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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas total coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

U.S. coal’s share of total net generation continues to ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Amid historically low natural gas prices and the warmest March ever recorded in much of the United States, coal's share of total net generation dropped to 34%—the ...

2

U.S. coal’s share of total net generation continues to ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Amid historically low natural gas prices and the warmest March ever recorded in much of the United States, coal's share of total net generation ...

3

Annul Coal Consumption by Country (1980 -2009) Total annual coal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Annul Coal Consumption by Country (1980 -2009) Total annual coal consumption by country, 1980 to 2009 (available as Quadrillion Btu). Compiled by Energy Information Administration...

4

Economics of gas from coal  

SciTech Connect

This study deals with three questions: What does gas from coal cost and what affects this cost; How do different approaches and processes compare; and How near to competitive cost-levels is present-day technology. Discussion covers production of both substitute natural gas (SNG) and medium calorific gas (MCG: 10-16 MJ/Nm3 or 250-400 Btu/SCF). Conclusions are that SNG from low-cost U.S. coal and West German brown coal are, on the basis of mature technology and Government rates-of-return, roughly competitive with gas imports into the U.S. and Europe respectively. Similarly MCG from second-generation gasifiers is competitive with gas-oil or No. 2 heating oil in Europe, North America and Japan. However, capital costs form about half total gas costs at 10 percent rate-of-return, so that the competitiveness of gas from coal is sensitive to capital costs: this is the area of greatest uncertainty.

Teper, M.; Hemming, D.F.; Ulrich, W.C.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

COAL CLEANING BY GAS AGGLOMERATION  

SciTech Connect

The agglomeration of ultrafine-size coal particles in an aqueous suspension by means of microscopic gas bubbles was demonstrated in numerous experiments with a scale model mixing system. Coal samples from both the Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam and the Upper Freeport Seam were used for these experiments. A small amount of i-octane was added to facilitate the process. Microscopic gas bubbles were generated by saturating the water used for suspending coal particles with gas under pressure and then reducing the pressure. Microagglomerates were produced which appeared to consist of gas bubbles encapsulated in coal particles. Since dilute particle suspensions were employed, it was possible to monitor the progress of agglomeration by observing changes in turbidity. By such means it became apparent that the rate of agglomeration depends on the concentration of microscopic gas bubbles and to a lesser extent on the concentration of i-octane. Similar results were obtained with both Pittsburgh No. 8 coal and Upper Freeport coal.

MEIYU SHEN; ROYCE ABBOTT; T.D. WHEELOCK

1998-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

6

Coal Beneficiation by Gas Agglomeration  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Coal beneficiation is achieved by suspending coal fines in a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water under atmospheric conditions to form small agglomerates of the fines adhered by the gas bubbles. The agglomerates are separated, recovered and resuspended in water. Thereafter, the pressure on the suspension is increased above atmospheric to deagglomerate, since the gas bubbles are then re-dissolved in the water. During the deagglomeration step, the mineral matter is dispersed, and when the pressure is released, the coal portion of the deagglomerated gas-saturated water mixture reagglomerates, with the small bubbles now coming out of the solution. The reagglomerate can then be separated to provide purified coal fines without the mineral matter.

Thomas D. Wheelock; Meiyu Shen

2000-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

7

Total Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Capacity Working Gas Capacity of Salt Caverns Working Gas Capacity of Aquifers Working Gas Capacity of Depleted Fields Total Number of Existing Fields Number of Existing Salt...

8

Changes related to "Coal seam natural gas producing areas (Louisiana...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Special page Share this page on Facebook icon Twitter icon Changes related to "Coal seam natural gas producing areas (Louisiana)" Coal seam natural gas producing areas...

9

Natural Gas Total Liquids Extracted  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Thousand Barrels) Thousand Barrels) Data Series: Natural Gas Processed Total Liquids Extracted NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View History U.S. 658,291 673,677 720,612 749,095 792,481 873,563 1983-2012 Alabama 13,381 11,753 11,667 13,065 1983-2010 Alaska 22,419 20,779 19,542 17,798 18,314 18,339 1983-2012 Arkansas 126 103 125 160 212 336 1983-2012 California 11,388 11,179 11,042 10,400 9,831 9,923 1983-2012 Colorado 27,447 37,804 47,705 57,924 1983-2010 Florida 103 16 1983-2008 Illinois 38 33 24 231 705 0 1983-2012

10

Gas distributor for fluidized bed coal gasifier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas distributor for distributing high temperature reaction gases to a fluidized bed of coal particles in a coal gasification process. The distributor includes a pipe with a refractory reinforced lining and a plurality of openings in the lining through which gas is fed into the bed. These feed openings have an expanding tapered shape in the downstream or exhaust direction which aids in reducing the velocity of the gas jets as they enter the bed.

Worley, Arthur C. (Mt. Tabor, NJ); Zboray, James A. (Irvine, CA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Coal's share of total U.S. electricity generation falls below 40% ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Natural gas combined-cycle units operate at higher efficiency than do older, coal-fired units, which increases the competitiveness of natural gas relative to coal.

12

Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems  

SciTech Connect

Several technology advances since the early coal-fueled turbine programs that address technical issues of coal as a turbine fuel have been developed in the early 1980s: Coal-water suspensions as fuel form, improved methods for removing ash and contaminants from coal, staged combustion for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from fuel-bound nitrogen, and greater understanding of deposition/erosion/corrosion and their control. Several Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Systems programs were awarded to gas turbine manufacturers for for components development and proof of concept tests; one of these was Allison. Tests were conducted in a subscale coal combustion facility and a full-scale facility operating a coal combustor sized to the Allison Model 501-K industrial turbine. A rich-quench-lean (RQL), low nitrogen oxide combustor design incorporating hot gas cleanup was developed for coal fuels; this should also be applicable to biomass, etc. The combustor tests showed NO{sub x} and CO emissions {le} levels for turbines operating with natural gas. Water washing of vanes from the turbine removed the deposits. Systems and economic evaluations identified two possible applications for RQL turbines: Cogeneration plants based on Allison 501-K turbine (output 3.7 MW(e), 23,000 lbs/hr steam) and combined cycle power plants based on 50 MW or larger gas turbines. Coal-fueled cogeneration plant configurations were defined and evaluated for site specific factors. A coal-fueled turbine combined cycle plant design was identified which is simple, compact, and results in lower capital cost, with comparable efficiency and low emissions relative to other coal technologies (gasification, advanced PFBC).

Wenglarz, R.A.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Coal seam natural gas producing areas (Louisiana)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

In order to prevent waste and to avoid the drilling of unnecessary wells and to encourage the development of coal seam natural gas producing areas in Louisiana, the commissioner of conservation is...

14

Total Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Gas Capacity Total Number of Existing Fields Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes...

15

Total Supplemental Supply of Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Product: Total Supplemental Supply Synthetic Propane-Air Refinery Gas Biomass Other Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources &...

16

,"New Mexico Natural Gas Total Consumption (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Natural Gas Total Consumption (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2011 ,"Release Date:","10312013"...

17

Air extraction in gas turbines burning coal-derived gas  

SciTech Connect

In the first phase of this contracted research, a comprehensive investigation was performed. Principally, the effort was directed to identify the technical barriers which might exist in integrating the air-blown coal gasification process with a hot gas cleanup scheme and the state-of-the-art, US made, heavy-frame gas turbine. The guiding rule of the integration is to keep the compressor and the expander unchanged if possible. Because of the low-heat content of coal gas and of the need to accommodate air extraction, the combustor and perhaps, the flow region between the compressor exit and the expander inlet might need to be modified. In selecting a compressed air extraction scheme, one must consider how the scheme affects the air supply to the hot section of the turbine and the total pressure loss in the flow region. Air extraction must preserve effective cooling of the hot components, such as the transition pieces. It must also ensure proper air/fuel mixing in the combustor, hence the combustor exit pattern factor. The overall thermal efficiency of the power plant can be increased by minimizing the total pressure loss in the diffusers associated with the air extraction. Therefore, a study of airflow in the pre- and dump-diffusers with and without air extraction would provide information crucial to attaining high-thermal efficiency and to preventing hot spots. The research group at Clemson University suggested using a Griffith diffuser for the prediffuser and extracting air from the diffuser inlet. The present research establishes that the analytically identified problems in the impingement cooling flow are factual. This phase of the contracted research substantiates experimentally the advantage of using the Griffith diffuser with air extraction at the diffuser inlet.

Yang, Tah-teh; Agrawal, A.K.; Kapat, J.S.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Geomechanics of coal-gas interactions : the role of coal permeability evolution.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??[Truncated abstract] Complex interactions between stress and sorptive chemistry exert strong influence on coal geomechanics. These include influences on gas sorption and flow, coal deformation,… (more)

Chen, Zhongwei

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Pennsylvania Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Percentage of Total Natural Gas Residential Deliveries included in Prices ; Pennsylvania Natural Gas Prices ...

20

U.S. Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Percentage of Total Natural Gas Residential Deliveries included in Prices ; U.S. Natural Gas Prices ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas total coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

New York Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Percentage of Total Natural Gas Residential Deliveries included in Prices ; New York Natural Gas Prices ...

22

Total pressing Indonesian gas development, exports  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Total is on track to become Indonesia's leading gas exporter by the turn of the century. Total's aggressive development of its Mahakam Delta acreage in East Kalimantan is intended to keep pace with growing liquefied natural gas demand, mainly from Japan but also increasingly from South Korea and Taiwan. A frantic scramble is under way among natural gas suppliers in the Pacific Rim region, particularly those with current LNG export facilities, to accommodate projections of soaring natural gas demand in the region. Accordingly, Total's Indonesian gas production goal is the centerpiece of a larger strategy to become a major player in the Far East Asia gas scene. Its goals also fall in line with Indonesia's. Facing flat or declining oil production while domestic oil demand continues to soar along with a rapidly growing economy, Indonesia is heeding some studies that project the country could become a net oil importer by the turn of the century. The paper describes Total's Far East strategy, the Mahakam acreage which it operates, the shift to gas development, added discoveries, future development, project spending levels, and LNG export capacity.

Not Available

1994-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

23

Prediction of Coal /Gas Outbursts Based on Selective Ensemble Learning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For the purpose of achieving accurate and reliable coal /gas outbursts prediction, a coal /gas outbursts prediction algorithm based on selective ensemble learning is presented. The component learners consisted of RS-PNN network, and the redundant component ... Keywords: Coal and gas outburst, selective ensemble learning, RS-PNN classifier, classification

Wang Heng, Shao Liangshan, Liu Shuanhong, Lu Lin

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Zevenhoven & Kilpinen CROSS EFFECTS, TOTAL SYSTEM LAY-OUT 13.6.2001 10-1 Figure 10.1 Typical pulverised coal combustion and gas clean-up system: dry scrubber +  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

REGULATIONS Although incinerator flue gas emission limits for acid gases have been imposed by the federal, such as sodium chlorite (NaCI02), is added to oxidize flue gas NO to N02, which can be removed by a sodium of saturated flue gas to approximately 60°C ( 140°F), the total (par ticulate and gaseous) mercury emissions

Laughlin, Robert B.

25

Does the presence of pseudovitrinite indicate gas-saturated coals? Some interesting observations from the Gething coals in Canada  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The presence of pseudovitrinite at a depth of 1,000 m in the very gassy (up to 862 scf/ton total gas content, as-received basis) but low absolute permeability (0.5 mD), low-volatile bituminous Gething coals in the Canadian Foothills has been documented. Because oxidation is unlikely to occur at such depth, it is reasonable to expect that pseudovitrinite formed as a result of desiccation in a gas-saturated environment prior to the coals being uplifted to their present day depth. This raises the possibility that a coal that contains pseudovitrinite may have moisture content that is below its equilibrium moisture, which leads to higher methane adsorptive capacity compared with the same coal that has normal vitrinite (collotelinite). The presence of inertinite macerals in the coal, derived from wood fibers and charred remnants, has aided in the development and preservation of phyteral porosity and in the formation of interconnected microcavities, which should result in higher micropermeability and aid the flow of gas locally within the coal seam and surrounding strata. The Gething coals in the Highhat corehole share some of these characteristics, which may have important implications on the dynamics of coal-bed methane production. Volumetric strain (matrix shrinkage) of these gassy coals during production is conservatively estimated to be 0.5-0.75%, which may result in an absolute permeability increase of between 5 to 12 times, based on studies on coals of similar rank and gas content in United States basins. Although observations made in this preliminary study do not constitute a proof, they leave open the possibility of using pseudovitrinite, under certain circumstances, as an indicator of improved gas sorptive capacity and enhanced permeability in deep coals.

Gentzis, T. [Petron Resources LP, Frisco, TX (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

"Characteristic(a)","Total(b)","Electricity(c)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(d)","Natural Gas(e)","NGL(f)","Coal","Breeze","Other(g)","Produced Onsite(h)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1.3 Relative Standard Errors for Table 1.3;" 1.3 Relative Standard Errors for Table 1.3;" " Unit: Percents." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," " " "," ",," "," ",," "," ",," ","Shipments" "Economic",,"Net","Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and",,"Coke and"," ","of Energy Sources" "Characteristic(a)","Total(b)","Electricity(c)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(d)","Natural Gas(e)","NGL(f)","Coal","Breeze","Other(g)","Produced Onsite(h)"

27

Detecting of Coal Gas Weak Signals Using Lyapunov Exponent under Strong Noise Background  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In coal gas monitoring system, the early detecting of gas concentration is key technique for preventing the gas explosion because the coal gas signals are very weak under strong noise background in mining digging laneway. In this paper, the coal gas ... Keywords: Coal gas, weak signals, coal mine underground, Lyapunov exponent, Duffing chaotic oscillator

Ma Xian-Min

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Program  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the original Request for Proposal was to establish the technological bases necessary for the subsequent commercial development and deployment of advanced coal-fueled gas turbine power systems by the private sector. The offeror was to identify the specific application or applications, toward which his development efforts would be directed; define and substantiate the technical, economic, and environmental criteria for the selected application; and conduct such component design, development, integration, and tests as deemed necessary to fulfill this objective. Specifically, the offeror was to choose a system through which ingenious methods of grouping subcomponents into integrated systems accomplishes the following: (1) Preserve the inherent power density and performance advantages of gas turbine systems. (2) System must be capable of meeting or exceeding existing and expected environmental regulations for the proposed application. (3) System must offer a considerable improvement over coal-fueled systems which are commercial, have been demonstrated, or are being demonstrated. (4) System proposed must be an integrated gas turbine concept, i.e., all fuel conditioning, all expansion gas conditioning, or post-expansion gas cleaning, must be integrated into the gas turbine system.

Horner, M.W.; Ekstedt, E.E.; Gal, E.; Jackson, M.R.; Kimura, S.G.; Lavigne, R.G.; Lucas, C.; Rairden, J.R.; Sabla, P.E.; Savelli, J.F.; Slaughter, D.M.; Spiro, C.L.; Staub, F.W.

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Gas, oil, and coal biotechnology I  

SciTech Connect

This papers presented at the First International IGT Symposium on Gas, Oil, and Coal Biotechnology, New Orleans, Louisiana, December 5-7, 1988, are reproduced in this book. This symposium was designed to provide a forum for the exchange of ideas among leading scientists, engineers, managers, and administrators in this rapidly advancing branch of biotechnology. The presentations and discussions by scientists and engineers from the academic, industrial, and government research laboratories, along with technical program managers and administrators, emphasized the biotechnological approaches to interrelated issues of energy utilization, supply, and environment. The symposium papers are organized in this book under topics that reflect the following program sessions. These topics are: (1) An Emerging Industry, and Programs to Encourage its Development; (2) Coal Biotechnology; (3) Gas Biotechnology; (4) Oil Biotechnology; and (5) Environmental Biotechnology. Twenty-three papers have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

Akin, C.; Smith, J. (eds.)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Federal Offshore -- Gulf of Mexico Natural Gas Total Consumption...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

-- Gulf of Mexico Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Federal Offshore -- Gulf of Mexico Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

31

Texas Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

View History: Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) Texas Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent) Texas Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent) Decade...

32

Price of Lake Charles, LA Liquefied Natural Gas Total Imports...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Liquefied Natural Gas Total Imports (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Price of Lake Charles, LA Liquefied Natural Gas Total Imports (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0...

33

Price of Everett, MA Liquefied Natural Gas Total Imports (Dollars...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Liquefied Natural Gas Total Imports (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Price of Everett, MA Liquefied Natural Gas Total Imports (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0...

34

Price of Elba Island, GA Liquefied Natural Gas Total Imports...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Elba Island, GA Liquefied Natural Gas Total Imports (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Price of Elba Island, GA Liquefied Natural Gas Total Imports (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)...

35

South Dakota Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

View History: Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) South Dakota Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent) South Dakota Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales...

36

South Dakota Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

View History: Annual Download Data (XLS File) South Dakota Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) South Dakota Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries...

37

South Dakota Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

View History: Annual Download Data (XLS File) South Dakota Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) South Dakota Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)...

38

Hawaii Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

View History: Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) Hawaii Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent) Hawaii Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent)...

39

North Dakota Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

View History: Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) North Dakota Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent) North Dakota Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales...

40

Missouri Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

View History: Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) Missouri Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent) Missouri Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent)...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas total coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Alaska Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

View History: Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) Alaska Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent) Alaska Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent)...

42

Arizona Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

View History: Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) Arizona Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent) Arizona Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent)...

43

Iowa Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

View History: Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) Iowa Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent) Iowa Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent) Decade...

44

Alabama Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

View History: Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) Alabama Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent) Alabama Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent)...

45

Florida Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

View History: Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) Florida Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent) Florida Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent)...

46

Wyoming Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

View History: Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) Wyoming Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent) Wyoming Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent)...

47

New Jersey Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

View History: Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) New Jersey Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent) New Jersey Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales...

48

Kentucky Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

View History: Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) Kentucky Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent) Kentucky Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent)...

49

Illinois Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

View History: Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) Illinois Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent) Illinois Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent)...

50

North Carolina Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

View History: Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) North Carolina Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent) North Carolina Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales...

51

District of Columbia Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

View History: Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) District of Columbia Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent) District of Columbia Natural Gas % of Total...

52

Nevada Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

View History: Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) Nevada Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent) Nevada Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent)...

53

West Virginia Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

View History: Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) West Virginia Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent) West Virginia Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales...

54

Massachusetts Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

View History: Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) Massachusetts Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent) Massachusetts Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales...

55

Oregon Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

View History: Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) Oregon Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent) Oregon Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent)...

56

Kansas Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

View History: Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) Kansas Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent) Kansas Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent)...

57

Tennessee Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

View History: Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) Tennessee Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent) Tennessee Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent)...

58

Maine Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

View History: Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) Maine Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent) Maine Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent) Decade...

59

Electricity generation from coal and natural gas both increased ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Historically, the average fuel cost of operating a combined-cycle natural gas generator exceeded that for a coal-fired generator. Until 2010, ...

60

Electricity generation from coal and natural gas both increased ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Coal generation shares declined in some regions ... the share of natural gas-fired power generation is most influenced by the availability of hydroelectric power, ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas total coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Coal seam natural gas producing areas (Louisiana) | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Data Page Edit with form History Share this page on Facebook icon Twitter icon Coal seam natural gas producing areas (Louisiana) This is the approved revision of this...

62

Prod. of Oil, Gas & Coal - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Production of oil, gas, and coal. Projected supply and disposition of crude oil. The model now uses the EIA’s projections of production, imports, and consumption of ...

63

Optical Gas Sensors for Advanced Coal-Fired Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Optical Gas Sensors for Advanced Coal-Fired Power Plants. Author(s), Paul Ohodnicki, Congjun Wang, Douglas Kauffman, Kristi Kauffman, ...

64

Gas transport, sorption, and mechanical response of fractured coal.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Fractured coal exhibits strong and dynamic coupling between fluid transport and mechanical response especially when the pore fluid is a sorbing gas. This complex interaction… (more)

Wang, Shugang

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Direct coal-fired gas turbines for combined cycle plants  

SciTech Connect

The combustion/emissions control island of the CFTCC plant produces cleaned coal combustion gases for expansion in the gas turbine. The gases are cleaned to protect the turbine from flow-path degeneration due to coal contaminants and to reduce environmental emissions to comparable or lower levels than alternate clean coal power plant tedmologies. An advantage of the CFTCC system over other clean coal technologies using gas turbines results from the CFTCC system having been designed as an adaptation to coal of a natural gas-fired combined cycle plant. Gas turbines are built for compactness and simplicity. The RQL combustor is designed using gas turbine combustion technology rather than process plant reactor technology used in other pressurized coal systems. The result is simpler and more compact combustion equipment than for alternate technologies. The natural effect is lower cost and improved reliability. In addition to new power generation plants, CFTCC technology will provide relatively compact and gas turbine compatible coal combustion/emissions control islands that can adapt existing natural gas-fired combined cycle plants to coal when gas prices rise to the point where conversion is economically attractive. Because of the simplicity, compactness, and compatibility of the RQL combustion/emission control island compared to other coal technologies, it could be a primary candidate for such conversions.

Rothrock, J.; Wenglarz, R.; Hart, P.; Mongia, H.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Westinghouse's Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine System Program (DE-AC2l-86MC23167) was originally split into two major phases - a Basic Program and an Option. The Basic Program also contained two phases. The development of a 6 atm, 7 lb/s, 12 MMBtu/hr slagging combustor with an extended period of testing of the subscale combustor, was the first part of the Basic Program. In the second phase of the Basic Program, the combustor was to be operated over a 3-month period with a stationary cascade to study the effect of deposition, erosion and corrosion on combustion turbine components. The testing of the concept, in subscale, has demonstrated its ability to handle high- and low-sulfur bituminous coals, and low-sulfur subbituminous coal. Feeding the fuel in the form of PC has proven to be superior to CWM type feed. The program objectives relative to combustion efficiency, combustor exit temperature, NO[sub x] emissions, carbon burnout, and slag rejection have been met. Objectives for alkali, particulate, and SO[sub x] levels leaving the combustor were not met by the conclusion of testing at Textron. It is planned to continue this testing, to achieve all desired emission levels, as part of the W/NSP program to commercialize the slagging combustor technology.

Not Available

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Production of Substitute Natural Gas from Coal  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this research program was to develop and demonstrate a novel gasification technology to produce substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. The technology relies on a continuous sequential processing method that differs substantially from the historic methanation or hydro-gasification processing technologies. The thermo-chemistry relies on all the same reactions, but the processing sequences are different. The proposed concept is appropriate for western sub-bituminous coals, which tend to be composed of about half fixed carbon and about half volatile matter (dry ash-free basis). In the most general terms the process requires four steps (1) separating the fixed carbon from the volatile matter (pyrolysis); (2) converting the volatile fraction into syngas (reforming); (3) reacting the syngas with heated carbon to make methane-rich fuel gas (methanation and hydro-gasification); and (4) generating process heat by combusting residual char (combustion). A key feature of this technology is that no oxygen plant is needed for char combustion.

Andrew Lucero

2009-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

68

Study breaks tenuous truce in coal, gas fuel war  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The long-simmering battle between the coal and gas industries for market share in the electric generation market heated up again last week with the release of a report by Energy Ventures Analysis showing that baseload coal-fired plants will cost at least 22 percent less than power from baseload gas plants after 2000.

Kaplan, D.

1994-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

69

Table 12. Total Coal Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Projected  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Coal Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Total Coal Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Projected (million short tons) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 AEO 1994 920 928 933 938 943 948 953 958 962 967 978 990 987 992 1006 1035 1061 1079 AEO 1995 935 940 941 947 948 951 954 958 963 971 984 992 996 1002 1013 1025 1039 AEO 1996 937 942 954 962 983 990 1004 1017 1027 1033 1046 1067 1070 1071 1074 1082 1087 AEO 1997 948 970 987 1003 1017 1020 1025 1034 1041 1054 1075 1086 1092 1092 1099 1104 AEO 1998 1009 1051 1044 1058 1087 1084 1090 1097 1112 1130 1142 1148 1160 1162 1180 AEO 1999 1040 1075 1092 1109 1113 1118 1120 1120 1133 1139 1150 1155 1156 1173 AEO 2000 1053 1086 1103 1124 1142 1164 1175 1184 1189 1194 1199 1195 1200 AEO 2001 1078 1112 1135 1153 1165 1183 1191 1220 1228 1228 1235 1240

70

Pages that link to "Coal seam natural gas producing areas (Louisiana...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Edit History Share this page on Facebook icon Twitter icon Pages that link to "Coal seam natural gas producing areas (Louisiana)" Coal seam natural gas producing areas...

71

Lower 48 States Total Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

data. Release Date: 9302013 Next Release Date: 10312013 Referring Pages: Total Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity Lower 48 States Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity...

72

Natural Gas Consumption by Country (1980 - 2009) Total annual...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Natural Gas Consumption by Country (1980 - 2009) Total annual dry natural gas consumption by country, 1980 to 2009 (available in Quadrillion Btu). Compiled by Energy Information...

73

Coal seam natural gas producing areas (Louisiana) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Coal seam natural gas producing areas (Louisiana) Coal seam natural gas producing areas (Louisiana) Coal seam natural gas producing areas (Louisiana) < Back Eligibility Commercial Construction Developer Industrial Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Utility Program Info State Louisiana Program Type Environmental Regulations Siting and Permitting Provider Louisiana Department of Natural Resources In order to prevent waste and to avoid the drilling of unnecessary wells and to encourage the development of coal seam natural gas producing areas in Louisiana, the commissioner of conservation is authorized, as provided in this law, to establish a single unit to be served by one or more wells for a coal seam natural gas producing area. Without in any way modifying the authority granted to the commissioner to establish a drilling unit or

74

Fact book: synthetic pipeline gas from coal. 1982 update  

SciTech Connect

This book illustrates the major advantages of synthetic pipeline gas from coal. Progress on many of the coal gasification projects envisioned over the past decade has been thwarted by regulatory, permitting, and financing delays. The rationale for developing a synthetic pipeline gas industry remains as strong as ever from the nation's viewpoint, and the pioneer US commercial scale high-Btu coal gasification plant is now under construction-the Great Plains coal gasification plant in North Dakota. Also, the US Synthetic Fuels Corporation is now operational and can move forward to provide the guarantees which are necessary to overcome the financial barriers to a commercial synfuels capability in the United States. Compared to other principal means of utilizing America's vast coal reserves, coal gasification uses coal and land more efficiently, uses less water, emits less air pollutants, requires less capital and results in a lower cost of energy to consumers. (DP)

Not Available

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Total Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals (Summary)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Coalbed Wells Repressuring Nonhydrocarbon Gases...

76

Total Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals (Summary)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Power Price Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Coalbed Wells...

77

Lake Charles, LA Liquefied Natural Gas Total Imports (Million...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquefied Natural Gas Total Imports (Million Cubic Feet) Lake Charles, LA Liquefied Natural Gas Total Imports (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

78

Elba Island, GA Liquefied Natural Gas Total Imports (Million...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquefied Natural Gas Total Imports (Million Cubic Feet) Elba Island, GA Liquefied Natural Gas Total Imports (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

79

Everett, MA Liquefied Natural Gas Total Imports (Million Cubic...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquefied Natural Gas Total Imports (Million Cubic Feet) Everett, MA Liquefied Natural Gas Total Imports (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

80

Steam-injected gas turbines uneconomical with coal gasification equipment  

SciTech Connect

Researchers at the Electric Power Research Institute conducted a series of engineering and economic studies to assess the possibility of substituting steam-injected gas (STIG) turbines for the gas turbines currently proposed for use in British Gas Corporation (BGC)/Lurgi coal gasification-combined cycle plants. The study sought to determine whether steam-injected gas turbines and intercooled steam-injected gas turbines, as proposed by General Electric would be economically competitive with conventional gas and steam turbines when integrated with coal gasification equipment. The results are tabulated in the paper.

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas total coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Overview of SOFC Anode Interactions with Coal Gas Impurities  

SciTech Connect

An overview of the results of SOFC anode interactions with phosphorus, arsenic, selenium, sulfur, antimony, and hydrogen chloride as single contaminants or in combinations is discussed. Tests were performed using both anode- and electrolyte-supported cells in synthetic and actual coal gas for periods greater than 1000 hours. Post-test analyses were performed to identify reaction products formed and their distribution, and compared to phases expected from thermochemical modeling. The ultimate purpose of this work is to establish maximum permissible concentrations for impurities in coal gas, to aid in the selection of appropriate coal gas clean-up technologies.

O. A. Marina; L. R. Pederson; R. Gemmen; K. Gerdes; H. Finklea; I. B. Celik

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Prediction of light gas composition in coal devolatilization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The chemical percolation devolatilization (CPD) model describes the devolatilization behavior of rapidly heated coal based on the chemical structure of the coal. It predicts the overall char, tar, and light gas yields. This paper presents an improved CPD model with improved capability for predicting light gas composition. This is achieved by incorporating a kinetic model that simulates the release of various light gas species from their respective sources/functional groups in coal. The improved CPD model is validated using experiments with a wire mesh reactor and published experimental observations.13 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Ravichandra S. Jupudi; Vladimir Zamansky; Thomas H. Fletcher [GE Global Research, Bangalore (India)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

83

Overview of SOFC Anode Interactions with Coal Gas Impurities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An overview of the results of SOFC anode interactions with phosphorus, arsenic, selenium, sulfur, antimony, and hydrogen chloride as single contaminants or in combinations is discussed. Tests were performed using both anode- and electrolyte-supported cells in synthetic and actual coal gas for periods greater than 1000 hours. Post-test analyses were performed to identify reaction products formed and their distribution, and compared to phases expected from thermochemical modeling. The ultimate purpose of this work is to establish maximum permissible concentrations for impurities in coal gas, to aid in the selection of appropriate coal gas clean-up technologies.

Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Gemmen, Randall; Gerdes, Kirk; Finklea, Harry; Celik, Ismail B.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Testing for market integration crude oil, coal, and natural gas  

SciTech Connect

Prompted by the contemporaneous spike in coal, oil, and natural gas prices, this paper evaluates the degree of market integration both within and between crude oil, coal, and natural gas markets. Our approach yields parameters that can be readily tested against a priori conjectures. Using daily price data for five very different crude oils, we conclude that the world oil market is a single, highly integrated economic market. On the other hand, coal prices at five trading locations across the United States are cointegrated, but the degree of market integration is much weaker, particularly between Western and Eastern coals. Finally, we show that crude oil, coal, and natural gas markets are only very weakly integrated. Our results indicate that there is not a primary energy market. Despite current price peaks, it is not useful to think of a primary energy market, except in a very long run context.

Bachmeier, L.J.; Griffin, J.M. [Texas A& amp; M Univ, College Station, TX (United States)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Coal liquefaction and gas conversion: Proceedings. Volume 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Volume I contains papers presented at the following sessions: AR-Coal Liquefaction; Gas to Liquids; and Direct Liquefaction. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

Not Available

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

86

Economics of producing substitute natural gas from coal. Occasional pub  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using the cost levelization approach, the economics of producing substitute natural gas (SNG) are examined under different assumptions regarding conversion technologies, coal types and plant financing. A comparison of levelized constant dollar cost-of-service price estimated for Westinghouse and dry bottom Lurgi processes for 1990-2019 shows that SNG from coal produced at western sites is competitive with natural gas and fuel oils.

Rosenberg, J.I.; Ashby, A.B.

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Comparative Assessment of Coal-and Natural Gas-fired Power Plants under a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Comparative Assessment of Coal- and Natural Gas-fired Power Plants under a CO2 Emission Performance standard (EPS) for pulverized coal (PC) and natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) power plants; · Evaluate · Coal-fired Power Plant: Supercritical pulverized coal (SC PC) Illinois #6 Coal Capacity Factor 75

88

Hydrogen Resource Assessment: Hydrogen Potential from Coal, Natural Gas, Nuclear, and Hydro Power  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper estimates the quantity of hydrogen that could be produced from coal, natural gas, nuclear, and hydro power by county in the United States. The study estimates that more than 72 million tonnes of hydrogen can be produced from coal, natural gas, nuclear, and hydro power per year in the country (considering only 30% of their total annual production). The United States consumed about 396 million tonnes of gasoline in 2007; therefore, the report suggests the amount of hydrogen from these sources could displace about 80% of this consumption.

Milbrandt, A.; Mann, M.

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system  

SciTech Connect

Advances in coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past few years, together with recent DOE-METC sponsored studies, have served to provide new optimism that the problems demonstrated in the past can be economically resolved and that the coal-fueled gas turbine can ultimately be the preferred system in appropriate market application sectors. The objective of the Solar/METC program is to prove the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of a coal-fired gas turbine for cogeneration applications through tests of a Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal fuel throughout the engine design operating range. The five-year program consists of three phases, namely: (1) system description; (2) component development; (3) prototype system verification. A successful conclusion to the program will initiate a continuation of the commercialization plan through extended field demonstration runs.

LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

U.S. Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Release Date: 7/31/2013: Next Release Date: 8/30/2013: Referring Pages: Percentage of Total Natural Gas Residential Deliveries included in Prices

91

,"Other States Total Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Workbook Contents" ,"Other States Total Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of...

92

,"Alaska (with Total Offshore) Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Alaska (with Total Offshore) Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)",1,"Annual",...

93

,"Alaska (with Total Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Alaska (with Total Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)",1,"Annual",2011...

94

Alaska (with Total Offshore) Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Alaska (with Total Offshore) Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

95

,"California Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals Total Offshore (MMcf...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals Total Offshore (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2011 ,"Release...

96

California Natural Gas % of Total Commercial Delivered for the...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Commercial Delivered for the Account of Others (Percent) California Natural Gas % of Total Commercial Delivered for the Account of Others (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

97

,"Texas Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals Total Offshore (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals Total Offshore (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2011 ,"Release...

98

Utah Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Utah Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's...

99

Utah Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

% of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Utah Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

100

Louisiana Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals Total Offshore (Million...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Gross Withdrawals Total Offshore (Million Cubic Feet) Louisiana Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals Total Offshore (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas total coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

California Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) California Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

102

California Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

% of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) California Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

103

Ohio Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

% of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Ohio Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

104

Ohio Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Ohio Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's...

105

Wisconsin Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Wisconsin Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

106

Wisconsin Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

% of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Wisconsin Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

107

Maine Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Maine Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's...

108

Indiana Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Indiana Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

109

Maryland Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Maryland Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

110

Virginia Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Virginia Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

111

Nebraska Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Nebraska Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

112

West Virginia Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) West Virginia Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

113

Washington Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Washington Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

114

Tennessee Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Tennessee Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

115

Minnesota Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Minnesota Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

116

New Hampshire Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) New Hampshire Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

117

Montana Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Montana Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

118

New York Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) New York Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

119

Nevada Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Nevada Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's...

120

Arizona Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Arizona Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas total coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Kentucky Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Kentucky Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

122

Kansas Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Kansas Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's...

123

Oklahoma Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

124

North Dakota Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) North Dakota Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

125

Hawaii Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Hawaii Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's...

126

Oregon Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Oregon Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's...

127

Wyoming Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Wyoming Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

128

Florida Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Florida Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

129

Arkansas Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Arkansas Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

130

Missouri Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Missouri Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

131

District of Columbia Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) District of Columbia Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

132

Louisiana Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Louisiana Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

133

Michigan Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

% of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Michigan Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

134

Idaho Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

% of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Idaho Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

135

Idaho Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Idaho Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's...

136

Vermont Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

% of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Vermont Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

137

Vermont Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Vermont Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

138

Colorado Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

% of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Colorado Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

139

Colorado Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Colorado Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

140

Illinois Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

% of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Illinois Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas total coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Illinois Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Illinois Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

142

New Mexico Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

% of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) New Mexico Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

143

New Mexico Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) New Mexico Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

144

Texas Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

% of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Texas Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

145

Texas Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Texas Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's...

146

Gas Cofiring Assessment for Coal Fired Utility Boilers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study evaluates gas co-firing as one option for coal-fired utility boilers. It provides electric power generators an objective review of the potential, experience to date, and economics of five gas co-firing technologies, plus a sixth pilot-scale application.

2000-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

147

Overview of SOFC Anode Interactions with Coal Gas Impurities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Efficiencies greater than 50 percent (higher heating value) have been projected for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems fueled with gasified coal, even with carbon sequestration. Multiple minor and trace components are present in coal that could affect fuel cell performance, however, which vary widely depending on coal origin and type. Minor and trace components have been classified into three groups: elements with low volatility that are likely to remain in the ash, elements that will partition between solid and gas phases, and highly volatile elements that are unlikely to condense. Those in the second group are of most concern. In the following, an overview of the results of SOFC anode interactions with phosphorus, arsenic, selenium, sulfur, antimony, and hydrogen chloride as single contaminants or in combinations is discussed. Tests were performed using both anode- and electrolyte-supported cells in synthetic coal gas. The ultimate purpose of this work is to establish maximum permissible concentrations for impurities in coal gas, to aid in the selection of appropriate coal gas clean-up technologies.

Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Gemmen, Randall; Gerdes, Kirk; Finklea, Harry; Celik, Ismail B.

2009-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

148

AEO2011: World Total Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Total Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting Total Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting Countries Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 144, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses million short tons. The data is broken down into total coal exports to Europe, Asia and America. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO coal EIA Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: World Total Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting Countries - Reference Case (xls, 104 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually Time Period 2008-2035

149

Enhanced Elemental Mercury Removal from Coal-fired Flue Gas by Sulfur-chlorine Compounds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

removal from flue gas of coal-fired power plants. Environ.Speciation in a 100-MW Coal-Fired Boiler with Low-NOxControl Technologies for Coal-Fired Power Plants, DOE/NETL

Miller, Nai-Qiang Yan-Zan Qu Yao Chi Shao-Hua Qiao Ray Dod Shih-Ger Chang Charles

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Enhanced Elemental Mercury Removal from Coal-fired Flue Gas by Sulfur-chlorine Compounds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from flue gas of coal-fired power plants. Environ. Sci. &Technologies for Coal-Fired Power Plants, DOE/NETL Mercurynumber of coal-fired generating plants (1-3). The mercury is

Miller, Nai-Qiang Yan-Zan Qu Yao Chi Shao-Hua Qiao Ray Dod Shih-Ger Chang Charles

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Evaluation of biological conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Foster Wheeler USA Corporation conducted an evaluation study on the biological conversion of synthesis gas to methane which is under development at the University of Arkansas. A conceptual design of an integrated coal-based SNG plant, employing the bioconversion process route, was developed together with the corresponding capital and operating costs. The economics were compared to those for a coal-based SNG plant design using the conventional catalytic route for shift and methanation. 5 refs., 10 figs., 22 tabs.

Fu, R.K.; Mazzella, G.

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of the Solar/METC program is to prove the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of coal-fired gas turbine for cogeneration applications through tests of a Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal fuel throughout the engine design operating range. This quarter, work was centered on design, fabrication, and testing of the combustor, cleanup, fuel specifications, and hot end simulation rig. 2 refs., 59 figs., 29 tabs.

LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Commercialization of coal-fueled gas turbine systems  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of this program is to develop and demonstrate the technological bases for economically attractive, commercial, coal- fired gas turbine systems. Objectives to accomplish this goal include these: identify candidate technical approaches to meet the challenges of using coal as a turbine fuel, screen the candidate technical approaches by testing their relative performance and evaluating their effects on the economic attractiveness of commercial coal-fueled systems, demonstrate the most promising technologies and associated components in proof-of-concept system tests leading up to commercialization. This paper presents background information on the project, and results on cogeneration systems, combined cycle power plants to include performance and cost.

Wilkes, C.; Wenglarz, R.A.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Commercialization of coal-fueled gas turbine systems  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of this program is to develop and demonstrate the technological bases for economically attractive, commercial, coal- fired gas turbine systems. Objectives to accomplish this goal include these: identify candidate technical approaches to meet the challenges of using coal as a turbine fuel, screen the candidate technical approaches by testing their relative performance and evaluating their effects on the economic attractiveness of commercial coal-fueled systems, demonstrate the most promising technologies and associated components in proof-of-concept system tests leading up to commercialization. This paper presents background information on the project, and results on cogeneration systems, combined cycle power plants to include performance and cost.

Wilkes, C.; Wenglarz, R.A.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Solar coal gasification reactor with pyrolysis gas recycle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Coal (or other carbonaceous matter, such as biomass) is converted into a duct gas that is substantially free from hydrocarbons. The coal is fed into a solar reactor (10), and solar energy (20) is directed into the reactor onto coal char, creating a gasification front (16) and a pyrolysis front (12). A gasification zone (32) is produced well above the coal level within the reactor. A pyrolysis zone (34) is produced immediately above the coal level. Steam (18), injected into the reactor adjacent to the gasification zone (32), reacts with char to generate product gases. Solar energy supplies the energy for the endothermic steam-char reaction. The hot product gases (38) flow from the gasification zone (32) to the pyrolysis zone (34) to generate hot char. Gases (38) are withdrawn from the pyrolysis zone (34) and reinjected into the region of the reactor adjacent the gasification zone (32). This eliminates hydrocarbons in the gas by steam reformation on the hot char. The product gas (14) is withdrawn from a region of the reactor between the gasification zone (32) and the pyrolysis zone (34). The product gas will be free of tar and other hydrocarbons, and thus be suitable for use in many processes.

Aiman, William R. (Livermore, CA); Gregg, David W. (Morago, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Demonstration of a Carbonate Fuel Cell on Coal Derived Gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Several studies indicate that carbonate fuel cell systems have the potential to offer efficient, cost competitive, and environmentally preferred power plants operating on natural gas or coal derived gas (“syn-gas”). To date, however, no fuel cell system has run on actual syn-gas. Consequently, the Electric Power Research Institute (“EPRI”) has sponsored a 20 kW carbonate fuel cell pilot plant that will begin operating in March at Destec Energy’s coal gasification plant in Plaquemine, Louisiana. The primary purpose of the test is to determine the effect of syn-gas contaminants on the performance and life of the carbonate fuel cell. This paper will describe the project objectives, design aspects of the pilot facility, and the status of the project.

Rastler, D. M.; Keeler, C. G.; Chi, C. V.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Determination of total gas in lithium tritide-deuteride compounds  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Lithium tritide--deuteride samples are enclosed in a copper foil and decomposed by heating to 850/sup 0/C in a copper reaction tube in vacuum. The temperature and pressure of the evolved gas, collected in a measured volume using a Toepler pump, are measured to determine the total moles of gas released from the sample. The gas is transferred to a removable sample bulb and, if required, analyzed for gaseous constituents by mass spectrometry. Based on 14 total gas determinations for a lithium deuteride sample, the calculated relative standard deviation was 1.0% and the estimated bias was <2.5%.

Smith, M.E.; Koski, N.L.; Waterbury, G.R.

1979-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in U.S. Total ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Percentage of Total Natural Gas Industrial Deliveries included in Prices ; U.S. Natural Gas Prices ...

159

Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in U.S. Total ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Percentage of Total Natural Gas Commercial Deliveries included in Prices ; U.S. Natural Gas Prices ...

160

Table 12. Total Coal Consumption, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coal Consumption, Projected vs. Actual" Coal Consumption, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected" " (million short tons)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011 "AEO 1994",920,928,933,938,943,948,953,958,962,967,978,990,987,992,1006,1035,1061,1079 "AEO 1995",,935,940,941,947,948,951,954,958,963,971,984,992,996,1002,1013,1025,1039 "AEO 1996",,,937,942,954,962,983,990,1004,1017,1027,1033,1046,1067,1070,1071,1074,1082,1087 "AEO 1997",,,,948,970,987,1003,1017,1020,1025,1034,1041,1054,1075,1086,1092,1092,1099,1104 "AEO 1998",,,,,1009,1051,1043.875977,1058.292725,1086.598145,1084.446655,1089.787109,1096.931763,1111.523926,1129.833862,1142.338257,1148.019409,1159.695312,1162.210815,1180.029785

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas total coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

AEO2011: World Total Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Total Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting Countries

162

Alabama Natural Gas Percentage Total Commercial Deliveries (Percent...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Commercial Deliveries (Percent) Alabama Natural Gas Percentage Total Commercial Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

163

Alaska (with Total Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Alaska (with Total Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

164

Michigan Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Michigan Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9; 1990's: 994,342: 876,444 ...

165

California Natural Gas % of Total Electric Utility Deliveries...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Electric Utility Deliveries (Percent) California Natural Gas % of Total Electric Utility Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

166

California Natural Gas Total Liquids Extracted - State of Origin...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Extracted - State of Origin (Thousand Barrels) California Natural Gas Total Liquids Extracted - State of Origin (Thousand Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

167

U.S. Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 2001: 2,676,998: 2,309,464: 2,246,633: 1,807,170 ...

168

Alabama Natural Gas Percentage Total Industrial Deliveries (Percent...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Industrial Deliveries (Percent) Alabama Natural Gas Percentage Total Industrial Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

169

New Mexico Natural Gas % of Total Vehicle Fuel Deliveries (Percent...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Vehicle Fuel Deliveries (Percent) New Mexico Natural Gas % of Total Vehicle Fuel Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

170

New Mexico Natural Gas % of Total Commercial Delivered for the...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Commercial Delivered for the Account of Others (Percent) New Mexico Natural Gas % of Total Commercial Delivered for the Account of Others (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

171

New Mexico Natural Gas Total Liquids Extracted - State of Origin...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Extracted - State of Origin (Thousand Barrels) New Mexico Natural Gas Total Liquids Extracted - State of Origin (Thousand Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

172

New Mexico Natural Gas % of Total Industrial Delivered for the...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Industrial Delivered for the Account of Others (Percent) New Mexico Natural Gas % of Total Industrial Delivered for the Account of Others (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

173

New Mexico Natural Gas Percentage Total Commercial Deliveries...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Commercial Deliveries (Percent) New Mexico Natural Gas Percentage Total Commercial Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

174

New Mexico Natural Gas % of Total Residential Consumers Delivered...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Mexico Natural Gas % of Total Residential Consumers Delivered for the Account of Others (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

175

New Mexico Natural Gas % of Total Electric Utility Deliveries...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Electric Utility Deliveries (Percent) New Mexico Natural Gas % of Total Electric Utility Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

176

New Mexico Natural Gas Percentage Total Industrial Deliveries...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Industrial Deliveries (Percent) New Mexico Natural Gas Percentage Total Industrial Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

177

APPENDIX E: METHANE EMISSIONS FROM NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION, OIL PRODUCTION, COAL MINING, AND  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

APPENDIX E: METHANE EMISSIONS FROM NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION, OIL PRODUCTION, COAL MINING, AND OTHER PRODUCTION, COAL MINING, AND OTHER SOURCES An Appendix to the Report "A Lifecycle Emissions Model (LEM of natural gas, which is mostly CH4, occurs through natural gas production, oil production, and coal mining

Delucchi, Mark

178

Study on Data Quality Evaluation of Coal and Gas Outburst  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Data quality evaluation is an important part of the process of data mining. This article has build the information quality evaluation index system and evaluation model, determines the quantitative index for each quality dimension, and also demonstrates ... Keywords: coal and gas outburst, data quality, dimension, assessment metadata, data warehousing

Dong Lihong; Hou Yunbing

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Estimation Methodology for Total and Elemental Mercury Emissions from Coal-Fired Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides a tool for estimating total and speciated mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. The mercury emissions methodology is based on EPRI's analyses of the results from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Mercury Information Collection Request (ICR). The Mercury ICR required owner/operators of coal-fired electric utility steam generating units to report for calendar year 1999 the quantity of fuel consumed and the mercury content of that fuel. In addition, 84 power plant...

2001-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

180

Putting downward pressure on natural gas prices: The impact of renewable energy and energy efficiency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

forecasts of U.S. coal minemouth prices and total U.S. coalInverse Price Elasticities for Gas, Coal, and implicitdisplace coal over time, muting the impact on gas prices. As

Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; St. Clair, Matthew

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas total coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Innovative coal gas cleaning at Sparrows Point Coal Chemical Plant, Maryland for Bethlehem Steel Corporation  

SciTech Connect

In response to the Clean Coal II solicitation, Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC) submitted a proposal to the DOE in May 1988. The proposal submitted by BSC describes a Unique integration of commercial technologies developed by Davy/Still Otto to clean coke oven gas being produced at its Sparrows Point, Maryland steel plant. This innovative coke oven gas cleaning system combines secondary gas cooling with hydrogen sulfide and ammonia removal, hydrogen sulfide and ammonia recovery, ammonia destruction and sulfur recovery to produce a cleaner fuel gas for plant use. The primary environmental benefit associated with employing this innovative coke oven gas cleaning system is realized when the fuel gas is burned within the steel plant. Emissions of sulfur dioxide are reduced by more than 60 percent. The removal, recovery and destruction of ammonia eliminates the disposal problems associated with an unmarketable ammonium sulfate by-product. Significant reduction in benzene and hydrogen cyanide emissions are also obtained.

Antrobus, K.; Platts, M. (Davy/Still Otto, Pittsburgh, PA (US)); Harbold, L. (Bethlehem Steel Corp., PA (USA)); Kornosky, R. (Office of Clean Coal Technology, US DOE, Pittsburgh, PA (US))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Method for enhancing the desulfurization of hot coal gas in a fluid-bed coal gasifier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process and apparatus for providing additional desulfurization of the hot gas produced in a fluid-bed coal gasifier, within the gasifier. A fluid-bed of iron oxide is located inside the gasifier above the gasification bed in a fluid-bed coal gasifier in which in-bed desulfurization by lime/limestone takes place. The product gases leave the gasification bed typically at 1600.degree. to 1800.degree. F. and are partially quenched with water to 1000.degree. to 1200.degree. F. before entering the iron oxide bed. The iron oxide bed provides additional desulfurization beyond that provided by the lime/limestone.

Grindley, Thomas (Morgantown, WV)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Electrochemical polishing of hydrogen sulfide from coal synthesis gas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An advanced process has been developed for the separation of H{sub 2}S from coal gasification product streams through an electrochemical membrane. This technology is developed for use in coal gasification facilities providing fuel for cogeneration coal fired electrical power facilities and Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell electrical power facilities. H{sub 2}S is removed from the syn-gas by reduction to the sulfide ion and H at the cathode. The sulfide ion migrates to the anode through a molten salt electrolyte suspended in an inert ceramic matrix. Once at the anode it is oxidized to elemental sulfur and swept away for condensation in an inert gas stream. The syn-gas is enriched with the H{sub 2}. Order-of-magnitude reductions in H{sub 2}S have been repeatably recorded (100 ppm to 10 ppm H{sub 2}S) on a single pass through the cell. This process allows removal of H{sub 2}S without cooling the gas stream and with negligible pressure loss through the separator. Since there are no absorbents used, there is no absorption/regeneration step as with conventional technology. Elemental sulfur is produced as a by-product directly, so there is no need for a Claus process for sulfur recovery. This makes the process economically attractive since it is much less equipment intensive than conventional technology.

Gleason, E.F.; Winnick, J.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Post-test analysis of 20kW molten carbonate fuel cell stack operated on coal gas. Final report, August 1993--February 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A 20kW carbonate fuel cell stack was operated with coal gas for the first time in the world. The stack was tested for a total of 4,000 hours, of which 3,900 hours of testing was conducted at the Louisiana Gasification Technology Incorporated, Plaquemine, Louisiana outdoor site. The operation was on either natural gas or coal gas and switched several times without any effects, demonstrating duel fuel capabilities. This test was conducted with 9142 kJ/m{sup 3} (245 Btu/cft) coal gas provided by a slipstream from Destec`s entrained flow, slagging, slurry-fed gasifier equipped with a cold gas cleanup subsystem. The stack generated up to 21 kW with this coal gas. Following completion of this test, the stack was brought to Energy Research Corporation (ERC) and a detailed post-test analysis was conducted to identify any effects of coal gas on cell components. This investigation has shown that the direct fuel cell (DFC) can be operated with properly cleaned and humidified coal-as, providing stable performance. The basic C direct fuel cell component materials are stable and display normal stability in presence of the coal gas. No effects of the coal-borne contaminants are apparent. Further cell testing at ERC 1 17, confirmed these findings.

NONE

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Using Auxiliary Gas Power for CCS Energy Needs in Retrofitted Coal Power Plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Using Auxiliary Gas Power for CCS Energy Needs in Retrofitted Coal Power Plants by Sarah Bashadi and Policy Program #12;2 #12;3 Using Auxiliary Gas Power for CCS Energy Needs in Retrofitted Coal Power-combustion capture retrofits are expected to a near-term option for mitigating CO2 emissions from existing coal

186

Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Program. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the original Request for Proposal was to establish the technological bases necessary for the subsequent commercial development and deployment of advanced coal-fueled gas turbine power systems by the private sector. The offeror was to identify the specific application or applications, toward which his development efforts would be directed; define and substantiate the technical, economic, and environmental criteria for the selected application; and conduct such component design, development, integration, and tests as deemed necessary to fulfill this objective. Specifically, the offeror was to choose a system through which ingenious methods of grouping subcomponents into integrated systems accomplishes the following: (1) Preserve the inherent power density and performance advantages of gas turbine systems. (2) System must be capable of meeting or exceeding existing and expected environmental regulations for the proposed application. (3) System must offer a considerable improvement over coal-fueled systems which are commercial, have been demonstrated, or are being demonstrated. (4) System proposed must be an integrated gas turbine concept, i.e., all fuel conditioning, all expansion gas conditioning, or post-expansion gas cleaning, must be integrated into the gas turbine system.

Horner, M.W.; Ekstedt, E.E.; Gal, E.; Jackson, M.R.; Kimura, S.G.; Lavigne, R.G.; Lucas, C.; Rairden, J.R.; Sabla, P.E.; Savelli, J.F.; Slaughter, D.M.; Spiro, C.L.; Staub, F.W.

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Slag processing system for direct coal-fired gas turbines  

SciTech Connect

Direct coal-fired gas turbine systems and methods for their operation are provided by this invention. The gas turbine system includes a primary zone for burning coal in the presence of compressed air to produce hot combustion gases and debris, such as molten slag. The turbine system further includes a secondary combustion zone for the lean combustion of the hot combustion gases. The operation of the system is improved by the addition of a cyclone separator for removing debris from the hot combustion gases. The cyclone separator is disposed between the primary and secondary combustion zones and is in pressurized communication with these zones. In a novel aspect of the invention, the cyclone separator includes an integrally disposed impact separator for at least separating a portion of the molten slag from the hot combustion gases.

Pillsbury, Paul W. (Winter Springs, FL)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Ni/YSZ Anode Interactions with Impurities in Coal Gas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Performance of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with nickel/zirconia anodes on synthetic coal gas in the presence of low levels of phosphorus, arsenic, selenium, sulfur, hydrogen chloride, and antimony impurities were evaluated. The presence of phosphorus and arsenic led to the slow and irreversible SOFC degradation due to the formation of secondary phases with nickel, particularly close to the gas inlet. Phosphorus and antimony surface adsorption layers were identified as well. Hydrogen chloride and sulfur interactions with the nickel were limited to the surface adsorption only, whereas selenium exposure also led to the formation of nickel selenide for highly polarized cells.

Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Coffey, Greg W.

2009-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

189

Slag processing system for direct coal-fired gas turbines  

SciTech Connect

Direct coal-fired gas turbine systems and methods for their operation are provided by this invention. The systems include a primary combustion compartment coupled to an impact separator for removing molten slag from hot combustion gases. Quenching means are provided for solidifying the molten slag removed by the impact separator, and processing means are provided forming a slurry from the solidified slag for facilitating removal of the solidified slag from the system. The released hot combustion gases, substantially free of molten slag, are then ducted to a lean combustion compartment and then to an expander section of a gas turbine.

Pillsbury, Paul W. (Winter Springs, FL)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Int. J. Oil, Gas and Coal Technology, Vol. 5, No. 1, 2012 1 Copyright 2012 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Int. J. Oil, Gas and Coal Technology, Vol. 5, No. 1, 2012 1 Copyright © 2012 Inderscience Reservoir Modelling of Oil and Gas Producing Shale Reservoirs; Case Studies, Int. J. Oil, Gas, and Coal

Mohaghegh, Shahab

191

Lower 48 States Total Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Total Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Lower 48 States Total Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2011 50,130 81,827 167,632 312,290 457,725 420,644 359,267 370,180 453,548 436,748 221,389 90,432 2012 74,854 56,243 240,351 263,896 357,965 323,026 263,910 299,798 357,109 327,767 155,554 104,953 2013 70,592 41,680 99,330 270,106 465,787 438,931 372,458 370,471 418,848 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 12/12/2013 Next Release Date: 1/7/2014 Referring Pages: Injections of Natural Gas into Underground Storage - All Operators

192

Alabama Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals Total Offshore (Million Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gross Withdrawals Total Offshore (Million Cubic Feet) Gross Withdrawals Total Offshore (Million Cubic Feet) Alabama Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals Total Offshore (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 0 9 13 1990's 19,861 32,603 191,605 218,023 349,380 356,598 361,068 409,091 392,320 376,435 2000's 361,289 200,862 202,002 194,339 165,630 152,902 145,762 134,451 125,502 109,214 2010's 101,487 84,270 87,398 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 1/7/2014 Next Release Date: 1/31/2014 Referring Pages: Offshore Gross Withdrawals of Natural Gas Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals Alabama Offshore Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production

193

Combustion research related to utilization of coal as a gas turbine fuel  

SciTech Connect

A nominal 293 kw (1 MBtu/hr) atmospheric pressure, refractory-lined combustor has been used to investigate the effects of a number of combustor and fuel dependent variables on combustion efficiency and flue gas characteristics for minimally cleaned, coal-derived gas (MCG) and coal water mixtures. The variables which have been evaluated include: percent excess air, air distribution, combustion air preheat temperature, swirl number, fuel feedrate, coal particle size, coal loading in slurry, and slurry viscosity. Characterization of the flue gas included major/minor gas species, alkali levels, and particulate loading, size, and composition. These atmospheric pressure combustion studies accompanied by data from planned pressurized studies on coal-water slurries and hot, minimally cleaned, coal-derived gas will aid in the determination of the potential of these fuels for use in gas turbines.

Davis-Waltermine, D.M.; Anderson, R.J.

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Analysis of safety precautions for coal and gas outburst-hazardous strata  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The author analyses coal and gas outbursts and generalizes the available data on the approaches to solving the problematics of these gas-dynamic events in the framework of Czech Republic Grant 'Estimate of the Safety Precautions for Coal and Gas Outburst Hazardous Strata'.

Hudecek, V. [Technical University of Ostrava, Ostrava (Czech Republic)

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

195

Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Activity towards completing Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Phase I work was begun again in December. Effort to complete the Phase I work was temporarily suspended upon receipt of the ATS Phase II RFP the last week in August. The Westinghouse ATS team's efforts were directed at preparing the ATS Phase II proposal which was submitted November 18. It is planned to finish Phase I work and submit the topical report by the end of February 1993. The objective of the four slogging combustor tests conducted during this reporting period (i.e., tests SL3-1 through SL3-4) were to perform sulfur capture experiments using limestoneand iron oxide based sorbents and to collect exhaust vapor phase and solids bound alkali measurements using the Westinghouse and Ames Laboratory alkali probes/monitors. The most significant, if not outstanding result revealed by these tests is that the Ames alkali monitor indicates that the vapor phase sodium is approximately 23--30 ppbw and the vapor phase potassium is approximately 5--20 ppbw. For reference, alkalilevels of 20 ppbw are acceptable in Westinghouse gas turbines fueled with crude oil.

Not Available

1993-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

196

Future power market shares of coal, natural gas generators depend ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Natural gas combined-cycle capacity represented only 7% of total capacity in the region in 2011, but is projected to rise to 11% in 2040 in the Reference Case.

197

Sticking of Iron Ore Pellets in Direct Reduction with Coal Gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, A series of reduction experiments of iron ore pellets with coal gasification gas were carried out in a laboratory scale shaft furnace. The sticking

198

Rock, Mineral, Coal, Oil, and Gas Resources on State Lands (Montana)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This chapter authorizes and regulates prospecting permits and mining leases for the exploration and development of rock, mineral, oil, coal, and gas resources on state lands.

199

The Future of Coal in a Greenhouse Gas Constrained World Howard Herzog1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 The Future of Coal in a Greenhouse Gas Constrained World Howard Herzog1 , James Katzer1 1 M coal can make to the growing world energy demand during a period of increasing concern about global pursue in the short-term so that we can utilize coal in the longer-term and reduce its associated CO2

200

Cornell's conversion of a coal fired heating plant to natural Gas -BACKGROUND: In December 2009, the Combined Heat and Power Plant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cornell's conversion of a coal fired heating plant to natural Gas University began operating with natural gas, instead of the coal-fired generators of the coal that had been stockpiled, the Plant is running completely on natural gas

Keinan, Alon

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201

Method for increasing the calorific value of gas produced by the in situ combustion of coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to the production of relatively high Btu gas by the in situ combustion of subterranean coal. The coal bed is penetrated with a horizontally-extending borehole and combustion is initiated in the coal bed contiguous to the borehole. The absolute pressure within the resulting combustion zone is then regulated at a desired value near the pore pressure within the coal bed so that selected quantities of water naturally present in the coal will flow into the combustion zone to effect a hydrogen and carbon monoxide-producing steam-carbon reaction with the hot carbon in the combustion zone for increasing the calorific value of the product gas.

Shuck, Lowell Z. (Morgantown, WV)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Impact of the Great Plains coal gasification decision on a coal gas industry  

SciTech Connect

In approving the special tariff and financing features of the Great Plains coal-gasification project, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission took the first major federal action toward encouraging the construction of a commercial-sized synthetic-fuels facility, asserts the law firm of Morley, Caskin and Generelly. Owned by Great Plains Gasification Associates - a partnership of five pipeline companies - the commercial-sized plant qualifies for FERC approval under the commission's RD and D regulations. The special financing terms for the project will require customers of existing natural gas companies to bear the costs incurred by the project regardless of its success in operation or the amount of gas produced for the customer's utilization. This RD and D rate treatment serves to mitigate market forces and thus operates as an effective subsidy for the pipeline industry. If this or a similar regulatory subsidy is extended to other coal-gas projects, the pipeline industry could take the lead in the nation's synfuels program.

Zipp, J.F.

1980-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

203

California Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals Total Offshore (Million Cubic  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gross Withdrawals Total Offshore (Million Cubic Feet) Gross Withdrawals Total Offshore (Million Cubic Feet) California Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals Total Offshore (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 5,417 19,929 20,394 1980's 19,980 26,692 31,904 38,084 60,207 84,062 77,355 67,835 60,308 59,889 1990's 58,055 59,465 62,473 58,635 60,765 60,694 73,092 80,516 81,868 84,547 2000's 83,882 78,209 74,884 64,961 61,622 60,773 47,217 52,805 51,931 47,281 2010's 46,755 41,742 32,313 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 1/7/2014 Next Release Date: 1/31/2014 Referring Pages: Offshore Gross Withdrawals of Natural Gas

204

Alaska Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals Total Offshore (Million Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gross Withdrawals Total Offshore (Million Cubic Feet) Gross Withdrawals Total Offshore (Million Cubic Feet) Alaska Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals Total Offshore (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 72,813 71,946 1980's 63,355 71,477 66,852 68,776 68,315 62,454 63,007 69,656 101,440 122,595 1990's 144,064 171,665 216,377 233,198 224,301 113,552 126,051 123,854 133,111 125,841 2000's 263,958 262,937 293,580 322,010 334,125 380,568 354,816 374,204 388,188 357,490 2010's 370,148 364,702 307,306 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 1/7/2014 Next Release Date: 1/31/2014 Referring Pages: Offshore Gross Withdrawals of Natural Gas

205

,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas Components",,,"Steam Components"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 Relative Standard Errors for Table 7.2;" 2 Relative Standard Errors for Table 7.2;" " Unit: Percents." ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components" ,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas Components",,,"Steam Components" " "," ",,,,,,,,,,,,,"Total",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Wood Residues",,,," " " "," "," ",,,,,"Bituminous",,,,,,"Electricity","Diesel Fuel",,,,,,"Motor",,,,,,,"Natural Gas",,,"Steam",,,," ",,,"and","Wood-Related","All"

206

,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas Components",,,"Steam Components"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Relative Standard Errors for Table 7.1;" Relative Standard Errors for Table 7.1;" " Unit: Percents." ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components" ,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas Components",,,"Steam Components" " "," ",,,,,,,,,,,,,"Total",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Wood Residues",,,," " " "," "," ",,,,,"Bituminous",,,,,,"Electricity","Diesel Fuel",,,,,,"Motor",,,,,,,"Natural Gas",,,"Steam",,,," ",,,"and","Wood-Related","All"

207

CE to do 150-MW coal-gas-retrofit design study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Combustion Engineering (CE) has a $5 million DOE contract to design a coal gasifier that will convert eastern coal into a fuel gas and replace the oil and gas now burned in a Gulf States Utility unit. A pilot unit which has been converting Pittsburgh No. 8 seam coal into 110-Btu fuel gas will be scaled up. The company will also begin testing four other coal types. CE finds that retrofitting an air-blown atmospheric pressure system is cost-effective, but warns that the costs of a large-scale intergrated plant are still speculative. (DCK)

Not Available

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Overview of coal consumption and related environmental trends, and implications for greenhouse gas emissions  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews world and regional trends in coal consumption, and its growing contribution to greenhouse gas emissions. The paper then discusses a number of options within the coal system where greenhouse gas emissions, particularly CO{sub 2}, can be reduced. The commercial status and environmental performance of the main power plant technology options are briefly reviewed.

Johnson, C.J.; Wang, X.

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

2 Int. J. Oil, Gas and Coal Technology, Vol. 2, No. 1, 2009 Copyright 2009 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2 Int. J. Oil, Gas and Coal Technology, Vol. 2, No. 1, 2009 Copyright © 2009 Inderscience, Gas, and Coal Technology, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp.2­23. Biographical notes: Shahab D. Mohaghegh is currently

Mohaghegh, Shahab

210

Int. J. Oil, Gas and Coal Technology, Vol. 1, Nos. 1/2, 2008 65 Copyright 2008 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Int. J. Oil, Gas and Coal Technology, Vol. 1, Nos. 1/2, 2008 65 Copyright © 2008 Inderscience using neural networks', Int. J. Oil, Gas and Coal Technology, Vol. 1, Nos. 1/2, pp.65­80. Biographical

Mohaghegh, Shahab

211

PRELIMINARY CHARACTERIZATION OF CO2 SEPARATION AND STORAGE PROPERTIES OF COAL GAS RESERVOIRS  

SciTech Connect

An attractive alternative of sequestering CO{sub 2} is to inject it into coalbed methane reservoirs, particularly since it has been shown to enhance the production of methane during near depletion stages. The basis for enhanced coalbed methane recovery and simultaneous sequestration of carbon dioxide in deep coals is the preferential sorption property of coal, with its affinity for carbon dioxide being significantly higher than that for methane. Yet, the sorption behavior of coal under competitive sorptive environment is not fully understood. Hence, the original objective of this research study was to carry out a laboratory study to investigate the effect of studying the sorption behavior of coal in the presence of multiple gases, primarily methane, CO{sub 2} and nitrogen, in order to understand the mechanisms involved in displacement of methane and its movement in coal. This had to be modified slightly since the PVT property of gas mixtures is still not well understood, and any laboratory work in the area of sorption of gases requires a definite equation of state to calculate the volumes of different gases in free and adsorbed forms. This research study started with establishing gas adsorption isotherms for pure methane and CO{sub 2}. The standard gas expansion technique based on volumetric analysis was used for the experimental work with the additional feature of incorporating a gas chromatograph for analysis of gas composition. The results were analyzed first using the Langmuir theory. As expected, the Langmuir analysis indicated that CO{sub 2} is more than three times as sorptive as methane. This was followed by carrying out a partial desorption isotherm for methane, and then injecting CO{sub 2} to displace methane. The results indicated that CO{sub 2} injection at low pressure displaced all of the sorbed methane, even when the total pressure continued to be high. However, the displacement appeared to be occurring due to a combination of the preferential sorption property of coal and reduction in the partial pressure of methane. As a final step, the Extended Langmuir (EL) model was used to model the coal-methane-CO{sub 2} binary adsorption system. The EL model was found to be very accurate in predicting adsorption of CO{sub 2}, but not so in predicting desorption of methane. The selectivity of CO{sub 2} over methane was calculated to be 4.3:1. This is, of course, not in very good agreement with the measured values which showed the ratio to be 3.5:1. However, the measured results are in good agreement with the field observation at one of the CO{sub 2} injection sites. Based on the findings of this study, it was concluded that low pressure injection of CO{sub 2} can be fairly effective in displacing methane in coalbed reservoirs although this might be difficult to achieve in field conditions. Furthermore, the displacement of methane appears to be not only due to the preferential sorption of methane, but reduction in partial pressure as well. Hence, using a highly adsorbing gas, such as CO{sub 2}, has the advantages of inert gas stripping and non-mixing since the injected gas does not mix with the recovered methane.

John Kemeny; Satya Harpalani

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report covers the activity during the period from 2 June 1991 to 1 June 1992. The major areas of work include: the combustor sub-scale and full size testing, cleanup, coal fuel specification and processing, the Hot End Simulation rig and design of the engine parts required for use with the coal-fueled combustor island. To date Solar has demonstrated: Stable and efficient combustion burning coal-water mixtures using the Two Stage Slagging Combustor; Molten slag removal of over 97% using the slagging primary and the particulate removal impact separator; and on-site preparation of CWM is feasible. During the past year the following tasks were completed: The feasibility of on-site CWM preparation was demonstrated on the subscale TSSC. A water-cooled impactor was evaluated on the subscale TSSC; three tests were completed on the full size TSSC, the last one incorporating the PRIS; a total of 27 hours of operation on CWM at design temperature were accumulated using candle filters supplied by Refraction through Industrial Pump Filter; a target fuel specification was established and a fuel cost model developed which can identify sensitivities of specification parameters; analyses of the effects of slag on refractory materials were conducted; and modifications continued on the Hot End Simulation Rig to allow extended test times.

LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; When, C.S.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Water Extraction from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The overall objective of this program was to develop a liquid disiccant-based flue gas dehydration process technology to reduce water consumption in coal-fired power plants. The specific objective of the program was to generate sufficient subscale test data and conceptual commercial power plant evaluations to assess process feasibility and merits for commercialization. Currently, coal-fired power plants require access to water sources outside the power plant for several aspects of their operation in addition to steam cycle condensation and process cooling needs. At the present time, there is no practiced method of extracting the usually abundant water found in the power plant stack gas. This project demonstrated the feasibility and merits of a liquid desiccant-based process that can efficiently and economically remove water vapor from the flue gas of fossil fuel-fired power plants to be recycled for in-plant use or exported for clean water conservation. After an extensive literature review, a survey of the available physical and chemical property information on desiccants in conjunction with a weighting scheme developed for this application, three desiccants were selected and tested in a bench-scale system at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). System performance at the bench scale aided in determining which desiccant was best suited for further evaluation. The results of the bench-scale tests along with further review of the available property data for each of the desiccants resulted in the selection of calcium chloride as the desiccant for testing at the pilot-scale level. Two weeks of testing utilizing natural gas in Test Series I and coal in Test Series II for production of flue gas was conducted with the liquid desiccant dehumidification system (LDDS) designed and built for this study. In general, it was found that the LDDS operated well and could be placed in an automode in which the process would operate with no operator intervention or adjustment. Water produced from this process should require little processing for use, depending on the end application. Test Series II water quality was not as good as that obtained in Test Series I; however, this was believed to be due to a system upset that contaminated the product water system during Test Series II. The amount of water that can be recovered from flue gas with the LDDS is a function of several variables, including desiccant temperature, L/G in the absorber, flash drum pressure, liquid-gas contact method, and desiccant concentration. Corrosion will be an issue with the use of calcium chloride as expected but can be largely mitigated through proper material selection. Integration of the LDDS with either low-grade waste heat and or ground-source heating and cooling can affect the parasitic power draw the LDDS will have on a power plant. Depending on the amount of water to be removed from the flue gas, the system can be designed with no parasitic power draw on the power plant other than pumping loads. This can be accomplished in one scenario by taking advantage of the heat of absorption and the heat of vaporization to provide the necessary temperature changes in the desiccant with the flue gas and precipitates that may form and how to handle them. These questions must be addressed in subsequent testing before scale-up of the process can be confidently completed.

Bruce C. Folkedahl; Greg F. Weber; Michael E. Collings

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

214

Assessment of coal gasification/hot gas cleanup based advanced gas turbine systems  

SciTech Connect

The major objectives of the joint SCS/DOE study of air-blown gasification power plants with hot gas cleanup are to: (1) Evaluate various power plant configurations to determine if an air-blown gasification-based power plant with hot gas cleanup can compete against pulverized coal with flue gas desulfurization for baseload expansion at Georgia Power Company's Plant Wansley; (2) determine if air-blown gasification with hot gas cleanup is more cost effective than oxygen-blown IGCC with cold gas cleanup; (3) perform Second-Law/Thermoeconomic Analysis of air-blown IGCC with hot gas cleanup and oxygen-blown IGCC with cold gas cleanup; (4) compare cost, performance, and reliability of IGCC based on industrial gas turbines and ISTIG power island configurations based on aeroderivative gas turbines; (5) compare cost, performance, and reliability of large (400 MW) and small (100 to 200 MW) gasification power plants; and (6) compare cost, performance, and reliability of air-blown gasification power plants using fluidized-bed gasifiers to air-blown IGCC using transport gasification and pressurized combustion.

