals and analyzed by mass spectroscopy. Employing a first set of systematic heuristic rules which are applied in a transformed node space allows the number of node combinations which must be processed within a barycentric algorithm to be substantially reduced. A second set of heuristic rules treats the tag nodes of the most recent one or two leakers as background'' gases, further reducing the number of trial node combinations. Lastly, a fuzzy'' set theory formalism minimizes experimental uncertainties in the identification of the most likely volumes of tag gases. This approach allows for the identification of virtually any number of sequential leaks and up to five simultaneous gas leaks from fuel elements. 14 figs.

  15. Expert system for identification of simultaneous and sequential reactor fuel failures with gas tagging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, Kenny C.

    1994-01-01

    Failure of a fuel element in a nuclear reactor core is determined by a gas tagging failure detection system and method. Failures are catalogued and characterized after the event so that samples of the reactor's cover gas are taken at regular intervals and analyzed by mass spectroscopy. Employing a first set of systematic heuristic rules which are applied in a transformed node space allows the number of node combinations which must be processed within a barycentric algorithm to be substantially reduced. A second set of heuristic rules treats the tag nodes of the most recent one or two leakers as "background" gases, further reducing the number of trial node combinations. Lastly, a "fuzzy" set theory formalism minimizes experimental uncertainties in the identification of the most likely volumes of tag gases. This approach allows for the identification of virtually any number of sequential leaks and up to five simultaneous gas leaks from fuel elements.

  16. Random-Walk Monte Carlo Simulation of Intergranular Gas Bubble Nucleation in UO2 Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yongfeng Zhang; Michael R. Tonks; S. B. Biner; D.A. Andersson

    2012-11-01

    Using a random-walk particle algorithm, we investigate the clustering of fission gas atoms on grain bound- aries in oxide fuels. The computational algorithm implemented in this work considers a planar surface representing a grain boundary on which particles appear at a rate dictated by the Booth flux, migrate two dimensionally according to their grain boundary diffusivity, and coalesce by random encounters. Specifically, the intergranular bubble nucleation density is the key variable we investigate using a parametric study in which the temperature, grain boundary gas diffusivity, and grain boundary segregation energy are varied. The results reveal that the grain boundary bubble nucleation density can vary widely due to these three parameters, which may be an important factor in the observed variability in intergranular bubble percolation among grain boundaries in oxide fuel during fission gas release.

  17. Sampling and Analysis Plan for canister liquid and gas sampling at 105-KW fuel storage basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, R.A.; Green, M.A.; Makenas, B.J.; Trimble, D.J.

    1995-03-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) details the sampling and analyses to be performed on fuel canisters transferred to the Weasel Pit of the 105-KW fuel storage basin. The radionuclide content of the liquid and gas in the canisters must be evaluated to support the shipment of fuel elements to the 300 Area in support of the fuel characterization studies (Abrefah, et al. 1994, Trimble 1995). The following sections provide background information and a description of the facility under investigation, discuss the existing site conditions, present the constituents of concern, outline the purpose and scope of the investigation, outline the data quality objectives (DQO), provide analytical detection limit, precision, and accuracy requirements, and address other quality assurance (QA) issues.

  18. Illinois Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 44,712 56,555 53,775 2000's 47,189 46,801 81,867 32,168 30,624 58,418 42,729 62,567 34,586 33,214 2010's 45,900 47,510 89,300 52,266 42,081 83,570

    1,443 1,702 2,121 2,125 2,887 2,626 1967-2014 From Gas Wells 1,438 1,697 2,114 2,125 2,887 2,626 1967-2014 From Oil Wells 5 5 7 0 0 0 1967-2014 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007-2014 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006-2014 Repressuring 0 0 0 0 0 0

  19. Novel Gas Sensors for High-Temperature Fossil Fuel Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palitha Jayaweera; Francis Tanzella

    2005-03-01

    SRI International (SRI) is developing ceramic-based microsensors to detect exhaust gases such as NO, NO{sub 2}, and CO in advanced combustion and gasification systems under this DOE NETL-sponsored research project. The sensors detect the electrochemical activity of the exhaust gas species on catalytic electrodes attached to a solid state electrolyte and are designed to operate at the high temperatures, elevated pressures, and corrosive environments typical of large power generation exhausts. The sensors can be easily integrated into online monitoring systems for active emission control. The ultimate objective is to develop sensors for multiple gas detection in a single package, along with data acquisition and control software and hardware, so that the information can be used for closed-loop control in novel advanced power generation systems. This report details the Phase I Proof-of-Concept, research activities performed from October 2003 to March 2005. SRI's research work includes synthesis of catalytic materials, sensor design and fabrication, software development, and demonstration of pulse voltammetric analysis of NO, NO{sub 2}, and CO gases on catalytic electrodes.

