Sample records for gas supply model

  1. Natural Gas Supply in Denmark -A Model of Natural Gas Transmission and the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the economic structure of the Danish natural gas market is formulated mathematically giving a descriptionNatural Gas Supply in Denmark - A Model of Natural Gas Transmission and the Liberalized Gas Market of the markets of natural gas and electricity and the existence of an abundance of de-centralized combined heat

  2. EIA model documentation: Documentation of the Oil and Gas Supply Module (OGSM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Oil and Gas Supply Model (OGSM), to describe the model`s basic approach, and to provide detail on how the model works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public. Projected production estimates of US crude oil and natural gas are based on supply functions generated endogenously within National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) by the OGSM. OGSM encompasses domestic crude oil and natural gas supply by both conventional and nonconventional recovery techniques. Nonconventional recovery includes enhanced oil recovery (EOR), and unconventional gas recovery (UGR) from tight gas formations, Devonian shale and coalbeds. Crude oil and natural gas projects are further disaggregated by geographic region. OGSM projects US domestic oil and gas supply for six Lower 48 onshore regions, three offshore regions, and Alaska. The general methodology relies on forecasted drilling expenditures and average drilling costs to determine exploratory and developmental drilling levels for each region and fuel type. These projected drilling levels translate into reserve additions, as well as a modification of the production capacity for each region. OGSM also represents foreign trade in natural gas, imports and exports by entry region.

  3. Oil and Gas Supply Module of the National Energy Modeling System: Model Documentation 2014

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal StocksProvedFeet) Year%Year Jan Feb3 0 1 2 3ProductionOil and Gas Supply

  4. Easing the Natural Gas Crisis: Reducing Natural Gas Prices Through Electricity Supply Diversification -- Testimony

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NANGAS (North American Natural Gas Analysis System), E2020 (Modeling Forum (EMF). 2003. Natural Gas, Fuel Diversity and2003. Increasing U.S. Natural Gas Supplies: A Discussion

  5. Natural Gas Supply SBIR Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shoemaker, H.D.; Gwilliam, W.J.

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program was created in 1982 by Public Law 97-219 and reauthorized in 1992 until the year 2000 by Public Law 102-564. The purposes of the new law are to (1) expand and improve the SBIR program, 2) emphasize the program`s goal of increasing private sector commercialization of technology developed through Federal R&D, (3) increase small business participation in Federal R&D, and (4) improve the Federal Government`s dissemination of information concerning the SBIR program. DOE`s SBIR pro-ram has two features that are unique. In the 1995 DOE SBIR solicitation, the DOE Fossil Energy topics were: environmental technology for natural gas, oil, and coal; advanced recovery of oil; natural gas supply; natural gas utilization; advanced coal-based power systems; and advanced fossil fuels research. The subtopics for this solicitation`s Natural Gas Supply topic are (1) drilling, completion, and stimulation; (2) low-permeability Formations; (3) delivery and storage; and (4) natural gas upgrading.

  6. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Natural Gas Supply Basins...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Corridors About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 20072008 with selected updates U.S. Natural Gas Supply Basins Relative to Major Natural...

  7. Documentation of the Oil and Gas Supply Module (OGSM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Oil and Gas Supply Model (OGSM), to describe the model`s basic approach, and to provide detail on how the model works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public. Projected production estimates of US crude oil and natural gas are based on supply functions generated endogenously within National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) by the OGSM. OGSM encompasses domestic crude oil and natural gas supply by both conventional and nonconventional recovery techniques. Nonconventional recovery includes enhanced oil recovery (EOR), and unconventional gas recovery (UGR) from tight gas formations, Devonian/Antrim shale and coalbeds. Crude oil and natural gas projections are further disaggregated by geographic region. OGSM projects US domestic oil and gas supply for six Lower 48 onshore regions, three offshore regions, and Alaska. The general methodology relies on forecasted profitability to determine exploratory and developmental drilling levels for each region and fuel type. These projected drilling levels translate into reserve additions, as well as a modification of the production capacity for each region. OGSM also represents foreign trade in natural gas, imports and exports by entry region. Foreign gas trade may occur via either pipeline (Canada or Mexico), or via transport ships as liquefied natural gas (LNG). These import supply functions are critical elements of any market modeling effort.

  8. Gas supplies of interstate/natural gas pipeline companies 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication provides information on the interstate pipeline companies' supply of natural gas during calendar year 1989, for use by the FERC for regulatory purposes. It also provides information to other Government agencies, the natural gas industry, as well as policy makers, analysts, and consumers interested in current levels of interstate supplies of natural gas and trends over recent years. 5 figs., 18 tabs.

  9. Western Europe's future gas supplies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kardaun, G.

    1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Decline in indigenous natural gas production by 2000 will be compensated by imported natural gas and LNG and gas from unconventional sources. Coal gas will furnish about 10 percent of the demand, more natural gas imports will come from North Africa and the USSR and additional LNG will come from West Africa, the Middle East and the Western Hemisphere.

  10. Documentation of the Oil and Gas Supply Module (OGSM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Oil and Gas Supply Model (OGSM), to describe the model`s basic approach, and to provide detail on how the model works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public. It is prepared in accordance with the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) legal obligation to provide adequate documentation in support of its statistical and forecast reports (Public Law 93-275, Section 57(b)(2)). Projected production estimates of U.S. crude oil and natural gas are based on supply functions generated endogenously within National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) by the OGSM. OGSM encompasses domestic crude oil and natural gas supply by both conventional and nonconventional recovery techniques. Nonconventional recovery includes enhanced oil recovery (EOR), and unconventional gas recovery (UGR) from tight gas formations, Devonian shale and coalbeds. Crude oil and natural gas projections are further disaggregated by geographic region. OGSM projects U.S. domestic oil and gas supply for six Lower 48 onshore regions, three offshore regions, and Alaska. The general methodology relies on forecasted drilling expenditures and average drilling costs to determine exploratory and developmental drilling levels for each region and fuel type. These projected drilling levels translate into reserve additions, as well as a modification of the production capacity for each region. OGSM also represents foreign trade in natural gas, imports and exports by entry region. Foreign gas trade may occur via either pipeline (Canada or Mexico), or via transport ships as liquefied natural gas (LNG). These import supply functions are critical elements of any market modeling effort.

  11. The 'Supply-of-Storage' for Natural Gas in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uria, Rocio; Williams, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the Hedging Effectiveness of Natural Gas Futures. ” EnergyCommission. (2002). “Natural Gas Supply and Infrastructureand Price Dynamics in Natural Gas City Gate Markets. ”

  12. Look at natural gas supplies: room for cautious optimism. [USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teitelbaum, D.F.

    1981-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Projections of natural gas availability made only on a national level tend to mask major changes in regional reserves and production, resulting in overly optimistic estiamtes of future supplies. The Zinder annual gas-supply report - based on regional analyses - projects that conventional production will decline more than 50% below current levels by 2000. The development of alternative sources of natural gas (through unconventional production and importation) could maintain a constant level of total gas supplies despite the falling supply of conventional gas.

  13. Gas energy supply outlook through 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalisch, R.B.

    1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Late in 1984 the American Gas Association published a study by the Gas Supply Committee titled, ''The Outlook for Gas Energy Through 2010.'' This study was a joint effort by many people of the gas industry including GRI, IGT and AGA. The study observed that come 1646 Tcf of natural gas is judged to be ultimately recoverable in the US. Of this total, 665 Tcf were produced up to year-end 1984. At that time an additional 197 Tcf were categorized as proved reserves, i.e., known to exist with reasonable certainty and producible under current economic and operating conditions. An additional 784 Tcf were classified as potential supply. In short, about 60 % of the nation's ultimately recoverable resource still is available; only 40 % has been produced to data. This is a formidable gas resource for the lower-48; in 1984 the production level was about 17 Tcf; proved reserves were approximately 163 Tcf - more than nine times the 1984 production. 2 references, 2 tables.

  14. Documentation of the oil and gas supply module (OGSM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Oil and Gas Supply Model (OGSK, to describe the model`s basic approach, and to provide detail on how the model works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public. It is prepared in accordance with the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) legal obligation to provide adequate documentation in support of its statistical and forecast reports (Public Law 93-275, Section 57(b)(2). OGSM is a comprehensive framework with which to analyze oil and gas supply potential and related issues. Its primary function is to produce forecast of crude oil, natural gas production, and natural gas imports and exports in response to price data received endogenously (within NEMS) from the Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) and the Petroleum Market Model (PMM). To accomplish this task, OGSM does not provide production forecasts per se, but rather parameteres for short-term domestic oil and gas production functions and natural gas import functions that reside in PMM and NGTDM.

  15. QER- Comment of Natural Gas Supply Association

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    TO: Quadrennial Energy Review Task Force In response to the Department of Energy’s August 25, 2014 Federal Register Notice seeking input on the Quadrennial Energy Review, attached are comments from the Natural Gas Supply Association. Thank you for this opportunity to share our views on the important issue of energy infrastructure. If we can be of further assistance, please let me know. Regards,

  16. Analysis of natural gas supply strategies at Fort Drum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stucky, D.J.; Shankle, S.A.; Anderson, D.M.

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This analysis investigates strategies for Fort Drum to acquire a reliable natural gas supply while reducing its gas supply costs. The purpose of this study is to recommend an optimal supply mix based on the life-cycle costs of each strategy analyzed. In particular, this study is intended to provide initial guidance as to whether or not the building and operating of a propane-air mixing station is a feasible alternative to the current gas acquisition strategy. The analysis proceeded by defining the components of supply (gas purchase, gas transport, supplemental fuel supply); identifying alternative options for each supply component; constructing gas supply strategies from different combinations of the options available for each supply component and calculating the life-cycle costs of each supply strategy under a set of different scenarios reflecting the uncertainty of future events.

  17. Restricted Natural Gas Supply Case (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The restricted natural gas supply case provides an analysis of the energy-economic implications of a scenario in which future gas supply is significantly more constrained than assumed in the reference case. Future natural gas supply conditions could be constrained because of problems with the construction and operation of large new energy projects, and because the future rate of technological progress could be significantly lower than the historical rate. Although the restricted natural gas supply case represents a plausible set of constraints on future natural gas supply, it is not intended to represent what is likely to happen in the future.

  18. U.S. Natural Gas Supply to 2030 Larry Hughes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, Larry

    LNG Total Figure 1: U.S. natural gas supply (reference case) It should be noted that this is the reference case; the "side cases", based upon the volume of projected LNG (liquefied natural gas) imports gas supply projections for 2030 (TCF) Production Low LNG Reference High LNG Dry gas 21.99 20.83 19

  19. The impacts of technology on global unconventional gas supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yanty, Evi

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    As energy supplies from known resources are declining, the development of new energy sources is mandatory. One reasonable source is natural gas from unconventional resources. This study focus on three types of unconventional gas resources: coalbeds...

  20. Short-term supply chain management in upstream natural gas systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selot, Ajay

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural gas supply chain planning and optimization is important to ensure security and reliability of natural gas supply. However, it is challenging due to the distinctive features of natural gas supply chains. These ...

  1. Water supply and demand in an energy supply model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbey, D; Loose, V

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a tool for water and energy-related policy analysis, the development of a water supply and demand sector in a linear programming model of energy supply in the United States. The model allows adjustments in the input mix and plant siting in response to water scarcity. Thus, on the demand side energy conversion facilities can substitute more costly dry cooling systems for conventional evaporative systems. On the supply side groundwater and water purchased from irrigators are available as more costly alternatives to unappropriated surface water. Water supply data is developed for 30 regions in 10 Western states. Preliminary results for a 1990 energy demand scenario suggest that, at this level of spatial analysis, water availability plays a minor role in plant siting. Future policy applications of the modeling system are discussed including the evaluation of alternative patterns of synthetic fuels development.

  2. Total Supplemental Supply of Natural Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline andSupplemental Gas

  3. Florida Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803 Table A1.GasYear Jan Feb Mar AprVentedThousand Cubic030

  4. Georgia Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803 Table A1.GasYearper Thousand Cubic Feet)2.4 2.5 2.9*

  5. Hawaii Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803 Table A1.GasYearperHOW TOTotalThousand Cubic2,559 2,447

  6. Future natural gas supply and demand balance. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, G.R.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study assesses the future price and availability of natural gas as a boiler fuel in the United States. Analysis focuses on various forecasts for natural gas production and consumption through the year 2000. The forecasts reviewed predict that conventional lower-48 production will decline through the year 2000, but there is a wide divergence of opinion on the future availability of gas from unconventional sources of supply. Future gas prices are also uncertain, but as deregulation proceeds, the rolling-in of high cost sources of supply will diminish and gas will be priced more competitively with oil. Analysis presented in the report implies that it will be prudent to maintain the planning assumption that gas will be phased out as a boiler fuel. Gas should, however, remain attractive to utilities for a variety of specific uses. Fluctuating fuel prices may make it advantageous to use gas for short periods of time, and gas may also prove to be attractive in less price sensitive applications.

  7. Impact of Natural Gas Price Decontrol on Gas Supply, Demand and Prices 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlesinger, B.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and private sources, including the Department of Energy, manufacturers' groups, and the various academic and other research institutes. Although, these generally tend to be increasingly optimistic about the gas supply outlook and the contribution... that gas can make to U.S. energy needs in the future, questions about price deregulation continue to cloud the gas outlook in many minds. Given this, the purposes of this paper are (a) to describe briefly the prospects for natural and supplemental gas...

  8. Electricity Shortage in California: Issues for Petroleum and Natural Gas Supply

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report addresses the potential impact of rotating electrical outages on petroleum product and natural gas supply in California.

  9. Fossil fuels supplies modeling and research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leiby, P.N.

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The fossil fuel supplies modeling and research effort focuses on models for US Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) planning and management. Topics covered included new SPR oil valuation models, updating models for SPR risk analysis, and fill-draw planning. Another task in this program area is the development of advanced computational tools for three-dimensional seismic analysis.

  10. Enron sees major increases in U. S. gas supply, demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carson, M.M.; Stram, B. (Enron Corp., Houston, TX (US))

    1991-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Enron Corp., Houston, in an extensive study of U.S. natural-gas supply and demand through the year 2000, has found that the U.S. gas-resource base is 1,200 tcf. Despite current weaknesses in natural-gas prices, demand growth will be strong although affected by oil-price assumptions. This paper reports on highlights in the areas of reserves and production which include gains in both categories in the Rockies/Wyoming, San Juan basin, and Norphlet trends (offshore Alabama). The Midcontinent/Hugoton area exhibits reserve declines in a period of flat production. In the U.S. Gulf Coast (USGC) offshore, both production and reserves decline over the forecast period. These projections are derived from a base-case price of $4.07/MMBTU by 2000. U.S. gas production exhibits a production decline in a low oil-price case from 19 to 16.4 tcf by 2000, if prices are 30% below the base case, that is, $2.93/MMBTU. Gains in commercial gas use are strong under either scenario of a base oil price of $29.80 in 1990 dollars in the year 2000 or a low oil price of $20.50 in 1990 dollars in 2000. Demand for natural gas for power generation grows as much as 1.5 tcf by 2000 in the Enron base case and by 300 bcf by 2000 in the low crude-oil price case.

  11. AEO2012 Preliminary Assumptions: Oil and Gas Supply

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I'26,282.1chemical7Host and Presentor3 Oil and Gas Supply

  12. The effect of natural gas supply on US renewable energy and CO2emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shearer, C; Shearer, C; Bistline, J; Inman, M; Davis, SJ; Davis, SJ

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    leaks from North American natural gas systems Science 343of methane emissions at natural gas production sites in theThe effect of natural gas supply on US renewable energy and

  13. Model for Energy Supply System Alternatives and their General...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for Energy Supply System Alternatives and their General Environmental Impacts (MESSAGE) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Model for Energy Supply System...

  14. Gas Composition and Oxygen Supply in the Root Environment of Substrates in Closed Hydroponic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lieth, J. Heinrich

    299 Gas Composition and Oxygen Supply in the Root Environment of Substrates in Closed Hydroponic Abstract The objective of this study was to get more information about the root zone, mainly the gas and ethylene, a gas sampling system was used to get gas samples from the root zone. CO2 gas samples of 20 ml

  15. Supply Chain Management and Economic Valuation of Real Options in the Natural Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadeh, Norman M.

    Supply Chain Management and Economic Valuation of Real Options in the Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas Industry Mulan Xiaofeng Wang Submitted to the Tepper School of Business in Partial Fulfillment options in the natural gas and liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry, including gas pipeline transportation

  16. Cover and startup gas supply system for solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, P.; George, R.A.

    1999-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A cover and startup gas supply system for a solid oxide fuel cell power generator is disclosed. Hydrocarbon fuel, such as natural gas or diesel fuel, and oxygen-containing gas are supplied to a burner. Combustion gas exiting the burner is cooled prior to delivery to the solid oxide fuel cell. The system mixes the combusted hydrocarbon fuel constituents with hydrogen which is preferably stored in solid form to obtain a non-explosive gas mixture. The system may be used to provide both non-explosive cover gas and hydrogen-rich startup gas to the fuel cell. 4 figs.

  17. Cover and startup gas supply system for solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Prabhakar (Export, PA); George, Raymond A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cover and startup gas supply system for a solid oxide fuel cell power generator is disclosed. Hydrocarbon fuel, such as natural gas or diesel fuel, and oxygen-containing gas are supplied to a burner. Combustion gas exiting the burner is cooled prior to delivery to the solid oxide fuel cell. The system mixes the combusted hydrocarbon fuel constituents with hydrogen which is preferably stored in solid form to obtain a non-explosive gas mixture. The system may be used to provide both non-explosive cover gas and hydrogen-rich startup gas to the fuel cell.

  18. Natural Gas Withdrawals from Underground Storage (Annual Supply...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Coalbed Wells...

  19. Gas Kick Mechanistic Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zubairy, Raheel

    2014-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    -gain and temperature profile in the annulus. This research focuses on these changes in these parameters to be able to detect the occurrence of gas kick and the circulation of the gas kick out from the well. In this thesis, we have developed a model that incorporates...

  20. Injections of Natural Gas into Storage (Annual Supply & Disposition...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Power Price Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Coalbed Wells...

  1. Natural Gas Withdrawals from Underground Storage (Annual Supply...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Power Price Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Coalbed Wells...

  2. Cost Curves for Gas Supply Security: The Case of Bulgaria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silve, Florent; Noël, Pierre

    . Interconnections: 8.64 7.92 14 - 5 Figure 2. Structure of gas consumption by sector, Bulgaria (2007) Figure 3. Structure of heat generation by fuel type, Bulgaria (2007) Figure 4. Electricity generation mix, Bulgaria (2007) Chemical industry 31... to put the vertical dotted line). The government may want to insure the gas consumption of some specific categories of customers, the interruption of which Cost per unit of peak gas consumption insured (m€/mcm/day) Cumulative level of peak gas...

  3. Coke battery with 51-m{sup 3} furnace chambers and lateral supply of mixed gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V.I. Rudyka; N.Y. Chebotarev; O.N. Surenskii; V.V. Derevich [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The basic approaches employed in the construction of coke battery 11A at OAO Magnitogorskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat are outlined. This battery includes 51.0-m{sup 3} furnaces and a dust-free coke-supply system designed by Giprokoks with lateral gas supply; it is heated exclusively by low-calorific mixed gas consisting of blast-furnace gas with added coke-oven gas. The 82 furnaces in the coke battery are divided into two blocks of 41. The gross coke output of the battery (6% moisture content) is 1140000 t/yr.

  4. Model for Energy Supply System Alternatives and their General...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    System Alternatives and their General Environmental Impacts (MESSAGE) (Redirected from Model for Energy Supply System Alternatives and their General Environmental Impacts) Jump to:...

  5. Modelling the South African fresh fruit export supply chain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Vuuren, Jan H.

    Modelling the South African fresh fruit export supply chain Frank Gerald Ortmann Thesis presented, cooling and transportation. The capacities of packhouses, cold stores and terminals are found

  6. Econometric Models of Discrete/Continuous Supply Decisions under Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanemann, W. Michael; Tsur, Yacov

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    357-382. XcFadden, D. "Econometric Net Supply Systems forpoint of view of the econometric investigator. the producerin New Directions in Econometric Modeling and Forecasting in

  7. Office of Oil, Gas, and Coal Supply Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of Energy Washington, DC 20585 April 2014 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Natural Gas Monthly ii This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information...

  8. The Research Path to Determining the Natural Gas Supply Potential of Marine Gas Hydrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boswell, R.M.; Rose, K.K.; Baker, R.C.

    2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A primary goal of the U.S. National Interagency Gas Hydrates R&D program is to determine the natural gas production potential of marine gas hydrates. In pursuing this goal, four primary areas of effort are being conducted in parallel. First, are wide-ranging basic scientific investigations in both the laboratory and in the field designed to advance the understanding of the nature and behavior of gas hydrate bearing sediments (GHBS). This multi-disciplinary work has wide-ranging direct applications to resource recovery, including assisting the development of exploration and production technologies through better rock physics models for GHBS and also in providing key data for numerical simulations of productivity, reservoir geomechanical response, and other phenomena. In addition, fundamental science efforts are essential to developing a fuller understanding of the role gas hydrates play in the natural environment and the potential environmental implications of gas hydrate production, a critical precursor to commercial extraction. A second area of effort is the confirmation of resource presence and viability via a series of multi-well marine drilling expeditions. The collection of data in the field is essential to further clarifying what proportion of the likely immense in-place marine gas hydrate resource exists in accumulations of sufficient quality to represent potential commercial production prospects. A third research focus area is the integration of geologic, geophysical, and geochemical field data into an effective suite of exploration tools that can support the delineation and characterization commercial gas hydrate prospects prior to drilling. The fourth primary research focus is the development and testing of well-based extraction technologies (including drilling, completion, stimulation and production) that can safely deliver commercial gas production rates from gas hydrate reservoirs in a variety of settings. Initial efforts will take advantage of the relatively favorable economics of conducting production tests in Arctic gas-hydrate bearing sandstones with the intent of translating the knowledge gained to later testing in marine sandstone reservoirs. The full and concurrent pusuit of each of these research topics is essential to the determining the future production potential of naturally-occuring gas hydrates.

  9. DOE, States Seek Closer Collaboration on Oil and Gas Supply and Delivery, Climate Change Mitigation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    An agreement aimed at improving cooperation and collaboration in the areas of oil and natural gas supply, delivery, and climate change mitigation, has been signed by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC).

  10. Fuel cell power supply with oxidant and fuel gas switching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McElroy, James F. (Hamilton, MA); Chludzinski, Paul J. (Swampscott, MA); Dantowitz, Philip (Peabody, MA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a fuel cell vehicular power plant. Fuel for the fuel stack is supplied by a hydrocarbon (methanol) catalytic cracking reactor and CO shift reactor. A water electrolysis subsystem is associated with the stack. During low power operation part of the fuel cell power is used to electrolyze water with hydrogen and oxygen electrolysis products being stored in pressure vessels. During peak power intervals, viz, during acceleration or start-up, pure oxygen and pure hydrogen from the pressure vessel are supplied as the reaction gases to the cathodes and anodes in place of air and methanol reformate. This allows the fuel cell stack to be sized for normal low power/air operation but with a peak power capacity several times greater than that for normal operation.

  11. Fuel cell power supply with oxidant and fuel gas switching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McElroy, J.F.; Chludzinski, P.J.; Dantowitz, P.

    1987-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a fuel cell vehicular power plant. Fuel for the fuel stack is supplied by a hydrocarbon (methanol) catalytic cracking reactor and CO shift reactor. A water electrolysis subsystem is associated with the stack. During low power operation part of the fuel cell power is used to electrolyze water with hydrogen and oxygen electrolysis products being stored in pressure vessels. During peak power intervals, viz, during acceleration or start-up, pure oxygen and pure hydrogen from the pressure vessel are supplied as the reaction gases to the cathodes and anodes in place of air and methanol reformate. This allows the fuel cell stack to be sized for normal low power/air operation but with a peak power capacity several times greater than that for normal operation. 2 figs.

  12. Medical Nuclear Supply Chain Design: A Tractable Network Model and Computational

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    Medical Nuclear Supply Chain Design: A Tractable Network Model and Computational Approach Anna Medical Nuclear Supply Chain Design #12;Outline Background and Motivation Supply Chain Challenges The Medical Nuclear Supply Chain Network Design Model The Computational Approach Summary and Suggestions

  13. The Cost of Improving Gas Supply Security in the Baltic States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noel, Pierre; Findlater, Sachi; Chyong, Chi Kong

    2012-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    to replace a failed compressor station on a transmission pipeline; 12 most disruptions caused by pipeline failures could be repaired in a week or less. A failure of the Latvian underground storage could potentially disrupt supply to Estonia and Latvia... it is important to note that both types of disruptions have the same practical consequences. For example in the Baltic States, an accidental pipeline explosion or compressor failure would interrupt gas supply to district heating plants, just as a voluntary...

  14. Limited Electricity Generation Supply and Limited Natural Gas Supply Cases (released in AEO2008)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Development of U.S. energy resources and the permitting and construction of large energy facilities have become increasingly difficult over the past 20 years, and they could become even more difficult in the future. Growing public concern about global warming and CO2 emissions also casts doubt on future consumption of fossil fuels -- particularly coal, which releases the largest amount of CO2 per unit of energy produced. Even without regulations to limit greenhouse gas emissions in the United States, the investment community may already be limiting the future use of some energy options. In addition, there is considerable uncertainty about the future availability of, and access to, both domestic and foreign natural gas resources.

  15. Cost modeling in the integrated supply chain strategic decision process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robinson, Todd (Todd Christopher)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis is based on an internship at Honeywell Aerospace's Integrated Supply Chain (ISC) Leadership division. This work focuses on the role and use of analytical cost models in the strategy development process. The ...

  16. Impact of Natural Gas Price Decontrol on Gas Supply, Demand and Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlesinger, B.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and industrial fuel and feedstock applications, as well as such new non-traditional uses as cogeneration, natural gas vehicles and select gas use with coal. With regard to impending gas price decontrol, analyses conducted by the American Gas Association (A...

  17. Miscellaneous: Uruguay energy supply options study assessing the market for natural gas - executive summary.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conzelmann, G.; Veselka, T.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2008-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Uruguay is in the midst of making critical decisions affecting the design of its future energy supply system. Momentum for change is expected to come from several directions, including recent and foreseeable upgrades and modifications to energy conversion facilities, the importation of natural gas from Argentina, the possibility for a stronger interconnection of regional electricity systems, the country's membership in MERCOSUR, and the potential for energy sector reforms by the Government of Uruguay. The objective of this study is to analyze the effects of several fuel diversification strategies on Uruguay's energy supply system. The analysis pays special attention to fuel substitution trends due to potential imports of natural gas via a gas pipeline from Argentina and increasing electricity ties with neighboring countries. The Government of Uruguay has contracted with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to study several energy development scenarios with the support of several Uruguayan institutions. Specifically, ANL was asked to conduct a detailed energy supply and demand analysis, develop energy demand projections based on an analysis of past energy demand patterns with support from local institutions, evaluate the effects of potential natural gas imports and electricity exchanges, and determine the market penetration of natural gas under various scenarios.

  18. Air/fuel supply system for use in a gas turbine engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, Timothy A; Schilp, Reinhard; Gambacorta, Domenico

    2014-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel injector for use in a gas turbine engine combustor assembly. The fuel injector includes a main body and a fuel supply structure. The main body has an inlet end and an outlet end and defines a longitudinal axis extending between the outlet and inlet ends. The main body comprises a plurality of air/fuel passages extending therethrough, each air/fuel passage including an inlet that receives air from a source of air and an outlet. The fuel supply structure communicates with and supplies fuel to the air/fuel passages for providing an air/fuel mixture within each air/fuel passage. The air/fuel mixtures exit the main body through respective air/fuel passage outlets.

  19. Bianchi Models with Chaplygin Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gülçin; Uluyazi; Özgür Sevinc

    2012-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Einstein Gravitational Field Equations (EFE) of Chaplygin gas dominated Bianchi-type models are obtained by using metric approximation. The solutions of equations for a special case, namely Bianchi I model which is a generalization of isotropic Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmology, are obtained. The early and late behaviours of some kinematic parameters in model are presented in graphically.

  20. Model documentation: Natural gas transmission and distribution model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is the component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) that is used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. NEMS was developed in the Office of integrated Analysis and Forecasting of the Energy information Administration (EIA). NEMS is the third in a series of computer-based, midterm energy modeling systems used since 1974 by the EIA and its predecessor, the Federal Energy Administration, to analyze domestic energy-economy markets and develop projections. The NGTDM is the model within the NEMS that represents the transmission, distribution, and pricing of natural gas. The model also includes representations of the end-use demand for natural gas, the production of domestic natural gas, and the availability of natural gas traded on the international market based on information received from other NEMS models. The NGTDM determines the flow of natural gas in an aggregate, domestic pipeline network, connecting domestic and foreign supply regions with 12 demand regions. The methodology employed allows the analysis of impacts of regional capacity constraints in the interstate natural gas pipeline network and the identification of pipeline capacity expansion requirements. There is an explicit representation of core and noncore markets for natural gas transmission and distribution services, and the key components of pipeline tariffs are represented in a pricing algorithm. Natural gas pricing and flow patterns are derived by obtaining a market equilibrium across the three main elements of the natural gas market: the supply element, the demand element, and the transmission and distribution network that links them. The NGTDM consists of four modules: the Annual Flow Module, the Capacity F-expansion Module, the Pipeline Tariff Module, and the Distributor Tariff Module. A model abstract is provided in Appendix A.

  1. Medical Nuclear Supply Chain Design: A Tractable Network Model and Computational

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    Medical Nuclear Supply Chain Design: A Tractable Network Model and Computational Approach Anna Chain Challenges The Medical Nuclear Supply Chain Network Design Model The Computational Approach Medical Nuclear Supply Chain Design #12;This presentation is based on the paper, "Medical Nuclear Supply

  2. KEY DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR THE HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS-COOLED REACTOR NUCLEAR HEAT SUPPLY SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L.E. Demick

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Key requirements that affect the design of the high temperature gas-cooled reactor nuclear heat supply system (HTGR-NHSS) as the NGNP Project progresses through the design, licensing, construction and testing of the first of a kind HTGR based plant are summarized. These requirements derive from pre-conceptual design development completed to-date by HTGR Suppliers, collaboration with potential end users of the HTGR technology to identify energy needs, evaluation of integration of the HTGR technology with industrial processes and recommendations of the NGNP Project Senior Advisory Group.

  3. Assumption to the Annual Energy Outlook 2014 - Oil and Gas Supply Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline prices4 OilU.S.5AreOil and Gas Supply Module

  4. Factors that will influence oil and gas supply and demand in the 21st century

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holditch, S.A.; Chianelli, R.R. [Texas A& amp; M University, College Station, TX (United States)

    2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A recent report published by the National Petroleum Council (NPC) in the United States predicted a 50-60% growth in total global demand for energy by 2030. Because oil, gas, and coal will continue to be the primary energy sources during this time, the energy industry will have to continue increasing the supply of these fuels to meet this increasing demand. Achieving this goal will require the exploitation of both conventional and unconventional reservoirs of oil and gas in (including coalbed methane) an environmentally acceptable manner. Such efforts will, in turn, require advancements in materials science, particularly in the development of materials that can withstand high-pressure, high-temperature, and high-stress conditions.

  5. A Multi-Objective, Hub-and-Spoke Supply Chain Design Model For Densified Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Md S. Roni; Sandra Eksioglu; Kara G. Cafferty

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we propose a model to design the supply chain for densified biomass. Rail is typically used for long-haul, high-volume shipment of densified biomass. This is the reason why a hub-and-spoke network structure is used to model this supply chain. The model is formulated as a multi-objective, mixed-integer programing problem under economic, environmental, and social criteria. The goal is to identify the feasibility of meeting the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) by using biomass for production of cellulosic ethanol. The focus in not just on the costs associated with meeting these standards, but also exploring the social and environmental benefits that biomass production and processing offers by creating new jobs and reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We develop an augmented ?-constraint method to find the exact Pareto solution to this optimization problem. We develop a case study using data from the Mid-West. The model identifies the number, capacity and location of biorefineries needed to make use of the biomass available in the region. The model estimates the delivery cost of cellulosic ethanol under different scenario, the number new jobs created and the GHG emission reductions in the supply chain.