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Texas Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals Total Offshore (Million Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gross Withdrawals Total Offshore (Million Cubic Feet) Gross Withdrawals Total Offshore (Million Cubic Feet) Texas Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals Total Offshore (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 88,258 418,474 760,566 1980's 949,177 1,010,772 1,120,830 992,041 1,021,260 942,413 1,169,038 1,330,604 1,376,093 1,457,841 1990's 1,555,568 1,494,494 1,411,147 1,355,333 1,392,727 1,346,674 1,401,753 1,351,067 1,241,264 1,206,045 2000's 1,177,257 53,649 57,063 53,569 44,946 36,932 24,785 29,229 46,786 37,811 2010's 28,574 23,791 16,506 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 1/7/2014 Next Release Date: 1/31/2014

216

An Evaluation of Low-BTU Gas from Coal as an Alternate Fuel for Process Heaters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As the price gap between oil and natural gas and coal continues to widen, Monsanto has carefully searched out and examined opportunities to convert fuel use to coal. Preliminary studies indicate that the low-btu gas produced by fixed-bed, air blown gasifiers could potentially replace the natural gas now used in process heaters. The technology is well established and requires less capital than the higher-btu process heaters. Low-btu gas has sufficient heating value and flame temperature to be acceptable fuel for most process heaters. Economics for gas production appear promising, but somewhat uncertain. Rough evaluations indicate rates of return of as much as 30-40%. However, the economics are very dependent on a number of site- specific considerations including: coal vs. natural gas prices, economic life of the gas-consuming facility, quantity of gas required, need for desulfurization, location of gasifiers in relation to gas users, existence of coal unloading and storage facilities, etc. Two of these factors, the difference between coal and natural gas prices and the project life are difficult to predict. The resulting uncertainty has caused Monsanto to pursue coal gasification for process heaters with cautious optimism, on a site by site basis.

Nebeker, C. J.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS Process)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The overall goal of the project is to develop an advanced, clean coal biogasification (MicGAS) Process. The objectives of the research during FY 1993--94 were to: (1) enhance kinetics of methane production (biogasification, biomethanation) from Texas lignite (TxL) by the Mic-1 consortium isolated and developed at ARCTECH, (2) increase coal solids loading, (3) optimize medium composition, and (4) reduce retention time. A closer analysis of the results described here indicate that biomethanation of TxL at >5% solids loading is feasible through appropriate development of nutrient medium and further adaptation of the microorganisms involved in this process. Further understanding of the inhibitory factors and some biochemical manipulations to overcome those inhibitions will hasten the process considerably. Results are discussed on the following: products of biomethanation and enhance of methane production including: bacterial adaptation; effect of nutrient amendment substitutes; effects of solids loading; effect of initial pH of the culture medium; effect of hydrogen donors and carbon balance.

Walia, D.S.; Srivastava, K.C.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Silica membranes for hydrogen separation from coal gas. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project is a continuation of a previous DOE-UCR project (DE-FG22- 89PC89765) dealing with the preparation of silica membranes highly permselective to hydrogen at elevated temperatures, suitable for hydrogen separation from coal gas. The membranes prepared in the previous project had very high selectivity but relatively low permeance. Therefore, the general objectives of this project were to improve the permeance of these membranes and to obtain fundamental information about membrane structure and properties. The specific objectives were: (1) to explore new silylation reagents and reaction conditions with the purpose of reducing the thickness and increasing the permeance of silica membranes prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), (2) to characterize the membrane structure, (3) to delineate mechanism and kinetics of deposition, (4) to measure the permeability of silica layers at different extents of deposition, and (5) to mathematically model the relationship between structure and deposition kinetics.

Gavalas, G.R.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Coal - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - U.S. Energy ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Natural Gas. Exploration and reserves, storage, imports and exports, ... Regional totals do not include refuse recovery: Sections. Introduction; Coal Prices ...

220

Combined Total Amount of Oil and Gas Recovered Daily from the...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Combined Total Amount of Oil and Gas Recovered Daily from the Top Hat and Choke Line oil recovery systems - XLS Combined Total Amount of Oil and Gas Recovered Daily from the Top...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas total coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Combined Total Amount of Oil and Gas Recovered Daily from the...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Combined Total Amount of Oil and Gas Recovered Daily from the Top Hat and Choke Line oil recovery systems - ODS format Combined Total Amount of Oil and Gas Recovered Daily from the...

222

Analysis of the market and product costs for coal-derived high Btu gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

DOE analyzed the market potential and economics of coal-derived high-Btu gas using supply and demand projections that reflect the effects of natural gas deregulation, recent large oil-price rises, and new or pending legislation designed to reduce oil imports. The results indicate that an increasingly large market for supplemental gas should open up by 1990 and that SNG from advanced technology will probably be as cheap as gas imports over a wide range of assumptions. Although several studies suggest that a considerable market for intermediate-Btu gas will also exist, the potential supplemental gas demand is large enough to support both intermediate - and high-Btu gas from coal. Advanced SNG-production technology will be particularly important for processing the US's abundant, moderately to highly caking Eastern coals, which current technology cannot handle economically.

Not Available

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Process for the production of fuel gas from coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved apparatus and process for the conversion of hydrocarbonaceous materials, such as coal, to more valuable gaseous products in a fluidized bed gasification reaction and efficient withdrawal of agglomerated ash from the fluidized bed is disclosed. The improvements are obtained by introducing an oxygen containing gas into the bottom of the fluidized bed through a separate conduit positioned within the center of a nozzle adapted to agglomerate and withdraw the ash from the bottom of the fluidized bed. The conduit extends above the constricted center portion of the nozzle and preferably terminates within and does not extend from the nozzle. In addition to improving ash agglomeration and withdrawal, the present invention prevents sintering and clinkering of the ash in the fluidized bed and permits the efficient recycle of fine material recovered from the product gases by contacting the fines in the fluidized bed with the oxygen as it emanates from the conduit positioned within the withdrawal nozzle. Finally, the present method of oxygen introduction permits the efficient recycle of a portion of the product gases to the reaction zone to increase the reducing properties of the hot product gas.

Patel, Jitendra G. (Bolingbrook, IL); Sandstrom, William A. (Chicago, IL); Tarman, Paul B. (Elmhurst, IL)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Co-Production of Substitute Natural Gas/Electricity Via Catalytic Coal Gasification  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9 9 Co-ProduCtion of SubStitute natural GaS / eleCtriCity via CatalytiC Coal GaSifiCation Description The United States has vast reserves of low-cost coal, estimated to be sufficient for the next 250 years. Gasification-based technology, such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC), is the only environmentally friendly technology that provides the flexibility to co-produce hydrogen, substitute natural gas (SNG), premium hydrocarbon liquids including transportation fuels, and electric power in desired combinations from coal and other carbonaceous feedstocks. Rising costs and limited domestic supply of crude oil and natural gas provide a strong incentive for the development of coal gasification-based co-production processes. This project addresses the co-production of SNG and electricity from coal via gasification

225

Table 8. Total Natural Gas Consumption, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Natural Gas Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Total Natural Gas Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Projected (trillion cubic feet) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 AEO 1994 19.87 20.21 20.64 20.99 21.20 21.42 21.60 21.99 22.37 22.63 22.95 23.22 23.58 23.82 24.09 24.13 24.02 24.14 AEO 1995 20.82 20.66 20.85 21.21 21.65 21.95 22.12 22.25 22.43 22.62 22.87 23.08 23.36 23.61 24.08 24.23 24.59 AEO 1996 21.32 21.64 22.11 22.21 22.26 22.34 22.46 22.74 23.14 23.63 24.08 24.25 24.63 25.11 25.56 26.00 26.63 AEO 1997 22.15 22.75 23.24 23.64 23.86 24.13 24.65 25.34 25.82 26.22 26.52 27.00 27.35 27.70 28.01 28.47 AEO 1998 21.84 23.03 23.84 24.08 24.44 24.81 25.33 25.72 26.22 26.65 27.22 27.84 28.35 28.84 29.17 AEO 1999 21.35 22.36 22.54 23.18 23.65 24.17 24.57 25.19 25.77 26.41 26.92 27.42 28.02 28.50

226

168 Int. J. Oil, Gas and Coal Technology, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2009 Copyright 2009 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

168 Int. J. Oil, Gas and Coal Technology, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2009 Copyright © 2009 Inderscience.Y. (2009) `Geology and coal potential of Somaliland', Int. J. Oil, Gas and Coal Technology, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp.168­185. Biographical notes: Mohammed Y. Ali has a degree in Exploration Geology, MSc

Ali, Mohammed

227

Coal....  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

DOE EIA WEEKLY COAL ... Coal Prices and Earnings (updated April 28, 2004) Spot coal prices in the East rose steadily since Labor Day 2003, with rapid escalations ...

228

Coal....  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

DOE EIA WEEKLY COAL ... Coal Prices and Earnings (updated September 26) The average spot prices for reported coal purchases rose once again ...

229

How much coal, natural gas, or petroleum is used to generate a ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

How much coal, natural gas, or petroleum is used to generate a kilowatt-hour of electricity? The amount of fuel used to generate electricity depends on the efficiency ...

230

Steady-state model for estimating gas production from underground coal gasification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A pseudo-one-dimensional channel model has been developed to estimate gas production from underground coal gasification. The model incorporates a zero-dimensional steady-state cavity growth submodel and models mass transfer from the bulk gas to the coal wall using a correlation for natural convection. Simulations with the model reveal that the gas calorific value is sensitive to coal reactivity and the exposed reactive surface area per unit volume in the channel. A comparison of model results with several small-scale field trials conducted at Centralia in the U.S.A. show that the model can make good predictions of the gas production and composition under a range of different operating conditions, including operation with air and steam/oxygen mixtures. Further work is required to determine whether the model formulation is also suitable for simulating large-scale underground coal gasification field trials.

Greg Perkins; Veena Sahajwalla [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School of Materials Science and Engineering

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

231

The competition between coal and natural gas : the importance of sunk costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper explores the seeming paradox between the predominant choice of natural gas for capacity additions to generate electricity in the United States and the continuing large share of coal in meeting incremental ...

Ellerman, A. Denny

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Integrated Warm Gas Multicontaminant Cleanup Technologies for Coal-Derived Syngas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Integrated Warm Gas Multicontaminant Integrated Warm Gas Multicontaminant Cleanup Technologies for Coal-Derived Syngas Description Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology offers a means to utilize coal -the most abundant fuel in the United States-to produce a host of products, ranging from electricity to value-added chemicals like transportation fuels and hydrogen, in an efficient, environmentally friendly manner. However, the overall cost (capital, operating,

233

Percentage of Total Natural Gas Industrial Deliveries included...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Pipeline and Distribution Use Price City Gate Price Residential Price Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices Commercial Price Percentage of Total Commercial...

234

Percentage of Total Natural Gas Residential Deliveries included...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

City Gate Price Residential Price Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices Commercial Price Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices...

235

Capturing and Sequestering CO2 from a Coal-Fired Power Plant - Assessing the Net Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Capturing and Sequestering CO Capturing and Sequestering CO 2 from a Coal-fired Power Plant - Assessing the Net Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Pamela L. Spath (pamela_spath @nrel.gov; (303) 275-4460) Margaret K. Mann (margaret_mann @nrel.gov; (303) 275-2921) National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, CO 80401 INTRODUCTION It is technically feasible to capture CO 2 from the flue gas of a coal-fired power plant and various researchers are working to understand the fate of sequestered CO 2 and its long term environmental effects. Sequestering CO 2 significantly reduces the CO 2 emissions from the power plant itself, but this is not the total picture. CO 2 capture and sequestration consumes additional energy, thus lowering the plant's fuel to electricity efficiency. To compensate for this, more fossil fuel must be

236

Modeling of gas generation from the Cameo coal zone in the Piceance Basin Colorado  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The gas generative potential of the Cretaceous Cameo coal in the Piceance Basin, northwestern Colorado, was evaluated quantitatively by sealed gold tube pyrolysis. The H/C and O/C elemental ratios show that pyrolyzed Cameo coal samples follow the Van Krevelen humic coal evolution pathway, reasonably simulating natural coal maturation. Kinetic parameters (activation energy and frequency factor) for gas generation and vitrinite reflectance (R{sub o}) changes were calculated from pyrolysis data. Experimental R{sub o} results from this study are not adequately predicted by published R{sub o} kinetics and indicate the necessity of deriving basin-specific kinetic parameters when building predictive basin models. Using derived kinetics for R{sub o}, evolution and gas generation, basin modeling was completed for 57 wells across the Piceance Basin, which enabled the mapping of coal-rank and coalbed gas potential. Quantities of methane generated at approximately 1.2% R{sub o} are about 300 standard cubic feet per ton (scf/ton) and more than 2500 scf/ton (in-situ dry-ash-free coal) at R{sub o}, values reaching 1.9%. Gases generated in both low- and high-maturity coals are less wet, whereas the wetter gas is expected where R{sub o} is approximately 1.4-1.5%. As controlled by regional coal rank and net coal thickness, the largest in-place coalbed gas resources are located in the central part of the basin, where predicted volumes exceed 150 bcf/mi, excluding gases in tight sands.

Zhang, E.; Hill, R.J.; Katz, B.J.; Tang, Y.C. [Shell Exploration and Production Co., BTC, Houston, TX (United States)

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

237

Coal....  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Coal Prices and Earnings (updated August 12) According to Platts Coal Outlook’s Weekly Price Survey (August 11), the ...

238

Coal....  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Coal Prices and Earnings (updated September 2) The average spot prices for coal traded last week were relatively ...

239

Should we transport coal, gas, or electricity: cost, efficiency, and environmental implications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors examine the life cycle costs, environmental discharges, and deaths of moving coal via rail, coal to synthetic natural gas via pipeline, and electricity via wire from the Powder River Basin (PRB) in Wyoming to Texas. Which method has least social cost depends on how much additional investment in rail line, transmission, or pipeline infrastructure is required, as well as how much and how far energy is transported. If the existing rail lines have unused capacity, coal by rail is the cheapest method (up to 200 miles of additional track could be added). If no infrastructure exists, greater distances and larger amounts of energy favor coal by rail and gasified coal by pipeline over electricity transmission. For 1,000 miles and 9 gigawatts of power, a gas pipeline is cheapest, has less environmental discharges, uses less land, and is least obtrusive. 28 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Joule A. Bergerson; Lester B. Lave [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (US)

2005-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

240

U.S. Natural Gas Total Underground Storage Capacity (Million ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Home > Natural Gas > Navigator Energy Glossary: View History: Annual : Download Data (XLS File) ... Contact Us · Feedback · Privacy/Security · Careers · About EIA.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas total coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Table 8.2a Electricity Net Generation: Total (All Sectors ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Power: Hydro-electric Pumped Storage 5: Renewable Energy: Other 10: Total: Coal 1: Petroleum 2: Natural Gas 3: Other Gases 4: Total: Conventional Hydroelectric Power ...

242

Other States Total Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

807,404 830,044 798,974 846,078 1991-2013 From Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2013 From Oil Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2013 From Shale Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 2007-2013...

243

2012,"Total Electric Power Industry","AK","Natural Gas",6,244.7,210.5  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

TYPE_OF_PRODUCER","STATE_CODE","FUEL_SOURCE","GENERATORS","NAMEPLATE_CAPACITY TYPE_OF_PRODUCER","STATE_CODE","FUEL_SOURCE","GENERATORS","NAMEPLATE_CAPACITY (Megawatts)","SUMMER_CAPACITY (Megawatts)" 2012,"Total Electric Power Industry","AK","Natural Gas",6,244.7,210.5 2012,"Total Electric Power Industry","AK","Petroleum",4,4.8,4.8 2012,"Total Electric Power Industry","AK","Wind",1,24.6,24 2012,"Total Electric Power Industry","AK","All Sources",11,274.1,239.3 2012,"Total Electric Power Industry","AR","Coal",1,755,600 2012,"Total Electric Power Industry","AR","Natural Gas",1,22,20 2012,"Total Electric Power Industry","AR","All Sources",2,777,620

244

Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system. Annual report, June 1990--June 1991  

SciTech Connect

Advances in coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past few years, together with recent DOE-METC sponsored studies, have served to provide new optimism that the problems demonstrated in the past can be economically resolved and that the coal-fueled gas turbine can ultimately be the preferred system in appropriate market application sectors. The objective of the Solar/METC program is to prove the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of a coal-fired gas turbine for cogeneration applications through tests of a Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal fuel throughout the engine design operating range. The five-year program consists of three phases, namely: (1) system description; (2) component development; (3) prototype system verification. A successful conclusion to the program will initiate a continuation of the commercialization plan through extended field demonstration runs.

LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Coal/biomass fuels and the gas turbine: Utilization of solid fuels and their derivatives  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper discusses key design and development issues in utilizing coal and other solid fuels in gas turbines. These fuels may be burned in raw form or processed to produce liquids or gases in more or less refined forms. The use of such fuels in gas turbines requires resolution of technology issues which are of little or no consequence for conventional natural gas and refined oil fuels. For coal, these issues are primarily related to the solid form in which coal is naturally found and its high ash and contaminant levels. Biomass presents another set of issues similar to those of coal. Among the key areas discussed are effects of ash and contaminant level on deposition, corrosion, and erosion of turbine hot parts, with particular emphasis on deposition effects.

DeCorso, M. [Power Tech Associates, Inc., Paramus, NJ (United States); Newby, R. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Anson, D. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States); Wenglarz, R. [Allison Engine Co., Indianapolis, IN (United States); Wright, I. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

International Energy Outlook - Coal  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Coal International Energy Outlook 2004 Coal Although coal use is expected to be displaced by natural gas in some parts of the world, only a slight drop in its share of total energy consumption is projected by 2025. Coal continues to dominate fuel markets in developing Asia. Figure 52. World Coal Consumption, 1970-2025. Need help, call the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 53. Coal Share of World Energy Consumption by Sector, 2001 and 2025. Need help, call the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 54. Coal Share of Regional Energy Consumption, 1970-2025. Need help, call the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data World coal consumption has been in a period of generally slow growth since

247

PREDICTION OF TOTAL DISSOLVED GAS EXCHANGE AT HYDROPOWER DAMS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Total dissolved gas (TDG) supersaturation in waters released at hydropower dams can cause gas bubble trauma in fisheries resulting in physical injuries and eyeball protrusion that can lead to mortality. Elevated TDG pressures in hydropower releases are generally caused by the entrainment of air in spillway releases and the subsequent exchange of atmospheric gasses into solution during passage through the stilling basin. The network of dams throughout the Columbia River Basin (CRB) are managed for irrigation, hydropower production, flood control, navigation, and fish passage that frequently result in both voluntary and involuntary spillway releases. These dam operations are constrained by state and federal water quality standards for TDG saturation which balance the benefits of spillway operations designed for Endangered Species Act (ESA)-listed fisheries versus the degradation to water quality as defined by TDG saturation. In the 1970s, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), under the federal Clean Water Act (Section 303(d)), established a criterion not to exceed the TDG saturation level of 110% in order to protect freshwater and marine aquatic life. The states of Washington and Oregon have adopted special water quality standards for TDG saturation in the tailrace and forebays of hydropower facilities on the Columbia and Snake Rivers where spillway operations support fish passage objectives. The physical processes that affect TDG exchange at hydropower facilities have been studied throughout the CRB in site-specific studies and routine water quality monitoring programs. These data have been used to quantify the relationship between project operations, structural properties, and TDG exchange. These data have also been used to develop predictive models of TDG exchange to support real-time TDG management decisions. These empirically based predictive models have been developed for specific projects and account for both the fate of spillway and powerhouse flows in the tailrace channel and resultant exchange in route to the next downstream dam. Currently, there exists a need to summarize the general finding from operational and structural TDG abatement programs conducted throughout the CRB and for the development of a generalized prediction model that pools data collected at multiple projects with similar structural attributes. A generalized TDG exchange model can be tuned to specific projects and coupled with water regulation models to allow the formulation of optimal daily water regulation schedules subject to water quality constraints for TDG supersaturation. A generalized TDG exchange model can also be applied to other hydropower dams that affect TDG pressures in tailraces and can be used to develop alternative operational and structural measures to minimize TDG generation. It is proposed to develop a methodology for predicting TDG levels downstream of hydropower facilities with similar structural properties as a function of a set of variables that affect TDG exchange; such as tailwater depth, spill discharge and pattern, project head, and entrainment of powerhouse releases. TDG data from hydropower facilities located throughout the northwest region of the United States will be used to identify relationships between TDG exchange and relevant dependent variables. Data analysis and regression techniques will be used to develop predictive TDG exchange expressions for various structural categories.

Hadjerioua, Boualem [ORNL; Pasha, MD Fayzul K [ORNL; Stewart, Kevin M [ORNL; Bender, Merlynn [Bureau of Reclamation; Schneider, Michael L. [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Method and apparatus for enhancing the desulfurization of hot coal gas in a fluid-bed coal gasifier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process and apparatus for providing additional desulfurization of the hot gas produced in a fluid-bed coal gasifier, within the gasifier is described. A fluid-bed of iron oxide is located inside the gasifier above the gasification bed in a fluid-bed coal gasifier in which in-bed desulfurization by lime/limestone takes place. The product gases leave the gasification bed typically at 1600 to 1800 F and are partially quenched with water to 1000 to 1200 F before entering the iron oxide bed. The iron oxide bed provides additional desulfurization beyond that provided by the lime /limestone. 1 fig.

Grindley, T.

1988-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

249

U.S. Total Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) U.S. Total Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1973 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 2,034,000 1974 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 2,403,000 NA 2,050,000 1975 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 2,468,000 2,599,000 2,541,000 2,212,000 1976 1,648,000 1,444,000 1,326,000 1,423,000 1,637,000 1,908,000 2,192,000 2,447,000 2,650,000 2,664,000 2,408,000 1,926,000 1977 1,287,000 1,163,000 1,215,000 1,427,000 1,731,000 2,030,000 2,348,000 2,599,000 2,824,000 2,929,000 2,821,000 2,475,000 1978 1,819,000 1,310,000 1,123,000 1,231,000 1,491,000 1,836,000 2,164,000 2,501,000 2,813,000 2,958,000 2,927,000 2,547,000

250

Lower 48 States Total Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Lower 48 States Total Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2011 4,302,792 4,302,341 4,302,108 4,303,570 4,304,364 4,301,779 4,300,139 4,300,269 4,301,291 4,301,737 4,299,727 4,301,752 2012 4,309,129 4,309,505 4,321,454 4,325,195 4,332,383 4,338,100 4,342,905 4,347,859 4,351,797 4,365,049 4,372,359 4,372,412 2013 4,365,146 4,365,297 4,363,812 4,363,259 4,367,088 4,370,387 4,351,118 4,348,089 4,348,899 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 12/12/2013 Next Release Date: 1/7/2014 Referring Pages: Underground Base

251

Lower 48 States Total Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Lower 48 States Total Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2011 2,305,843 1,721,875 1,577,007 1,788,480 2,186,855 2,529,647 2,775,346 3,019,155 3,415,698 3,803,828 3,842,882 3,462,021 2012 2,910,007 2,448,810 2,473,130 2,611,226 2,887,060 3,115,447 3,245,201 3,406,134 3,693,053 3,929,250 3,799,215 3,412,910 2013 2,693,215 2,088,293 1,709,624 1,843,563 2,255,657 2,625,874 2,919,726 3,192,029 3,544,465 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 12/12/2013 Next Release Date: 1/7/2014 Referring Pages:

252

U.S. Total Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (Million Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) U.S. Total Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1973 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 2,864,000 1974 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 3,042,000 NA 2,912,000 1975 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 3,085,000 3,107,000 3,150,000 3,162,000 1976 3,169,000 3,173,000 3,170,000 3,184,000 3,190,000 3,208,000 3,220,000 3,251,000 3,296,000 3,302,000 3,305,000 3,323,000 1977 3,293,000 3,283,000 3,286,000 3,286,000 3,293,000 3,300,000 3,317,000 3,346,000 3,364,000 3,373,000 3,403,000 3,391,000 1978 3,374,000 3,373,000 3,374,000 3,377,000 3,379,000 3,381,000 3,386,000 3,403,000 3,411,000 3,444,000 3,425,000 3,473,000

253

Heavy duty gas turbine combustion tests with simulated low BTU coal gas  

SciTech Connect

There is an increasing industry interest in integrated gas turbine combined cycle plants in which coal gasifiers provide the fuel for the gas turbines. Some gasifier plant designs, including the air-blown processes, some integrated oxygen blown processes and some oxygen-blown processes followed by heavy moisturization, produce fuel gases which have lower heating values ranging from 130 to below 100 BTU/scf for which there is little gas turbine combustion experience. This program has the objectives to: Parametrically determine the effects of moisture, nitrogen and carbon dioxide as diluents so that the combustion characteristics of many varieties of gasification product gases can be reasonably predicted without physically testing each specific gas composition; determine emissions characteristics including NO[sub x], CO, levels etc. associated with each of the diluents; operate with two syngas compositions; DOE chosen air-blown and integrated oxygen-blown, to confirm that the combustion characteristics are in line with predictions; determine if logical'' refinements to the fuel nozzle will yield improved performance for LBTU fuels; determine the conversion rate of ammonia to NO[sub x]; determine the effects of methane inclusion in the fuel.

Ekstrom, T.E.; Battista, R.A.; Maxwell, G.P.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Heavy duty gas turbine combustion tests with simulated low BTU coal gas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

There is an increasing industry interest in integrated gas turbine combined cycle plants in which coal gasifiers provide the fuel for the gas turbines. Some gasifier plant designs, including the air-blown processes, some integrated oxygen blown processes and some oxygen-blown processes followed by heavy moisturization, produce fuel gases which have lower heating values ranging from 130 to below 100 BTU/scf for which there is little gas turbine combustion experience. This program has the objectives to: Parametrically determine the effects of moisture, nitrogen and carbon dioxide as diluents so that the combustion characteristics of many varieties of gasification product gases can be reasonably predicted without physically testing each specific gas composition; determine emissions characteristics including NO{sub x}, CO, levels etc. associated with each of the diluents; operate with two syngas compositions; DOE chosen air-blown and integrated oxygen-blown, to confirm that the combustion characteristics are in line with predictions; determine if ``logical`` refinements to the fuel nozzle will yield improved performance for LBTU fuels; determine the conversion rate of ammonia to NO{sub x}; determine the effects of methane inclusion in the fuel.

Ekstrom, T.E.; Battista, R.A.; Maxwell, G.P.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

255

Heavy duty gas turbine combustion tests with simulated low BTU coal gas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

There is an increasing industry interest in integrated gas turbine combined cycle plants in which coal gasifiers provide the fuel for the gas turbines. Some gasifier plant designs, including the air-blown processes, some integrated oxygen blown processes and some oxygen-blown processes followed by heavy moisturization, produce fuel gases which have lower heating values ranging from 130 to below 100 BTU/scf for which there is little gas turbine combustion experience. This program has the objectives to: Parametrically determine the effects of moisture, nitrogen and carbon dioxide as diluents so that the combustion characteristics of many varieties of gasification product gases can be reasonably predicted without physically testing each specific gas composition; determine emissions characteristics including NO[sub x], CO, levels etc. associated with each of the diluents; operate with two syngas compositions; DOE chosen air-blown and integrated oxygen-blown, to confirm that the combustion characteristics are in line with predictions; determine if logical'' refinements to the fuel nozzle will yield improved performance for LBTU fuels; determine the conversion rate of ammonia to NO[sub x]; determine the effects of methane inclusion in the fuel.

Ekstrom, T.E.; Battista, R.A.; Maxwell, G.P.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Table 8. Total Natural Gas Consumption, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Natural Gas Consumption, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected" " (trillion cubic feet)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011...

257

ANALYTICAL METHOD FOR MEASURING TOTAL PROTIUM AND TOTAL DEUTERIUM IN A GAS MIXTURE CONTAINING H2, D2,AND HD VIA GAS CHAROMATOGRAPHY  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The most common analytical method of identifying and quantifying non-radioactive isotopic species of hydrogen is mass spectrometry. A low mass, high resolution mass spectrometer with adequate sensitivity and stability to identify and quantify hydrogen isotopes in the low ppm range is an expensive, complex instrument. A new analytical technique has been developed that measures both total protium (H) and total deuterium (D) in a gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, D{sub 2}, and HD using an inexpensive micro gas chromatograph (GC) with two molecular sieve columns. One column uses D{sub 2} as the carrier gas and the other uses H{sub 2} as the carrier gas. Laboratory tests have shown that when used in this configuration the GC can measure both total protium and total deuterium each with a detection and quantification limit of less than 20 ppm.

Sessions, H

2007-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

258

Liquefaction and desulfurization of coal using synthesis gas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for desulfurizing and liquefying coal by heating said coal at a temperature of 375.degree.-475.degree. C in the presence of a slurry liquid, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, steam, and a catalyst comprising a desulfurization catalyst and an alkali metal salt.

Fu, Yuan C. (Bethel Park, PA)

1977-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

259

Repowering oil-fired boilers with combustion turbines fired with gas from coal. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The results of a study on repowering of oil fired reheat steam plants using combustion turbines and coal gas from the Texaco oxygen blown gasifier are presented. The steam plant utilizes combustion turbine exhaust gas as its combustion air supply. In some examples coal gas is fired in both the combustion turbines and the main boiler, while, in other cases, oil firing is retained in the boiler. Plant configurations, equipment changes, and performance are determined for three basic forms: (1) repowering based on coal gas supplied by pipeline (remote source); (2) repowering based on complete integration of the gasification system with the power plant; and (3) repowering based on partial integration of the gasification system wherein the boiler retains oil firing.

Garland, R.V.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Materials exposure test facilities for varying low-Btu coal-derived gas  

SciTech Connect

As a part of the United States Department of Energy's High Temperature Turbine Technology Readiness Program, the Morgantown Energy Technology Center is participating in the Ceramics Corrosion/Erosion Materials Study. The objective is to create a technology base for ceramic materials which could be used by stationary gas power turbines operating in a high-temperature, coal-derived, low-Btu gas products of combustion environment. Two METC facilities have been designed, fabricated and will be operated simultaneously exposing ceramic materials dynamically and statically to products of combustion of a coal-derived gas. The current studies will identify the degradation of ceramics due to their exposure to a coal-derived gas combustion environment.

Nakaishi, C.V.; Carpenter, L.K.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas total coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Price of Cove Point, MD Natural Gas LNG Total Imports (Dollars...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Total Imports (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Price of Cove Point, MD Natural Gas LNG Total Imports (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

262

U.S. Natural Gas Total Liquids Extracted - State of Origin (Thousand...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Total Liquids Extracted - State of Origin (Thousand Barrels) U.S. Natural Gas Total Liquids Extracted - State of Origin (Thousand Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

263

Heavy duty gas turbine combustion tests with simulated low BTU coal gas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This program has the objectives to: A. Parametrically determine the effects of moisture, nitrogen and carbon dioxide as diluents so that the combustion characteristics of many varieties of gasification product gases can be reasonably predicted without physically testing each specific gas composition. B. Determine emissions characteristics including NO, NO{sub x}, CO, levels etc. associated with each of the diluents, and C. Operate with at least two syngas compositions; DOE chosen air-blown and integrated oxygen-blown, to confirm that the combustion characteristics are in line with predictions. As a result of this program: 1. GE Engineering is now confident that the syngas fuels produced by all currently--viable coal gasifiers can be accommodated by the GE advanced (``F`` Technology) combustion system, and 2. For proposed syngas fuels with varying amounts of steam, nitrogen or CO{sub 2} diluent, the combustion and emissions characteristics can be reasonably estimated without undertaking expensive new screening tests for each different fuel.

Ekstrom, T.E.; Battista, R.A.; Belisle, F.H.; Maxwell, G.P.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection. Volume 3, Gas reburning-sorbent injection at Edwards Unit 1, Central Illinois Light Company  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Design work has been completed for a Gas Reburning-Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) system to reduce emissions of NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} from a wall fired unit. A GR-SI system was designed for Central Illinois Light Company`s Edwards Station Unit 1, located in Bartonville, Illinois. The unit is rated at 117 MW(e) (net) and is front wall fired with a pulverized bituminous coal blend. The goal of the project was to reduce emissions of NO{sub x} by 60%, from the ``as found`` baseline of 0.98 lb/MBtu (420 mg/MJ), and to reduce emissions of S0{sub 2} by 50%. Since the unit currently fires a blend of high sulfur Illinois coal and low sulfur Kentucky coal to meet an S0{sub 2} limit Of 1.8 lb/MBtu (770 mg/MJ), the goal at this site was amended to meeting this limit while increasing the fraction of high sulfur coal to 57% from the current 15% level. GR-SI requires injection of natural gas into the furnace at the level of the top burner row, creating a fuel-rich zone in which NO{sub x} formed in the coal zone is reduced to N{sub 2}. The design natural gas input corresponds to 18% of the total heat input. Burnout (overfire) air is injected at a higher elevation to burn out fuel combustible matter at a normal excess air level of 18%. Recycled flue gas is used to increase the reburning fuel jet momentum, resulting in enhanced mixing. Recycled flue gas is also used to cool the top row of burners which would not be in service during GR operation. Dry hydrated lime sorbent is injected into the upper furnace to react with S0{sub 2}, forming solid CaSO{sub 4} and CaSO{sub 3}, which are collected by the ESP. The SI system design was optimized with respect to gas temperature, injection air flow rate, and sorbent dispersion. Sorbent injection air flow is equal to 3% of the combustion air. The design includes modifications of the ESP, sootblowing, and ash handling systems.

NONE

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

U.S. Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

1970's: 21,139,386: 21,793,454: 22,101,451: 22,049,363: 21,223,133: 19,537,593: 19,946,496: 19,520,581: 19,627,478: ... Natural Gas Consumption (Annual Supply ...

266

Coal....  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

DOE EIA WEEKLY COAL ... Coal Prices and Earnings (updated July 7, 2004) In the trading week ended July 2, the average spot coal prices tracked by EIA were mixed.

267

Estimating Gas Concentration of Coal Mines Based on ISGNN  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Online detecting failure of gas sensors in mine wells is an important problem. A key step for solution of the problem is estimating sample values of detected gas sensor, according to sample values of other gas sensors. We propose a scheme based on ISGNN ... Keywords: Estimating gas concentration, Gas concentration modeling, Generating Neural Networks, ISGNN

Aiguo Li; Lina Song

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Percentage of Total Natural Gas Commercial Deliveries included in Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

City Gate Price Residential Price Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices Commercial Price Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices Industrial Price Percentage of Total Industrial Deliveries included in Prices Electric Power Price Period: Monthly Annual City Gate Price Residential Price Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices Commercial Price Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices Industrial Price Percentage of Total Industrial Deliveries included in Prices Electric Power Price Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 Oct-13 View History U.S. 63.3 59.3 57.9 57.0 57.4 61.3 1983-2013 Alabama 71.7 71.0 68.5 68.2 68.4 66.7 1989-2013 Alaska 94.1 91.6 91.1 91.0 92.3 92.6 1989-2013 Arizona 84.0 83.0 81.6 80.3 82.8 82.7 1989-2013 Arkansas 37.8 28.3 28.1 28.6 26.7 28.0 1989-2013

269

Percentage of Total Natural Gas Industrial Deliveries included in Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

City Gate Price Residential Price Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices Commercial Price Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices Industrial Price Percentage of Total Industrial Deliveries included in Prices Electric Power Price Period: Monthly Annual City Gate Price Residential Price Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices Commercial Price Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices Industrial Price Percentage of Total Industrial Deliveries included in Prices Electric Power Price Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 Oct-13 View History U.S. 16.5 16.3 16.0 16.2 16.6 16.9 2001-2013 Alabama 22.1 21.7 21.6 22.8 22.0 22.7 2001-2013 Alaska 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2001-2013 Arizona 13.4 15.7 15.3 13.8 13.7 13.9 2001-2013 Arkansas 1.7 1.4 1.2 1.4 1.3 1.5 2001-2013

270

Advanced coal fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system. Final report, June 1986--April 1994  

SciTech Connect

Demonstration of a direct coal-fueled gas turbine system that is environmentally, technically, and economically viable depends on the satisfactory resolution of several key issues. Solar Turbines, Incorporates technical approach to these issues was to advance a complete direct coal-fueled gas turbine system that incorporated near-term technology solutions to both historically demonstrated problem areas such as deposition, erosion, and hot end corrosion, and to the emergent environmental constraints based on NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulates. Solar`s program approach was keyed to the full commercialization of the coal-fueled cogeneration gas turbine which would occur after extended field verification demonstrations conducted by the private sector. The program was structured in three phases plus an optional fourth phase: Phase 1 -- system description; Phase 2 -- component development; Phase 3 -- prototype system verification; and Phase 4 -- field evaluation.