  20. Process for the production of fuel gas from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patel, Jitendra G.; Sandstrom, William A.; Tarman, Paul B.

    1982-01-01

    An improved apparatus and process for the conversion of hydrocarbonaceous materials, such as coal, to more valuable gaseous products in a fluidized bed gasification reaction and efficient withdrawal of agglomerated ash from the fluidized bed is disclosed. The improvements are obtained by introducing an oxygen containing gas into the bottom of the fluidized bed through a separate conduit positioned within the center of a nozzle adapted to agglomerate and withdraw the ash from the bottom of the fluidized bed. The conduit extends above the constricted center portion of the nozzle and preferably terminates within and does not extend from the nozzle. In addition to improving ash agglomeration and withdrawal, the present invention prevents sintering and clinkering of the ash in the fluidized bed and permits the efficient recycle of fine material recovered from the product gases by contacting the fines in the fluidized bed with the oxygen as it emanates from the conduit positioned within the withdrawal nozzle. Finally, the present method of oxygen introduction permits the efficient recycle of a portion of the product gases to the reaction zone to increase the reducing properties of the hot product gas.

  1. NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF THE EFFECTS OF CHANGING FUEL FOR TURBINES FIRED BY NATURAL GAS AND SYNGAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabau, Adrian S; Wright, Ian G

    2007-01-01

    Gas turbines in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants burn a fuel gas (syngas) in which the proportions of hydrocarbons, H2, CO, water vapor, and minor impurity levels may vary significantly from those in natural gas, depending on the input feed to the gasifier and the gasification process. A data structure and computational methodology is presented for the numerical simulation of a turbine thermodynamic cycle for various fuel types, air/fuel ratios, and coolant flow rates. The approach used allowed efficient handling of turbine components and different variable constraints due to fuel changes. Examples are presented for a turbine with four stages and cooled blades. The blades were considered to be cooled in an open circuit, with air provided from appropriate compressor stages. Results are presented for the temperatures of the hot gas, alloy surface (coating-superalloy interface), and coolant, as well as for cooling flow rates. Based on the results of the numerical simulations, values were calculated for the fuel flow rates, airflow ratios, and coolant flow rates required to maintain the superalloy in the first stage blade at the desired temperature when the fuel was changed from natural gas (NG) to syngas (SG). One NG case was conducted to assess the effect of coolant pressure matching between the compressor extraction points and corresponding turbine injection points. It was found that pressure matching is a feature that must be considered for high combustion temperatures. The first series of SG simulations was conducted using the same inlet mass flow and pressure ratios as those for the NG case. The results showed that higher coolant flow rates and a larger number of cooled turbine rows were needed for the SG case. Thus, for this first case, the turbine size would be different for SG than for NG. In order to maintain the original turbine configuration (i.e., geometry, diameters, blade heights, angles, and cooling circuit characteristics) for the SG simulations, a second series of simulations was carried out by varying the inlet mass flow while keeping constant the pressure ratios and the amount of hot gas passing the first vane of the turbine. The effect of turbine matching between the NG and SG cases was approximately 10 C, and 8 to 14% for rotor inlet temperature and total cooling flows, respectively. These results indicate that turbine-compressor matching, before and after fuel change, must be included in turbine models. The last stage of the turbine, for the SG case, experienced higher inner wall temperatures than the corresponding case for NG, with the temperature of the vane approaching the maximum allowable limit. This paper was published by ASME as paper no. GT2007-27530.