  6. MODEL BASED BIOMASS SYSTEM DESIGN OF FEEDSTOCK SUPPLY SYSTEMS FOR BIOENERGY PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David J. Muth, Jr.; Jacob J. Jacobson; Kenneth M. Bryden

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Engineering feedstock supply systems that deliver affordable, high-quality biomass remains a challenge for the emerging bioenergy industry. Cellulosic biomass is geographically distributed and has diverse physical and chemical properties. Because of this feedstock supply systems that deliver cellulosic biomass resources to biorefineries require integration of a broad set of engineered unit operations. These unit operations include harvest and collection, storage, preprocessing, and transportation processes. Design decisions for each feedstock supply system unit operation impact the engineering design and performance of the other system elements. These interdependencies are further complicated by spatial and temporal variances such as climate conditions and biomass characteristics. This paper develops an integrated model that couples a SQL-based data management engine and systems dynamics models to design and evaluate biomass feedstock supply systems. The integrated model, called the Biomass Logistics Model (BLM), includes a suite of databases that provide 1) engineering performance data for hundreds of equipment systems, 2) spatially explicit labor cost datasets, and 3) local tax and regulation data. The BLM analytic engine is built in the systems dynamics software package PowersimTM. The BLM is designed to work with thermochemical and biochemical based biofuel conversion platforms and accommodates a range of cellulosic biomass types (i.e., herbaceous residues, short- rotation woody and herbaceous energy crops, woody residues, algae, etc.). The BLM simulates the flow of biomass through the entire supply chain, tracking changes in feedstock characteristics (i.e., moisture content, dry matter, ash content, and dry bulk density) as influenced by the various operations in the supply chain. By accounting for all of the equipment that comes into contact with biomass from the point of harvest to the throat of the conversion facility and the change in characteristics, the BLM evaluates economic performance of the engineered system, as well as determining energy consumption and green house gas performance of the design. This paper presents a BLM case study delivering corn stover to produce cellulosic ethanol. The case study utilizes the BLM to model the performance of several feedstock supply system designs. The case study also explores the impact of temporal variations in climate conditions to test the sensitivity of the engineering designs. Results from the case study show that under certain conditions corn stover can be delivered to the cellulosic ethanol biorefinery for $35/dry ton.

  7. A Supply Chain Generalized Network Oligopoly Model for Pharmaceuticals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    dollars in drugs, vaccines, and other medical supplies were found spoiled, stolen, or unaccounted for

  8. Can Deployment of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Put Downward Pressure on Natural Gas Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Supply Models of Natural Gas. ” The Bell Journal ofCalifornia’s Reliance on Natural Gas. Santa Monica, Calif. :Modeling Forum (EMF). 2003. Natural Gas, Fuel Diversity and

  9. Development of a natural Gas Systems Analysis Model (GSAM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Godec, M.; Haas, M.; Pepper, W.; Rose, J.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent dramatic changes in natural gas markets have significant implications for the scope and direction of DOE`s upstream as well as downstream natural gas R&D. Open access transportation changes the way gas is bought and sold. The end of the gas deliverability surplus requires increased reserve development above recent levels. Increased gas demand for power generation and other new uses changes the overall demand picture in terms of volumes, locations and seasonality. DOE`s Natural Gas Strategic Plan requires that its R&D activities be evaluated for their ability to provide adequate supplies of reasonably priced gas. Potential R&D projects are to be evaluated using a full fuel cycle, benefit-cost approach to estimate likely market impact as well as technical success. To assure R&D projects are evaluated on a comparable basis, METC has undertaken the development of a comprehensive natural gas technology evaluation framework. Existing energy systems models lack the level of detail required to estimate the impact of specific upstream natural gas technologies across the known range of geological settings and likely market conditions. Gas Systems Analysis Model (GSAM) research during FY 1993 developed and implemented this comprehensive, consistent natural gas system evaluation framework. Rather than a isolated research activity, however, GSAM represents the integration of many prior and ongoing natural gas research efforts. When complete, it will incorporate the most current resource base description, reservoir modeling, technology characterization and other geologic and engineering aspects developed through recent METC and industry gas R&D programs.

  10. Mathematical models of natural gas consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scitovski, Rudolf

    Mathematical models of natural gas consumption Kristian Sabo, Rudolf Scitovski, Ivan of natural gas consumption Kristian Sabo, Rudolf Scitovski, Ivan Vazler , Marijana Zeki-Susac ksabo of natural gas consumption hourly fore- cast on the basis of hourly movement of temperature and natural gas

  11. Supply chain design: a conceptual model and tactical simulations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brann, Jeremy Matthew

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In current research literature, supply chain management (SCM) is a hot topic breaching the boundaries of many academic disciplines. SCM-related work can be found in the relevant literature for many disciplines. Supply chain ...

  12. Medical Nuclear Supply Chain Design: A Tractable Network Model and Computational Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    Medical Nuclear Supply Chain Design: A Tractable Network Model and Computational Approach Anna of medical nuclear supply chains. Our focus is on the molybdenum supply chain, which is the most commonly is of special relevance to healthcare given the medical nuclear product's widespread use as well as the aging

  13. A generic knowledge Model for SME Supply Chain Based on Multiagent Paradigm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A generic knowledge Model for SME Supply Chain Based on Multiagent Paradigm Jihene Tounsi1 Enterprises (SME). These companies evolve in an unstable and complex network. In order to guarantee its role in a supply chain, SME must be able to support the inherent requirements of the supply chain (low lead times

  14. An Improved Stochastic Optimization Model for Water Supply ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jonathan De La Vega

    2014-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Mar 9, 2014 ... Abstract: This study investigates a pump scheduling problem for the collection, transfer and storage of water in water supply systems in urban ...

  15. Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is the component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) that is used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. The NGTDM is the model within the NEMS that represents the transmission, distribution, and pricing of natural gas. The model also includes representations of the end-use demand for natural gas, the production of domestic natural gas, and the availability of natural gas traded on the international market based on information received from other NEMS models. The NGTDM determines the flow of natural gas in an aggregate, domestic pipeline network, connecting domestic and foreign supply regions with 12 demand regions. The purpose of this report is to provide a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public that defines the objectives of the model, describes its basic design, provides detail on the methodology employed, and describes the model inputs, outputs, and key assumptions. Subsequent chapters of this report provide: an overview of NGTDM; a description of the interface between the NEMS and NGTDM; an overview of the solution methodology of the NGTDM; the solution methodology for the Annual Flow Module; the solution methodology for the Distributor Tariff Module; the solution methodology for the Capacity Expansion Module; the solution methodology for the Pipeline Tariff Module; and a description of model assumptions, inputs, and outputs.

  16. Models for Mitigating Supply Chain Disruptions Lawrence V. Snyder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    Example In 1998, strikes at two General Motors parts plants Snyder (Lehigh University) Supply Chain Example In 1998, strikes at two General Motors parts plants Snyder (Lehigh University) Supply Chain Example In 1998, strikes at two General Motors parts plants Led to shutdown of 100+ other parts plants

  17. Gas Distribution Modeling using Sparse Gaussian Process Mixture Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stachniss, Cyrill

    Gas Distribution Modeling using Sparse Gaussian Process Mixture Models Cyrill Stachniss1 Christian-- In this paper, we consider the problem of learning a two dimensional spatial model of a gas distribution with a mobile robot. Building maps that can be used to accurately predict the gas concentration at query

  18. Modeling Structural Changes in Market Demand and Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Beom Su

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Economic events may cause structural changes in markets. To know the effect of the economic event we should analyze the structural changes in the market demand and supply. The purpose of this dissertation is to analyze the effect of selected...

  19. Gas Model of Gravitons with Light Speed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ming Chen; Yong-Chang Huang

    2014-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We first review some aspects of gravitational wave and the thermodynamic expression of Einstein field equations, these achieved conclusions allow people to think of Einstein's gravitational wave as a kind of sound wave in ordinary gas which propagates as an adiabatic compression wave. In the following, using the properties of photon gas in "white wall box", we find an analogous relationship between ordinary gas and photon gas through sound velocity formula. At last, by taking the ordinary gas as an intermediary, we find that gravitational wave is analogous to photon gas, or equally, gravitons are analogous to photons although they are different in some ways such as spins and coupling strengths, and these different properties don't affect their propagation speeds. Utilizing this analogous relationship, we achieve the gas model of gravitons and this model naturally gives out the light speed of gravitons

  20. Agegraphic Chaplygin gas model of dark energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad Sheykhi

    2010-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We establish a connection between the agegraphic models of dark energy and Chaplygin gas energy density in non-flat universe. We reconstruct the potential of the agegraphic scalar field as well as the dynamics of the scalar field according to the evolution of the agegraphic dark energy. We also extend our study to the interacting agegraphic generalized Chaplygin gas dark energy model.

  1. A Supply-Demand Model Based Scalable Energy Management System for Improved Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhunia, Swarup

    energy generation and consumption parameters. The system uses economics inspired supply-demand modelA Supply-Demand Model Based Scalable Energy Management System for Improved Energy Utilization Western Reserve University, *Cleveland State University, +Rockwell Automation, Cleveland, OR, USA Email

  2. Strategic Planning, Design and Development of the Shale Gas Supply Chain Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    and fluids from the pure gas (methane) to produce what is known as "pipeline quality" dry natural gas.[2 in wells, providing raw materials for oil refineries or petrochemical plants, and as sources of energy.[3

  3. A Stochastic Unit Commitment Model for Integrating Renewable Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oren, Shmuel S.

    -optimization of generation and demand by the system operator, demand bids and coupling renewable resources with deferrable-optimizes the dispatch of demand- side resources, renewable supplies and generators. This is unrealistic in practice is coupling the operations of renewable resources with deferrable demand. The motivation of coupling renewable

  4. Modeling Generator Power Plant Portfolios and Pollution Taxes Electric Power Supply Chain Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    than a third arises from generating electricity. With the accumulating evidence of global warming, any affect the equilibrium electric power supply chain network production outputs, the transactions betweenModeling Generator Power Plant Portfolios and Pollution Taxes in Electric Power Supply Chain

  5. Modeling of Supply Chain Risk Under Disruptions with Performance Measurement and Robustness Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    . The model formulation captures supply- side risk as well as demand-side risk, along with uncertainty supply-side disruption risks, transportation and other cost risks, and demand-side uncertainty within, the focus of research has been on "demand-side" risk, which is related to fluctuations in the demand

  6. A Dynamic Supply-Demand Model for Electricity Prices Manuela Buzoianu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to natural random variation, temperature effects, natural gas supply effects, or plant stoppages. However of the economics of the California market during the crisis of 2000. They explain market behavior and its prices is built on the basic economic principle that on each day, the price and quantity in a competitive market

  7. Modeling well performance in compartmentalized gas reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yusuf, Nurudeen

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Predicting the performance of wells in compartmentalized reservoirs can be quite challenging to most conventional reservoir engineering tools. The purpose of this research is to develop a Compartmentalized Gas Depletion Model that applies not only...

  8. Modeling well performance in compartmentalized gas reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yusuf, Nurudeen

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Predicting the performance of wells in compartmentalized reservoirs can be quite challenging to most conventional reservoir engineering tools. The purpose of this research is to develop a Compartmentalized Gas Depletion Model that applies not only...

  9. Modeling of gas hydrates from first principles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Zhitao, 1974-

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ab initio calculations were used to determine the H20-CH4 potential energy surface (PES) accurately for use in modeling gas hydrates. Electron correlation was found to be treated accurately by the second-order Moller-Plesset ...

  10. Gauss Bonnet dark energy Chaplygin Gas Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elahe Karimkhani; Asma Alaii; Abdolhossein Khodam-Mohammadi

    2015-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we incorporate GB dark energy density and its modification, MGB, with Chaplygin gas component. We show that, presence of Chaplygin gas provides us a feature to obtain an exact solution for scalar field and potential of scalar field. Investigation on squared of sound speed provides a lower limit for constant parameters of MGB model. Also, we could find some bounds for free parameters of model.

  11. Gauss Bonnet dark energy Chaplygin Gas Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karimkhani, Elahe; Khodam-Mohammadi, Abdolhossein

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we incorporate GB dark energy density and its modification, MGB, with Chaplygin gas component. We show that, presence of Chaplygin gas provides us a feature to obtain an exact solution for scalar field and potential of scalar field. Investigation on squared of sound speed provides a lower limit for constant parameters of MGB model. Also, we could find some bounds for free parameters of model.

  12. Modeling and mapping of MaeLa refugee camp water supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rahimi, Navid

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes the development and use of a model, using the EPANET computer code, to simulate the three-hour intermittent MaeLa refugee camp water supply. In coordination with Aide Medicale Internationale, a field ...

  13. International Conference on Production Research PRODUCT INTERACTIONS MODELLING WITHIN THE SUPPLY CHAIN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    products, processes and customers along the product lifecycle. These requirements generate19 th International Conference on Production Research PRODUCT INTERACTIONS MODELLING WITHIN concept in the supply chain. This approach considers a product as a service provider or a service

  14. A Fork in the Road We stand at a fork in the road. Conventional oil and gas supplies are limited. We can move

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    A Fork in the Road We stand at a fork in the road. Conventional oil and gas supplies are limited the dirtiest tar sands and tar shales, hydrofracking for gas, continued mountain-top removal and mechanized to society. We must collect a gradually rising fee from fossil fuel companies at the source, the domestic

  15. Testing and modeling of underfloor air supply plenums

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jin, H.; Bauman, Fred; Webster, T.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    simulation, five heat transfer model options are possible:fluid dependent. The heat transfer model selected for the

  16. Primer on gas integrated resource planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldman, C.; Comnes, G.A.; Busch, J.; Wiel, S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses the following topics: gas resource planning: need for IRP; gas integrated resource planning: methods and models; supply and capacity planning for gas utilities; methods for estimating gas avoided costs; economic analysis of gas utility DSM programs: benefit-cost tests; gas DSM technologies and programs; end-use fuel substitution; and financial aspects of gas demand-side management programs.

  17. Comparing Supply-Side Specifications in Models of Global Agriculture and the Food System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, Sherman; van Meijl, Hans; Willenbockel, Dirk; Valin, Hugo; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Masui, Toshihiko; Sands, Ronald; Wise, Marshall A.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Havlik, Petr; Mason d'Croz, Daniel; Tabeau, Andrzej; Kavallari, Aikaterini; Schmitz, Christoph; Dietrich, Jan P.; von Lampe, Martin

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper compares the theoretical specification of production and technical change across the partial equilibrium (PE) and computable general equilibrium (CGE) models of the global agricultural and food system included in the AgMIP model comparison study. The two modeling approaches have different theoretical underpinnings concerning the scope of economic activity they capture and how they represent technology and the behavior of supply and demand in markets. This paper focuses on their different specifications of technology and supply behavior, comparing their theoretical and empirical treatments. While the models differ widely in their specifications of technology, both within and between the PE and CGE classes of models, we find that the theoretical responsiveness of supply to changes in prices can be similar, depending on parameter choices that define the behavior of supply functions over the domain of applicability defined by the common scenarios used in the AgMIP comparisons. In particular, we compare the theoretical specification of supply in CGE models with neoclassical production functions and PE models that focus on land and crop yields in agriculture. In practice, however, comparability of results given parameter choices is an empirical question, and the models differ in their sensitivity to variations in specification. To illustrate the issues, sensitivity analysis is done with one global CGE model, MAGNET, to indicate how the results vary with different specification of technical change, and how they compare with the results from PE models.

  18. World gas supply and demand: 1980-2020. Based on a study by the International Gas Union Force II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fish, L.W.; Kalisch, R.B.; Wingenroth, J.L.; Kirk, S.R.; Meeder, J.F.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    If world oil prices and economic growth rates rise moderately (2%/yr) as assumed by the International Gas Union's Task Force II, world natural gas demand could increase from 1980's level of 52 quadrillion Btu to 74 quads by 1990 and 90 quads by 2000. Gas demand growth rates will peak at 4.5%/yr during 1980-85, then fall to 3.3%/yr in 1985-90, 2%/yr in the 1990s, and 1% after 2000, although the rates will differ substantially for various countries, regions, and sectors. World gas production (53 quads in 1980) could reach 90-120 quads by 2000 and 92-100 by 2020. The North American/European share of world production, however, will decline from 55% in 1980 to 37% by 1990 and to 27% in 2000. Although North America's conventional production in 2020 will be only 60% of its current level, the expected growth in unconventional output should push overall production up 12%. The world reserves/production ratio, now at 45 years, will drop to 31 years by 2000 and 29 by 2020; the respective world reserves estimates are 2621 and 2350 trillion CF.

  19. Staff Listing - Office for Oil and Gas Global Security and Supply...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    586-0521 FAX (202) 586-6050 Division of Natural Gas Regulatory Activities Robert J. Smith, Acting Division Director Room 3E-028 Telephone (202) 586-7241 FAX (202) 586-6050...

  20. Combustion modeling in advanced gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smoot, L.D.; Hedman, P.O.; Fletcher, T.H.; Brewster, B.S.; Kramer, S.K. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States). Advanced Combustion Engineering Research Center

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Goal of DOE`s Advanced Turbine Systems program is to develop and commercialize ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior, cost competitive gas turbine systems for base-load applications in utility, independent power producer, and industrial markets. Primary objective of the program here is to develop a comprehensive combustion model for advanced gas turbine combustion systems using natural gas (coal gasification or biomass fuels). The efforts included code evaluation (PCGC-3), coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy, laser Doppler anemometry, and laser-induced fluorescence.

  1. An Integrated Electric Power Supply Chain and Fuel Market Network Framework: Theoretical Modeling with Empirical Analysis for New England

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    a critical infrastructure for the functioning of our modern economies and societies. Electric power lightsAn Integrated Electric Power Supply Chain and Fuel Market Network Framework: Theoretical Modeling Abstract: In this paper, we develop a novel electric power supply chain network model with fuel supply

  2. Decomposition Based Solution Approaches for Multi-product Closed-Loop Supply Chain Network Design Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Easwaran, Gopalakrishnan

    2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    .1. Solution Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 viii CHAPTER Page IV.2.2. Objective Function Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . 61 IV.2.3. Construction Heuristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 IV.2.4. Neighborhood Functions.... For the sake of clarity in model development and analysis, we refer to the parts as products in the remainder of this document. Also, a supply location that provides new products is referred to as a new product plant (NPP), a supply location where...

  3. The holonic enterprise: a model for Internet-enabled global manufacturing supply chain and workflow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulieru, Mihaela

    The holonic enterprise: a model for Internet-enabled global manufacturing supply chain and workflow, which supports organizational information that, in turn, can mirror social organization. The Holonic with an overview of the three main concepts used to develop our HE model: holonic systems, MAS, and the Internet

  4. Dense gas dispersion modeling for aqueous releases 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lara, Armando

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DENSE GAS DISPERSION MODELING FOR AQUEOUS RELEASES A Thesis by ARMANDO LARA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University In partial fulfill ment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1999 Major... Modeling for Aqueous Releases. (May 1999) Armando Lara, B. S. , University of Houston Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Sam Mannan Production, transportation, and storage of hazardous chemicals represent potential risks to the environment, the public...

  5. Cooling supply system for stage 3 bucket of a gas turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eldrid, Sacheverel Quentin (Saratoga Springs, NY); Burns, James Lee (Schenectady, NY); Palmer, Gene David (Clifton Park, NY); Leone, Sal Albert (Scotia, NY); Drlik, Gary Joseph (Fairfield, OH); Gibler, Edward Eugene (Cincinnati, OH)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a land based gas turbine including a compressor, a combustor and turbine section including at least three stages, an improvement comprising an inlet into a third stage nozzle from the compressor for feeding cooling air from the compressor to the third stage nozzle; at least one passageway running substantially radially through each airfoil of the third stage nozzle and an associated diaphragm, into an annular space between the rotor and the diaphragm; and passageways communicating between the annular space and individual buckets of the third stage.

  6. Natural Gas Receipts Across U.S. Borders (Annual Supply & Disposition)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803andYear Janthrough2,869,9601. Natural Gas4,365,088

  7. Development of the Integrated Biomass Supply Analysis and Logistics Model (IBSAL)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Webb, Erin [ORNL; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL

    2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Integrated Biomass Supply & Logistics (IBSAL) model is a dynamic (time dependent) model of operations that involve collection, harvest, storage, preprocessing, and transportation of feedstock for use at a biorefinery. The model uses mathematical equations to represent individual unit operations. These unit operations can be assembled by the user to represent the working rate of equipment and queues to represent storage at facilities. The model calculates itemized costs, energy input, and carbon emissions. It estimates resource requirements and operational characteristics of the entire supply infrastructure. Weather plays an important role in biomass management and thus in IBSAL, dictating the moisture content of biomass and whether or not it can be harvested on a given day. The model calculates net biomass yield based on a soil conservation allowance (for crop residue) and dry matter losses during harvest and storage. This publication outlines the development of the model and provides examples of corn stover harvest and logistics.

  8. Hybrid gas bearings with controlled supply pressure to eliminate rotor vibrations while crossing system critical speeds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryu, Keun

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    reliable predictive design models. The thrust of this research is to investigate conventional bearings of low cost, easy to manufacture (common materials) and easy to install and align. Flexure pivot tilting pad bearings offer little or no cross...

  9. A Network Model and Computational Approach Mo Supply Chain for Nuclear Medicine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    A Network Model and Computational Approach for the 99 Mo Supply Chain for Nuclear Medicine Ladimer S. Nagurney1 and Anna Nagurney2 1Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University University of Massachusetts - Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 Fall 2011 Joint Meeting Of The New England

  10. Carbon Footprint and the Management of Supply Chains: Insights from Simple Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benjaafar, Saifallah

    Carbon Footprint and the Management of Supply Chains: Insights from Simple Models Saif Benjaafar1, we illustrate how carbon emission concerns could be integrated into operational decision-making with regard to procurement, production, and inventory management. We show how, by associating carbon emission

  11. eMarketplace Model: An Architecture for Collaborative Supply Chain Management and Integration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huhns, Michael N.

    1 eMarketplace Model: An Architecture for Collaborative Supply Chain Management and Integration.shen@nrc.gc.ca Abstract. The current economic climate forces businesses to collaborate more frequently and build efficient management and integration platform. It supports coordination mecha- nisms and integration at the business

  12. Settlement Prediction, Gas Modeling and Slope Stability Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    Settlement Prediction, Gas Modeling and Slope Stability Analysis in Coll Cardús Landfill Li Yu using mechanical models Simulation of gas generation, transport and extraction in MSW landfill 1 models Simulation of gas generation, transport and extraction in MSW landfill 1) Analytical solution

  13. Numerical Modeling of Fractured Shale-Gas and Tight-Gas Reservoirs Using Unstructured Grids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olorode, Olufemi Morounfopefoluwa

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Various models featuring horizontal wells with multiple induced fractures have been proposed to characterize flow behavior over time in tight gas and shale gas systems. Currently, there is little consensus regarding the effects of non...

  14. An Integrated Electric Power Supply Chain and Fuel Market Network Framework: Theoretical Modeling with Empirical Analysis for New England

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    a critical infrastructure for the functioning of our modern economies and societies. Electric power lightsAn Integrated Electric Power Supply Chain and Fuel Market Network Framework: Theoretical Modeling; revised April 2008 Abstract: In this paper, we develop a novel electric power supply chain network model

  15. A Variable Cell Model for Simulating Gas Condensate Reservoir Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Majed, Abdulaziz Abdullah

    maturation profiles, which ie exhibitpd when gas pressure. Between this region near tha wellbore, SPE-~~~ SPE 21428 A Variable Cell Model for Simulating Gas Condensate Reservoir Performance A of depletion performance of gas condensate reservoirs report the existence of a A variable cell model

  16. Rock-physics Models for Gas-hydrate Systems Associated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin, University of

    Rock-physics Models for Gas-hydrate Systems Associated with Unconsolidated Marine Sediments Diana at Austin, Austin, Texas, U.S.A. ABSTRACT R ock-physics models are presented describing gas-hydrate systems associated with unconsolidated marine sediments. The goals are to predict gas-hydrate concentration from

  17. Evaluation of the gas production economics of the gas hydrate cyclic thermal injection model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuuskraa, V.A.; Hammersheimb, E.; Sawyer, W.

    1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the work performed under this directive is to assess whether gas hydrates could potentially be technically and economically recoverable. The technical potential and economics of recovering gas from a representative hydrate reservoir will be established using the cyclic thermal injection model, HYDMOD, appropriately modified for this effort, integrated with economics model for gas production on the North Slope of Alaska, and in the deep offshore Atlantic. The results from this effort are presented in this document. In Section 1, the engineering cost and financial analysis model used in performing the economic analysis of gas production from hydrates -- the Hydrates Gas Economics Model (HGEM) -- is described. Section 2 contains a users guide for HGEM. In Section 3, a preliminary economic assessment of the gas production economics of the gas hydrate cyclic thermal injection model is presented. Section 4 contains a summary critique of existing hydrate gas recovery models. Finally, Section 5 summarizes the model modification made to HYDMOD, the cyclic thermal injection model for hydrate gas recovery, in order to perform this analysis.

  18. A modeling of buoyant gas plume migration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silin, D.; Patzek, T.; Benson, S.M.

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work is motivated by the growing interest in injecting carbon dioxide into deep geological formations as a means of avoiding its atmospheric emissions and consequent global warming. Ideally, the injected greenhouse gas stays in the injection zone for a geologic time, eventually dissolves in the formation brine and remains trapped by mineralization. However, one of the potential problems associated with the geologic method of sequestration is that naturally present or inadvertently created conduits in the cap rock may result in a gas leakage from primary storage. Even in a supercritical state, the carbon dioxide viscosity and density are lower than those of the formation brine. Buoyancy tends to drive the leaked CO{sub 2} plume upward. Theoretical and experimental studies of buoyancy-driven supercritical CO{sub 2} flow, including estimation of time scales associated with plume evolution and migration, are critical for developing technology, monitoring policy, and regulations for safe carbon dioxide geologic sequestration. In this study, we obtain simple estimates of vertical plume propagation velocity taking into account the density and viscosity contrast between CO{sub 2} and brine. We describe buoyancy-driven countercurrent flow of two immiscible phases by a Buckley-Leverett type model. The model predicts that a plume of supercritical carbon dioxide in a homogeneous water-saturated porous medium does not migrate upward like a bubble in bulk water. Rather, it spreads upward until it reaches a seal or until it becomes immobile. A simple formula requiring no complex numerical calculations describes the velocity of plume propagation. This solution is a simplification of a more comprehensive theory of countercurrent plume migration (Silin et al., 2007). In a layered reservoir, the simplified solution predicts a slower plume front propagation relative to a homogeneous formation with the same harmonic mean permeability. In contrast, the model yields much higher plume propagation estimates in a high-permeability conduit like a vertical fracture.

  19. GASCAP: Wellhead Gas Productive Capacity Model documentation, June 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Wellhead Gas Productive Capacity Model (GASCAP) has been developed by EIA to provide a historical analysis of the monthly productive capacity of natural gas at the wellhead and a projection of monthly capacity for 2 years into the future. The impact of drilling, oil and gas price assumptions, and demand on gas productive capacity are examined. Both gas-well gas and oil-well gas are included. Oil-well gas productive capacity is estimated separately and then combined with the gas-well gas productive capacity. This documentation report provides a general overview of the GASCAP Model, describes the underlying data base, provides technical descriptions of the component models, diagrams the system and subsystem flow, describes the equations, and provides definitions and sources of all variables used in the system. This documentation report is provided to enable users of EIA projections generated by GASCAP to understand the underlying procedures used and to replicate the models and solutions. This report should be of particular interest to those in the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and the academic community, who are concerned with the future availability of natural gas.

  20. Multiscale Strategic Planning Model for the Design of Integrated Ethanol and Gasoline Supply Chain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    of concern are related to biomass transportation, supply chain design of bioethanol and its integration

  1. Proposal for the Award of a Contract for the Supply and Installation of a gas Turbine for Combined Generation of Electricity and Heat in the Heating Plant on the Meyrin Site

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposal for the Award of a Contract for the Supply and Installation of a gas Turbine for Combined Generation of Electricity and Heat in the Heating Plant on the Meyrin Site

  2. Pressure Transient Analysis and Production Analysis for New Albany Shale Gas Wells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Bo

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Shale gas has become increasingly important to United States energy supply. During recent decades, the mechanisms of shale gas storage and transport were gradually recognized. Gas desorption was also realized and quantitatively described. Models...

  3. Adsorption modeling for off-gas treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ladshaw, A.; Sharma, K.; Yiacoumi, S.; Tsouris, C. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0459 (United States); De Paoli, D.W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory: Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6181 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Off-gas generated from the reprocessing of used nuclear fuel contains a mixture of several radioactive gases including {sup 129}I{sub 2}, {sup 85}Kr, HTO, and {sup 14}CO{sub 2}. Over the past few decades, various separation and recovery processes have been studied for capturing these gases. Adsorption data for gaseous mixtures of species can be difficult to determine experimentally. Therefore, procedures capable of predicting the adsorption behavior of mixtures need to be developed from the individual isotherms of each of the pure species. A particular isotherm model of interest for the pure species is the Generalized Statistical Thermodynamic Adsorption isotherm. This model contains an adjustable number of parameters and will therefore describe a wide range of adsorption isotherms for a variety of components. A code has been developed in C++ to perform the non-linear regression analysis necessary for the determination of the isotherm parameters, as well as the least number of parameters needed to describe an entire set of data. (authors)

  4. THERMODYNAMIC MODELLING OF GAS SEMI-CLATHRATE HYDRATES USING THE ELECTROLYTE NRTL MODEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    THERMODYNAMIC MODELLING OF GAS SEMI-CLATHRATE HYDRATES USING THE ELECTROLYTE NRTL MODEL Matthias. For the description of the gas semiclathrate hydrate phase a combination of the salt hydrate model of Paricaud the applicability of the approach presented. Keywords: modeling, semiclathrate hydrate, gas semiclathrate hydrate, e

  5. HIGH DETAIL STATIONARY OPTIMIZATION MODELS FOR GAS ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    linear physics, major gas network operators in Germany and Europe face hard ..... This is a natural approach since our industrial partners rely on the same ...

  6. Development of a natural Gas Systems Analysis Model (GSAM). Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lacking a detailed characterization of the resource base and a comprehensive borehole-to-burnertip evaluation model of the North American natural gas system, past R&D, tax and regulatory policies have been formulated without a full understanding of their likely direct and indirect impacts on future gas supply and demand. The recent disappearance of the deliverability surplus, pipeline deregulation, and current policy debates about regulatory initiatives in taxation, environmental compliance and leasing make the need for a comprehensive gas evaluation system critical. Traditional econometric or highly aggregated energy models are increasingly regarded as unable to incorporate available geologic detail and explicit technology performance and costing algorithms necessary to evaluate resource-technology-economic interactions in a market context. The objective of this research is to create a comprehensive, non-proprietary, microcomputer model of the North American natural gas system. GSAM explicitly evaluates the key components of the natural gas system, including resource base, exploration and development, extraction technology performance and costs, transportation and storage and end use. The primary focus is the detailed characterization of the resource base at the reservoir and sub-reservoir level and the impact of alternative extraction technologies on well productivity and economics. GSAM evaluates the complex interactions of current and alternative future technology and policy initiatives in the context of the evolving gas markets. Scheduled for completion in 1995, a prototype is planned for early 1994. ICF Resources reviewed relevant natural gas upstream, downstream and market models to identify appropriate analytic capabilities to incorporate into GSAM. We have reviewed extraction technologies to better characterize performance and costs in terms of GSAM parameters.

  7. MODELLING GAS HYDRATE EQUILIBRIA USING THE ELECTROLYTE NON-RANDOM TWO-LIQUID (ENRTL) MODEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    MODELLING GAS HYDRATE EQUILIBRIA USING THE ELECTROLYTE NON-RANDOM TWO-LIQUID (ENRTL) MODEL Matthias" developed in our group and allowing for performing equilibrium calculations involving gas hydrate phases of state approach for the gas phase, the van-der-Waals and Platteeuw model for the clathrate hydrate phase

  8. Modeling of Supply Chain Risk under Disruptions with Performance Measurement and Robustness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    and logistical networks, to transportation networks, to electric power networks, financial networks, Nagurney, Dong Vulnerabilities of Supply Chain Networks #12;This presentation is based on the paper with the same title in Managing Supply Chain Risk and Vulnerability: Tools and Methods for Supply Chain Decision

  9. Modeling and valuing make-up clauses in gas swing Enrico Edoli1,2,3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vargiolu, Tiziano

    , the long term trend of natural gas demand has been historically upward sloping. The economic crisis of 2008 to the worldwile energy liberalization process, the birth of competitive gas markets and the recent financial@math.unipd.it. 1 #12;1 Introduction to long term supply contracts in European gas markets Europe is among

  10. The addition of a US Rare Earth Element (REE) supply-demand model improves the characterization and scope of the United States Department of Energy's effort to forecast US REE Supply and Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mancco, Richard

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the development of a new US Rare Earth Element (REE) Supply-Demand Model for the explicit forecast of US REE supply and demand in the 2010 to 2025 time period. In the 2010 Department of Energy (DOE) ...