LeCren, R.T.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Results Summary Investigating the Use of Liquid CO2 Coal Slurry for Feeding Low Rank Coal to the E-Gas™ Gasifier  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of US Department of Energy (DOE) Award No. DE-FE0007977, Liquid CO2/Coal Slurry for Feeding Low Rank Coal to Gasifiers, which investigates the practicality of using a liquid CO2/coal slurry preparation and feed system for the E-Gas gasifier in an integrated-gasification–combined-cycle (IGCC) electric power generation plant configuration.Liquid CO2 (LCO2) has several property differences from water that ...

2013-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

272

Novel carbons from Illinois coal for natural gas storage. Technical report, March 1--May 31, 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Goal is to develop a technology for producing microengineered adsorbent carbons from Illinois coal and to evaluate their potential application for storing natural gas for use in emerging low pressure, natural gas vehicles (NGVs). Focus is to design and engineer adsorbents that meet or exceed performance and cost targets established for low-pressure natural gas storage materials. Potentially, about two million tons adsorbent could be consumed in NGVs by year 2000. If successful, the results could lead to use of Illinois coal in a market that could exceed 6 million tons per year. Activated carbon samples were prepared from IBC-106 coal by controlling both the preoxidation temperature and time, and the devolatilization temperature in order to eliminate coal caking. A 4.6 cc pressurized vessel was constructed to measure the Vm/Vs methane adsorption capacity (volume of stored methane at STP per volume storage container). Several IBC-106 derived activated carbons showed methane adsorption capacities comparable to that of a 1000 m{sup 2}/g commercial activated carbon. Results indicated that surface area and micropore volume of activated carbons are important for natural gas storage. Work is in progress to synthesize samples from IBC-106 coal with optimum pore diameter for methane adsorption.

Rostam-Abadi, M.; Sun, Jian; Lizzio, A.A.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

273

Solar coal-gasification reactor with pyrolysis-gas recycle. [Patent application  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Coal (or other carbonaceous matter, such as biomass) is converted into a product gas that is substantially free from hydrocarbons. The coal is fed into a solar reactor, and solar energy is directed into the reactor onto coal char, creating a gasification front and a pyrolysis front. A gasification zone is produced well above the coal level within the reactor. A pyrolysis zone is produced immediately above the coal level. Steam, injected into the reactor adjacent to the gasification zone, reacts with char to generate product gases. Solar energy supplies the energy for the endothermic steam-char reaction. The hot product gases flow from the gasification zone to the pyrolysis zone to generate hot char. Gases are withdrawn from the pyrolysis zone and reinjected into the region of the reactor adjacent the gasification zone. This eliminates hydrocarbons in the gas by steam reformation on the hot char. The product gas is withdrawn from a region of the reactor between the gasification zone and the pyrolysis zone. The product gas will be free of tar and other hydrocarbons, and thus be suitable for use in many processes.

Aiman, W.R.; Gregg, D.W.

1981-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

274

Other States Total Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Monthly Annual Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View History Gross Withdrawals 4,430,466 4,839,942 5,225,005 5,864,402 6,958,125 8,225,321 1991-2012 From Gas Wells 2,480,211 2,613,139 2,535,642 2,523,173 1991-2010 From Oil Wells 525,280 534,253 648,906 691,643 1991-2010 From Shale Gas Wells 569,502 796,138 1,146,821 1,787,965 2007-2010 From Coalbed Wells 855,473 896,412 893,636 861,620 2002-2010 Repressuring 48,011 51,781 43,376 45,994 1991-2010 Vented and Flared 32,600 52,667 55,544 53,950 1991-2010 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed 223,711 282,651 291,611 352,304 1994-2010

275

What is the total working gas capacity in underground natural gas ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

276

JEDI II: Jobs and Economic Development Impacts from Coal, Naural Gas and Wind Power (Poster)  

Wind Powering America (EERE)

JEDI II: JOBS AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IMPACTS JEDI II: JOBS AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IMPACTS FROM COAL, NATURAL GAS, AND WIND POWER Marshall Goldberg MRG & Associates Nevada City, California Suzanne Tegen National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, Colorado The information contained in this poster is subject to a government license. * WINDPOWER 2006 * Pittsburgh, PA * June 4-7, 2006 * NREL/PO-500-39908 Michael Milligan, Consultant National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, Colorado How does JEDI II work? The user enters data specific to the new coal, gas, or wind plant: * Year of installation * Size of the project * Location * Cost ($/kW) * Any other site-specific information

277

"Table A38. Total Expenditures for Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural Gas"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8. Total Expenditures for Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural Gas" 8. Total Expenditures for Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural Gas" " by Type of Supplier, Census Region, Census Division, Industry Group," " and Selected Industries, 1994" " (Estimates in Million Dollars)" ,," Electricity",," Steam" ,,,,,,"RSE" "SIC",,"Utility","Nonutility","Utility","Nonutility","Row" "Code(a)","Industry Group and Industry","Supplier(b)","Supplier(c)","Supplier(b)","Supplier(c)","Factors" ,,"Total United States"

278

Improved anode catalysts for coal gas-fueled phosphoric acid fuel cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The feasibility of adapting phosphoric acid fuel cells to operate on coal gas fuels containing significant levels of contaminants such as CO, H{sub 2}S and COS has been investigated. The overall goal was the development of low-cost, carbon-supported anode fuel cell catalysts that can efficiently operate with a fossil fuel-derived hydrogen gas feed contaminated with carbon monoxide and other impurities. This development would reduce the cost of gas cleanup necessary in a coal gas-fueled PAFC power plant, thereby reducing the final power cost of the electricity produced. The problem to date has been that the contaminant gases typically adsorb on catalytic sites and reduce the activity for hydrogen oxidation. An advanced approach investigated was to modify these alloy catalyst systems to operate efficiently on coal gas containing higher levels of contaminants by increasing the alloy catalyst impurity tolerance and ability to extract energy from the CO present through (1) generation of additional hydrogen by promoting the CO/H{sub 2} water shift reaction or (2) direct oxidation of CO to CO{sub 2} with the same result. For operation on anode gases containing high levels of CO, a Pt-Ti-Zn and Pt-Ti-Ni anode catalyst showed better performance over a Pt baseline or G87A-17-2 catalyst. The ultimate aim of this effort was to allow PAFC-based power plants to operate on coal gas fuels containing increased contaminant concentrations, thereby decreasing the need for and cost of rigorous coal gas cleanup procedures. 4 refs., 15 figs., 10 tabs.

Kackley, N.D.; McCatty, S.A.; Kosek, J.A.

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Total..........................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Housing Units (millions) Energy Information Administration 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Preliminary Housing Characteristics Tables Census Division Total South...

280

Development of a coal-fired gas turbine cogeneration system: Status report  

SciTech Connect

The Allison Advanced Coal-Fueled Turbine Program is now in the sixth year of a development effort that has led to a POC engine demonstration test on a Coal-Water-Slurry (CWS) fuel. Earlier forecasts by CWS suppliers that suitable CWS fuels would be commercially available at an economic price have not been realized. A program replan has, therefore, been executed that incorporates the use of readily available dry pulverized coal. To support this program, technology issues relating to combustor performance and emission control, hot gas cleanup, and turbine deposition, erosion and corrosion (DEC) have been addressed. In addition, system assessment studies have been performed to evaluate the commercial prospects for small (<8 MWe) coal-fired industrial cogeneration systems and the application of the rich-quench-lean (RQL) coal-combustion technology to larger (> 100 MWe) utility-sized gas turbines. These results are reported by Wenglarz (1992). Combustor and engine tests on dry coal are now planned in preparation for a commercial demonstration that will follow the completion of this program.

Wilkes, C.; Wenglarz, R.A.; Hart, P.J.; Thomas, W.H.; Rothrock, J.W.; Harris, C.N.; Bourke, R.C.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas total coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Coal gasification via the Lurgi process: Topical report: Volume 1, Production of SNG (substitute material gas)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Lurgi baseline study was requested by the DOE/GRI Operating Committee of the Joint Coal Gasification Program for the purpose of updating the economics of earlier Lurgi coal gasification plant studies for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) based on commercially advanced technologies. The current study incorporates the recent experience with large size Lurgi plants in an effort to improve capital and operating costs of earlier plant designs. The present coal gasification study is based on a mine mouth plant producing 250 billion Btu (HHV) per day of SNG using the Lurgi dry bottom coal gasification technology. A Western subbituminous coal was designated as the plant food, obtained from the Rosebud seam at Colstrip, Montana. This study presents the detailed description of an integrated facility which utilizes coal, air, and water to produce 250 billion Btu (HHV) per day of SNG. The plant consists of coal handling and preparation, twenty-six Lurgi dry bottom gasifiers, shift conversion, acid gas removal, methanation, compression and drying of product gas, sulfur recovery, phenol and ammonia recovery, as well as necessary support facilities. The plant is a grass roots, mine mouth facility located in a Western location similar to the town of Colstrip in Rosebud County, Montana. The Lurgi Corporation assisted in this study, under subcontract to Foster Wheeler, by supplying the heat and material balances, flow sheets, utilities, catalysts and chemical requirements, and cost data for Lurgi designed process sections. Details of material supplied by Lurgi Corporation are presented in Appendix A. 52 refs., 36 figs., 64 tabs.

Zahnstecher, L.W.

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Enabling Technology for Monitoring & Predicting Gas Turbine Health & Performance in COAL IGCC Powerplants  

SciTech Connect

The ''Enabling & Information Technology To Increase RAM for Advanced Powerplants'' program, by DOE request, has been re-directed, de-scoped to two tasks, shortened to a 2-year period of performance, and refocused to develop, validate and accelerate the commercial use of enabling materials technologies and sensors for Coal IGCC powerplants. The new program has been re-titled as ''Enabling Technology for Monitoring & Predicting Gas Turbine Health & Performance in IGCC Powerplants'' to better match the new scope. This technical progress report summarizes the work accomplished in the reporting period April 1, 2004 to August 31, 2004 on the revised Re-Directed and De-Scoped program activity. The program Tasks are: Task 1--IGCC Environmental Impact on high Temperature Materials: This first materials task has been refocused to address Coal IGCC environmental impacts on high temperature materials use in gas turbines and remains in the program. This task will screen material performance and quantify the effects of high temperature erosion and corrosion of hot gas path materials in Coal IGCC applications. The materials of interest will include those in current service as well as advanced, high-performance alloys and coatings. Task 2--Material In-Service Health Monitoring: This second task develops and demonstrates new sensor technologies to determine the in-service health of advanced technology Coal IGCC powerplants, and remains in the program with a reduced scope. Its focus is now on only two critical sensor need areas for advanced Coal IGCC gas turbines: (1) Fuel Quality Sensor for detection of fuel impurities that could lead to rapid component degradation, and a Fuel Heating Value Sensor to rapidly determine the fuel heating value for more precise control of the gas turbine, and (2) Infra-Red Pyrometer to continuously measure the temperature of gas turbine buckets, nozzles, and combustor hardware.

Kenneth A. Yackly

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

283

Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sorbent InjectIon for Small eSP Sorbent InjectIon for Small eSP mercury control In low Sulfur eaStern bItumInouS coal flue GaS Background Full-scale field testing has demonstrated the effectiveness of activated carbon injection (ACI) as a mercury-specific control technology for certain coal-fired power plants, depending on the plant's coal feedstock and existing air pollution control device configuration. In a typical configuration, powdered activated carbon (PAC) is injected downstream of the plant's air heater and upstream of the existing particulate control device - either an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or a fabric filter (FF). The PAC adsorbs the mercury from the combustion flue gas and is subsequently captured along with the fly ash in the ESP or FF. ACI can have some negative side

284

Characterization and control of exhaust gas from diesel engine firing coal-water mixture  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Exhaust from the GE-TS single cylinder diesel engine, fitted with hardened metal, and diamond-tipped metal fuel injection nozzles, and firing coal-water mixture (CWM) has been characterized with respect to gas composition, particulate size distribution, and particulate filtration characteristics. The measured flue gas compositions are roughly in keeping with results from combustion calculations. The time variations of the hydrocarbon, CO, and NO[sub x] concentrations are also understood in terms of known reaction mechanisms.

Samuel, E.A.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Arnold, M.

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Characterization and control of exhaust gas from diesel engine firing coal-water mixture  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Exhaust from the GE-TS single cylinder diesel engine, fitted with hardened metal, and diamond-tipped metal fuel injection nozzles, and firing coal-water mixture (CWM) has been characterized with respect to gas composition, particulate size distribution, and particulate filtration characteristics. The measured flue gas compositions are roughly in keeping with results from combustion calculations. The time variations of the hydrocarbon, CO, and NO{sub x} concentrations are also understood in terms of known reaction mechanisms.

Samuel, E.A.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Arnold, M.

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Total..........................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Division Total West Mountain Pacific Energy Information Administration: 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Preliminary Housing Characteristics Tables Million U.S. Housing...

287

Total..........................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

(millions) Census Division Total South Energy Information Administration 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Preliminary Housing Characteristics Tables Table HC13.7...

288

Total..........................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Census Division Total Midwest Energy Information Administration 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Preliminary Housing Characteristics Tables Table HC12.7...

289

Total..........................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Census Division Total Northeast Energy Information Administration 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Preliminary Housing Characteristics Tables Table HC11.7...

290

Total..........................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Census Division Total South Energy Information Administration: 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Preliminary Housing Characteristics Tables Million U.S. Housing...

291

Total..........................................................  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

(millions) Census Division Total West Energy Information Administration 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Preliminary Housing Characteristics Tables Table HC14.7...

292

Hard truths: facing the hard truths about energy. Topic Paper No. 18: Coal to liquids and gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The report presents the issues associated with and the potential of coal to liquids (CTL) and coal to gas (CTG) technologies. The other important outcome from this report is to view and understand the inputs and assumptions from various publications and the range of production estimates from CTG and CTL technology. The examination of the publications demonstrates a large uncertainty for CTL, due to various assumptions from petroleum price to technological abilities. Key assumptions are left unexamined, such as product transportation, labor, equipment availability, and environmental risk. Overall, the published CTL production estimates are small in the total global petroleum market perspective; even in the most optimistic scenario the volume from CTL amounts to only 20% of the U.S. petroleum market in the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) report. The National Coal Council (NCC) saw a 10% market share, whereas the various Energy Information Administration (EIA) scenarios saw 0% to 6% of the U.S market share. The NCC and SSEB both mentioned the added benefit of using the CO{sub 2} for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). It begins by introducing the process, giving a detailed technological understanding, and then outlining each issue with each report from coal availability to oil price assumptions. The incremental gains from CTL and other technology areas, such as oil shale, could have a significant impact on U.S. energy cost and foreign dependency. The use of coal allows the added benefit of relying on a resource that is domestically more plentiful than petroleum, but this reliance must be carefully balanced with the economics of developing the resource, since CTL facilities can cost more than $1 billion per 10,000 days of production, which implicates the competitiveness of the U.S. economy within the global economy. 33 refs.

NONE

2007-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

293

The Settlement on Coal Pillar Width of District Sublevel in High Gas Mine of Tongchuan  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract: Based on the actual geology situation of district in Tongchuan some mine, the influence on the stability of surrounding rock of roadway?the stress distribution rule on coal pillar and the distribution rule of plastic area was studied ... Keywords: High gas, district, district sublevel, plastic area

Xiao-Xiang Chen; Pan-Feng Gou; Si-Jiang Wei

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Total  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Total Total .............. 16,164,874 5,967,376 22,132,249 2,972,552 280,370 167,519 18,711,808 1993 Total .............. 16,691,139 6,034,504 22,725,642 3,103,014 413,971 226,743 18,981,915 1994 Total .............. 17,351,060 6,229,645 23,580,706 3,230,667 412,178 228,336 19,709,525 1995 Total .............. 17,282,032 6,461,596 23,743,628 3,565,023 388,392 283,739 19,506,474 1996 Total .............. 17,680,777 6,370,888 24,051,665 3,510,330 518,425 272,117 19,750,793 Alabama Total......... 570,907 11,394 582,301 22,601 27,006 1,853 530,841 Onshore ................ 209,839 11,394 221,233 22,601 16,762 1,593 180,277 State Offshore....... 209,013 0 209,013 0 10,244 260 198,509 Federal Offshore... 152,055 0 152,055 0 0 0 152,055 Alaska Total ............ 183,747 3,189,837 3,373,584 2,885,686 0 7,070 480,828 Onshore ................ 64,751 3,182,782

295

Program on Technology Innovation: Wavelength-Multiplexed Diode Laser Absorption Sensors for Rapid Monitoring of Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sensors are needed to monitor gas temperature and synthesis products during coal gasificationin the reactor, at the reactor exit, and along the path to potential use by gas turbines. The harsh operating conditions of coal gasification create a challenging measurement environment. In particular, an optimized gasifier is operated at pressures of 20–40 atm (2027–4053 kPa) with the expectation for operation at even higher pressures. The synthesis gas is also heavily laden with particulate, and the gasifier r...

2012-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

296

System and method for producing substitute natural gas from coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides a system and method for producing substitute natural gas and electricity, while mitigating production of any greenhouse gasses. The system includes a hydrogasification reactor, to form a gas stream including natural gas and a char stream, and an oxygen burner to combust the char material to form carbon oxides. The system also includes an algae farm to convert the carbon oxides to hydrocarbon material and oxygen.

Hobbs, Raymond (Avondale, AZ)

2012-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

297

Combined Total Amount of Oil and Gas Recovered Daily from the...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

XLS Combined Total Amount of Oil and Gas Recovered Daily from the Top Hat and Choke Line oil recovery systems - XLS Updated through 12:00 AM on July 16, 2010. 52Item84Recovery...

298

Combined Total Amount of Oil and Gas Recovered Daily from the...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

ODS format Combined Total Amount of Oil and Gas Recovered Daily from the Top Hat and Choke Line oil recovery systems - ODS format Updated through 12:00 AM on July 16, 2010....

299

U.S. Total Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Total Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1989: 8,119,368: 8,119,368: 8,119,368 ...

300

Electricity generation from coal and natural gas both ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Energy use in homes, commercial buildings, ... the share of natural gas-fired power generation is most influenced by the availability of hydroelectric power, ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas total coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Table 10: Total natural gas proved reserves, reserves changes, and production, w  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

: Total natural gas proved reserves, reserves changes, and production, wet after lease separation, 2011" : Total natural gas proved reserves, reserves changes, and production, wet after lease separation, 2011" "billion cubic feet" ,,"Changes in reserves during 2011" ,"Published",,,,,,,,"New Reservoir" ,"Proved",,"Revision","Revision",,,,"New Field","Discoveries","Estimated","Proved" ,"Reserves","Adjustments","Increases","Decreases","Sales","Acquisitions","Extensions","Discoveries","in Old Fields","Production","Reserves" "State and subdivision",40543,"(+,-)","(+)","(-)","(-)","(+)","(+)","(+)","(+)","(-)",40908

302

Kinetics of Direct Oxidation of H2S in Coal Gas to Elemental Sulfur  

SciTech Connect

Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced Vision 21 plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These Vision 21 plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppm and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation Vision 21 plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2}S in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. The direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The objectives of this research are to measure kinetics of direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and moisture, using 160-{micro}m C-500-04 alumina catalyst particles and 400 square cells/inch{sup 2}, {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-wash-coated monolithic catalyst, and various reactors such as a micro packed-bed reactor, a micro bubble reactor, and a monolithic catalyst reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam.

K.C. Kwon

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Process of producing combustible gas and for carbonizing coal  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process of producing combustible gas by supporting a column of fuel in a shaft furnace, intermittently blasting a combustion-supporting gas transversely through a mid portion of said column to produce a mid zone of sufficiently high temperature to decompose steam. The steam then circulated upwardly through said column between said blasting operations.

Doherty, H.L.

1922-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

304

Comparison of coal-based systems: marketability of medium-Btu gas and SNG (substitute natural gas) for industrial applications. Final report, July 1979-March 1982  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In assessing the marketability of synthetic fuel gases from coal, this report emphasizes the determination of the relative attractiveness of substitute natural gas (SNG) and medium-Btu gas (MBG) for serving market needs in eight industrial market areas. The crucial issue in predicting the marketability of coal-based synthetic gas is the future price level of competing conventional alternatives, particularly oil. Under a low oil-price scenario, the market outlook for synthetic gases is not promising, but higher oil prices would encourage coal gasification.

Olsen, D.L.; Trexel, C.A.; Teater, N.R.

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

"End Use","Total","Electricity(a)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(b...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Oil",,,"Coal" " "," ","Net","Residual","and",,"LPG and","(excluding Coal"," " "End Use","Total","Electricity(a)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(b)","Natural Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coke...

306

Analysis of CO2 Separation from Flue Gas, Pipeline Transportation, and Sequestration in Coal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report was written to satisfy a milestone of the Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery and CO2 Sequestration task of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration project. The report begins to assess the costs associated with separating the CO2 from flue gas and then injecting it into an unminable coal seam. The technical challenges and costs associated with CO2 separation from flue gas and transportation of the separated CO2 from the point source to an appropriate sequestration target was analyzed. The report includes the selection of a specific coal-fired power plant for the application of CO2 separation technology. An appropriate CO2 separation technology was identified from existing commercial technologies. The report also includes a process design for the chosen technology tailored to the selected power plant that used to obtain accurate costs of separating the CO2 from the flue gas. In addition, an analysis of the costs for compression and transportation of the CO2 from the point-source to an appropriate coal bed sequestration site was included in the report.

Eric P. Robertson

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Flue Gas Conditioning to Reduce Particulate Emissions in Industrial Coal-Fired Boilers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chemical technology has been used successfully to solve many of the operational and emissions problems that result from burning coal. This paper describes the use of blended chemical flue gas conditioners to significantly reduce particulate emissions in coal-fired industrial boilers. In many cases, these chemical conditioning agents have increased the efficiency of electrostatic precipitators and mechanical collectors by more than fifty percent. The effectiveness of this technology has been demonstrated on units generating 50,000 to 200,000 lbs./hr. steam. Results achieved at various industrial plants under actual operating conditions are presented.

Miller, B.; Keon, E.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Total............................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total................................................................... Total................................................................... 111.1 2,033 1,618 1,031 791 630 401 Total Floorspace (Square Feet) Fewer than 500............................................... 3.2 357 336 113 188 177 59 500 to 999....................................................... 23.8 733 667 308 343 312 144 1,000 to 1,499................................................. 20.8 1,157 1,086 625 435 409 235 1,500 to 1,999................................................. 15.4 1,592 1,441 906 595 539 339 2,000 to 2,499................................................. 12.2 2,052 1,733 1,072 765 646 400 2,500 to 2,999................................................. 10.3 2,523 2,010 1,346 939 748 501 3,000 to 3,499................................................. 6.7 3,020 2,185 1,401 1,177 851 546

309

Proceedings of the eighth annual coal-fueled heat engines and gas stream cleanup systems contractors review meeting  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the Heat Engines and Gas Stream Cleanup Programs at Morgantown Energy Technology Center is to develop essential technologies so the private sector can commercialize power plants burning coal-derived fuels. The purpose of this annual meeting is to provide a forum for scientists and engineers to present their results, exchange ideas and talk about their plans. Topics discussed were: Heat Engines Commercialization and Proof of Concepts Projects; Components and Testing of Coal-Fueled Gas Turbines; Advances in Barrier Filters; Pulse Combustion/Agglomeration; Advances in Coal-Fueled Diesels; Gas Stream Cleanup; Turbine and Diesel Emissions; and Poster Presentations.

Webb, H.A.; Bedick, R.C.; Geiling, D.W.; Cicero, D.C. (eds.)

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

NETL: Clean Coal Demonstrations - Coal 101  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cleanest Coal Technology Clean Coal 101 Lesson 5: The Cleanest Coal Technology-A Real Gas Don't think of coal as a solid black rock. Think of it as a mass of atoms. Most of the...

311

Total...................  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4,690,065 52,331,397 2,802,751 4,409,699 7,526,898 209,616 1993 Total................... 4,956,445 52,535,411 2,861,569 4,464,906 7,981,433 209,666 1994 Total................... 4,847,702 53,392,557 2,895,013 4,533,905 8,167,033 202,940 1995 Total................... 4,850,318 54,322,179 3,031,077 4,636,500 8,579,585 209,398 1996 Total................... 5,241,414 55,263,673 3,158,244 4,720,227 8,870,422 206,049 Alabama ...................... 56,522 766,322 29,000 62,064 201,414 2,512 Alaska.......................... 16,179 81,348 27,315 12,732 75,616 202 Arizona ........................ 27,709 689,597 28,987 49,693 26,979 534 Arkansas ..................... 46,289 539,952 31,006 67,293 141,300 1,488 California ..................... 473,310 8,969,308 235,068 408,294 693,539 36,613 Colorado...................... 110,924 1,147,743

312

Status of METC investigations of coal gas desulfurization at high temperature. [Zinc ferrite  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report documents the continuing effort at the US Department of Energy/Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to develop a hot-gas desulfurization process for coal-derived gas, primarily for application to molten carbonate fuel cells. Metal oxide sorbents were tested on lab-scale test equipment, and it was determined that scale-up of the process was warranted. A larger, skid-mounted test unit was therefore designed, constructed, and installed on a sidestream of the DOE/METC fixed-bed gasifier. A first series of tests was conducted during Gasifier Run 101. These tests served to shake down the test unit, and provide data on the performance of the test unit operating on coal-derived gas. Overall, the process operated well on fixed-bed, air-blown gasifier gas. Sulfur levels in exit dry gas were reduced to less than 10 ppM. Regeneration appears to restore the sulfur-removing capacity of the sorbent. Sorbent integrity was maintained during the test period, which incorporated three sulfidations. It is recommended that treatment of the regeneration offgas be investigated, and that testing and development of a system to reduce the sulfur in this gas to elemental sulfur be initiated. In addition, it is suggested that a multiple reactor system be planned for continuous operation, to allow for long-term tests of downstream users of desulfurized gas. 7 references, 18 figures, 9 tables.

Steinfeld, G.

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

A diffusion-kinetic model for pulverized-coal combustion and heat-and-mass transfer in a gas stream  

SciTech Connect

A diffusion-kinetic model for pulverized-coal combustion and heat-and-mass transfer in a gas stream is proposed, and the results of numerical simulation of the burnout dynamics of Kansk-Achinsk coals in the pulverized state at different treatment conditions and different model parameters are presented. The mathematical model describes the dynamics of thermochemical conversion of solid organic fuels with allowance for complex physicochemical phenomena of heat-and-mass exchange between coal particles and the gaseous environment.

E.A. Boiko; S.V. Pachkovskii [Polytechnic Institute, Federal University of Siberia, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

314

" Level: National Data and Regional Totals...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

"," ",,"Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and",,"Coke"," ","Row" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Total","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Natural Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coal",...

315

1 2Using Auxiliary Gas Power for CCS Energy Needs in Retrofitted Coal Power Plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Post-combustion capture retrofits are expected to a near-term option for mitigating CO2 emissions from existing coal-fired power plants. Much of the literature proposes using power from the existing coal plant and thermal integration of its supercritical steam cycle with the stripper reboiler to supply the energy needed for solvent regeneration and CO2 compression. This study finds that using an auxiliary natural gas turbine plant to meet the energetic demands of carbon capture and compression may make retrofits more attractive compared to using thermal integration in some circumstances. Natural gas auxiliary plants increase the power output of the base plant and reduce technological risk associated with CCS, but require favorable natural gas prices and regional electricity demand for excess electricity to make using an auxiliary plant more desirable. Three different auxiliary plant technologies were compared to integration for 90 % capture from an existing, 500 MW supercritical coal plant. CO2 capture and compression is simulated using Aspen Plus and a monoethylamine (MEA) absorption process. Thermoflow software is used to simulate three gas plant technologies. The three technologies assessed are the

Sarah Bashadi; Howard Herzog; Dava J. Newman; Sarah Bashadi

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Bioconversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels. [Butyribacterium methylotrophicum  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The use of coal-derived synthesis gas as an industrial feedstock for production of fuels and chemicals has become an increasingly attractive alternative to present petroleum-based chemicals production. However, one of the major limitations in developing such a process is the required removal of catalyst poisons such as hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbonyl sulfide (COS), and other trace contaminants from the synthesis gas. Purification steps necessary to remove these are energy intensive and add significantly to the production cost, particularly for coals having a high sulfur content such as Illinois coal. A two-stage, anaerobic bioconversion process requiring little or no sulfur removal is proposed, where in the first stage the carbon monoxide (CO) gas is converted to butyric and acetic acids by the CO strain of Butyribacterium methylotrophicum. In the second stage, these acids along with the hydrogen (H{sub 2}) gas are converted to butanol, ethanol, and acetone by an acid utilizing mutant of Clostridium acetobutylicum. 18 figs., 18 tabs.

Jain, M.K.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

International Energy Outlook 2000 - Coal  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Although coal use is expected to be displaced by natural gas in some parts of the world, Although coal use is expected to be displaced by natural gas in some parts of the world, only a slight drop in its share of total energy consumption is projected by 2020. Coal continues to dominate many national fuel markets in developing Asia. Historically, trends in coal consumption have varied considerably by region. Despite declines in some regions, world coal consumption has increased from 84 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) in 1985 to 93 quadrillion Btu in 1997. Regions that have seen increases in coal consumption include the United States, Japan, and developing Asia. Declines have occurred in Western Europe, Eastern Europe, and the countries of the former Soviet Union (FSU). In Western Europe, coal consumption declined by 33 percent between 1985 and 1997, displaced in considerable measure by

318

104 Int. J. Oil, Gas and Coal Technology, Vol. 4, No. 2, 2011 Copyright 2011 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

approach in modelling and simulation of shale gas reservoirs: application to New Albany Shale', Int. J. Oil104 Int. J. Oil, Gas and Coal Technology, Vol. 4, No. 2, 2011 Copyright © 2011 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd. A new practical approach in modelling and simulation of shale gas reservoirs: application

Mohaghegh, Shahab

319

Digital Gas Joins Asian Waste-to-Energy Consortium: To Eliminate Coal as a Power Plant Fuel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Digital Gas Joins Asian Waste-to-Energy Consortium: To Eliminate Coal as a Power Plant Fuel Digital upside in view of the power generation growth potential in Asia and the environmental friendly, cost's energy and farming centers in North America as an alternative to coal-fired power plants and a solution

Columbia University

320

Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system particle removal system development  

SciTech Connect

Solar Turbines developed a direct coal-fueled turbine system (DCFT) and tested each component in subscale facilities and the combustion system was tested at full-scale. The combustion system was comprised of a two-stage slagging combustor with an impact separator between the two combustors. Greater than 90 percent of the native ash in the coal was removed as liquid slag with this system. In the first combustor, coal water slurry mixture (CWM) was injected into a combustion chamber which was operated loan to suppress NO{sub x} formation. The slurry was introduced through four fuel injectors that created a toroidal vortex because of the combustor geometry and angle of orientation of the injectors. The liquid slag that was formed was directed downward toward an impaction plate made of a refractory material. Sixty to seventy percent of the coal-borne ash was collected in this fashion. An impact separator was used to remove additional slag that had escaped the primary combustor. The combined particulate collection efficiency from both combustors was above 95 percent. Unfortunately, a great deal of the original sulfur from the coal still remained in the gas stream and needed to be separated. To accomplish this, dolomite or hydrated lime were injected in the secondary combustor to react with the sulfur dioxide and form calcium sulfite and sulfates. This solution for the sulfur problem increased the dust concentrations to as much as 6000 ppmw. A downstream particulate control system was required, and one that could operate at 150 psia, 1850-1900{degrees}F and with low pressure drop. Solar designed and tested a particulate rejection system to remove essentially all particulate from the high temperature, high pressure gas stream. A thorough research and development program was aimed at identifying candidate technologies and testing them with Solar`s coal-fired system. This topical report summarizes these activities over a period beginning in 1987 and ending in 1992.

Stephenson, M.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas total coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Durable zinc oxide-containing sorbents for coal gas desulfurization  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Durable zinc-oxide containing sorbent pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a gas stream at an elevated temperature are made up to contain titania as a diluent, high-surface-area silica gel as a matrix material, and a binder. These materials are mixed, moistened, and formed into pellets, which are then dried and calcined. The resulting pellets undergo repeated cycles of sulfidation and regeneration without loss of reactivity and without mechanical degradation. Regeneration of the pellets is carried out by contacting the bed with an oxidizing gas mixture.

Siriwardane, R.V.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

322

Coal sector profile  

SciTech Connect

Coal is our largest domestic energy resource with recoverable reserves estimated at 268 billion short tons or 5.896 quads Btu equivalent. This is approximately 95 percent of US fossil energy resources. It is relatively inexpensive to mine, and on a per Btu basis it is generally much less costly to produce than other energy sources. Its chief drawbacks are the environmental, health and safety concerns that must be addressed in its production and consumption. Historically, coal has played a major role in US energy markets. Coal fueled the railroads, heated the homes, powered the factories. and provided the raw materials for steel-making. In 1920, coal supplied over three times the amount of energy of oil, gas, and hydro combined. From 1920 until the mid 1970s, coal production remained fairly constant at 400 to 600 million short tons a year. Rapid increases in overall energy demands, which began during and after World War II were mostly met by oil and gas. By the mid 1940s, coal represented only half of total energy consumption in the US. In fact, post-war coal production, which had risen in support of the war effort and the postwar Marshall plan, decreased approximately 25 percent between 1945 and 1960. Coal demand in the post-war era up until the 1970s was characterized by increasing coal use by the electric utilities but decreasing coal use in many other markets (e.g., rail transportation). The oil price shocks of the 1970s, combined with natural gas shortages and problems with nuclear power, returned coal to a position of prominence. The greatly expanded use of coal was seen as a key building block in US energy strategies of the 1970s. Coal production increased from 613 million short tons per year in 1970 to 950 million short tons in 1988, up over 50 percent.

1990-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

323

Novel carbons from Illinois coal for natural gas storage. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this project is to develop a technology for producing microengineered adsorbent carbons from Illinois coal and to evaluate the potential application of these novel materials for storing natural gas for use in emerging low pressure, natural gas vehicles (NGV). Potentially, about two million tons of adsorbent could be consumed in natural gas vehicles by year 2000. If successful, the results obtained in this project could lead to the use of Illinois coal in a growing and profitable market that could exceed 6 million tons per year. During this reporting period, a pyrolysis-gasification reactor system was designed and assembled. Four carbon samples were produced from a {minus}20+100 mesh size fraction of an Illinois Basin Coal (IBC-106) using a three-step process. The three steps were: coal oxidation in air at 250 C, oxicoal (oxidized coal) devolatilization in nitrogen at 425 C and char gasification in 50% steam-50% nitrogen at 860 C. These initial tests were designed to evaluate the effects of pre-oxidation on the surface properties of carbon products, and to determine optimum reaction time and process conditions to produce an activated carbon with high surface area. Nitrogen-BET surface areas of the carbon products ranged from 700--800 m{sup 2}/g. Work is in progress to further optimize reaction conditions in order to produce carbons with higher surface areas. A few screening tests were made with a pressurized thermogravimetric (PTGA) to evaluate the suitability of this instrument for obtaining methane adsorption isotherms at ambient temperature and pressures ranging from one to 30 atmospheres. The preliminary results indicate that PTGA can be used for both the adsorption kinetic and equilibrium studies.