  2. Georgia Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 17,054 33,351 32,505 2000's 42,034 34,666 56,588 32,258 45,926 72,267 95,407 121,726 96,316 142,467 2010's 175,082 196,492 308,096 279,506 289,783 354,090 Feet)

    Price All Countries (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Georgia Natural Gas Imports Price All Countries (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's -- 2000's -- 1.92

  3. Idaho Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 1,781 1,769 1,749 2000's 1,712 10,479 2,720 9,596 11,892 11,425 9,611 12,504 12,530 12,575 2010's 12,375 8,299 13,599 24,860 17,866 27,790 Feet)

    (Price) All Countries (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Idaho Natural Gas Exports (Price) All Countries (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's -- 2000's -- -- 4.40 4.34 5.36

  4. Massachusetts Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 117,259 101,682 93,126 2000's 88,089 96,294 128,852 169,252 157,400 152,429 168,970 183,231 154,984 150,161 2010's 185,842 185,903 179,598 154,217 133,164 156,492

    Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Massachusetts Natural Gas Imports Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 2.27 1990's 2.80 3.08 2.88 2.50 2.59

  5. New Hampshire Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 564 151 572 2000's 783 527 1,096 28,627 37,732 45,926 41,339 39,013 48,688 38,070 2010's 38,937 46,812 50,408 29,644 31,240 42,673

    Exports (Million Cubic Feet) New Hampshire Natural Gas Exports (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 64 0 2010's 0 336 199 95 373 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W =

  6. Radiation re-solution of fission gas in non-oxide nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthews, Christopher; Schwen, Daniel; Klein, Andrew C.

    2015-02-01

    Renewed interest in fast nuclear reactors is creating a need for better understanding of fission gas bubble behavior in non-oxide fuels to support very long fuel lifetimes. Collisions between fission fragments and their subsequent cascades can knock fission gas atoms out of bubbles and back into the fuel lattice. We showed that these collisions can be treated as using the so-called ‘‘homogenous’’ atom-by-atom re-solution theory and calculated using the Binary Collision Approximation code 3DOT. The calculations showed that there is a decrease in the re-solution parameter as bubble radius increases until about 50 nm, at which the re-solution parameter stays nearly constant. Furthermore, our model shows ion cascades created in the fuel result in many more implanted fission gas atoms than collisions directly with fission fragments. This calculated re-solution parameter can be used to find a re-solution rate for future bubble simulations.

  7. TRISO-Coated Fuel Processing to Support High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Del Cul, G.D.

    2002-10-01

    The initial objective of the work described herein was to identify potential methods and technologies needed to disassemble and dissolve graphite-encapsulated, ceramic-coated gas-cooled-reactor spent fuels so that the oxide fuel components can be separated by means of chemical processing. The purpose of this processing is to recover (1) unburned fuel for recycle, (2) long-lived actinides and fission products for transmutation, and (3) other fission products for disposal in acceptable waste forms. Follow-on objectives were to identify and select the most promising candidate flow sheets for experimental evaluation and demonstration and to address the needs to reduce technical risks of the selected technologies. High-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) may be deployed in the next -20 years to (1) enable the use of highly efficient gas turbines for producing electricity and (2) provide high-temperature process heat for use in chemical processes, such as the production of hydrogen for use as clean-burning transportation fuel. Also, HTGR fuels are capable of significantly higher burn-up than light-water-reactor (LWR) fuels or fast-reactor (FR) fuels; thus, the HTGR fuels can be used efficiently for transmutation of fissile materials and long-lived actinides and fission products, thereby reducing the inventory of such hazardous and proliferation-prone materials. The ''deep-burn'' concept, described in this report, is an example of this capability. Processing of spent graphite-encapsulated, ceramic-coated fuels presents challenges different from those of processing spent LWR fuels. LWR fuels are processed commercially in Europe and Japan; however, similar infrastructure is not available for processing of the HTGR fuels. Laboratory studies on the processing of HTGR fuels were performed in the United States in the 1960s and 1970s, but no engineering-scale processes were demonstrated. Currently, new regulations concerning emissions will impact the technologies used in processing the fuel. Potential processing methods will be identified both by a review of the literature regarding the processing of similar fuels and by a reliance on the experience and innovation of the authors. The objective is not to generate an exhaustive list of options but rather to identify a number of potentially practical processing options. These options necessarily take into consideration the chemical characteristics of the entire fuel element and its component parts. Once the practical options are identified, a qualitative assessment of the technical merit and maturity, relative costs, and relative quantity of waste generation will be used to rank the various options. Through this form of analysis, a base-case flow sheet will be identified for further study and development. A fallback flow sheet will also be selected to reduce the overall technical risk of the development plan. To support the base-case flow sheet, a technical development plan will be used to identify the key issues for the highest-rated option(s). In this effort the technical uncertainties will be more fully articulated, and research and development activities will be recommended to reduce the technical risks.