  11. Optimization Models for Shale Gas Water Management Linlin Yang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    Optimization Models for Shale Gas Water Management Linlin Yang , Jeremy Manno and Ignacio E. Grossmann Department of Chemical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA Carrizo Oil & Gas and multiple scenarios from historical data. Two examples representative of the Marcellus Shale play

  12. Infrastructure investments and resource adequacy in the restructured US natural gas market : is supply security at risk?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hirschhausen, Christian von

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the development of US natural gas infrastructure over the last two decades and to discuss its perspectives. In particular, we focus on the relationship between the regulatory ...

  13. Sensitivity analysis of the fission gas behavior model in BISON.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swiler, Laura Painton; Pastore, Giovanni [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Fall, ID; Perez, Danielle [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Fall, ID; Williamson, Richard [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Fall, ID

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the result of a NEAMS project focused on sensitivity analysis of a new model for the fission gas behavior (release and swelling) in the BISON fuel performance code of Idaho National Laboratory. Using the new model in BISON, the sensitivity of the calculated fission gas release and swelling to the involved parameters and the associated uncertainties is investigated. The study results in a quantitative assessment of the role of intrinsic uncertainties in the analysis of fission gas behavior in nuclear fuel.

  14. NATURAL GAS MARKET ASSESSMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION NATURAL GAS MARKET ASSESSMENT PRELIMINARY RESULTS In Support.................................................................................... 6 Chapter 2: Natural Gas Demand.................................................................................................. 10 Chapter 3: Natural Gas Supply

  15. Dynamic Absorption Model for Off-Gas Separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veronica J. Rutledge

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Modeling and simulations will aid in the future design of U.S. advanced reprocessing plants for the recovery and recycle of actinides in used nuclear fuel. The specific fuel cycle separation process discussed in this report is the off-gas treatment system. The off-gas separation consists of a series of scrubbers and adsorption beds to capture constituents of interest. Dynamic models are being developed to simulate each unit operation involved so each unit operation can be used as a stand-alone model and in series with multiple others. Currently, a rate based, dynamic absorption model is being developed in gPROMS software. Inputs include liquid and gas stream constituents, column properties, liquid and gas phase reactions, number of stages, and inlet conditions. It simulates multiple component absorption with countercurrent flow and accounts for absorption by mass transfer and chemical reaction. The assumption of each stage being a discrete well-mixed entity was made. Therefore, the model is solved stagewise. The simulation outputs component concentrations in both phases as a function of time from which the rate of absorption is determined. Temperature of both phases is output as a function of time also. The model will be used able to be used as a standalone model in addition to in series with other off-gas separation unit operations. The current model is being generated based on NOx absorption; however, a future goal is to develop a CO2 specific model. The model will have the capability to be modified for additional absorption systems. The off-gas models, both adsorption and absorption, will be made available via the server or web for evaluation by customers.

  16. Evaluation of INL Supplied MOOSE/OSPREY Model: Modeling Water Adsorption on Type 3A Molecular Sieve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pompilio, L. M. [Syracuse University; DePaoli, D. W. [ORNL; Spencer, B. B. [ORNL

    2014-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate Idaho National Lab’s Multiphysics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) software in modeling the adsorption of water onto type 3A molecular sieve (3AMS). MOOSE can be thought-of as a computing framework within which applications modeling specific coupled-phenomena can be developed and run. The application titled Off-gas SeParation and REcoverY (OSPREY) has been developed to model gas sorption in packed columns. The sorbate breakthrough curve calculated by MOOSE/OSPREY was compared to results previously obtained in the deep bed hydration tests conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The coding framework permits selection of various options, when they exist, for modeling a process. For example, the OSPREY module includes options to model the adsorption equilibrium with a Langmuir model or a generalized statistical thermodynamic adsorption (GSTA) model. The vapor solid equilibria and the operating conditions of the process (e.g., gas phase concentration) are required to calculate the concentration gradient driving the mass transfer between phases. Both the Langmuir and GSTA models were tested in this evaluation. Input variables were either known from experimental conditions, or were available (e.g., density) or were estimated (e.g., thermal conductivity of sorbent) from the literature. Variables were considered independent of time, i.e., rather than having a mass transfer coefficient that varied with time or position in the bed, the parameter was set to remain constant. The calculated results did not coincide with data from laboratory tests. The model accurately estimated the number of bed volumes processed for the given operating parameters, but breakthrough times were not accurately predicted, varying 50% or more from the data. The shape of the breakthrough curves also differed from the experimental data, indicating a much wider sorption band. Model modifications are needed to improve its utility and predictive capability. Recommended improvements include: greater flexibility for input of mass transfer parameters, time-variable gas inlet concentration, direct output of loading and temperature profiles along the bed, and capability to conduct simulations of beds in series.

  17. Modeling threat assessments of water supply systems using markov latent effects methodology.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silva, Consuelo Juanita

    2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act emphasize efforts toward safeguarding our nation's water supplies against attack and contamination. Specifically, the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 established requirements for each community water system serving more than 3300 people to conduct an assessment of the vulnerability of its system to a terrorist attack or other intentional acts. Integral to evaluating system vulnerability is the threat assessment, which is the process by which the credibility of a threat is quantified. Unfortunately, full probabilistic assessment is generally not feasible, as there is insufficient experience and/or data to quantify the associated probabilities. For this reason, an alternative approach is proposed based on Markov Latent Effects (MLE) modeling, which provides a framework for quantifying imprecise subjective metrics through possibilistic or fuzzy mathematics. Here, an MLE model for water systems is developed and demonstrated to determine threat assessments for different scenarios identified by the assailant, asset, and means. Scenario assailants include terrorists, insiders, and vandals. Assets include a water treatment plant, water storage tank, node, pipeline, well, and a pump station. Means used in attacks include contamination (onsite chemicals, biological and chemical), explosives and vandalism. Results demonstrated highest threats are vandalism events and least likely events are those performed by a terrorist.

  18. New holographic Chaplygin gas model of dark energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Malekjani; A. Khodam-Mohammadi

    2010-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, we investigate the holographic dark energy model with new infrared cut-off (new HDE model) proposed by Granda and Oliveros. Using this new definition for infrared cut-off, we establish the correspondence between new HDE model and standard Chaplygin gas (SCG), generalized Chaplygin gas (GCG) and modified Chaplygin gas (MCG) scalar field models in non-flat universe. The potential and dynamics for these scalar field models, which describe the accelerated expansion of the universe are reconstructed. According to the evolutionary behavior of new HDE model, we derive the same form of dynamics and potential for different SCG, GCG and MCG models. We also calculate the squared sound speed of new HDE model as well as for SCG, GCG and MCG models and investigate the new HDE Chaplygin gas models from the viewpoint of linear perturbation theory. All results in non-flat universe are also discussed in the limiting case of flat universe, i.e. $k=0$.

  19. Modeling well performance in compartmentalized gas reservoirs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yusuf, Nurudeen

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    for consolidated reservoir cases while synthetic data (generated by the model using known parameters) was used for unconsolidated reservoir cases. In both cases, the Compartmentalized Depletion Model was used to analyze data, and estimate the OGIP and Jg of each...

  20. Modeling well performance in compartmentalized gas reservoirs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yusuf, Nurudeen

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    for consolidated reservoir cases while synthetic data (generated by the model using known parameters) was used for unconsolidated reservoir cases. In both cases, the Compartmentalized Depletion Model was used to analyze data, and estimate the OGIP and Jg of each...

  1. Modelling of Gas Clathrate Hydrate Equilibria using the Electrolyte Non-Random Two-Liquid (eNRTL) Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Modelling of Gas Clathrate Hydrate Equilibria using the Electrolyte Non-Random Two-Liquid (e + salt2 + gas} systems (salt = NaCl, KCl, CaCl2; gas = CH4, CO2) comprising a gas clathrate hydrate phase-electrolyte aqueous systems involving gas hydrate phases. In the H-Lw-G calculations, fugacities in the gas phase were

  2. Model documentation Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) of the National Energy Modeling System is developed and maintained by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting. This report documents the archived version of the NGTDM that was used to produce the natural gas forecasts presented in the Annual Energy Outlook 1996, (DOE/EIA-0383(96)). The purpose of this report is to provide a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public that defines the objectives of the model, describes its basic approach, and provides detail on the methodology employed. Previously this report represented Volume I of a two-volume set. Volume II reported on model performance, detailing convergence criteria and properties, results of sensitivity testing, comparison of model outputs with the literature and/or other model results, and major unresolved issues.

  3. Performance deterioration modeling in aircraft gas turbine engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaita, A.V. [Advanced Engineering and Research Associates, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States). Technology Development Div.; Buley, G. [Naval Surface Warfare Center, West Bethesda, MD (United States). Carderock Div.; Karlsons, G. [Naval Air Warfare Center, Patuxent River, MD (United States)

    1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steady-state performance models can be used to evaluate a new engine`s baseline performance. As a gas turbine accumulates operating time in the field, its performance deteriorates due to fouling, erosion, and wear. This paper presents the development of a model for predicting the performance deterioration of aircraft gas turbines. The model accounts for rotating component deterioration based on the aircraft mission profiles and environmental conditions and the engine`s physical and design characteristics. The methodology uses data correlations combined with a stage stacking technique for the compressor and a tip rub model, along with data correlations for the turbine to determine the amount of performance deterioration. The performance deterioration model interfaces with the manufacturer`s baseline engine simulation model in order to create a deteriorated performance model for that engine.

  4. Updated U.S. Geothermal Supply Characterization and Representation for Market Penetration Model Input

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Augustine, C.

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Geothermal Technologies Program (GTP) tasked the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) with conducting the annual geothermal supply curve update. This report documents the approach taken to identify geothermal resources, determine the electrical producing potential of these resources, and estimate the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE), capital costs, and operating and maintenance costs from these geothermal resources at present and future timeframes under various GTP funding levels. Finally, this report discusses the resulting supply curve representation and how improvements can be made to future supply curve updates.

  5. SPINTHIR: An ignition model for gas turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neophytou, A; Mastorakos, E

    2012-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    that the spark characteristics and location used in the experiments, developed over a number of years by trial-and-error methods, are indeed close to optimum. 1. Introduction Aircraft engines must satisfy high-altitude relight capability. Inexpensive models... and shape of the spark, for the same spark energy, that lead to the best ignition behaviour are explored. Firstly, we introduce the mathematical model and the combustor investigated. Then we present the results computed with the model. The paper concludes...

  6. A numerical model of perturbation gas chromatography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeBarro, Marc Joseph

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the polymer and the solvent. Flory (1965) extended his original model to account for the volume changes in the polymer phase. A further model was suggested by Sanchez and Lacombe (1978) based on s. lattice fluid theory. For the system examined in this work...

  7. Production Cost Modeling of Cogenerators in an Interconnected Electric Supply System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ragsdale, K.

    The Optimal State Electricity Supply System in Texas (OSEST) research project is part of the continuing Public Utility Commission of Texas (PUCT) effort to identify possible improvements in the production, transmission, and use of electricity...

  8. Fulfillment supply chain strategy evaluation : understanding cost drivers through comprehensive logistics modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Naray, Margo (Margo Taylor)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The fulfillment supply chain consists of all activities associated with packing, storing, and transporting a product from the manufacturer to the customer. In the global environment, it is a challenge to accurately measure ...

  9. A supply forecasting model for Zimbabwe's corn sector: a time series and structural analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Makaudze, Ephias

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Zimbabwean government utilizes the corn supply forecasts to establish producer prices for the following growing season, estimate corn storage and handling costs, project corn import needs and associated costs, and to assess the Grain Marketing...

  10. An Equilibrium-Based Model of Gas Reaction and Detonation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trowbridge, L.D.

    2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During gaseous diffusion plant operations, conditions leading to the formation of flammable gas mixtures may occasionally arise. Currently, these could consist of the evaporative coolant CFC-114 and fluorinating agents such as F2 and ClF3. Replacement of CFC-114 with a non-ozone-depleting substitute is planned. Consequently, in the future, the substitute coolant must also be considered as a potential fuel in flammable gas mixtures. Two questions of practical interest arise: (1) can a particular mixture sustain and propagate a flame if ignited, and (2) what is the maximum pressure that can be generated by the burning (and possibly exploding) gas mixture, should it ignite? Experimental data on these systems, particularly for the newer coolant candidates, are limited. To assist in answering these questions, a mathematical model was developed to serve as a tool for predicting the potential detonation pressures and for estimating the composition limits of flammability for these systems based on empirical correlations between gas mixture thermodynamics and flammability for known systems. The present model uses the thermodynamic equilibrium to determine the reaction endpoint of a reactive gas mixture and uses detonation theory to estimate an upper bound to the pressure that could be generated upon ignition. The model described and documented in this report is an extended version of related models developed in 1992 and 1999.

  11. Intermediate-Generalized Chaplygin Gas inflationary universe model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herrera, Ramon; Videla, Nelson

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An intermediate inflationary universe model in the context of a generalized Chaplygin gas is considered. For the matter we consider two different energy densities; a standard scalar field and a tachyon field, respectively. In general, we discuss the conditions of an inflationary epoch for these models. We also, use recent astronomical observations from Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe seven year data for constraining the parameters appearing in our models.

  12. MTBE/methanol supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, R.E.

    1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    U.S. methanol production has become economically competitive with imports due to de-escalation of natural gas price from $3.07 mm Btu in January 1985 to $2.07 mm Btu by December 1985. This has reversed the earlier supply outlook when it appeared that additional methanol plants would shutdown due to low cost imports. Current gas cost in conjunction with projections for continued excess supply prompted DuPont to restart their 250 mm gpy plant at Beaumont, Texas. Other former producers are contemplating restarting idle units.

  13. Isoscaling and Isospin Fractionation in the Lattice Gas Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Y G; Wei, Y B; Ma, G L; Cai, X Z; Chen, J G; Fang, D Q; Guo, W; Shen, W Q; Tian, W D; Zhong, C

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The isoscaling behavior is investigated using the isotopic/isobaric yields from the equilibrated thermal source which is prepared by the lattice gas model for lighter systems with A = 36. The isoscaling parameters $\\alpha$ and -$\\beta$ are observed to drop with temperature. The difference of neutron and proton chemical potential shows a turning point around 5 MeV where the liquid gas phase transition occurs in the model. The relative free neutron or proton density shows a nearly linear relation with the N/Z (neutron to proton ratio) of system and the isospin fractionation is observed.

  14. A gas kick model for the personal computer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Clayton Lowell

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A GAS KICK MODEL FOR THE PERSONAL COMPUTER A Thesis by CLAYTON LOWELL MILLER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A6M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1987 Major Subject...: Petroleum Engineering A GAS KICK MODEL FOR THE PERSONAL COMPUTER A Thesis by CLAYTON LOWELL MILLER Approved as to style and content by: Wana C. vkam-Wold (Chair f Committee) Robert W. Heine (Member) Tibor G. Rozg yi (Member) W. D. Von Gonten Head...

  15. Off-gas Adsorption Model and Simulation - OSPREY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veronica J Rutledge

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The absence of industrial scale nuclear fuel reprocessing in the U.S. has precluded the necessary driver for developing the advanced simulation capability now prevalent in so many other countries. Thus, it is essential to model complex series of unit operations to simulate, understand, and predict inherent transient behavior. A capability of accurately simulating the dynamic behavior of advanced fuel cycle separation processes is expected to provide substantial cost savings and many technical benefits. To support this capability, a modeling effort focused on the off-gas treatment system of a used nuclear fuel recycling facility is in progress. The off-gas separation consists of a series of scrubbers and adsorption beds to capture constituents of interest. Dynamic models are being developed to simulate each unit operation involved so each unit operation can be used as a stand-alone model and in series with multiple others. Currently, an adsorption model has been developed within Multi-physics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Off-gas Separation and REcoverY (OSPREY) models the adsorption of offgas constituents for dispersed plug flow in a packed bed under non-isothermal and non-isobaric conditions. Inputs to the model include gas composition, sorbent and column properties, equilibrium and kinetic data, and inlet conditions. The simulation outputs component concentrations along the column length as a function of time from which breakthrough data can be obtained. The breakthrough data can be used to determine bed capacity, which in turn can be used to size columns. In addition to concentration data, the model predicts temperature along the column length as a function of time and pressure drop along the column length. A description of the OSPREY model, results from krypton adsorption modeling and plans for modeling the behavior of iodine, xenon, and tritium will be discussed.

  16. Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant Safeguards System Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elayat, H A; O'Connell, W J; Boyer, B D

    2006-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is interested in developing tools and methods for potential U.S. use in designing and evaluating safeguards systems used in enrichment facilities. This research focuses on analyzing the effectiveness of the safeguards in protecting against the range of safeguards concerns for enrichment plants, including diversion of attractive material and unauthorized modes of use. We developed an Extend simulation model for a generic medium-sized centrifuge enrichment plant. We modeled the material flow in normal operation, plant operational upset modes, and selected diversion scenarios, for selected safeguards systems. Simulation modeling is used to analyze both authorized and unauthorized use of a plant and the flow of safeguards information. Simulation tracks the movement of materials and isotopes, identifies the signatures of unauthorized use, tracks the flow and compilation of safeguards data, and evaluates the effectiveness of the safeguards system in detecting misuse signatures. The simulation model developed could be of use to the International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA, enabling the IAEA to observe and draw conclusions that uranium enrichment facilities are being used only within authorized limits for peaceful uses of nuclear energy. It will evaluate improved approaches to nonproliferation concerns, facilitating deployment of enhanced and cost-effective safeguards systems for an important part of the nuclear power fuel cycle.

  17. Developing a gas purchasing strategy using a linear model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alst, K.M. Van [Midland Cogeneration Venture Limited Partnership, Midland, MI (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper outlines the process of developing a gas purchasing strategy with the use of a linear programming model. The linear model is used to determine the least cost approach regarding the acquisition of natural gas which has a considerable impact on the company`s financial performance. The author discusses the importance of optimizing gas costs from an end-user`s perspective. The Midland Cogeneration Venture (MCV) is the country`s largest cogeneration facility. The Facility has been certified by FERC (Federal Energy Regulatory Commission) as a Q.F. (Qualifying Facility) under PURPA (Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978). Unlike utilities, who have the ability to pass costs through to customers, MCV`s revenues are based on long-term contracts with its utility and industrial customers. Therefore, MCV cannot pass costs through to its customers. As such, effectively managing costs is vital to the success of the company.

  18. APT Blanket System Loss-of-Helium-Gas Accident Based on Initial Conceptual Design - Helium Supply Rupture into Blanket Module

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamm, L.L.

    1998-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The model results are used to determine if beam power shutdown is necessary (or not) as a result of the LOHGA accident to maintain the blanket system well below any of the thermal-hydraulic constraints imposed on the design. The results also provide boundary conditions to the detailed bin model to study the detailed temperature response of the hot blanket module structure. The results for these two cases are documented in the report.

  19. Comparing Price Forecast Accuracy of Natural Gas Models and Futures Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; Dale, Larry; Lekov, Alex

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Update on Petroleum, Natural Gas, Heating Oil and Gasoline.of the Market for Natural Gas Futures. Energy Journal 16 (Modeling Forum. 2003. Natural Gas, Fuel Diversity and North

  20. A supply chain network design model for biomass co-firing in coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Md. S. Roni; Sandra D. Eksioglu; Erin Searcy; Krishna Jha

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a framework for designing the supply chain network for biomass co-firing in coal-fired power plants. This framework is inspired by existing practices with products with similar physical characteristics to biomass. We present a hub-and-spoke supply chain network design model for long-haul delivery of biomass. This model is a mixed integer linear program solved using benders decomposition algorithm. Numerical analysis indicates that 100 million tons of biomass are located within 75 miles from a coal plant and could be delivered at $8.53/dry-ton; 60 million tons of biomass are located beyond 75 miles and could be delivered at $36/dry-ton.

  1. Evaluation of the gas production economics of the gas hydrate cyclic thermal injection model. [Cyclic thermal injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuuskraa, V.A.; Hammersheimb, E.; Sawyer, W.

    1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the work performed under this directive is to assess whether gas hydrates could potentially be technically and economically recoverable. The technical potential and economics of recovering gas from a representative hydrate reservoir will be established using the cyclic thermal injection model, HYDMOD, appropriately modified for this effort, integrated with economics model for gas production on the North Slope of Alaska, and in the deep offshore Atlantic. The results from this effort are presented in this document. In Section 1, the engineering cost and financial analysis model used in performing the economic analysis of gas production from hydrates -- the Hydrates Gas Economics Model (HGEM) -- is described. Section 2 contains a users guide for HGEM. In Section 3, a preliminary economic assessment of the gas production economics of the gas hydrate cyclic thermal injection model is presented. Section 4 contains a summary critique of existing hydrate gas recovery models. Finally, Section 5 summarizes the model modification made to HYDMOD, the cyclic thermal injection model for hydrate gas recovery, in order to perform this analysis.

  2. Estimation of a supply and demand model for the hired farm labor market in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turley, Keith Pool

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    labor in Texas increased from -0. 8 in 1951 to -2. 8 in 1975, while the long run wage elasticity of demand increased from -1. 0 to -3. 5 during the same time period. The hypothesis that Mexican immigration has had a direct influence on the supply... be expected to cause a 0. 3 per- cent short-run increase in the supply of hired farm labor in Texas, and a 0. 1 percent short-run decrease in the farm wage rate, while the long-run effect on the wage rate would be a 0. 4 percent decrease from the 1975...

  3. Model documentation: Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model of the National Energy Modeling System; Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is a component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. NEMS is the third in a series of computer-based, midterm energy modeling systems used since 1974 by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) and its predecessor, the Federal Energy Administration, to analyze domestic energy-economy markets and develop projections. This report documents the archived version of NGTDM that was used to produce the natural gas forecasts used in support of the Annual Energy Outlook 1994, DOE/EIA-0383(94). The purpose of this report is to provide a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public that defines the objectives of the model, describes its basic design, provides detail on the methodology employed, and describes the model inputs, outputs, and key assumptions. It is intended to fulfill the legal obligation of the EIA to provide adequate documentation in support of its models (Public Law 94-385, Section 57.b.2). This report represents Volume 1 of a two-volume set. (Volume 2 will report on model performance, detailing convergence criteria and properties, results of sensitivity testing, comparison of model outputs with the literature and/or other model results, and major unresolved issues.) Subsequent chapters of this report provide: (1) an overview of the NGTDM (Chapter 2); (2) a description of the interface between the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) and the NGTDM (Chapter 3); (3) an overview of the solution methodology of the NGTDM (Chapter 4); (4) the solution methodology for the Annual Flow Module (Chapter 5); (5) the solution methodology for the Distributor Tariff Module (Chapter 6); (6) the solution methodology for the Capacity Expansion Module (Chapter 7); (7) the solution methodology for the Pipeline Tariff Module (Chapter 8); and (8) a description of model assumptions, inputs, and outputs (Chapter 9).

  4. Modeling of Electric Power Supply Chain Networks with Fuel Suppliers Variational Inequalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    primary energy (coal, natural gas, uranium, and oil), or approximately 40 quadrillion BTU (British Thermal, and more than six billion Mcfs (thousand cubic feet) of natural gas were used in producing electric power Edison Electric Institute (2000), US Energy Information Administration (2002, 2005)). The US electric

  5. Investigation of DC distribution by measuring and modelling power supply devices for buildings with PV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    control (grid-supplied induction motors and universal motors) stand as exceptions to this rule. However. Introduction Since the last building standards or eco-labels were created, the trend is to reduce building, recent work [3] revealed that using variable speed control on these electromechanical loads (passing

  6. hal-00200422,version1-20Dec2007 Arbitrage free cointegrated models in gas and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    market. The dependence between gas and oil prices could be economically explained with gas long termhal-00200422,version1-20Dec2007 Arbitrage free cointegrated models in gas and oil future markets Gr we present a continuous time model for natural gas and crude oil future prices. Its main feature

  7. Natural gas production from hydrate dissociation: An axisymmetric model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmadi, G. (Clarkson Univ., Pottsdam, NY); Ji, Chuang (Clarkson Univ., Pottsdam, NY); Smith, D.H.

    2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes an axisymmetric model for natural gas production from the dissociation of methane hydrate in a confined reservoir by a depressurizing well. During the hydrate dissociation, heat and mass transfer in the reservoir are analyzed. The system of governing equations is solved by a finite difference scheme. For different well pressures and reservoir temperatures, distributions of temperature and pressure in the reservoir, as well as the natural gas production from the well are evaluated. The numerical results are compared with those obtained by a linearization method. It is shown that the gas production rate is a sensitive function of well pressure. The simulation results are compared with the linearization approach and the shortcomings of the earlier approach are discussed.

  8. Implications of a Regime-Switching Model on Natural Gas Storage Valuation and Optimal Operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forsyth, Peter A.

    Implications of a Regime-Switching Model on Natural Gas Storage Valuation and Optimal Operation-switching model for the risk adjusted natural gas spot price and study the implications of the model on the valuation and optimal operation of natural gas storage facilities. We calibrate the model parameters to both

  9. Gas Network Optimization: A comparison of Piecewise Linear Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas network optimization manages the gas transport by minimizing operating costs and .... This problem represents the transportation process of natural gas. 79.

  10. Gas-Liquid Coexistence in the Primitive Model for Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Romano; P. Tartaglia; F. Sciortino

    2007-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We evaluate the location of the gas-liquid coexistence line and of the associated critical point for the primitive model for water (PMW), introduced by Kolafa and Nezbeda [J. Kolafa and I. Nezbeda, Mol. Phys. 61, 161 (1987)]. Besides being a simple model for a molecular network forming liquid, the PMW is representative of patchy proteins and novel colloidal particles interacting with localized directional short-range attractions. We show that the gas-liquid phase separation is metastable, i.e. it takes place in the region of the phase diagram where the crystal phase is thermodynamically favored, as in the case of articles interacting via short-range attractive spherical potentials. Differently from spherical potentials, we do not observe crystallization close to the critical point. The region of gas-liquid instability of this patchy model is significantly reduced as compared to equivalent models of spherically interacting particles, confirming the possibility of observing kinetic arrest in an homogeneous sample driven by bonding as opposed to packing.

  11. Historical Natural Gas Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

  12. Historical Natural Gas Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

  13. Historical Natural Gas Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

  14. A physics-based emissions model for aircraft gas turbine combustors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allaire, Douglas L

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, a physics-based model of an aircraft gas turbine combustor is developed for predicting NO. and CO emissions. The objective of the model is to predict the emissions of current and potential future gas turbine ...

  15. craton, where the pattern matches that expected from the gas-hydrate model. Fur-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kilgard, Michael P.

    craton, where the pattern matches that expected from the gas-hydrate model. Fur- ther, values-lived changes in the carbon-isotopic composition of the ocean. But the gas-hydrate model avoids some

  16. Assessing reliability in energy supply systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan W.; Ogden, Joan M.; Sperling, Daniel

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    liquefied natural gas (LNG) trading expected to increase insteam reformation production facility using imported LNG.The LNG supplies come primarily from Trinidad and Tobago,

  17. Assessing Reliability in Energy Supply Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan; Ogden, Joan M.; Sperling, Dan

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    liquefied natural gas (LNG) trading expected to increase insteam reformation production facility using imported LNG.The LNG supplies come primarily from Trinidad and Tobago,

  18. Introduction Literature Review Supply Chain Network Model Simulation Studies Managerial Insights and Conclusions Supply Chain Outsourcing Under Exchange Rate Risk and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    generally reduces production costs. From 2000 to 2007, 70 percent of U.S. non-oil import growth was driven Foreign exchange risk is consistently considered to be on the list of top concerns of supply chain executives. A study conducted by The Economist, which surveyed 500 global company executives

  19. A lattice gas model of avalanches in a granular pile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antal Karolyi; Janos Kertesz

    1997-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A granular media lattice gas (GMLG) model is used to study avalanches in a two-dimensional granular pile. We demonstrate the efficiency of the algorithm by showing that several features of the non-critical behaviour of real sandpile surfaces, such as the bounded outflow statistics or the finite-size effect of the time evolution of the pile mass, can be reproduced by this simulation approach.

  20. Water resources: sustainable water supply management and basin wide modelling Internationally it has been recognized that the most important challenge to ensuring sustainable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barthelat, Francois

    Water resources: sustainable water supply management and basin wide modelling Internationally it has been recognized that the most important challenge to ensuring sustainable water use is implementing integrated water resources management (IWRM). It provides the best framework for balancing

  1. Parameter identification in large-scale models for oil and gas production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van den Hof, Paul

    Parameter identification in large-scale models for oil and gas production Jorn F.M. Van Doren: Models used for model-based (long-term) operations as monitoring, control and optimization of oil and gas information to the identification problem. These options are illustrated with examples taken from oil and gas

  2. Modelling of the bead formation during multi pass hybrid laser/gas metal arc welding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    - 1 - Modelling of the bead formation during multi pass hybrid laser/gas metal arc welding Olivier dimensional finite element model has been developed to simulate weld bead formation in multi pass hybrid laser/gas metal arc welding. The model considers both a gas metal arc welding (GMAW) electrode and a laser beam

  3. Modeling Population Exposures to Pollutants Emitted from Natural Gas Cooking Burners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    iPage | i Modeling Population Exposures to Pollutants Emitted from Natural Gas Cooking. LBNL4885E #12;Modeling Population Exposures to Pollutants Emitted from Natural Gas Cooking Burners distributions resulting from use of natural gas cooking appliances across households in California. The model

  4. Modeled natural and excess radiocarbon: Sensitivities to the gas exchange formulation and ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischlin, Andreas

    Modeled natural and excess radiocarbon: Sensitivities to the gas exchange formulation and ocean. Stocker (2008), Modeled natural and excess radiocarbon: Sensitivities to the gas exchange formulation descriptions of the air-sea gas exchange the models produce similar column inventories for excess 14 C among

  5. Dynamics of the Oil Transition: Modeling Capacity, Costs, and Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brandt, Adam R.; Farrell, Alexander E.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and income on energy and oil demand. Energy Journal, 23(1):conventional oil supply and demand. But, interestingly,World crude oil and natural gas: a demand and supply model.

  6. Oil and Gas Supply Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    and sources. Crude oil recovery includes improved oil recovery processes such as water flooding, infill drilling, and horizontal drilling, as well as enhanced oil recovery...

  7. Oil and Gas Supply Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    and sources. Crude oil recovery includes improved oil recovery processes such as water flooding, infill drilling, and horizontal continuity, as well as enhanced oil recovery...

  8. Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances in the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting Model (Released in the STEO March 1998)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The blending of oxygenates, such as fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), into motor gasoline has increased dramatically in the last few years because of the oxygenated and reformulated gasoline programs. Because of the significant role oxygenates now have in petroleum product markets, the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) was revised to include supply and demand balances for fuel ethanol and MTBE. The STIFS model is used for producing forecasts in the Short-Term Energy Outlook. A review of the historical data sources and forecasting methodology for oxygenate production, imports, inventories, and demand is presented in this report.

  9. U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY ASSESSMENT MODEL FOR UNDISCOVERED CONVENTIONAL OIL, GAS, AND NGL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    AM-i Chapter AM U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY ASSESSMENT MODEL FOR UNDISCOVERED CONVENTIONAL OIL, GAS Survey (USGS) periodically conducts assessments of the oil, gas, and natural-gas liquids (NGL) resources by the USGS in1998 for undiscovered oil, gas, and NGL resources that reside in conventional accumulations

  10. MODELING AND CONTROL OF A O2/CO2 GAS TURBINE CYCLE FOR CO2 CAPTURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foss, Bjarne A.

    MODELING AND CONTROL OF A O2/CO2 GAS TURBINE CYCLE FOR CO2 CAPTURE Lars Imsland Dagfinn Snarheim and control of a semi-closed O2/CO2 gas turbine cycle for CO2 capture. In the first part the process predictive control, Gas turbines, CO2 capture 1. INTRODUCTION Gas turbines are widely used for power

  11. Economic Nonlinear Model Predictive Control for the Optimization of Gas Pipeline Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    / 24 #12;Natural Gas Industry Motivation Natural Gas Industry Globally increasing demand & production of natural gas. Demand distribution (as of 2008) 21 % residential, 13 % Commercial, 34 % Industrial, 29 - Regulated, Deregulated markets Applying Economic Model Predictive Control to gas transportation. 1Zheng et

  12. A dark energy model alternative to generalized Chaplygin gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoavo Hova; Huanxiong Yang

    2010-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a new fluid model of dark energy for $-1 \\leq \\omega_{\\text{eff}} \\leq 0$ as an alternative to the generalized Chaplygin gas models. The energy density of dark energy fluid is severely suppressed during barotropic matter dominant epochs, and it dominates the universe evolution only for eras of small redshift. From the perspective of fundamental physics, the fluid is a tachyon field with a scalar potential flatter than that of power-law decelerated expansion. Different from the standard $\\Lambda\\text{CDM}$ model, the suggested dark energy model claims that the cosmic acceleration at present epoch can not continue forever but will cease in the near future and a decelerated cosmic expansion will recover afterwards.

  13. A dark energy model alternative to generalized Chaplygin gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hova, Hoavo

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a new fluid model of dark energy for $-1 \\leq \\omega_{\\text{eff}} \\leq 0$ as an alternative to the generalized Chaplygin gas models. The energy density of dark energy fluid is severely suppressed during barotropic matter dominant epochs, and it dominates the universe evolution only for eras of small redshift. From the perspective of fundamental physics, the fluid is a tachyon field with a scalar potential flatter than that of power-law decelerated expansion. Different from the standard $\\Lambda\\text{CDM}$ model, the suggested dark energy model claims that the cosmic acceleration at present epoch can not continue forever but will cease in the near future and a decelerated cosmic expansion will recover afterwards.

  14. Model 923-B Mouse Gas Anesthesia Head Holder Adaptor Adjustment Features

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kleinfeld, David

    Model 923-B Mouse Gas Anesthesia Head Holder Adaptor Adjustment Features Dorsal/Ventral dial.352.3139 Toll Free: 1.877.352.3275 ^^ci&ion Q)e&i^n^^^r ^esea/H^/i Model 923-B Mouse Gas Anesthesia Head Holder 923B-1/07 #12;MODEL 923-B MOUSE GAS ANESTHESIA HEAD HOLDER The KOPF Mouse Gas Anesthesia Head Holder

  15. A multi-echelon supply chain model for municipal solid waste management system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yimei, E-mail: yimei.zhang1@gmail.com [Energy and Environmental Research Academy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Huang, Guo He [Environmental Systems Engineering Program, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan S4S 0A2 (Canada); He, Li [Energy and Environmental Research Academy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, a multi-echelon multi-period solid waste management system (MSWM) was developed by inoculating with multi-echelon supply chain. Waste managers, suppliers, industries and distributors could be engaged in joint strategic planning and operational execution. The principal of MSWM system is interactive planning of transportation and inventory for each organization in waste collection, delivery and disposal. An efficient inventory management plan for MSWM would lead to optimized productivity levels under available capacities (e.g., transportation and operational capacities). The applicability of the proposed system was illustrated by a case with three cities, one distribution and two waste disposal facilities. Solutions of the decision variable values under different significant levels indicate a consistent trend. With an increased significant level, the total generated waste would be decreased, and the total transported waste through distribution center to waste to energy and landfill would be decreased as well.

  16. Impact of Rotor Surface Velocity, Leakage Models and Real Gas Properties on Rotordynamic Force Predictions of Gas Labyrinth Seals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thorat, Manish R.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Rotordynamic coefficients of a gas labyrinth seal are assumed to be frequency independent. However, this assumption loses its validity as rotor surface velocity approaches Mach 1. The solution procedure of 1CV model by Childs and Scharrer which...

  17. Arbitrage free cointegrated models in gas and oil future markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benmenzer, Grégory; Jérusalem, Céline

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article we present a continuous time model for natural gas and crude oil future prices. Its main feature is the possibility to link both energies in the long term and in the short term. For each energy, the future returns are represented as the sum of volatility functions driven by motions. Under the risk neutral probability, the motions of both energies are correlated Brownian motions while under the historical probability, they are cointegrated by a Vectorial Error Correction Model. Our approach is equivalent to defining the market price of risk. This model is free of arbitrage: thus, it can be used for risk management as well for option pricing issues. Calibration on European market data and numerical simulations illustrate well its behavior.

  18. Gas storage valuation and hedging. A quantification of the model risk.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Gas storage valuation and hedging. A quantification of the model risk. Patrick Henaff (1), Ismail and hedging of gas storage facilities, using a spot- based valuation framework coupled with a financial and phrases. Energy markets; commodities; natural gas storage; model uncertainty. JEL Classification: C4; C5

  19. Experimental Study of Water Droplet Flows in a Model PEM Fuel Cell Gas Microchannel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    Experimental Study of Water Droplet Flows in a Model PEM Fuel Cell Gas Microchannel by Grant Minor Experimental Study of Water Droplet Flows in a Model PEM Fuel Cell Gas Microchannel by Grant Minor B. Eng. Mgmt Committee Member, Mechanical Engineering). Abstract Liquid water formation and flooding in PEM fuel cell gas

  20. A Heating Model for the Millennium Gas Run

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Gazzola; F. R. Pearce

    2006-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The comparison between observations of galaxy clusters thermo-dynamical properties and theoretical predictions suggests that non-gravitational heating needs to be added into the models. We implement an internally self-consistent heating scheme into GADGET-2 for the third (and fourth) run of the Millennium gas project (Pearce et al. in preparation), a set of four hydrodynamical cosmological simulations with N=2(5x10^8) particles and with the same volume (L=500 h-1 Mpc) and structures as the the N-body Millennium Simulation (Springel et al. 2005). Our aim is to reproduce the observed thermo-dynamical properties of galaxy clusters.

  1. Coupling Renewable Energy Supply with Deferrable Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papavasiliou, Anthony

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The lattice model of renewable power supply and real-timerenewable power supply, by formulating a unit commitment model.model that can be used for assessing the impact of integrating renewable power

  2. Modeling and Analysis of Natural Gas and Gasoline In A High Compressio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Analysis of Natural Gas and Gasoline In A High Compression Ratio High Efficiency ICRE Modeling and Analysis of Natural Gas and Gasoline In A High Compression Ratio High...

  3. Coarse-scale Modeling of Flow in Gas-injection Processes for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lambers, James

    Coarse-scale Modeling of Flow in Gas-injection Processes for Enhanced Oil Recovery James V. Lambers of gas-injection processes for enhanced oil recovery may exhibit geometrically complex features

  4. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  5. Petroleum supply monthly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blends, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  6. Natural gas transmission and distribution model of the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is the component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) that is used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. NEMS was developed in the Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting of the Energy Information Administration (EIA). NEMS is the third in a series of computer-based, midterm energy modeling systems used since 1974 by the EIA and its predecessor, the Federal Energy Administration, to analyze domestic energy-economy markets and develop projections. From 1982 through 1993, the Intermediate Future Forecasting System (IFFS) was used by the EIA for its analyses, and the Gas Analysis Modeling System (GAMS) was used within IFFS to represent natural gas markets. Prior to 1982, the Midterm Energy Forecasting System (MEFS), also referred to as the Project Independence Evaluation System (PIES), was employed. NEMS was developed to enhance and update EIA`s modeling capability by internally incorporating models of energy markets that had previously been analyzed off-line. In addition, greater structural detail in NEMS permits the analysis of a broader range of energy issues. The time horizon of NEMS is the midterm period (i.e., through 2015). In order to represent the regional differences in energy markets, the component models of NEMS function at regional levels appropriate for the markets represented, with subsequent aggregation/disaggregation to the Census Division level for reporting purposes.

  7. Comparison of Test Procedures and Energy Efficiency Criteria in Selected International Standards & Labeling Programs for Copy Machines, External Power Supplies, LED Displays, Residential Gas Cooktops and Televisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Nina

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    external-power- supplies/meps/ Australia E3. 2012. “EU, Australia and Japan all have maximum power consumptionEU, Australia and Japan all have maximum power consumption

  8. Using multi-layer models to forecast gas flow rates in tight gas reservoirs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jerez Vera, Sergio Armando

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    , and (2) to use the single-layer match to demonstrate the error that can occur when forecasting long-term gas production for such complex gas reservoirs. A finite-difference reservoir simulator was used to simulate gas production from various layered tight...

  9. Industrial Gas Turbines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A gas turbine is a heat engine that uses high-temperature, high-pressure gas as the working fluid. Part of the heat supplied by the gas is converted directly into mechanical work. High-temperature,...

  10. Supervisory Natural Gas Analyst

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energys Office of Fossil Energy, Office of Oil and Natural Gas, Office of Oil and Gas Global Security and Supply (FE) is responsible for regulating natural gas imports and exports...

  11. Background and Motivation Literature The Model Examples Summary Sustainable Supply Chain Network Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    and Motivation Literature The Model Examples Summary Photos of oil spill crisis in Gulf of Mexico, May 2010 Anna pollution. For example, free trade may shift pollution-intensive manufacturing processes from countries

  12. Models and Solution Approaches for Emergency Response Network Design Integrating Supply and Demand Sides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dalal, Jyotirmoy

    2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We present three models for emergency response network design. First, in a deterministic setting, we focus on two critical aspects of emergency logistics: evacuation and relief distribution. We consider a three-tier system comprising evacuation...

  13. Natural gas annual 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  14. Natural gas annual 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1994 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1990 to 1994 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  15. ORIGINAL RESEARCH PAPER Geothermal modeling of the gas hydrate stability zone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ORIGINAL RESEARCH PAPER Geothermal modeling of the gas hydrate stability zone along the Krishna simulating reflector (BSR), interpreted to mark the thermally controlled base of the gas hydrate stability of the eastern continental margin of India. The seismic data reveal that gas hydrate occurs in the Krishna

  16. AGGLOMERATION OF GAS HYDRATE IN A WATER-IN-OIL EMULSION: EXPERIMENTAL AND MODELING STUDIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    AGGLOMERATION OF GAS HYDRATE IN A WATER-IN-OIL EMULSION: EXPERIMENTAL AND MODELING STUDIES Ana of gas hydrates in water-in-oil emulsion is investigated at the laboratory pilot scale on a flow loop and a spread of the Chord Length Distribution (CLD) to larger chord length. Keywords: gas hydrates, flow loop

  17. Modeling the climate response to a massive methane release from gas hydrates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Renssen, Hans

    Modeling the climate response to a massive methane release from gas hydrates H. Renssen and C. J release from gas hydrates, Paleoceanography, 19, PA2010, doi:10.1029/2003PA000968. 1. Introduction [2] Catastrophic releases of methane gas from hydrates (clathrates) have been mentioned to be responsible for rapid

  18. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report, (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data presented are divided into Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  19. Loss of coordination in competitive supply chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teo, Koon Soon

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The loss of coordination in supply chains quantifies the inefficiency (i.e. the loss of total profit) due to the presence of competition in the supply chain. In this thesis, we discuss four models: one model with multiple ...

  20. Petroleum supply monthly, February 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly presents data describing the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders; operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data are divided into two sections: Summary statistics and Detailed statistics.

  1. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographical regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US.

  2. Modelling and Numerical Simulation of Gas Migration in a Nuclear Waste Repository

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bourgeat, Alain; Smai, Farid

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a compositional compressible two-phase, liquid and gas, flow model for numerical simulations of hydrogen migration in deep geological radioactive waste repository. This model includes capillary effects and the gas diffusivity. The choice of the main variables in this model, Total or Dissolved Hydrogen Mass Concentration and Liquid Pressure, leads to a unique and consistent formulation of the gas phase appearance and disappearance. After introducing this model, we show computational evidences of its adequacy to simulate gas phase appearance and disappearance in different situations typical of underground radioactive waste repository.

  3. Analyzing water supply in future energy systems using the TIMES Integrated Assessment Model (TIAM-FR)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Mathematics, MINES ParisTech Sophia Antipolis, France ABSTRACT Even though policies related to water energy system model. Water footprints for the processes in terms of withdrawals and consumptions were environmental impacts. Some experts refer to water as the new oil, reflecting a growing concern about

  4. Statistical Modeling of Corrosion Failures in Natural Gas Transmission Pipelines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cobanoglu, Mustafa Murat

    2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural gas pipelines are a critical component of the U.S. energy infrastructure. The safety of these pipelines plays a key role for the gas industry. Therefore, the understanding of failure characteristics and their consequences are very important...

  5. Model of the radial distribution of gas in the blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nikus, M.; Saxen, H. [Aabo Akademi Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes an on-line model for estimating the radial gas distribution in blast furnaces. The model is based on molar and energy flow balances for the blast furnace throat region, and utilizes the top gas temperature and gas temperature measurements from a fixed above-burden probe. The distribution of the gas flux is estimated by a Kalman filter. The method is illustrated to capture short-term dynamics and to detect sudden major changes in the gas distribution in Finnish blast furnace.

  6. Historical Natural Gas Annual 1999

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1999 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

  7. An optimization model for strategic supply chain design under stochastic capacity disruptions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luna Coronado, Jaime

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    n e n t S u p p l i e r D i v e rs i f i c a t i o n O rde r 1 3 2 . 6 % 65 2 4 3 . 6 % 87 3 2 3 . 7 % 47 1 5 0 . 3 % 101 2 4 9 . 7 % 99 3 0 . 0 % 0 1 7 0 . 0 % 140 2 1 5 . 0 % 30 3 1 5 . 0 % 30 1 2 F i n a l A s s e m b l y Table 4 Example... the spreadsheet implementation of this model. I would like to thank Dr. Guy L. Curry and the rest of the faculty and staff in the Industrial and Systems Engineering Department at Texas A&M University, who provided me with the most invaluable knowledge I...

  8. An optimization model for strategic supply chain design under stochastic capacity disruptions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luna Coronado, Jaime

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    n e n t S u p p l i e r D i v e rs i f i c a t i o n O rde r 1 3 2 . 6 % 65 2 4 3 . 6 % 87 3 2 3 . 7 % 47 1 5 0 . 3 % 101 2 4 9 . 7 % 99 3 0 . 0 % 0 1 7 0 . 0 % 140 2 1 5 . 0 % 30 3 1 5 . 0 % 30 1 2 F i n a l A s s e m b l y Table 4 Example... the spreadsheet implementation of this model. I would like to thank Dr. Guy L. Curry and the rest of the faculty and staff in the Industrial and Systems Engineering Department at Texas A&M University, who provided me with the most invaluable knowledge I...

  9. Integrated Planning and Management for Urban Water Supplies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasternack, Gregory B.

    Positions for Water Supply Reliability ................................. 15 4 Shortage Management Modeling.2: Diagram of Water Supply Reliability Model Structure ..................49 5.3: Steps Used in ShortageIntegrated Planning and Management for Urban Water Supplies Considering Multiple Uncertainties Jay

  10. Development of a natural gas systems analysis model (GSAM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides an overview of the activities to date and schedule for future testing, validation, and authorized enhancements of Natural Gas Systems Analysis Model (GSAM). The goal of this report is to inform DOE managers of progress in model development and to provide a benchmark for ongoing and future research. Section II of the report provides a detailed discussion on the major GSAM development programs performed and completed during the period of performance, July 1, 1998 to September 30, 1999. Key improvements in the new GSAM version are summarized in Section III. Programmer's guides for GSAM main modules were produced to provide detailed descriptions of all major subroutines and main variables of the computer code. General logical flowcharts of the subroutines are also presented in the guides to provide overall picture of interactions between the subroutines. A standard structure of routine explanation is applied in every programmer's guide. The explanation is started with a brief description or main purpose of the routine, lists of input and output files read and created, and lists of invoked/child and calling/parent routines. In some of the guides, interactions between the routine itself and its parent and child routines are presented in the form of graphical flowchart. The explanation is then proceeded with step by step description of computer code in the subroutine where each step delegates a section of related code. Between steps, if a certain section of code needs further explanation, a Note is inserted with relevant explanation.

  11. Kinetic Modeling Of Solid-Gas Reactions At Reactor Scale: A General Approach Loc Favergeon1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    the knowledge of the kinetic model for the calculation of the speed of reaction in one part of the reactorKinetic Modeling Of Solid-Gas Reactions At Reactor Scale: A General Approach Loïc Favergeon1 favergeon@emse.fr ABSTRACT A rigorous simulation of industrial reactors in the case of solid-gas reacting

  12. Direct Modeling of Material Deposit and Identification of Energy Transfer in Gas Metal Arc Welding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Direct Modeling of Material Deposit and Identification of Energy Transfer in Gas Metal Arc Welding sources for finite element simulation of gas metal arc welding (GMAW). Design for the modeling of metal deposition results in a direct calculation of the formation of the weld bead, without any

  13. Wireless channel characterization and modeling in oil and gas refinery plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Savazzi, Stefano

    Wireless channel characterization and modeling in oil and gas refinery plants Stefano Savazzi1 modeling approach is validated by experimental measurements in two oil refinery sites using industry and gas refinery sites are characterized by harsh environments where radio signals are prone to blockage

  14. Joint Modelling of Gas and Electricity spot prices N. Frikha1 , V. Lemaire2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joint Modelling of Gas and Electricity spot prices N. Frikha1 , V. Lemaire2 October 9, 2009 for developing a risk management framework as well as pricing of options. Many derivatives on both electricity to price projects in energy (see [10] for an introduction). Thus, modelling jointly the evolution of gas

  15. A Three-Dimensional Computational Model of PEM Fuel Cell with Serpentine Gas Channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    A Three-Dimensional Computational Model of PEM Fuel Cell with Serpentine Gas Channels by Phong) fuel cell with serpentine gas flow channels is presented in this thesis. This comprehensive model accounts for important transport phenomena in a fuel cell such as heat transfer, mass transfer, electrode

  16. High Detail Stationary Optimization Models for Gas Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin Schmidt

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Oct 15, 2014 ... Abstract: Due to strict regulatory rules in combination with complex nonlinear physics, major gas network operators in Germany and Europe ...

  17. Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Guoxiang

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Analysis Preliminary calculations assuming pure CaCl 2 solutions were carried out to investigate relationships between salt concentration, HCl gas fugacity (? partial pressure), and condensate

  18. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Vapor Dispersion Modeling with Computational Fluid Dynamics Codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qi, Ruifeng

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Federal regulation 49 CFR 193 and standard NFPA 59A require the use of validated consequence models to determine the vapor cloud dispersion exclusion zones for accidental liquefied natural gas (LNG) releases. For modeling purposes, the physical...

  19. Using multi-layer models to forecast gas flow rates in tight gas reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jerez Vera, Sergio Armando

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    pressure at the inner boundary. He combined a back-pressure gas rate equation (Eq 2.9) with the materials balance equation Eq 2.10 onto a rate-time equation for gas wells as described in Eq 2.11, and then he generated the new set of type curves as shown.......................................................................................... 10 2.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................10 2.2 Decline Curve Analysis...

  20. REGIONAL WATER SUPPLY PLANNING AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mays, Larry W.

    CHAPTER 3 REGIONAL WATER SUPPLY PLANNING AND CAPACITY EXPANSION MODELS Messele Z. Ejeta California Department of Water Resources Sacramento, California Larry W. Mays Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Arizona State University Tempe, Arizona 3.1 INTRODUCTION Water supply planning on a regional scale

  1. Assessment of Supply Chain Energy Efficiency Potentials: A U.S. Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masanet, Eric; Kramer, Klaas Jan; Homan, Gregory; Brown, Richard; Worrell, Ernst

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper summarizes a modeling framework that characterizes the key underlying technologies and processes that contribute to the supply chain energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of a variety of goods and services purchased by U.S. consumers. The framework couples an input-output supply chain modeling approach with"bottom-up" fuel end use models for individual IO sectors. This fuel end use modeling detail allows energy and policy analysts to better understand the underlying technologies and processes contributing to the supply chain energy and GHG"footprints" of goods and services. To illustrate the policy-relevance of thisapproach, a case study was conducted to estimate achievable household GHG footprint reductions associated with the adoption of best practice energy-efficient supply chain technologies.

  2. Model operating permits for natural gas processing plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arend, C. [Hydro-Search, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Major sources as defined in Title V of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 that are required to submit an operating permit application will need to: Evaluate their compliance status; Determine a strategic method of presenting the general and specific conditions of their Model Operating Permit (MOP); Maintain compliance with air quality regulations. A MOP is prepared to assist permitting agencies and affected facilities in the development of operating permits for a specific source category. This paper includes a brief discussion of example permit conditions that may be applicable to various types of Title V sources. A MOP for a generic natural gas processing plant is provided as an example. The MOP should include a general description of the production process and identify emission sources. The two primary elements that comprise a MOP are: Provisions of all existing state and/or local air permits; Identification of general and specific conditions for the Title V permit. The general provisions will include overall compliance with all Clean Air Act Titles. The specific provisions include monitoring, record keeping, and reporting. Although Title V MOPs are prepared on a case-by-case basis, this paper will provide a general guideline of the requirements for preparation of a MOP. Regulatory agencies have indicated that a MOP included in the Title V application will assist in preparation of the final permit provisions, minimize delays in securing a permit, and provide support during the public notification process.

  3. Neutral gas modeling in divertors Charles F. F. Karney

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karney, Charles

    that the hydrogen fuel in not diluted. The major constraints on the operation of the divertor are that it should: for example, in the "gas target" divertor, the plasma flows into a gas cell and a high-Z element radiates away code, the evaluation of erosion rates, impurities influx, etc., and the evaluation of diagnostic

  4. Why Supply Chain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Datta, Shoumen

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Why supply chain explains the importance of supply chains. It includes an introduction to ERP as designed by SAP.

  5. The 3He Supply Problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kouzes, Richard T.

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the main uses for 3He is in gas proportional counters for neutron detection. Radiation portal monitors deployed for homeland security and non-proliferation use such detectors. Other uses of 3He are for research detectors, commercial instruments, well logging detectors, dilution refrigerators, for targets or cooling in nuclear research, and for basic research in condensed matter physics. The US supply of 3He comes almost entirely from the decay of tritium used in nuclear weapons by the US and Russia. A few other countries contribute a small amount to the world’s 3He supply. Due to the large increase in use of 3He for homeland security, the supply has dwindled, and can no longer meet the demand. This white paper reviews the problems of supply, utilization, and alternatives.

  6. Development and initial evaluation of a dynamic species-resolved model for gas phase chemistry and size-resolved gas//particle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dabdub, Donald

    condensed products of gas phase oxidation, the present model can be viewed as the most detailed SOA of the semivolatile or nonvolatile products of VOC oxidation between the gas and particle phases. Chem- ical analysis of the SOA identifies many products that condense, thereby allowing formulation of gas phase path- ways

  7. Derivation of a Langmuir type of model to describe the intrinsic growth rate of gas hydrates during crystallization from gas mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Derivation of a Langmuir type of model to describe the intrinsic growth rate of gas hydrates during de Saint-Etienne, 158 Cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint- Etienne, France Abstract Gas Hydrates 81 (2012) 28-37" DOI : 10.1016/j.ces.2012.06.016 #12;Keywords Gas Hydrates, Crystallisation

  8. An integrative framework for architecting supply chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cela Díaz, Fernando

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis explores the limitations of classic models of supply chain management, and proposes a new view based on the concept of value-driven supply chains, and a method of analysis and design based on the concepts of ...

  9. Biomass Feedstock Supply Modeling

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The FutureCommentsEnergyandapproximately 10 wt%inandWBS THIS6, 2015 Feedstock

  10. Handling Food and Supplies during Power Loss

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication lists foods that are safe to eat without cooking or refrigeration. There is also a list of supplies you will need when gas and electrical service is unavailable....

  11. Decision Models for Bulk Energy Transportation Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    ... ... Primary Energy Supplies Gas Coal Railroad, Barge ... ... Storage & Transportation Systems Energy Transportation Networks #12;Structural Model: Energy Flows GAS COAL ELECTRIC Case A: 2002, and the amount of electricity generated #12;Structural Model: Effects of Katrina Average natural gas nodal price

  12. Models, Simulators, and Data-driven Resources for Oil and Natural Gas Research

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    NETL provides a number of analytical tools to assist in conducting oil and natural gas research. Software, developed under various DOE/NETL projects, includes numerical simulators, analytical models, databases, and documentation.[copied from http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/oil-gas/Software/Software_main.html] Links lead users to methane hydrates models, preedictive models, simulators, databases, and other software tools or resources.

  13. Advanced Supply System Validation Workshop | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of biomass to biorefineries annually Advanced supply system concepts, including depots Business models for advanced supply systems Siting and sizing considerations for depots...

  14. The Gas Utility View of Industrial Energy Conservation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loberg, T. J.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    supplies and the gas industry mounted a determined engineering and development effort to stretch existing supplies until changes in the legislation could be implemented. These and similar programs are ongoing even now that the outlook for new gas supplies...

  15. A simple model of gas flow in a porous powder compact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shugard, Andrew D.; Robinson, David B.

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a simple model for ideal gas flow from a vessel through a bed of porous material into another vessel. It assumes constant temperature and uniform porosity. Transport is treated as a combination of viscous and molecular flow, with no inertial contribution (low Reynolds number). This model can be used to fit data to obtain permeability values, determine flow rates, understand the relative contributions of viscous and molecular flow, and verify volume calibrations. It draws upon the Dusty Gas Model and other detailed studies of gas flow through porous media.

  16. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of fission gas behavior in engineering-scale fuel modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Pastore; L.P. Swiler; J.D. Hales; S.R. Novascone; D.M. Perez; B.W. Spencer; L. Luzzi; P. Van Uffelen; R.L. Williamson

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The role of uncertainties in fission gas behavior calculations as part of engineering-scale nuclear fuel modeling is investigated using the BISON fuel performance code and a recently implemented physics-based model for the coupled fission gas release and swelling. Through the integration of BISON with the DAKOTA software, a sensitivity analysis of the results to selected model parameters is carried out based on UO2 single-pellet simulations covering different power regimes. The parameters are varied within ranges representative of the relative uncertainties and consistent with the information from the open literature. The study leads to an initial quantitative assessment of the uncertainty in fission gas behavior modeling with the parameter characterization presently available. Also, the relative importance of the single parameters is evaluated. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis is carried out based on simulations of a fuel rod irradiation experiment, pointing out a significant impact of the considered uncertainties on the calculated fission gas release and cladding diametral strain. The results of the study indicate that the commonly accepted deviation between calculated and measured fission gas release by a factor of 2 approximately corresponds to the inherent modeling uncertainty at high fission gas release. Nevertheless, higher deviations may be expected for values around 10% and lower. Implications are discussed in terms of directions of research for the improved modeling of fission gas behavior for engineering purposes.

  17. The Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Gas Turbine (GT) Systems Steady State Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Gas Turbine (GT) Systems Steady State Modeling Penyarat Fuel Cells (SOFCs) are of great interest nowadays. The feature of SOFCs makes them suitable for hybrid plants offer high cycle efficiencies. In this work a hybrid solid oxide fuel cell and gas turbine power

  18. Modeling of Multilayer Composite Fabrics for Gas Turbine Engine Containment Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mobasher, Barzin

    Modeling of Multilayer Composite Fabrics for Gas Turbine Engine Containment Systems J. Sharda1 ; C of multilayer composite fabrics used in a gas turbine engine containment system is developed. Specifically to obtain the material properties of these fabrics. Later, one or more layers of these fabrics is tightly

  19. Modeling impacts of carbon sequestration on net greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modeling impacts of carbon sequestration on net greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils impacts of carbon sequestration on net greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils in China, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 23, GB1007, doi:10.1029/2008GB003180. 1. Introduction [2] Carbon (C) sequestration has

  20. Universal model for water costs of gas exchange by animals and plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the respiratory system near the outside of the organism, the gas consumed (oxygen or carbon dioxide meta- bolic and exchange systems. carbon dioxide | oxygen | respiration | temperature | scaling All for specific taxa, we integrate properties common to all terrestrial gas exchangers into a universal model

  1. Natural gas annual 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience. The 1996 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas from it`s production to it`s end use.

  2. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  3. Compilation of gas intrusion measurements, variations, and consequence modeling for SPR caverns.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinkebein, Thomas E.

    2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The intrusion of gas into oils stored within the SPR has been examined. When oil is stored in domal salts, gases intrude into the stored oil from the surrounding salt. Aspects of the mechanism of gas intrusion have been examined. In all cases, this gas intrusion results in increases in the oil vapor pressure. Data that have been gathered from 1993 to August 2002 are presented to show the resultant increases in bubble-point pressure on a cavern-by-cavern as well as on a stream basis. The measurement techniques are presented with particular emphasis on the TVP 95. Data analysis methods are presented to show the methods required to obtain recombined cavern oil compositions. Gas-oil ratios are also computed from the data and are presented on a cavern-by-cavern and stream basis. The observed increases in bubble-point pressure and gas-oil ratio are further statistically analyzed to allow data interpretation. Emissions plume modeling is used to determine adherence to state air regulations. Gas intrusion is observed to be variable among the sites and within each dome. Gas intrusions at Bryan Mound and Big Hill have resulted in the largest increases in bubble-point pressure for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The streams at Bayou Choctaw and West Hackberry show minimal bubble-point pressure increases. Emissions plume modeling, using the state mandated ISCST code, of oil storage tanks showed that virtually no gas may be released when H2S standards are considered. DOE plans to scavenge H2S to comply with the very tight standards on this gas. With the assumption of scavenging, benzene releases become the next most controlling factor. Model results show that a GOR of 0.6 SCF/BBL may be emissions that are within standards. Employing the benzene gas release standard will significantly improve oil deliverability. New plume modeling using the computational fluid dynamics code, FLUENT, is addressing limitations of the state mandated ISCST model.

  4. DEGADIS (dense gas dispersion) model, Version 2. 1 (for microcomputers). Model-Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guinnup, D.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved Jet-Plume model has been interfaced with DEGADIS to provide for prediction of the trajectory and dilution of elevated dense gas jets to ground contact. DEGADIS predicts the ensuing ground-level plume dispersion. The Jet-Plume model provides for: automatic adjustment of integration step-size (using the Runge-Kutta-Gill method as in DEGADIS): elliptical plume shape (cross-section), with the Pasquill-Gifford plume dispersion coefficient representation of atmospheric turbulent entrainment; user specification of averaging time; ground reflection when the plume (lower) boundary reaches ground level; and application to scenarios where the plume remains aloft. The model should be uploaded via modem from a PC terminal to host a VAX computer, and several files must then be renamed prior to compilation and execution. The program is written in FORTRAN for compilation and execution on a DEC VAX Computer.

  5. Impes modeling of volumetric dry gas reservoirs with mobile water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forghany, Saeed

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    . For abnormally or geopressured reservoirs, pressure gradients often approach values equal to the overburden pressure gradient (i.e., ~1.0 psi/ft). 8, 9 Among these types of dry gas reservoirs, in this study we will focus on volumetric reservoir. 1... properties of a given reservoir?s gas and water can handle pressures starting from standard conditions up to 4,000 psi and the units for this table are tabulated in Table 3.1. Table 3.1- Units for the PVT properties used in the input file Pressure...

  6. Fracture Modeling and Flow Behavior in Shale Gas Reservoirs Using Discrete Fracture Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ogbechie, Joachim Nwabunwanne

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Gen and NFflow) for fracture modeling of a shale gas reservoir and also studies the interaction of the different fracture properties on reservoir response. The most important results of the study are that a uniform fracture network distribution and fracture...

  7. The Agricultural Sector and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Model (ASMGHG)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    ...................................................................................37 3.5.1.1 Direct Carbon Emissions Through Fossil Fuel Use.....................38 3.5.1.2 Indirect.5.2.2 Production of Fossil Fuel Substitutes...........................................49 3.5.2.3 Conversion Taxes and Sequestration Subsidies...............................66 3.8.2.4 Special Greenhouse Gas

  8. Development and validation of a combustion model for a fuel cell off-gas burner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, William Tristan

    2008-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Development and Validation of a Combustion Model for a Fuel Cell Off-Gas Burner W. Tristan Collins Magdalene College University of Cambridge A dissertation submitted to the University of Cambridge for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy June 2008... Development and Validation of a Combustion Model for a Fuel Cell Off-Gas Burner W. Tristan Collins A low-emissions power generator comprising a solid oxide fuel cell coupled to a gas turbine has been developed by Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems. As part...

  9. A placement model for matrix acidizing of vertically extensive, multilayer gas reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nozaki, Manabu

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    ................................................................................. 16 3. ACID PLACEMENT MODEL IN GAS WELLS .............................................. 17 3.1 Introduction .......................................................................................... 17 3.2 Wellbore Flow Model... .......................................................................... 18 3.2.1 Wellbore Material Balance........................................................ 18 3.2.2 Wellbore Pressure Drop ............................................................ 19 3.3 Reservoir Outflow Model...

  10. 3-DIMENSIONAL GEOMECHANICAL MODELING OF A TIGHT GAS RESERVOIR, RULISON FIELD, PICEANCE BASIN, COLORADO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    3-DIMENSIONAL GEOMECHANICAL MODELING OF A TIGHT GAS RESERVOIR, RULISON FIELD, PICEANCE BASIN, COLORADO by Kurtis R. Wikel #12;ii #12;iii ABSTRACT An integrated 3-dimensional geomechanical model have used the predictive geomechanical model to compare production and effective stress change

  11. Supply Chain Networks, Electronic Commerce, and Supply Side and Demand Side Risk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    Supply Chain Networks, Electronic Commerce, and Supply Side and Demand Side Risk Anna Nagurney as well as demand side risk are included in the formulation. The model consists of three tiers of decision chain network equilibrium model with electronic com- merce and with supply side and demand side risk

  12. Resilience of natural gas networks during conflicts, crises and disruptions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carvalho, Rui; Bono, Flavio; Masera, Marcelo; Arrowsmith, David K; Helbing, Dirk

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Human conflict, geopolitical crises, terrorist attacks, and natural disasters can turn large parts of energy distribution networks offline. Europe's current gas supply network is largely dependent on deliveries from Russia and North Africa, creating vulnerabililties to social and political instabilities. During crises, less delivery may mean greater congestion, as the pipeline network is used in ways it has not been designed for. Given the importance of the security of natural gas supply, we develop a model to handle network congestion on various geographical scales. We offer a resilient response strategy to energy shortages and quantify its effectiveness for a variety of relevant scenarios. In essence, Europe's gas supply can be made robust even to major supply disruptions, if a fair distribution strategy is applied.

  13. Development of a natural gas systems analysis model (GSAM). Annual report, July 1994--June 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    North American natural gas markets have changed dramatically over the past decade. A competitive, cost-conscious production, transportation, and distribution system has emerged from the highly regulated transportation wellhead pricing structure of the 1980`s. Technology advances have played an important role in the evolution of the gas industry, a role likely to expand substantially as alternative fuel price competition and a maturing natural gas resource base force operators to maximize efficiency. Finally, significant changes continue in regional gas demand patterns, industry practices, and infrastructure needs. As the complexity of the gas system grows so does the need to evaluate and plan for alternative future resource, technology, and market scenarios. Traditional gas modeling systems focused solely on the econometric aspects of gas marketing. These systems, developed to assess a regulated industry at a high level of aggregation, rely on simple representation of complex and evolving systems, thereby precluding insight into how the industry will change over time. Credible evaluations of specific policy initiatives and research activities require a different approach. Also, the mounting pressure on energy producers from environmental compliance activities requires development of analysis that incorporates relevant geologic, engineering, and project economic details. The objective of policy, research and development (R&D), and market analysis is to integrate fundamental understanding of natural gas resources, technology, and markets to fully describe the potential of the gas resource under alternative future scenarios. This report summarizes work over the past twelve months on DOE Contract DE-AC21-92MC28138, Development of a Natural Gas Systems Analysis Model (GSAM). The products developed under this project directly support the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) in carrying out its natural gas R&D mission.

  14. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  15. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: Petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  16. Historical Natural Gas Annual - 1930 Through 2000

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2000 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

  17. Gas Hydrate Equilibria for CO2-N2 and CO2-CH4 gas mixtures Experimental studies and Thermodynamic Modelling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Gas Hydrate Equilibria for CO2-N2 and CO2-CH4 gas mixtures ­ Experimental studies and Thermodynamic of experimental data on the phase equilibrium of gas hydrates in the presence of binary gas mixtures comprising CO of the gas phase as well as the hydrate phase without the need to sample the hydrate. The experimental

  18. An Embedded Boundary Method for the Modeling of Unsteady Combustion in an Industrial GasFired Furnace \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An Embedded Boundary Method for the Modeling of Unsteady Combustion in an Industrial Gas the simulation of an experimental natural gas­fired furnace are shown. \\Lambda This work was performed under

  19. Enhanced Generic Phase-field Model of Irradiation Materials: Fission Gas Bubble Growth Kinetics in Polycrystalline UO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Montgomery, Robert O.; Gao, Fei; Sun, Xin

    2012-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments show that inter-granular and intra-granular gas bubbles have different growth kinetics which results in heterogeneous gas bubble microstructures in irradiated nuclear fuels. A science-based model predicting the heterogeneous microstructure evolution kinetics is desired, which enables one to study the effect of thermodynamic and kinetic properties of the system on gas bubble microstructure evolution kinetics and morphology, improve the understanding of the formation mechanisms of heterogeneous gas bubble microstructure, and provide the microstructure to macroscale approaches to study their impact on thermo-mechanical properties such as thermo-conductivity, gas release, volume swelling, and cracking. In our previous report 'Mesoscale Benchmark Demonstration, Problem 1: Mesoscale Simulations of Intra-granular Fission Gas Bubbles in UO2 under Post-irradiation Thermal Annealing', we developed a phase-field model to simulate the intra-granular gas bubble evolution in a single crystal during post-irradiation thermal annealing. In this work, we enhanced the model by incorporating thermodynamic and kinetic properties at grain boundaries, which can be obtained from atomistic simulations, to simulate fission gas bubble growth kinetics in polycrystalline UO2 fuels. The model takes into account of gas atom and vacancy diffusion, vacancy trapping and emission at defects, gas atom absorption and resolution at gas bubbles, internal pressure in gas bubbles, elastic interaction between defects and gas bubbles, and the difference of thermodynamic and kinetic properties in matrix and grain boundaries. We applied the model to simulate gas atom segregation at grain boundaries and the effect of interfacial energy and gas mobility on gas bubble morphology and growth kinetics in a bi-crystal UO2 during post-irradiation thermal annealing. The preliminary results demonstrate that the model can produce the equilibrium thermodynamic properties and the morphology of gas bubbles at grain boundaries for given grain boundary properties. More validation of the model capability in polycrystalline is underway.

  20. Supplies of Natural Gas Supplemental Fuels (Annual Supply & Disposition)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial ConsumersThousandCubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 1993Sumary

  1. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  2. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  3. Petroleum supply monthly, September 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administrations for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics. 65 tabs.

  4. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  5. Dark Energy - Dark Matter Unification: Generalized Chaplygin Gas Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orfeu Bertolami

    2005-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We review the main features of the generalized Chaplygin gas (GCG) proposal for unification of dark energy and dark matter and discuss how it admits an unique decomposition into dark energy and dark matter components once phantom-like dark energy is excluded. In the context of this approach we consider structure formation and show that unphysical oscillations or blow-up in the matter power spectrum are not present. Moreover, we demonstrate that the dominance of dark energy occurs about the time when energy density fluctuations start evolving away from the linear regime.

  6. Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Guoxiang

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    solutions, Journal of nuclear technology 2008, 164:180– 35.Modeling and Analysis. Nuclear Technology 1993, 104: 418- 2.

  7. Impact of relative permeability models on fluid flow behavior for gas condensate reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zapata Arango, Jose? Francisco

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . 6 Integral from immiscible to miscible transition models for gas condensate relative permeability. 5 . 6 . . 8 9 . 10 . 12 . 16 . 18 . 20 . 23 CHAPTER III CASE STUDY. . . 27 3. 1 Tuning of the reservoir fluid model 3. 2 Relative... model . 5. 2. 2 Anisotropic model . 64 . 74 . 77 . 90 CHAPTER VI SUMMARY . 105 6. 1 Conclusions. . 6. 1. 1 Conclusions from the literature review and case study . . . . . . 6. 1. 2 Conclusions from the simulation study 6. 1. 3 Conclusions from...

  8. Impact of relative permeability models on fluid flow behavior for gas condensate reservoirs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zapata Arango, Jose? Francisco

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . 6 Integral from immiscible to miscible transition models for gas condensate relative permeability. 5 . 6 . . 8 9 . 10 . 12 . 16 . 18 . 20 . 23 CHAPTER III CASE STUDY. . . 27 3. 1 Tuning of the reservoir fluid model 3. 2 Relative... model . 5. 2. 2 Anisotropic model . 64 . 74 . 77 . 90 CHAPTER VI SUMMARY . 105 6. 1 Conclusions. . 6. 1. 1 Conclusions from the literature review and case study . . . . . . 6. 1. 2 Conclusions from the simulation study 6. 1. 3 Conclusions from...

  9. Deformed Bose gas models aimed at taking into account both compositeness of particles and their interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gavrilik, A M

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the deformed Bose gas model with the deformation structure function that is the combination of a q-deformation and a quadratically polynomial deformation. Such a choice of the unifying deformation structure function enables us to describe the interacting gas of composite (two-fermionic or two-bosonic) bosons. Using the relevant generalization of the Jackson derivative, we derive a two-parametric expression for the total number of particles, from which the deformed virial expansion of the equation of state is obtained. The latter is interpreted as the virial expansion for the effective description of a gas of interacting composite bosons with some interaction potential.

  10. Natural gas annual 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs.

  11. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  12. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  13. Hot-gas cleanup system model development. Volume I. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ushimaru, K.; Bennett, A.; Bekowies, P.J.

    1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This two-volume report summarizes the state of the art in performance modeling of advanced high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) gas cleanup devices. Volume I contains the culmination of the research effort carried over the past 12 months and is a summary of research achievements. Volume II is the user's manual for the computer programs developed under the present research project. In this volume, Section 2 presents background information on pressurized, fluidized-bed combustion concepts, a description of the role of the advanced gas cleanup systems, and a list of advanced gas cleanup systems that are currently in development under DOE sponsorship. Section 3 describes the methodology for the software architecture that forms the basis of the well-disciplined and structured computer programs developed under the present project. Section 4 reviews the fundamental theories that are important in analyzing the cleanup performance of HTHP gas filters. Section 5 discusses the effect of alkali agents in HTHP gas cleanup. Section 6 evaluates the advanced HTHP gas cleanup models based on their mathematical integrity, availability of supporting data, and the likelihood of commercialization. As a result of the evaluation procedure detailed in Section 6, five performance models were chosen to be incorporated into the overall system simulation code, ASPEN. These five models (the electrocyclone, ceramic bag filter, moving granular bed filter, electrostatic granular bed filter, and electrostatic precipitator) are described in Section 7. The method of cost projection for these five models is discussed in Section 8. The supporting data and validation of the computer codes are presented in Section 9, and finally the conclusions and recommendations for the HTHP gas cleanup system model development are given in Section 10. 72 references, 19 figures, 25 tables.

  14. CORQUENCH: A model for gas sparging-enhanced melt-water, film boiling heat transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, M.T.; Sienicki, J.J.; Spencer, B.W.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A phenomenological model (CORQUENCH) has been developed to describe the gas-sparging enhanced film boiling heat transfer between a molten pool of corium and an overlying water layer. The model accounts for thermal radiation across the vapor film, bulk liquid subcooling, interfacial area enhancement due to sparging gas, and melt entrainment into the overlying water layer. In this paper, the modeling approach is described, and a comparison with the lead-Freon 11 and lead-water film boiling experiment data of Greene is made. Predictions are then made for the case of film boiling over corium in the presence of sparging concrete decomposition gases. 15 refs., 3 figs.

  15. MELTING OF GLASS BATCH: MODEL FOR MULTIPLE OVERLAPPING GAS-EVOLVING REACTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pokorny, Richard; Pierce, David A.; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2012-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, we present a model for the kinetics of multiple overlapping reactions. Mathematical representation of the kinetics of gas-evolving reactions is crucial for the modeling of the feed-to-glass conversion in a waste-glass melter. The model simulates multiple gas-evolving reactions that occur during heating of a high-alumina high-level waste melter feed. To obtain satisfactory kinetic parameters, we employed Kissinger's method combined with least-squares analysis. The power-law kinetics with variable reaction order sufficed for obtaining excellent agreement with measured thermogravimetric analysis data.

  16. MELTING OF GLASS BATCH - MODEL FOR MULTIPLE OVERLAPPING GAS-EVOLVING REACTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRUGER AA; PIERCE DA; POKORNY R; HRMA PR

    2012-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, we present a model for the kinetics of multiple overlapping reactions. Mathematical representation of the kinetics of gas-evolving reactions is crucial for the modeling of the feed-to-glass conversion in a waste-glass melter. The model simulates multiple gas-evolving reactions that occur during heating of a high-alumina high-level waste melter feed. To obtain satisfactory kinetic parameters, we employed Kissinger's method combined with least-squares analysis. The power-law kinetics with variable reaction order sufficed for obtaining excellent agreement with measured thermogravimetric analysis data.

  17. Hybrid modeling of industrial energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions with an application to Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    implemented in Canada, what would be the response of the industrial sector in terms of energy consumptionHybrid modeling of industrial energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions with an application for modeling industrial energy consumption, among them a series of environmental and security externalities

  18. A Planar Anode -Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Model with Internal Reforming of Natural Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 A Planar Anode - Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Model with Internal Reforming of Natural Gas.brault@univ-orleans.fr Abstract Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) are of great interest due to their high energy efficiency, low, a mathematical model of a co - flow planar anode - supported solid oxide fuel cell with internal reforming

  19. Oil and Gas CDT Development of a SUNTANS Baroclinic Model for 3D Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, Gideon

    Oil and Gas CDT Development of a SUNTANS Baroclinic Model for 3D Oil Pollution Tracking Heriot) Key Words Oil Spill, HF Radar, Trajectory Forecasting, Hydrodynamic Modelling, Oil Chemistry Overview In an oil spill emergency, an operational system must forecast ocean and weather conditions in addition

  20. Technology options and effective policies to reduce greenhouse gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Technology options and effective policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve security); DNE21+ model. · National Institute for Environmental Studies (Japan); AIM model. · Natural Resources both the climate problem and security of supply, and thus provide synergies, while others represent

  1. Langasite Surface Acoustic Wave Gas Sensors: Modeling and Verification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Peng; Greve, David W.; Oppenheim, Irving J.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report finite element simulations of the effect of conductive sensing layers on the surface wave velocity of langasite substrates. The simulations include both the mechanical and electrical influences of the conducting sensing layer. We show that three-dimensional simulations are necessary because of the out-of-plane displacements of the commonly used (0, 138.5, 26.7) Euler angle. Measurements of the transducer input admittance in reflective delay-line devices yield a value for the electromechanical coupling coefficient that is in good agreement with the three-dimensional simulations on bare langasite substrate. The input admittance measurements also show evidence of excitation of an additional wave mode and excess loss due to the finger resistance. The results of these simulations and measurements will be useful in the design of surface acoustic wave gas sensors.

  2. 47 Natural Gas Market Trends NATURAL GAS MARKET TRENDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    47 Natural Gas Market Trends Chapter 5 NATURAL GAS MARKET TRENDS INTRODUCTION Natural gas discusses current natural gas market conditions in California and the rest of North America, followed on the outlook for demand, supply, and price of natural gas for the forecasted 20-year horizon. It also addresses

  3. Modeling gas and brine migration for assessing compliance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vaughn, P. [Applied Physics, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Butcher, B. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Helton, J. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Swift, P. [Tech. Reps., Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At the request of the WIPP Project Integration Office (WPIO) of the DOE, the WIPP Performance Assessment (PA) Department of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has completed preliminary uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of gas and brine migration away from the undisturbed repository. This paper contains descriptions of the numerical model and simulations, including model geometries and parameter values, and a summary of major conclusions from sensitivity analyses. Because significant transport of contaminants can only occur in a fluid (gas or brine) medium, two-phase flow modeling can provide an estimate of the distance to which contaminants can migrate. Migration of gas or brine beyond the RCRA ``disposal-unit boundary`` or the Standard`s accessible environment constitutes a potential, but not certain, violation and may require additional evaluations of contaminant concentrations.

  4. Compilation of Gas Intrusion Measurements, Variations, and Consequence Modeling for SPR Caverns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HINKEBEIN, THOMAS E.

    2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The intrusion of gas into oils stored within the SPR has been examined. When oil is stored in domal salts, gases intrude into the stored oil from the surrounding salt. Aspects of the mechanism of gas intrusion have been examined. In all cases, this gas intrusion results in increases in the oil vapor pressure. Data that have been gathered from 1993 to August 2002 are presented to show the resultant increases in bubble-point pressure on a cavern-by-cavern as well as on a stream basis. The measurement techniques are presented with particular emphasis on the TVP 95. Data analysis methods are presented to show the methods required to obtain recombined cavern oil compositions. Gas-oil ratios are also computed from the data and are presented on a cavern-by-cavern and stream basis. The observed increases in bubble-point pressure and gas-oil ratio are further statistically analyzed to allow data interpretation. Emissions plume modeling is used to determine adherence to state air regulations. Gas intrusion is observed to be variable among the sites and within each dome. Gas intrusions at Bryan Mound and Big Hill have resulted in the largest increases in bubble-point pressure for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The streams at Bayou Choctaw and West Hackberry show minimal bubble-point pressure increases. Emissions plume modeling, using the state mandated ISCST code, of oil storage tanks showed that virtually no gas may be released when H2S standards are considered. DOE plans to scavenge H{sub 2}S to comply with the very tight standards on this gas. With the assumption of scavenging, benzene releases become the next most controlling factor. Model results show that a GOR of 0.6 SCF/BBL may be emissions that are within standards. Employing the benzene gas release standard will significantly improve oil deliverability. New plume modeling using the computational fluid dynamics code, FLUENT, is addressing limitations of the state mandated ISCST model.

  5. Opportunities for LNG supply infrastructure and demand growth in US and International markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Connell, Richard Perry

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Countries are looking beyond their borders for options to satiate a forecasted increase in natural gas consumption. A strong option for importing natural gas is by way of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) supply chain where ...

  6. Chemical reaction model for oil and gas generation from type 1 and type 2 kerogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braun, R.L.; Burnham, A.K.

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A global model for the generation of oil and gas from petroleum source rocks is presented. The model consists of 13 chemical species and 10 reactions, including an alternate-pathway mechanism for kerogen pyrolysis. Reaction rate parameters and stoichiometry coefficients determined from a variety of pyrolysis data are given for both type I and type II kerogen. Use of the chemical reaction model is illustrated for typical geologic conditions.

  7. Statistical Modeling of Corrosion Failures in Natural Gas Transmission Pipelines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cobanoglu, Mustafa Murat

    2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    and deterioration processes in pipeline networks. Therefore, pipeline operators need to rethink their corrosion prevention strategies. These results of corrosion failures are forcing the companies to develop accurate maintenance models based on failure frequency...

  8. Numerical Modeling of Gas Migration at a Proposed Repository for Low and Intermediate Level Nuclear Wastes at Oberbauenstock, Switzerland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pruess editor, K.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    grid Thermophysical properties of hydrogen Total hydrogen4. Thermophysical properties of hydrogen density at P = 1hydrogen. This is modeled as an ideal gas; the thennophysical properties

  9. Introduction The Sustainable Supply Chain Taxes Permits Integration Future Research Sustainable Supply Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    Supply Chains: Multicriteria Decision-Making and Policy Analysis for the Environment Trisha D. Woolley into the atmosphere, through the combustion of fossil fuels (coal, oil, and natural gas), has risen 30% in the 200) with 11 of the 12 warmest years occurring between 1995­2006 (IPCC (2007)). In the US alone, greenhouse gas

  10. PARTICLE TRANSPORTATION AND DEPOSITION IN HOT GAS FILTER VESSELS - A COMPUTATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MODELING APPROACH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodarz Ahmadi

    2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this project, a computational modeling approach for analyzing flow and ash transport and deposition in filter vessels was developed. An Eulerian-Lagrangian formulation for studying hot-gas filtration process was established. The approach uses an Eulerian analysis of gas flows in the filter vessel, and makes use of the Lagrangian trajectory analysis for the particle transport and deposition. Particular attention was given to the Siemens-Westinghouse filter vessel at Power System Development Facility in Wilsonville in Alabama. Details of hot-gas flow in this tangential flow filter vessel are evaluated. The simulation results show that the rapidly rotation flow in the spacing between the shroud and the vessel refractory acts as cyclone that leads to the removal of a large fraction of the larger particles from the gas stream. Several alternate designs for the filter vessel are considered. These include a vessel with a short shroud, a filter vessel with no shroud and a vessel with a deflector plate. The hot-gas flow and particle transport and deposition in various vessels are evaluated. The deposition patterns in various vessels are compared. It is shown that certain filter vessel designs allow for the large particles to remain suspended in the gas stream and to deposit on the filters. The presence of the larger particles in the filter cake leads to lower mechanical strength thus allowing for the back-pulse process to more easily remove the filter cake. A laboratory-scale filter vessel for testing the cold flow condition was designed and fabricated. A laser-based flow visualization technique is used and the gas flow condition in the laboratory-scale vessel was experimental studied. A computer model for the experimental vessel was also developed and the gas flow and particle transport patterns are evaluated.

  11. Forecourt and Gas Infrastructure Optimization

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Forecourt and Gas Infrastructure Optimization Bruce Kelly Nexant, Inc. Hydrogen Delivery Analysis Meeting May 8-9, 2007 Columbia, Maryland 2 Analysis of Market Demand and Supply...

  12. Storm fronts over galaxy discs: Models of how waves generate extraplanar gas and its anomalous kinematics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Curtis Struck; Daniel C. Smith

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The existence of partially ionized, diffuse gas and dust clouds at kiloparsec scale distances above the central planes of edge-on, galaxy discs was an unexpected discovery about 20 yrs ago. Subsequent observations showed that this EDIG (extended or extraplanar diffuse interstellar gas) has rotation velocities approximately 10-20% lower than those in the central plane, and have been hard to account for. Here we present results of hydrodynamic models, with radiative cooling and heating from star formation. We find that in models with star formation generated stochastically across the disc an extraplanar gas layer is generated as long as the star formation is sufficiently strong. However, this gas rotates at nearly the same speed as the mid-plane gas. We then studied a range of models with imposed spiral or bar waves in the disc. EDIG layers were also generated in these models, but primarily over the wave regions, not over the entire disc. Because of this partial coverage, the EDIG clouds move radially, as well as vertically, with the result that observed kinematic anomalies are reproduced. The implication is that the kinematic anomalies are the result of three-dimensional motions when the cylindrical symmetry of the disc is broken. Thus, the kinematic anomalies are the result of bars or strong waves, and more face-on galaxies with such waves should have an asymmetric EDIG component. The models also indicate that the EDIG can contain a significant fraction of cool gas, and that some star formation can be triggered at considerable heights above the disc midplane. We expect all of these effects to be more prominent in young, forming discs, to play a role in rapidly smoothing disc asymmetries, and in working to self-regulate disc structure.

  13. CORQUENCH: A model for gas sparging-enhanced, melt-water, film-boiling heat transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, M.T.; Sienicki, J.J.; Spencer, B.W.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In evaluation of severe-accident sequences for water-cooled nuclear reactors, molten core materials may be postulated to be released into the containment and accumulate on concrete. The heatup and decomposition of concrete is accompanied by the release of water vapor and carbon dioxide gases. Gases flowing through the melt upper surface can influence the rates of heat transfer to water overlying the melt. In particular, the gas flow through the interface can be envisioned to enhance the heat removal from the melt. A mechanistic model (CORQUENCH) has been developed to describe film-boiling heat transfer between a molten pool and an overlying coolant layer in the presence of sparging gas. The model favorably predicts the lead-Feron 11 data of Greene and Greene et al. for which the calculations indicate that area enhancement in the conduction heat transfer across the film is the predominant mechanism leading to augmentation in the heat flux as the gas velocity increases. Predictions for oxidic corium indicate a rapid increase in film-boiling heat flux as the gas velocity rises. The predominant mode of heat transfer for this case is radiation, and the increase in heat flux with gas velocity is primarily a result of interfacial area enhancement of the radiation component of the overall heat transfer coefficient. The CORQUENCH model has been incorporated into the MELTSPREAD-1 computer code{sup 6} for the analysis of transient spreading in containments.

  14. Modeling studies of gas movement and moisture migration at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsang, Y.W.; Pruess, K. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Modeling studies on moisture redistribution processes that are mediated by gas phase flow and diffusion have been carried out. The problem addressed is the effect of a lowered humidity of the soil gas at the land surface on moisture removal from Yucca Mountain, the potential site for a high-level nuclear waste repository. At the land surface, humid formation gas contacts much drier atmospheric air. Near this contact, the humidity of the soil gas may be considerably lower than at greater depth, where the authors expect equilibrium with the liquid phase and close to 100% humidity. The lower relative humidity of the soil gas may be modeled by imposing, at the land surface, an additional negative capillary suction corresponding to vapor pressure lowering according to Kelvin`s Equation, thus providing a driving force for the upward movement of moisture in both the vapor and liquid phases. Sensitivity studies show that moisture removal from Yucca Mountain arising from the lowered-relative-humidity boundary condition is controlled by vapor diffusion. There is much experimental evidence in the soil literature that diffusion of vapor is enhanced due to pore-level phase change effects by a few orders of magnitude. Modeling results presented here will account for this enhancement in vapor diffusion.

  15. LNG links remote supplies and markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avidan, A.A.; Gardner, R.E.; Nelson, D.; Borrelli, E.N. [Mobil LNG Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Rethore, T.J. [Arthur D. Little Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1997-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) has established a niche for itself by matching remote gas supplies to markets that both lacked indigenous gas reserves and felt threatened in the aftermath of the energy crises of the 1970s and 1980s. It has provided a cost-effective energy source for these markets, while also offering an environmentally friendly fuel long before that was fashionable. The introduction of natural-gas use via LNG in the early years (mostly into France and Japan) has also allowed LNG to play a major role in developing gas infrastructure. Today, natural gas, often supplied as LNG, is particularly well-suited for use in the combined cycle technology used in independent power generation projects (IPPs). Today, LNG players cannot simply focus on monetizing gas resources. Instead, they must adapt their projects to meet the needs of changing markets. The impact of these changes on the LNG industry has been felt throughout the value chain from finding and producing gas, gas treatment, liquefaction, transport as a liquid, receiving terminals and regasification, and finally, to consumption by power producers, industrial users, and households. These factors have influenced the evolution of the LNG industry and have implications for the future of LNG, particularly in the context of worldwide natural gas.

  16. Irreversible Processes in a Universe modelled as a mixture of a Chaplygin gas and radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. M. Kremer

    2003-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The evolution of a Universe modelled as a mixture of a Chaplygin gas and radiation is determined by taking into account irreversible processes. This mixture could interpolate periods of a radiation dominated, a matter dominated and a cosmological constant dominated Universe. The results of a Universe modelled by this mixture are compared with the results of a mixture whose constituents are radiation and quintessence. Among other results it is shown that: (a) for both models there exists a period of a past deceleration with a present acceleration; (b) the slope of the acceleration of the Universe modelled as a mixture of a Chaplygin gas with radiation is more pronounced than that modelled as a mixture of quintessence and radiation; (c) the energy density of the Chaplygin gas tends to a constant value at earlier times than the energy density of quintessence does; (d) the energy density of radiation for both mixtures coincide and decay more rapidly than the energy densities of the Chaplygin gas and of quintessence.

  17. Strategic Eurasian Natural Gas Model for Energy Security

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chyong, Chi-Kong; Hobbs, Benjamin F.

    2011-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    in (Egging et al., 2008). Lise and Hobbs (2008) assumed that only producers have market power. The primary purpose of extending the GASTALE model to include dynamic investment is to address the policy question of energy corridors to Europe. The dynamic...

  18. Modeling the influence of bubble pressure on grain boundary separation and fission gas release

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pritam Chakraborty; Michael R. Tonks; Giovanni Pastore

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Grain boundary (GB) separation as a mechanism for fission gas release (FGR), complementary to gas bubble interlinkage, has been experimentally observed in irradiated light water reactor fuel. However there has been limited effort to develop physics-based models incorporating this mechanism for the analysis of FGR. In this work, a computational study is carried out to investigate GB separation in UO2 fuel under the effect of gas bubble pressure and hydrostatic stress. A non-dimensional stress intensity factor formula is obtained through 2D axisymmetric analyses considering lenticular bubbles and Mode-I crack growth. The obtained functional form can be used in higher length-scale models to estimate the contribution of GB separation to FGR.

  19. Compressed Air Supply Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph, B.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    COMPRESSED AIR SUPPLY EFFICENCY Babu Joseph, Ph.D., P.E. Engineer Southern California Edison Irwindale, CA ABSTRACT This project, under contract from California Energy Commission, developed the CASE (Compressed Air Supply Efficiency...

  20. Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in California: The California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenblatt, Jeffery B.

    2013-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) model was developed to explore the impact of combinations of state policies on state greenhouse gas (GHG) and regional criteria pollutant emissions. The model included representations of all GHG- emitting sectors of the California economy (including those outside the energy sector, such as high global warming potential gases, waste treatment, agriculture and forestry) in varying degrees of detail, and was carefully calibrated using available data and projections from multiple state agencies and other sources. Starting from basic drivers such as population, numbers of households, gross state product, numbers of vehicles, etc., the model calculated energy demands by type (various types of liquid and gaseous hydrocarbon fuels, electricity and hydrogen), and finally calculated emissions of GHGs and three criteria pollutants: reactive organic gases (ROG), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and fine (2.5 ?m) particulate matter (PM2.5). Calculations were generally statewide, but in some sectors, criteria pollutants were also calculated for two regional air basins: the South Coast Air Basin (SCAB) and the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). Three scenarios were developed that attempt to model: (1) all committed policies, (2) additional, uncommitted policy targets and (3) potential technology and market futures. Each scenario received extensive input from state energy planning agencies, in particular the California Air Resources Board. Results indicate that all three scenarios are able to meet the 2020 statewide GHG targets, and by 2030, statewide GHG emissions range from between 208 and 396 MtCO2/yr. However, none of the scenarios are able to meet the 2050 GHG target of 85 MtCO2/yr, with emissions ranging from 188 to 444 MtCO2/yr, so additional policies will need to be developed for California to meet this stringent future target. A full sensitivity study of major scenario assumptions was also performed. In terms of criteria pollutants, targets were less well-defined, but while all three scenarios were able to make significant reductions in ROG, NOx and PM2.5 both statewide and in the two regional air basins, they may nonetheless fall short of what will be required by future federal standards. Specifically, in Scenario 1, regional NOx emissions are approximately three times the estimated targets for both 2023 and 2032, and in Scenarios 2 and 3, NOx emissions are approximately twice the estimated targets. Further work is required in this area, including detailed regional air quality modeling, in order to determine likely pathways for attaining these stringent targets.

  1. GAS HYDRATE EQUILIBRIA FOR CO2-N2 AND CO2-CH4 GAS MIXTURES, EXPERIMENTS AND MODELLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    steelmaking plants, gas or coal power plants, chemical plants or natural gas production plants. Facing are by definition localized at the plants, like e.g. steelmaking plants, gas or coal power plants, chemical plants be in the order of several cubic meters of CO2 per second. In power plants, the concentration of CO2 is generally

  2. Petroluem Supply Monthly, May 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  3. Petroleum Supply Monthly, July 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  4. Two phase partially miscible flow and transport modeling in porous media: application to gas migration in a nuclear waste repository

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bourgeat, Alain; Smaï, Farid

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive a compositional compressible two-phase, liquid and gas, flow model for numerical simulations of hydrogen migration in deep geological repository for radioactive waste. This model includes capillary effects and the gas high diffusivity. Moreover, it is written in variables (total hydrogen mass density and liquid pressure) chosen in order to be consistent with gas appearance or disappearance. We discuss the well possedness of this model and give some computational evidences of its adequacy to simulate gas generation in a water saturated repository.

  5. Two phase partially miscible flow and transport modeling in porous media: application to gas migration in a nuclear waste repository

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alain Bourgeat; Mladen Jurak; Farid Smaï

    2008-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive a compositional compressible two-phase, liquid and gas, flow model for numerical simulations of hydrogen migration in deep geological repository for radioactive waste. This model includes capillary effects and the gas high diffusivity. Moreover, it is written in variables (total hydrogen mass density and liquid pressure) chosen in order to be consistent with gas appearance or disappearance. We discuss the well possedness of this model and give some computational evidences of its adequacy to simulate gas generation in a water saturated repository.

  6. Combined Analysis of Two- and Three-Particle Correlations in q,p-Bose Gas Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexandre M. Gavrilik

    2006-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    q-deformed oscillators and the q-Bose gas model enable effective description of the observed non-Bose type behavior of the intercept ("strength") $\\lambda^{(2)}\\equiv C^{(2)}(K,K)-1$ of two-particle correlation function $C^{(2)}(p_1,p_2)$ of identical pions produced in heavy-ion collisions. Three- and n-particle correlation functions of pions (or kaons) encode more information on the nature of the emitting sources in such experiments. And so, the q-Bose gas model was further developed: the intercepts of n-th order correlators of q-bosons and the n-particle correlation intercepts within the q,p-Bose gas model have been obtained, the result useful for quantum optics, too. Here we present the combined analysis of two- and three-pion correlation intercepts for the q-Bose gas model and its q,p-extension, and confront with empirical data (from CERN SPS and STAR/RHIC) on pion correlations. Similar to explicit dependence of $\\lambda^{(2)}$ on mean momenta of particles (pions, kaons) found earlier, here we explore the peculiar behavior, versus mean momentum, of the 3-particle correlation intercept $\\lambda^{(3)}(K)$. The whole approach implies complete chaoticity of sources, unlike other joint descriptions of two- and three-pion correlations using two phenomenological parameters (e.g., core-halo fraction plus partial coherence of sources).

  7. Analytical and experimental investigations of gas turbine model combustor acoustics operated at atmospheric pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Analytical and experimental investigations of gas turbine model combustor acoustics operated the eigenmodes of the combustor results from the resonant coupling between pressure disturbances in the flame distribution within the combustor, except when these frequencies match. When the frequencies are close to each

  8. Modeling of wet gas compression in twin-screw multiphase pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Jian

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Fig. 1.4 Subsea multiphase pumping system in Ceiba Field, West Africa............................................................... 8 Fig. 1.5 Twin-screw pump cutaway ............................................................... 12 Fig... Page Table 1.1 Summary of subsea multiphase pumping projects............................ 9 Table 1.2 Summary of subsea wet gas compression projects ........................... 10 Table 2.1 Summary of current models for twin-screw pump...

  9. Computational Modeling of Microstructural-Evolution in AISI 1005 Steel During Gas Metal Arc Butt Welding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grujicic, Mica

    Welding M. Grujicic, S. Ramaswami, J.S. Snipes, R. Yavari, A. Arakere, C.-F. Yen, and B.A. Cheeseman-mechanical finite-element procedure is developed to model conventional gas metal arc welding (GMAW) butt of the workpiece and the weld temperature- dependent and by allowing the potential work of plastic deformation

  10. Validation of a Model of a Resonant Optothermoacoustic Trace Gas Sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minkoff, Susan E.

    Validation of a Model of a Resonant Optothermoacoustic Trace Gas Sensor N. Petra1, J. Zweck1, S. E optothermoacoustic sensor is validated by comparison with experiments performed with 0.5% acetylene in nitrogen Optical Society of America OCIS codes: 300.6430, 300.6340. 1. Introduction Quartz-Enhanced Photo

  11. Seismic modeling to monitor CO2 geological storage: The Atzbach-Schwanenstadt gas field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santos, Juan

    ) and coal-bed methane production make CO2 geolog- ical storage cost-effective [e.g., Baines and Worden, describes the seismic properties of the reservoir rock saturated with CO2, methane and brine, and allows us response when injecting carbon dioxide (CO2) in a depleted gas reservoir. The petro-elastical model

  12. Joint Modelling of Gas and Electricity spot prices N. Frikha1 , V. Lemaire2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    The recent deregulation of energy markets has led to the development in several countries of market places for developing a risk management framework as well as pricing of options. Many derivatives on both electricity to price projects in energy (see [12] for an introduction). Thus, modelling jointly the evolution of gas

  13. lehigh-logo Models and Simulation for Bulk Gas Production and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    lehigh-logo Models and Simulation for Bulk Gas Production and Distribution Wasu Glankwamdee Jeff/Distribution ()Lehigh/Air Products Pittsburgh, PA 1 / 1 lehigh-logo In Our Last Episode(s)... Our project is studying;lehigh-logo Entities in the Production/Distribution Simulation Sites Location, Production Capacity

  14. Building Energy Supply Infrastructures and Urban Sustained Development of Shenyang 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, G.; Wang, Y.; Gao, Y.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    store 300-thousand-cubemeter gases. The compressor is designed to distribute 63? 000m3/h gas. At present, in Shenyang there are oil gases, coal seam gases, mine gases, coke oven gases, liquefied petroleum gases with air, liquefied petroleum gases... Supply Selling Supply Selling kJ/Nm3 Oil gas 3507 2793 403 21767 Coke oven gas 5267 5323 4989 5039 5582 18487 Produced gas 857 7470 297 5870 3824 3592 4475 4916 Oil field gas 7986 6899 7249 6268 7008 6048 7758 6679 6938...

  15. An analysis of oil supply disruption scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mork, Knut Anton

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report brings the results of simulations of some oil supply disruptions on the M.I.T. Energy Laboratory Energy Macro Model. This model has previously been used to study the macroeconomic effects of the 1973-74 and ...

  16. Models, Calculation and Optimization of Gas Networks, Equipment and Contracts for Design, Operation, Booking and Accounting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ostromuhov, Leonid A

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are proposed models of contracts, technological equipment and gas networks and methods of their optimization. The flow in network undergoes restrictions of contracts and equipment to be operated. The values of sources and sinks are provided by contracts. The contract models represent (sub-) networks. The simplest contracts represent either nodes or edges. Equipment is modeled by edges. More sophisticated equipment is represented by sub-networks. Examples of such equipment are multi-poles and compressor stations with many entries and exits. The edges can be of different types corresponding to equipment and contracts. On such edges, there are given systems of equation and inequalities simulating the contracts and equipment. On this base, the methods proposed that allow: calculation and control of contract values for booking on future days and for accounting of sales and purchases; simulation and optimization of design and of operation of gas networks. These models and methods are realized in software syst...

  17. Multi-agent social and organizational modeling of the electric power and natural gas markets.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    North, M. J.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) can be applied to investigate large-scale socio-cognitive-technical systems. Viewing such systems from a multi-agent social and organizational perspective allows innovative computational policy analysis. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has taken such a perspective to produce an integrated model of the electric power and natural gas markets. This model focuses on the organizational interdependencies between these markets. These organizational interdependencies are being strained by fundamental market transformations.

  18. MESO-SCALE MODELING OF THE INFLUENCE OF INTERGRANULAR GAS BUBBLES ON EFFECTIVE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul C. Millett; Michael Tonks

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a mesoscale modeling approach, we have investigated how intergranular fission gas bubbles, as observed in high-burnup nuclear fuel, modify the effective thermal conductivity in a polycrystalline material. The calculations reveal that intergranular porosity has a significantly higher resistance to heat transfer compared to randomly-distributed porosity. A model is developed to describe this conductivity reduction that considers an effective grain boundary Kapitza resistance as a function of the fractional coverage of grain boundaries by bubbles.

  19. Numerical modeling of carrier gas flow in atomic layer deposition vacuum reactor: A comparative study of lattice Boltzmann models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Dongqing; Chien Jen, Tien [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201 (United States); Li, Tao [School of Mechanical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Yuan, Chris, E-mail: cyuan@uwm.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 3200 North Cramer Street, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53211 (United States)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper characterizes the carrier gas flow in the atomic layer deposition (ALD) vacuum reactor by introducing Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) to the ALD simulation through a comparative study of two LBM models. Numerical models of gas flow are constructed and implemented in two-dimensional geometry based on lattice Bhatnagar–Gross–Krook (LBGK)-D2Q9 model and two-relaxation-time (TRT) model. Both incompressible and compressible scenarios are simulated and the two models are compared in the aspects of flow features, stability, and efficiency. Our simulation outcome reveals that, for our specific ALD vacuum reactor, TRT model generates better steady laminar flow features all over the domain with better stability and reliability than LBGK-D2Q9 model especially when considering the compressible effects of the gas flow. The LBM-TRT is verified indirectly by comparing the numerical result with conventional continuum-based computational fluid dynamics solvers, and it shows very good agreement with these conventional methods. The velocity field of carrier gas flow through ALD vacuum reactor was characterized by LBM-TRT model finally. The flow in ALD is in a laminar steady state with velocity concentrated at the corners and around the wafer. The effects of flow fields on precursor distributions, surface absorptions, and surface reactions are discussed in detail. Steady and evenly distributed velocity field contribute to higher precursor concentration near the wafer and relatively lower particle velocities help to achieve better surface adsorption and deposition. The ALD reactor geometry needs to be considered carefully if a steady and laminar flow field around the wafer and better surface deposition are desired.

  20. Assessment of a mechanistic model in U-Pu-Zr metallic alloy fuel fission-gas behavior simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yun, D.; Rest, J.; Yacout, A. M. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave., Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A mechanistic kinetic rate theory model originally developed for the prediction of fission gas behavior in oxide nuclear fuels under steady-state and transient conditions has been assessed to look at its applicability to model fission gas behavior in U-Pu-Zr metallic alloy fuel. In order to capture and validate the underlying physics for irradiated U-Pu-Zr fuels, the mechanistic model was applied to the simulation of fission gas release, fission gas and fission product induced swelling, and the evolution of the gas bubble size distribution in three different fuel zones: the outer {alpha}-U, the intermediate, and the inner {gamma}-U zones. Due to its special microstructural features, the {alpha}-U zone in U-Pu-Zr fuels is believed to contribute the largest fraction of fission gas release among the different fuel zones. It is shown that with the use of small effective grain sizes, the mechanistic model can predict fission gas release that is consistent with (though slightly lower than) experimentally measured data. These simulation results are comparable to the experimentally measured fission gas release since the mechanism of fission gas transport through the densely distributed laminar porosity in the {alpha}-U zone is analogous to the mechanism of fission gas transport through the interconnected gas bubble porosity utilized in the mechanistic model. Detailed gas bubble size distributions predicted with the mechanistic model in both the intermediate zone and the high temperature {gamma}-U zone of U-Pu-Zr fuel are also compared to experimental measurements from available SEM micrographs. These comparisons show good agreements between the simulation results and experimental measurements, and therefore provide crucial guidelines for the selection of key physical parameters required for modeling these two zones. In addition, the results of parametric studies for several key parameters are presented for both the intermediate zone and the {gamma}-U zone simulations. (authors)

  1. Indiana Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Building FloorspaceThousandWithdrawals0.0 0.0Decade4Year JanSameThousand3.1

  2. Iowa Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Building FloorspaceThousandWithdrawals0.0Decade Year-0Base7 3 2 1 0 0 1967-2013

  3. Kentucky Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million Cubic Feet) 3 0 0 0 1 1996-2013 Lease20 55 10 41 3415

  4. Louisiana Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million Cubic Feet) 3 0 0 0 1569Decade886,0845,02044(Million0

  5. Maine Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million Cubic Feet) 3 00.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1993-2013

  6. Maryland Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million Cubic Feet) 3 00.0 0.0 0.05.03057,521(Million

  7. Massachusetts Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million Cubic Feet) 3 00.0Feet)Year Jan Feb Marper2.7 2.83

  8. Michigan Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million Cubic Feet) 3Exportsper Thousand Cubic9 6 0 01998

  9. Minnesota Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million Cubic Feet)Commercialper Thousand Cubic9 2.8 2.6 2.746

  10. Missouri Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million CubicCubic Feet)SameThousandYearBaseYear(Million36

  11. Rhode Island Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial ConsumersThousand CubicCubic Feet) Yeara3,663(Million24,103Thousand40

  12. South Carolina Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial ConsumersThousand CubicCubicIndiaFeet)6 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.6

  13. South Dakota Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial ConsumersThousand CubicCubicIndiaFeet)6Feet)3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

  14. Tennessee Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial ConsumersThousandCubic Feet)4.Synthetic 1980-2003 Propane-Air

  15. Arizona Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion CubicPotentialNov-14 Dec-14DecadeDecade(Million Cubic

  16. Arkansas Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion CubicPotentialNov-14SalesSame Month Previous1 0 11 102008 20097

  17. Colorado Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,128 2,469 2,321Spain,606,602 1,622,434 1,634,58723 426,258

  18. Connecticut Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,128 2,469Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3Thousand Cubic- -1

  19. Delaware Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,128 2,469Decade Year-0Cubic Feet)Delaware2 0.2 0.2 0.2

  20. Washington Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial602 1,397 125 Q 69 (Million Cubic58 810Year Jan Feb MarPropane-Air

  1. Wisconsin Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial602 1,397 125 Q 69 (Million Cubic58(MillionYearVehicle Fuel2.9 2.8 2.6

  2. Wyoming Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial602 1,397 125 Q 69 (MillionAdjustments (MillionYearYear Jan Feb162 1440

  3. Texas Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011 20123.9 4.0Propane-Air

  4. Vermont Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan FebIncreasesCommercial Consumers35,9291 2 1 2 3 3

  5. Virginia Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year JanDecade Year-0 Year-11,113,016 1,124,7170 0 0 201289

  6. Natural Gas Consumption (Annual Supply & Disposition)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade1 Source: Office of FossilFoot)Feet) Year Jan Monthly

  7. Illinois Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803 TableTotal Consumptionper Thousand Cubic4 15 0 0 09.515

  8. STEO November 2012 - natural gas supply

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  9. Natural Gas Consumption (Annual Supply & Disposition)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803andYear Jan Feb MarDecadeDecade Year-0Decade22,910,078

  10. Nebraska Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803andYearWithdrawals (MillionYear Jan FebThousand9 0.8

  11. Nevada Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803andYearWithdrawalsYear Jan Feb Mar Apr8 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9

  12. New Hampshire Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803andYearWithdrawalsYear Jan1 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1

  13. New Jersey Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803andYearWithdrawalsYear Jan1 0.2TotalDecadeper4.5 4.7

  14. Alabama Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Building Floorspace (Square Feet)SalesYear Jan Feb Mar Aprper Thousand0 1 2

  15. Alaska Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Building Floorspace (Square Feet)SalesYear JanFeet)529 633 622 566

  16. New Mexico Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto ChinaThousand Cubic Feet)Feet)Feet)556,905136 149 1803671

  17. New York Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto ChinaThousand CubicSeparation 29 0Year Jan0 0 0 0 0 08.1 8.5 8.27

  18. North Carolina Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto ChinaThousand CubicSeparationTotalper Thousand Cubic

  19. North Dakota Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto ChinaThousandDecade Year-0 Year-1(Million Cubic Feet)

  20. Ohio Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto ChinaThousandDecade Year-0Separation3,262,7160 0 0 483

  1. Oregon Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial Consumers (NumberThousand Cubic Feet) DecadeYear JanYear0.9 0.9 0.90

  2. Pennsylvania Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial Consumers (NumberThousand CubicFuelDecade Year-0(Dollars per 0 0 0

  3. A mathematical model of a gas-fed oxygen reduction porous electrode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ridge, Stephen James

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Load Op HEO 4e 4H 4H 4e H~O No Gas Flow Chamber El Current. Collector E3 Porous Electrode H Proton Exchange Membrane Fig. 1. Proton exchange membrane fuel cell schematic Os(g) + 4H+(aq) + 4e ~ 2Hz 0(l) (21 The water leaves the porous...A MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF A GAS-FED OXYGEN REDUCTION POROUS ELECTRODE A Thesis by STEPHEN JAMES RIDGE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASSAM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE...

  4. Observational constrains on cosmological models with Chaplygin gas and quadratic equation of state

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharov, G S

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Observational manifestations of accelerated expansion of the universe, in particular, recent data for Type Ia supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillations and for the Hubble parameter $H(z)$ are described with different cosmological models. We compare the $\\Lambda$CDM, the models with generalized and modified Chaplygin gas and the model with quadratic equation of state. For these models we estimate optimal model parameters and their permissible errors, in particular, for all 4 mentioned models the Hubble parameter and the curvature fraction are $H_0=70.1\\pm0.45$ km\\,c${}^{-1}$Mpc${}^{-1}$ and $-0.13\\le\\Omega_k\\le0.025$. The model with quadratic equation of state yields the minimal value of $\\chi^2$, but this model has 2 additional parameters in comparison with the $\\Lambda$CDM.

  5. Petroleum supply monthly, March 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas -- the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided from other sources.

  6. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures ih the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas - - the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided firom other sources.

  7. Petroleum supply monthly, with data from June 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Petroleum Supply Division (PSD) of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) collects and published information on petroleum supply and disposition in the United States. The information is collected through a series of surveys that make up the Petroleum Supply Reporting System (PSRS). The PSRS data are published in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM), and Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). This report presents information on crude oil production, crude oil imports and exports, refinery operations, natural gas processing, transportation, and oxygenate data.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS RECEIVER UTILIZING SMALL PARTICLES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, Arlon J.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for powering a gas turbine or to supply industrial processin conjunetion with a gas turbine system providing severalincluding heating a gas to operate a turbine (4), providing

  9. Comparison of kinetic and equilibrium reaction models insimulating gas hydrate behavior in porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kowalsky, Michael B.; Moridis, George J.

    2006-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study we compare the use of kinetic and equilibriumreaction models in the simulation of gas (methane) hydrate behavior inporous media. Our objective is to evaluate through numerical simulationthe importance of employing kinetic versus equilibrium reaction modelsfor predicting the response of hydrate-bearing systems to externalstimuli, such as changes in pressure and temperature. Specifically, we(1) analyze and compare the responses simulated using both reactionmodels for natural gas production from hydrates in various settings andfor the case of depressurization in a hydrate-bearing core duringextraction; and (2) examine the sensitivity to factors such as initialhydrate saturation, hydrate reaction surface area, and numericaldiscretization. We find that for large-scale systems undergoing thermalstimulation and depressurization, the calculated responses for bothreaction models are remarkably similar, though some differences areobserved at early times. However, for modeling short-term processes, suchas the rapid recovery of a hydrate-bearing core, kinetic limitations canbe important, and neglecting them may lead to significantunder-prediction of recoverable hydrate. The use of the equilibriumreaction model often appears to be justified and preferred for simulatingthe behavior of gas hydrates, given that the computational demands forthe kinetic reaction model far exceed those for the equilibrium reactionmodel.

  10. A weak-value model for virtual particles supplying the electric current in graphene: the minimal conductivity and the Schwinger mechanism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kazuhiro Yokota; Nobuyuki Imoto

    2014-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a model for the electric current in graphene in which electric carriers are supplied by virtual particles allowed by the uncertainty relations. The process to make a virtual particle real is described by a weak value of a group velocity: the velocity is requisite for the electric field to give the virtual particle the appropriate changes of both energy and momentum. With the weak value, we approximately estimate the electric current, considering the ballistic transport of the electric carriers. The current shows the quasi-Ohimic with the minimal conductivity of the order of e^2/h per channel. Crossing a certain ballistic time scale, it is brought to obey the Schwinger mechanism.

  11. Numerical Modeling of Reactive Multiphase Flow for FCC and Hot Gas Desulfurization Circulating Fluidized Beds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work was carried out to understand the behavior of the solid and gas phases in a CFB riser. Only the riser is modeled as a straight pipe. A model with linear algebraic approximation to solids viscosity of the form, {musubs} = 5.34{epsisubs}, ({espisubs} is the solids volume fraction) with an appropriate boundary condition at the wall obtained by approximate momentum balance solution at the wall to acount for the solids recirculation is tested against experimental results. The work done was to predict the flow patterns in the CFB risers from available experimental data, including data from a 7.5-cm-ID CFB riser at the Illinois Institute of Technology and data from a 20.0-cm-ID CFB riser at the Particulate Solid Research, Inc., facility. This research aims at modeling the removal of hydrogen sulfide from hot coal gas using zinc oxide as the sorbent in a circulating fluidized bed and in the process indentifying the parameters that affect the performance of the sulfidation reactor. Two different gas-solid reaction models, the unreacted shrinking core (USC) and the grain model were applied to take into account chemical reaction resistances. Also two different approaches were used to affect the hydrodynamics of the process streams. The first model takes into account the effect of micro-scale particle clustering by adjusting the gas-particle drag law and the second one assumes a turbulent core with pseudo-steady state boundary condition at the wall. A comparison is made with experimental results.

  12. A Supply Chain Network Perspective for Electric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    of New Models "[In recent years] the adequacy of the bulk power transmission system has been challengedA Supply Chain Network Perspective for Electric Power Generation, Supply, Transmission The transformation of the electric power industry from a regulated to a competitive industry In the US, In the EU

  13. Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in California: The California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenblatt, Jeffery B.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    decision support tool for landfill gas-to energy projects,”component of landfills to 100% HGWP gases a. HFC phase-out:

  14. Numerical analysis of a microwave torch with axial gas injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gritsinin, S. I.; Davydov, A. M.; Kossyi, I. A., E-mail: kossyi@fpl.gpi.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Kulumbaev, E. B. [National Research University Belgorod State University (Russian Federation)] [National Research University Belgorod State University (Russian Federation); Lelevkin, V. M. [Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University (Kyrgyzstan)] [Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University (Kyrgyzstan)

    2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The characteristics of a microwave discharge in an argon jet injected axially into a coaxial channel with a shortened inner electrode are numerically analyzed using a self-consistent equilibrium gas-dynamic model. The specific features of the excitation and maintenance of the microwave discharge are determined, and the dependences of the discharge characteristics on the supplied electromagnetic power and gas flow rate are obtained. The calculated results are compared with experimental data.

  15. Comparing Price Forecast Accuracy of Natural Gas Models and Futures Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; Dale, Larry; Lekov, Alex

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to accurately forecast natural gas prices. Many policyseek alternative methods to forecast natural gas prices. Thethe accuracy of forecasts for natural gas prices as reported

  16. Simulating the Afghanistan-Pakistan opium supply chain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watkins, Jennifer H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; MacKerrow, Edward P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Merritt, Terence M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper outlines an opium supply chain using the Hilmand province of Afghanistan as exemplar. The opium supply chain model follows the transformation of opium poppy seed through cultivation and chemical alteration to brown heroin base. The purpose of modeling and simulating the Afghanistan-Pakistan opium supply chain is to discover and test strategies that will disrupt this criminal enterprise.

  17. System Modeling and Building Energy Simulations of Gas Engine Driven Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahderekal, Isaac [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Vineyard, Edward [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To improve the system performance of a gas engine driven heat pump (GHP) system, an analytical modeling and experimental study has been made by using desiccant system in cooling operation (particularly in high humidity operations) and suction line waste heat recovery to augment heating capacity and efficiency. The performance of overall GHP system has been simulated with a detailed vapor compression heat pump system design model. The modeling includes: (1) GHP cycle without any performance improvements (suction liquid heat exchange and heat recovery) as a baseline (both in cooling and heating mode), (2) the GHP cycle in cooling mode with desiccant system regenerated by waste heat from engine incorporated, (3) GHP cycle in heating mode with heat recovery (recovered heat from engine). According to the system modeling results, by using the desiccant system the sensible heat ratio (SHR- sensible heat ratio) can be lowered to 40%. The waste heat of the gas engine can boost the space heating efficiency by 25% at rated operating conditions. In addtion,using EnergyPlus, building energy simulations have been conducted to assess annual energy consumptions of GHP in sixteen US cities, and the performances are compared to a baseline unit, which has a electrically-driven air conditioner with the seasonal COP of 4.1 for space cooling and a gas funace with 90% fuel efficiency for space heating.

  18. Development of a natural gas systems analysis model (GSAM). Annual report, January 1994--January 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of GSAM development is to create a comprehensive, non-proprietary, microcomputer model of the North American natural gas system. GSAM explicitly evaluates the key components of the system, including the resource base, exploration and development practices, extraction technology performance and costs, project economics, transportation costs and restrictions, storage, and end-use. The primary focus is the detailed characterization of the resource base at the reservoir and sub-reservoir level. This disaggregation allows direct evaluation of alternative extraction technologies based on discretely estimated, individual well productivity, required investments, and associated operating costs. GSAM`s design allows users to evaluate complex interactions of current and alternative future technology and policy initiatives as they directly impact the gas market. Key activities completed during the past year include: conducted a comparative analysis of commercial reservoir databases; licensed and screened NRG Associates Significant Oil and Gas Fields of the US reservoir database; developed and tested reduced form reservoir model production type curves; fully developed database structures for use in GSAM and linkage to other systems; developed a methodology for the exploration module; collected and updated upstream capital and operating cost parameters; completed initial integration of downstream/demand models; presented research results at METC Contractor Review Meeting; conducted other briefings for METC managers, including initiation of the GSAM Environmental Module; and delivered draft topical reports on technology review, model review, and GSAM methodology.

  19. Georgia Oil and Gas Deep Drilling act of 1975 (Georgia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Georgia's Oil and Gas and Deep Drilling Act regulates oil and gas drilling activities to provide protection of underground freshwater supplies and certain "environmentally sensitive" areas. The...

  20. A Stochastic Optimization Case Study using ILOG CPLEX Concert Technology: Dual Sourcing Model for Managing Supply Chain Disruptions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bjørnstad, Ottar Nordal

    of a company under uncertainty is proposed in this study. Deterministic planning and scheduling models is optimal usage of future resources on the basis of available present information and future scenarios1 increase. As simple as uncertain lead time can affect the production plans which necessitates

  1. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    adjustments, minus stock change, minus refinery and blender net inputs, minus exports. Net receipts are added as a component of supply at the PAD District level. Crude oil...

  2. Monthly/Annual Energy Review - natural gas section

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Monthly and latest annual time-series and recent statistics on natural gas supply, disposition, and price.

  3. Supply, Demand, and Export Outlook for North American Oil and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Supply, Demand, and Export Outlook for North American Oil and Gas For Energy Infrastructure Summit September 15, 2014 | Houston, TX By Adam Sieminski, EIA Administrator 0 20 40 60...

  4. Elements of $\\mu$-calculus and thermodynamics of $\\mu$-Bose gas model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rebesh, A P; Gavrilik, A M

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We review on and give some further details about the thermodynamical properties of the \\mu-Bose gas model (arXiv:1309.1363) introduced by us recently. This model was elaborated in connection with \\mu-deformed oscillators. Here, we present the necessary concepts and tools from the so-called \\mu-calculus. For the high temperatures, we obtain the virial expansion of the equation of state, as well as five virial coefficients. In the regime of low temperatures, the critical temperature of condensation is inferred. We also obtain the specific heat, internal energy, and entropy for a \\mu-Bose gas for both low and high temperatures. All thermodynamical functions depend on the deformation parameter \\mu. The dependences of the entropy and the specific heat on the deformation parameter are visualized.

  5. An improved Reynolds-equation model for gas damping of microbeam motion.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallis, Michail A.; Torczynski, John Robert

    2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved gas-damping model for the out-of-plane motion of a near-substrate microbeam is developed based on the Reynolds equation (RE). A boundary condition for the RE is developed that relates the pressure at the beam edge to the beam motion. The coefficients in this boundary condition are determined from Navier-Stokes slip-jump (NSSJ) simulations for small slip lengths (relative to the gap height) and from direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) molecular gas dynamics simulations for larger slip lengths. This boundary condition significantly improves the accuracy of the RE when the microbeam width is only slightly greater than the gap height between the microbeam and the substrate. The improved RE model is applied to microbeams fabricated using the SUMMiT V process.

  6. Models for evaluation of energy technology and policy options to maximize low carbon source penetration in the United States energy supply.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickard, Paul S.; Kataoka, Dawn; Reno, Marissa Devan; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Peplinski, William J.; Roach, Jesse D.; Brainard, James Robert; West, Todd H.; Schoenwald, David Alan

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An initial version of a Systems Dynamics (SD) modeling framework was developed for the analysis of a broad range of energy technology and policy questions. The specific question selected to demonstrate this process was 'what would be the carbon and import implications of expanding nuclear electric capacity to provide power for plug in hybrid vehicles?' Fifteen SNL SD energy models were reviewed and the US Energy and Greenhouse gas model (USEGM) and the Global Nuclear Futures model (GEFM) were identified as the basis for an initial modeling framework. A basic U.S. Transportation model was created to model U.S. fleet changes. The results of the rapid adoption scenario result in almost 40% of light duty vehicles being PHEV by 2040 which requires about 37 GWy/y of additional electricity demand, equivalent to about 25 new 1.4 GWe nuclear plants. The adoption rate of PHEVs would likely be the controlling factor in achieving the associated reduction in carbon emissions and imports.

  7. Summary: U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Summary: U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves 2009 November 2010 U.S. Energy Information Administration Office of Oil, Gas, and Coal Supply...

  8. Modeling and experiments on differential pumping in linear plasma generators operating at high gas flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eck, H. J. N. van; Koppers, W. R.; Rooij, G. J. van; Goedheer, W. J.; Cardozo, N. J. Lopes; Kleyn, A. W. [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, P.O. Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Engeln, R.; Schram, D. C. [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method was used to investigate the efficiency of differential pumping in linear plasma generators operating at high gas flows. Skimmers are used to separate the neutrals from the plasma beam, which is guided from the source to the target by a strong axial magnetic field. In this way, the neutrals are prevented to reach the target region. The neutral flux to the target must be lower than the plasma flux to enable ITER relevant plasma-surface interaction (PSI) studies. It is therefore essential to control the neutral gas dynamics. The DSMC method was used to model the expansion of a hot gas in a low pressure vessel where a small discrepancy in shock position was found between the simulations and a well-established empirical formula. Two stage differential pumping was modeled and applied in the linear plasma devices Pilot-PSI and PLEXIS. In Pilot-PSI a factor of 4.5 pressure reduction for H{sub 2} has been demonstrated. Both simulations and experiments showed that the optimum skimmer position depends on the position of the shock and therefore shifts for different gas parameters. The shape of the skimmer has to be designed such that it has a minimum impact on the shock structure. A too large angle between the skimmer and the forward direction of the gas flow leads to an influence on the expansion structure. A pressure increase in front of the skimmer is formed and the flow of the plasma beam becomes obstructed. It has been shown that a skimmer with an angle around 53 deg. gives the best performance. The use of skimmers is implemented in the design of the large linear plasma generator Magnum-PSI. Here, a three stage differentially pumped vacuum system is used to reach low enough neutral pressures near the target, opening a door to PSI research in the ITER relevant regime.

  9. Model documentation natural gas transmission and distribution model (NGTDM) of the national energy modeling system. Volume II: Model developer`s report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    To partially fulfill the requirements for {open_quotes}Model Acceptance{close_quotes} as stipulated in EIA Standard 91-01-01 (effective February 3, 1991), the Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting has conducted tests of the Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) for the specific purpose of validating the forecasting model. This volume of the model documentation presents the results of {open_quotes}one-at-a-time{close_quotes} sensitivity tests conducted in support of this validation effort. The test results are presented in the following forms: (1) Tables of important model outputs for the years 2000 and 2010 are presented with respect to change in each input from the reference case; (2) Tables of percent changes from base case results for the years 2000 and 2010 are presented for important model outputs; (3) Tables of conditional sensitivities (percent change in output/percent change in input) for the years 2000 and 2010 are presented for important model outputs; (4) Finally, graphs presenting the percent change from base case results for each year of the forecast period are presented for selected key outputs. To conduct the sensitivity tests, two main assumptions are made in order to test the performance characteristics of the model itself and facilitate the understanding of the effects of the changes in the key input variables to the model on the selected key output variables: (1) responses to the amount demanded do not occur since there are no feedbacks of inputs from other NEMS models in the stand-alone NGTDM run. (2) All the export and import quantities from and to Canada and Mexico, and liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports and exports are held fixed (i.e., there are no changes in imports and exports between the reference case and the sensitivity cases) throughout the forecast period.

  10. Cooperative Server Clustering for a Scalable GAS Model on Petascale Cray XT5 Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Weikuan [ORNL; Que, Xinyu [ORNL; Tipparaju, Vinod [ORNL; Graham, Richard L [ORNL; Vetter, Jeffrey S [ORNL

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Global Address Space (GAS) programming models are attractive because they retain the easy-to-use addressing model that is the characteristic of shared-memory style load and store operations. The scalability of GAS models depends directly on the design and implementation of runtime libraries on the targeted platforms. In this paper, we examine the memory requirement of a popular GAS run-time library, Aggregate Remote Memory Copy Interface (ARMCI) on petascale Cray XT 5 systems. Then we describe a new technique, cooperative server clustering, that enhances the memory scalability of ARMCI communication servers. In cooperative server clustering, ARMCI servers are organized into clusters, and cooperatively process incoming communication requests among them. A request intervention scheme is also designed to expedite the return of responses to the initiating processes. Our experimental results demonstrate that, with very little impact on ARMCI communication latency and bandwidth, cooperative server clustering is able to significantly reduce the memory requirement of ARMCI communication servers, thereby enabling highly scalable scientific applications. In particular, it dramatically reduces the total execution time of a scientific application, NWChem, by 45% on 2400 processes.

  11. Cooperative Server Clustering for a Scalable GAS Model on petascale cray XT5 Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Weikuan [ORNL; Que, Xinyu [ORNL; Graham, Richard L [ORNL; Vetter, Jeffrey S [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Global Address Space (GAS) programming models are attractive because they retain the easy-to-use addressing model that is the characteristic of shared-memory style load and store operations. The scalability of GAS models depends directly on the design and implementation of runtime libraries on the targeted platforms. In this paper, we examine the memory requirement of a popular GAS runtime library, Aggregate Remote Memory Copy Interface (ARMCI) on petascale Cray XT 5 systems. Then we describe a new technique cooperative server clustering that enhances the memory scalability of ARMCI communication servers. In cooperative server clustering, ARMCI servers are organized into clusters, and cooperatively process incoming communication requests among them. A request intervention scheme is also designed to expedite the return of responses to the initiating processes. Our experimental results demonstrate that, with very little impact on ARMCI communication latency and bandwidth, cooperative server clustering is able to significantly reduce the memory requirement of ARMCI communication servers, thereby enabling highly scalable scientific applications. In particular, it dramatically reduces the total execution time of a scientific application, NWChem, by 45% on 2400 processes.

  12. Precision control of high temperature furnaces using an auxiliary power supply and charged practice current flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pollock, George G. (San Ramon, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two power supplies are combined to control a furnace. A main power supply heats the furnace in the traditional manner, while the power from the auxiliary supply is introduced as a current flow through charged particles existing due to ionized gas or thermionic emission. The main power supply provides the bulk heating power and the auxiliary supply provides a precise and fast power source such that the precision of the total power delivered to the furnace is improved.

  13. Precision control of high temperature furnaces using an auxiliary power supply and charged particle current flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pollock, G.G.

    1997-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Two power supplies are combined to control a furnace. A main power supply heats the furnace in the traditional manner, while the power from the auxiliary supply is introduced as a current flow through charged particles existing due to ionized gas or thermionic emission. The main power supply provides the bulk heating power and the auxiliary supply provides a precise and fast power source such that the precision of the total power delivered to the furnace is improved. 5 figs.

  14. A gas kinetic scheme for the Baer-Nunziato two-phase flow model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Liang, E-mail: panliangjlu@sina.com [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China) [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China); The Graduate School of China Academy of Engineering Physics, Beijing 100088 (China); Zhao, Guiping, E-mail: zhaogp@nsfc.gov.cn [National Natural Science Foundation of China, Beijing 100085 (China)] [National Natural Science Foundation of China, Beijing 100085 (China); Tian, Baolin, E-mail: tian_baolin@iapcm.ac.cn [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China) [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China); Key Laboratory of Computational Physics, Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China); Wang, Shuanghu, E-mail: wang_shuanghu@iapcm.ac.cn [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China) [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China); Key Laboratory of Computational Physics, Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China)

    2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Numerical methods for the Baer-Nunziato (BN) two-phase flow model have attracted much attention in recent years. In this paper, we present a new gas kinetic scheme for the BN two-phase flow model containing non-conservative terms in the framework of finite volume method. In the view of microscopic aspect, a generalized Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) model which matches with the BN model is constructed. Based on the integral solution of the generalized BGK model, we construct the distribution functions at the cell interface. Then numerical fluxes can be obtained by taking moments of the distribution functions, and non-conservative terms are explicitly introduced into the construction of numerical fluxes. In this method, not only the complex iterative process of exact solutions is avoided, but also the non-conservative terms included in the equation can be handled well.

  15. Virtual Pipeline System Testbed to Optimize the U.S. Natural Gas Transmission Pipeline System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby S. Chapman; Prakash Krishniswami; Virg Wallentine; Mohammed Abbaspour; Revathi Ranganathan; Ravi Addanki; Jeet Sengupta; Liubo Chen

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project is to develop a Virtual Pipeline System Testbed (VPST) for natural gas transmission. This study uses a fully implicit finite difference method to analyze transient, nonisothermal compressible gas flow through a gas pipeline system. The inertia term of the momentum equation is included in the analysis. The testbed simulate compressor stations, the pipe that connects these compressor stations, the supply sources, and the end-user demand markets. The compressor station is described by identifying the make, model, and number of engines, gas turbines, and compressors. System operators and engineers can analyze the impact of system changes on the dynamic deliverability of gas and on the environment.

  16. THETRIS: A MICRO-SCALE TEMPERATURE AND GAS RELEASE MODEL FOR TRISO FUEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Ortensi; A.M. Ougouag

    2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The dominating mechanism in the passive safety of gas-cooled, graphite-moderated, high-temperature reactors (HTRs) is the Doppler feedback effect. These reactor designs are fueled with sub-millimeter sized kernels formed into TRISO particles that are imbedded in a graphite matrix. The best spatial and temporal representation of the feedback effect is obtained from an accurate approximation of the fuel temperature. Most accident scenarios in HTRs are characterized by large time constants and slow changes in the fuel and moderator temperature fields. In these situations a meso-scale, pebble and compact scale, solution provides a good approximation of the fuel temperature. Micro-scale models are necessary in order to obtain accurate predictions in faster transients or when parameters internal to the TRISO are needed. Since these coated particles constitute one of the fundamental design barriers for the release of fission products, it becomes important to understand the transient behavior inside this containment system. An explicit TRISO fuel temperature model named THETRIS has been developed and incorporated into the CYNOD-THERMIX-KONVEK suite of coupled codes. The code includes gas release models that provide a simple predictive capability of the internal pressure during transients. The new model yields similar results to those obtained with other micro-scale fuel models, but with the added capability to analyze gas release, internal pressure buildup, and effects of a gap in the TRISO. The analyses show the instances when the micro-scale models improve the predictions of the fuel temperature and Doppler feedback. In addition, a sensitivity study of the potential effects on the transient behavior of high-temperature reactors due to the presence of a gap is included. Although the formation of a gap occurs under special conditions, its consequences on the dynamic behavior of the reactor can cause unexpected responses during fast transients. Nevertheless, the strong Doppler feedback forces the reactor to quickly stabilize.

  17. Experimental analysis and model-based optimization of microalgae growth in photo-bioreactors using flue gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    great potential for converting flue gas to biomass. Microalgae can capture solar energy more efficientlyExperimental analysis and model-based optimization of microalgae growth in photo-bioreactors using flue gas Lian He, Venkat R. Subramanian, Yinjie J. Tang* Department of Energy, Environmental

  18. Introduction Literature Review Integrated Electric Power Supply Chains Empirical Examples Conclusions An Integrated Electric Power Supply Chain and Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    of fuel demands 30% of the natural gas demand (over 50% in the summer) 90% of the coal demand over 45% of the residual fuel oil demand. #12;Introduction Literature Review Integrated Electric Power Supply ChainsIntroduction Literature Review Integrated Electric Power Supply Chains Empirical Examples

  19. Dispersion model for elevated dense-gas-jet chemical releases (DOMS/DEGADIS) (for microcomputers). Software

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guinnup, D.

    1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The computer program, Ooms/DEGADIS, found on these diskettes and described in the EPA report entitled, A Dispersion Model for Elevated Dense Gas Jet Chemical Releases - Volumes 1 and 2 (EPA 450/4-88-006a and b), is a VAX-operational program designed to simulate the dispersion of heavier-than-air gases which are emitted into the atmosphere with significant velocity through elevated ports. The program incorporates the sequential execution of two models. The first one (Ooms) calculates the trajectory and dispersion of the gas plume as it falls to the ground. The second (DEGADIS) calculates the downwind dispersion of the plume after it touches the ground. Users are referred to the Preface in the User's Guide for specific instructions for program implementation...Software Description: The program is written in FORTRAN with specific intent for compilation and execution on a Digital Equipment Corporation VAX computer. Implementation of the model on any other computer system may be attempted at the risk of the user. To facilitate dissemination of the model, it is being provided on two PC-compatible diskettes. The model should be uploaded via modem from a PC terminal to host VAX computer, and several files must then be renamed prior to compilation and execution.

  20. Comparing Price Forecast Accuracy of Natural Gas Models andFutures Markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; Dale, Larry; Lekov, Alex

    2005-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this article is to compare the accuracy of forecasts for natural gas prices as reported by the Energy Information Administration's Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) and the futures market for the period from 1998 to 2003. The analysis tabulates the existing data and develops a statistical comparison of the error between STEO and U.S. wellhead natural gas prices and between Henry Hub and U.S. wellhead spot prices. The results indicate that, on average, Henry Hub is a better predictor of natural gas prices with an average error of 0.23 and a standard deviation of 1.22 than STEO with an average error of -0.52 and a standard deviation of 1.36. This analysis suggests that as the futures market continues to report longer forward prices (currently out to five years), it may be of interest to economic modelers to compare the accuracy of their models to the futures market. The authors would especially like to thank Doug Hale of the Energy Information Administration for supporting and reviewing this work.

  1. AN AGGREGATED VECTORIAL MODEL OF PETROLEUM FLOW IN THE UNITED STATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krishnan, V. V.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I I I I I DOMESTIC CRUDE OIL PRODUCTION CRUDE OIL i SUPPLY IDatabase 71. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production Model 72.Domestic Crude Production SYSTEM: Crude Oil First Purchaser

  2. Cosmological Imprints of a Generalized Chaplygin Gas Model for the Early Universe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bouhmadi-Lopez, Mariam; /Lisbon, CENTRA; Chen, Pisin; /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Liu, Yen-Wei; /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U.

    2012-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a phenomenological model for the early universe where there is a smooth transition between an early quintessence phase and a radiation-dominated era. The matter content is modeled by an appropriately modified Chaplygin gas for the early universe. We constrain the model observationally by mapping the primordial power spectrum of the scalar perturbations to the latest data of WMAP7. We compute as well the spectrum of the primordial gravitational waves as would be measured today. We show that the high frequencies region of the spectrum depends on the free parameter of the model and most importantly this region of the spectrum can be within the reach of future gravitational waves detectors.

  3. U.S. Greenhouse Gas Cap-and-Trade Proposals: Application of a Forward-Looking Computable General Equilibrium Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gurgel, Angelo C.

    We develop a forward-looking version of the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, and apply it to examine the economic implications of proposals in the U.S. Congress to limit greenhouse gas (GHG) ...

  4. Preferential mode of gas invasion in sediments : grain-scale model of coupled multiphase fluid flow and sediment mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jain, Antone Kumar

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a discrete element model for simulating, at the grain scale, gas migration in brine-saturated deformable media. We rigorously account for the presence of two fluids in the pore space by incorporating forces on ...

  5. Development of a natural gas systems analysis model (GSAM). Annual report, July 1996--July 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of GSAM development is to create a comprehensive, non-proprietary, microcomputer model of the North American natural gas system. GSAM explicitly evaluates the key components of the system, including the resource base, exploration and development practices, extraction technology performance and costs, project economics, transportation costs and restrictions, storage, and end-use. The primary focus is the detailed characterization of the resource base at the reservoir and subreservoir level. This disaggregation allows direct evaluation of alternative extraction technologies based on discretely estimated, individual well productivity, required investments, and associated operating costs. GSAM`s design allows users to evaluate complex interactions of current and alternative future technology and policy initiatives as they directly impact the gas market. GSAM development has been ongoing for the past five years. Key activities completed during the past year are described.

  6. Chaoticity parameter $?$ in two-pion interferometry in an expanding boson gas model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jie Liu; Peng Ru; Wei-Ning Zhang; Cheuk-Yin Wong

    2014-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the chaoticity parameter $\\lambda$ in two-pion interferometry in an expanding boson gas model. The degree of Bose-Einstein condensation of identical pions, density distributions, and Hanbury-Brown-Twiss (HBT) correlation functions are calculated for the expanding gas within the mean-field description with a harmonic oscillator potential. The results indicate that a sources with thousands of identical pions may exhibit a degree of Bose-Einstein condensation at the temperatures during the hadronic phase in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. This finite condensation may decrease the chaoticity parameter $\\lambda$ in the two-pion interferometry measurements at low pion pair momenta, but influence only slightly the $\\lambda$ value at high pion pair momentum.

  7. Modeling prismatic HTGRs with U.S. N.R.C advanced gas reactor evaluator (AGREE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seker, V.; Drzewiecki, T.; Downar, T. [Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, 2355 Bonisteel Blvd, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Kelly, J. M. [US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A core fluids and heat transfer model has been developed for the prismatic high temperature gas reactor in support of the US NRC Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) evaluation model. The core fluids modeling relies on a subchannel approach in which the primary coolant flow path through the core region and vertical in-core and ex-core gaps can be modeled as individual subchannels. These subchannels are connected together to represent a three dimensional reactor. An initial validation calculation for the core fluids model has been performed using data available in literature for bypass flow. The predicted bypass flow was within 2.6% of the value reported in the literature. The core level heat transfer model is based on a triangular finite volume method, where the base triangle is one sixth of the prismatic block. In order to improve the spatial accuracy at this level, a triangular refinement method was also implemented. The fuel compact temperature is calculated by a cylindrical conduction model which is implicitly coupled to the triangular core level model. The preliminary verification of the model was performed by comparing AGREE to a finite element code COMSOL by analyzing the MHTGR core heat transfer. Further verification and validation is currently an ongoing effort. (authors)

  8. Mercury Speciation in Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas-Experimental Studies and Model Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radisav Vidic; Joseph Flora; Eric Borguet

    2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall goal of the project was to obtain a fundamental understanding of the catalytic reactions that are promoted by solid surfaces present in coal combustion systems and develop a mathematical model that described key phenomena responsible for the fate of mercury in coal-combustion systems. This objective was achieved by carefully combining laboratory studies under realistic process conditions using simulated flue gas with mathematical modeling efforts. Laboratory-scale studies were performed to understand the fundamental aspects of chemical reactions between flue gas constituents and solid surfaces present in the fly ash and their impact on mercury speciation. Process models were developed to account for heterogeneous reactions because of the presence of fly ash as well as the deliberate addition of particles to promote Hg oxidation and adsorption. Quantum modeling was used to obtain estimates of the kinetics of heterogeneous reactions. Based on the initial findings of this study, additional work was performed to ascertain the potential of using inexpensive inorganic sorbents to control mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants without adverse impact on the salability fly ash, which is one of the major drawbacks of current control technologies based on activated carbon.

  9. Optimization of California's Water Supply System: Results and Insights

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasternack, Gregory B.

    headings: Optimization; California; Water supply; Water shortage. Introduction Water is scarceOptimization of California's Water Supply System: Results and Insights Marion W. Jenkins1 ; Jay R-engineering optimization model of California's water supply system. The results of this 4-year effort illustrate the value

  10. Risk management in Chemical Supply Chains Rajagopalan Srinivasana,b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarado, Matías

    an agent-based framework for modeling and simulating the supply chain activities in a refinery, and operations in the refinery. Other external agents emulate the crude exchange, oil suppliers, and 3PLs attention. As an example, consider a petroleum refinery supply chain. 1.1. Petroleum Refinery Supply Chain

  11. Performance analysis of compositional and modified black-oil models for rich gas condensate reservoirs with vertical and horizontal wells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Izgec, Bulent

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been known that volatile oil and gas condensate reservoirs cannot be modeled accurately with conventional black-oil models. One variation to the black-oil approach is the modified black-oil (MBO) model that allows the use of a simple...

  12. Gas Metal Arc Welding Process Modeling and Prediction of Weld Microstructure in MIL A46100 Armor-Grade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grujicic, Mica

    Gas Metal Arc Welding Process Modeling and Prediction of Weld Microstructure in MIL A46100 Armor metal arc welding (GMAW) butt-joining process has been modeled using a two-way fully coupled, transient in the form of heat, and the mechanical material model of the workpiece and the weld is made temperature

  13. Performance analysis of compositional and modified black-oil models for rich gas condensate reservoirs with vertical and horizontal wells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Izgec, Bulent

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been known that volatile oil and gas condensate reservoirs cannot be modeled accurately with conventional black-oil models. One variation to the black-oil approach is the modified black-oil (MBO) model that allows the use of a simple...

  14. Process Modeling Phase I Summary Report for the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pannala, Sreekanth [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Boyalakuntla, Dhanunjay S [ORNL; FINNEY, Charles E A [ORNL

    2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the results of preliminary work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to demonstrate application of computational fluid dynamics modeling to the scale-up of a Fluidized Bed Chemical Vapor Deposition (FBCVD) process for nuclear fuels coating. Specifically, this work, referred to as Modeling Scale-Up Phase I, was conducted between January 1, 2006 and March 31, 2006 in support of the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Program. The objective was to develop, demonstrate and "freeze" a version of ORNL's computational model of the TRI ISOtropic (TRISO) fuel-particle coating process that can be specifically used to assist coater scale-up activities as part of the production of AGR-2 fuel. The results in this report are intended to serve as input for making decisions about initiating additional FBCVD modeling work (referred to as Modeling Scale-Up Phase II) in support of AGR-2. The main computational tool used to implement the model is the general-purpose multiphase fluid-dynamics computer code known as MFIX (Multiphase Flow with Interphase eXchanges), which is documented in detail on the DOE-sponsored website http://www.mfix.org. Additional computational tools are also being developed by ORNL for post-processing MFIX output to efficiently summarize the important information generated by the coater simulations. The summarized information includes quantitative spatial and temporal measures (referred to as discriminating characteristics, or DCs) by which different coater designs and operating conditions can be compared and correlated with trends in product quality. The ORNL FBCVD modeling work is being conducted in conjunction with experimental coater studies at ORNL with natural uranium CO (NUCO) and surrogate fuel kernels. Data are also being obtained from ambient-temperature, spouted-bed characterization experiments at the University of Tennessee and theoretical studies of carbon and silicon carbide chemical vapor deposition kinetics at Iowa State University. Prior to the current scale-up activity, considerable effort has gone in to adapting the MFIX code to incorporate the unique features of fuel coating reactors and also in validating the resulting simulation features with experimental observations. Much of this work is documented in previous AGR reports and publications (Pannala et al., 2004, Pannala et al., 2005, Boyalakuntla et al., 2005a, Boyalakuntla et al., 2005b and Finney et al., 2005). As a result of the previous work described above, the ORNL coater model now has the capability for simulating full spatio-temporal details of the gas-particle hydrodynamics and gas-particle heat and mass transfer in the TRISO coater. This capability provides a great deal of information about many of the processes believed to control quality, but the model is not yet sufficiently developed to fully predict coating quality for any given coater design and/or set of operating conditions because the detailed chemical reaction kinetics needed to make the model fully predictive are not yet available. Nevertheless, the model at its current stage of development already provides the most comprehensive and detailed quantitative information available about gas flows, solid flows, temperatures, and species inside the coater during operation. This level of information ought to be highly useful in expediting the scale-up process (e.g., in correlating observations and minimizing the number of pilot-scale tests required). However, previous work had not yet demonstrated that the typical design and/or operating changes known to affect product quality at the lab scale could be clearly discriminated by the existing model. The Modeling Scale-Up Phase I work was initiated to produce such a demonstration, and two detailed examples are discussed in this report.

  15. Improving supply chain resilience

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leung, Elsa Hiu Man

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to the global expansion of Company A's supply chain network, it is becoming more vulnerable to many disruptions. These disruptions often incur additional costs; and require time to respond to and recover from these ...

  16. Compressed Air Supply Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph, B.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project, under contract from California Energy Commission, developed the CASE (Compressed Air Supply Efficiency) Index as a stand-alone value for compressor central plant efficiency. This Index captures the overall efficiency of a compressed...

  17. Supply chain dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbosa, Ricardo Wagner Lopes, 1976-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The strong bargaining power of major retailers and the higher requirements for speed, service excellence and customization have significantly contributed to transform the Supply Chain Management. These increasing challenges ...

  18. European supply chain study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Puri, Mohitkumar

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Introduction: Supply chain management has been defined as, "..a set of approaches utilized to efficiently integrate suppliers, manufacturers, warehouses and stores, so that merchandise is produced and distributed at the ...

  19. Chemical kinetic modeling of oxy-fuel combustion of sour gas for enhanced oil recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bongartz, Dominik

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxy-fuel combustion of sour gas, a mixture of natural gas (primarily methane (CH 4 )), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), and hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), could enable the utilization of large natural gas resources, especially when ...

  20. Bubble columns for condensation at high concentrations of noncondensable gas: Heat-transfer model and experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narayan, G. Prakash

    Carrier gas based thermodynamic cycles are common in water desalination applications. These cycles often require condensation of water vapor out of the carrier gas stream. As the carrier gas is most likely a noncondensable ...

  1. Comparison of kinetic and equilibrium reaction models in simulating gas hydrate behavior in porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kowalsky, Michael B.; Moridis, George J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with Diapirism and Gas Hydrates at the Head of the Cape FearSea-Level Low Stands Above Gas Hydrate-Bearing Sediments.rate constant of methane gas hydrate decomposition. Canadian

  2. Modeling of Oceanic Gas Hydrate Instability and Methane Release in Response to Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reagan, Matthew T.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Potential effects of gas hydrate on human welfare. Proc.W.S. A review of methane and gas hydrates in the dynamic,Geology of Natural Gas Hydrates, M. Max, A.H. Johnson, W.P.

  3. The Modeling of a Laboratory Natural GasFired Furnace with a HigherOrder Projection Method for Unsteady Combustion \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    method for axisymmetric, unsteady, low­ Mach number combustion is used to model a natural gas flame fromThe Modeling of a Laboratory Natural Gas­Fired Furnace with a Higher­Order Projection Method of Pember et al. [1] by using it to simulate a natural gas flame from a 300kW IFRF burner in the Burner

  4. Thermodynamics and fluctuations of conserved charges in Hadron Resonance Gas model in finite volume

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhattacharyya, Abhijit; Samanta, Subhasis; Sur, Subrata

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermodynamics of hot and dense matter created in heavy-ion collision experiments are usually studied as a system of infinite volume. Here we report on possible effects for considering a finite system size for such matter in the framework of the Hadron Resonance Gas model. The bulk thermodynamic variables as well as the fluctuations of conserved charges are considered. We find that the finite size effects are insignificant once the observables are scaled with the respective volumes. The only substantial effect is found in the fluctuations of electric charge which may therefore be used to extract information about the volume of fireball created in heavy-ion collision experiments.

  5. Thermodynamics and fluctuations of conserved charges in Hadron Resonance Gas model in finite volume

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abhijit Bhattacharyya; Rajarshi Ray; Subhasis Samanta; Subrata Sur

    2015-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermodynamics of hot and dense matter created in heavy-ion collision experiments are usually studied as a system of infinite volume. Here we report on possible effects for considering a finite system size for such matter in the framework of the Hadron Resonance Gas model. The bulk thermodynamic variables as well as the fluctuations of conserved charges are considered. We find that the finite size effects are insignificant once the observables are scaled with the respective volumes. The only substantial effect is found in the fluctuations of electric charge which may therefore be used to extract information about the volume of fireball created in heavy-ion collision experiments.

  6. A dynamic process model of a natural gas combined cycle -- Model development with startup and shutdown simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liese, Eric [U.S. DOE; Zitney, Stephen E. [U.S. DOE

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research in dynamic process simulation for integrated gasification combined cycles (IGCC) with carbon capture has been ongoing at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), culminating in a full operator training simulator (OTS) and immersive training simulator (ITS) for use in both operator training and research. A derivative work of the IGCC dynamic simulator has been a modification of the combined cycle section to more closely represent a typical natural gas fired combined cycle (NGCC). This paper describes the NGCC dynamic process model and highlights some of the simulator’s current capabilities through a particular startup and shutdown scenario.

  7. Outline Introduction Literature Review Electric Power Supply Chains Empirical Examples Conclusions An Integrated Electric Power Supply Chain and Fuel Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    Supply Chains and Fuel Markets In the U.S., electric power generation accounts for 30% of the natural gas demand (over 50% in the summer), 90% of the coal demand, and over 45% of the residual fuel oil demand, the wholesale electricity price in New England decreased by 38% mainly because the delivered natural gas price

  8. Risk Management in Biopharmaceutical Supply Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Yao

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Supply Chain Risk Managementof Recent Work on Supply Chain Risk Management . . . . .M. , Supply chain risk management: Outlining an agenda for

  9. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options in ISEEM Global Energy Model: 2010-2050 Scenario Analysis for Least-Cost Carbon Reduction in Iron and Steel Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karali, Nihan

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Supply Modeling Package EFOM-12C Mark 1 MathematicalGDP GHG GOI DOE DRI EAF EC EFOM EIA EPA EPPA ER ET IBM IEAclosed market, for example EFOM (Energy Flow Optimization

  10. Release model for in situ vitrification large-field test off-gas treatment system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pafford, D.J.; Tung, V.X.

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A conceptual model for the vapor and aerosol transport and deposition in the in situ vitrification large-field test off-gas system (OGS) has been developed. This model can be used to predict the emissions from the OGS under normal and off-normal conditions. Results generated by the model can be used to evaluate design and/or procedural modifications, define tests, and predict results. The OGS vapor and aerosol transport and deposition is modeled using the PULSE/MOD-ISV/VER 1.0.0 developmental computer code. Input data requirements for this code include the specific geometries of the OGS components; the composition, rate, and temperature of the vapors and aerosols entering the OGS; and the OGS component surface temperatures or heat fluxes. Currently, not all of these model inputs are available. Therefore, conceptual input parameters are developed. Using this input data, preliminary calculations with the code have been performed. These calculations include a demonstration that the code predicts convergent results, a comparison of predicted results with performance data for one of the OGS components, and a preliminary sensitivity study of the complete model.

  11. Application of Gamma code coupled with turbomachinery models for high temperature gas-cooled reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang Oh

    2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The very high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) is envisioned as a single- or dual-purpose reactor for electricity and hydrogen generation. The concept has average coolant temperatures above 9000C and operational fuel temperatures above 12500C. The concept provides the potential for increased energy conversion efficiency and for high-temperature process heat application in addition to power generation. While all the High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) concepts have sufficiently high temperature to support process heat applications, such as coal gasification, desalination or cogenerative processes, the VHTR’s higher temperatures allow broader applications, including thermochemical hydrogen production. However, the very high temperatures of this reactor concept can be detrimental to safety if a loss-ofcoolant accident (LOCA) occurs. Following the loss of coolant through the break and coolant depressurization, air will enter the core through the break by molecular diffusion and ultimately by natural convection, leading to oxidation of the in-core graphite structure and fuel. The oxidation will accelerate heatup of the reactor core and the release of a toxic gas, CO, and fission products. Thus, without any effective countermeasures, a pipe break may lead to significant fuel damage and fission product release. Prior to the start of this Korean/United States collaboration, no computer codes were available that had been sufficiently developed and validated to reliably simulate a LOCA in the VHTR. Therefore, we have worked for the past three years on developing and validating advanced computational methods for simulating LOCAs in a VHTR. GAMMA code is being developed to implement turbomachinery models in the power conversion unit (PCU) and ultimately models associated with the hydrogen plant. Some preliminary results will be described in this paper.

  12. Modeling of Oceanic Gas Hydrate Instability and Methane Release in Response to Climate Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reagan, Matthew; Reagan, Matthew T.; Moridis, George J.

    2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Paleooceanographic evidence has been used to postulate that methane from oceanic hydrates may have had a significant role in regulating global climate, implicating global oceanic deposits of methane gas hydrate as the main culprit in instances of rapid climate change that have occurred in the past. However, the behavior of contemporary oceanic methane hydrate deposits subjected to rapid temperature changes, like those predicted under future climate change scenarios, is poorly understood. To determine the fate of the carbon stored in these hydrates, we performed simulations of oceanic gas hydrate accumulations subjected to temperature changes at the seafloor and assessed the potential for methane release into the ocean. Our modeling analysis considered the properties of benthic sediments, the saturation and distribution of the hydrates, the ocean depth, the initial seafloor temperature, and for the first time, estimated the effect of benthic biogeochemical activity. The results show that shallow deposits--such as those found in arctic regions or in the Gulf of Mexico--can undergo rapid dissociation and produce significant methane fluxes of 2 to 13 mol/yr/m{sup 2} over a period of decades, and release up to 1,100 mol of methane per m{sup 2} of seafloor in a century. These fluxes may exceed the ability of the seafloor environment (via anaerobic oxidation of methane) to consume the released methane or sequester the carbon. These results will provide a source term to regional or global climate models in order to assess the coupling of gas hydrate deposits to changes in the global climate.

  13. CREATING THE NORTHEAST GASOLINE SUPPLY RESERVE

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2012, Superstorm Sandy made landfall in the northeastern United States and caused heavy damage to two refineries and left more than 40 terminals in New York Harbor closed due to water damage and loss of power. This left some New York gas stations without fuel for as long as 30 days. As part of the Obama Administration’s ongoing response to the storm, the Department of Energy created the first federal regional refined product reserve, the Northeast Gasoline Supply Reserve.

  14. Impact of Pilot Light Modeling on the Predicted Annual Performance of Residential Gas Water Heaters: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Modeling residential water heaters with dynamic simulation models can provide accurate estimates of their annual energy consumption, if the units? characteristics and use conditions are known. Most gas storage water heaters (GSWHs) include a standing pilot light. It is generally assumed that the pilot light energy will help make up standby losses and have no impact on the predicted annual energy consumption. However, that is not always the case. The gas input rate and conversion efficiency of a pilot light for a GSWH were determined from laboratory data. The data were used in simulations of a typical GSWH with and without a pilot light, for two cases: 1) the GSWH is used alone; and 2) the GSWH is the second tank in a solar water heating (SWH) system. The sensitivity of wasted pilot light energy to annual hot water use, climate, and installation location was examined. The GSWH used alone in unconditioned space in a hot climate had a slight increase in energy consumption. The GSWH with a pilot light used as a backup to an SWH used up to 80% more auxiliary energy than one without in hot, sunny locations, from increased tank losses.

  15. Modelling of the dynamics of a low-speed gas-liquid heat engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cunha, C.M.P.; Parise, J.A.R. (Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil))

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper deals with the simulation model of a gas-liquid heat engine which is characterized by very low speeds (1-3 rpm) and relatively high torque. The engine operates according to the Minto Thermal Wheel' principle. It is based on the conversion of thermal energy from the heat source, through gas expansion, into mechanical work, by means of the fall of a mass of liquid. A prototype has already been constructed showing great ability to operate at very low temperature differences between the heat source and heat sink. This makes the engine quite suitable to the utilization of low temperature heat sources such as solar energy and waste heat. On the other hand, the number of moving parts is kept to a minimum, since the piston of traditional positive displacement engines (PDE) is now replaced simply by a mass of liquid. The mathematical model consists of applying the energy equation, in it time-derivative form, to representative engine control volumes, resulting in a set of linear ordinary differential equations. Their integration provides the time variation of pressure and temperature of the working fluid. The engine performance can thus be predicted as a function of engine operating conditions and geometric characteristics. In this paper, the engine dynamics (i.e., variable angular speed) have been taken into account, as well as heat losses in the engine structure. Results and further design considerations are discussed.

  16. Fuel Performance Experiments and Modeling: Fission Gas Bubble Nucleation and Growth in Alloy Nuclear Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDeavitt, Sean; Shao, Lin; Tsvetkov, Pavel; Wirth, Brian; Kennedy, Rory

    2014-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Advanced fast reactor systems being developed under the DOE's Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative are designed to destroy TRU isotopes generated in existing and future nuclear energy systems. Over the past 40 years, multiple experiments and demonstrations have been completed using U-Zr, U-Pu-Zr, U-Mo and other metal alloys. As a result, multiple empirical and semi-empirical relationships have been established to develop empirical performance modeling codes. many mechamistic questions about fission as mobility, bubble coalescience, and gas release have been answered through industrial experience, reearch, and empirical understanding. The advent of modern computational materials science, however, opens new doors of development such that physics-based multi-scale models may be developed to enable a new generation of predictive fuel performance codes that are not limited by empiricism.

  17. Gas Companies Right-of-Way (Maryland)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Corporations engaged in the business of transmitting or supplying natural gas, artificial gas, or a mixture of natural and artificial gases may acquire by condemnation the rights-of-way or...

  18. A model of vapor-liquid equilibria for acid gas-alkanolamine-water systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Austgen, D.M. Jr.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A physico-chemical model was developed for representing liquid phase chemical equilibria and vapor-liquid (phase) equilibria of H{sub 2}SCO{sub 2}-alkanolamine-water systems. The equilibrium composition of the liquid phase is determined by minimization of the Gibbs free energy. Activity coefficients are represented with the Electrolyte-NRTL equation treating both long-range electrostatic interactions and short-range binary interactions between liquid phase species. Vapor phase fugacity coefficients are calculated using the Redlich-Kwong-Soave Equation of State. Adjustable parameters of the model, binary interaction parameters and carbamate stability constants, were fitted on published binary system alkanolamine-water and ternary system (H{sub 2}S-alkanolamine-water, CO{sub 2}-alkanolamine-water) VLE data. The Data Regression System of ASPEN PLUS, based upon the Maximum Likelihood Principle, was used to estimate adjustable parameters. Ternary system measurements used in parameter estimation ranged in temperature from 25 to 120{degree}C in alkanolamine concentration from 1 to 5 M, in acid gas loading from 0 to 1.5 moles per mole alkanolamine, and in acid gas partial pressure from 0.1 to 1,000 kPa. Maximum likelihood estimates of ternary system H{sub 2} or CO{sub 2} equilibrium partial pressures and liquid phase concentrations were found to be in good agreement with measurements for aqueous solutions of monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), diglycolamine (DGA), and methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) indicating that the model successfully represents ternary system data. The model was extended to represent CO{sub 2} solubility in aqueous mixtures of MDEA with MEA or DEA. The solubility was measured at 40 and 80{degree}C over a wide range of CO{sub 2} partial pressures. These measurements were used to estimate additional binary parameters of the mixed solvent systems.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF A NATURAL GAS SYSTEMS ANALYSIS MODEL (GSAM) VOLUME I - SUMMARY REPORT VOLUME II - USER'S GUIDE VOLUME IIIA - RP PROGRAMMER'S GUIDE VOLUME IIIB - SRPM PROGRAMMER'S GUIDE VOLUME IIIC - E&P PROGRAMMER'S GUIDE VOLUME IIID - D&I PROGRAMMER'S GUIDE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes work completed on DOE Contract DE-AC21-92MC28138, Development of a Natural Gas Systems Analysis Model (GSAM). The products developed under this project directly support the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) in carrying out its natural gas R&D mission. The objective of this research effort has been to create a comprehensive, non-proprietary, microcomputer model of the North American natural gas market. GSAM has been developed to explicitly evaluate components of the natural gas system, including the entire in-place gas resource base, exploration and development technologies, extraction technology and performance parameters, transportation and storage factors, and end-use demand issues. The system has been fully tested and calibrated and has been used for multiple natural gas metrics analyses at NETL in which metric associated with NETL natural gas upstream R&D technologies and strategies under the direction of NETL has been evaluated. NETL's Natural Gas Strategic Plan requires that R&D activities be evaluated for their ability to provide adequate supplies of reasonably priced natural gas. GSAM provides the capability to assess potential and on-going R&D projects using a full fuel cycle, cost-benefit approach. This method yields realistic, market-based assessments of benefits and costs of alternative or related technology advances. GSAM is capable of estimating both technical and commercial successes, quantifying the potential benefits to the market, as well as to other related research. GSAM, therefore, represents an integration of research activities and a method for planning and prioritizing efforts to maximize benefits and minimize costs. Without an analytical tool like GSAM, NETL natural gas upstream R&D activities cannot be appropriately ranked or focused on the most important aspects of natural gas extraction efforts or utilization considerations.

  20. Exciton Bose condensation : the ground state of an electron-hole gas I. Mean field description of a simplified model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1069 Exciton Bose condensation : the ground state of an electron-hole gas I. Mean field description dégénérées. Nous étudions la condensation de Bose de ce système en fonction de la densité, négligeant dans-hole gas in a simple model semiconductor, with direct gap and isotropic, non degenerate bands. We study

  1. Effect of Energy Efficiency Standards on Natural Gas Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carnall, Michael

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    local natural gas sector or the local economy in general.natural gas by residential customers will have effects throughout the economy,Natural Gas Supply Policy, Fueling the Demands of a Growing Economy",

  2. Climate change: A crack in the natural-gas bridge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, SJ; Shearer, C

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    J. D. & Wirth, T. E. Natural Gas: A Bridge Fuel for the 21stexpanding supplies of natural gas will not help us to avoidLIM ATE CHANGE A crack in the natural-gas bridge Integrated

  3. A crack in the natural-gas bridge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, SJ; Shearer, C

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    J. D. & Wirth, T. E. Natural Gas: A Bridge Fuel for the 21stexpanding supplies of natural gas will not help us to avoidLIM ATE CHANGE A crack in the natural-gas bridge Integrated

  4. A convective-radiative heat transfer model for gas core reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, G.; Anghaie, S. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A convective-radiative heat transfer model is developed and used to predict the temperature distribution in gaseous fuel nuclear reactor cores. The axisymmetric, thin layer Navier-Stokes equations with diffusive radiation source term are the basis for this modeling approach. An algebraic turbulence model is used to calculate the eddy viscosity. The Rosseland diffusion approximation is used to model the radiative heat transfer. A hybrid implicit-explicit numerical scheme with Gauss-Seidel iterative process and a highly stretched grid system near wall is employed to solve the governing equations. Several cases with different internal heat generation rates are modeled and analyzed. Results of the temperature distribution, wall heat flux and the associated Nusselt number are presented. The influence of the internal heat generation rate and the wall temperature on the radiative and convective wall heat fluxes are discussed. At gas and wall temperatures close to 3,500 K and 1,600 K, respectively, the radiative and convective heat transfer rates have similar values.

  5. Computational modeling of GTA (gas tungsten arc) welding with emphasis on surface tension effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zacharia, T.; David, S.A.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A computational study of the convective heat transfer in the weld pool during gas tungsten arch (GTA) welding of Type 304 stainless steel is presented. The solution of the transport equations is based on a control volume approach which utilized directly, the integral form of the governing equations. The computational model considers buoyancy and electromagnetic and surface tension forces in the solution of convective heat transfer in the weld pool. In addition, the model treats the weld pool surface as a deformable free surface. The computational model includes weld metal vaporization and temperature dependent thermophysical properties. The results indicate that consideration of weld pool vaporization effects and temperature dependent thermophysical properties significantly influence the weld model predictions. Theoretical predictions of the weld pool surface temperature distributions and the cross-sectional weld pool size and shape wee compared with corresponding experimental measurements. Comparison of the theoretically predicted and the experimentally obtained surface temperature profiles indicated agreement with {plus minus} 8%. The predicted weld cross-section profiles were found to agree very well with actual weld cross-sections for the best theoretical models. 26 refs., 8 figs.

  6. Power plant including an exhaust gas recirculation system for injecting recirculated exhaust gases in the fuel and compressed air of a gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy; Shaffer, Jason Brian; York, William David

    2014-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A power plant is provided and includes a gas turbine engine having a combustor in which compressed gas and fuel are mixed and combusted, first and second supply lines respectively coupled to the combustor and respectively configured to supply the compressed gas and the fuel to the combustor and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system to re-circulate exhaust gas produced by the gas turbine engine toward the combustor. The EGR system is coupled to the first and second supply lines and configured to combine first and second portions of the re-circulated exhaust gas with the compressed gas and the fuel at the first and second supply lines, respectively.

  7. Summary: U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Elizabeth W.

    Summary: U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves 2009 November 2010 U.S. Energy Information Administration Office of Oil, Gas, and Coal Supply Statistics U.S. Department or other Federal agencies. #12;#12;1 U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves

  8. International Oil Supplies and Demands. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world`s dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group`s thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  9. International Oil Supplies and Demands. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world`s dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group`s thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  10. Natural gas: available today and tomorrow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ingram, C.C. Jr.

    1980-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas energy is becoming the centerpiece in the future-energy strategies for the US as policymakers recognize that (1) up to 60 years of recoverable conventional gas supplies remain to be discovered and produced in the US and (2) supplemental sources promise to offset an anticipated decline in Lower-48 production, resulting in a net increase in the total gas supply. The US gas industry expects to provide 23-33 trillion CF/yr of gas for domestic consumption by the year 2000, with supplemental sources (SNG, pipeline and LNG imports, Alaskan gas, and natural gas from unconventional sources) contributing 40-60%.

  11. Gas sampling system for a mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    2003-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates generally to a gas sampling system, and specifically to a gas sampling system for transporting a hazardous process gas to a remotely located mass spectrometer. The gas sampling system includes a capillary tube having a predetermined capillary length and capillary diameter in communication with the supply of process gas and the mass spectrometer, a flexible tube surrounding and coaxial with the capillary tube intermediate the supply of process gas and the mass spectrometer, a heat transfer tube surrounding and coaxial with the capillary tube, and a heating device in communication the heat transfer tube for substantially preventing condensation of the process gas within the capillary tube.

  12. Modeling of UF{sub 6} enrichment with gas centrifuges for nuclear safeguards activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mercurio, G.; Peerani, P.; Richir, P.; Janssens, W.; Eklund, G. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements Via Fermi, 2749-TP181,20127 Ispra (Italy)

    2012-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The physical modeling of uranium isotopes ({sup 235}U, {sup 238}U) separation process by centrifugation of is a key aspect for predicting the nuclear fuel enrichment plant performances under surveillance by the Nuclear Safeguards Authorities. In this paper are illustrated some aspects of the modeling of fast centrifuges for UF{sub 6} gas enrichment and of a typical cascade enrichment plant with the Theoretical Centrifuge and Cascade Simulator (TCCS). The background theory for reproducing the flow field characteristics of a centrifuge is derived from the work of Cohen where the separation parameters are calculated using the solution of a differential enrichment equation. In our case we chose to solve the hydrodynamic equations for the motion of a compressible fluid in a centrifugal field using the Berman - Olander vertical velocity radial distribution and the solution was obtained using the Matlab software tool. The importance of a correct estimation of the centrifuge separation parameters at different flow regimes, lies in the possibility to estimate in a reliable way the U enrichment plant performances, once the separation external parameters are set (feed flow rate and feed, product and tails assays). Using the separation parameters of a single centrifuge allow to determine the performances of an entire cascade and, for this purpose; the software Simulink was used. The outputs of the calculation are the concentrations (assays) and the flow rates of the enriched (product) and depleted (tails) gas mixture. These models represent a valid additional tool, in order to verify the compliance of the U enrichment plant operator declarations with the 'on site' inspectors' measurements.

  13. Gas power, its promises and problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seay, J.G.

    1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In spite of the recent decline in natural gas supply, it is still the dominant domestic source of energy supply and the most widely used fuel in the industrial, commercial, and household sectors. The basic problem of the gas industry is that of finding new supplies cost-competitive with other fuels in order to maintain the delivery of adequate gaseous energy to its customers, utilizing the existing and literally irreplaceable underground transmission and distribution system. The decline in gas supplies is traced to regulation of the field price of natural gas at a level too low to insure continuing additions to reserves at a rate sufficient to balance production. As a result, the US is drawing down its inventory of gas supply. The higher prices for gas in the field established by the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 provides additional economic incentives for exploration and development of new natural gas, and it is hoped that the higher prices will elicit new supplies. The US has available a large resource base of gas yet to be discovered, natural gas in unconventional sources, and the potential of additional incremental supplies from gasification of coal, the largest remaining fossil fuel resource.

  14. 3D Modeling of One and Two Component Gas Flow in Fibrous Microstructures in Fuel Cells by Using the Lattice-Boltzmann Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Volker

    In fuel cells, a homogeneous distribution of gas flow is desirable for optimal performance. The gas3D Modeling of One and Two Component Gas Flow in Fibrous Microstructures in Fuel Cells by Using: Fuel Cells, 52425 Jülich, Germany b Institute of Stochastics, Ulm University, 89069 Ulm, Germany

  15. Modelling the behaviour of microbulk Micromegas in Xenon/trimethylamine gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruiz-Choliz, E; Diago, A; Castel, J; Dafni, T; Herrera, D C; Iguaz, F J; Irastorza, I G; Luzon, G; Mirallas, H; Sahin,  O; Veenhof, R

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We model the response of a state of the art micro-hole single-stage charge amplication device (`microbulk' Micromegas) in a gaseous atmosphere consisting of Xenon/trimethylamine at various concentrations and pressures. The amplifying structure, made with photo-lithographic techniques similar to those followed in the fabrication of gas electron multipliers (GEMs), consisted of a 100 um-side equilateral-triangle pattern with 50 um-diameter holes placed at its vertexes. Once the primary electrons are guided into the holes by virtue of an optimized field configuration, avalanches develop along the 50 um-height channels etched out of the original doubly copper-clad polyimide foil. In order to properly account for the strong field gradients at the holes' entrance as well as for the fluctuations of the avalanche process (that ultimately determine the achievable energy resolution), we abandoned the hydrodynamic framework, resorting to a purely microscopic description of the electron trajectories as obtained from elem...

  16. Four-quark condensates and chiral symmetry restoration in a resonance gas model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefan Leupold

    2006-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    As an alternative to the two-quark condensate we propose a specific four-quark condensate as an order parameter of chiral symmetry restoration. We show that this four-quark condensate is closer connected to observable quantities. Within a resonance gas model we calculate the in-medium changes of two- and four-quark condensate as functions of temperature and baryo-chemical potential. In this way we estimate the line of chiral symmetry restoration in the temperature-potential plane and also as a function of energy and baryon density. It turns out that the line determined from the vanishing of the four-quark condensate is extremely constant as a function of the energy density.

  17. Easing the natural gas crisis: Reducing natural gas prices through increased deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; St. Clair, Matt

    2004-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Heightened natural gas prices have emerged as a key energy-policy challenge for at least the early part of the 21st century. With the recent run-up in gas prices and the expected continuation of volatile and high prices in the near future, a growing number of voices are calling for increased diversification of energy supplies. Proponents of renewable energy and energy efficiency identify these clean energy sources as an important part of the solution. Increased deployment of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) can hedge natural gas price risk in more than one way, but this paper touches on just one potential benefit: displacement of gas-fired electricity generation, which reduces natural gas demand and thus puts downward pressure on gas prices. Many recent modeling studies of increased RE and EE deployment have demonstrated that this ''secondary'' effect of lowering natural gas prices could be significant; as a result, this effect is increasingly cited as justification for policies promoting RE and EE. This paper summarizes recent studies that have evaluated the gas-price-reduction effect of RE and EE deployment, analyzes the results of these studies in light of economic theory and other research, reviews the reasonableness of the effect as portrayed in modeling studies, and develops a simple tool that can be used to evaluate the impact of RE and EE on gas prices without relying on a complex national energy model. Key findings are summarized.

  18. Natural Gas Exports from Iran

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This assessment of the natural gas sector in Iran, with a focus on Iran’s natural gas exports, was prepared pursuant to section 505 (a) of the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 2012 (Public Law No: 112-158). As requested, it includes: (1) an assessment of exports of natural gas from Iran; (2) an identification of the countries that purchase the most natural gas from Iran; (3) an assessment of alternative supplies of natural gas available to those countries; (4) an assessment of the impact a reduction in exports of natural gas from Iran would have on global natural gas supplies and the price of natural gas, especially in countries identified under number (2); and (5) such other information as the Administrator considers appropriate.

  19. Measurement of Flow Phenomena in a Lower Plenum Model of a Prismatic Gas-Cooled Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hugh M. McIlroy, Jr.; Doanld M. McEligot; Robert J. Pink

    2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mean-velocity-field and turbulence data are presented that measure turbulent flow phenomena in an approximately 1:7 scale model of a region of the lower plenum of a typical prismatic gas-cooled reactor (GCR) similar to a General Atomics Gas-Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GTMHR) design. The data were obtained in the Matched-Index-of-Refraction (MIR) facility at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and are offered for assessing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. This experiment has been selected as the first Standard Problem endorsed by the Generation IV International Forum. Results concentrate on the region of the lower plenum near its far reflector wall (away from the outlet duct). The flow in the lower plenum consists of multiple jets injected into a confined cross flow - with obstructions. The model consists of a row of full circular posts along its centerline with half-posts on the two parallel walls to approximate geometry scaled to that expected from the staggered parallel rows of posts in the reactor design. The model is fabricated from clear, fused quartz to match the refractive-index of the working fluid so that optical techniques may be employed for the measurements. The benefit of the MIR technique is that it permits optical measurements to determine flow characteristics in complex passages in and around objects to be obtained without locating intrusive transducers that will disturb the flow field and without distortion of the optical paths. An advantage of the INL system is its large size, leading to improved spatial and temporal resolution compared to similar facilities at smaller scales. A three-dimensional (3-D) Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system was used to collect the data. Inlet jet Reynolds numbers (based on the jet diameter and the time-mean bulk velocity) are approximately 4,300 and 12,400. Uncertainty analyses and a discussion of the standard problem are included. The measurements reveal developing, non-uniform, turbulent flow in the inlet jets and complicated flow patterns in the model lower plenum. Data include three-dimensional vector plots, data displays along the coordinate planes (slices) and presentations that describe the component flows at specific regions in the model. Information on inlet conditions is also presented.

  20. Development of fission gas swelling and release models for metallic nuclear fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrews, Nathan Christopher

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuel swelling and fission gas generation for fast reactor fuels are of high importance since they are among the main limiting factors in the development of metallic fast reactor fuel. Five new fission gas and swelling ...

  1. Modeling twin-screw multiphase pump performance during periods of high gas volume fraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Aditya

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    pumping adds energy to an unprocessed effluent stream acting as a combined pump and compressor, permitting the recovery of oil and gas on an economical basis. In practice, multiphase production is characterized by wide fluctuations in the gas and liquid...

  2. Interdependency of electricity and natural gas markets in the United States : a dynamic computational model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jenkins, Sandra Elizabeth

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to high storage costs and limited storage availability, natural gas is generally used as a just-in- time resource that needs to be delivered as it is consumed. With the shale gas revolution, coal retirements and ...

  3. Modeling Population Exposures to Pollutants Emitted from Natural Gas Cooking Burners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lobscheid, Agnes; Singer, Brett C.; Klepeis, Neil E.

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We developed a physics-based data-supported model to investigate indoor pollutant exposure distributions resulting from use of natural gas cooking appliances across households in California. The model was applied to calculate time-resolved indoor concentrations of CO, NO2 and formaldehyde resulting from cooking burners and entry with outdoor air. Exposure metrics include 1-week average concentrations and frequency of exceeding ambient air quality standards. We present model results for Southern California (SoCal) using two air-exchange scenarios in winter: (1) infiltration-only, and (2) air exchange rate (AER) sampled from lognormal distributions derived from measurements. In roughly 40percent of homes in the SoCal cohort (N=6634) the 1-hour USEPA NO2 standard (190 ?g/m3) was exceeded at least once. The frequency of exceeding this standard was largely independent of AER assumption, and related primarily to building volume, emission rate and amount of burner use. As expected, AER had a more substantial impact on one-week average concentrations.

  4. Comparison of Two Gas Selection Methodologies: An Application of Bayesian Model Averaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renholds, Andrea S.; Thompson, Sandra E.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Chilton, Lawrence K.

    2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    One goal of hyperspectral imagery analysis is the detection and characterization of plumes. Characterization includes identifying the gases in the plumes, which is a model selection problem. Two gas selection methods compared in this report are Bayesian model averaging (BMA) and minimum Akaike information criterion (AIC) stepwise regression (SR). Simulated spectral data from a three-layer radiance transfer model were used to compare the two methods. Test gases were chosen to span the types of spectra observed, which exhibit peaks ranging from broad to sharp. The size and complexity of the search libraries were varied. Background materials were chosen to either replicate a remote area of eastern Washington or feature many common background materials. For many cases, BMA and SR performed the detection task comparably in terms of the receiver operating characteristic curves. For some gases, BMA performed better than SR when the size and complexity of the search library increased. This is encouraging because we expect improved BMA performance upon incorporation of prior information on background materials and gases.

  5. Integrated Assessment of Hadley Centre (HadCM2) Climate Change Projections on Agricultural Productivity and Irrigation Water Supply in the Conterminous United States.I. Climate change scenarios and impacts on irrigation water supply simulated with the HUMUS model.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenberg, Norman J.; Brown, Robert A.; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Thomson, Allison M.

    2003-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes methodology and results of a study by researchers at PNNL contributing to the water sector study of the U.S. National Assessment of Climate Change. The vulnerability of water resources in the conterminous U.S. to climate change in 10-y periods centered on 2030 and 2095--as projected by the HadCM2 general circulation model--was modeled with HUMUS (Hydrologic Unit Model of the U.S.). HUMUS consists of a GIS that provides data on soils, land use and climate to drive the hydrology model Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The modeling was done at the scale of the 2101 8-digit USGS hydrologic unit areas (HUA). Results are aggregated to the 4-digit and 2-digit (Major Water Resource Region, MWRR) scales for various purposes. Daily records of temperature and precipitation for 1961-1990 provided the baseline climate. Water yields (WY)--sum of surface and subsurface runoff--increases from the baseline period over most of the U.S. in 2030 and 2095. In 2030, WY increases in the western US and decreases in the central and southeast regions. Notably, WY increases by 139 mm from baseline in the Pacific NW. Decreased WY is projected for the Lower Mississippi and Texas Gulf basins, driven by higher temperatures and reduced precipitation. The HadCM2 2095 scenario projects a climate significantly wetter than baseline, resulting in WY increases of 38%. WY increases are projected throughout the eastern U.S. WY also increases in the western U.S. Climate change also affects the seasonality of the hydrologic cycle. Early snowmelt is induced in western basins, leading to dramatically increased WYs in late winter and early spring. The simulations were run at current (365 ppm) and elevated (560 ppm) atmospheric CO2 concentrations to account for the potential impacts of the CO2-fertilization effect. The effects of climate change scenario were considerably greater than those due to elevated CO2 but the latter, overall, decreased losses and augmented increases in water yield.

  6. PERFLUOROCARBON GAS TRACER STUDIES TO SUPPORT RISK ASSESSMENT MODELING OF CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE SUBJECTED TO TERRORIST ATTACKS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; HEISER, J.; WATSON, T.; ALLWINE, K.J.; FLAHERTY, J.E.

    2006-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Development of real-time predictive modeling to identify the dispersion and/or source(s) of airborne weapons of mass destruction including chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear material in urban environments is needed to improve response to potential releases of these materials via either terrorist or accidental means. These models will also prove useful in defining airborne pollution dispersion in urban environments for pollution management/abatement programs. Predicting gas flow in an urban setting on a scale of less than a few kilometers is a complicated and challenging task due to the irregular flow paths that occur along streets and alleys and around buildings of different sizes and shapes, i.e., ''urban canyons''. In addition, air exchange between the outside and buildings and subway areas further complicate the situation. Transport models that are used to predict dispersion of WMD/CBRN materials or to back track the source of the release require high-density data and need defensible parameterizations of urban processes. Errors in the data or any of the parameter inputs or assumptions will lead to misidentification of the airborne spread or source release location(s). The need for these models to provide output in a real-time fashion if they are to be useful for emergency response provides another challenge. To improve the ability of New York City's (NYC's) emergency management teams and first response personnel to protect the public during releases of hazardous materials, the New York City Urban Dispersion Program (UDP) has been initiated. This is a four year research program being conducted from 2004 through 2007. This paper will discuss ground level and subway Perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) release studies conducted in New York City. The studies released multiple tracers to study ground level and vertical transport of contaminants. This paper will discuss the results from these tests and how these results can be used for improving transport models needed for risk assessment.

  7. CBTL Design Case Summary Conventional Feedstock Supply System - Herbaceous

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopher T. Wright; Erin M. Searcy

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A conventional bale feedstock design has been established that represents supply system technologies, costs, and logistics that are achievable today for supplying herbaceous feedstocks as a blendstock with coal for energy production. Efforts are made to identify bottlenecks and optimize the efficiency and capacities of this supply system, within the constraints of existing local feedstock supplies, equipment, and permitting requirements. The feedstock supply system logistics operations encompass all of the activities necessary to move herbaceous biomass feedstock from the production location to the conversion reactor ready for blending and insertion. This supply system includes operations that are currently available such that costs and logistics are reasonable and reliable. The system modeled for this research project includes the uses of field-dried corn stover or switchgrass as a feedstock to annually supply an 800,000 DM ton conversion facility.

  8. CapLibrate: Self-Calibration of an Energy Harvesting Power Supply with Supercapacitors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turau, Volker

    CapLibrate: Self-Calibration of an Energy Harvesting Power Supply with Supercapacitors Christian and assess models for a supercapacitor- based harvesting supply. The parameters of the models are discussed

  9. Natural gas network resiliency to a %22shakeout scenario%22 earthquake.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellison, James F.; Corbet, Thomas Frank,; Brooks, Robert E. [RBAC, Inc., Sherman Oaks, CA

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A natural gas network model was used to assess the likely impact of a scenario San Andreas Fault earthquake on the natural gas network. Two disruption scenarios were examined. The more extensive damage scenario assumes the disruption of all three major corridors bringing gas into southern California. If withdrawals from the Aliso Canyon storage facility are limited to keep the amount of stored gas within historical levels, the disruption reduces Los Angeles Basin gas supplies by 50%. If Aliso Canyon withdrawals are only constrained by the physical capacity of the storage system to withdraw gas, the shortfall is reduced to 25%. This result suggests that it is important for stakeholders to put agreements in place facilitating the withdrawal of Aliso Canyon gas in the event of an emergency.

  10. Cascading of Fluctuations in Interdependent Energy Infrastructures: Gas-Grid Coupling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chertkov, Michael; Backhaus, Scott

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The revolution of hydraulic fracturing has dramatically increased the supply and lowered the cost of natural gas in the United States driving an expansion of natural gas-fired generation capacity in many electrical grids. Unrelated to the natural gas expansion, lower capital costs and renewable portfolio standards are driving an expansion of intermittent renewable generation capacity such as wind and photovoltaic generation. These two changes may potentially combine to create new threats to the reliability of these interdependent energy infrastructures. Natural gas-fired generators are often used to balance the fluctuating output of wind generation. However, the time-varying output of these generators results in time-varying natural gas burn rates that impact the pressure in interstate transmission pipelines. Fluctuating pressure impacts the reliability of natural gas deliveries to those same generators and the safety of pipeline operations. We adopt a partial differential equation model of natural gas pipeli...

  11. Simulation of Strongly Heated Internal Gas Flows Using a Near-Wall Two-Equation Heat Flux Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richards, Adam H.; Spall, Robert E. [Utah State University, 1400 Old Main Hill Logan, Utah 84322-1400 (United States)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A two-equation k-{omega} model is used to model a strongly heated, low-Mach number gas flowing upward in a vertical tube. Heating causes significant property variation and thickening of the viscous sublayer, consequently a fully developed flow does not evolve. Two-equation turbulence models generally perform poorly under such conditions. Consequently, in the present work, a near-wall two-equation heat transfer model is utilized in conjunction with the k-{omega} model to improve heat transfer predictions. (authors)

  12. Capacity additions ease tight methanol supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greek, B.F. (C and EN, Houston, TX (US))

    1988-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Two menthanol plants now in operation - one in the U.S., the other in Chile - will boost global supplies of methanol more than 375 million gal annually. This large capacity addition and smaller expansions in other parts of the world will exceed demand growth during 1988 and 1989, easing the squeeze on supplies. As the result of increased supplies, methanol prices could slip slightly in the fourth quarter. They are more likely to decline next year, however. The two plants, which started up in August, are owned and operated by Tenneco Oil Co. Processing and Marketing and by Cape Horn Methanol (CHM). The Tenneco plant, located in Pasadena, Tex., was restarted after a shutdown in 1982 when prices for methanol were low. It now is running at full capacity of 125 million gal per year. The plant uses the low-pressure process technology of Lurgi, reportedly requiring for feedstock and energy between 100,000 and 125,000 cu ft of methane per gallon. Global trade in methanol smooths out the supply and demand inconsistencies. Surging methanol demand in the U.S. and in Western Europe has been met by imports from areas where methanol production is most economical - that is, where natural gas is readily available and has no other application as high in value. Canada, Chile, and Trinidad are examples of those areas.

  13. Numerical-model developments for stimulation technologies in the Eastern Gas Shales Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbour, T.G.; Maxwell, D.E.; Young, C.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    These efforts were directed towards the development of a numerical tensile failure model that could be used to make a parameter sensitivity study of the EGSP wellbore stimulation methods for gas recovery in Devonain shales, calculations were performed using the NTS Multi-Frac Mineback Experiments as the geometry, boundary conditions and material properties of the models. Several major accomplishments were achieved during this task. These include: development of a Crack and Void Strain (CAVS) tensile failure model for one-dimensional fracture analysis using the one-dimensional geometries available in SAI's STEALTH 1-D finite-difference code; modification of the original CAVS tensile failure criteria to improve its representation of multiple fracture development by introducing a logic that adjusts the material's tensile strength (both for crack initiation and crack propagation) according to the degree of cracking that has occurred; adding a submodel to CAVS to allow for cracking propping when a crack is reclosed and to require energy to be expanded during this process; adding a submodel to CAVS to allow for crack pressurization when a crack void strain is in communication with the fluid pressure of the borehole; and performing a parameter sensitivity analysis to determine the effect that the material properties of the rock has on crack development, to include the effects of yielding and compaction. Using the CAVS model and its submodels, a series of STEALTH calculations were then performed to estimate the response of the NTS unaugmented Dynafrac experiment. Pressure, acceleration and stress time histories and snapshot data were obtained and should aid in the evaluation of these experiments. Crack patterns around the borehole were also calculated and should be valuable in a comparison with the fracture patterns observed during mineback.

  14. Fiber Supply Associate Company Overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazzotti, Frank

    materials acquisition, harvesting, logistics coordination, contract negotiations, and inventory management, Purchasing, Industrial Engineering, Operations management, Materials Management, Supply Chain) Authorized leadership roles such as Fiber Specialist, Fiber Supply Manager, Region Manager, Director, General Manager

  15. A sampling-based Bayesian model for gas saturation estimationusing seismic AVA and marine CSEM data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Jinsong; Hoversten, Michael; Vasco, Don; Rubin, Yoram; Hou,Zhangshuan

    2006-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop a sampling-based Bayesian model to jointly invertseismic amplitude versus angles (AVA) and marine controlled-sourceelectromagnetic (CSEM) data for layered reservoir models. The porosityand fluid saturation in each layer of the reservoir, the seismic P- andS-wave velocity and density in the layers below and above the reservoir,and the electrical conductivity of the overburden are considered asrandom variables. Pre-stack seismic AVA data in a selected time windowand real and quadrature components of the recorded electrical field areconsidered as data. We use Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) samplingmethods to obtain a large number of samples from the joint posteriordistribution function. Using those samples, we obtain not only estimatesof each unknown variable, but also its uncertainty information. Thedeveloped method is applied to both synthetic and field data to explorethe combined use of seismic AVA and EM data for gas saturationestimation. Results show that the developed method is effective for jointinversion, and the incorporation of CSEM data reduces uncertainty influid saturation estimation, when compared to results from inversion ofAVA data only.

  16. Fuel-Specific Effect of Exhaust Gas Residuals on HCCI Combustion: A Modeling Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szybist, James P [ORNL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A modeling study was performed to investigate fuel-specific effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) components on homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion at conditions relevant to the negative valve overlap (NVO) strategy using CHEMKIN-PRO. Four single-component fuels with well-established kinetic models were chosen: n-heptane, iso-octane, ethanol, and toluene. These fuels were chosen because they span a wide range of fuel chemistries, and produce a wide compositions range of complete stoichiometric products (CSP). The simulated engine conditions combined a typical spark ignition engine compression ratio (11.34) and high intake charge temperatures (500-550 K) that are relevant to NVO HCCI. It was found that over the conditions investigated, all the fuels had overlapping start of combustion (SOC) phasing, despite the wide range in octane number (RON = 0 to 120). The effect of the EGR components CO2 and H2O was to suppress the compression temperature because of their higher heat capacities, which retarded SOC. For a concentration of O2 higher than the stoichiometric amount, or excess O2, there was an effect of advancing SOC for n-heptane, iso-octane, and toluene, but SOC for ethanol was not advanced. Low temperature heat release (LTHR) for n-heptane was also found to be highly dependent on excess O2, and mild endothermic reaction was observed for cases when excess O2 was not present.

  17. Distributed delay model for density wave dynamics in gas lifted wells Laure Sin`egre, Nicolas Petit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Distributed delay model for density wave dynamics in gas lifted wells Laure Sin`egre, Nicolas Petit in the tubing D. dynamical choking is used to stabilise the density wave instability. In this paper, we propose instabilities cause production losses. One of these instabilities, referred to as the "density-wave

  18. ESTIMATION OF ETHANOL CONTENT IN FLEX-FUEL VEHICLES USING AN EXHAUST GAS OXYGEN SENSOR: MODEL, TUNING AND SENSITIVITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    ESTIMATION OF ETHANOL CONTENT IN FLEX-FUEL VEHICLES USING AN EXHAUST GAS OXYGEN SENSOR: MODEL periods of intense interest in using ethanol as an alternative fuel to petroleum-based gasoline and diesel derivatives. Currently available flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) can operate on a blend of gasoline and ethanol

  19. An Embedded Boundary Method for the Modeling of Unsteady Combustion in an Industrial GasFired Furnace \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for the convective, viscous, and radiative heat transport terms in the mixed cells, while a finite element [20] which accounts for species diffusion, convective and radiative heat transfer, viscous transportAn Embedded Boundary Method for the Modeling of Unsteady Combustion in an Industrial Gas

  20. Controlled-source electromagnetic modeling of the masking effect of marine gas hydrate on a deeper hydrocarbon reservoir

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickins, David

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    that electric field data were reliable to roughly 5000 m of TX-RX offset for the 1 Hz and 3 Hz cases, and to 6500 m offset for 10 Hz. The gas hydrate/hydrocarbon model was then run with zero-value boundary conditions. The goal was to determine what effect...