Rostam-Abadi, M.; Sun, J.; Lizzio, A.A. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Fatemi, M. [Amoco Research Center, Naperville, IL (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

324

Porosity of coal and shale: Insights from gas adsorption and SANS/USANS techniques  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two Pennsylvanian coal samples (Spr326 and Spr879-IN1) and two Upper Devonian-Mississippian shale samples (MM1 and MM3) from the Illinois Basin were studied with regard to their porosity and pore accessibility. Shale samples are early mature stage as indicated by vitrinite reflectance (R{sub o}) values of 0.55% for MM1 and 0.62% for MM3. The coal samples studied are of comparable maturity to the shale samples, having vitrinite reflectance of 0.52% (Spr326) and 0.62% (Spr879-IN1). Gas (N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}) adsorption and small-angle and ultrasmall-angle neutron scattering techniques (SANS/USANS) were used to understand differences in the porosity characteristics of the samples. The results demonstrate that there is a major difference in mesopore (2-50 nm) size distribution between the coal and shale samples, while there was a close similarity in micropore (coal is pore-size specific and can vary significantly between coal samples; also, higher accessibility corresponds to higher adsorption capacity. Accessibility of pores in shale samples is low.

Mastalerz, Maria [Indiana Geological Survey; He, Lilin [ORNL; Melnichenko, Yuri B [ORNL; Rupp, John A [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system: Hot End Simulation Rig  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This Hot End Simulation Rig (HESR) was an integral part of the overall Solar/METC program chartered to prove the technical, economic, an environmental feasibility of a coal-fueled gas turbine, for cogeneration applications. The program was to culminate in a test of a Solar Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal slurry fuel throughput the engine design operating range. This particular activity was designed to verify the performance of the Centaur Type H engine hot section materials in a coal-fired environment varying the amounts of alkali, ash, and sulfur in the coal to assess the material corrosion. Success in the program was dependent upon the satisfactory resolution of several key issues. Included was the control of hot end corrosion and erosion, necessary to ensure adequate operating life. The Hot End Simulation Rig addressed this important issue by exposing currently used hot section turbine alloys, alternate alloys, and commercially available advanced protective coating systems to a representative coal-fueled environment at turbine inlet temperatures typical of Solar`s Centaur Type H. Turbine hot end components which would experience material degradation include the transition duct from the combustor outlet to the turbine inlet, the shroud, nozzles, and blades. A ceramic candle filter vessel was included in the system as the particulate removal device for the HESR. In addition to turbine material testing, the candle material was exposed and evaluated. Long-term testing was intended to sufficiently characterize the performance of these materials for the turbine.

Galica, M.A.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Cracking of simulated oil refinery off-gas over a coal char, petroleum coke, and quartz  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The cracking of oil refinery off-gas, simulated with a gas mixture containing methane (51%), ethylene (21.4%), ethane (21.1%), and propane (6.5%), over a coal char, petroleum coke, and quartz, respectively, has been studied in a fixed bed reactor. The experiments were performed at temperatures between 850 and 1000{sup o}C and at atmospheric pressure. The results show that the conversions of all species considered increased with increasing temperature. Ethane and propane completely decomposed over all three bed materials in the temperature range investigated. However, the higher initial conversion rates of methane and ethylene cracking at all temperatures were observed only over the coal char and not on the petroleum coke and quartz, indicating a significant catalytic effect of the coal char on methane and ethylene cracking. Methane and ethylene conversions decreased with reaction time due to deactivation of the coal char by carbon deposition on the char surface and, in the later stage of a cracking experiment, became negative, suggesting that methane and ethylene had been formed during the cracking of ethane and propane. 16 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

Yuan Zhang; Jin-hu Wu; Dong-ke Zhang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). Institute of Coal Chemistry

2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

327

Simulated coal gas MCFC power plant system verification  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The following tasks are included in this project: Commercialization; Power plant development; Manufacturing facilities development; Test facility development; Stack research; and Advanced research and technology development. This report briefly describes the subtasks still to be completed: Power plant system test with reformed natural gas; Upgrading of existing, US government-owned, test facilities; and Advanced MCFC component research.

NONE

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Total........................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

25.6 25.6 40.7 24.2 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment............... 1.2 Q Q Q 0.7 Have Main Space Heating Equipment.................. 109.8 20.5 25.6 40.3 23.4 Use Main Space Heating Equipment.................... 109.1 20.5 25.6 40.1 22.9 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It...................... 0.8 N N Q 0.6 Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.......................................................... 58.2 11.4 18.4 13.6 14.7 Central Warm-Air Furnace................................ 44.7 6.1 16.2 11.0 11.4 For One Housing Unit................................... 42.9 5.6 15.5 10.7 11.1 For Two Housing Units................................. 1.8 0.5 0.7 Q 0.3 Steam or Hot Water System............................. 8.2 4.9 1.6 1.0 0.6 For One Housing Unit................................... 5.1 3.2 1.1 0.4

329

Total........................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7.1 7.1 19.0 22.7 22.3 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment............... 1.2 0.7 Q 0.2 Q Have Main Space Heating Equipment.................. 109.8 46.3 18.9 22.5 22.1 Use Main Space Heating Equipment.................... 109.1 45.6 18.8 22.5 22.1 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It...................... 0.8 0.7 Q N N Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.......................................................... 58.2 27.0 11.9 14.9 4.3 Central Warm-Air Furnace................................ 44.7 19.8 8.6 12.8 3.6 For One Housing Unit................................... 42.9 18.8 8.3 12.3 3.5 For Two Housing Units................................. 1.8 1.0 0.3 0.4 Q Steam or Hot Water System............................. 8.2 4.4 2.1 1.4 0.3 For One Housing Unit................................... 5.1 2.1 1.6 1.0

330

Total........................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

15.1 15.1 5.5 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment............... 1.2 Q Q Q Have Main Space Heating Equipment.................. 109.8 20.5 15.1 5.4 Use Main Space Heating Equipment.................... 109.1 20.5 15.1 5.4 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It...................... 0.8 N N N Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.......................................................... 58.2 11.4 9.1 2.3 Central Warm-Air Furnace................................ 44.7 6.1 5.3 0.8 For One Housing Unit................................... 42.9 5.6 4.9 0.7 For Two Housing Units................................. 1.8 0.5 0.4 Q Steam or Hot Water System............................. 8.2 4.9 3.6 1.3 For One Housing Unit................................... 5.1 3.2 2.2 1.0 For Two Housing Units.................................

331

Total........................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4.2 4.2 7.6 16.6 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment............... 1.2 0.7 Q 0.7 Have Main Space Heating Equipment.................. 109.8 23.4 7.5 16.0 Use Main Space Heating Equipment.................... 109.1 22.9 7.4 15.4 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It...................... 0.8 0.6 Q 0.5 Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.......................................................... 58.2 14.7 4.6 10.1 Central Warm-Air Furnace................................ 44.7 11.4 4.0 7.4 For One Housing Unit................................... 42.9 11.1 3.8 7.3 For Two Housing Units................................. 1.8 0.3 Q Q Steam or Hot Water System............................. 8.2 0.6 0.3 0.3 For One Housing Unit................................... 5.1 0.4 0.2 0.1 For Two Housing Units.................................

332

Total........................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7.1 7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment............... 1.2 Q Q Q 0.2 Have Main Space Heating Equipment.................. 109.8 7.1 6.8 7.9 11.9 Use Main Space Heating Equipment.................... 109.1 7.1 6.6 7.9 11.4 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It...................... 0.8 N Q N 0.5 Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.......................................................... 58.2 3.8 0.4 3.8 8.4 Central Warm-Air Furnace................................ 44.7 1.8 Q 3.1 6.0 For One Housing Unit................................... 42.9 1.5 Q 3.1 6.0 For Two Housing Units................................. 1.8 Q N Q Q Steam or Hot Water System............................. 8.2 1.9 Q Q 0.2 For One Housing Unit................................... 5.1 0.8 Q N Q For Two Housing Units.................................

333

Total........................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5.6 5.6 17.7 7.9 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment............... 1.2 Q Q N Have Main Space Heating Equipment.................. 109.8 25.6 17.7 7.9 Use Main Space Heating Equipment.................... 109.1 25.6 17.7 7.9 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It...................... 0.8 N N N Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.......................................................... 58.2 18.4 13.1 5.3 Central Warm-Air Furnace................................ 44.7 16.2 11.6 4.7 For One Housing Unit................................... 42.9 15.5 11.0 4.5 For Two Housing Units................................. 1.8 0.7 0.6 Q Steam or Hot Water System............................. 8.2 1.6 1.2 0.4 For One Housing Unit................................... 5.1 1.1 0.9 Q For Two Housing Units.................................

334

Total................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

111.1 26.7 28.8 20.6 13.1 22.0 16.6 38.6 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment....... 1.2 0.5 0.3 0.2 Q 0.2 0.3 0.6 Have Main Space Heating Equipment.......... 109.8 26.2 28.5 20.4 13.0 21.8 16.3 37.9 Use Main Space Heating Equipment............ 109.1 25.9 28.1 20.3 12.9 21.8 16.0 37.3 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It.............. 0.8 0.3 0.3 Q Q N 0.4 0.6 Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.................................................. 58.2 12.2 14.4 11.3 7.1 13.2 7.6 18.3 Central Warm-Air Furnace........................ 44.7 7.5 10.8 9.3 5.6 11.4 4.6 12.0 For One Housing Unit........................... 42.9 6.9 10.3 9.1 5.4 11.3 4.1 11.0 For Two Housing Units......................... 1.8 0.6 0.6 Q Q Q 0.4 0.9 Steam or Hot Water System..................... 8.2 2.4 2.5 1.0 1.0 1.3 1.5 3.6 For One Housing Unit...........................

335

Program on Technology Innovation: Nanoparticles at Coal and Gas Fired Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nanoparticles—particles with diameters less than 100 nanometers—can occur from the combustion of fossil fuel, such as coal and natural gas. Recently, nanoparticles have gained the industry’s attention because they may be associated with adverse health effects. Despite potential health hazards, little published data exist concerning the types and concentrations of nanoparticles in work environments. This report is the first published study on concentration and composition of nanoparticles in power plant w...

2008-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

336

Pore structure and reactivity changes in hot coal gas desulfurization sorbents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary objective of the project was the investigation of the pore structure and reactivity changes occurring in metal/metal oxide sorbents used for desulfurization of hot coal gas during sulfidation and regeneration, with particular emphasis placed on the effects of these changes on the sorptive capacity and efficiency of the sorbents. Commercially available zinc oxide sorbents were used as model solids in our experimental investigation of the sulfidation and regeneration processes.

Sotirchos, S.V.

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

KINETICS OF DIRECT OXIDATION OF H2S IN COAL GAS TO ELEMENTAL SULFUR  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and the hot-gas desulfurization using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process. The objective of this research is to support the near- and long-term process development efforts to commercialize this direct oxidation technology. The objectives of this research are to measure kinetics of direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and moisture, using 160-{micro}m C-500-04 alumina catalyst particles and a micro bubble reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. To achieve the above-mentioned objectives, experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into liquid elemental sulfur were carried out for the space time range of 1-6 milliseconds at 125-155 C to evaluate effects of reaction temperature, moisture concentration, reaction pressure on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into liquid elemental sulfur. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 70 v% hydrogen, 2,500-7,500-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,250-3,750 ppmv sulfur dioxide, and 0-15 vol% moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to a micro bubble reactor are 100 cm{sup 3}/min at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 125-155 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 40-170 psia.

K.C. Kwon

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

KINETICS OF DIRECT OXIDATION OF H2S IN COAL GAS TO ELEMENTAL SULFUR  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and the hot-gas desulfurization using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process. The objective of this research is to support the near- and long-term process development efforts to commercialize this direct oxidation technology. The objectives of this research are to measure kinetics of direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and moisture, using 160-{micro}m C-500-04 alumina catalyst particles and a micro bubble reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. To achieve the above-mentioned objectives, experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into liquid elemental sulfur were carried out for the space time range of 0.059-0.87 seconds at 125-155 C to evaluate effects of reaction temperature, H{sub 2}S concentration, reaction pressure, and catalyst loading on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into liquid elemental sulfur. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 62-78 v% hydrogen, 3,000-7,000-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,500-3,500 ppmv sulfur dioxide, and 10 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to a micro bubble reactor are 50 cm{sup 3}/min at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 125-155 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 40-170 psia. The molar ratio of H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} in the bubble reactor is maintained at 2 for all the reaction experiment runs.

K.C. Kwon

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Total..........................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

25.6 25.6 40.7 24.2 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................................... 3.2 0.9 0.5 0.9 1.0 500 to 999........................................................... 23.8 4.6 3.9 9.0 6.3 1,000 to 1,499..................................................... 20.8 2.8 4.4 8.6 5.0 1,500 to 1,999..................................................... 15.4 1.9 3.5 6.0 4.0 2,000 to 2,499..................................................... 12.2 2.3 3.2 4.1 2.6 2,500 to 2,999..................................................... 10.3 2.2 2.7 3.0 2.4 3,000 to 3,499..................................................... 6.7 1.6 2.1 2.1 0.9 3,500 to 3,999..................................................... 5.2 1.1 1.7 1.5 0.9 4,000 or More.....................................................

340

Total..........................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4.2 4.2 7.6 16.6 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................................... 3.2 1.0 0.2 0.8 500 to 999........................................................... 23.8 6.3 1.4 4.9 1,000 to 1,499..................................................... 20.8 5.0 1.6 3.4 1,500 to 1,999..................................................... 15.4 4.0 1.4 2.6 2,000 to 2,499..................................................... 12.2 2.6 0.9 1.7 2,500 to 2,999..................................................... 10.3 2.4 0.9 1.4 3,000 to 3,499..................................................... 6.7 0.9 0.3 0.6 3,500 to 3,999..................................................... 5.2 0.9 0.4 0.5 4,000 or More.....................................................

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas total coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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341

Total.........................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Floorspace (Square Feet) Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 2 Fewer than 500.................................................. 3.2 Q 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.5 500 to 999.......................................................... 23.8 1.5 5.4 5.5 6.1 5.3 1,000 to 1,499.................................................... 20.8 1.4 4.0 5.2 5.0 5.2 1,500 to 1,999.................................................... 15.4 1.4 3.1 3.5 3.6 3.8 2,000 to 2,499.................................................... 12.2 1.4 3.2 3.0 2.3 2.3 2,500 to 2,999.................................................... 10.3 1.5 2.3 2.7 2.1 1.7 3,000 to 3,499.................................................... 6.7 1.0 2.0 1.7 1.0 1.0 3,500 to 3,999.................................................... 5.2 0.8 1.5 1.5 0.7 0.7 4,000 or More.....................................................

342

Total..........................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

. . 111.1 20.6 15.1 5.5 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................................... 3.2 0.9 0.5 0.4 500 to 999........................................................... 23.8 4.6 3.6 1.1 1,000 to 1,499..................................................... 20.8 2.8 2.2 0.6 1,500 to 1,999..................................................... 15.4 1.9 1.4 0.5 2,000 to 2,499..................................................... 12.2 2.3 1.7 0.5 2,500 to 2,999..................................................... 10.3 2.2 1.7 0.6 3,000 to 3,499..................................................... 6.7 1.6 1.0 0.6 3,500 to 3,999..................................................... 5.2 1.1 0.9 0.3 4,000 or More.....................................................

343

Total..........................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7.1 7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................................... 3.2 0.4 Q Q 0.5 500 to 999........................................................... 23.8 2.5 1.5 2.1 3.7 1,000 to 1,499..................................................... 20.8 1.1 2.0 1.5 2.5 1,500 to 1,999..................................................... 15.4 0.5 1.2 1.2 1.9 2,000 to 2,499..................................................... 12.2 0.7 0.5 0.8 1.4 2,500 to 2,999..................................................... 10.3 0.5 0.5 0.4 1.1 3,000 to 3,499..................................................... 6.7 0.3 Q 0.4 0.3 3,500 to 3,999..................................................... 5.2 Q Q Q Q 4,000 or More.....................................................

344

Total..........................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

.. .. 111.1 24.5 1,090 902 341 872 780 441 Total Floorspace (Square Feet) Fewer than 500...................................... 3.1 2.3 403 360 165 366 348 93 500 to 999.............................................. 22.2 14.4 763 660 277 730 646 303 1,000 to 1,499........................................ 19.1 5.8 1,223 1,130 496 1,187 1,086 696 1,500 to 1,999........................................ 14.4 1.0 1,700 1,422 412 1,698 1,544 1,348 2,000 to 2,499........................................ 12.7 0.4 2,139 1,598 Q Q Q Q 2,500 to 2,999........................................ 10.1 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q 3,000 or More......................................... 29.6 0.3 Q Q Q Q Q Q Heated Floorspace (Square Feet) None...................................................... 3.6 1.8 1,048 0 Q 827 0 407 Fewer than 500......................................

345

Total...................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2,033 2,033 1,618 1,031 791 630 401 Total Floorspace (Square Feet) Fewer than 500............................................... 3.2 357 336 113 188 177 59 500 to 999....................................................... 23.8 733 667 308 343 312 144 1,000 to 1,499................................................. 20.8 1,157 1,086 625 435 409 235 1,500 to 1,999................................................. 15.4 1,592 1,441 906 595 539 339 2,000 to 2,499................................................. 12.2 2,052 1,733 1,072 765 646 400 2,500 to 2,999................................................. 10.3 2,523 2,010 1,346 939 748 501 3,000 to 3,499................................................. 6.7 3,020 2,185 1,401 1,177 851 546 3,500 to 3,999................................................. 5.2 3,549 2,509 1,508

346

Total..........................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7.1 7.1 19.0 22.7 22.3 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................................... 3.2 2.1 0.6 Q 0.4 500 to 999........................................................... 23.8 13.6 3.7 3.2 3.2 1,000 to 1,499..................................................... 20.8 9.5 3.7 3.4 4.2 1,500 to 1,999..................................................... 15.4 6.6 2.7 2.5 3.6 2,000 to 2,499..................................................... 12.2 5.0 2.1 2.8 2.4 2,500 to 2,999..................................................... 10.3 3.7 1.8 2.8 2.1 3,000 to 3,499..................................................... 6.7 2.0 1.4 1.7 1.6 3,500 to 3,999..................................................... 5.2 1.6 0.8 1.5 1.4 4,000 or More.....................................................

347

Total..........................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0.7 0.7 21.7 6.9 12.1 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................................... 3.2 0.9 0.6 Q Q 500 to 999........................................................... 23.8 9.0 4.2 1.5 3.2 1,000 to 1,499..................................................... 20.8 8.6 4.7 1.5 2.5 1,500 to 1,999..................................................... 15.4 6.0 2.9 1.2 1.9 2,000 to 2,499..................................................... 12.2 4.1 2.1 0.7 1.3 2,500 to 2,999..................................................... 10.3 3.0 1.8 0.5 0.7 3,000 to 3,499..................................................... 6.7 2.1 1.2 0.5 0.4 3,500 to 3,999..................................................... 5.2 1.5 0.8 0.3 0.4 4,000 or More.....................................................

348

Total...........................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

26.7 26.7 28.8 20.6 13.1 22.0 16.6 38.6 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................... 3.2 1.9 0.9 Q Q Q 1.3 2.3 500 to 999........................................... 23.8 10.5 7.3 3.3 1.4 1.2 6.6 12.9 1,000 to 1,499..................................... 20.8 5.8 7.0 3.8 2.2 2.0 3.9 8.9 1,500 to 1,999..................................... 15.4 3.1 4.2 3.4 2.0 2.7 1.9 5.0 2,000 to 2,499..................................... 12.2 1.7 2.7 2.9 1.8 3.2 1.1 2.8 2,500 to 2,999..................................... 10.3 1.2 2.2 2.3 1.7 2.9 0.6 2.0 3,000 to 3,499..................................... 6.7 0.9 1.4 1.5 1.0 1.9 0.4 1.4 3,500 to 3,999..................................... 5.2 0.8 1.2 1.0 0.8 1.5 0.4 1.3 4,000 or More...................................... 13.3 0.9 1.9 2.2 2.0 6.4 0.6 1.9 Heated Floorspace

349

Total...........................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

14.7 14.7 7.4 12.5 12.5 18.9 18.6 17.3 9.2 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500.................................... 3.2 0.7 Q 0.3 0.3 0.7 0.6 0.3 Q 500 to 999........................................... 23.8 2.7 1.4 2.2 2.8 5.5 5.1 3.0 1.1 1,000 to 1,499..................................... 20.8 2.3 1.4 2.4 2.5 3.5 3.5 3.6 1.6 1,500 to 1,999..................................... 15.4 1.8 1.4 2.2 2.0 2.4 2.4 2.1 1.2 2,000 to 2,499..................................... 12.2 1.4 0.9 1.8 1.4 2.2 2.1 1.6 0.8 2,500 to 2,999..................................... 10.3 1.6 0.9 1.1 1.1 1.5 1.5 1.7 0.8 3,000 to 3,499..................................... 6.7 1.0 0.5 0.8 0.8 1.2 0.8 0.9 0.8 3,500 to 3,999..................................... 5.2 1.1 0.3 0.7 0.7 0.4 0.5 1.0 0.5 4,000 or More...................................... 13.3

350

Total................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

.. .. 111.1 86.6 2,522 1,970 1,310 1,812 1,475 821 1,055 944 554 Total Floorspace (Square Feet) Fewer than 500............................. 3.2 0.9 261 336 162 Q Q Q 334 260 Q 500 to 999.................................... 23.8 9.4 670 683 320 705 666 274 811 721 363 1,000 to 1,499.............................. 20.8 15.0 1,121 1,083 622 1,129 1,052 535 1,228 1,090 676 1,500 to 1,999.............................. 15.4 14.4 1,574 1,450 945 1,628 1,327 629 1,712 1,489 808 2,000 to 2,499.............................. 12.2 11.9 2,039 1,731 1,055 2,143 1,813 1,152 Q Q Q 2,500 to 2,999.............................. 10.3 10.1 2,519 2,004 1,357 2,492 2,103 1,096 Q Q Q 3,000 or 3,499.............................. 6.7 6.6 3,014 2,175 1,438 3,047 2,079 1,108 N N N 3,500 to 3,999.............................. 5.2 5.1 3,549 2,505 1,518 Q Q Q N N N 4,000 or More...............................

351

Fuel Industry Response to Power Industry Environmental Pressures: An Analysis of Risk and Investment in the Coal Supply Chain and Na tural Gas Industry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report examines the question of how mounting environmental pressures on coal-fired generation will impact investment in fuel supply and transportation. If destined for demise, are coal companies cutting back investments or exiting the business? Alternatively, are natural gas companies gearing up for a financial boom? The study specifically investigates a "clean coal" case of greatly tightened NOx and SO2 limits as well as a "low coal" case of much reduced coal use to meet CO2 control objectives.

1999-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

352

Investigation of Effects of Coal and Biomass Contaminants on the Performance of Water-Gas-Shift and Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Effects of Coal Effects of Coal and Biomass Contaminants on the Performance of Water-Gas-Shift and Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts Background Coal-Biomass-to-Liquids (CBTL) processes gasify coal, biomass, and mixtures of coal/ biomass to produce synthesis gas (syngas) that can be converted to liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Positive benefits of these processes include the use of feedstocks from domestic sources and lower greenhouse gas production than can be achieved from using conventional petroleum-based fuels. However, syngas generated by coal and biomass co-gasification contains a myriad of trace contaminants that may poison the water- gas-shift (WGS) and Fischer-Tropsch (FT) catalysts used in the gas-to-liquid processes. While the effect of coal contaminants on FT processes is well studied, more research

353

Status of Westinghouse hot gas filters for coal and biomass power systems  

SciTech Connect

Several advanced, coal and biomass-based combustion turbine power generation technologies using fuels (IGCC, PFBC, Topping-PFBC, HIPPS) are currently under development and demonstration. A key developing technology in these power generation systems is the hot gas filter. These power generation technologies must utilize highly reliable and efficient hot gas filter systems if their full thermal efficiency and cost potential is to be realized. This paper reviews the recent test and design progress made by Westinghouse in the development and demonstration of hot gas ceramic barrier filters toward the goal of reliability. The objective of this work is to develop and qualify, through analysis and testing, practical hot gas ceramic barrier filter systems that meet the performance and operational requirements for these applications.

Newby, R.A.; Lippert, T.E.; Alvin, M.A.; Burck, G.J.; Sanjana, Z.N. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Coal Blending for the Reduction of Acid Gas Emissions: A Characterization of the Milling and Combustion Blends of Powder River Basin Coal and Bituminous Coal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes a systematic study of performance and emission parameters from the combustion of Eastern bituminous coal, a Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, and various blends of these two coals. This study also investigated the effects of coal blending on mill performance, combustion, particulate emissions, and various emissions.

2004-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

355

,"South Dakota Natural Gas Total Consumption (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Consumption (MMcf)" Total Consumption (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","South Dakota Natural Gas Total Consumption (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1490_ssd_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1490_ssd_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:45:27 PM"

356

,"U.S. Working Natural Gas Total Underground Storage Capacity (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Underground Storage Capacity (MMcf)" Total Underground Storage Capacity (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Working Natural Gas Total Underground Storage Capacity (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","nga_epg0_sacw0_nus_mmcfa.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/nga_epg0_sacw0_nus_mmcfa.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

357

Preliminary technical data report: WyCoalGas project water system. Final technical report, November 1980-May 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project, Converse County, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The WyCoalGas, Inc. Proposed coal gasification plant site is approximately 16 miles north of Douglas, Wyoming, located generally in Sections 27 and 34, T35N, R70W of the sixth prinicpal meridian. The plant site is located in typical high plateau plains of central Wyoming. Climate in the area is typical of semi-arid central Wyoming and is subject to wide variations in temperature. Precipitation in the area averages about 14 inches per year, of which about 10 inches fall during the April-September irrigation season. Projected water requirements at the plant site are 6020 acre-feet per year. Since the proposed plant site is not near any major streams or rivers, water must be transported to it. Water will be supplied from four sources - two surface water and two groundwater. The two surface water sources are LaPrele Reservoir and flood flows from the North Platte River with a 1974 appropriations date. LaPrele Reservoir is located approximately 14 miles west of Douglas, Wyoming, and is shown on Figure A-1. Water will be released from LaPrele Reservoir and flow down LaPrele Creek to the North Platte River. Water from the North Platte River will be diverted at a point in Section 7 of T33N, R71W. The LaPrele water and excess water from the North Platte will be pumped from the river and stored in Panhandle Reservoir No. 1, which is also referred to as Combs Reservoir. A pipeline will convey water from Panhandle Reservoir No. 1 to the coal gasification plant site. The two groundwater sources are located north of Douglas and west of Douglas.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Mercury Speciation in Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas-Experimental Studies and Model Development  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of the project was to obtain a fundamental understanding of the catalytic reactions that are promoted by solid surfaces present in coal combustion systems and develop a mathematical model that described key phenomena responsible for the fate of mercury in coal-combustion systems. This objective was achieved by carefully combining laboratory studies under realistic process conditions using simulated flue gas with mathematical modeling efforts. Laboratory-scale studies were performed to understand the fundamental aspects of chemical reactions between flue gas constituents and solid surfaces present in the fly ash and their impact on mercury speciation. Process models were developed to account for heterogeneous reactions because of the presence of fly ash as well as the deliberate addition of particles to promote Hg oxidation and adsorption. Quantum modeling was used to obtain estimates of the kinetics of heterogeneous reactions. Based on the initial findings of this study, additional work was performed to ascertain the potential of using inexpensive inorganic sorbents to control mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants without adverse impact on the salability fly ash, which is one of the major drawbacks of current control technologies based on activated carbon.

Radisav Vidic; Joseph Flora; Eric Borguet

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

359

Table 9. Total U.S. proved reserves of wet natural gas and dry natural gas, 2001-2011  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

: Total U.S. proved reserves of wet natural gas and dry natural gas, 2001-2011 : Total U.S. proved reserves of wet natural gas and dry natural gas, 2001-2011 billion cubic feet Revisions a Net of Sales b New Reservoir Proved d Change Net and and New Field Discoveries Total c Estimated Reserves from Adjustments Revisions Adjustments Acquisitions Extensions Discoveries in Old Fields Discoveries Production 12/31 Prior Year Year (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) Wet Natural Gas (billion cubic feet) 2001 1,849 -2,438 -589 2,715 17,183 3,668 2,898 23,749 20,642 191,743 5,233 2002 4,006 1,038 5,044 428 15,468 1,374 1,752 18,594 20,248 195,561 3,818 2003 2,323 -1,715 608 1,107 17,195 1,252 1,653 20,100 20,231 197,145 1,584 2004 170 825 995 1,975 19,068 790 1,244 21,102 20,017 201,200 4,055 2005 1,693 2,715 4,408 2,674 22,069 973 1,243 24,285 19,259 213,308 12,108 2006 946 -2,099 -1,153 3,178 22,834 425 1,197 24,456 19,373 220,416

360

Combustion of Illinois coals and chars with natural gas. [Quarterly] technical report, March 1, 1992--May 31, 1992  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Combined combustion of coal and natural gas offers advantages compared to burning coal or natural gas alone. For example, low volatile coals or low volatile chars derived from treatment or gasification processes can be of limited use due to their poor flammability characteristics. However, the use of natural gas in conjunction with the solid fuel can provide the necessary ``volatiles`` to enhance the combustion. Additionally, natural gas provides a clean cofiring fuel source which can enhance the usefulness of coals with high sulfur content. Addition of natural gas may reduce SO{sub x} emissions through increased sulfur retention in the ash and reduce NO{sub x} emissions by varying local stoichiometry and temperature levels. This research program seeks to clarify the contributions and to identify the controlling mechanisms of coining natural gas with Illinois coal through studies of particle ignition, burning rates and ash characterization. The first two quarters focused on the ignition delay measurements and their analysis, along with the incorporation of particle porosity into the burning rate model. The emphasis of the third quarter was on a more detailed understanding of the burning rate process, as well as understanding of cofiring`s effects on sulfur retention. The contributions of particle burning area to the quantification of the particle burning mechanisms have been shown to be important and continue to be investigated. Ash samples for various methane concentrations under similar other conditions have shown positive trends in reducing S0{sub 2} emission through increased sulfur capture in the ash.

Buckius, R.O.; Peters, J.E.; Krier, H.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas total coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

THE DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF GAS TURBINES IN SOUTH AFRICA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO COAL AND NUCLEAR FUELS  

SciTech Connect

Aspects of gas turbine development with emphasis on applications in South Africa are discussed. A review of developmental work in various parts of the world on coal burning turbines is presented and local efforts on conventional combustion chambers and resonant combustion systems are outlined. The possible applications of gas turbines to nuclear reactors in South Africa are also examined. (J.R.D.)

Grant, W.L.; Roux, A.J.A.

1959-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

A Low Cost and High Efficient Facility for Removal of $\\SO_{2}$ and $\\NO_{x}$ in the Flue Gas from Coal Fire Power Plant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Low Cost and High Efficient Facility for Removal of $\\SO_{2}$ and $\\NO_{x}$ in the Flue Gas from Coal Fire Power Plant

Pei, Y J; Dong, X; Feng, G Y; Fu, S; Gao, H; Hong, Y; Li, G; Li, Y X; Shang, L; Sheng, L S; Tian, Y C; Wang, X Q; Wang, Y; Wei, W; Zhang, Y W; Zhou, H J

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

High-pressure coal-fired ceramic air heater for gas turbine applications. Technical quarterly progress report, May 1994--July 1994  

SciTech Connect

Progress is reported on the development of a coal-fired ceramic air heater for gas turbine applications. This report describes component development.

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Reclamation of abandoned surface coal mined land using flue gas desulfurization products  

SciTech Connect

Details are given of a field-scale research project where the Fleming site, in Ohio, of highly degraded and acid-forming abandoned surface coal-mined land, was reclaimed using a dry flue gas desulfurization product from an atmospheric fluidized bed combustion burner at a General Motors plant Pontiac, MI, which burned eastern Ohio coal and used dolomitic limestone for desulfurization. Plots were seeded with a mixture of grasses, wheat and clover, in 1994 and soil and water samples were analysed in 1995 and in 2009. It was found that FGD-treated plots promoted good regenerative growth, similar to that in plots using more concentrated re-soil material. The FGD treatment also greatly improved overall water quality. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

Chen, L.; Kost, D.; Dick, W.A. [Ohio State University, OH (United States)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Carbon formation and metal dusting in hot-gas cleanup systems of coal gasifiers  

SciTech Connect

The product gas resulting from the partial oxidation of Carboniferous materials in a gasifier is typically characterized by high carbon and sulfur, but low oxygen, activities and, consequently, severe degradation of the structural and functional materials can occur. The objective of this task was to establish the potential risks of carbon deposition and metal dusting in advanced coal gasification processes by examining the current state of knowledge regarding these phenomena, making appropriate thermochemical calculations for representative coal gasifiers, and addressing possible mitigation methods. The paper discusses carbon activities, iron-based phase stabilities, steam injection, conditions that influence kinetics of carbon deposition, and influence of system operating parameters on carbon deposition and metal dusting.

Judkins, R.R.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Judkins, R.R.; DeVan, J.H.; Wright, I.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Novel carbons from Illinois coal for natural gas storage. Quarterly report, 1 December 1994--28 February 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this project is to develop a technology for producing microengineered adsorbent carbons from Illinois coal and to evaluate the potential application of these novel materials for storing natural gas for use in emerging low pressure, natural gas vehicles (NGV). The focus of the project is to design and engineer adsorbents that meet or exceed the performance and cost targets established for low-pressure natural gas storage materials. Potentially, about two million tons of adsorbent could be consumed in natural gas vehicles by year 2000. If successful, the results obtained in this project could lead to the use of Illinois coal in a sowing and profitable market that could exceed 6 million tons per year. During this reporting period, a series of experiments were made to evaluate the effect of coal pre-oxidation, coal pyrolysis, and char activation on the surface area development and methane adsorption capacity of activated carbons/chars made from IBC-102. The optimum production conditions were determined to be: coal oxidation in air at 225C, oxicoal (oxidized coal); devolatilization in nitrogen at 400C; and char gasification in 50% steam in nitrogen at 850C. Nitrogen BET surface areas of the carbon products ranged from 800--1100 m{sup 2}/g. Methane adsorption capacity of several Illinois coal derived chars and a 883 m{sup 2}/g commercial activated carbon were measured using a pressurized thermogaravimetric analyzer at pressures up to 500 psig. Methane adsorption capacity (g/g) of the chars were comparable to that of the commercial activated carbon manufactured by Calgon Carbon. It was determined that the pre-oxidation is a key processing step for producing activated char/carbon with high surface area and high methane adsorption capacity. The results to date are encouraging and warrant further research and development in tailored activated char from Illinois coal for natural gas storage.

Rostam-Abadi, M.; Sun, Jian; Lizzio, A.A. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Urbana, IL (United States); Fatemi, M. [Sperry Univac, St. Paul, MN (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

367

Comparative life-cycle air emissions of coal, domestic natural gas, LNG, and SNG for electricity generation  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that in the coming decades the United States' natural gas (NG) demand for electricity generation will increase. Estimates also suggest that NG supply will increasingly come from imported liquefied natural gas (LNG). Additional supplies of NG could come domestically from the production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) via coal gasification-methanation. The objective of this study is to compare greenhouse gas (GHG), SOx, and NOx life-cycle emissions of electricity generated with NG/LNG/SNG and coal. This life-cycle comparison of air emissions from different fuels can help us better understand the advantages and disadvantages of using coal versus globally sourced NG for electricity generation. Our estimates suggest that with the current fleet of power plants, a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have lower GHG emissions than coal. If advanced technologies with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) are used, however, coal and a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have very similar life-cycle GHG emissions. For SOx and NOx we find there are significant emissions in the upstream stages of the NG/LNG life-cycles, which contribute to a larger range in SOx and NOx emissions for NG/LNG than for coal and SNG. 38 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Paulina Jaramillo; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Civil and Environmental Engineering Department

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

368

Coal pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

Bonin, John H. (Sunnyvale, CA); Meyer, John W. (Palo Alto, CA); Daniel, Jr., Arnold D. (Alameda County, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Coal-Fired Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessments (LCAs) of utility-scale coal-fired electricity generation systems focuses on reducing variability and clarifying central tendencies in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Screening 270 references for quality LCA methods, transparency, and completeness yielded 53 that reported 164 estimates of life cycle GHG emissions. These estimates for subcritical pulverized, integrated gasification combined cycle, fluidized bed, and supercritical pulverized coal combustion technologies vary from 675 to 1,689 grams CO{sub 2}-equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh) (interquartile range [IQR]= 890-1,130 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh; median = 1,001) leading to confusion over reasonable estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from coal-fired electricity generation. By adjusting published estimates to common gross system boundaries and consistent values for key operational input parameters (most importantly, combustion carbon dioxide emission factor [CEF]), the meta-analytical process called harmonization clarifies the existing literature in ways useful for decision makers and analysts by significantly reducing the variability of estimates ({approx}53% in IQR magnitude) while maintaining a nearly constant central tendency ({approx}2.2% in median). Life cycle GHG emissions of a specific power plant depend on many factors and can differ from the generic estimates generated by the harmonization approach, but the tightness of distribution of harmonized estimates across several key coal combustion technologies implies, for some purposes, first-order estimates of life cycle GHG emissions could be based on knowledge of the technology type, coal mine emissions, thermal efficiency, and CEF alone without requiring full LCAs. Areas where new research is necessary to ensure accuracy are also discussed.

Whitaker, M.; Heath, G. A.; O'Donoughue, P.; Vorum, M.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

International Energy Outlook 2001 - Coal  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Coal picture of a printer Printer Friendly Version (PDF) Although coal use is expected to be displaced by natural gas in some parts of the world, only a slight drop in its share of total energy consumption is projected by 2020. Coal continues to dominate many national fuel markets in developing Asia. World coal consumption has been in a period of generally slow growth since the late 1980s, a trend that is expected to continue. Although 1999 world consumption, at 4.7 billion short tons,9 was 15 percent higher than coal use in 1980, it was lower than in any year since 1984 (Figure 51). The International Energy Outlook 2001 (IEO2001) reference case projects some growth in coal use between 1999 and 2020, at an average annual rate of 1.5 percent, but with considerable variation among regions.

371

Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS process). Final report, May 1, 1990--May 31, 1995  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ARCTECH has developed a novel process (MicGAS) for direct, anaerobic biomethanation of coals. Biomethanation potential of coals of different ranks (Anthracite, bitumious, sub-bitumious, and lignites of different types), by various microbial consortia, was investigated. Studies on biogasification of Texas Lignite (TxL) were conducted with a proprietary microbial consortium, Mic-1, isolated from hind guts of soil eating termites (Zootermopsis and Nasutitermes sp.) and further improved at ARCTECH. Various microbial populations of the Mic-1 consortium carry out the multi-step MicGAS Process. First, the primary coal degraders, or hydrolytic microbes, degrade the coal to high molecular weight (MW) compounds. Then acedogens ferment the high MW compounds to low MW volatile fatty acids. The volatile fatty acids are converted to acetate by acetogens, and the methanogens complete the biomethanation by converting acetate and CO{sub 2} to methane.

NONE

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

372

DEVELOPMENT OF ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR THE QUANTIFICATION OF THE CHEMICAL FORMS OF MERCURY AND OTHER TARGET POLLUTANTS IN COAL-FIRED BOILER FLUE GAS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Since approximately 55% of the electrical power produced in the U. S. is generated by coal-based power utility plants, there is serious concern about the massive amounts of coal combustion products emitted into the atmosphere annually. Furthermore, Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) requires the measurement and inventory of a possible 189 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from any stationary source producing more than 10 tons per year of any one pollutant or more than 25 tons per year of total pollutants. Although power utilities are not presently included on the list of source categories, the CAAA requires the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency to carry out a study of emissions from electricity generation using fossil fuels. Since many of these HAPs are known to be present in coal derived flue gas, coal-fired electric power utilities may be subject to regulation following these studies if Congress considers it necessary. In a cooperative effort with the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) through its Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) initiated such a study in 1991. DOE-FETC commissioned five primary contractors to conduct emission studies at eight different coal-fired electric utilities. The eight sites represented a cross section of feed coal type, boiler designs, and particulate and gaseous pollutant control technologies. The major goal of these studies was to determine the sampling and analytical methodologies that could be used efficiently to perform these emission tests while producing representative and reliable emission data. The successful methodology could then be recommended to the EPA for use in compliance testing in the event the regulation of air toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants is implemented. A secondary purpose of the testing was to determine the effectiveness of the control technologies in reducing target hazardous air pollutants. Advanced Technology Systems, Inc. (ATS) as a secondary DOE contractor on this project, assessed the sampling and analytical plans and the emission reports of the five primary contractors to determine how successful the contractors were in satisfying their defined objectives. ATS identified difficulties and inconsistencies in a number of sampling and analytical methodologies in these studies. In particular there was uncertainty as to the validity of the sampling and analytical methods used to differentiate the chemical forms of mercury observed in coal flue gas. Considering the differences in the mercury species with regard to human toxicity, the rate of transport through the ecosystem and the design variations in possible emission control schemes, DOE sought an accurate and reliable means to identify and quantify the various mercury compounds emitted by coal-fired utility boilers. ATS, as a contractor for DOE, completed both bench- and pilot-scale studies on various mercury speciation methods. The final validation of the modified Ontario-Hydro Method, its acceptance by DOE and submission of the method for adoption by ASTM was a direct result of these studies carried out in collaboration with the University of North Dakota's Energy and Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC). This report presents the results from studies carried out at ATS in the development of analytical methods to identify and quantify various chemical species, particularly those of mercury, in coal derived flue gas. Laboratory- and pilot-scale studies, not only on mercury species, but also on other inorganics and organics present in coal combustion flue gas are reported.

Terence J. McManus, Ph.D.

1999-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

373

Membrane Process to Capture CO{sub 2} from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

This final report describes work conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) on development of an efficient membrane process to capture carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from power plant flue gas (award number DE-NT0005312). The primary goal of this research program was to demonstrate, in a field test, the ability of a membrane process to capture up to 90% of CO{sub 2} in coal-fired flue gas, and to evaluate the potential of a full-scale version of the process to perform this separation with less than a 35% increase in the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE). Membrane Technology and Research (MTR) conducted this project in collaboration with Arizona Public Services (APS), who hosted a membrane field test at their Cholla coal-fired power plant, and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and WorleyParsons (WP), who performed a comparative cost analysis of the proposed membrane CO{sub 2} capture process. The work conducted for this project included membrane and module development, slipstream testing of commercial-sized modules with natural gas and coal-fired flue gas, process design optimization, and a detailed systems and cost analysis of a membrane retrofit to a commercial power plant. The Polaris™ membrane developed over a number of years by MTR represents a step-change improvement in CO{sub 2} permeance compared to previous commercial CO{sub 2}-selective membranes. During this project, membrane optimization work resulted in a further doubling of the CO{sub 2} permeance of Polaris membrane while maintaining the CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity. This is an important accomplishment because increased CO{sub 2} permeance directly impacts the membrane skid cost and footprint: a doubling of CO{sub 2} permeance halves the skid cost and footprint. In addition to providing high CO{sub 2} permeance, flue gas CO{sub 2} capture membranes must be stable in the presence of contaminants including SO{sub 2}. Laboratory tests showed no degradation in Polaris membrane performance during two months of continuous operation in a simulated flue gas environment containing up to 1,000 ppm SO{sub 2}. A successful slipstream field test at the APS Cholla power plant was conducted with commercialsize Polaris modules during this project. This field test is the first demonstration of stable performance by commercial-sized membrane modules treating actual coal-fired power plant flue gas. Process design studies show that selective recycle of CO{sub 2} using a countercurrent membrane module with air as a sweep stream can double the concentration of CO{sub 2} in coal flue gas with little energy input. This pre-concentration of CO{sub 2} by the sweep membrane reduces the minimum energy of CO{sub 2} separation in the capture unit by up to 40% for coal flue gas. Variations of this design may be even more promising for CO{sub 2} capture from NGCC flue gas, in which the CO{sub 2} concentration can be increased from 4% to 20% by selective sweep recycle. EPRI and WP conducted a systems and cost analysis of a base case MTR membrane CO{sub 2} capture system retrofitted to the AEP Conesville Unit 5 boiler. Some of the key findings from this study and a sensitivity analysis performed by MTR include: The MTR membrane process can capture 90% of the CO{sub 2} in coal flue gas and produce high-purity CO{sub 2} (>99%) ready for sequestration. CO{sub 2} recycle to the boiler appears feasible with minimal impact on boiler performance; however, further study by a boiler OEM is recommended. For a membrane process built today using a combination of slight feed compression, permeate vacuum, and current compression equipment costs, the membrane capture process can be competitive with the base case MEA process at 90% CO{sub 2} capture from a coal-fired power plant. The incremental LCOE for the base case membrane process is about equal to that of a base case MEA process, within the uncertainty in the analysis. With advanced membranes (5,000 gpu for CO{sub 2} and 50 for CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2}), operating with no feed compression and

Merkel, Tim; Wei, Xiaotong; Firat, Bilgen; He, Jenny; Amo, Karl; Pande, Saurabh; Baker, Richard; Wijmans, Hans; Bhown, Abhoyjit

2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

374

Full-scale and bench-scale testing of a coal-fueled gas turbine system  

SciTech Connect

Components for a coal-fueled industrial gas turbine were developed and tested at both benchscale and full-scale. The components included a two stage slagging combustor, a particulate rejection impact separator (PRIS), and a secondary particulate filter. The Integrated Bench Scale Test Facility (IBSTF) was used for the filter tests ana some of the PRIS testing. Full-scale combustor testing has been carried-out both with and without the PRIS. Bench-scale testing has included evaluating the feasibility of on-site CWM preparation, developing a water-cooled impactor and an extended run with new secondary candle filters.

Roberts, P.B.; LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Full-scale and bench-scale testing of a coal-fueled gas turbine system  

SciTech Connect

Components for a coal-fueled industrial gas turbine were developed and tested at both benchscale and full-scale. The components included a two stage slagging combustor, a particulate rejection impact separator (PRIS), and a secondary particulate filter. The Integrated Bench Scale Test Facility (IBSTF) was used for the filter tests ana some of the PRIS testing. Full-scale combustor testing has been carried-out both with and without the PRIS. Bench-scale testing has included evaluating the feasibility of on-site CWM preparation, developing a water-cooled impactor and an extended run with new secondary candle filters.

Roberts, P.B.; LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

376

Sustainable Transportation Fuels from Natural Gas (H{sub 2}), Coal and Biomass  

SciTech Connect

This research program is focused primarily on the conversion of coal, natural gas (i.e., methane), and biomass to liquid fuels by Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS), with minimum production of carbon dioxide. A complementary topic also under investigation is the development of novel processes for the production of hydrogen with very low to zero production of CO{sub 2}. This is in response to the nation?s urgent need for a secure and environmentally friendly domestic source of liquid fuels. The carbon neutrality of biomass is beneficial in meeting this goal. Several additional novel approaches to limiting carbon dioxide emissions are also being explored.

Huffman, Gerald

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

377

Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system. Annual report, 2 June 1992--1 June 1993  

SciTech Connect

This program was initiated in June of 1986 because advances in coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the previous few years, together with DOE-METC sponsored studies, served to provide new optimism that the problems demonstrated in the past can be economically resolved and that the coal-fueled gas turbine could ultimately be the preferred system in appropriate market application sectors. In early 1991 it became evident that a combination of low natural gas prices, stringent emission limits of the Clean Air Act and concerns for CO{sub 2} emissions made the direct coal-fueled gas turbine less attractive. In late 1991 it was decided not to complete this program as planned. The objective of the Solar/METC program was to prove the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of a coal-fired gas turbine for cogeneration applications through tests of a Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal fuel throughout the engine design operating range. Component development of the coal-fueled combustor island and cleanup system while not complete indicated that the planned engine test was feasible. Preliminary designs of the engine hardware and installation were partially completed. A successful conclusion to the program would have initiated a continuation of the commercialization plan through extended field demonstration runs. After notification of the intent not to complete the program a replan was carried out to finish the program in an orderly fashion within the framework of the contract. A contract modification added the first phase of the Advanced Turbine Study whose objective is to develop high efficiency, natural gas fueled gas turbine technology.

LeCren, L.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Total Dissolved Gas Monitoring in Chum Salmon Spawning Gravels Below Bonneville Dam  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

At the request of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Portland District), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted research to determine whether total dissolved gas concentrations are elevated in chum salmon redds during spring spill operations at Bonneville Dam. The study involved monitoring the total dissolved gas levels at egg pocket depth and in the river at two chum salmon spawning locations downstream from Bonneville Dam. Dissolved atmospheric gas supersaturation generated by spill from Bonneville Dam may diminish survival of chum (Oncorhynchus keta) salmon when sac fry are still present in the gravel downstream from Bonneville Dam. However, no previous work has been conducted to determine whether total dissolved gas (TDG) levels are elevated during spring spill operations within incubation habitats. The guidance used by hydropower system managers to provide protection for pre-emergent chum salmon fry has been to limit TDG to 105% after allowing for depth compensation. A previous literature review completed in early 2006 shows that TDG levels as low as 103% have been documented to cause mortality in sac fry. Our study measured TDG in the incubation environment to evaluate whether these levels were exceeded during spring spill operations. Total dissolved gas levels were measured within chum salmon spawning areas near Ives Island and Multnomah Falls on the Columbia River. Water quality sensors screened at egg pocket depth and to the river were installed at both sites. At each location, we also measured dissolved oxygen, temperature, specific conductance, and water depth to assist with the interpretation of TDG results. Total dissolved gas was depth-compensated to determine when levels were high enough to potentially affect sac fry. This report provides detailed descriptions of the two study sites downstream of Bonneville Dam, as well as the equipment and procedures employed to monitor the TDG levels at the study sites. Results of the monitoring at both sites are then presented in both text and graphics. The findings and recommendations for further research are discussed, followed by a listing of the references cited in the report.

Arntzen, Evan V.; Geist, David R.; Panther, Jennifer L.; Dawley, Earl

2007-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

379

Effect of steam partial pressure on gasification rate and gas composition of product gas from catalytic steam gasification of HyperCoal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

HyperCoal was produced from coal by a solvent extraction method. The effect of the partial pressure of steam on the gasification rate and gas composition at temperatures of 600, 650, 700, and 750{sup o}C was examined. The gasification rate decreased with decreasing steam partial pressure. The reaction order with respect to steam partial pressure was between 0.2 and 0.5. The activation energy for the K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-catalyzed HyperCoal gasification was independent of the steam partial pressure and was about 108 kJ/mol. The gas composition changed with steam partial pressure and H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} decreased and CO increased with decreasing steam partial pressure. By changing the partial pressure of the steam, the H{sub 2}/CO ratio of the synthesis gas can be controlled. 18 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Atul Sharma; Ikuo Saito; Toshimasa Takanohashi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Ibaraki (Japan). Advanced Fuel Group

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

380

Total Dissolved Gas Effects on Fishes of the Lower Columbia River  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Gas supersaturation problems generated by spill from dams on the Columbia River were first identified in the 1960s. Since that time, considerable research has been conducted on effects of gas supersaturation on aquatic life, primarily juvenile salmonids. Also since that time, modifications to dam structures and operations have reduced supersaturated gas levels produced by the dams. The limit for total dissolved gas saturation (TDGS) as mandated by current Environmental Protection Agency water quality standards is 110%. State management agencies issue limited waivers to water quality, allowing production of levels of up to 120% TDGS to facilitate the downstream migration of juvenile salmonids. Recently, gas supersaturation as a water quality issue has resurfaced as concerns have grown regarding chronic effects of spill-related total dissolved gas on salmonids, including incubating embryos and larvae, resident fish species, and other aquatic organisms. Because of current concerns, and because the last comprehensive review of research on supersaturation effects on fishes was conducted in 1997, we reviewed recent supersaturation literature to identify new or ongoing issues that may not be adequately addressed by the current 110% TDGS limit and the 120% TDGS water quality waiver. We found that recent work supports older research indicating that short-term exposure to levels up to 120% TDGS does not produce acute effects on migratory juvenile or adult salmonids when compensating depths are available. Monitoring programs at Snake and Columbia river dams from 1995 to the early 2000s documented a low incidence of significant gas bubble disease or mortality in Columbia River salmonids, resident fishes, or other taxa. We did, however, identify five areas of concern in which total dissolved gas levels lower than water quality limits may produce sublethal effects on fishes of the Columbia River. These areas of concern are 1) sensitive and vulnerable species or life stages, 2) long-term chronic or multiple exposure, 3) vulnerable habitats and reaches, 4) effects on incubating fish in hyporheic habitats, and 5) community and ecosystem effects. Although some of these areas of concern may have been identified previously in earlier works, we suggest that consideration of the issues is warranted to avoid detrimental impacts on aquatic resources of the Columbia River system. We discuss these issues and provide recommendations to regulatory and management agencies based on our review of recent literature. In general, we recommend that additional attention be directed toward resolving the uncertainties within these five areas.

McGrath, Kathy E.; Dawley, Earl; Geist, David R.

2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas total coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Table 3b. Relative Standard Errors for Total Natural Gas Consumption per  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

b. Relative Standards Errors per Sq Ft b. Relative Standards Errors per Sq Ft Table 3b. Relative Standard Errors for Total Natural Gas Consumption per Effective Occupied Square Foot, 1992 Building Characteristics All Buildings Using Natural Gas (thousand) Total Natural Gas Consumption (trillion Btu) Natural Gas Intensities (thousand Btu) Per Square Foot Per Effective Occupied Square Foot All Buildings 5 7 6 6 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 7 12 11 11 5,001 to 10,000 5 9 8 8 10,001 to 25,000 6 18 18 18 25,001 to 50,000 9 21 18 18 50,001 to 100,000 8 12 9 9 100,001 to 200,000 8 13 13 13 200,001 to 500,000 11 21 16 16 Over 500,000 15 27 22 23 Principal Building Activity Education 12 11 9 8 Food Sales and Service 8 12 10 9 Health Care 15 21 17 13 Lodging 12 22 16 16 Mercantile and Service 6 17 14 14 Office 7 24 24 24 Public Assembly 10 18 14 13 Public Order and Safety

382

Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems. Annual report, July 1991--June 1992  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Westinghouse`s Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine System Program (DE-AC2l-86MC23167) was originally split into two major phases - a Basic Program and an Option. The Basic Program also contained two phases. The development of a 6 atm, 7 lb/s, 12 MMBtu/hr slagging combustor with an extended period of testing of the subscale combustor, was the first part of the Basic Program. In the second phase of the Basic Program, the combustor was to be operated over a 3-month period with a stationary cascade to study the effect of deposition, erosion and corrosion on combustion turbine components. The testing of the concept, in subscale, has demonstrated its ability to handle high- and low-sulfur bituminous coals, and low-sulfur subbituminous coal. Feeding the fuel in the form of PC has proven to be superior to CWM type feed. The program objectives relative to combustion efficiency, combustor exit temperature, NO{sub x} emissions, carbon burnout, and slag rejection have been met. Objectives for alkali, particulate, and SO{sub x} levels leaving the combustor were not met by the conclusion of testing at Textron. It is planned to continue this testing, to achieve all desired emission levels, as part of the W/NSP program to commercialize the slagging combustor technology.

Not Available

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Advanced Acid Gas Separation Technology for the Utilization of Low Rank Coals  

SciTech Connect

Air Products has developed a potentially ground-breaking technology – Sour Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) – to replace the solvent-based acid gas removal (AGR) systems currently employed to separate sulfur containing species, along with CO{sub 2} and other impurities, from gasifier syngas streams. The Sour PSA technology is based on adsorption processes that utilize pressure swing or temperature swing regeneration methods. Sour PSA technology has already been shown with higher rank coals to provide a significant reduction in the cost of CO{sub 2} capture for power generation, which should translate to a reduction in cost of electricity (COE), compared to baseline CO{sub 2} capture plant design. The objective of this project is to test the performance and capability of the adsorbents in handling tar and other impurities using a gaseous mixture generated from the gasification of lower rank, lignite coal. The results of this testing are used to generate a high-level pilot process design, and to prepare a techno-economic assessment evaluating the applicability of the technology to plants utilizing these coals.

Kloosterman, Jeff

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

384

Table 19. Reported proved nonproducing reserves of crude oil, lease condensate, nonassociated gas, associated dissolved gas, and total gas (wet after lease separation), 2011  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

: Reported proved nonproducing reserves of crude oil, lease condensate, : Reported proved nonproducing reserves of crude oil, lease condensate, nonassociated gas, associated dissolved gas, and total gas (wet after lease separation), 2011 a Lease Nonassociated Associated Total Crude Oil Condensate Gas Dissolved Gas Gas State and Subdivision (Million bbls) (Million bbls) (Bcf) (Bcf) (Bcf) Alaska 566 0 288 63 351 Lower 48 States 8,483 880 104,676 13,197 117,873 Alabama 1 0 101 1 102 Arkansas 0 0 5,919 0 5,919 California 542 2 267 128 395 Coastal Region Onshore 248 0 0 20 20 Los Angeles Basin Onshore 69 0 0 23 23 San Joaquin Basin Onshore 163 0 265 54 319 State Offshore 62 2 2 31 33 Colorado 208 30 5,316 1,478 6,794 Florida 4 0 4 0 4 Kansas 4 0 244 39 283 Kentucky 0 0 75 0 75 Louisiana 152 29 14,905 257 15,162 North 30 10 13,820 12 13,832 South Onshore 113 17 1,028 232 1,260 State Offshore 9 2 57 13 70 Michigan 0

385

Conventional Energy (Oil, Gas, and Coal) Forum & Associated Vertical Business Development Best Practices in Indian Country  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

CONVENTIONAL ENERGY (OIL, GAS & COAL) FORUM & CONVENTIONAL ENERGY (OIL, GAS & COAL) FORUM & ASSOCIATED VERTICAL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT BEST PRACTICES IN INDIAN COUNTRY March 1, 2012 MANDALAY BAY RESORT AND CASINO NORTH CONVENTION CENTER 3950 Las Vegas Blvd. South, Las Vegas, NV 89119 The dynamic world of conventional energy (focusing on oil, gas and coal energy) is a critical piece of the American energy portfolio. This strategic energy forum will focus on recent trends, existing successful partnerships, and perspectives on the future of conventional energy and how tribal business interests are evolving to meet the interests and needs of new tribal energy economies. The third of a series of planned DOE Office of Indian Energy-sponsored strategic energy development & investment forums, this forum will provide an opportunity for Tribal leaders, federal

386

Economic benefits of R and D on gas supply technologies. [Unconventioal natural gas resources which are tight sands, Devonian shale, coal seam gas, and gas co-produced with water  

SciTech Connect

Advanced natural gas supply technologies, if successful, could lower the average cost of gas to consumers by 18% and increase the expected gas demand by 2 quads/year by the year 2000. Advanced production techniques for unconventional gas will have by far the greatest impact on future gas prices, providing economic benefits of between $200 billion and $320 billion. Advanced SNG from coal will provide only a $9 billion benefit if unconventional gas meets all of its performance targets. However, higher demand and failure of unconventional gas R and D could raise the benefits of SNG research to $107 billion. SNG research provides a hedge value that increases the likelihood of receiving a positive payoff from gas supply R and D. Changing the performance goals for SNG research to emphasize cost reduction rather than acceleration of the date of commercialization would greatly increase the potential benefits of the program. 9 references, 8 figures, 5 tables.

Darrow, K.G.; Ashby, A.B.; Nesbitt, D.M.; Marshalla, R.A.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Enhancing the Use of Coals by Gas Reburning - Sorbent Injection Volume 5 - Guideline Manual  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of the Guideline Manual is to provide recommendations for the application of combined gas reburning-sorbent injection (GR-SI) technologies to pre-NSPS boilers. The manual includes design recommendations, performance predictions, economic projections and comparisons with competing technologies. The report also includes an assessment of boiler impacts. Two full-scale demonstrations of gas reburning-sorbent injection form the basis of the Guideline Manual. Under the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 1), a project was completed to demonstrate control of boiler emissions that comprise acid rain precursors, specifically oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and sulfur dioxide (S02). Other project sponsors were the Gas Research Institute and the Illinois State Department of Commerce and Community Affairs. The project involved d,emonstrating the combined use of Gas Reburning and Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) to assess the air emissions reduction potential of these technologies.. Three potential coal-fired utility boiler host sites were evaluated: Illinois Power's tangentially-fired 71 MWe (net) Hennepin Unit #1, City Water Light and Power's cyclone- fired 33 MWe (gross) Lakeside Unit #7, and Central Illinois Light Company's wall-fired 117 MWe (net) Edwards Unit #1. Commercial demonstrations were completed on the Hennepin and Lakeside Units. The Edwards Unit was removed from consideration for a site demonstration due to retrofit cost considerations. Gas Reburning (GR) controls air emissions of NOX. Natural gas is introduced into the furnace hot flue gas creating a reducing reburning zone to convert NOX to diatomic nitrogen (N,). Overfire air is injected into the furnace above the reburning zone to complete the combustion of the reducing (fuel) gases created in the reburning zone. Sorbent Injection (S1) consists of the injection of dry, calcium-based sorbents into furnace hot flue gas to achieve S02 capture. `At each site where the technologies were to be demonstrated, performance goals were set to achieve air emission reductions of 60 percent for NOX and 50 percent for S02. These performance goals were exceeded during long term demonstration testing. For the tangentially fired unit, NO, emissions were reduced by 67.2?40 and SOZ emissions by 52.6Y0. For the cyclone-fired unit, NO, emissions were reduced by 62.9% and SOZ emissions by 57.9Y0.

None

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Enahancing the Use of Coals by Gas Reburning - Sorbent Injection Volume 5 - Guideline Manual  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of the Guideline Manual is to provide recommendations for the application of combined gas reburning-sorbent injection (GR-SI) technologies to pre-NSPS boilers. The manual includes design recommendations, performance predictions, economic projections and comparisons with competing technologies. The report also includes an assessment of boiler impacts. Two full-scale demonstrations of gas reburning-sorbent injection form the basis of the Guideline Manual. Under the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 1), a project was completed to demonstrate control of boiler emissions that comprise acid rain precursors, specifically oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and sulfur dioxide (S02). Other project sponsors were the Gas Research Institute and the Illinois State Department of Commerce and Community Affairs. The project involved demonstrating the combined use of Gas Reburning and Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) to assess the air emissions reduction potential of these technologies.. Three potential coal-fired utility boiler host sites were evaluated: Illinois Power's tangentially-fired 71 MWe (net) Hennepin Unit W, City Water Light and Power's cyclone- fired 33 MWe (gross) Lakeside Unit #7, and Central Illinois Light Company's wall-fired 117 MWe (net) Edwards Unit #1. Commercial demonstrations were completed on the Hennepin and Lakeside Units. The Edwards Unit was removed from consideration for a site demonstration due to retrofit cost considerations. Gas Reburning (GR) controls air emissions of NOX. Natural gas is introduced into the furnace hot flue gas creating a reducing reburning zone to convert NOX to diatomic nitrogen (N,). Overfire air is injected into the furnace above the reburning zone to complete the combustion of the reducing (fuel) gases created in the reburning zone. Sorbent Injection (S1) consists of the injection of dry, calcium-based sorbents into furnace hot flue gas to achieve S02 capture. At each site where the techno!o@es were to be demonstrated, petiormance goals were set to achieve air emission reductions of 60 percent for NO. and 50 percent for SO2. These performance goals were exceeded during long term demonstration testing. For the tangentially fired unit, NOX emissions were reduced by 67.2% and S02 emissions by 52.6%. For the cyclone-fired unit, NOX emissions were reduced by 62.9% and SOZ emissions by 57.9%.

None

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Environmental performance of air staged combustor with flue gas recirculation to burn coal/biomass  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The environmental and thermal performance of a 1.07 m diameter, 440 kW atmospheric fluidized bed combustor operated at 700{degrees}C-920{degrees}C and burning coal was studied. Flue gas recirculation was incorporated to enhance the thermal performance and air staging was used to control emissions of SO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x} and N{sub 2}O. Studies focused on the effect of excess air, firing rate, and use of sorbent on system performance. The recirculation-staging mode with limestone had the highest thermal efficiency (0.67) using the firing equation. Emission data showed that flue gas recirculation (ratio of 0.7) significantly reduced NO{sub x} emissions; and that use of limestone sorbent at a Ca/S ratio of 3 reduced SO{sub 2} emissions by 64% to approximately 0.310 g/MJ.

Anuar, S.H.; Keener, H.M.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

390

Coal-type gas provinces in China and their geochemical characteristics  

SciTech Connect

The distribution of coal - type gases in China can be divided into the east gas province, the central gas province and the west gas province the east gas province lies in the East China Meso - Cenozoic Rift Belt, including Donghai Basin and Bohaiwan Basin. The ages of gas source rocks are Carbo - Permian and Tertiary. The types of gas reservoirs are a anticline or a hidden mountain - fault block combination reservoir. The CH[sub 4] content ofthe gases there is 83 -90%, with [delta][sup 13]C[sub 1] -35.5 [approximately] -39.9[per thousand], and [delta][sup 13]C[sub 2] -24.0 [approximately] -26.8[per thousand]. The [delta][sup 13]C of condensate oils associated with the gases ranges from -25.4[per thousand] to -26.8[per thousand]. The central gas province is inside the Central China Paleozoic Plates, including Orclos Basin and Sichuan Basin. The gas source rocks are Carbo - Permian and Triassic. The types of gas reservoirs are an anticline-fault combination or a lithological-tectonic combination reservoir. The [delta][sup 13]C[sub 1] of the gases there is -37.9 [approximately] -37. l[per thousand], with the [delta][sup 13]C of condensate oil accompanying them - 25.1 [approximately] -26.6[per thousand]. The west gas province is within the West China Late Paleozoic Intracontinental Compressive Belt, including Tarim Basin, Jungar Basin and Tuna Basin. The age of gas source rocks is Jurassic. The types of gas reservoirs are an anticline or an anticline-fault reservoir. The CH[sub 4] content of the gases there varies from 60 to 90%, with [delta][sup 13]C[sub 1] from - 38.7 to -43.7[per thousand] and [delta] [sup 13]C[sub 2] from -25.9[per thousand] to -29.9[per thousand]. The [delta] [sup 13]C of light oils and condensate oils accompanying the gases changes from 24.3[per thousand] to 27.8[per thousand].

Zhang Xiaobao; Xu Yonghang; Shen Ping (Lanzhou Institute of Geology, Ianzhou (China))

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Combustion of ultrafine coal/water mixtures and their application in gas turbines: Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The feasibility of using coal-water fuels (CWF) in gas turbine combustors has been demonstrated in recent pilot plant experiments. The demands of burning coal-water fuels with high flame stability, complete combustion, low NO/sub x/ emission and a resulting fly ash particle size that will not erode turbine blades represent a significant challenge to combustion scientists and engineers. The satisfactory solution of these problems requires that the variation of the structure of CWF flames, i.e., the fields of flow, temperature and chemical species concentration in the flame, with operating conditions is known. Detailed in-flame measurements are difficult at elevated pressures and it has been proposed to carry out such experiments at atmospheric pressure and interpret the data by means of models for gas turbine combustor conditions. The research was carried out in five sequential tasks: cold flow studies; studies of conventional fine-grind CWF; combustion studies with ultrafine CWF fuel; reduction of NO/sub x/ emission by staged combustion; and data interpretation-ignition and radiation aspects. 37 refs., 61 figs., 9 tabs.

Toqan, M.A.; Srinivasachar, S.; Staudt, J.; Varela, F.; Beer, J.M.

1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

A Perspective of petroleum, natural gas, and coal bed methane on the energy security of India  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The global energy requirement has grown at a phenomenal rate and the consumption of primary energy sources has been a very high positive growth. This article focuses on the consumption of different primary energy sources and it identifies that coal will continue to remain as the prime energy in the foreseeable future. It examines energy requirement perspectives for India and demands of petroleum, natural gas, and coal bed methane in the foreseeable future. It discusses the state of present day petroleum and petrochemical industries in the country and the latest advances in them to take over in the next few years. The regional pattern of consumption of primary energy sources shows that oil remains as the largest single source of primary energy in most parts of the world. However, gas dominates as the prime source in some parts of the world. Economic development and poverty alleviation depend on securing affordable energy sources and for the country's energy security; it is necessary to adopt the latest technological advances in petroleum and petrochemical industries by supportive government policies. But such energy is very much concerned with environmental degradation and must be driven by contemporary managerial acumen addressing environmental and social challenges effectively. Environmental laws for the abatement of environmental degradation are discussed in this paper. The paper concludes that energy security leading to energy independence is certainly possible and can be achieved through a planned manner.

Ghose, M.K.; Paul, B. [Indian School of Mines University, Dhanbad (India)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

"Characteristic(a)","Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Fuel...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Net","Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and",,"Coke and"," " "Characteristic(a)","Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(c)","Natural Gas(d)","NGL(e)","Coal","Breeze","Other(f)"...

394

Gas Permeability of Fractured Sandstone/Coal Samples under Variable Confining Pressure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Fractured Sandstone/Coal Samples Smeulders, D.M.J. ,stress on permeability of coal. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci.of Fractured Sandstone/Coal Samples under Variable Con?ning

Liu, Weiqun; Li, Yushou; Wang, Bo

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system. Annual report, June 1991--June 1992  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report covers the activity during the period from 2 June 1991 to 1 June 1992. The major areas of work include: the combustor sub-scale and full size testing, cleanup, coal fuel specification and processing, the Hot End Simulation rig and design of the engine parts required for use with the coal-fueled combustor island. To date Solar has demonstrated: Stable and efficient combustion burning coal-water mixtures using the Two Stage Slagging Combustor; Molten slag removal of over 97% using the slagging primary and the particulate removal impact separator; and on-site preparation of CWM is feasible. During the past year the following tasks were completed: The feasibility of on-site CWM preparation was demonstrated on the subscale TSSC. A water-cooled impactor was evaluated on the subscale TSSC; three tests were completed on the full size TSSC, the last one incorporating the PRIS; a total of 27 hours of operation on CWM at design temperature were accumulated using candle filters supplied by Refraction through Industrial Pump & Filter; a target fuel specification was established and a fuel cost model developed which can identify sensitivities of specification parameters; analyses of the effects of slag on refractory materials were conducted; and modifications continued on the Hot End Simulation Rig to allow extended test times.

LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; When, C.S.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

"Characteristic(a)","Total","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Natural...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

ual","Distillate",,"LPG and",,"Coke and"," " "Characteristic(a)","Total","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Natural Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coal","Breeze","Other(e)" ,"Total United States" "Value...

397

Flue Gas Cleanup at Temperatures about 1400 C for a Coal Fired Combined Cycle Power Plant: State and Perspectives in the Pressurized Pulverized Coal Combustion (PPCC) Project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The PPCC technology, a combined cycle, requires comprehensive cleaning of the flue gases because coal contains a large variety of minerals and other substances. This would lead to fast destruction of the gas turbine blades due to erosion and corrosion. The present specifications of the turbine manufacturers for the required flue gas quality are at a maximum particulate content of 5 mg/m3 s.t.p., diameter of Kraftwerke GmbH, SaarEnergie GmbH, Siemens AG, and Steag AG.

Foerster, M.E.C.; Oeking, K.; Hannes, K.

2002-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

398

Air extraction and LBTU coal gas combustion in gas turbines for IGCC systems  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of the cold flow experiments is to study the effects of air extraction from two sites in a heavy-frame gas turbine: (1) the engine wrapper or manholes and (2) the compressor/combustor prediffuser inlet. The experiments involve a scale model of components of a state-of-the-art, US made gas turbine between the compressor exit and the turbine inlet Specifically, the purpose is to observe and measure how air extraction affects the flow distribution around the combustor cans and the impingement cooling flow rates on transition pieces of the combustor. The experimental data should provide turbine manufacturers the information needed to determine their preferred air extraction site. The secondary objectives for the experiments are as follows: (1) to identify regions with high-pressure losses, (2) to develop a dam base which will validate computational fluid dynamic calculations, and (3) to establish an experimental facility which may be used to assist the US industry in improving the aerodynamic design of nonrotating components of a heavy-frame gas turbine.

Yang, Tah-teh; Agrawal, A.K.; Kapat, J.S.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Life Cycle Assessment of a Natural Gas Combined Cycle Power Generation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

% of total from natural gas production & distribution % of total from ammonia production & distribution Natural gas (in ground) 169.2 97.6% 0.0% 99.9% 0.1% Coal (in ground) 1.8...

400

Delineation of Coal Tar Dense Nonaqueous Phase Liquid and Groundwater Plumes at a Former Manufactured Gas Plant Site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the results of a field investigation at a former manufactured gas plant (MGP) site in the Midwest. The focus of the investigation was delineating the distribution of coal tar (a dense nonaqueous phase liquid) and the associated dissolved-phase constituents in groundwater using a combination of analysis methodologies. The results will be used to determine remediation needs at the site.

1998-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas total coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection: Volume 3 -- Gas reburning-sorbent injection at Edwards Unit 1, Central Illinois Light Company. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Design work has been completed for a Gas Reburning-Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) system to reduce emissions of NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} from a wall fired unit at Central Illinois Light Company`s Edwards Station Unit 1, located in Bartonville, Illinois. The goal of the project was to reduce emissions of NO{sub x} by 60%, from the as found baseline of 0.98 lb/MBtu and to reduce emissions of SO{sub 2} by 50%. Since the unit currently fires a blend of high sulfur Illinois coal and low sulfur Kentucky coal to meet an SO{sub 2} limit of 1.8 lb/MBtu, the goal at this site was amended to meeting this limit while increasing the fraction of high sulfur coal to 57% from the current 15% level. GR-SI requires injection of natural gas into the furnace at the level of the top burner row, creating a fuel-rich zone in which NO{sub x} formed in the coal zone is reduced to N{sub 2}. Recycled flue gas is used to increase the reburning fuel jet momentum, resulting in enhanced mixing. Recycled flue gas is also used to cool the top row of burners which would not be in service during GR operation. Dry hydrated lime sorbent is injected into the upper furnace to react with SO{sub 2}, forming solid CaSO{sub 4} and CaSO{sub 3}, which are collected by the ESP. The system was designed to inject sorbent at a rate corresponding to a calcium (sorbent) to sulfur (coal) molar ratio of 2.0. The SI system design was optimized with respect to gas temperature, injection air flow rate, and sorbent dispersion. Sorbent injection air flow is equal to 3% of the combustion air. The design includes modifications of the ESP, sootblowing, and ash handling systems.

NONE

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Regenerable Sorbent Development for Sulfur, Chloride and Ammonia Removal from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A large number of components in coal form corrosive and toxic compounds during coal gasification processes. DOE’s NETL aims to reduce contaminants to parts per billion in order to utilize gasification gas streams in fuel cell applications. Even more stringent requirements are expected if the fuel is to be utilized in chemical production applications. Regenerable hydrogen sulfide removal sorbents have been developed at NETL. These sorbents can remove the hydrogen sulfide to ppb range at 316 °C and at 20 atmospheres. The sorbent can be regenerated with oxygen. Reactivity and physical durability of the sorbent did not change during the multi-cycle tests. The sorbent development work has been extended to include the removal of other major impurities, such as HCl and NH3. The sorbents for HCl removal that are available today are not regenerable. Regenerable HCl removal sorbents have been developed at NETL. These sorbents can remove HCl to ppb range at 300 °C to 500 °C. The sorbent can be regenerated with oxygen. Results of TGA and bench-scale flow reactor tests with both regenerable and non-regenerable HCl removal sorbents will be discussed in the paper. Bench-scale reactor tests were also conducted with NH3 removal sorbents. The results indicated that the sorbents have a high removal capacity and good regenerability during the multi-cycle tests. Future emphasis of the NETL coal gasification/cleanup program is to develop multi-functional sorbents to remove multiple impurities in order to minimize the steps involved in the cleanup systems. To accomplish this goal, a regenerable sorbent capable of removing both HCl and H2S was developed. The results of the TGA conducted with the sorbent to evaluate the feasibility of both H2S and HCl sorption will be discussed in this paper.

Siriwardane, R.V.; Tian, H.; Simonyi, T.; Webster, T.

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Table 10. Total natural gas proved reserves, reserves changes, and production, wet after lease separation, 2011  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

: Total natural gas proved reserves, reserves changes, and production, wet after lease separation, 2011 : Total natural gas proved reserves, reserves changes, and production, wet after lease separation, 2011 billion cubic feet Published New Reservoir Proved Revision Revision New Field Discoveries Estimated Proved Reserves Adjustments Increases Decreases Sales Acquisitions Extensions Discoveries in Old Fields Production Reserves State and subdivision 12/31/10 (+,-) (+) (-) (-) (+) (+) (+) (+) (-) 12/31/11 Alaska 8,917 -2 938 207 36 222 4 0 3 328 9,511 Lower 48 States 308,730 2,717 55,077 55,920 44,539 47,651 47,631 987 1,257 24,293 339,298 Alabama 2,724 -45 472 163 595 398 3 2 0 226 2,570 Arkansas 14,181 729 631 324 6,762 6,882 2,094 0 23 1,080 16,374 California 2,785 917 1,542 1,959 49 55 75 0 0 324 3,042 Coastal Region Onshore 180 15 21 32 0 0 1 0 0 12 173 Los Angeles Basin Onshore 92 6 12 4 0 3 0 0 0 7 102 San Joaquin Basin Onshore 2,447 895 1,498

404

Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal -- Task 3.10, Gas separation and hot-gas cleanup  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Catalytic gasification of coal to produce H{sub 2}-, CO-, and CH{sub 4}-rich mixtures of gases for consumption in molten carbonate fuel cells is currently under development; however, to optimize the fuel cell performance and extend its operating life, it is desired to separate as much of the inert components (i.e., CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}) and impurities (i.e., H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3}) as possible from the fuel gas before it enters the fuel cell. In addition, the economics of the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) can be improved by separating as much of the hydrogen as possible from the fuel, since hydrogen is a high-value product. Researchers at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) and Bend Research, Inc., investigated pressure-driven membranes as a method for accomplishing this gas separation and hot-gas cleanup. These membranes are operated at temperatures as high as 800 C and at pressures up to 300 psig. They have very small pore sizes that separate the undesirable gases by operating in the Knudsen diffusion region of mass transport or in the molecular sieving region of mass transport phenomena. In addition, H{sub 2} separation through a palladium metal membrane proceeds via a solution-diffusion mechanism for atomic hydrogen. This allows the membranes to exhibit extremely high selectivity for hydrogen separation. Specific questions to be answered in this project include: what are the effects of membrane properties (i.e., surface area, pore size, and coating thickness) on permeability and selectivity of the desired gases; what are the effects of operating conditions (i.e., temperature, pressure, and flow rate) on permeability and selectivity; what are the effects of impurities (i.e., small particulate, H{sub 2}S, HCl, NH{sub 3}, etc.) on membrane performance?

Swanson, M.L.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Heat removal from high temperature tubular solid oxide fuel cells utilizing product gas from coal gasifiers.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this work we describe the results of a computer study used to investigate the practicality of several heat exchanger configurations that could be used to extract heat from tubular solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) . Two SOFC feed gas compositions were used in this study. They represent product gases from two different coal gasifier designs from the Zero Emission Coal study at Los Alamos National Laboratory . Both plant designs rely on the efficient use of the heat produced by the SOFCs . Both feed streams are relatively rich in hydrogen with a very small hydrocarbon content . One feed stream has a significant carbon monoxide content with a bit less hydrogen . Since neither stream has a significant hydrocarbon content, the common use of the endothermic reforming reaction to reduce the process heat is not possible for these feed streams . The process, the method, the computer code, and the results are presented as well as a discussion of the pros and cons of each configuration for each process .

Parkinson, W. J. (William Jerry),

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Present coal potential of Turkey and coal usage in electricity generation  

SciTech Connect

Total coal reserve (hard coal + lignite) in the world is 984 billion tons. While hard coal constitutes 52% of the total reserve, lignite constitutes 48% of it. Turkey has only 0.1% of world hard coal reserve and 1.5% of world lignite reserves. Turkey has 9th order in lignite reserve, 8th order in lignite production, and 12th order in total coal (hard coal and lignite) consumption. While hard coal production meets only 13% of its consumption, lignite production meets lignite consumption in Turkey. Sixty-five percent of produced hard coal and 78% of produced lignite are used for electricity generation. Lignites are generally used for electricity generation due to their low quality. As of 2003, total installed capacity of Turkey was 35,587 MW, 19% (6,774 MW) of which is produced from coal-based thermal power plants. Recently, use of natural gas in electricity generation has increased. While the share of coal in electricity generation was about 50% for 1986, it is replaced by natural gas today.

Yilmaz, A.O. [Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey). Mining Engineering Department

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Sorbents for High Temperature Removal of Arsenic from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gokhan O. Alptekin, PhD Robert Copeland, PhD Gokhan O. Alptekin, PhD Robert Copeland, PhD (Primary Contact) TDA Research, Inc TDA Research, Inc 12345 W. 52 nd Avenue 12345 W. 52 nd Avenue Wheat Ridge, CO 80033 Wheat Ridge, CO 80033 Email: copeland@tda.com Email: galptekin@tda.com Tel: (303) 940-2323 Tel: (303) 940-2349 Fax: (303) 422-7763 Fax: (303) 422-7763 Margarita Dubovik Yevgenia Gershanovich TDA Research, Inc TDA Research, Inc 12345 W. 52 nd Avenue 12345 W. 52 nd Avenue Wheat Ridge, CO 80033 Wheat Ridge, CO 80033 Email: dubovik@tda.com Email: ygershan@tda.com Tel: (303) 940-2316 Tel: (303) 940-2346 Fax: (303) 422-7763 Fax: (303) 422-7763 Sorbents for High Temperature Removal of Arsenic from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas

408

Enhancing the Use of Coals by Gas Reburning-Sorbent Injection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

0 0 Enhancing the Use of Coals by Gas Reburning-Sorbent Injection A DOE Assessment January 2001 U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory P.O. Box 880, 3610 Collins Ferry Road Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 and P.O. Box 10940, 626 Cochrans Mill Road Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 website: www.netl.doe.gov Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference therein to any specific commercial

409

Durable regenerable sorbent pellets for removal of hydrogen sulfide from coal gas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a coal gasification stream at an elevated temperature are presented in durable form, usable over repeated cycles of absorption and regeneration. The pellets include a material reactive with hydrogen sulfide, in particular zinc oxide, a binder, and an inert material, in particular calcium sulfate (Drierite), having a particle size substantially larger than other components of the pellets. A second inert material and a promoter may also be included. Preparation of the pellets may be carried out by dry, solid-state mixing of components, moistening the mixture, and agglomerating it into pellets, followed by drying and calcining. Pellet size is selected, depending on the type of reaction bed for which the pellets are intended. The use of inert material with a large particle size provides a stable pellet structure with increased porosity, enabling effective gas contact and prolonged mechanical durability.

Siriwardane, R.V.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

410

Durable regenerable sorbent pellets for removal of hydrogen sulfide from coal gas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a coal gasification stream at an elevated temperature are prepared in durable form usable over repeated cycles of absorption and regeneration. The pellets include a material reactive with hydrogen sulfide, in particular zinc oxide, a binder, and an inert material, in particular calcium sulfate (drierite), having a particle size substantially larger than other components of the pellets. A second inert material and a promoter may also be included. Preparation of the pellets may be carried out by dry, solid-state mixing of components, moistening the mixture, and agglomerating it into pellets, followed by drying and calcining. Pellet size is selected, depending on the type of reaction bed for which the pellets are intended. The use of inert material with a large particle size provides a stable pellet structure with increased porosity, enabling effective gas contact and prolonged mechanical durability.

Siriwardane, Ranjani V. (Morgantown, WV)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Durable regenerable sorbent pellets for removal of hydrogen sulfide coal gas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a coal gasification stream at an elevated temperature are prepared in durable form, usable over repeated cycles of absorption and regeneration. The pellets include a material reactive with hydrogen sulfide, in particular zinc oxide, a binder, and an inert material, in particular calcium sulfate (drierite), having a particle size substantially larger than other components of the pellets. A second inert material and a promoter may also be included. Preparation of the pellets may be carried out by dry, solid-state mixing of components, moistening the mixture, and agglomerating it into pellets, followed by drying and calcining. Pellet size is selected, depending on the type of reaction bed for which the pellets are intended. The use of inert material with a large particle size provides a stable pellet structure with increased porosity, enabling effective gas contact and prolonged mechanical durability.

Siriwardane, Ranjani V. (Morgantown, WV)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas: Case studies, design, and economics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project is a combination of process simulation and catalyst development aimed at identifying the most economical method for converting coal to syngas to linear higher alcohols to be used as oxygenated fuel additives. There are two tasks. The goal of Task 1 is to discover, study, and evaluate novel heterogeneous catalytic systems for the production of oxygenated fuel enhancers from synthesis gas, and to explore, analytically and on the bench scale, novel reactor and process concepts for use in converting syngas to liquid fuel products. The goal of Task 2 is to simulate, by computer, energy efficient and economically efficient processes for converting coal to energy (fuel alcohols and/or power). The primary focus is to convert syngas to fuel alcohols. This report contains results from Task 2. The first step for Task 2 was to develop computer simulations of alternative coal to syngas to linear higher alcohol processes, to evaluate and compare the economics and energy efficiency of these alternative processes, and to make a preliminary determination as to the most attractive process configuration. A benefit of this approach is that simulations will be debugged and available for use when Task 1 results are available. Seven cases were developed using different gasifier technologies, different methods for altering the H{sub 2}/CO ratio of the syngas to the desired 1.1/1, and with the higher alcohol fuel additives as primary products and as by-products of a power generation facility. Texaco, Shell, and Lurgi gasifier designs were used to test gasifying coal. Steam reforming of natural gas, sour gas shift conversion, or pressure swing adsorption were used to alter the H{sub 2}/CO ratio of the syngas. In addition, a case using only natural gas was prepared to compare coal and natural gas as a source of syngas.

NONE

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

U.S. Natural Gas Salt Underground Storage - Total (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total (Million Cubic Feet) Total (Million Cubic Feet) U.S. Natural Gas Salt Underground Storage - Total (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 84,650 74,817 80,243 89,252 99,008 97,724 105,227 105,831 112,197 115,062 116,865 113,229 1995 127,040 118,542 112,576 120,337 127,595 132,749 130,338 117,338 134,950 142,711 138,775 131,368 1996 121,867 110,621 100,667 120,036 125,710 134,937 130,796 135,916 145,249 148,410 151,210 149,245 1997 122,426 108,624 120,923 123,380 138,068 145,452 131,065 131,980 142,780 159,497 161,999 149,833 1998 136,305 135,263 131,302 148,739 151,004 149,079 156,601 157,940 150,855 183,160 186,058 171,088 1999 149,354 144,176 134,794 144,963 161,229 167,124 160,812 168,386 178,681 182,040 183,512 168,536

414

DEVELOPMENT OF NOVEL CERAMIC NANOFILM-FIBER INTEGRATED OPTICAL SENSORS FOR RAPID DETECTION OF COAL DERIVED SYNTHESIS GAS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall goal of this project is to conduct fundamental studies on advanced ceramic materials and fiber optic devices for developing new types of high temperature (>500{degree}C) fiber optic chemical sensors (FOCS) for monitoring fossil (mainly coal) and biomass derived gases in power plants. The primary technical objective is to investigate and demonstrate the nanocrystalline doped-ceramic thin film enabled FOCS that possess desired stability, sensitivity and selectivity for in-situ, rapid gas detection in the syngas streams from gasification and combustion flue gases. This report summarizes research works of two integrated parts: (1) development of metal oxide solid thin films as sensing materials for detection and measurement of important gas components relevant to the coal- and biomass-derived syngas and combustion gas streams at high temperatures; and (2) development of fiber optic devices that are potentially useful for constructing FOCS in combination with the solid oxide thin films identified in this program.

Junhang Dong; Hai Xiao; Xiling Tang; Hongmin Jiang; Kurtis Remmel; Amardeep Kaur

2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

415

Power plants with topping gas turbines and coal gasification planning of new plants and upgrading of existing plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reports on existing and new power plants improved environmentally and economically by integrating gas turbines in the plant process. The rate of additional firing has an influence on the overall plant efficiency. The influence of the additional firing of natural gas-fired power plants is compared to that of power plants with integrated coal gasification. The differences are explained. The result of the examination lead to recommendations for the design of new plants and for upgrading of existing plants. The advantages of topping gas turbines are shown by examples of new power plants and upgraded plants.

Schoedel, J.; Mertens, K. (ABB Kraftwerke AG, Mannheim (DE))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

"2. Craig","Coal","Tri-State G & T Assn, Inc",1304 "3. Fort St Vrain","Gas","Public Service Co of Colorado",969  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Colorado" Colorado" "1. Comanche","Coal","Public Service Co of Colorado",1426 "2. Craig","Coal","Tri-State G & T Assn, Inc",1304 "3. Fort St Vrain","Gas","Public Service Co of Colorado",969 "4. Cherokee","Coal","Public Service Co of Colorado",717 "5. Rawhide","Coal","Platte River Power Authority",666 "6. Rocky Mountain Energy Center","Gas","Rocky Mountain Energy Ctr LLC",601 "7. Pawnee","Coal","Public Service Co of Colorado",505 "8. Front Range Power Project","Gas","Colorado Springs City of",462 "9. Hayden","Coal","Public Service Co of Colorado",446

417

Levelized Costs for Nuclear, Gas and Coal for Electricity, under the Mexican Scenario  

SciTech Connect

In the case of new nuclear power stations, it is necessary to pay special attention to the financial strategy that will be applied, time of construction, investment cost, and the discount and return rate. The levelized cost quantifies the unitary cost of the electricity (the kWh) generated during the lifetime of the nuclear power plant; and allows the immediate comparison with the cost of other alternative technologies. The present paper shows levelized cost for different nuclear technologies and it provides comparison among them as well as with gas and coal electricity plants. For the calculations we applied our own methodology to evaluate the levelized cost considering investment, fuel and operation and maintenance costs, making assumptions for the Mexican market, and taking into account the gas prices projections. The study also shows comparisons using different discount rates (5% and 10%), and some comparisons between our results and an OECD 1998 study. The results are i n good agreement and shows that nuclear option is cost competitive in Mexico on the basis of levelized costs.

Palacios, J.C.; Alonso, G.; Ramirez, R.; Gomez, A.; Ortiz, J.; Longoria, L.C.

2004-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

418

Development and Demonstration of Waste Heat Integration with Solvent Process for More Efficient CO2 Removal from Coal-Fired Flue Gas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Demonstration of and Demonstration of Waste Heat Integration with Solvent Process for More Efficient CO 2 Removal from Coal-Fired Flue Gas Background The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) Existing Plants, Emissions, & Capture (EPEC) Research & Development (R&D) Program is to develop innovative environmental control technologies to enable full use of the nation's vast coal reserves, while at the same time allowing the current fleet of coal-

419

Wyoming coal-conversion project. Final technical report, November 1980-February 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project, Converse County, Wyoming; contains list of appendices with title and identification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This final technical report describes what WyCoalGas, Inc. and its subcontractors accomplished in resolving issues related to the resource, technology, economic, environmental, socioeconomic, and governmental requirements affecting a project located near Douglas, Wyoming for producing 150 Billion Btu per day by gasifying sub-bituminous coal. The report summarizes the results of the work on each task and includes the deliverables that WyCoalGas, Inc. and the subcontractors prepared. The co-venturers withdrew from the project for two reasons: federal financial assistance to the project was seen to be highly uncertain; and funds were being expended at an unacceptably high rate.

None

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Chemicals from coal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This chapter contains sections titled: Chemicals from Coke Oven Distillate; The Fischer-Tropsch Reaction; Coal Hydrogenation; Substitute Natural Gas (SNG); Synthesis Gas Technology; Calcium Carbide; Coal and the Environment; and Notes and References

Harold A. Wittcoff; Bryan G. Reuben; Jeffrey S. Plotkin

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas total coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Using auxiliary gas power for CCS energy needs in retrofitted coal power plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Post-combustion capture retrofits are expected to a near-term option for mitigating CO 2 emissions from existing coal-fired power plants. Much of the literature proposes using power from the existing coal plant and thermal ...

Bashadi, Sarah (Sarah Omer)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Evaluation of sorbents for the cleanup of coal-derived synthesis gas at elevated temperatures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) with carbon dioxide capture is a promising technology to produce electricity from coal at a higher efficiency than with traditional subcritical pulverized coal (PC) power plants. ...

Couling, David Joseph

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Bioconversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels. Final technical report, September 1, 1990--August 31, 1991  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The use of coal-derived synthesis gas as an industrial feedstock for production of fuels and chemicals has become an increasingly attractive alternative to present petroleum-based chemicals production. However, one of the major limitations in developing such a process is the required removal of catalyst poisons such as hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbonyl sulfide (COS), and other trace contaminants from the synthesis gas. Purification steps necessary to remove these are energy intensive and add significantly to the production cost, particularly for coals having a high sulfur content such as Illinois coal. A two-stage, anaerobic bioconversion process requiring little or no sulfur removal is proposed, where in the first stage the carbon monoxide (CO) gas is converted to butyric and acetic acids by the CO strain of Butyribacterium methylotrophicum. In the second stage, these acids along with the hydrogen (H{sub 2}) gas are converted to butanol, ethanol, and acetone by an acid utilizing mutant of Clostridium acetobutylicum. 18 figs., 18 tabs.

Jain, M.K.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

424

Systems Study for Improving Gas Turbine Performance for Coal/IGCC Application  

SciTech Connect

This study identifies vital gas turbine (GT) parameters and quantifies their influence in meeting the DOE Turbine Program overall Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant goals of 50% net HHV efficiency, $1000/kW capital cost, and low emissions. The project analytically evaluates GE advanced F class air cooled technology level gas turbine conceptual cycle designs and determines their influence on IGCC plant level performance including impact of Carbon capture. This report summarizes the work accomplished in each of the following six Tasks. Task 1.0--Overall IGCC Plant Level Requirements Identification: Plant level requirements were identified, and compared with DOE's IGCC Goal of achieving 50% Net HHV Efficiency and $1000/KW by the Year 2008, through use of a Six Sigma Quality Functional Deployment (QFD) Tool. This analysis resulted in 7 GT System Level Parameters as the most significant. Task 2.0--Requirements Prioritization/Flow-Down to GT Subsystem Level: GT requirements were identified, analyzed and prioritized relative to achieving plant level goals, and compared with the flow down of power island goals through use of a Six Sigma QFD Tool. This analysis resulted in 11 GT Cycle Design Parameters being selected as the most significant. Task 3.0--IGCC Conceptual System Analysis: A Baseline IGCC Plant configuration was chosen, and an IGCC simulation analysis model was constructed, validated against published performance data and then optimized by including air extraction heat recovery and GE steam turbine model. Baseline IGCC based on GE 207FA+e gas turbine combined cycle has net HHV efficiency of 40.5% and net output nominally of 526 Megawatts at NOx emission level of 15 ppmvd{at}15% corrected O2. 18 advanced F technology GT cycle design options were developed to provide performance targets with increased output and/or efficiency with low NOx emissions. Task 4.0--Gas Turbine Cycle Options vs. Requirements Evaluation: Influence coefficients on 4 key IGCC plant level parameters (IGCC Net Efficiency, IGCC Net Output, GT Output, NOx Emissions) of 11 GT identified cycle parameters were determined. Results indicate that IGCC net efficiency HHV gains up to 2.8 pts (40.5% to 43.3%) and IGCC net output gains up to 35% are possible due to improvements in GT technology alone with single digit NOx emission levels. Task 5.0--Recommendations for GT Technical Improvements: A trade off analysis was conducted utilizing the performance results of 18 gas turbine (GT) conceptual designs, and three most promising GT candidates are recommended. A roadmap for turbine technology development is proposed for future coal based IGCC power plants. Task 6.0--Determine Carbon Capture Impact on IGCC Plant Level Performance: A gas turbine performance model for high Hydrogen fuel gas turbine was created and integrated to an IGCC system performance model, which also included newly created models for moisturized syngas, gas shift and CO2 removal subsystems. This performance model was analyzed for two gas turbine technology based subsystems each with two Carbon removal design options of 85% and 88% respectively. The results show larger IGCC performance penalty for gas turbine designs with higher firing temperature and higher Carbon removal.

Ashok K. Anand

2005-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

425

Systems Study for Improving Gas Turbine Performance for Coal/IGCC Application  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study identifies vital gas turbine (GT) parameters and quantifies their influence in meeting the DOE Turbine Program overall Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant goals of 50% net HHV efficiency, $1000/kW capital cost, and low emissions. The project analytically evaluates GE advanced F class air cooled technology level gas turbine conceptual cycle designs and determines their influence on IGCC plant level performance including impact of Carbon capture. This report summarizes the work accomplished in each of the following six Tasks. Task 1.0--Overall IGCC Plant Level Requirements Identification: Plant level requirements were identified, and compared with DOE's IGCC Goal of achieving 50% Net HHV Efficiency and $1000/KW by the Year 2008, through use of a Six Sigma Quality Functional Deployment (QFD) Tool. This analysis resulted in 7 GT System Level Parameters as the most significant. Task 2.0--Requirements Prioritization/Flow-Down to GT Subsystem Level: GT requirements were identified, analyzed and prioritized relative to achieving plant level goals, and compared with the flow down of power island goals through use of a Six Sigma QFD Tool. This analysis resulted in 11 GT Cycle Design Parameters being selected as the most significant. Task 3.0--IGCC Conceptual System Analysis: A Baseline IGCC Plant configuration was chosen, and an IGCC simulation analysis model was constructed, validated against published performance data and then optimized by including air extraction heat recovery and GE steam turbine model. Baseline IGCC based on GE 207FA+e gas turbine combined cycle has net HHV efficiency of 40.5% and net output nominally of 526 Megawatts at NOx emission level of 15 ppmvd{at}15% corrected O2. 18 advanced F technology GT cycle design options were developed to provide performance targets with increased output and/or efficiency with low NOx emissions. Task 4.0--Gas Turbine Cycle Options vs. Requirements Evaluation: Influence coefficients on 4 key IGCC plant level parameters (IGCC Net Efficiency, IGCC Net Output, GT Output, NOx Emissions) of 11 GT identified cycle parameters were determined. Results indicate that IGCC net efficiency HHV gains up to 2.8 pts (40.5% to 43.3%) and IGCC net output gains up to 35% are possible due to improvements in GT technology alone with single digit NOx emission levels. Task 5.0--Recommendations for GT Technical Improvements: A trade off analysis was conducted utilizing the performance results of 18 gas turbine (GT) conceptual designs, and three most promising GT candidates are recommended. A roadmap for turbine technology development is proposed for future coal based IGCC power plants. Task 6.0--Determine Carbon Capture Impact on IGCC Plant Level Performance: A gas turbine performance model for high Hydrogen fuel gas turbine was created and integrated to an IGCC system performance model, which also included newly created models for moisturized syngas, gas shift and CO2 removal subsystems. This performance model was analyzed for two gas turbine technology based subsystems each with two Carbon removal design options of 85% and 88% respectively. The results show larger IGCC performance penalty for gas turbine designs with higher firing temperature and higher Carbon removal.

Ashok K. Anand

2005-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

426

Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Coal prices have been far less volatile than natural gas prices.Coal Prices Figure 9 is similar to Figure 8 except the natural gas pricesCoal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis interested in natural gas prices

Phadke, Amol

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

U.S. Natural Gas Non-Salt Underground Storage - Total (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total (Million Cubic Feet) Total (Million Cubic Feet) U.S. Natural Gas Non-Salt Underground Storage - Total (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 5,842,438 5,352,874 5,220,483 5,427,454 5,807,019 6,150,408 6,523,428 6,855,588 7,153,329 7,314,086 7,214,150 6,852,919 1995 6,283,457 5,791,160 5,581,144 5,619,397 5,933,659 6,286,946 6,510,677 6,716,782 7,008,042 7,191,015 6,931,287 6,371,139 1996 5,694,851 5,258,703 4,947,685 5,046,305 5,367,004 5,734,954 6,102,705 6,440,727 6,797,354 6,997,046 6,737,406 6,364,016 1997 5,720,628 5,372,450 5,214,628 5,269,851 5,566,356 5,942,439 6,241,244 6,562,763 6,889,752 7,084,695 6,896,165 6,374,770 1998 5,923,228 5,632,905 5,393,111 5,576,347 5,963,201 6,299,655 6,649,456 6,879,896 7,117,737 7,350,123 7,312,560 6,884,476

428

Thermodynamic simulation of transfer of lead, cadmium, and zinc to the gas phase during oxidative and reductive thermal treatment of coals from some coal deposits of the Russian federation  

SciTech Connect

The results of thermodynamic study of the distribution of Pb, Cd, and Zn during the thermal processing of coals from the Kuznetsk and Moscow basins and the Berezovskoe coal deposit of the Kansk-Achinsk basin at different excess oxidant (air) factors and in an inert (argon) medium are presented. The equilibrium forms of compounds were revealed, and their concentrations in the gas and condensed phase were calculated. Trace elements get into the gas phase during the heat treatment of coals in both oxidizing and reducing media. Their most intense transfer to the gas phase takes place at a = 0.4. An increase in temperature enhances this process, and an increase in the ash content of coal decreased the extent of transfer. 9 refs., 10 tabs.

L.N. Lebedeva; L.A. Kost; E.G. Gorlov; E.V. Samuilov [FGUP Institute for Fossil Fuels, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2007-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

429

Estimating the Amount of Coal Tar Weathering in Sediments by Two-Dimensional Automated-Sequential Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC-GC/MS) and Comprehensive Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GCxGC/MS) Techniques — Phase III  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is intended to inform scientists and engineers concerned with assessing and remediating former manufactured gas plants and other coal tar-contaminated sites. Although the report focuses on coal tar in sediment, the results are equally applicable to studies investigating and remediating coal tar, crude oil, and their by-products in the vadose zone or in ground or pore waters, as well as marine animals. The data provided in this report should allow more accurate analyses to better direct remedi...

2012-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

430

Total Energy - Data - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Total Energy Flow, (Quadrillion Btu) Total Energy Flow, (Quadrillion Btu) Total Energy Flow diagram image Footnotes: 1 Includes lease condensate. 2 Natural gas plant liquids. 3 Conventional hydroelectric power, biomass, geothermal, solar/photovoltaic, and wind. 4 Crude oil and petroleum products. Includes imports into the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. 5 Natural gas, coal, coal coke, biofuels, and electricity. 6 Adjustments, losses, and unaccounted for. 7 Natural gas only; excludes supplemental gaseous fuels. 8 Petroleum products, including natural gas plant liquids, and crude oil burned as fuel. 9 Includes 0.01 quadrillion Btu of coal coke net exports. 10 Includes 0.13 quadrillion Btu of electricity net imports. 11 Total energy consumption, which is the sum of primary energy consumption, electricity retail sales, and electrical system energy losses.

431

JV Task 5 - Evaluation of Residual Oil Fly Ash As A Mercury Sorbent For Coal Combustion Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

The mercury adsorption capacity of a residual oil fly ash (ROFA) sample collected form Florida Power and Light Company's Port Everglades Power Plant was evaluated using a bituminous coal combustion flue gas simulator and fixed-bed testing protocol. A size-segregated (>38 {micro}g) fraction of ROFA was ground to a fine powder and brominated to potentially enhance mercury capture. The ROFA and brominated-ROFA were ineffective in capturing or oxidizing the Hg{sup 0} present in a simulated bituminous coal combustion flue gas. In contrast, a commercially available DARCO{reg_sign} FGD initially adsorbed Hg{sup 0} for about an hour and then catalyzed Hg{sup 0} oxidation to produce Hg{sup 2+}. Apparently, the unburned carbon in ROFA needs to be more rigorously activated in order for it to effectively capture and/or oxidize Hg{sup 0}.

Robert Patton

2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

432

JV Task 5 - Evaluation of Residual Oil Fly Ash As A Mercury Sorbent For Coal Combustion Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

The mercury adsorption capacity of a residual oil fly ash (ROFA) sample collected form Florida Power and Light Company's Port Everglades Power Plant was evaluated using a bituminous coal combustion flue gas simulator and fixed-bed testing protocol. A size-segregated (>38 {micro}g) fraction of ROFA was ground to a fine powder and brominated to potentially enhance mercury capture. The ROFA and brominated-ROFA were ineffective in capturing or oxidizing the Hg{sup 0} present in a simulated bituminous coal combustion flue gas. In contrast, a commercially available DARCO{reg_sign} FGD initially adsorbed Hg{sup 0} for about an hour and then catalyzed Hg{sup 0} oxidation to produce Hg{sup 2+}. Apparently, the unburned carbon in ROFA needs to be more rigorously activated in order for it to effectively capture and/or oxidize Hg{sup 0}.

Robert Patton

2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

433

Total Dissolved Gas Effects on Incubating Chum Salmon Below Bonneville Dam  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

At the request of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE; Portland District), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) undertook a project in 2006 to look further into issues of total dissolved gas (TDG) supersaturation in the lower Columbia River downstream of Bonneville Dam. In FY 2008, the third year of the project, PNNL conducted field monitoring and laboratory toxicity testing to both verify results from 2007 and answer some additional questions about how salmonid sac fry respond to elevated TDG in the field and the laboratory. For FY 2008, three objectives were 1) to repeat the 2006-2007 field effort to collect empirical data on TDG from the Ives Island and Multnomah Falls study sites; 2) to repeat the static laboratory toxicity tests on hatchery chum salmon fry to verify 2007 results and to expose wild chum salmon fry to incremental increases in TDG, above those of the static test, until external symptoms of gas bubble disease were clearly present; and 3) to assess physiological responses to TDG levels in wild chum salmon sac fry incubating below Bonneville Dam during spill operations. This report summarizes the tasks conducted and results obtained in pursuit of the three objectives. Chapter 1 discusses the field monitoring, Chapter 2 reports the findings of the laboratory toxicity tests, and Chapter 3 describes the field-sampling task. Each chapter contains an objective-specific introduction, description of the study site and methods, results of research, and discussion of findings. Literature cited throughout this report is listed in Chapter 4. Additional details on the monitoring methodology and results are provided in Appendices A and B included on the compact disc bound inside the back cover of the printed version of this report.

Arntzen, Evan V.; Hand, Kristine D.; Carter, Kathleen M.; Geist, David R.; Murray, Katherine J.; Dawley, Earl M.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Elston, Ralph A.; Vavrinec, John

2009-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

434

Pore structure and reactivity changes in hot coal gas desulfurization sorbents. Final report, September 1987--January 1991  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of the project was the investigation of the pore structure and reactivity changes occurring in metal/metal oxide sorbents used for desulfurization of hot coal gas during sulfidation and regeneration, with particular emphasis placed on the effects of these changes on the sorptive capacity and efficiency of the sorbents. Commercially available zinc oxide sorbents were used as model solids in our experimental investigation of the sulfidation and regeneration processes.

Sotirchos, S.V.

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Coal feed lock  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A coal feed lock is provided for dispensing coal to a high pressure gas producer with nominal loss of high pressure gas. The coal feed lock comprises a rotor member with a diametral bore therethrough. A hydraulically activated piston is slidably mounted in the bore. With the feed lock in a charging position, coal is delivered to the bore and then the rotor member is rotated to a discharging position so as to communicate with the gas producer. The piston pushes the coal into the gas producer. The rotor member is then rotated to the charging position to receive the next load of coal.

Pinkel, I. Irving (Fairview Park, OH)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Comparing Statewide Economic Impacts of New Generation from Wind, Coal, and Natural Gas in Arizona, Colorado, and Michigan  

SciTech Connect

With increasing concerns about energy independence, job outsourcing, and risks of global climate change, it is important for policy makers to understand all impacts from their decisions about energy resources. This paper assesses one aspect of the impacts: direct economic effects. The paper compares impacts to states from equivalent new electrical generation from wind, natural gas, and coal. Economic impacts include materials and labor for construction, operations, maintenance, fuel extraction, and fuel transport, as well as project financing, property tax, and landowner revenues. We examine spending on plant construction during construction years, in addition to all other operational expenditures over a 20-year span. Initial results indicate that adding new wind power can be more economically effective than adding new gas or coal power and that a higher percentage of dollars spent on coal and gas will leave the state. For this report, we interviewed industry representatives and energy experts, in addition to consulting government documents, models, and existing literature. The methodology for this research can be adapted to other contexts for determining economic effects of new power generation in other states and regions.

Tegen, S.

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Comparing Statewide Economic Impacts of New Generation from Wind, Coal, and Natural Gas in Arizona, Colorado, and Michigan: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

With increasing concerns about energy independence, job outsourcing, and risks of global climate change, it is important for policy makers to understand all impacts from their decisions about energy resources. This paper assesses one aspect of the impacts: direct economic effects. The paper compares impacts to states from equivalent new electrical generation from wind, natural gas, and coal. Economic impacts include materials and labor for construction, operations, maintenance, fuel extraction, and fuel transport, as well as project financing, property tax, and landowner revenues. We examine spending on plant construction during construction years, in addition to all other operational expenditures over a 20-year span. Initial results indicate that adding new wind power can be more economically effective than adding new gas or coal power, and that a higher percentage of dollars spent on coal and gas will leave the state. For this report, we interviewed industry representatives and energy experts, in addition to consulting government documents, models, and existing literature. The methodology for this research can be adapted to other contexts for determining economic effects of new power generation in other states and regions.

Tegen, S.

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Integrated Warm Gas Multicontaminant Cleanup Technologies for Coal-Derived Syngas  

SciTech Connect

One of the key obstacles for the introduction of commercial gasification technology for the production of power with Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants or the production of value added chemicals, transportation fuels, and hydrogen has been the cost of these systems. This situation is particularly challenging because the United States has ample coal resources available as raw materials and effective use of these raw materials could help us meet our energy and transportation fuel needs while significantly reducing our need to import oil. One component of the cost of these systems that faces strong challenges for continuous improvement is removing the undesirable components present in the syngas. The need to limit the increase in cost of electricity to < 35% for new coal-based power plants which include CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration addresses both the growing social concern for global climate change resulting from the emission of greenhouse gas and in particular CO{sub 2} and the need to control cost increases to power production necessary to meet this social objective. Similar improvements to technologies for trace contaminants are getting similar pressure to reduce environmental emissions and reduce production costs for the syngas to enable production of chemicals from coal that is cost competitive with oil and natural gas. RTI, with DOE/NETL support, has been developing sorbent technologies that enable capture of trace contaminants and CO{sub 2} at temperatures above 400 °F that achieve better capture performance, lower costs and higher thermal efficiency. This report describes the specific work of sorbent development for mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), selenium (Se), cadmium (Cd), and phosphorous (P) and CO{sub 2} removal. Because the typical concentrations of Hg, As, Se, Cd, and P are less than 10 ppmv, the focus has been on single-use sorbents with sufficient capacity to ensure replacement costs are cost effective. The research in this report describes the development efforts which expand this sorbent development effort to include Se, Cd, and P as well as Hg and As. Additional research has focused on improving removal performance with the goal of achieving effluent concentrations that are suitable for chemical production applications. By contrast, sorbent development for CO{sub 2} capture has focused on regenerable sorbents that capture the CO{sub 2} byproduct at higher CO{sub 2} pressures. Previous research on CO{sub 2} sorbents has demonstrated that the most challenging aspect of developing CO{sub 2} sorbents is regeneration. The research documented in this report investigates options to improve regeneration of the CO{sub 2} capture sorbents. This research includes effort on addressing existing regeneration limitations for sorbents previously developed and new approaches that focus initially on the regeneration performance of the sorbent.

Turk, Brian; Gupta, Raghubir; Sharma, Pradeepkumar; Albritton, Johnny; Jamal, Aqil

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

439

Prediction of Total Dissolved Gas (TDG) at Hydropower Dams throughout the Columbia  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The network of dams throughout the Columbia River Basin (CRB) are managed for irrigation, hydropower production, flood control, navigation, and fish passage that frequently result in both voluntary and involuntary spillway releases. The entrainment of air in spillway releases and the subsequent exchange of atmospheric gasses into solution during passage through the stilling basin cause elevated levels of total dissolved gas (TDG) saturation. Physical processes that affect TDG exchange at hydropower facilities have been characterized throughout the CRB in site-specific studies and at real-time water quality monitoring stations. These data have been used to develop predictive models of TDG exchange which are site specific and account for the fate of spillway and powerhouse flows in the tailrace channel and resultant transport and exchange in route to the downstream dam. Currently, there exists a need to summarize the findings from operational and structural TDG abatement programs conducted throughout the CRB and for the development of a generalized prediction model that pools data collected at multiple projects with similar structural attributes. A generalized TDG exchange model can be tuned to specific projects and coupled with water regulation models to allow for the formulation of optimal water regulation schedules subject to water quality constraints for TDG supersaturation. It is proposed to develop a methodology for predicting TDG levels downstream of hydropower facilities with similar structural properties as a function of a set of variables that affect TDG exchange; such as tailwater depth, spill discharge and pattern, project head, and entrainment of powerhouse releases.

Pasha, MD Fayzul K [ORNL; Hadjerioua, Boualem [ORNL; Stewart, Kevin M [ORNL; Bender, Merlynn [Bureau of Reclamation; Schneider, Michael L. [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Simulated Coal-Gas-Fueled Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Development Program. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This final report summarizes the technical work performed under Department of Energy Contract DE-AC21-91MC27393, ``Simulated Coal- Gas-Fueled Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Development Program.`` This work consists of five major tasks and their respective subtasks as listed below. A brief description of each task is also provided. The Stack Design Requirements task focused on requirements and specification for designing, constructing, and testing a nominal 100-kilowatt integrated stack and on requirements for the balance-of-plant equipment to support a 1000-kilowatt integrated stack demonstrator. The Stack Design Preparation task focused on the mechanical design of a 100-kilowatt stack comprised of 8-ft{sup 2} cells incorporating the new cell configuration and component technology improvements developed in the previous DOE MCFC contract. Electrode Casting focused on developing a faster drying solvent for use in the electrode tape casting process. Electrode Heat Treatment was directed at scaling up the laboratory continuous debinding process to a new full-size IFC debinding oven coupled to a continuous belt furnace that will both debind and sinter the electrodes in one continuous process train. Repeat Part Quality Assurance and Testing provided the appropriate effort to ensure consistent, high-quality, reproducible and comparable repeat parts.

Not Available

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas total coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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441

Simulated Coal-Gas-Fueled Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Development Program  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This final report summarizes the technical work performed under Department of Energy Contract DE-AC21-91MC27393, Simulated Coal- Gas-Fueled Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Development Program.'' This work consists of five major tasks and their respective subtasks as listed below. A brief description of each task is also provided. The Stack Design Requirements task focused on requirements and specification for designing, constructing, and testing a nominal 100-kilowatt integrated stack and on requirements for the balance-of-plant equipment to support a 1000-kilowatt integrated stack demonstrator. The Stack Design Preparation task focused on the mechanical design of a 100-kilowatt stack comprised of 8-ft[sup 2] cells incorporating the new cell configuration and component technology improvements developed in the previous DOE MCFC contract. Electrode Casting focused on developing a faster drying solvent for use in the electrode tape casting process. Electrode Heat Treatment was directed at scaling up the laboratory continuous debinding process to a new full-size IFC debinding oven coupled to a continuous belt furnace that will both debind and sinter the electrodes in one continuous process train. Repeat Part Quality Assurance and Testing provided the appropriate effort to ensure consistent, high-quality, reproducible and comparable repeat parts.

Not Available

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

This project Final Report is submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-03NT41987, 'Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas.' Sorbent injection technology is targeted as the primary mercury control process on plants burning low/medium sulfur bituminous coals equipped with ESP and ESP/FGD systems. About 70% of the ESPs used in the utility industry have SCAs less than 300 ft2/1000 acfm. Prior to this test program, previous sorbent injection tests had focused on large-SCA ESPs. This DOE-NETL program was designed to generate data to evaluate the performance and economic feasibility of sorbent injection for mercury control at power plants that fire bituminous coal and are configured with small-sized electrostatic precipitators and/or an ESP-flue gas desulfurization (FGD) configuration. EPRI and Southern Company were co-funders for the test program. Southern Company and Reliant Energy provided host sites for testing and technical input to the project. URS Group was the prime contractor to NETL. ADA-ES and Apogee Scientific Inc. were sub-contractors to URS and was responsible for all aspects of the sorbent injection systems design, installation and operation at the different host sites. Full-scale sorbent injection for mercury control was evaluated at three sites: Georgia Power's Plant Yates Units 1 and 2 [Georgia Power is a subsidiary of the Southern Company] and Reliant Energy's Shawville Unit 3. Georgia Power's Plant Yates Unit 1 has an existing small-SCA cold-side ESP followed by a Chiyoda CT-121 wet scrubber. Yates Unit 2 is also equipped with a small-SCA ESP and a dual flue gas conditioning system. Unit 2 has no SO2 control system. Shawville Unit 3 is equipped with two small-SCA cold-side ESPs operated in series. All ESP systems tested in this program had SCAs less than 250 ft2/1000 acfm. Short-term parametric tests were conducted on Yates Units 1 and 2 to evaluate the performance of low-cost activated carbon sorbents for removing mercury. In addition, the effects of the dual flue gas conditioning system on mercury removal performance were evaluated as part of short-term parametric tests on Unit 2. Based on the parametric test results, a single sorbent (e.g., RWE Super HOK) was selected for a 30-day continuous injection test on Unit 1 to observe long-term performance of the sorbent as well as its effects on ESP and FGD system operations as well as combustion byproduct properties. A series of parametric tests were also performed on Shawville Unit 3 over a three-week period in which several activated carbon sorbents were injected into the flue gas duct just upstream of either of the two Unit 3 ESP units. Three different sorbents were evaluated in the parametric test program for the combined ESP 1/ESP 2 system in which sorbents were injected upstream of ESP 1: RWE Super HOK, Norit's DARCO Hg, and a 62:38 wt% hydrated lime/DARCO Hg premixed reagent. Five different sorbents were evaluated for the ESP 2 system in which activated carbons were injected upstream of ESP 2: RWE Super HOK and coarse-ground HOK, Norit's DARCO Hg and DARCO Hg-LH, and DARCO Hg with lime injection upstream of ESP 1. The hydrated lime tests were conducted to reduce SO3 levels in an attempt to enhance the mercury removal performance of the activated carbon sorbents. The Plant Yates and Shawville studies provided data required for assessing carbon performance and long-term operational impacts for flue gas mercury control across small-sized ESPs, as well as for estimating the costs of full-scale sorbent injection processes.

Carl Richardson; Katherine Dombrowski; Douglas Orr

2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

443

Environmental data energy technology characterizations: coal  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the activities leading to the conversion of coal to electricity. Specifically, the activities consist of coal mining and beneficiation, coal transport, electric power generation, and power transmission. To enhance the usefulness of the material presented, resource requirements, energy products, and residuals for each activity area are normalized in terms of 10/sup 12/ Btus of energy produced. Thus, the total effect of producing electricity from coal can be determined by combining the residuals associated with the appropriate activity areas. Emissions from the coal cycle are highly dependent upon the type of coal consumed as well as the control technology assigned to the activity area. Each area is assumed to be equipped with currently available control technologies that meet environmental regulations. The conventional boiler, for example, has an electrostatic precipitator and a flue gas desulfurization scrubber. While this results in the removal of most of the particulate matter and sulfur dioxide in the flue gas stream, it creates other new environmental residuals -- solid waste, sludge, and ash. There are many different types of mined coal. For informational purposes, two types from two major producing regions, the East and the West, are characterized here. The eastern coal is typical of the Northern Appalachian coal district with a high sulfur and heat content. The western coal, from the Powder River Basin, has much less sulfur, but also has a substantially lower heating value.

Not Available

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Comparative analysis of the production costs and life-cycle GHG emissions of FT liquid fuels from coal and natural gas  

SciTech Connect

Liquid transportation fuels derived from coal and natural gas could help the United States reduce its dependence on petroleum. The fuels could be produced domestically or imported from fossil fuel-rich countries. The goal of this paper is to determine the life-cycle GHG emissions of coal- and natural gas-based Fischer-Tropsch (FT) liquids, as well as to compare production costs. The results show that the use of coal- or natural gas-based FT liquids will likely lead to significant increases in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions compared to petroleum-based fuels. In a best-case scenario, coal- or natural gas-based FT-liquids have emissions only comparable to petroleum-based fuels. In addition, the economic advantages of gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuels are not obvious: there is a narrow range of petroleum and natural gas prices at which GTL fuels would be competitive with petroleum-based fuels. CTL fuels are generally cheaper than petroleum-based fuels. However, recent reports suggest there is uncertainty about the availability of economically viable coal resources in the United States. If the U.S. has a goal of increasing its energy security, and at the same time significantly reducing its GHG emissions, neither CTL nor GTL consumption seem a reasonable path to follow. 28 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Paulina Jaramillo; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Civil and Environmental Engineering Department

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

445

Losses and Costs Associated with Coal vs. Natural Gas Firing at Hanes Dye and Finishing.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Due to decreasing production and rising coal prices, the engineering and management staff at Hanes Dye and Finishing in Winston Salem, NC have been investigating… (more)

Gibides, Justin Tyler

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

A novel geotechnical/geostatistical approach for exploration and production of natural gas from multiple geologic strata. Topical report, October--December 1997  

SciTech Connect

Total gas production from several natural gas wells is described. Water production is also given for the wells. The wells are located in the Big Lime/Ravencliff formations and the Pocahontas coal deposit. Plans for degassing various coal mines were also made and are described. Plans involved recovery of methane from an active mine with power generation, reworking and stimulation of coals in existing conventional gas wells, and storage of methane in an abandoned coal mine.

Brunk, R.G.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

447

INVESTIGATION INTO THE EFFECTS OF TRACE COAL SYN GAS SPECIES ON THE PERFORMANCE OF SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL ANODES.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Coal is the United States’ most widely used fossil fuel for the production of electric power. Coal’s availability and cost dictates that it will be… (more)

Trembly, Jason P.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

" Level: National Data and Regional Totals;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 Capability to Switch Electricity to Alternative Energy Sources, 2006; " 6 Capability to Switch Electricity to Alternative Energy Sources, 2006; " " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;" " Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Million Kilowatthours." ,,"Electricity Receipts",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(b)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke" "NAICS"," ","Total"," ","Not","Natural","Distillate","Residual",,,"and" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Receipts(c)","Switchable","Switchable","Gas","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil","Coal","LPG","Breeze","Other(d)"," "

449

"Code(a)","End Use","Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Diesel...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,,"Net","Residual","and",,"LPG and","(excluding Coal" "Code(a)","End Use","Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(c)","Natural Gas(d)","NGL(e)","Coke and Breeze)","Other(f...

450

" Level: National Data and Regional Totals;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 Capability to Switch Natural Gas to Alternative Energy Sources, 2002;" 2 Capability to Switch Natural Gas to Alternative Energy Sources, 2002;" " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;" " Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Billion Cubic Feet." ,,"Natural Gas",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(b)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke",,"RSE" "NAICS"," ","Total"," ","Not","Electricity","Distillate","Residual",,,"and",,"Row" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Consumed(c)","Switchable","Switchable","Receipts(d)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil","Coal","LPG","Breeze","Other(e)","Factors"

451

" Level: National Data and Regional Totals;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 Capability to Switch Natural Gas to Alternative Energy Sources, 2006;" 2 Capability to Switch Natural Gas to Alternative Energy Sources, 2006;" " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;" " Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Billion Cubic Feet." ,,"Natural Gas",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(b)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke" "NAICS"," ","Total"," ","Not","Electricity","Distillate","Residual",,,"and" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Consumed(c)","Switchable","Switchable","Receipts(d)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil","Coal","LPG","Breeze","Other(e)"

452

In situ parametric study of alkali release in pulverized coal combustion: Effects of operating conditions and gas composition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work concerns a parametric study of alkali release in a lab-scale, pulverized coal combustor (drop tube reactor) at atmospheric pressure. Measurements were made at steady reactor conditions using excimer laser fragmentation fluorescence (ELIF) and with direct optical access to the flue gas pipe. In this way, absolute gas-phase alkali species could be determined in situ, continuously, with sub-ppb sensitivity, directly in the flue gas. A hard coal was fired in the range 1000-1300{sup o}C, for residence times in the range 3-5 s and for air numbers {lambda} (air/fuel ratios) from 1.15 to 1.50. In addition, the amount of chlorine, water vapor and sulfur, respectively, was increased in known amounts by controlled dosing of HCl, H{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2} into the combustion gas to determine effects of these components on release or capture of the alkali species. The experimental results are also compared with values calculated using ash/fuel analyses and sequential extraction to obtain a fuller picture of alkali release in pulverized fuel combustion. 27 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

H. Schuermann; P.B. Monkhouse; S. Unterberger; K.R.G. Hein [Universitaet Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany). Institut fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Marcellus region to provide 18% of total U.S. natural gas ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Production of natural gas in the Marcellus region, located in Pennsylvania and West Virginia, is expected to exceed 13 billion cubic feet per day ...

454

Co-combustion of refuse derived fuel and coal in a cyclone furnace at the Baltimore Gas and Electric Company, C. P. Crane Station  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A co-combustion demonstration burn of coal and fluff refuse-derived fuel (RDF) was conducted by Teledyne National and Baltimore Gas and Electric Company. This utility has two B and W cyclone furnaces capable of generating 400 MW. The facility is under a prohibition order to convert from No. 6 oil to coal; as a result, it was desirable to demonstrate that RDF, which has a low sulfur content, can be burned in combination with coals containing up to 2% sulfur, thus reducing overall sulfur emissions without deleterious effects. Each furnace consists of four cyclones capable of generating 1,360,000 pounds per hour steam. The tertiary air inlet of one of the cyclones was modified with an adapter to permit fluff RDF to be pneumatically blown into the cyclone. At the same time, coal was fed into the cyclone furnace through the normal coal feeding duct, where it entered the burning chamber tangentially and mixed with the RDF during the burning process. Secondary shredded fluff RDF was prepared by the Baltimore County Resource Recovery Facility. The RDF was discharged into a receiving station consisting of a belt conveyor discharging into a lump breaker, which in turn, fed the RDF into a pneumatic line through an air-lock feeder. A total of 2316 tons were burned at an average rate of 5.6 tons per hour. The average heat replacement by RDF for the cyclone was 25%, based on Btu input for a period of forty days. The range of RDF burned was from 3 to 10 tons per hour, or 7 to 63% heat replacement. The average analysis of the RDF (39 samples) for moisture, ash, heat (HHV) and sulfur content were 18.9%, 13.4%, 6296 Btu/lb and 0.26% respectively. RDF used in the test was secondary shredded through 1-1/2 inch grates producing the particle size distribution of from 2 inches to .187 inches. Findings to date after inspection of the boiler and superheater indicate satisfactory results with no deleterious effects from the RDF.

Not Available

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Enhanced Elemental Mercury Removal from Coal-fired Flue Gas by Sulfur-chlorine Compounds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Catalysts for Oxidation of Mercury in Flue Gas, Environ.mercury oxidation when the chlorine concentration in flue gas

Miller, Nai-Qiang Yan-Zan Qu Yao Chi Shao-Hua Qiao Ray Dod Shih-Ger Chang Charles

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems reference system definition update  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of the the Direct Coal-Fueled 80 MW Combustion Turbine Program is to establish the technology required for private sector use of an advanced coal-fueled combustion turbine power system. Under this program the technology for a direct coal-fueled 80 MW combustion turbine is to be developed. This unit would be an element in a 207 MW direct coal-fueled combustion turbine combined cycle which includes two combustion turbines, two heat recovery steam generators and a steam turbine. Key to meeting the program objectives is the development of a successful high pressure slagging combustor that burns coal, while removing sulfur, particulates, and corrosive alkali matter from the combustion products. Westinghouse and Textron (formerly AVCO Research Laboratory/Textron) have designed and fabricated a subscale slagging combustor. This slagging combustor, under test since September 1988, has been yielding important experimental data, while having undergone several design iterations.

Not Available

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Hot coal gas desulfurization with manganese-based sorbents. Quarterly report, October--December 1993  

SciTech Connect

The focus of work being performed on Hot Coal Gas Desulfurization at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center is primarily in the use of zinc ferrite and zinc titanate sorbents; however, prior studies indicated that an alternate sorbent, manganese dioxide-containing ore in mixture with alumina (75 wt% ore + 25 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) may be a viable alternative to zinc-based sorbents. Manganese, for example, has a lower vapor pressure in the elemental state than zinc hence it is not as likely to undergo depletion from the sorbent surface upon loading and regeneration cycles. Also manganese oxide is less readily reduced to the elemental state than iron hence the range of reduction potentials for oxygen is somewhat greater than for zinc ferrite. In addition, thermodynamic analysis of the manganese-oxygen-sulfur system shows it to be less amenable to sulfation than zinc ferrite. Potential also exists for utilization of manganese at higher temperatures than zinc ferrite or zinc titanate. This Fifth Quarterly Report documents progress in pellet testing via thermogravimetric analysis of pellet formulation FORM4-A of a manganese ore/alumina combination. This formulation, described more fully in the Quarterly Technical Progress Report of October 15, 1993, consists of manganese carbonate combined with alundum. A 2-inch fixed-bed reactor has been fabricated and is now ready for subjecting pellets to cyclic loading and regeneration; however, a minor problem has arisen during the regeneration cycle in that sulfur tends to form and plug the exit tube during the early stage of regeneration. This problem is about to be overcome by increasing the flow rate of air during the regeneration cycle resulting in more oxidizing conditions and hence less tendency for sulfide sulfur (S{sup =}) to oxidize to the intermediate elemental form (S{sup o}) rather than to 4-valent (S{sup +4}).

Hepworth, M.T.; Slimane, R.B.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions have begun a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the flyash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During the second reporting quarter for this project, design and development is continuing on an electrostatic tensiometer to measure cohesion of flyash layers. A dedicated test fixture to automate flyash electrical resistivity testing is also underway. Ancillary instrumentation to control gas humidification within these test fixtures is also under construction.

Kenneth E. Baldrey

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Coal Tar and Bedrock  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The characterization of bedrock groundwater and coal tar impacts is one of the most complicated tasks associated with managing manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites. This report provides an overview of the fate and transport of coal tar in bedrock and the methods available to investigate coal tar at particular sites and discusses how to develop a decision-making framework for coal tar investigations.

2007-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

460

China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study analyzes China's coal industry by focusing on four related areas. First, data are reviewed to identify the major drivers of historical and future coal demand. Second, resource constraints and transport bottlenecks are analyzed to evaluate demand and growth scenarios. The third area assesses the physical requirements of substituting coal demand growth with other primary energy forms. Finally, the study examines the carbon- and environmental implications of China's past and future coal consumption. There are three sections that address these areas by identifying particular characteristics of China's coal industry, quantifying factors driving demand, and analyzing supply scenarios: (1) reviews the range of Chinese and international estimates of remaining coal reserves and resources as well as key characteristics of China's coal industry including historical production, resource requirements, and prices; (2) quantifies the largest drivers of coal usage to produce a bottom-up reference projection of 2025 coal demand; and (3) analyzes coal supply constraints, substitution options, and environmental externalities. Finally, the last section presents conclusions on the role of coal in China's ongoing energy and economic development. China has been, is, and will continue to be a coal-powered economy. In 2007 Chinese coal production contained more energy than total Middle Eastern oil production. The rapid growth of coal demand after 2001 created supply strains and bottlenecks that raise questions about sustainability. Urbanization, heavy industrial growth, and increasing per-capita income are the primary interrelated drivers of rising coal usage. In 2007, the power sector, iron and steel, and cement production accounted for 66% of coal consumption. Power generation is becoming more efficient, but even extensive roll-out of the highest efficiency units would save only 14% of projected 2025 coal demand for the power sector. A new wedge of future coal consumption is likely to come from the burgeoning coal-liquefaction and chemicals industries. If coal to chemicals capacity reaches 70 million tonnes and coal-to-liquids capacity reaches 60 million tonnes, coal feedstock requirements would add an additional 450 million tonnes by 2025. Even with more efficient growth among these drivers, China's annual coal demand is expected to reach 3.9 to 4.3 billion tonnes by 2025. Central government support for nuclear and renewable energy has not reversed China's growing dependence on coal for primary energy. Substitution is a matter of scale: offsetting one year of recent coal demand growth of 200 million tonnes would require 107 billion cubic meters of natural gas (compared to 2007 growth of 13 BCM), 48 GW of nuclear (compared to 2007 growth of 2 GW), or 86 GW of hydropower capacity (compared to 2007 growth of 16 GW). Ongoing dependence on coal reduces China's ability to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions growth. If coal demand remains on a high growth path, carbon dioxide emissions from coal combustion alone would exceed total US energy-related carbon emissions by 2010. Within China's coal-dominated energy system, domestic transportation has emerged as the largest bottleneck for coal industry growth and is likely to remain a constraint to further expansion. China has a low proportion of high-quality reserves, but is producing its best coal first. Declining quality will further strain production and transport capacity. Furthermore, transporting coal to users has overloaded the train system and dramatically increased truck use, raising transportation oil demand. Growing international imports have helped to offset domestic transport bottlenecks. In the long term, import demand is likely to exceed 200 million tonnes by 2025, significantly impacting regional markets.

Aden, Nathaniel; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas total coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Coal gasification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A standard series of two staged gas generators (GG) has been developed in the United States for producing gas with a combustion heat from 4,700 to 7,600 kilojoules per cubic meter from coal (U). The diameter of the gas generators is from 1.4 to 3.65 meters and the thermal capacity based on purified cold gas is from 12.5 to 89 million kilojoules per hour. Certain standard sized gas generators have undergone experimental industrial tests which showed that it is most expedient to feed the coal into the gas generators pneumatically. This reduces the dimensions of the charging device, makes it possible to use more common grades of structural steels and reduces the cost of the gas. A double valve reliably prevents ejections of the gasification product and promotes the best distribution of the coal in the gas generator. The gas generators may successfully operate on high moisture (up to 36 percent) brown coal. Blasting with oxygen enriched to 38 percent made it possible to produce a gas with a combustion heat of 9,350 kilojoules per cubic meter. This supports a combustion temperature of 1,700C.

Rainey, D.L.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

JV Task 124 - Understanding Multi-Interactions of SO3, Mercury, Selenium, and Arsenic in Illinois Coal Flue Gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project consisted of pilot-scale combustion testing with a representative Illinois basin coal to explore the multi-interactions of SO{sub 3}, mercury, selenium and arsenic. The parameters investigated for SO{sub 3} and mercury interactions included different flue gas conditions, i.e., temperature, moisture content, and particulate alkali content, both with and without activated carbon injection for mercury control. Measurements were also made to track the transformation of selenium and arsenic partitioning as a function of flue gas temperature through the system. The results from the mercury-SO{sub 3} testing support the concept that SO{sub 3} vapor is the predominant factor that impedes efficient mercury removal with activated carbon in an Illinois coal flue gas, while H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aerosol has less impact on activated carbon injection performance. Injection of a suitably mobile and reactive additives such as sodium- or calcium-based sorbents was the most effective strategy tested to mitigate the effect of SO{sub 3}. Transformation measurements indicate a significant fraction of selenium was associated with the vapor phase at the electrostatic precipitator inlet temperature. Arsenic was primarily particulate-bound and should be captured effectively with existing particulate control technology.

Ye Zhuang; Christopher Martin; John Pavlish

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

463

Coal industry annual 1997  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

NONE

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

hybrid combined cycle power plant natural gas combined cyclePower Plants study, Volume 1: Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas

Phadke, Amol

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Regional GHG Emissions Stat s Greenhouse Gas and the Regional  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

6/5/2013 1 Regional GHG Emissions Stat s Greenhouse Gas and the Regional Power System Symposium.6% Coal 42% Hydro, 68.0% 10 #12;6/5/2013 6 Overall GHG Emissions: PNW vs. US Total US Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Economic Sector (2011) Total PNW* Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Economic Sector (2010

466

Selenium Removal by Iron Cementation from a Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater in a Continuous Flow System-- a Pilot Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This technical update describes work funded by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and performed by MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) at a coal-fired power plant burning Powder River Basin (PRB) coal (identified in this report as Plant E). This work was based on encouraging results obtained during previous EPRI-funded work on flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater treatability testing by MSE, which focused on selenium removal from a variety of FGD wastewater sources. The results from th...

2009-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

467

Development of a high-performance coal-fired power generating system with pyrolysis gas and char-fired high temperature furnace (HITAF). Volume 1, Final report  

SciTech Connect

A major objective of the coal-fired high performance power systems (HIPPS) program is to achieve significant increases in the thermodynamic efficiency of coal use for electric power generation. Through increased efficiency, all airborne emissions can be decreased, including emissions of carbon dioxide. High Performance power systems as defined for this program are coal-fired, high efficiency systems where the combustion products from coal do not contact the gas turbine. Typically, this type of a system will involve some indirect heating of gas turbine inlet air and then topping combustion with a cleaner fuel. The topping combustion fuel can be natural gas or another relatively clean fuel. Fuel gas derived from coal is an acceptable fuel for the topping combustion. The ultimate goal for HIPPS is to, have a system that has 95 percent of its heat input from coal. Interim systems that have at least 65 percent heat input from coal are acceptable, but these systems are required to have a clear development path to a system that is 95 percent coal-fired. A three phase program has been planned for the development of HIPPS. Phase 1, reported herein, includes the development of a conceptual design for a commercial plant. Technical and economic feasibility have been analysed for this plant. Preliminary R&D on some aspects of the system were also done in Phase 1, and a Research, Development and Test plan was developed for Phase 2. Work in Phase 2 include s the testing and analysis that is required to develop the technology base for a prototype plant. This work includes pilot plant testing at a scale of around 50 MMBtu/hr heat input. The culmination of the Phase 2 effort will be a site-specific design and test plan for a prototype plant. Phase 3 is the construction and testing of this plant.

NONE

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Development of standardized air-blown coal gasifier/gas turbine concepts for future electric power systems  

SciTech Connect

CRS Sirrine (CRSS) is evaluating a novel IGCC process in which gases exiting the gasifier are burned in a gas turbine combustion system. The turbine exhaust gas is used to generate additional power in a conventional steam generator. This results in a significant increase in efficiency. However, the IGCC process requires development of novel approaches to control SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions and alkali vapors which can damage downstream turbine components. Ammonia is produced from the reaction of coal-bound nitrogen with steam in the reducing zone of any fixed bed coal gasifier. This ammonia can be partially oxidized to NO{sub x} when the product gas is oxidized in a gas turbine combustor. Alkali metals vaporize in the high-temperature combustion zone of the gasifier and laser condense on the surface of small char or ash particles or on cooled metal surfaces. It these alkali-coated materials reach the gas turbine combustor, the alkali will revaporize condense on turbine blades and cause rapid high temperature corrosion. Efficiency reduction will result. PSI Technology Company (PSIT) was contracted by CRSS to evaluate and recommend solutions for NO{sub x} emissions and for alkali metals deposition. Various methods for NO{sub x} emission control and the potential process and economic impacts were evaluated. This included estimates of process performance, heat and mass balances around the combustion and heat transfer units and a preliminary economic evaluation. The potential for alkali metal vaporization and condensation at various points in the system was also estimated. Several control processes and evaluated, including an order of magnitude cost for the control process.

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Gas Permeability of Fractured Sandstone/Coal Samples under Variable Confining Pressure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

argillite under con?nement: gas and water testing. Phys.Gascoyne, M. , Wuschke, D.M. : Gas migration through water-fractured rock: results of a gas injection test. J.

Liu, Weiqun; Li, Yushou; Wang, Bo

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

,"Share of Total U.S. Natural Gas Electric Power Deliveries ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Electric Power Deliveries " ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Share of Total...

471

Table 6. Coal production and number of mines by State and coal...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coal production and number of mines by State and coal rank, 2011" "(thousand short tons)" ,"Bituminous",,"Subbituminous",,"Lignite",,"Anthracite",,"Total" "Coal-Producing State and...

472

Where can I find shale gas and coal bed methane production and ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Where is the boundary for state and federal offshore oil and gas production? Which states consume and produce the most natural gas?

473

Quarterly Coal Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

March 2011 DOEEIA-0121 (201004Q) Revised: July 2012 Quarterly Coal Report October - December 2010 March 2011 U.S. Energy Information Administration Office of Oil, Gas, and Coal...

474

Integrated Warm Gas Multicontaminant Cleanup Technologies for Coal-Derived Syngas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the key obstacles for the introduction of commercial gasification technology for the production of power with Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants or the production of value added chemicals, transportation fuels, and hydrogen has been the cost of these systems. This situation is particularly challenging because the United States has ample coal resources available as raw materials and effective use of these raw materials could help us meet our energy and transportation fuel needs while significantly reducing our need to import oil. One component of the cost of these systems that faces strong challenges for continuous improvement is removing the undesirable components present in the syngas. The need to limit the increase in cost of electricity to oil and natural gas. RTI, with DOE/NETL support, has been developing sorbent technologies that enable capture of trace contaminants and CO{sub 2} at temperatures above 400 °F that achieve better capture performance, lower costs and higher thermal efficiency. This report describes the specific work of sorbent development for mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), selenium (Se), cadmium (Cd), and phosphorous (P) and CO{sub 2} removal. Because the typical concentrations of Hg, As, Se, Cd, and P are less than 10 ppmv, the focus has been on single-use sorbents with sufficient capacity to ensure replacement costs are cost effective. The research in this report describes the development efforts which expand this sorbent development effort to include Se, Cd, and P as well as Hg and As. Additional research has focused on improving removal performance with the goal of achieving effluent concentrations that are suitable for chemical production applications. By contrast, sorbent development for CO{sub 2} capture has focused on regenerable sorbents that capture the CO{sub 2} byproduct at higher CO{sub 2} pressures. Previous research on CO{sub 2} sorbents has demonstrated that the most challenging aspect of developing CO{sub 2} sorbents is regeneration. The research documented in this report investigates options to improve regeneration of the CO{sub 2} capture sorbents. This research includes effort on addressing existing regeneration limitations for sorbents previously developed and new approaches that focus initially on the regeneration performance of the sorbent.

Turk, Brian; Gupta, Raghubir; Sharma, Pradeepkumar; Albritton, Johnny; Jamal, Aqil

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

475

ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, progress was made in obtaining an industry partner for a long-term demonstration and in technology transfer activities. Engineering and equipment procurement activities related to the long-term demonstration were also completed.

Kenneth E. Baldrey

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Comparison of coal and iron requirements between bituminous coal hydrogenation and low temperature carbonization (L. T. C. ) followed by hydrogenation  

SciTech Connect

Plants producing 100,000 tons/yr aviation gasoline and 25,000 tons/yr of liquid petroleum gasoline (L.P.G.) by hydrogenation of coal and 100,000 tons/yr of aviation gasoline, 15,000 tons/yr L.P.G., and 912,000 tons/yr of excess L.T.C. coke by L.T.C. followed by hydrogenation of the L.T.C. tar are considered. Specific data are included on L.T.C., specific data for L.T.C. tar hydrogenation, and total coal requirement for L.T.C. of coal and hydrogenation of the L.T.C. tar. Information is also included on hydrogenation of bituminous coal and iron requirements. Three charts show differences between various bituminous coal conversion processes. The iron requirements for L.T.C. and tar hydrogenation was 100,500 tons and for bituminous coal hydrogenation it was 123,300 tons. An input of 1,480,000 tons of L.T.C. coal was calculated. The power coal requirement for L.T.C. and hydrogenation was 1,612,000 tons. The coal requirement for tar hydrogenation was 482,000 tons and 1,130,000 tons for surplus coke and gas. Therefore about 30% of the total coal was used for aviation gasoline and L.P.G. and about 70% for surplus coke and gas.

1943-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

477

Evaluation of BOC'S Lotox Process for the Oxidation of Elemental Mercury in Flue Gas from a Coal-Fired Boiler  

SciTech Connect

Linde's Low Temperature Oxidation (LoTOx{trademark}) process has been demonstrated successfully to remove more than 90% of the NOx emitted from coal-fired boilers. Preliminary findings have shown that the LoTOx{trademark} process can be as effective for mercury emissions control as well. In the LoTOx{trademark} system, ozone is injected into a reaction duct, where NO and NO{sub 2} in the flue gas are selectively oxidized at relatively low temperatures and converted to higher nitrogen oxides, which are highly water soluble. Elemental mercury in the flue gas also reacts with ozone to form oxidized mercury, which unlike elemental mercury is water-soluble. Nitrogen oxides and oxidized mercury in the reaction duct and residual ozone, if any, are effectively removed in a wet scrubber. Thus, LoTOx{trademark} appears to be a viable technology for multi-pollutant emission control. To prove the feasibility of mercury oxidation with ozone in support of marketing LoTOx{trademark} for multi-pollutant emission control, Linde has performed a series of bench-scale tests with simulated flue gas streams. However, in order to enable Linde to evaluate the performance of the process with a flue gas stream that is more representative of a coal-fired boiler; one of Linde's bench-scale LoTOx{trademark} units was installed at WRI's combustion test facility (CTF), where a slipstream of flue