  8. Accounting for fuel price risk: Using forward natural gas prices instead of gas price forecasts to compare renewable to natural gas-fired generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Golove, William

    2003-08-13

    Against the backdrop of increasingly volatile natural gas prices, renewable energy resources, which by their nature are immune to natural gas fuel price risk, provide a real economic benefit. Unlike many contracts for natural gas-fired generation, renewable generation is typically sold under fixed-price contracts. Assuming that electricity consumers value long-term price stability, a utility or other retail electricity supplier that is looking to expand its resource portfolio (or a policymaker interested in evaluating different resource options) should therefore compare the cost of fixed-price renewable generation to the hedged or guaranteed cost of new natural gas-fired generation, rather than to projected costs based on uncertain gas price forecasts. To do otherwise would be to compare apples to oranges: by their nature, renewable resources carry no natural gas fuel price risk, and if the market values that attribute, then the most appropriate comparison is to the hedged cost of natural gas-fired generation. Nonetheless, utilities and others often compare the costs of renewable to gas-fired generation using as their fuel price input long-term gas price forecasts that are inherently uncertain, rather than long-term natural gas forward prices that can actually be locked in. This practice raises the critical question of how these two price streams compare. If they are similar, then one might conclude that forecast-based modeling and planning exercises are in fact approximating an apples-to-apples comparison, and no further consideration is necessary. If, however, natural gas forward prices systematically differ from price forecasts, then the use of such forecasts in planning and modeling exercises will yield results that are biased in favor of either renewable (if forwards < forecasts) or natural gas-fired generation (if forwards > forecasts). In this report we compare the cost of hedging natural gas price risk through traditional gas-based hedging instruments (e.g., futures, swaps, and fixed-price physical supply contracts) to contemporaneous forecasts of spot natural gas prices, with the purpose of identifying any systematic differences between the two. Although our data set is quite limited, we find that over the past three years, forward gas prices for durations of 2-10 years have been considerably higher than most natural gas spot price forecasts, including the reference case forecasts developed by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). This difference is striking, and implies that resource planning and modeling exercises based on these forecasts over the past three years have yielded results that are biased in favor of gas-fired generation (again, presuming that long-term stability is desirable). As discussed later, these findings have important ramifications for resource planners, energy modelers, and policy-makers.

  9. Experimental control analysis of a fuel gas saturator. Final report. [Multivariable

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terwilliger, G.E.; Brower, A.S.; Baheti, R.S.; Smith, R.E.; Brown, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    The multivariable control of the clean fuel gas saturator of a coal gasification process has been demonstrated. First principle process models described the process dynamics from which linear models were generated and used for the actual control designs. The multivariable control was designed, its response to transients simulated and the controls were implemented in a computer controller for a fuel gas saturator. The test results obtained for the gas flow transients showed good correlation with the computer simulations, giving confidence in the ability of the simulation to predict the plant performance for other transients. In this study, both time and frequency domain multivariable design techniques were applied to provide the best possible design and to determine their relative effectiveness. No clear guidelines resulted; it appears that the selection may be made on the basis of personal preference, experience or the availability of computer-aided design tools, rather than inherent technical differences. This EPRI/GE fuel gas saturator control demonstration has shown that multivariable design techniques can be applied to a real process and that practical controls are developed. With suitable process models, presently available computer-aided control design software allows the control design, evaluation and implementation to be completed in a reasonable time period. The application of these techniques to power generation processes is recommended.

  10. Illinois Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Thousand Cubic Feet) Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Illinois Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0.21 0.20 0.20 1970's 0.21 0.22 0.23 0.27 0.29 0.54 0.58 0.83 0.98 1.11 1980's 1.78 2.12 2.56 3.07 2.88 2.97 2.73 2.68 2.53 2.17 1990's 2.06 2.29 2.44 1.97 1.88 1.66 2.63 2.68 2.27 2.48 2000's 3.12 3.94 NA -- -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA

  11. Illinois Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's -31,495 -46,034 -48,160 1970's -78,193 -87,592 -39,910 -74,522 -47,744 -69,306 -25,844 -78,904 -6,479 -44,008 1980's -16,621 27,678 -24,056 43,126 -21,022 17,962 -16,244 -177 -8,759 17,378 1990's -15,926 978 8,608 -12,196 -12,907 22,981 -15,109 -10,153 -9,780 -2,715 2000's 24,165 -25,587 19,029 -8,899 4,602 -1,226 -7,163 7,333 -506 -11,464 2010's -2,323 -1,186 1,001 17,324 -10,730 -10,603

    Gas

  12. Iowa Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's -13,122 -2,508 2,306 1970's -4,233 -7,786 -7,279 -16,659 -12,391 -5,661 -5,256 -26,037 -7,516 -9,716 1980's -3,464 53 -11,934 24,768 12,148 -1,876 -2,951 -3,272 -417 9,035 1990's 3,299 5,207 4,259 -3,176 -2,764 6,443 -1,229 -6,255 -2,954 2,445 2000's 13,560 -21,435 4,251 -1,774 -1,667 3,379 -3,563 2,450 -2,274 -4,861 2010's 2,037 -4,244 10,517 3,074 -7,424 -4,955

    Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (Million

  13. Commercial demonstration of atmospheric medium BTU fuel gas production from biomass without oxygen the Burlington, Vermont Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohrer, J.W.

    1995-12-31

    The first U.S. demonstration of a gas turbine operating on fuel gas produced by the thermal gasification of biomass occurred at Battelle Columbus Labs (BCL) during 1994 using their high throughput indirect medium Btu gasification Process Research Unit (PRU). Zurn/NEPCO was retained to build a commercial scale gas plant utilizing this technology. This plant will have a throughput rating of 8 to 12 dry tons per hour. During a subsequent phase of the Burlington project, this fuel gas will be utilized in a commercial scale gas turbine. It is felt that this process holds unique promise for economically converting a wide variety of biomass feedstocks efficiently into both a medium Btu (500 Btu/scf) gas turbine and IC engine quality fuel gas that can be burned in engines without modification, derating or efficiency loss. Others are currently demonstrating sub-commercial scale thermal biomass gasification processes for turbine gas, utilizing both atmospheric and pressurized air and oxygen-blown fluid bed processes. While some of these approaches hold merit for coal, there is significant question as to whether they will prove economically viable in biomass facilities which are typically scale limited by fuel availability and transportation logistics below 60 MW. Atmospheric air-blown technologies suffer from large sensible heat loss, high gas volume and cleaning cost, huge gas compressor power consumption and engine deratings. Pressurized units and/or oxygen-blown gas plants are extremely expensive for plant scales below 250 MW. The FERCO/BCL process shows great promise for overcoming the above limitations by utilizing an extremely high throughout circulation fluid bed (CFB) gasifier, in which biomass is fully devolitalized with hot sand from a CFB char combustor. The fuel gas can be cooled and cleaned by a conventional scrubbing system. Fuel gas compressor power consumption is reduced 3 to 4 fold verses low Btu biomass gas.

  14. Rhode Island Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Rhode Island Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: Natural

  15. South Dakota Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) South Dakota Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 0 0 63 61 76 93 70 125 123 112 1990's 158 393 451 452 437 404 424 911 848 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release

  16. South Dakota Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) South Dakota Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 4.13 4.08 4.19 3.17 3.89 3.76 3.48 4.95 4.83 2000's 4.48 -- 4.14 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 2010's -- -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date:

  17. Tennessee Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Tennessee Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 355 753 986 1970's 1,265 1,524 1,150 1,263 1,087 387 537 509 516 616 1980's 0 0 78 113 153 138 98 93 60 45 1990's 74 44 39 49 44 47 37 45 31 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016

  18. Virginia Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Virginia Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 128 211 1970's 252 213 157 170 307 168 157 157 191 266 1980's 240 361 181 124 272 443 438 669 536 425 1990's 489 327 653 1,120 1,102 1,296 1,183 1,330 1,243 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release

  19. West Virginia Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) West Virginia Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 2.90 2.90 3.82 2.08 2.20 2.69 2.55 2000's -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 2010's -- -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages:

  20. Indiana Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Indiana Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 5 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1980's 7 51 10 4 12 11 10 7 12 10 1990's 13 5 5 6 2 5 8 12 13 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: