National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for gas solar thermal

  1. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    Solar Thermal Collectors .is solar energy. Solar thermal collector arrays can be usedon integrating solar thermal collectors with desalination

  2. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    and thermal energy storage in solar thermal applications,"aided or powered by solar thermal energy. A section is alsoexhaustive review of solar thermal energy systems has been

  3. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    and C. Y. Zhao, "A review of solar collectors and thermalenergy storage in solar thermal applications," Appliedon photovoltaic/thermal hybrid solar technology," Applied

  4. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    of solar collectors and thermal energy storage in solaraided or powered by solar thermal energy. A section is alsobesides MVC require thermal energy as their primary energy

  5. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    storage in solar thermal applications," Applied Energy, pp.of Non-Tracking Solar Thermal Technology," 2011. [26] R.C. Y. Zhao, "A review of solar collectors and thermal energy

  6. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    Evaporator Powered By Solar Thermal Energy 10:00 AM 10:00 AMaided or powered by solar thermal energy. A section is alsoexhaustive review of solar thermal energy systems has been

  7. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    and thermal energy storage in solar thermal applications,"Solar infrastructure should include analysis of thermal storage.storage equipment, the evaporator can be integrated into the current solar

  8. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    C. Y. Zhao, "A review of solar collectors and thermal energya Passive Flat-Plate Solar Collector," International Journalof Flat Plate Solar Collector Equipped with Rectangular Cell

  9. Solar Thermal Conversion of Biomass to Synthesis Gas: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-09-00335

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Netter, J.

    2013-08-01

    The CRADA is established to facilitate the development of solar thermal technology to efficiently and economically convert biomass into useful products (synthesis gas and derivatives) that can replace fossil fuels. NREL's High Flux Solar Furnace will be utilized to validate system modeling, evaluate candidate reactor materials, conduct on-sun testing of the process, and assist in the development of solar process control system. This work is part of a DOE-USDA 3-year, $1M grant.

  10. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    sunshot DOEGO-102012-3669 * September 2012 MOTIVATION All thermal concentrating solar power (CSP) systems use solar tracking, which involves moving large mirror surfaces...

  11. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    pp. 67-73, 2003. [17] "Energy Requirements of Desalinationof solar collectors and thermal energy storage in solarapplications," Applied Energy, pp. 538-553, 2013. [20] P. G.

  12. Solar thermal aircraft

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Charles L. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-09-18

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  13. Thermal Management of Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saadah, Mohammed Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    cell. The solar cell’s power conversion efficiency, ? is theEfficiency ..5 Thermal Managements of SolarTemperature on Efficiency Photons incident on a solar cell

  14. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    "This fact sheet describes a scattering solar thermal concentrators project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The team, led by the Pennsylvania State University, is working to demonstrate a new, scattering-based approach to concentrating sunlight that aims to improve the overall performance and reliability of the collector field. The research team aims to show that scattering solar thermal collectors are capable of achieving optical performance equal to state-of-the-art parabolic trough systems, but with the added benefits of immunity to wind-load tracking error, more efficient land use, and utilization of stationary receivers."

  15. Solar thermal financing guidebook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, T.A.; Cole, R.J.; Brown, D.R.; Dirks, J.A.; Edelhertz, H.; Holmlund, I.; Malhotra, S.; Smith, S.A.; Sommers, P.; Willke, T.L.

    1983-05-01

    This guidebook contains information on alternative financing methods that could be used to develop solar thermal systems. The financing arrangements discussed include several lease alternatives, joint venture financing, R and D partnerships, industrial revenue bonds, and ordinary sales. In many situations, alternative financing arrangements can significantly enhance the economic attractiveness of solar thermal investments by providing a means to efficiently allocate elements of risk, return on investment, required capital investment, and tax benefits. A net present value approach is an appropriate method that can be used to investigate the economic attractiveness of alternative financing methods. Although other methods are applicable, the net present value approach has advantages of accounting for the time value of money, yielding a single valued solution to the financial analysis, focusing attention on the opportunity cost of capital, and being a commonly understood concept that is relatively simple to apply. A personal computer model for quickly assessing the present value of investments in solar thermal plants with alternative financing methods is presented in this guidebook. General types of financing arrangements that may be desirable for an individual can be chosen based on an assessment of his goals in investing in solar thermal systems and knowledge of the individual's tax situation. Once general financing arrangements have been selected, a screening analysis can quickly determine if the solar investment is worthy of detailed study.

  16. Solar Thermal Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biesinger, K.; Cuppett, D.; Dyer, D.

    2012-01-30

    HVAC Retrofit and Energy Efficiency Upgrades at Clark High School, Las Vegas, Nevada The overall objectives of this project are to increase usage of alternative/renewable fuels, create a better and more reliable learning environment for the students, and reduce energy costs. Utilizing the grant resources and local bond revenues, the District proposes to reduce electricity consumption by installing within the existing limited space, one principal energy efficient 100 ton adsorption chiller working in concert with two 500 ton electric chillers. The main heating source will be primarily from low nitrogen oxide (NOX), high efficiency natural gas fired boilers. With the use of this type of chiller, the electric power and cost requirements will be greatly reduced. To provide cooling to the information technology centers and equipment rooms of the school during off-peak hours, the District will install water source heat pumps. In another measure to reduce the cooling requirements at Clark High School, the District will replace single pane glass and metal panels with â??Kalwallâ?? building panels. An added feature of the â??Kalwallâ?ť system is that it will allow for natural day lighting in the student center. This system will significantly reduce thermal heat/cooling loss and control solar heat gain, thus delivering significant savings in heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) costs.

  17. High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production This...

  18. Synthesis Gas Production by Rapid Solar Thermal Gasification of Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perkins, C. M.; Woodruff, B.; Andrews, L.; Lichty, P.; Lancaster, B.; Weimer, A. W.; Bingham, C.

    2008-03-01

    Biomass resources hold great promise as renewable fuel sources for the future, and there exists great interest in thermochemical methods of converting these resources into useful fuels. The novel approach taken by the authors uses concentrated solar energy to efficiently achieve temperatures where conversion and selectivity of gasification are high. Use of solar energy removes the need for a combustion fuel and upgrades the heating value of the biomass products. The syngas product of the gasification can be transformed into a variety of fuels useable with today?s infrastructure. Gasification in an aerosol reactor allows for rapid kinetics, allowing efficient utilization of the incident solar radiation and high solar efficiency.

  19. Solar thermal repowering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1980-08-01

    Solar central receiver technology is developing steadily with a promise of becoming a real commercial alternative for energy generation in the late 1980s. Significant potential markets have been identified, research and development of important components is proceeding well, and the first full-system verification experiment at Barstow, California, is under construction. However, much work still lies ahead. A big step toward the realization of large-scale commercial use of solar energy was taken when the Department of Energy (DOE) issued a solicitation in March 1979 for utility repowering/industrial retrofit system conceptual design studies employing solar central receivers. Twenty-two responses were evaluated, and twelve were selected for funding. The results of the twelve studies, plus one study completed earlier and one privately funded, are sufficiently encouraging to warrant proceeding to the next stage of the program: cost-shared projects chosen through open competition. Eight of he fourteen studies are for electric utility repowering of existing oil or natural gas generating plants. The other six are the first site-specific studies of the use of solar central receiver systems for industrial process heat. The industrial processes include gypsum board drying, oil refining, enhanced oil recovery, uranium ore processing, natural gas processing, and ammonia production. Site descriptions, project summaries, conceptual designs, and functional descriptions are given for each of these 14 studies.

  20. Solar thermal power system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2010-06-15

    A solar thermal power generator includes an inclined elongated boiler tube positioned in the focus of a solar concentrator for generating steam from water. The boiler tube is connected at one end to receive water from a pressure vessel as well as connected at an opposite end to return steam back to the vessel in a fluidic circuit arrangement that stores energy in the form of heated water in the pressure vessel. An expander, condenser, and reservoir are also connected in series to respectively produce work using the steam passed either directly (above a water line in the vessel) or indirectly (below a water line in the vessel) through the pressure vessel, condense the expanded steam, and collect the condensed water. The reservoir also supplies the collected water back to the pressure vessel at the end of a diurnal cycle when the vessel is sufficiently depressurized, so that the system is reset to repeat the cycle the following day. The circuital arrangement of the boiler tube and the pressure vessel operates to dampen flow instabilities in the boiler tube, damp out the effects of solar transients, and provide thermal energy storage which enables time shifting of power generation to better align with the higher demand for energy during peak energy usage periods.

  1. Overview of solar thermal technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The solar-thermal overview section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes the technical and economic status of this emerging renewable energy option for electricity supply.

  2. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    15] O. A. Hamed, "THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF MULTISTAGE FLASHdesa4.aspx. [18] Encon, "Thermal Evaporators," June 2013. [http://www.evaporator.com/thermal-evaporator. [19] Y. Tian

  3. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    This requires no thermal storage tanks, but can have athe need for large thermal storage equipment, the evaporatorinclude analysis of thermal storage. A way of keeping the

  4. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giebink, Noel C.

    2015-01-31

    This program set out to explore a scattering-based approach to concentrate sunlight with the aim of improving collector field reliability and of eliminating wind loading and gross mechanical movement through the use of a stationary collection optic. The approach is based on scattering sunlight from the focal point of a fixed collection optic into the confined modes of a sliding planar waveguide, where it is transported to stationary tubular heat transfer elements located at the edges. Optical design for the first stage of solar concentration, which entails focusing sunlight within a plane over a wide range of incidence angles (>120 degree full field of view) at fixed tilt, led to the development of a new, folded-path collection optic that dramatically out-performs the current state-of-the-art in scattering concentration. Rigorous optical simulation and experimental testing of this collection optic have validated its performance. In the course of this work, we also identified an opportunity for concentrating photovoltaics involving the use of high efficiency microcells made in collaboration with partners at the University of Illinois. This opportunity exploited the same collection optic design as used for the scattering solar thermal concentrator and was therefore pursued in parallel. This system was experimentally demonstrated to achieve >200x optical concentration with >70% optical efficiency over a full day by tracking with <1 cm of lateral movement at fixed latitude tilt. The entire scattering concentrator waveguide optical system has been simulated, tested, and assembled at small scale to verify ray tracing models. These models were subsequently used to predict the full system optical performance at larger, deployment scale ranging up to >1 meter aperture width. Simulations at an aperture widths less than approximately 0.5 m with geometric gains ~100x predict an overall optical efficiency in the range 60-70% for angles up to 50 degrees from normal. However, the concentrator optical efficiency was found to decrease significantly with increasing aperture width beyond 0.5 m due to parasitic waveguide out-coupling loss and low-level absorption that become dominant at larger scale. A heat transfer model was subsequently implemented to predict collector fluid heat gain and outlet temperature as a function of flow rate using the optical model as a flux input. It was found that the aperture width size limitation imposed by the optical efficiency characteristics of the waveguide limits the absolute optical power delivered to the heat transfer element per unit length. As compared to state-of-the-art parabolic trough CPV system aperture widths approaching 5 m, this limitation leads to an approximate factor of order of magnitude increase in heat transfer tube length to achieve the same heat transfer fluid outlet temperature. The conclusion of this work is that scattering solar thermal concentration cannot be implemented at the scale and efficiency required to compete with the performance of current parabolic trough CSP systems. Applied within the alternate context of CPV, however, the results of this work have likely opened up a transformative new path that enables quasi-static, high efficiency CPV to be implemented on rooftops in the form factor of traditional fixed-panel photovoltaics.

  5. Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardin, Corey Lee

    2011-01-01

    and Background Solar thermal energy collection is anThermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal PowerThermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power

  6. Overview of advanced Stirling and gas turbine engine development programs and implications for solar thermal electrical applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alger, D.

    1984-03-01

    The DOE automotive advanced engine development projects managed by the NASA Lewis Research Center were described. These included one Stirling cycle engine development and two air Brayton cycle development. Other engine research activities included: (1) an air Brayton engine development sponsored by the Gas Research Institute, and (2) plans for development of a Stirling cycle engine for space use. Current and potential use of these various engines with solar parabolic dishes were discussed.

  7. Solar mechanics thermal response capabilities.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dobranich, Dean D.

    2009-07-01

    In many applications, the thermal response of structures exposed to solar heat loads is of interest. Solar mechanics governing equations were developed and integrated with the Calore thermal response code via user subroutines to provide this computational simulation capability. Solar heat loads are estimated based on the latitude and day of the year. Vector algebra is used to determine the solar loading on each face of a finite element model based on its orientation relative to the sun as the earth rotates. Atmospheric attenuation is accounted for as the optical path length varies from sunrise to sunset. Both direct and diffuse components of solar flux are calculated. In addition, shadowing of structures by other structures can be accounted for. User subroutines were also developed to provide convective and radiative boundary conditions for the diurnal variations in air temperature and effective sky temperature. These temperature boundary conditions are based on available local weather data and depend on latitude and day of the year, consistent with the solar mechanics formulation. These user subroutines, coupled with the Calore three-dimensional thermal response code, provide a complete package for addressing complex thermal problems involving solar heating. The governing equations are documented in sufficient detail to facilitate implementation into other heat transfer codes. Suggestions for improvements to the approach are offered.

  8. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    tracking and fixed in place. Generally these collectors consist of a solar absorbing surface facing the suntracking. The main difference is the concentrators and often the absorber move to track the sun

  9. Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardin, Corey Lee

    2011-01-01

    and Background Solar thermal energy collection is anCHANGE THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE FOR CONCENTRATING SOLAR POWERfor Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal

  10. Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardin, Corey Lee

    2011-01-01

    ENERGY STORAGE FOR CONCENTRATING SOLAR POWER PLANTS,”Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal PowerThermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power

  11. Passive Solar Building Design and Solar Thermal Space Heating Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Webinar of National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Senior Engineer Andy Walker's presentation about passive solar building design and solar thermal space heating technologies and applications.

  12. SENSIBLE HEAT STORAGE FOR A SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baldwin, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01

    HEAT STORAGE FOR A SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANT Thomas F.CENTRAL RECEIVER SOLAR THERMAL POWER SYSTEM, PHASE progressCorporation, RECEIVER SOLAR THERMAL POWER SYSTEM, PHASE I,

  13. Thermoelectrics Combined with Solar Concentration for Electrical and Thermal Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Philip Robert

    2012-01-01

    significant challenge for solar thermal energy generation issolar thermal, cogeneration of electrical and thermal energy, andfor efficient energy production. Solar thermal plants, such

  14. Thermoelectrics Combined with Solar Concentration for Electrical and Thermal Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Philip Robert

    2012-01-01

    significant challenge for solar thermal energy generation issolar thermal, cogeneration of electrical and thermal energy,for efficient energy production. Solar thermal plants, such

  15. Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardin, Corey Lee

    2011-01-01

    Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants A ThesisStorage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants by Coreysystems for concentrated solar thermal power (CSP) systems.

  16. Thermoelectrics Combined with Solar Concentration for Electrical and Thermal Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Philip Robert

    2012-01-01

    13 2.2.2. Solar Thermal Versus Photovoltaic ..…………..…………doi:10.1038/nmat2090. 17. Solar Thermal Technology on anFigure 2.5: An eSolar solar thermal system in Burbank,

  17. Solar energy thermalization and storage device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McClelland, John F. (Ames, IA)

    1981-09-01

    A passive solar thermalization and thermal energy storage assembly which is visually transparent. The assembly consists of two substantial parallel, transparent wall members mounted in a rectangular support frame to form a liquid-tight chamber. A semitransparent thermalization plate is located in the chamber, substantially paralled to and about equidistant from the transparent wall members to thermalize solar radiation which is stored in a transparent thermal energy storage liquid which fills the chamber. A number of the devices, as modules, can be stacked together to construct a visually transparent, thermal storage wall for passive solar-heated buildings.

  18. Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardin, Corey Lee

    2011-01-01

    STORAGE FOR CONCENTRATING SOLAR POWER PLANTS,” Eurosun 2010,COST REDUCTION STUDY FOR SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANTS, Ottawa,Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants A Thesis

  19. Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardin, Corey Lee

    2011-01-01

    ENERGY STORAGE FOR CONCENTRATING SOLAR POWER PLANTS,”Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants AEnergy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants by

  20. Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardin, Corey Lee

    2011-01-01

    FOR CONCENTRATING SOLAR POWER PLANTS,” Eurosun 2010, Graz,STUDY FOR SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANTS, Ottawa, Ontario: 1999.heat transfer in solar thermal power plants utilizing phase

  1. Thermal Management of Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saadah, Mohammed Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    heat exchangers, and solar cells," Sci-Tech News, vol. 65,Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 86, pp. 451-in crystalline silicon solar cells," Renewable Energy, vol.

  2. Thermal Management of Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saadah, Mohammed Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    heat exchangers, and solar cells," Sci-Tech News, vol. 65,Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 86, pp. 451-Nanostructured Silicon- Based Solar Cells, 2013. X. C. Tong,

  3. Thermal Management of Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saadah, Mohammed Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    phonon transmission and interface thermal conductance acrossF. Miao, et al. , "Superior Thermal Conductivity of Single-Advanced Materials for Thermal Management of Electronic

  4. Pv-Thermal Solar Power Assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ansley, Jeffrey H. (El Cerrito, CA); Botkin, Jonathan D. (El Cerrito, CA); Dinwoodie, Thomas L. (Piedmont, CA)

    2001-10-02

    A flexible solar power assembly includes a flexible photovoltaic device attached to a flexible thermal solar collector. The solar power assembly can be rolled up for transport and then unrolled for installation on a surface, such as the roof or side wall of a building or other structure, by use of adhesive and/or other types of fasteners.

  5. Cogenerating Photovoltaic and Thermal Solar Collector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Su, Xiao

    Cogenerating Photovoltaic and Thermal Solar Collector Jinny Rhee and Jim Mokri COE Faculty peak load and irradiance hours of the day #12;Design · Parabolic solar collector · GaAs PV cells · Solar Energy and Alternative Energy can contribute to the energy supply ­ Renewable, doesn't emit

  6. The DOE Solar Thermal Electric Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mancini, T.R.

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy`s Solar Thermal Electric Program is managed by the Solar thermal and biomass Power division which is part of the Office of utility Technologies. The focus of the Program is to commercialize solar electric technologies. In this regard, three major projects are currently being pursued in trough, central receiver, and dish/Stirling electric power generation. This paper describes these three projects and the activities at the National laboratories that support them.

  7. A NEW SOLAR THERMAL RECEIVER UTILIZING SMALL PARTICLES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, Arlon J.

    2011-01-01

    iuision, Ext. 6782 A New Solar Thermal Receiver UtilizingI \\D \\. }J F--' A NEW SOLAR THERMAL RECEIVER UTILIZING SMALL94720 ABSTRACT A new type of solar thermal receiver is being

  8. SENSIBLE HEAT STORAGE FOR A SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baldwin, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01

    for concentrating solar-thermal energy use a large number ofBoth solar power plants absorb thermal energy in high-of a solar power plant that converts thermal energy into

  9. Thermal Management of Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saadah, Mohammed Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Nanostructured Silicon- Based Solar Cells, 2013. X. C. Tong,heat exchangers, and solar cells," Sci-Tech News, vol. 65,in crystalline silicon solar cells," Renewable Energy, vol.

  10. Thermal Management of Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saadah, Mohammed Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    voltage . The cell output power is given by:solar cell. The solar cell’s power conversion efficiency, ?ratio of the solar cell output power to the incident light

  11. Thermal Management of Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saadah, Mohammed Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    ratio of the solar cell output power to the incident lightpower to operate the fan. Natural cooling is preferred for solar

  12. Thermal Management of Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saadah, Mohammed Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    absorbed light energy into output electricity. Solar cellselectricity. The remaining 70% of absorbed energy is turned into heat inside the solar

  13. High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems; Volume 6 Building America Best Practices Series High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal &...

  14. High Operating Temperature Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Thermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Operating Temperature Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Thermal Power Generation FY13 Q1 High Operating Temperature Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Thermal Power Generation FY13...

  15. High temperature solar thermal technology: The North Africa Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    High temperature solar thermal (HTST) technology offers an attractive option for both industrialized and non-industrialized countries to generate electricity and industrial process steam. The purpose of this report is to assess the potential market for solar thermal applications in the North African countries of Algeria, Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia. North Africa was selected because of its outstanding solar resource base and the variety of applications to be found there. Diminishing oil and gas resources, coupled with expanding energy needs, opens a large potential market for the US industry. The US high temperature solar trough industry has little competition globally and could build a large market in these areas. The US is already familiar with certain solar markets in North Africa due to the supplying of substantial quantities of US-manufactured flat plate collectors to this region.

  16. California Solar Initiative- Solar Thermal Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    '''''Note: This program was modified by AB 2249, signed in September 2012. The bill allows for non-residential solar pool heating to qualify for incentives, and requires program administrators to...

  17. Gas Turbine/Solar Parabolic Trough Hybrid Designs: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turchi, C. S.; Ma, Z.; Erbes, M.

    2011-03-01

    A strength of parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) plants is the ability to provide reliable power by incorporating either thermal energy storage or backup heat from fossil fuels. Yet these benefits have not been fully realized because thermal energy storage remains expensive at trough operating temperatures and gas usage in CSP plants is less efficient than in dedicated combined cycle plants. For example, while a modern combined cycle plant can achieve an overall efficiency in excess of 55%; auxiliary heaters in a parabolic trough plant convert gas to electricity at below 40%. Thus, one can argue the more effective use of natural gas is in a combined cycle plant, not as backup to a CSP plant. Integrated solar combined cycle (ISCC) systems avoid this pitfall by injecting solar steam into the fossil power cycle; however, these designs are limited to about 10% total solar enhancement. Without reliable, cost-effective energy storage or backup power, renewable sources will struggle to achieve a high penetration in the electric grid. This paper describes a novel gas turbine / parabolic trough hybrid design that combines solar contribution of 57% and higher with gas heat rates that rival that for combined cycle natural gas plants. The design integrates proven solar and fossil technologies, thereby offering high reliability and low financial risk while promoting deployment of solar thermal power.

  18. Solar industrial retrofit of a natural gas processing plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henry, R.L.; McDowell, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    This study was a joint effort by Northrup, Inc., and ARCO Oil and Gas Company to design a solar powered process heat system to be installed at the ARCO North Coles Levee Gas Processing Plant No. 8. Thermal energy for the process is supplied by a heat medium oil at temperatures of 301/sup 0/C (575 F) to 193/sup 0/C (380 F). Currently, this oil is being heated by two natural gas fired heaters and a heat recovery unit that operates on waste heat from a continuously operated gas turbine. The solar retrofit system is being designed to displace natural gas presently consumed in the heaters. The solar system will deliver solar energy to the process with an annual average efficiency of 58% and has been sized to yield an average solar fraction of 33% relative to the plant's normal annual usage of 83,450 MW/sub th/-hr.

  19. Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardin, Corey Lee

    2011-01-01

    COST REDUCTION STUDY FOR SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANTS, Ottawa,Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants A ThesisStorage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants by Corey

  20. Made in Minnesota Solar Thermal Rebate

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Beginning in 2014, the Department of Commerce is offering a Made in Minnesota Solar Thermal Rebate program. Rebates are 25% of installed costs, with a $2,500 maximum for residential systems, $5,0...

  1. Micro/Nano-Scale Phase Change Systems for Thermal Management and Solar Energy Conversion Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coso, Dusan

    2013-01-01

    Nanotubes as High-Energy Density Solar Thermal Fuels,” Nanolatent heat energy storage and solar thermal applications,[for Storage of Solar Thermal Energy,” Solar Energy, 18 (3),

  2. Micro/Nano-Scale Phase Change Systems for Thermal Management and Solar Energy Conversion Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coso, Dusan

    2013-01-01

    S. a. , 2004, “Solar Thermal Collectors and Applications,”86] Schnatbaum L. , 2009, “Solar Thermal Power Plants,” Thefor Storage of Solar Thermal Energy,” Solar Energy, 18 (3),

  3. Micro/Nano-Scale Phase Change Systems for Thermal Management and Solar Energy Conversion Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coso, Dusan

    2013-01-01

    for Storage of Solar Thermal Energy,” Solar Energy, 18 (3),Toward Molecular Solar-Thermal Energy Storage,” Angewandtescale molecular solar thermal energy storage system, in

  4. MINICHANNEL-TUBE SOLAR THERMAL COLLECTORS FOR LOW TO MEDIUM TEMPERATURE APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duong, Van Thuc

    2015-01-01

    and thermal energy storage in solar thermal applications,91] F. Proske, Solar thermal energy technology and marketindefinitely. However, solar thermal energy is renewable and

  5. PV/thermal solar power assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ansley, Jeffrey H.; Botkin, Jonathan D.; Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

    2004-01-13

    A flexible solar power assembly (2) includes a flexible photovoltaic device (16) attached to a flexible thermal solar collector (4). The solar power assembly can be rolled up for transport and then unrolled for installation on a surface, such as the roof (20, 25) or side wall of a building or other structure, by use of adhesive and/or other types of fasteners (23).

  6. Performance analysis of medium temperature non-tracking solar thermal concentrators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balkoski, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Solar Thermal Designs .temperatures. Solar Thermal Designs As stated earlier, mostperformance of any solar concentrator design. Two different

  7. Thermal metastabilities in the solar core

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Attila Grandpierre; Gabor Agoston

    2002-01-18

    Linear stability analysis indicates that solar core is thermally stable for infinitesimal internal perturbations. For the first time, thermal metastabilities are found in the solar core when outer perturbations with significant amplitude are present. The obtained results show that hot bubbles generated by outer perturbations may travel a significant distance in the body of the Sun. These deep-origin hot bubbles have mass, energy, and chemical composition that may be related to solar flares. The results obtained may have remarkable relations to activity cycles in planets like Jupiter and also in extrasolar planetary systems.

  8. Thermal Management of Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saadah, Mohammed Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    D. Mills, "Cooling of photovoltaic cells under concentratedelectric performance of a photovoltaic cells by cooling andof Photovoltaic Solar Cell A photovoltaic cell is a

  9. SENSIBLE HEAT STORAGE FOR A SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baldwin, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01

    efficiency of a solar power plant with gas-turbine toppingon the Solar Power Plant Heat~Transfer Gas Properties Modelfor a solar power plant with Brayton-cycle gas turbine

  10. SENSIBLE HEAT STORAGE FOR A SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baldwin, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01

    for concentrating solar-thermal energy use a large number ofsolar energy and collecting the resulting thermal energy inBoth solar power plants absorb thermal energy in high-

  11. Financing Solar Thermal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, H. W.; Kistner, R.

    1999-11-01

    The commercialization of concentrating solar power technology took a major step forward in the mid 1980s and early 1990s with the development of the SEGS plants in California. Over the years they have proven that parabolic trough power technologies are the most cost-effective approach for commercial scale solar power generation in the sunbelt countries of the world. However, the question must be asked why no additional solar power plants have been build following the bankruptcy of the developer of the SEGS projects, LUZ International Limited. Although many believe the SEGS projects were a success as a result of parabolic trough technology they employ, in truth, the SEGS projects were developed simply because they represented an attractive opportunity for investors. Simply stated, no additional projects have been developed because no one has been able to put together a similarly attractive financial package to potential investors. More than $1.2 billion in private capital was raised i n debt and equity financing for the nine SEGS plants. Investors and bankers who make these investments are the real clients for solar power technologies. They are not interested in annual solar to electric efficiencies, but in risk, return on investments, and coverage ratios. This paper will take a look at solar power projects from the financier's perspective. The challenge in moving forward is to attract private investors, commercial lenders, and international development agencies and to find innovative solutions to the difficult issues that investment in the global power market poses for solar power technologies.

  12. Financing solar thermal power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kistner, R.; Price, H.

    1999-07-01

    The commercialization of concentrating solar power technology took a major step forward in the mid 1980s and early 1990s with the development of the SEGS plants in California. Over the years they have proven that parabolic trough power technologies are the most cost-effective approach for commercial scale solar power generation in the sunbelt countries of the world. However, the question must be asked why no additional solar power plants have been built following the bankruptcy of the developer of the SEGS projects, LUZ International Limited. Although many believe the SEGS projects were a success as a result of parabolic trough technology they employ, in truth, the SEGS projects were developed simply because they represented an attractive opportunity for investors. Simply states, no additional projects have been developed because no one has been able to put together a similarly attractive financial package to potential investors. More than $1.2 billion in private capital was raised in debt and equity financing for the nine SEGS plants. Investors and bankers who make these investments are the real clients for solar power technologies. They are not interested in annual solar to electric efficiencies, but in risk, return on investments, and coverage ratios. This paper will take a look at solar power projects form the financier's perspective. The challenge in moving forward is to attract private investors, commercial lenders, and international development agencies and to find innovative solutions to the difficult issues that investment in the global power market poses for solar power technologies.

  13. Integrated solar thermal energy collector system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, J.D.

    1987-08-18

    A solar thermal collector system is described one of a class of devices which converts solar radiation into heat and transmits this heat to storage from whence it is utilized, comprising: an evacuated glass solar collector, the evacuated glass solar collector having a glass vacuum envelope, the upper portion of the glass vacuum envelope also serving as window to pass solar radiation, the evacuated glass solar collector having a multiplicity of substantially parallel linear adjacent concentrating troughs, each trough shaped and mirror surfaced so as concentrate solar radiation in the vacuum, the mirror surface inside the vacuum and the concentration approximately ideal, the multiplicity of substantially parallel linear adjacent troughs extending substantially over the entire length and width of the evacuated glass solar collector; a heat storage system, the heat storage system adjacent to the evacuated glass solar collector, the heat storage system having a heat storage tank which is thermally insulated, the heat storage tank containing a heat storage medium, and the heat storage system including means of removal of heat from the heat storage tank for utilization.

  14. Biomass Gasification using Solar Thermal Energy M. Munzinger and K. Lovegrove

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biomass Gasification using Solar Thermal Energy M. Munzinger and K. Lovegrove Solar Thermal Group.lovegrove@anu.edu.au Hydrogen from Biomass as an energy carrier has generated increasing interest in recent years. There are several different technologies to convert solid or liquid Biomass into a gas mix consisting of mainly

  15. Solar-thermal reaction processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weimer, Alan W; Dahl, Jaimee K; Lewandowski, Allan A; Bingham, Carl; Raska Buechler, Karen J; Grothe, Willy

    2014-03-18

    In an embodiment, a method of conducting a high temperature chemical reaction that produces hydrogen or synthesis gas is described. The high temperature chemical reaction is conducted in a reactor having at least two reactor shells, including an inner shell and an outer shell. Heat absorbing particles are included in a gas stream flowing in the inner shell. The reactor is heated at least in part by a source of concentrated sunlight. The inner shell is heated by the concentrated sunlight. The inner shell re-radiates from the inner wall and heats the heat absorbing particles in the gas stream flowing through the inner shell, and heat transfers from the heat absorbing particles to the first gas stream, thereby heating the reactants in the gas stream to a sufficiently high temperature so that the first gas stream undergoes the desired reaction(s), thereby producing hydrogen or synthesis gas in the gas stream.

  16. Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardin, Corey Lee

    2011-01-01

    well a molten salt thermal storage system could be utilizedof Solar Two [2] Thermal storage in these plants is anper kilowatt goes towards thermal storage[3]. Considering a

  17. Solar thermal powered desalination: membrane versus distillation technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    thermal energy (e.g. Koschikowski et al, 2003): #12;Solar thermal powered desalination: reviewSolar thermal powered desalination: membrane versus distillation technologies G. Burgess and K considered to be the desalination technology most suited to integration with concentrating solar thermal

  18. Thermal and non-thermal energies in solar flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pascal Saint-Hilaire; Arnold O. Benz

    2005-03-03

    The energy of the thermal flare plasma and the kinetic energy of the non-thermal electrons in 14 hard X-ray peaks from 9 medium-sized solar flares have been determined from RHESSI observations. The emissions have been carefully separated in the spectrum. The turnover or cutoff in the low-energy distribution of electrons has been studied by simulation and fitting, yielding a reliable lower limit to the non-thermal energy. It remains the largest contribution to the error budget. Other effects, such as albedo, non-uniform target ionization, hot target, and cross-sections on the spectrum have been studied. The errors of the thermal energy are about equally as large. They are due to the estimate of the flare volume, the assumption of the filling factor, and energy losses. Within a flare, the non-thermal/thermal ratio increases with accumulation time, as expected from loss of thermal energy due to radiative cooling or heat conduction. Our analysis suggests that the thermal and non-thermal energies are of the same magnitude. This surprising result may be interpreted by an efficient conversion of non-thermal energy to hot flare plasma.

  19. Thermal Conductivity Enhancement of High Temperature Phase Change Materials for Concentrating Solar Power Plant Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roshandell, Melina

    2013-01-01

    been considered for solar thermal energy storages. These areTNO Symposium on Thermal Storage of Solar Energy, Amsterdam,Symposium on Thermal Application of Solar Energy, Hakone (

  20. Performance analysis of medium temperature non-tracking solar thermal concentrators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balkoski, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Solar Thermal Energy 1.1.1. Physics of Solar Thermal Energy Blackbody Radiation3]. SunTherm Energy, Inc. Solar Thermal Market Research.

  1. MINICHANNEL-TUBE SOLAR THERMAL COLLECTORS FOR LOW TO MEDIUM TEMPERATURE APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duong, Van Thuc

    2015-01-01

    of acceptance and usage of solar thermal technologies inCurrent solar thermal technologies: flat-plate, evacuatedcosts of conventional solar thermal collectors in California

  2. Thermal Conductivity Enhancement of High Temperature Phase Change Materials for Concentrating Solar Power Plant Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roshandell, Melina

    2013-01-01

    materials (PCM) in solar thermal concentrating technologyeffective and efficient solar thermal electricity generatorbeen considered for solar thermal energy storages. These are

  3. Performance analysis of medium temperature non-tracking solar thermal concentrators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balkoski, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    SunTherm Energy, Inc. Solar Thermal Market Research. Oct.Low-Cost High Temperature Solar Thermal Collector." Thesis.solar thermal .. 1

  4. MINICHANNEL-TUBE SOLAR THERMAL COLLECTORS FOR LOW TO MEDIUM TEMPERATURE APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duong, Van Thuc

    2015-01-01

    91] F. Proske, Solar thermal energy technology and marketindefinitely. However, solar thermal energy is renewable andgas and propane. Solar thermal energy for water heating has

  5. Thermal Conductivity Enhancement of High Temperature Phase Change Materials for Concentrating Solar Power Plant Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roshandell, Melina

    2013-01-01

    been considered for solar thermal energy storages. These arePCMs for thermal energy storage in solar driven residentialfluid and thermal energy storage medium in the solar heat

  6. Performance analysis of medium temperature non-tracking solar thermal concentrators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balkoski, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Temperature Solar Thermal Collector." Thesis. University ofSolar Thermal Collectors ..by the sun [1]. A solar thermal collector is a device that

  7. MINICHANNEL-TUBE SOLAR THERMAL COLLECTORS FOR LOW TO MEDIUM TEMPERATURE APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duong, Van Thuc

    2015-01-01

    of conventional solar thermal collectors in California andof conventional solar thermal collectors in California andminichannel-tube solar thermal collectors for low to medium

  8. Thermoelectrics Combined with Solar Concentration for Electrical and Thermal Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Philip Robert

    2012-01-01

    and Electrical Cogeneration ……………………. …………… 16 2.4.OptimalELECTRICAL AND THERMAL COGENERATION A thesis submitted inFOR ELECTRICAL AND THERMAL COGENERATION A solar tracker and

  9. Assessment of central receiver solar thermal enhanced oil recovery systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorman, D.N.

    1987-07-01

    In November 1982, ARCO Solar, Incorporated, with the cooperation of ARCO Oil and Gas Company, completed installation and began operation of a central receiver solar thermal pilot plant to produce steam for enhanced oil recovery. The highly automated plant can produce approximately one megawtt of thermal power in the form of 80% quality steam, which is delivered to a distribution header for injection into heavy oil formations. An engineering evaluation of data from the ARCO plant has been performed, with the conclusion that central receiver solar systems can be very effective sources of power to generate steam for the enhanced recovery of heavy oil. The highly automated pilot plant exhibited outstanding reliability of the solar power conversion components while operating routinely with a single attendant, demonstrating the capability for very low operating and maintenance costs for these systems relative to the use of conventional oil-burning steam generators. This document reports the operating and performance characteristics of the ARCO solar thermal enhanced oil recovery (STEOR) system over a full year of operation. System sizing and performance projection for a much larger commercial plant is also presented.

  10. Tuning energy transport in solar thermal systems using nanostructured materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lenert, Andrej

    2014-01-01

    Solar thermal energy conversion can harness the entire solar spectrum and theoretically achieve very high efficiencies while interfacing with thermal storage or back-up systems for dispatchable power generation. Nanostructured ...

  11. SENSIBLE HEAT STORAGE FOR A SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baldwin, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01

    concentrated energy at a high temperature is the basis of operation for a central solar thermal power

  12. SUBMITTED TO GRL 1 Thermal Anisotropies in the Solar Wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, John

    SUBMITTED TO GRL 1 E Thermal Anisotropies in the Solar Wind: vidence of Heating by Interstellar cyclotron instabilit s generated by newly created pickup ions and heats the thermal solar wind protons TO GRL 2 T Introduction he thermal anisotropy of the solar wind is the ratio between the temperatures p

  13. Flexible thermal cycle test equipment for concentrator solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hebert, Peter H. (Glendale, CA); Brandt, Randolph J. (Palmdale, CA)

    2012-06-19

    A system and method for performing thermal stress testing of photovoltaic solar cells is presented. The system and method allows rapid testing of photovoltaic solar cells under controllable thermal conditions. The system and method presents a means of rapidly applying thermal stresses to one or more photovoltaic solar cells in a consistent and repeatable manner.

  14. Efficient solar cooling: first ever non-tracking solar collectors powering a double effect absorption chiller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poiry, Heather Marie

    2011-01-01

    natural gas and using solar thermal energy. There is a solarnatural gas or on solar thermal energy before it will switchavailable solar energy to the solar thermal collector system

  15. New proposal for photovoltaic-thermal solar energy utilization method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takashima, Takumi; Tanaka, Tadayoshi; Doi, Takuya ); Kamoshida, Junji ); Tani, Tatsuo ); Horigome, Takashi )

    1994-03-01

    One of the most effective methods of utilizing solar energy is to use the sunlight and solar thermal energy such as a photovoltaic-thermal panel (PV/T panel) simultaneously. From such a viewpoint, systems using various kinds of PV panels were constructed in the world. In these panels, solar cells are set up at an absorber collecting solar thermal energy. Therefore, temperature of solar cell increases up to the prescribed temperature of thermal energy use, although it is lower than the cell temperature when using only solar cell panel. For maintaining cell conversion efficiency at the standard conditions, it is necessary to keep the cell at lower temperature. In this paper, electric and thermal energy obtained form a PV/T panel is evaluated in terms of energy. BAsed on this evaluation, the method of not to decrease cell conversion efficiency with collecting solar thermal energy was proposed.

  16. Solar thermal powered desalination: membrane versus distillation technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . The daily desalinated water output per square metre of solar collector area is estimated for a number suited to integration with concentrating solar thermal concentrating collectors on a medium to largeSolar thermal powered desalination: membrane versus distillation technologies G. Burgess and K

  17. Sandia Energy - National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid youOxygenLaboratory Fellows Jerry Simmons IsNational Solar Thermal

  18. Solar Thermal Technologies - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation ofAlbuquerque|Sensitive Species3performedValley |Solar PowerofThermal »

  19. Review Article Solar-Thermal Powered Desalination: Its Significant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reif, John H.

    1 Review Article Solar-Thermal Powered Desalination: Its Significant Challenges and Potential John@kau.edu.sa Abstract Solar-desalination systems are desalination systems that are powered by solar energy. With the goal of identifying the key technical challenges and potential opportunities solar-desalination, we

  20. Thermal Conductivity Enhancement of High Temperature Phase Change Materials for Concentrating Solar Power Plant Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roshandell, Melina

    2013-01-01

    batteries. Solar Water Heater Solar water heater is becomingSolar Water Heater water heaters, thermal protection for electronics, spacecrafts, and solar

  1. Thermal Conductivity Enhancement of High Temperature Phase Change Materials for Concentrating Solar Power Plant Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roshandell, Melina

    2013-01-01

    batteries. Solar Water Heater Solar water heater is becomingSolar Water Heater heaters, thermal protection for electronics, spacecrafts, and solar

  2. Sandia Energy - Sandia-AREVA Commission Solar Thermal/Molten...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia-AREVA Commission Solar ThermalMolten Salt Energy-Storage Demonstration Home Renewable Energy Energy Facilities Partnership Capabilities News SunShot News & Events...

  3. Thermoelectrics Combined with Solar Concentration for Electrical and Thermal Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Philip Robert

    2012-01-01

    hours, since electricity storage is rather inefficient.efficient than electricity storage, solar thermal becomes ato generate electricity. Since heat storage is more

  4. Efficient solar cooling: first ever non-tracking solar collectors powering a double effect absorption chiller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poiry, Heather Marie

    2011-01-01

    to close the solar valve turn off Natural Gas and switch tonatural gas and using solar thermal energy. There is a solar valve

  5. Solar Thermal Energy Storage Device: Hybrid Nanostructures for High-Energy-Density Solar Thermal Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-09

    HEATS Project: MIT is developing a thermal energy storage device that captures energy from the sun; this energy can be stored and released at a later time when it is needed most. Within the device, the absorption of sunlight causes the solar thermal fuel’s photoactive molecules to change shape, which allows energy to be stored within their chemical bonds. A trigger is applied to release the stored energy as heat, where it can be converted into electricity or used directly as heat. The molecules would then revert to their original shape, and can be recharged using sunlight to begin the process anew. MIT’s technology would be 100% renewable, rechargeable like a battery, and emissions-free. Devices using these solar thermal fuels—called Hybrisol—can also be used without a grid infrastructure for applications such as de-icing, heating, cooking, and water purification.

  6. Solar Thermal Incentive Program | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher iSlide 1 More Documents &1000radiation, often6 Solar Success Stories<

  7. Gas storage carbon with enhanced thermal conductivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burchell, Timothy D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Rogers, Michael Ray (Knoxville, TN); Judkins, Roddie R. (Knoxville, TN)

    2000-01-01

    A carbon fiber carbon matrix hybrid adsorbent monolith with enhanced thermal conductivity for storing and releasing gas through adsorption and desorption is disclosed. The heat of adsorption of the gas species being adsorbed is sufficiently large to cause hybrid monolith heating during adsorption and hybrid monolith cooling during desorption which significantly reduces the storage capacity of the hybrid monolith, or efficiency and economics of a gas separation process. The extent of this phenomenon depends, to a large extent, on the thermal conductivity of the adsorbent hybrid monolith. This invention is a hybrid version of a carbon fiber monolith, which offers significant enhancements to thermal conductivity and potential for improved gas separation and storage systems.

  8. Assessment of optical performance of three non-tracking, non-imaging, external compound parabolic concentrators designed for high temperature solar thermal collector units

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cisneros, Jesus

    2010-01-01

    S. A. (2004). "Solar thermal collectors and applications".for High Temperature Solar Thermal Collector Units A thesisfor Solar Thermal Collectors……………………………..7 Solar Thermal

  9. The Added Economic and Environmental Value of Solar Thermal Systems in Microgrids with Combined Heat and Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marnay, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Environmental Value of Solar Thermal Systems in MicrogridsEnvironmental Value of Solar Thermal Systems in Microgridsa) ABSTRACT The addition of solar thermal and heat storage

  10. The Added Economic and Environmental Value of Solar Thermal Systems in Microgrids with Combined Heat and Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marnay, Chris

    2010-01-01

    thermal absorption solar photo- storage chiller thermalbetween solar thermal collection and storage systems and CHPThe addition of solar thermal and heat storage systems can

  11. Environmental Assessment and Metrics for Solar: Case Study of SolFocus Solar Concentrator Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reich-Weiser, Corinne; Dornfeld, David; Horne, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Greenhouse gas analysis of solar-thermal electricity gen-CdTe Concentrator PV Solar Thermal Wind Coal CC Gas Turbinefor the assessment of thermal solar systems,” Proceedings of

  12. Efficient solar cooling: first ever non-tracking solar collectors powering a double effect absorption chiller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poiry, Heather Marie

    2011-01-01

    natural gas and using solar thermal energy. There is a solarnatural gas or on solar thermal energy before it will switcha solar thermal system, strictly in terms of energy only.

  13. Low-cost distributed solar-thermal-electric power generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanders, Seth

    -piston Stirling engine devices incorporating integrated electric generation. We target concentrator- collector design issues, and a specific design for an appropriately dimensioned free-piston Stirling engine. Only: Solar Thermal Collectors, Solar Thermal Electricity, Stirling Engine 1. INTRODUCTION In this paper, we

  14. Environmental Assessment and Metrics for Solar: Case Study of SolFocus Solar Concentrator Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reich-Weiser, Corinne; Dornfeld, David; Horne, Steve

    2008-01-01

    solar-thermal electricity gen- eration,” Solar Energy, vol.Energy pay- back time - a key number for the assessment of thermal solarSolar Thermal Wind Coal CC Gas Turbine Nuclear Reference Energy

  15. Rankline-Brayton engine powered solar thermal aircraft

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Charles L. (Livermore, CA)

    2012-03-13

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A Rankine-Brayton hybrid cycle heat engine is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller or other mechanism for enabling sustained free flight. The Rankine-Brayton engine has a thermal battery, preferably containing a lithium-hydride and lithium mixture, operably connected to it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery to a working fluid. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  16. Rankine-Brayton engine powered solar thermal aircraft

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Charles L. (Livermore, CA)

    2009-12-29

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A Rankine-Brayton hybrid cycle heat engine is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller or other mechanism for enabling sustained free flight. The Rankine-Brayton engine has a thermal battery, preferably containing a lithium-hydride and lithium mixture, operably connected to it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery to a working fluid. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  17. SENSIBLE HEAT STORAGE FOR A SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baldwin, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01

    gas-cooled central receiver and a steam-cycle power plant.gas turbines or Rankine-cycle steam turbines in the solar power plant.gas temperature required for steam Figure 6-3 shows the flowsheet for an alternative solar power plant

  18. Solar-thermal fluid-wall reaction processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weimer, Alan W.; Dahl, Jaimee K.; Lewandowski, Allan A.; Bingham, Carl; Buechler, Karen J.; Grothe, Willy

    2006-04-25

    The present invention provides a method for carrying out high temperature thermal dissociation reactions requiring rapid-heating and short residence times using solar energy. In particular, the present invention provides a method for carrying out high temperature thermal reactions such as dissociation of hydrocarbon containing gases and hydrogen sulfide to produce hydrogen and dry reforming of hydrocarbon containing gases with carbon dioxide. In the methods of the invention where hydrocarbon containing gases are dissociated, fine carbon black particles are also produced. The present invention also provides solar-thermal reactors and solar-thermal reactor systems.

  19. Solar-Thermal Fluid-Wall Reaction Processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weimer, A. W.; Dahl, J. K.; Lewandowski, A. A.; Bingham, C.; Raska Buechler, K. J.; Grothe, W.

    2006-04-25

    The present invention provides a method for carrying out high temperature thermal dissociation reactions requiring rapid-heating and short residence times using solar energy. In particular, the present invention provides a method for carrying out high temperature thermal reactions such as dissociation of hydrocarbon containing gases and hydrogen sulfide to produce hydrogen and dry reforming of hydrocarbon containing gases with carbon dioxide. In the methods of the invention where hydrocarbon containing gases are dissociated, fine carbon black particles are also produced. The present invention also provides solar-thermal reactors and solar-thermal reactor systems.

  20. Solar wind electron temperature and density measurements on the Solar Orbiter with thermal noise spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    for the Solar Orbiter mission. One can already figure out what could be the Te gra- dients in this radial rangeSolar wind electron temperature and density measurements on the Solar Orbiter with thermal noise Abstract The measurement of the solar wind electron temperature in the unexplored region between 1 and 45

  1. Solar wind electron density and temperature over solar cycle 23: Thermal noise measurements on Wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Solar wind electron density and temperature over solar cycle 23: Thermal noise measurements on Wind; received in revised form 6 April 2005; accepted 25 April 2005 Abstract We present the solar wind plasma parameters obtained from the Wind spacecraft during more than nine years, encompassing almost the whole solar

  2. Renewable Energies III Photovoltaics, Solar & Geo-Thermal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Renewable Energies III Photovoltaics, Solar & Geo-Thermal 21st August - 2nd September 2011 on the principles of solar energy conversion. Theoretical knowledge will be complemented with practical workshops of solar energy conversion. Theoretical knowledge will be comple- mented with practical workshops

  3. A NEW SOLAR THERMAL RECEIVER UTILIZING A SMALL PARTICLE HEAT EXCHANGER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, Arlon J.

    2011-01-01

    Report LBL 8520. ) A NEW SOLAR THERMAL RECEIVER UTILIZING Aenergy. A new type of solar thermal receiver based on thisThe success of the solar thermal electric power program

  4. New Funding Boosts Carbon Capture, Solar Energy and High Gas...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    New Funding Boosts Carbon Capture, Solar Energy and High Gas Mileage Cars and Trucks New Funding Boosts Carbon Capture, Solar Energy and High Gas Mileage Cars and Trucks June 11,...

  5. Micro/Nano-Scale Phase Change Systems for Thermal Management and Solar Energy Conversion Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coso, Dusan

    2013-01-01

    storage and direct solar energy conversion to work. FocusManagement and Solar Energy Conversion Applications By DusanThermal Management and Solar Energy Conversion Applications

  6. Micro/Nano-Scale Phase Change Systems for Thermal Management and Solar Energy Conversion Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coso, Dusan

    2013-01-01

    focus only on the solar collector and catalytic converterfluid, a microfluidic solar collector, and a catalytic heatS. a. , 2004, “Solar Thermal Collectors and Applications,”

  7. Integrated thermal solar heat pump system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaw, D.N.

    1980-04-08

    A compression module may comprise a hermetic helical screw rotary compressor having injection and ejection ports in addition to discharge and suction ports or may comprise a multiple cylinder, multiple level, reciprocating compressor. The module incorporates a subcooler coil and is connected to an outside air coil, a thermal energy storage coil, a direct solar energy supply coil, one or more inside coils for the space to be conditioned and a hot water coil through common, discharge manifold, suction manifold, liquid drain manifold and liquid feed manifold, by suitable solenoid operated control valves and check valves. The solenoid operated control valves are selectively operated in response to system operating parameters. Seal pots and positive displacement pumps may operate to force liquid refrigerant condensed at intermediate pressure to flow to the receiver which is pressurized at a pressure corresponding to the condensation temperature of the highest pressure condensing coil in the system. Alternatively, liquid refrigerant expansion may be used to reach a common receiver pressure for all condenser returns.

  8. Thermal storage module for solar dynamic receivers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beatty, Ronald L. (Farragut, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1991-01-01

    A thermal energy storage system comprising a germanium phase change material and a graphite container.

  9. Minnesota Power- Solar-Thermal Water Heating Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Minnesota Power offers a 25% rebate for qualifying solar thermal water heating systems. The maximum award for single-family customers is $2,000 per customer; $4,000 for 2-3 family unit buildings;...

  10. Development of thermal performance criteria for residential passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabatiuk, P.A.; Cassel, D.E.; McCabe, M.; Scarbrough, C.

    1980-01-01

    In support of the development of thermal performance criteria for residential passive solar buildings, thermal design characteristics and anticipated performance for 266 projects in the HUD Passive Residential Design Competition and the HUD Cycle 5 Demonstration Program were analyzed. These passive residences are located in all regions of the United States requiring space heating, and they represent a variety of passive solar system types including direct gain, indirect gain, and solarium (isolated gain) systems. The results of this statistical analysis are being used to develop proposed minimum acceptable levels of thermal performance for passive solar buildings for the residential performance criteria. A number of performance measures were examined, including net solar contribution, solar fraction, and auxiliary energy use. These and other design and climate-related parameters were statistically correlated using the DATAPLOT computer program and standard statistical analysis techniques.

  11. Thermal Conductivity Enhancement of High Temperature Phase Change Materials for Concentrating Solar Power Plant Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roshandell, Melina

    2013-01-01

    energy storage system; thermal storage and heat transfer in1308. 32- Telkes, M. Thermal storage for solar heating andeditor. Phase change thermal storage materials. McGraw Hill

  12. A solar concentrating photovoltaic / thermal collector J.S. Coventry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    solar concentrating photovoltaic / thermal collector Coventry "Photovoltaic and Wind Power for Urban in this area are summarised. The Combined Heat and Power Solar (CHAPS) collector, under development collector. Some of the technical challenges in the design of the CHAPS collector are discussed

  13. Camera-based reflectivity measurement for solar thermal applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Camera-based reflectivity measurement for solar thermal applications John D. Pye1 , Clifford K. Ho2 2 6125 8778, john.pye@anu.edu.au. 2 Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. ckho of the solar-weighted reflectivity of the receiver component in CSP systems. Such reflectivity measurement

  14. Thermal efficiency of single-pass solar air collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibrahim, Zamry; Ibarahim, Zahari; Yatim, Baharudin; Ruslan, Mohd Hafidz

    2013-11-27

    Efficiency of a finned single-pass solar air collector was studied. This paper presents the experimental study to investigate the effect of solar radiation and mass flow rate on efficiency. The fins attached at the back of absorbing plate to improve the thermal efficiency of the system. The results show that the efficiency is increased proportional to solar radiation and mass flow rate. Efficiency of the collector archived steady state when reach to certain value or can be said the maximum performance.

  15. Software-as-a-Service Optimised Scheduling of a Solar-Assisted HVAC System with Thermal Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mammoli, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    environmental performance of a solar-thermal- assisted hvacenhancement for rows of fixed solar thermal collectors usingflat reflective surfaces. Solar Energy, 2011. [4] National

  16. Software-as-a-Service Optimised Scheduling of a Solar-Assisted HVAC System with Thermal Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mammoli, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    1980, but its thermal solar and storage systems received achiller. A 30 m heat storage tank solar decouples heatfacility with thermal storage and solar- assisted HVAC for

  17. Project Profile: Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Pennsylvania State University, under the 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) R&D FOA, is designing and testing a novel solar collector system that relies on stationary optics, avoiding the need for mirror movement. The system is capable of achieving optical performance equal to state-of-the-art parabolic trough systems, but at a lower cost.

  18. Micro/Nano-Scale Phase Change Systems for Thermal Management and Solar Energy Conversion Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coso, Dusan

    2013-01-01

    Storage of Solar Thermal Energy,” Solar Energy, 18 (3), pp.Nocera D. G. , 2010, “Solar Energy Supply and Storage forof Abiotic Photo-chemical Solar Energy Storage Systems,”

  19. Tehachapi solar thermal system first annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenthal, A. [Southwest Technology Development Inst., Las Cruces, NM (US)

    1993-05-01

    The staff of the Southwest Technology Development Institute (SWTDI), in conjunction with the staff of Industrial Solar Technology (IST), have analyzed the performance, operation, and maintenance of a large solar process heat system in use at the 5,000 inmate California Correctional Institution (CCI) in Tehachapi, CA. This report summarizes the key design features of the solar plant, its construction and maintenance histories through the end of 1991, and the performance data collected at the plant by a dedicated on-site data acquisition system (DAS).

  20. Noble gas geochemistry in thermal springs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, B.M.; Reynolds, J.H. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA)); Smith, S.P. (Charles Evans and Associates, Redwood City, CA (USA))

    1988-07-01

    The composition of noble gases in both gas and water samples collected from Horseshoe Spring, Yellowstone National Park, was found to be depth dependent. The deeper the sample collection within the spring, the greater the enrichment in Kr, Xe, radiogenic {sup 4}He, and {sup 40}Ar and the greater the depletion in Ne relative to {sup 36}Ar. The compositional variations are consistent with multi-component mixing. The dominant component consists of dissolved atmospheric gases acquired by the pool at the surface in contact with air. This component is mixed in varying degree with two other components, one each for gas and water entering the bottom of the pool. The two bottom components are not in equilibrium. In Horseshoe Spring, the bubbles entering at the bottom strip the atmospheric-derived pool gases from the surrounding water while en route to the surface. If the original bottom bubbles are noble gas, as in the case of Horseshoe, the acquired pool gases can then quickly obliterate the original bubble composition. These results are used to demonstrate that Yellowstone spring surface gas samples, and perhaps similarity sampled thermal springs from other hydrothermal systems, have gas abundances that depend more on spring morphology than processes occurring deeper in the hydrothermal system.

  1. Long-term goals for solar thermal technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, T.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Brown, D.R.

    1985-05-01

    This document describes long-term performance and cost goals for three solar thermal technologies. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) developed these goals in support of the Draft Five Year Research and Development Plan for the National Solar Thermal Technology Program (DOE 1984b). These technology goals are intended to provide targets that, if met, will lead to the widespread use of solar thermal technologies in the marketplace. Goals were developed for three technologies and two applications: central receiver and dish technologies for utility-generated electricity applications, and central receiver, dish, and trough technologies for industrial process heat applications. These technologies and applications were chosen because they are the primary technologies and applications that have been researched by DOE in the past. System goals were developed through analysis of future price projections for energy sources competing with solar thermal in the middle-to-late 1990's time frame. The system goals selected were levelized energy costs of $0.05/kWh for electricity and $9/MBtu for industrial process heat (1984 $). Component goals established to meet system goals were developed based upon projections of solar thermal component performance and cost which could be achieved in the same time frame.

  2. Solar thermal power systems. Annual technical progress report, FY 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braun, Gerald W.

    1980-06-01

    The Solar Thermal Power Systems Program is the key element in the national effort to establish solar thermal conversion technologies within the major sectors of the national energy market. It provides for the development of concentrating mirror/lens heat collection and conversion technologies for both central and dispersed receiver applications to produce electricity, provide heat at its point of use in industrial processes, provide heat and electricity in combination for industrial, commercial, and residential needs, and ultimately, drive processes for production of liquid and gaseous fuels. This report is the second Annual Technical Progress Report for the Solar Thermal Power Systems Program and is structured according to the organization of the Solar Thermal Power Systems Program on September 30, 1979. Emphasis is on the technical progress of the projects rather than on activities and individual contractor efforts. Each project description indicates its place in the Solar Thermal Power Systems Program, a brief history, the significant achievements and real progress during FY 1979, also future project activities as well as anticipated significant achievements are forecast. (WHK)

  3. Gas Turbine/Solar Parabolic Trough Hybrid Design Using Molten Salt Heat Transfer Fluid: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turchi, C. S.; Ma, Z.

    2011-08-01

    Parabolic trough power plants can provide reliable power by incorporating either thermal energy storage (TES) or backup heat from fossil fuels. This paper describes a gas turbine / parabolic trough hybrid design that combines a solar contribution greater than 50% with gas heat rates that rival those of natural gas combined-cycle plants. Previous work illustrated benefits of integrating gas turbines with conventional oil heat-transfer-fluid (HTF) troughs running at 390?C. This work extends that analysis to examine the integration of gas turbines with salt-HTF troughs running at 450 degrees C and including TES. Using gas turbine waste heat to supplement the TES system provides greater operating flexibility while enhancing the efficiency of gas utilization. The analysis indicates that the hybrid plant design produces solar-derived electricity and gas-derived electricity at lower cost than either system operating alone.

  4. Photon management in thermal and solar photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Lu

    2008-01-01

    Photovoltaics is a technology that directly converts photon energy into electrical energy. Depending on the photon source, photovoltaic systems can be categorized into two groups: solar photovoltaics (PV) and thermophotovoltaics ...

  5. Implementations of electric vehicle system based on solar energy in Singapore assessment of solar thermal technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Xiaogang, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01

    To build an electric car plus renewable energy system for Singapore, solar thermal technologies were investigated in this report in the hope to find a suitable "green" energy source for this small island country. Among all ...

  6. Cost-Effective Solar Thermal Energy Storage: Thermal Energy Storage With Supercritical Fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-02-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: UCLA and JPL are creating cost-effective storage systems for solar thermal energy using new materials and designs. A major drawback to the widespread use of solar thermal energy is its inability to cost-effectively supply electric power at night. State-of-the-art energy storage for solar thermal power plants uses molten salt to help store thermal energy. Molten salt systems can be expensive and complex, which is not attractive from a long-term investment standpoint. UCLA and JPL are developing a supercritical fluid-based thermal energy storage system, which would be much less expensive than molten-salt-based systems. The team’s design also uses a smaller, modular, single-tank design that is more reliable and scalable for large-scale storage applications.

  7. Value of Concentrating Solar Power and Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sioshansi, R.; Denholm, P.

    2010-02-01

    This paper examines the value of concentrating solar power (CSP) and thermal energy storage (TES) in four regions in the southwestern United States. Our analysis shows that TES can increase the value of CSP by allowing more thermal energy from a CSP plant?s solar field to be used, by allowing a CSP plant to accommodate a larger solar field, and by allowing CSP generation to be shifted to hours with higher energy prices. We analyze the sensitivity of CSP value to a number of factors, including the optimization period, price and solar forecasting, ancillary service sales, capacity value and dry cooling of the CSP plant. We also discuss the value of CSP plants and TES net of capital costs.

  8. Semi-transparent solar energy thermal storage device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McClelland, John F. (Ames, IA)

    1986-04-08

    A visually transmitting solar energy absorbing thermal storage module includes a thermal storage liquid containment chamber defined by an interior solar absorber panel, an exterior transparent panel having a heat mirror surface substantially covering the exterior surface thereof and associated top, bottom and side walls. Evaporation of the thermal storage liquid is controlled by a low vapor pressure liquid layer that floats on and seals the top surface of the liquid. Porous filter plugs are placed in filler holes of the module. An algicide and a chelating compound are added to the liquid to control biological and chemical activity while retaining visual clarity. A plurality of modules may be supported in stacked relation by a support frame to form a thermal storage wall structure.

  9. Semi-transparent solar energy thermal storage device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McClelland, John F. (Ames, IA)

    1985-06-18

    A visually transmitting solar energy absorbing thermal storage module includes a thermal storage liquid containment chamber defined by an interior solar absorber panel, an exterior transparent panel having a heat mirror surface substantially covering the exterior surface thereof and associated top, bottom and side walls, Evaporation of the thermal storage liquid is controlled by a low vapor pressure liquid layer that floats on and seals the top surface of the liquid. Porous filter plugs are placed in filler holes of the module. An algicide and a chelating compound are added to the liquid to control biological and chemical activity while retaining visual clarity. A plurality of modules may be supported in stacked relation by a support frame to form a thermal storage wall structure.

  10. Thermal Conductivity Enhancement of High Temperature Phase Change Materials for Concentrating Solar Power Plant Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roshandell, Melina

    2013-01-01

    for evening cooking in a solar cooker. Energy Convers ManageThermal performance of a solar cooker based on an evacuated

  11. Assessment of optical performance of three non-tracking, non-imaging, external compound parabolic concentrators designed for high temperature solar thermal collector units

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cisneros, Jesus

    2010-01-01

    and future of solar thermal energy as a primary source ofon harnessing solar thermal energy for water desalinationas an alternative. Solar thermal energy has the potential to

  12. The Added Economic and Environmental Value of Solar Thermal Systems in Microgrids with CombinedHeat and Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael; Cardoso, Goncalo; Megel, Olivier; Lai, Judy; Siddiqui, Afzal

    2009-08-15

    The addition of solar thermal and heat storage systems can improve the economic, as well as environmental attraction of micro-generation systems, e.g. fuel cells with or without combined heat and power (CHP) and contribute to enhanced CO2 reduction. However, the interactions between solar thermal collection and storage systems and CHP systems can be complex, depending on the tariff structure, load profile, etc. In order to examine the impact of solar thermal and heat storage on CO2 emissions and annual energy costs, a microgrid's distributed energy resources (DER) adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program. The objective is minimization of annual energy costs. This paper focuses on analysis of the optimal interaction of solar thermal systems, which can be used for domestic hot water, space heating and/or cooling, and micro-CHP systems in the California service territory of San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E). Contrary to typical expectations, our results indicate that despite the high solar radiation in southern California, fossil based CHP units are dominant, even with forecast 2020 technology and costs. A CO2 pricing scheme would be needed to incent installation of combined solar thermal absorption chiller systems, and no heat storage systems are adopted. This research also shows that photovoltaic (PV) arrays are favored by CO2 pricing more than solar thermal adoption.

  13. Solar thermal aerosol flow reaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weimer, Alan W.; Dahl, Jaimee K.; Pitts, J. Roland; Lewandowski, Allan A.; Bingham, Carl; Tamburini, Joseph R.

    2005-03-29

    The present invention provides an environmentally beneficial process using concentrated sunlight to heat radiation absorbing particles to carry out highly endothermic gas phase chemical reactions ultimately resulting in the production of hydrogen or hydrogen synthesis gases.

  14. Solar Power in the Desert: Are the current large-scale solar developments really improving California’s environment?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Michael F.; McHughen, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Jenerette. 2010. Box 11: Two paths towards solar energy:Photovoltaic vs Solar Thermal. In: Planetary Stewardship.government betting on the wrong solar horse. Natural Gas &

  15. High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baechler, M.; Gilbride, T.; Ruiz, K.; Steward, H.; Love, P.

    2007-06-01

    This document is the sixth volume of the Building America Best Practices Series. It presents information that is useful throughout the United States for enhancing the energy efficiency practices in the specific climate zones that are presented in the first five Best Practices volumes. It provides an introduction to current photovoltaic and solar thermal building practices. Information about window selection and shading is included.

  16. Thermal performance of an earth-sheltered passive solar residence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaVigne, A.B. (Puget Sound Power and Light Co., Bellevue, WA); Schuldt, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    Results are presented of the measured thermal performance of a direct gain, passive solar residence in the Pacific Northwest. The east, west, and north exterior walls of the house are bermed to within 12 inches (30 cm) of the ceiling; sliding interior insulated panels cover the double glazed, south facing windows when appropriate. The cost of the house construction was kept modest.

  17. Software-as-a-Service Optimised Scheduling of a Solar-Assisted HVAC System with Thermal Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mammoli, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    performance of a solar-thermal- assisted hvac system. Energyfor rows of fixed solar thermal collectors using flatassisted by a 232 m solar thermal array providing heat to a

  18. Software-as-a-Service Optimised Scheduling of a Solar-Assisted HVAC System with Thermal Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mammoli, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    of a solar-thermal- assisted hvac system. Energy andsolar thermal collectors using flat reflective surfaces. Solar Energy,of a solar-assisted HVAC system with thermal storage. Energy

  19. Solar Thermal Process Heat | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-Enhancing Capacity forSilicium deEnergyCompany Limited SPCSolar Thermal Process Heat

  20. Progress from DOE EF RC: Solid-State Solar-Thermal Energy Conversion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    from DOE EF RC: Solid-State Solar-Thermal Energy Conversion Center (S3TEC ) Progress from DOE EF RC: Solid-State Solar-Thermal Energy Conversion Center (S3TEC ) Introduction to the...

  1. Corrigenda for Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes, Fourth Ed. J. A. Duffie and W. A. Beckman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Corrigenda for Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes, Fourth Ed. J. A. Duffie and W. A. Beckman 2 769 Eqn for i 30.7 should be 30.8 #12;Corrigenda for Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes, Third Ed

  2. Transient-heat-transfer and stress analysis of a thermal-storage solar cooker module

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zengeni, Hazel C

    2014-01-01

    This paper details the analysis carried out in Solidworks to determine the best material and configuration of a thermal-storage solar cooker module.The thermal-storage solar cooker utilizes the high-latent-heat lithium ...

  3. Concentrating Solar Program; Session: Thermal Storage - Overview (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glatzmaier, G.; Mehos, M.; Mancini, T.

    2008-04-01

    The project overview of this presentation is: (1) description--(a) laboratory R and D in advanced heat transfer fluids (HTF) and thermal storage systems; (b) FOA activities in solar collector and component development for use of molten salt as a heat transfer and storage fluid; (c) applications for all activities include line focus and point focus solar concentrating technologies; (2) Major FY08 Activities--(a) advanced HTF development with novel molten salt compositions with low freezing temperatures, nanofluids molecular modeling and experimental studies, and use with molten salt HTF in solar collector field; (b) thermal storage systems--cost analysis and updates for 2-tank and thermocline storage and model development and analysis to support near-term trought deployment; (c) thermal storage components--facility upgrade to support molten salt component testing for freeze-thaw receiver testing, long-shafted molten salt pump for parabolic trough and power tower thermal storage systems; (d) CSP FOA support--testing and evaluation support for molten salt component and field testing work, advanced fluids and storage solicitation preparation, and proposal evaluation for new advanced HTF and thermal storage FOA.

  4. Solar Thermal Success Stories - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation ofAlbuquerque|Sensitive Species3performedValley |Solar Powerof

  5. Hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar systems simulation with Simulink/Matlab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    da Silva, R.M.; Fernandes, J.L.M.

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this work consists in thermodynamic modeling of hybrid photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) solar systems, pursuing a modular strategy approach provided by Simulink/Matlab. PV/T solar systems are a recently emerging solar technology that allows for the simultaneous conversion of solar energy into both electricity and heat. This type of technology present some interesting advantages over the conventional ''side-by-side'' thermal and PV solar systems, such as higher combined electrical/thermal energy outputs per unit area, and a more uniform and aesthetical pleasant roof area. Despite the fact that early research on PV/T systems can be traced back to the seventies, only recently it has gained a renewed impetus. In this work, parametric studies and annual transient simulations of PV/T systems are undertaken in Simulink/Matlab. The obtained results show an average annual solar fraction of 67%, and a global overall efficiency of 24% (i.e. 15% thermal and 9% electrical), for a typical four-person single-family residence in Lisbon, with p-Si cells, and a collector area of 6 m{sup 2}. A sensitivity analysis performed on the PV/T collector suggests that the most important variable that should be addressed to improve thermal performance is the photovoltaic (PV) module emittance. Based on those results, some additional improvements are proposed, such as the use of vacuum, or a noble gas at low-pressure, to allow for the removal of PV cells encapsulation without air oxidation and degradation, and thus reducing the PV module emittance. Preliminary results show that this option allows for an 8% increase on optical thermal efficiency, and a substantial reduction of thermal losses, suggesting the possibility of working at higher fluid temperatures. The higher working temperatures negative effect in electrical efficiency was negligible, due to compensation by improved optical properties. The simulation results are compared with experimental data obtained from other authors and perform reasonably well. The Simulink modeling platform has been mainly used worldwide on simulation of control systems, digital signal processing and electric circuits, but there are very few examples of application to solar energy systems modeling. This work uses the modular environment of Simulink/Matlab to model individual PV/T system components, and to assemble the entire installation layout. The results show that the modular approach strategy provided by Matlab/Simulink environment is applicable to solar systems modeling, providing good code scalability, faster developing time, and simpler integration with external computational tools, when compared with traditional imperative-oriented programming languages. (author)

  6. Where solar thermal meets photovoltaic for high-efficiency power conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bierman, David M. (David Matthew)

    2014-01-01

    To develop disruptive techniques which generate power from the Sun, one must understand the aspects of existing technologies that limit performance. Solar thermal and solar photovoltaic schemes dominate today's solar market ...

  7. MINICHANNEL-TUBE SOLAR THERMAL COLLECTORS FOR LOW TO MEDIUM TEMPERATURE APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duong, Van Thuc

    2015-01-01

    103 Average costs of conventional solar thermal collectorsBurch, J. Maguire, Low-cost solar water heating research and101 xv Solar water heating system breakdown costs in

  8. Use of Renewable Energy in Buildings: Experiences With Solar Thermal Utilization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, R.; Zhai, X.

    2006-01-01

    collectors on the south tilted roofs, south walls, balconies or awnings. Experiences on solar thermal utilization are mainly introduced in this paper, which include solar hot water systems with different design methods in residential buildings and solar...

  9. Quality assurance of solar thermal systems with the ISFH-Input/Output-Procedure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quality assurance of solar thermal systems with the ISFH- Input/Output-Procedure Peter Paerisch/Output-Controllers for in situ and automatic function control of solar thermal systems that were developed within the research project have been installed in 12 systems. After five years seven solar thermal systems benefited from

  10. Genetic algorithms used for the optimization of light-emitting diodes and solar thermal collectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mayer, Alexandre

    Genetic algorithms used for the optimization of light-emitting diodes and solar thermal collectors developed for the optimization of light-emitting diodes (LED) and solar thermal collectors. The surface a light-extraction efficiency of only 3.7%). The solar thermal collector we considered consists

  11. Transition Region Emission and Energy Input to Thermal Plasma During the Impulsive Phase of Solar Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. C. Raymond; G. Holman; A. Ciaravella; A. Panasyuk; Y. -K. Ko; J. Kohl

    2007-01-12

    The energy released in a solar flare is partitioned between thermal and non-thermal particle energy and lost to thermal conduction and radiation over a broad range of wavelengths. It is difficult to determine the conductive losses and the energy radiated at transition region temperatures during the impulsive phases of flares. We use UVCS measurements of O VI photons produced by 5 flares and subsequently scattered by O VI ions in the corona to determine the 5.0 thermal energy and the conductive losses deduced from RHESSI and GOES X-ray data using areas from RHESSI images to estimate the loop volumes, cross-sectional areas and scale lengths. The transition region luminosities during the impulsive phase exceed the X-ray luminosities for the first few minutes, but they are smaller than the rates of increase of thermal energy unless the filling factor of the X-ray emitting gas is ~ 0.01. The estimated conductive losses from the hot gas are too large to be balanced by radiative losses or heating of evaporated plasma, and we conclude that the area of the flare magnetic flux tubes is much smaller than the effective area measured by RHESSI during this phase of the flares. For the 2002 July 23 flare, the energy deposited by non-thermal particles exceeds the X-ray and UV energy losses and the rate of increase of the thermal energy.

  12. California Solar Initiative - Solar Thermal Program | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a lCarib Energy (USA) LLCAdministration ofSmall Vertical|< Back

  13. Thermal concentrator homogenized with solar-shaped mantle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petiteau, David; Bellieud, Michel; Zerrad, Myriam; Amra, Claude

    2015-01-01

    We propose solar-shaped thermal concentrators designed with orthoradial layers and obtained in practice through the homogenization of an ideal thermal concentrator. Considering the spectral regime of the heat equation, we quantitatively evaluate at different pulsations the effectiveness of the homogenized concentrators by comparing the thermal flux existing in an ideal concentrator and the thermal flux in an homogenized concentrator. Dependence on the pulsation is shown to be negligible and plotting the effectiveness of the homogenized concentrators as a function of the number of orthoradial layers $N$, we determine the number of layers needed to achieve a certain effectiveness. Significantly high numbers $N$(ranging from a hundred to tens of thousands layers) are found highlighting the fact that achieving high effectiveness demands a high level of engineering of the homogenized concentrator.

  14. Site selection for concentrated solar thermal systems in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seki, A.

    1987-01-01

    This report identifies ares on the five major islands (Oahu, Maui, Molakai, Hawaii, and Kauai) that have the potential for concentrating solar thermal applications. The locations are based on existing solar insolation (mostly global and some direct normal) data, other meteorological information, land use, potential end-use, and existing facilities. These areas are: - Western coast of Oahu, especially near Kahe Point - Maui plains area - South-Central Molokai - Kona coast of the Big Island, especially Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii - Western and southern areas of Kauai. Monitoring stations are recommended at some of these sites to obtain direct normal insolation data for future evaluation.

  15. Novel Thermal Storage Technologies for Concentrating Solar Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neti, Sudhakar; Oztekin, Alparslan; Chen, John; Tuzla, Kemal; Misiolek, Wojciech

    2013-06-20

    The technologies that are to be developed in this work will enable storage of thermal energy in 100 MWe solar energy plants for 6-24 hours at temperatures around 300oC and 850oC using encapsulated phase change materials (EPCM). Several encapsulated phase change materials have been identified, fabricated and proven with calorimetry. Two of these materials have been tested in an airflow experiment. A cost analysis for these thermal energy storage systems has also been conducted that met the targets established at the initiation of the project.

  16. Proceedings: Fourth Parabolic Dish Solar Thermal Power Program Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-02-01

    The results of activities within the parabolic dish technology and applications development program are presented. Stirling, organic Rankine and Brayton module technologies, associated hardware and test results to date, concentrator development and progress, economic analyses, and international dish development activities are covered. Two panel discussions, concerning industry issues affecting solar thermal dish development and dish technology from a utility/user perspective, are also included.

  17. Project Profile: National Solar Thermal Test Facility | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills andOrderNATIONALofDefineEnergy National Solar Thermal Test

  18. SolarOil Project, Phase I preliminary design report. [Solar Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baccaglini, G.; Bass, J.; Neill, J.; Nicolayeff, V.; Openshaw, F.

    1980-03-01

    The preliminary design of the Solar Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery (SolarOil) Plant is described in this document. This plant is designed to demonstrate that using solar thermal energy is technically feasible and economically viable in enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The SolarOil Plant uses the fixed mirror solar concentrator (FMSC) to heat high thermal capacity oil (MCS-2046) to 322/sup 0/C (611/sup 0/F). The hot fluid is pumped from a hot oil storage tank (20 min capacity) through a once-through steam generator which produces 4.8 MPa (700 psi) steam at 80% quality. The plant net output, averaged over 24 hr/day for 365 days/yr, is equivalent to that of a 2.4 MW (8.33 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hr) oil-fired steam generator having an 86% availability. The net plant efficiency is 57.3% at equinox noon, a 30%/yr average. The plant will be demonstrated at an oilfield site near Oildale, California.

  19. The Added Economic and Environmental Value of Solar Thermal Systems in Microgrids with Combined Heat and Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marnay, Chris

    2010-01-01

    capacity Please note that thermal storage contains also heat1 considers cold thermal storage indirectly. presented atThe addition of solar thermal and heat storage systems can

  20. Questar Gas- Residential Solar Assisted Water Heating Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Questar gas provides incentives for residential customers to purchase and install solar water heating systems (both for domestic and pool heating uses) on their newly-constructed homes. Rebates of...

  1. SOLAR ENERGY PROGRAM: CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT ANNUAL REPORT 1979

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2010-01-01

    Particle Suspensions for Solar Energy Collection A.Sensible Heat Storage for a Solar Thermal Power Plant T.and A. Pfeiffhofer • . Solar Heated Gas Turbine Process

  2. Quality assurance with the ISFH-Input/Output-Procedure 6-year-experience with 14 solar thermal systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the confidence in solar thermal energy. The so called Input/Output-Procedure is controlling the solar heatQuality assurance with the ISFH-Input/Output-Procedure 6-year-experience with 14 solar thermal of standard solar thermal systems usually don't recognise failures affecting the solar yield, because

  3. Field Fabrication of Solar-Thermal Powered Steam Turbines for Generation of Mechanical Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    investigate a solar thermal steamdriven turbine system and build and evaluate several versions in fieldField Fabrication of Solar-Thermal Powered Steam Turbines for Generation of Mechanical Power by Amy and repeatability necessary for regular people to design, manufacture, and install a system to convert solar

  4. Biomass Gasification using Solar Thermal Energy M. Munzinger and K. Lovegrove

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biomass Gasification using Solar Thermal Energy M. Munzinger and K. Lovegrove Solar Thermal Group technical pathways for biomass gasification and shows their advantages and disadvantages especially in connection with the use of solar heat as energy source for the conversion reaction. Biomass gasification

  5. Propagation of three--dimensional Alfv'en waves in a stratified, thermally conducting solar wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Propagation of three--dimensional Alfv'en waves in a stratified, thermally conducting solar wind S to the well--known thermal expansion of the solar corona [Parker, 1958, 1963, 1991]. In particular Alfv'en waves in the solar atmosphere and wind, taking into account relevant physical effects

  6. Pressure drops for direct steam generation in line-focus solar thermal systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pressure drops for direct steam generation in line-focus solar thermal systems John Pye1 , Graham) is increasingly the approach taken for new large-scale solar thermal energy projects. Compared to earlier systems the focus of the solar collector, and then generate steam outside the collector in a large heat exchanger

  7. Fifth parabolic dish solar thermal power program annual review: proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1984-03-01

    The primary objective of the Review was to present the results of activities within the Parabolic Dish Technology and Module/Systems Development element of the Department of Energy's Solar Thermal Energy Systems Program. The Review consisted of nine technical sessions covering overall Project and Program aspects, Stirling and Brayton module development, concentrator and engine/receiver development, and associated hardware and test results to date; distributed systems operating experience; international dish development activities; and non-DOE-sponsored domestic dish activities. A panel discussion concerning business views of solar electric generation was held. These Proceedings contain the texts of presentations made at the Review, as submitted by their authors at the beginning of the Review; therefore, they may vary slightly from the actual presentations in the technical sessions.

  8. Solar-thermal-energy collection/storage-pond system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blahnik, D.E.

    1982-03-25

    A solar thermal energy collection and storage system is disclosed. Water is contained, and the water surface is exposed directly to the sun. The central part of an impermeable membrane is positioned below the water's surface and above its bottom with a first side of the membrane pointing generally upward in its central portion. The perimeter part of the membrane is placed to create a watertight boundary separating the water into a first volume which is directly exposable to the sun and which touches the membranes first side, and a second volumn which touches the membranes second side. A salt is dissolved in the first water volume.

  9. Baoding Solar Thermal Equipment Company | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAandAmminex AAustriaBiofuelsOpen EnergyBanksSolar Thermal Equipment Company

  10. SENSIBLE HEAT STORAGE FOR A SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baldwin, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01

    is circulated from the solar collector through the storageabsorbed by their solar collectors into usable electric

  11. Design and global optimization of high-efficiency solar thermal systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .5298) Photonic crystals; (350.6050) Solar energy. References and links 1. W. Spirkl and H. Ries, "Solar. Harder and P. Wurfel, "Theoretical limits of thermophotovoltaic solar energy conversion," Semicond. SciDesign and global optimization of high-efficiency solar thermal systems with tungsten cermets David

  12. Integrating Solar Thermal and Photovoltaic Systems in Whole Building Energy Simulation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, S.; Haberl, J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces methodologies on how the renewable energy generated by the solar thermal and solar photovoltaic (PV) systems installed on site can be integrated in the whole building simulation analyses, which ...

  13. Global Energetics of Solar Flares: II. Thermal Energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aschwanden, M J; Ryan, D; Caspi, A; McTiernan, J M; Warren, H P

    2015-01-01

    We present the second part of a project on the global energetics of solar flares and CMEs that includes about 400 M- and X-class flares observed with AIA/SDO during the first 3.5 years of its mission. In this Paper II we compute the differential emission measure (DEM) distribution functions and associated multi-thermal energies, using a spatially-synthesized Gaussian DEM forward-fitting method. The multi-thermal DEM function yields a significantly higher (by an average factor of $\\approx 14$), but more comprehensive (multi-)thermal energy than an isothermal energy estimate from the same AIA data. We find a statistical energy ratio of $E_{th}/E_{diss} \\approx 2\\%-40\\%$ between the multi-thermal energy $E_{th}$ and the magnetically dissipated energy $E_{diss}$, which is an order of magnitude higher than the estimates of Emslie et al.~2012. For the analyzed set of M and X-class flares we find the following physical parameter ranges: $L=10^{8.2}-10^{9.7}$ cm for the length scale of the flare areas, $T_p=10^{5.7}-...

  14. Ris Energy Report 5 Solar thermal 41 by the end of 2004 about 110 million m2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risř Energy Report 5 Solar thermal 41 6.3.2 by the end of 2004 about 110 million m2 of solar ther be within the competence of the existing solar thermal industry. Solar thermal PETER AHM, PA ENERgy LTD- mal collectors were installed worldwide. Figure 24 il- lustrates the energy contribution from

  15. SENSIBLE HEAT STORAGE FOR A SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baldwin, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01

    of the Proposed Solar Power Plant Design The Impact ofof the Thesis SOLAR POWER PLANT DESIGN , Study Guidelines a.Reference Solar Power Plant Design e. Power Plant

  16. SENSIBLE HEAT STORAGE FOR A SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baldwin, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01

    storage can provide solar power plant energy storage for aconfiguration for a solar power plant without energy storagefor a solar power plant greatly influences the plant energy

  17. SENSIBLE HEAT STORAGE FOR A SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baldwin, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01

    with Sensible- Heat Storage Solar Power Plant with Sulfurof the Solar Power Plant Storage-Vessel Design, . . . . .System for Chemical Storage of Solar Energy. UC Berkeley,

  18. Ideal gas matching for thermal Galilean holography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jose L. F. Barbon; Carlos A. Fuertes

    2009-03-26

    We exhibit a nonrelativistic ideal gas with a Kaluza-Klein tower of species, featuring a singular behavior of thermodynamic functions at zero chemical potential. In this way, we provide a qualitative match to the thermodynamics of recently found black holes in backgrounds with asymptotic nonrelativistic conformal symmetry.

  19. A NEW SOLAR THERMAL RECEIVER UTILIZING SMALL PARTICLES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, Arlon J.

    2011-01-01

    of advanced concept solar power plants. For conditions ofthe operation of a solar power plant is very small. Plant

  20. SENSIBLE HEAT STORAGE FOR A SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baldwin, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01

    studies, electric energy and thermal energy were assumed totemperatures to storage. and thermal energy transfer ratesstores or releases thermal energy. This subsystem consists

  1. Thermoelectrics Combined with Solar Concentration for Electrical and Thermal Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Philip Robert

    2012-01-01

    designed for optimal thermal storage after extracting theand hot water for thermal storage. 2. Theory and Backgroundnot as ideal for thermal storage. An insulated reservoir

  2. SENSIBLE HEAT STORAGE FOR A SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baldwin, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01

    ADVANCED THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE CONCEPT DEFINITION STUDY FORSchilling. F. E. , Thermal Energy Storage Using PrestressedNo ~cumulate thermal energy storage. Estimate ESTrof2(

  3. The Thermal Control of the New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Observatory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    For large-diameter solar telescopes operating at the theoretical diffraction limit, one of the main designThe Thermal Control of the New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Observatory Angelo P. Verdonia and Carsten Denkera aNew Jersey Institute of Technology, Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research, 323 Martin

  4. Solar Thermal Policy in the U.S.: A Review of Best Practices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delaware, University of

    Waste Water Treatment Plant · Front Page Bottom Picture ­ National Renewable Energy Labs SolarSolar Thermal Policy in the U.S.: A Review of Best Practices in Leading States Renewable Energy · Colleen McCann Kettles ­ Florida Solar Energy Center · Germaine Salim ­ Hawaii Public Utilities Commission

  5. STDAC: Solar Thermal Design Assistance Center annual report fiscal year 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The Solar Thermal Design Assistance Center (STDAC) at Sandia is a resource provided by the DOE Solar Thermal Program. The STDAC`s major objective is to accelerate the use of solar thermal systems by providing direct technical assistance to users in industry, government, and foreign countries; cooperating with industry to test, evaluate, and develop renewable energy systems and components; and educating public and private professionals, administrators, and decision makers. This FY94 report highlights the activities and accomplishments of the STDAC. In 1994, the STDAC continued to provide significant direct technical assistance to domestic and international organizations in industry, government, and education, Applying solar thermal technology to solve energy problems is a vital element of direct technical assistance. The STDAC provides information on the status of new, existing, and developing solar technologies; helps users screen applications; predicts the performance of components and systems; and incorporates the experience of Sandia`s solar energy personnel and facilities to provide expert guidance. The STDAC directly enhances the US solar industry`s ability to successfully bring improved systems to the marketplace. By collaborating with Sandia`s Photovoltaic Design Assistance Center and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory the STDAC is able to offer each customer complete service in applying solar thermal technology. At the National Solar Thermal Test Facility the STDAC tests and evaluates new and innovative solar thermal technologies. Evaluations are conducted in dose cooperation with manufacturers, and the results are used to improve the product and/or quantify its performance characteristics. Manufacturers, in turn, benefit from the improved design, economic performance, and operation of their solar thermal technology. The STDAC provides cost sharing and in-kind service to manufacturers in the development and improvement of solar technology.

  6. Assessment of optical performance of three non-tracking, non-imaging, external compound parabolic concentrators designed for high temperature solar thermal collector units

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cisneros, Jesus

    2010-01-01

    Cost Distributed Solar- Thermal-Electric Power Generation.S. A. (2004). "Solar thermal collectors and applications".The present and future of solar thermal energy as a primary

  7. The Added Economic and Environmental Value of Solar Thermal Systems in Microgrids with Combined Heat and Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marnay, Chris

    2010-01-01

    N. et al. , (2007), “Microgrids, An Overview of OngoingSolar Thermal Systems in Microgrids with Combined Heat andSolar Thermal Systems in Microgrids with Combined Heat and

  8. Thermal creep of a rarefied gas on the basis of non-linear Korteweg-theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Yong Jung

    Thermal creep of a rarefied gas on the basis of non-linear Korteweg-theory Yong-Jung Kim1, Mingi to the memory of James B. Serrin Abstract. The study of thermal transpiration or more commonly called thermal of ordinary differential equations. Key words. thermal creep, thermal transpiration, rarefied gas, Boltz- mann

  9. SENSIBLE HEAT STORAGE FOR A SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baldwin, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01

    of the Proposed Solar Power Plant Design The Impact ofGenerated by this Solar Power Plant The Impact of StorageDesign on the Solar Power Plant III I;l f> (I Q I) II (I

  10. SENSIBLE HEAT STORAGE FOR A SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baldwin, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01

    Summary of the Proposed Solar Power Plant Design The ImpactGenerated by this Solar Power Plant The Impact of StorageVessel Design on the Solar Power Plant III I;l f> (I Q I)

  11. SENSIBLE HEAT STORAGE FOR A SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baldwin, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01

    18% of the installed solar power plant costs. The costs forthe operations and costs for this solar power plant and forenergy generation and cost, The proposed solar power plant

  12. Thermoelectrics Combined with Solar Concentration for Electrical and Thermal Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Philip Robert

    2012-01-01

    12 2.2.1. Solar Potential ………………. …………………………… 13 2.2.2.to an electrical generator. 2.2.1. Solar Potential To fullyunderstand the energy potential of solar power, it is useful

  13. SENSIBLE HEAT STORAGE FOR A SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baldwin, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01

    to produce electricity by concentrating solar energy andcol- lected solar energy must be converted into electricitysolar power plant without energy storage for nighttime generation produces electricity

  14. Solar coal gasification reactor with pyrolysis gas recycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aiman, William R. (Livermore, CA); Gregg, David W. (Morago, CA)

    1983-01-01

    Coal (or other carbonaceous matter, such as biomass) is converted into a duct gas that is substantially free from hydrocarbons. The coal is fed into a solar reactor (10), and solar energy (20) is directed into the reactor onto coal char, creating a gasification front (16) and a pyrolysis front (12). A gasification zone (32) is produced well above the coal level within the reactor. A pyrolysis zone (34) is produced immediately above the coal level. Steam (18), injected into the reactor adjacent to the gasification zone (32), reacts with char to generate product gases. Solar energy supplies the energy for the endothermic steam-char reaction. The hot product gases (38) flow from the gasification zone (32) to the pyrolysis zone (34) to generate hot char. Gases (38) are withdrawn from the pyrolysis zone (34) and reinjected into the region of the reactor adjacent the gasification zone (32). This eliminates hydrocarbons in the gas by steam reformation on the hot char. The product gas (14) is withdrawn from a region of the reactor between the gasification zone (32) and the pyrolysis zone (34). The product gas will be free of tar and other hydrocarbons, and thus be suitable for use in many processes.

  15. Computational investigation of thermal gas separation for CO2 capture.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallis, Michail A.; Bryan, Charles R.; Brady, Patrick Vane; Torczynski, John Robert; Brooks, Carlton, F.

    2009-09-01

    This report summarizes the work completed under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project 09-1351, 'Computational Investigation of Thermal Gas Separation for CO{sub 2} Capture'. Thermal gas separation for a binary mixture of carbon dioxide and nitrogen is investigated using the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method of molecular gas dynamics. Molecular models for nitrogen and carbon dioxide are developed, implemented, compared to theoretical results, and compared to several experimental thermophysical properties. The molecular models include three translational modes, two fully excited rotational modes, and vibrational modes, whose degree of excitation depends on the temperature. Nitrogen has one vibrational mode, and carbon dioxide has four vibrational modes (two of which are degenerate). These models are used to perform a parameter study for mixtures of carbon dioxide and nitrogen confined between parallel walls over realistic ranges of gas temperatures and nominal concentrations of carbon dioxide. The degree of thermal separation predicted by DSMC is slightly higher than experimental values and is sensitive to the details of the molecular models.

  16. Prediction of global solar irradiance based on time series analysis: Application to solar thermal power plants energy production planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Luis; Marchante, Ruth; Cony, Marco; Zarzalejo, Luis F.; Polo, Jesus; Navarro, Ana

    2010-10-15

    Due to strong increase of solar power generation, the predictions of incoming solar energy are acquiring more importance. Photovoltaic and solar thermal are the main sources of electricity generation from solar energy. In the case of solar thermal energy plants with storage energy system, its management and operation need reliable predictions of solar irradiance with the same temporal resolution as the temporal capacity of the back-up system. These plants can work like a conventional power plant and compete in the energy stock market avoiding intermittence in electricity production. This work presents a comparisons of statistical models based on time series applied to predict half daily values of global solar irradiance with a temporal horizon of 3 days. Half daily values consist of accumulated hourly global solar irradiance from solar raise to solar noon and from noon until dawn for each day. The dataset of ground solar radiation used belongs to stations of Spanish National Weather Service (AEMet). The models tested are autoregressive, neural networks and fuzzy logic models. Due to the fact that half daily solar irradiance time series is non-stationary, it has been necessary to transform it to two new stationary variables (clearness index and lost component) which are used as input of the predictive models. Improvement in terms of RMSD of the models essayed is compared against the model based on persistence. The validation process shows that all models essayed improve persistence. The best approach to forecast half daily values of solar irradiance is neural network models with lost component as input, except Lerida station where models based on clearness index have less uncertainty because this magnitude has a linear behaviour and it is easier to simulate by models. (author)

  17. Thermoelectrics Combined with Solar Concentration for Electrical and Thermal Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Philip Robert

    2012-01-01

    of electrical and thermal energy, and the software used forincident 384 watts of thermal energy from the sun via thethe system can extract thermal energy from the receiver, but

  18. Enhanced Thermal Stability of W-Ni-Al[subscript 2]O[subscript 3] Cermet-Based Spectrally Selective Solar Absorbers with W Infrared Reflectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Feng

    Solar thermal technologies such as solar hot water and concentrated solar power trough systems rely on spectrally selective solar absorbers. These solar absorbers are designed to efficiently absorb the sunlight while ...

  19. Enhanced thermal and gas flow performance in a three-way catalytic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    thermal and gas flow performance in a three-way catalytic converter through use of insulation within the ceramic monolith Enhanced thermal and gas flow performance in a three-way...

  20. Thermal degradation of deoxybenzoin polymers studied by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thermal degradation of deoxybenzoin polymers studied by pyrolysis-gas chromatography Available online 29 March 2008 Keywords: Flame-retardant polymers Thermal degradation Pyrolysis by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). The polymers were synthesized

  1. Under Review for Publication in ASME J. Solar Energy Engineering SOL-12-1058 Life Estimation of Pressurized-Air Solar-Thermal Receiver Tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cortes, Corinna

    Under Review for Publication in ASME J. Solar Energy Engineering SOL-12-1058 Life Estimation of Pressurized-Air Solar-Thermal Receiver Tubes David K. Fork 1 e-mail: fork@google.com John Fitch e-mail: fitch.ziaei@gmail.com Robert I. Jetter e-mail: bjetter@sbcglobal.net The operational conditions of the solar thermal receiver

  2. SENSIBLE HEAT STORAGE FOR A SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baldwin, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01

    rates between the gas and the storage unit are specified forcontrol valves. two gas-distribution storage mani- folds andmanifold Main gas compressor Storage manifold Storage flow-

  3. Research and Development for Novel Thermal Energy Storage Systems (TES) for Concentrating Solar Power (CSP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faghri, Amir; Bergman, Theodore L; Pitchumani, Ranga

    2013-09-26

    The overall objective was to develop innovative heat transfer devices and methodologies for novel thermal energy storage systems for concentrating solar power generation involving phase change materials (PCMs). Specific objectives included embedding thermosyphons and/or heat pipes (TS/HPs) within appropriate phase change materials to significantly reduce thermal resistances within the thermal energy storage system of a large-scale concentrating solar power plant and, in turn, improve performance of the plant. Experimental, system level and detailed comprehensive modeling approaches were taken to investigate the effect of adding TS/HPs on the performance of latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) systems.

  4. EXTERNAL PHOTOEVAPORATION OF THE SOLAR NEBULA: JUPITER's NOBLE GAS ENRICHMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monga, Nikhil; Desch, Steven [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, PO Box 871404, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    We present a model explaining the elemental enrichments in Jupiter's atmosphere, particularly the noble gases Ar, Kr, and Xe. While He, Ne, and O are depleted, seven other elements show similar enrichments (?3 times solar, relative to H). Being volatile, Ar is difficult to fractionate from H{sub 2}. We argue that external photoevaporation by far-ultraviolet (FUV) radiation from nearby massive stars removed H{sub 2}, He, and Ne from the solar nebula, but Ar and other species were retained because photoevaporation occurred at large heliocentric distances where temperatures were cold enough (? 30 K) to trap them in amorphous water ice. As the solar nebula lost H, it became relatively and uniformly enriched in other species. Our model improves on the similar model of Guillot and Hueso. We recognize that cold temperatures alone do not trap volatiles; continuous water vapor production is also necessary. We demonstrate that FUV fluxes that photoevaporated the disk generated sufficient water vapor in regions ? 30 K to trap gas-phase species in amorphous water ice in solar proportions. We find more efficient chemical fractionation in the outer disk: whereas the model of Guillot and Hueso predicts a factor of three enrichment when only <2% of the disk mass remains, we find the same enrichments when 30% of the disk mass remains. Finally, we predict the presence of ?0.1 M {sub ?} of water vapor in the outer solar nebula and protoplanetary disks in H II regions.

  5. Optimal operation and design of solar-thermal energy storage systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lizarraga-García, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    The present thesis focuses on the optimal operation and design of solar-thermal energy storage systems. First, optimization of time-variable operation to maximize revenue through selling and purchasing electricity to/from ...

  6. Optimization of central receiver concentrated solar thermal : site selection, heliostat layout & canting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noone, Corey J. (Corey James)

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, two new models are introduced for the purposes of (i) locating sites in hillside terrain suitable for central receiver solar thermal plants and (ii) optimization of heliostat field layouts for any terrain. ...

  7. Molten Salt Nanomaterials for Thermal Energy Storage and Concentrated Solar Power Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shin, Donghyun

    2012-10-19

    The thermal efficiency of concentrated solar power (CSP) system depends on the maximum operating temperature of the system which is determined by the operating temperature of the TES device. Organic materials (such as ...

  8. Performance analysis of medium temperature non-tracking solar thermal concentrators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balkoski, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    For stationary collectors, one must understand sun-Earthby the sun [1]. A solar thermal collector is a device thatthe collector due south and tilted to be normal to the sun

  9. Making Record-efficiency SnS Solar Cells by Thermal Evaporation and Atomic Layer Deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaramillo, Rafael

    Tin sulfide (SnS) is a candidate absorber material for Earth-abundant, non-toxic solar cells. SnS offers easy phase control and rapid growth by congruent thermal evaporation, and it absorbs visible light strongly. However, ...

  10. Modeling the solar thermal receiver for the CSPonD Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rees, Jennifer A. (Jennifer Anne)

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to create an accurate steady state thermal model of a molten salt receiver prototype with a horizontal divider plate in the molten salt for Concentrated Solar Power on Demand (CSPonD). The purpose of the ...

  11. SENSIBLE HEAT STORAGE FOR A SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baldwin, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01

    Solar Power Plant . . Important Sources of Cost Estimation Datasolar power plant. These data were used to estimate costs

  12. The development of a solar thermal water purification, heating, and power generation system: A case study.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Mingshen

    The development of a solar thermal water purification, heating, and power generation system: A case parabolic solar troughs. A flow control valve adjustable for temperature and pressure, allowed the pressure within the troughs to build, thus increasing the boiling point of the water. At a temperature greater

  13. Pressure drops for direct steam generation in line-focus solar thermal systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pressure drops for direct steam generation in line-focus solar thermal systems John Pye1 , Graham. Modelling is extended to include losses in connecting pipe-work, bends and valves, and updated pressure drop the focus of the solar collector, and then generate steam outside the collector in a large heat exchanger

  14. Unglazed transpired solar collector having a low thermal-conductance absorber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christensen, C.B.; Kutscher, C.F.; Gawlik, K.M.

    1997-12-02

    An unglazed transpired solar collector using solar radiation to heat incoming air for distribution, comprises an unglazed absorber formed of low thermal-conductance material having a front surface for receiving the solar radiation and openings in the unglazed absorber for passage of the incoming air such that the incoming air is heated as it passes towards the front surface of the absorber and the heated air passes through the openings in the absorber for distribution. 3 figs.

  15. Unglazed transpired solar collector having a low thermal-conductance absorber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christensen, Craig B. (Boulder, CO); Kutscher, Charles F. (Golden, CO); Gawlik, Keith M. (Boulder, CO)

    1997-01-01

    An unglazed transpired solar collector using solar radiation to heat incoming air for distribution, comprising an unglazed absorber formed of low thermal-conductance material having a front surface for receiving the solar radiation and openings in the unglazed absorber for passage of the incoming air such that the incoming air is heated as it passes towards the front surface of the absorber and the heated air passes through the openings in the absorber for distribution.

  16. Gas flow driven by thermal creep in dusty plasma T. M. Flanagan and J. Goree

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goree, John

    Gas flow driven by thermal creep in dusty plasma T. M. Flanagan and J. Goree Department of Physics 2009 Thermal creep flow TCF is a flow of gas driven by a temperature gradient along a solid boundary to the bulk gas, causing the bulk gas to flow, thereby stirring the suspension of dust particles. This result

  17. Thermal control system and method for a passive solar storage wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortega, Joseph K. E. (Westminister, CO)

    1984-01-01

    The invention provides a system and method for controlling the storing and elease of thermal energy from a thermal storage wall wherein said wall is capable of storing thermal energy from insolation of solar radiation. The system and method includes a device such as a plurality of louvers spaced a predetermined distance from the thermal wall for regulating the release of thermal energy from the thermal wall. This regulating device is made from a material which is substantially transparent to the incoming solar radiation so that when it is in any operative position, the thermal storage wall substantially receives all of the impacting solar radiation. The material in the regulating device is further capable of being substantially opaque to thermal energy so that when the device is substantially closed, thermal release of energy from the storage wall is substantially minimized. An adjustment device is interconnected with the regulating mechanism for selectively opening and closing it in order to regulate the release of thermal energy from the wall.

  18. Thermoelectrics Combined with Solar Concentration for Electrical and Thermal Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Philip Robert

    2012-01-01

    watts of thermal energy from the sun via the water coolingkilowatt-hours of energy from the sun per square mile perthe heat. The thermal energy from the sun is typically used

  19. Assessment of optical performance of three non-tracking, non-imaging, external compound parabolic concentrators designed for high temperature solar thermal collector units

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cisneros, Jesus

    2010-01-01

    et al. (2003). Low-Cost Distributed Solar- Thermal-Electriccooling with solar energy, leading to a more cost effectiveSolar Thermal Collector Units Introduction Increased production costs

  20. Thermoelectrics Combined with Solar Concentration for Electrical and Thermal Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Philip Robert

    2012-01-01

    steam turbine or sterling engine connected to an electricalsolar thermal systems, a sterling engine or steam turbine is

  1. Standard Practice for Evaluating Thermal Insulation Materials for Use in Solar Collectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1994-01-01

    1.1 This practice sets forth a testing methodology for evaluating the properties of thermal insulation materials to be used in solar collectors with concentration ratios of less than 10. Tests are given herein to evaluate the pH, surface burning characteristics, moisture adsorption, water absorption, thermal resistance, linear shrinkage (or expansion), hot surface performance, and accelerated aging. This practice provides a test for surface burning characteristics but does not provide a methodology for determining combustibility performance of thermal insulation materials. 1.2 The tests shall apply to blanket, rigid board, loose-fill, and foam thermal insulation materials used in solar collectors. Other thermal insulation materials shall be tested in accordance with the provisions set forth herein and should not be excluded from consideration. 1.3 The assumption is made that elevated temperature, moisture, and applied stresses are the primary factors contributing to the degradation of thermal insulation mat...

  2. Thermal distributions in stellar plasmas, nuclear reactions and solar neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Coraddu; G. Kaniadakis; A. Lavagno; M. Lissia; G. Mezzorani; P. Quarati

    1998-11-24

    The physics of nuclear reactions in stellar plasma is reviewed with special emphasis on the importance of the velocity distribution of ions. Then the properties (density and temperature) of the weak-coupled solar plasma are analysed, showing that the ion velocities should deviate from the Maxwellian distribution and could be better described by a weakly-nonexstensive (|q-1|solar neutrino fluxes, and on the pp neutrino energy spectrum, and analyse the consequences for the solar neutrino problem.

  3. SENSIBLE HEAT STORAGE FOR A SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baldwin, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01

    annual electric energy generation and cost. A large increaseon electric energy generation and cost, The proposed solar~Exchange Power~Generation Subsystem Costs Prestressed Cast

  4. Wind Issues in Solar Thermal Performance Ratings: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.; Casey, R.

    2009-04-01

    We suggest that wind bias against unglazed solar water heaters be mitigated by using a calibrated collector model to derive a wind correction to the measured efficiency curve.

  5. Thermal Performance Evaluation of Walls with Gas Filled Panel Insulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shrestha, Som S.; Desjarlais, Andre Omer; Atchley, Jerald Allen

    2014-11-01

    Gas filled insulation panels (GFP) are very light weight and compact (when uninflated) advanced insulation products. GFPs consist of multiple layers of thin, low emittance (low-e) metalized aluminum. When expanded, the internal, low-e aluminum layers form a honeycomb structure. These baffled polymer chambers are enveloped by a sealed barrier and filled with either air or a low-conductivity gas. The sealed exterior aluminum foil barrier films provide thermal resistance, flammability protection, and properties to contain air or a low conductivity inert gas. This product was initially developed with a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy. The unexpanded product is nearly flat for easy storage and transport. Therefore, transportation volume and weight of the GFP to fill unit volume of wall cavity is much smaller compared to that of other conventional insulation products. This feature makes this product appealing to use at Army Contingency Basing, when transportation cost is significant compared to the cost of materials. The objective of this study is to evaluate thermal performance of walls, similar to those used at typical Barracks Hut (B-Hut) hard shelters, when GFPs are used in the wall cavities. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) tested performance of the wall in the rotatable guarded hotbox (RGHB) according to the ASTM C 1363 standard test method.

  6. A model of the thermal processing of particles in solar nebula shocks: Application to the cooling rates of chondrules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Connolly Jr, Harold C.

    A model of the thermal processing of particles in solar nebula shocks: Application to the cooling for the thermal processing of particles in shock waves typical of the solar nebula. This shock model improves are accounted for in their ef fects on the mass, momentum and energy fluxes. Also, besides thermal exchange

  7. Thermally Induced Vibrations of a Solar Wing with Bowed STEM 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hagler, Shawn 1983-

    2010-11-30

    Thin Film Solar Array (HPSA) which could provide 130kW of power to a spacecraft. The deployed structure relies on bowed STEMs and a tether system to keep the solar panels taut and in alignment with the sun. The system is predicted to minimize...

  8. Stars, Gas, and Dark Matter in the Solar Neighborhood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKee, Christopher F; Hollenbach, David J

    2015-01-01

    The surface density and vertical distribution of stars, stellar remnants, and gas in the solar vicinity form important ingredients for understanding the star formation history of the Galaxy as well as for inferring the local density of dark matter by using stellar kinematics to probe the gravitational potential. In this paper we review the literature for these baryonic components, reanalyze data, and provide tables of the surface densities and exponential scale heights of main sequence stars, giants, brown dwarfs, and stellar remnants. We also review three components of gas (H2, HI, and HII), give their surface densities at the solar circle, and discuss their vertical distribution. We find a local total surface density of M dwarfs of 17.3 pm 2.3 Mo/pc^2. Our result for the total local surface density of visible stars, 27.0 pm 2.7 Mo/pc^2, is close to previous estimates due to a cancellation of opposing effects: more mass in M dwarfs, less mass in the others. The total local surface density in white dwarfs is ...

  9. Adsorption at the nanoparticle interface for increased thermal capacity in solar thermal systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thoms, Matthew W

    2012-01-01

    In concentrated solar power (CSP) systems, high temperature heat transfer fluids (HTFs) are responsible for collecting energy from the sun at the solar receiver and transporting it to the turbine where steam is produced ...

  10. Performance of a Thermally Stable Polyaromatic Hydrocarbon in a Simulated Concentrating Solar Power Loop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarlane, Joanna; Bell, Jason R; Felde, David K; Joseph III, Robert Anthony; Qualls, A L; Weaver, Samuel P

    2014-01-01

    Polyaromatic hydrocarbon thermal fluids showing thermally stability to 600 C have been tested for solar thermal-power applications. Although static thermal tests showed promising results for 1-phenylnaphthalene, loop testing at temperatures to 450 C indicated that the fluid isomerized and degraded at a slow rate. In a loop with a temperature high enough to drive the isomerization, the higher melting point byproducts tended to condense onto cooler surfaces. So, as experienced in loop operation, eventually the internal channels of cooler components in trough solar electric generating systems, such as the waste heat rejection exchanger, may become coated or clogged affecting loop performance. Thus, pure 1-phenylnaphthalene, without addition of stabilizers, does not appear to be a fluid that would have a sufficiently long lifetime (years to decades) to be used in a loop at the temperatures greater than 500 C. The performance of a concentrating solar loop using high temperature fluids was modeled based on the National Renewable Laboratory Solar Advisory Model. It was determined that a solar-to-electricity efficiency of up to 30% and a capacity factor of near 60% could be achieved using a high efficiency collector and 12 h thermal energy storage.

  11. Use of GTE-65 gas turbine power units in the thermal configuration of steam-gas systems for the refitting of operating thermal electric power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebedev, A. S.; Kovalevskii, V. P.; Getmanov, E. A.; Ermaikina, N. A.

    2008-07-15

    Thermal configurations for condensation, district heating, and discharge steam-gas systems (PGU) based on the GTE-65 gas turbine power unit are described. A comparative multivariant analysis of their thermodynamic efficiency is made. Based on some representative examples, it is shown that steam-gas systems with the GTE-65 and boiler-utilizer units can be effectively used and installed in existing main buildings during technical refitting of operating thermal electric power plants.

  12. Thermal Solar Energy Systems for Space Heating of Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gomri, R.; Boulkamh, M.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the simulation and the analysis of a solar flat plate collectors combined with a compression heat pump is carried out. The system suggested must ensure the heating of a building without the recourse to an ...

  13. Modeling of solar thermal selective surfaces and thermoelectric generators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McEnaney, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    A thermoelectric generator is a solid-state device that converts a heat flux into electrical power via the Seebeck effect. When a thermoelectric generator is inserted between a solar-absorbing surface and a heat sink, a ...

  14. Solar-thermal hybridization of Advanced Zero Emissions Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    El Khaja, Ragheb Mohamad Fawaz

    2012-01-01

    Carbon Dioxide emissions from power production are believed to have significant contributions to the greenhouse effect and global warming. Alternative energy resources, such as solar radiation, may help abate emissions but ...

  15. Energy Partitions and Evolution in a Purely Thermal Solar Flare

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fleishman, Gregory D; Gary, Dale E

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a solely thermal flare, which we detected in the microwave range from the thermal gyro- and free-free emission it produced. An advantage of analyzing thermal gyro emission is its unique ability to precisely yield the magnetic field in the radiating volume. When combined with observationally-deduced plasma density and temperature, these magnetic field measurements offer a straightforward way of tracking evolution of the magnetic and thermal energies in the flare. For the event described here, the magnetic energy density in the radio-emitting volume declines over the flare rise phase, then stays roughly constant during the extended peak phase, but recovers to the original level over the decay phase. At the stage where the magnetic energy density decreases, the thermal energy density increases; however, this increase is insufficient, by roughly an order of magnitude, to compensate for the magnetic energy decrease. When the magnetic energy release is over, the source parameters come back to ne...

  16. Solar thermal collector system modeling and testing for novel solar cooker

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foley, Brian, S.B. (Brian M.). Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01

    Solar cookers are aimed at reducing pollution and desertification in the developing world. However, they are often disregarded as they do not give users the ability to cook after daylight hours. The Wilson solar cooker is ...

  17. The Added Economic and Environmental Value of Solar Thermal Systems in Microgrids with Combined Heat and Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marnay, Chris

    2010-01-01

    adoption and reduced PV adoption, but ICEs are still veryPV) arrays are favored by CO 2 pricing more than solar thermal adoption.

  18. Acoustic and Thermal Characterization of Oil Migration, Gas Hydrates Formation and Silica Diagenesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guerin, Gilles

    Acoustic and Thermal Characterization of Oil Migration, Gas Hydrates Formation and Silica Rights Reserved #12;ABSTRACT Acoustic and Thermal Characterization of Oil Migration, Gas Hydrates-A to Opal-CT, the formation of gas hydrates, fluid substitution in hydrocarbon reservoirs, and fluid

  19. Thermal Loading of a Direct Drive Target in Rarefied Gas B. R. Christensen1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raffray, A. René

    ) power plant, each fusion micro-explosion (~10 Hz) causes thermal and structural loads on the IFE reactorThermal Loading of a Direct Drive Target in Rarefied Gas B. R. Christensen1 , A. R. Raffray1 and M is to fill the reaction chamber with a gas, such as Xe, at low density. The gas will absorb much

  20. 28.1.2015bo Akademi Univ -Thermal and Flow Engineering Piispankatu 8, 20500 Turku 1/54 Solar energy (thermal, PV)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    Turku 2/54 2b.1 Solar energy #12;28.1.2015Ĺbo Akademi Univ - Thermal and Flow Engineering Piispankatu 8, 20500 Turku 3/54 Potential Solar energy could within one hour provide the energy that is used in all surface temperature Solar energy irradiation can be used to estimate planet surface temperature T

  1. Anomalous Viscosity, Resistivity, and Thermal Diffusivity of the Solar Wind Plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahendra K. Verma

    1995-09-05

    In this paper we have estimated typical anomalous viscosity, resistivity, and thermal difffusivity of the solar wind plasma. Since the solar wind is collsionless plasma, we have assumed that the dissipation in the solar wind occurs at proton gyro radius through wave-particle interactions. Using this dissipation length-scale and the dissipation rates calculated using MHD turbulence phenomenology [{\\it Verma et al.}, 1995a], we estimate the viscosity and proton thermal diffusivity. The resistivity and electron's thermal diffusivity have also been estimated. We find that all our transport quantities are several orders of magnitude higher than those calculated earlier using classical transport theories of {\\it Braginskii}. In this paper we have also estimated the eddy turbulent viscosity.

  2. Thermoelectrics Combined with Solar Concentration for Electrical and Thermal Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Philip Robert

    2012-01-01

    such as a steam turbine or sterling engine connected to ansuch as steam engines or gas turbines. Typical engines cansystems, a sterling engine or steam turbine is typically

  3. Templated assembly of photoswitches significantly increases the energy-storage capacity of solar thermal fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kucharski, TJ; Ferralis, N; Kolpak, AM; Zheng, JO; Nocera, DG; Grossman, JC

    2014-04-13

    Large-scale utilization of solar-energy resources will require considerable advances in energy-storage technologies to meet ever-increasing global energy demands. Other than liquid fuels, existing energy-storage materials do not provide the requisite combination of high energy density, high stability, easy handling, transportability and low cost. New hybrid solar thermal fuels, composed of photoswitchable molecules on rigid, low-mass nanostructures, transcend the physical limitations of molecular solar thermal fuels by introducing local sterically constrained environments in which interactions between chromophores can be tuned. We demonstrate this principle of a hybrid solar thermal fuel using azobenzene-functionalized carbon nanotubes. We show that, on composite bundling, the amount of energy stored per azobenzene more than doubles from 58 to 120 kJ mol(-1), and the material also maintains robust cyclability and stability. Our results demonstrate that solar thermal fuels composed of molecule-nanostructure hybrids can exhibit significantly enhanced energy-storage capabilities through the generation of template-enforced steric strain.

  4. High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23–25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona.

  5. Solar cooking : the development of a thermal battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cutting, Alexander Chatfield

    2007-01-01

    There are many rural area in the world where cooking fuel is very scarce. One solution to this problem is to use solar energy to cook food. However most people around the world like to cook large meals at night, when the ...

  6. Thermal Evaporation of Gas from X-ray Clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abraham Loeb

    2006-09-18

    A fraction of the thermal protons in the outer envelope of an X-ray cluster have velocities that exceed the local escape speed from the cluster gravitational potential. The Coulomb mean-free-path of these protons is larger than the virial radius of the cluster at temperatures >2.5 keV. The resulting leakage of suprathermal particles generates a collisionless shock in neighboring voids and fills them with heat and magnetic fields. The momentum flux of suprathermal particles cannot be confined by magnetic tension at the typical field strength in the periphery of cluster halos (heat is deposited into the gas by cluster mergers, active galactic nuclei or supernovae. Thermal evaporation is not included in existing cosmological simulations since they are based on the fluid approximation. Measurements of the baryon mass fraction in the outer envelopes of hot clusters (through their Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect or X-ray emission) can be used to empirically constrain their evaporation rate.

  7. Rotordynamic and thermal analyses of compliant flexure pivot tilting pad gas bearings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sim, Kyu-Ho

    2009-05-15

    Rotordynamic and thermal analyses of compliant flexure pivot tilting pad gas bearings were performed. First, compliant flexure pivot tilting pad gas bearings with pad radial compliance (CFTPBs) were introduced and designed for high-speed oil...

  8. PROOF-OF-CONCEPT OF A DUAL-FIRED (SOLAR & NATURAL GAS) GENERATOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PROOF-OF-CONCEPT OF A DUAL-FIRED (SOLAR & NATURAL GAS) GENERATOR FOR USE IN A SPACE-COOLING SYSTEM REPORT (FAR) PROOF-OF-CONCEPT OF A DUAL-FIRED (SOLAR & NATURAL GAS) GENERATOR FOR USE IN A SPACE COOLING Investigator: Michael Garrabrant AUTHOR EISG Program Administrator Grant #: 52327A/01-06 Grant Funding: $75

  9. Systems analysis techniques for annual cycle thermal energy storage solar systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baylin, F.; Sillman, S.

    1980-07-01

    Community-scale annual cycle thermal energy storage (ACTES) solar systems are promising options for building heat and cooling. A variety of approaches are feasible in modeling ACTES solar systems. The key parameter in such efforts, average collector efficiency, is first examined, followed by several approaches for simple and effective modeling. Methods are also examined for modeling building loads for structures based on both conventional and passive architectural designs. Two simulation models for sizing solar heating systems with annual storage are presented next. Validation is presented by comparison with the results of a study of seasonal storage systems based on SOLANSIM, an hour-by-hour simulation. These models are presently being used to examine the economic trade-off between collector field area and storage capacity. Finally, programs in the US Department of Energy directed toward developing either other system components such as improved tanks and solar ponds or design tools for ACTES solar systems are examined.

  10. Development of a concentrating solar power system using fluidized-bed technology for thermal energy conversion and solid particles for thermal energy storage

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ma, Z.; Mehos, M.; Glatzmaier, G.; Sakadjian, B. B.

    2015-05-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) is an effective way to convert solar energy into electricity with an economic energy-storage capability for grid-scale, dispatchable renewable power generation. However, CSP plants need to reduce costs to be competitive with other power generation methods. Two ways to reduce CSP cost are to increase solar-to-electric efficiency by supporting a high-efficiency power conversion system, and to use low-cost materials in the system. The current nitrate-based molten-salt systems have limited potential for cost reduction and improved power-conversion efficiency with high operating temperatures. Even with significant improvements in operating performance, these systems face challenges in satisfying the costmore »and performance targets. This paper introduces a novel CSP system with high-temperature capability that can be integrated into a high-efficiency CSP plant and that meets the low-cost, high-performance CSP targets. Unlike a conventional salt-based CSP plant, this design uses gas/solid, two-phase flow as the heat-transfer fluid (HTF); separated solid particles as storage media; and stable, inexpensive materials for the high-temperature receiver and energy storage containment. We highlight the economic and performance benefits of this innovative CSP system design, which has thermal energy storage capability for base-load power generation.« less

  11. Thermal and Economic Analyses of Energy Saving by Enclosing Gas Turbine Combustor Section 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, X.; Wang, T.; Day, B.

    2006-01-01

    of Energy Saving by Enclosing Gas Turbine Combustor Section Xianchang Li, Ting Wang Benjamin Day ? Research Engineer Professor Engineer Energy Conversion and Conservation Center Venice Natural Gas... a high-temperature area (500~560°F) at the combustor section of the GE Frame 5 gas turbine of Dynegy Gas Processing Plant at Venice, Louisiana. To improve the thermal efficiency and reduce energy cost, thermal and economic analyses are conducted...

  12. Design of a 2.5kW Low Temperature Stirling Engine for Distributed Solar Thermal Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanders, Seth

    Design of a 2.5kW Low Temperature Stirling Engine for Distributed Solar Thermal Generation Mike He on the design of a Stirling engine for distributed solar thermal ap- plications. In particular, we design for experimentation. Stirling engines can have broad significance and technological advantages for distributed

  13. Optimisation of Concentrating Solar Thermal Power Plants with Neural Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ábrahám, Erika

    BLOCK Collector Heat exchanger Storage (hot) Storage (cold) Steam turbine Generator Cooling tower of the sun is used to heat a transfer fluid, usually thermal oil. The hot fluid is either sent to the power in a molten salt storage for later use after sun-set. In the power block the vapour streams through

  14. SENSIBLE HEAT STORAGE FOR A SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baldwin, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01

    for Pressure Drop Through the Heat Exchanger Tubing. MFa *Run Exchangers to~Heat~ Piping Run Total Pressure Drop, MPaPressure 51de g MFa Gas Temperature out of Heat Exchangers,

  15. SENSIBLE HEAT STORAGE FOR A SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baldwin, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01

    il er Isuperh eated Superheated steam (78SoK) Condensate (to reheater (636°K) Superheated steam (B1SoK) & reheated1-4----dI gas (867°K) Superheated steam (819°K) & Reheated

  16. Solar and Wind Easements & Rights Laws & Local Option Solar Rights...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Schools State Government Federal Government Agricultural Institutional Savings Category Solar - Passive Solar Water Heat Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Thermal...

  17. Power efficiency for very high temperature solar thermal cavity receivers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDougal, Allan R. (LaCanada-Flintridge, CA); Hale, Robert R. (Upland, CA)

    1984-01-01

    This invention is an improved solar energy cavity receiver for exposing materials and components to high temperatures. The receiver includes a housing having an internal reflective surface defining a cavity and having an inlet for admitting solar radiation thereto. A photothermal absorber is positioned in the cavity to receive radiation from the inlet. A reflective baffle is positioned between the absorber and the inlet to severely restrict the re-radiation of energy through the inlet. The front surface of the baffle defines a narrow annulus with the internal reflective surface of the housing. The front surface of the baffle is contoured to reflect incoming radiation onto the internal surface of the housing, from which it is reflected through the annulus and onto the front surface of the absorber. The back surface of the baffle intercepts infrared radiation from the front of the absorber. With this arrangement, a high percentage of the solar power input is retained in the cavity; thus, high internal temperatures are attained.

  18. Stirling Engines for Low-Temperature Solar-Thermal-Electric Power Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanders, Seth

    Stirling Engines for Low-Temperature Solar-Thermal- Electric Power Generation Artin Der Minassians Energy Institute (UCEI) and National Science Foundation (NSF) #12;Stirling Engines for Low: Chair Date Date Date Date University of California, Berkeley Fall 2007 #12;Stirling Engines for Low

  19. Solar Power in the Desert: Are the current large-scale solar developments really improving California’s environment?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Michael F.; McHughen, Alan

    2011-01-01

    solar energy: Photovoltaic vs Solar Thermal. In: Planetaryexpectancy of a thermal solar energy development? A common

  20. Solar Power in the Desert: Are the current large-scale solar developments really improving California’s environment?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Michael F.; McHughen, Alan

    2011-01-01

    expectancy of a thermal solar energy development? A commontowards solar energy: Photovoltaic vs Solar Thermal. In:

  1. Characterization of solar thermal concepts for electricity generation: Volume 1, Analyses and evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, T.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Brown, D.R.; Drost, M.K.; Antoniac, Z.A.; Ross, B.A.

    1987-03-01

    This study is aimed at providing a relative comparison of the thermodynamic and economic performance in electric applications of several concepts that have been studied and developed in the DOE solar thermal program. Since the completion of earlier systems comparison studies in the late 1970's, there have been a number of years of progress in solar thermal technology. This progress has included development of new solar components, improvements in component and system design detail, construction of working systems, and collection of operating data on the systems. This study provides an updating of the expected performance and cost of the major components and the overall system energy cost for the concepts evaluated. The projections in this study are for the late 1990's time frame, based on the capabilities of the technologies that could be expected to be achieved with further technology development.

  2. Compendium of information on identification and testing of materials for plastic solar thermal collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGinniss, V.D.; Sliemers, F.A.; Landstrom, D.K.; Talbert, S.G.

    1980-07-31

    This report is intended to organize and summarize prior and current literature concerning the weathering, aging, durability, degradation, and testing methodologies as applied to materials for plastic solar thermal collectors. Topics covered include (1) rate of aging of polymeric materials; (2) environmental factors affecting performance; (3) evaluation and prediction of service life; (4) measurement of physical and chemical properties; (5) discussion of evaluation techniques and specific instrumentation; (6) degradation reactions and mechanisms; (7) weathering of specific polymeric materials; and (8) exposure testing methodology. Major emphasis has been placed on defining the current state of the art in plastics degradation and on identifying information that can be utilized in applying appropriate and effective aging tests for use in projecting service life of plastic solar thermal collectors. This information will also be of value where polymeric components are utilized in the construction of conventional solar collectors or any application where plastic degradation and weathering are prime factors in material selection.

  3. Molten Salt-Carbon Nanotube Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrating Solar Power Systems Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Schuller; Frank Little; Darren Malik; Matt Betts; Qian Shao; Jun Luo; Wan Zhong; Sandhya Shankar; Ashwin Padmanaban

    2012-03-30

    We demonstrated that adding nanoparticles to a molten salt would increase its utility as a thermal energy storage medium for a concentrating solar power system. Specifically, we demonstrated that we could increase the specific heat of nitrate and carbonate salts containing 1% or less of alumina nanoparticles. We fabricated the composite materials using both evaporative and air drying methods. We tested several thermophysical properties of the composite materials, including the specific heat, thermal conductivity, latent heat, and melting point. We also assessed the stability of the composite material with repeated thermal cycling and the effects of adding the nanoparticles on the corrosion of stainless steel by the composite salt. Our results indicate that stable, repeatable 25-50% improvements in specific heat are possible for these materials. We found that using these composite salts as the thermal energy storage material for a concentrating solar thermal power system can reduce the levelized cost of electricity by 10-20%. We conclude that these materials are worth further development and inclusion in future concentrating solar power systems.

  4. OLADE-Solar Thermal World Portal | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc Jump to:Newberg, Oregon:OGE Energy Resources, Inc Jump to:InformationSolar

  5. List of Solar Thermal Electric Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History ViewInformationWindsCompressedList of RefuelingRoomList of SolarList

  6. Experience with thermal storage in tanks of stratified water for solar heating and load management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wildin, M.W.; Witkofsky, M.P.; Noble, J.M.; Hopper, R.E.; Stromberg, P.G.

    1982-01-01

    Results have been obtained for performance of stratified tanks of water used to store heating and cooling capacity in a 5574 m/sup 2/ university building. The major sources of energy used to charge the heated tanks were solar energy, obtained via collectors on the roof of the building, and excess heat recovered from the interior of the building via thermal storage and electric-driven heat pump/chillers. Through stratification of the water in the storage tanks and an appropriate system operating strategy, 40 percent of the building's total heating needs were supplied by solar energy during the first four months of 1981. Month-long thermal efficiencies of the storage array ranging from 70 percent during the heating season to nearly 90 percent during the cooling season, were measured. Work is underway to improve the performance of thermal storage.

  7. Solar Easements & Rights Laws | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Agricultural Institutional Savings Category Solar - Passive Solar Water Heat Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Thermal Process Heat Solar Photovoltaics Program Info...

  8. Development of a Web-based Emissions Reduction Calculator for Solar Thermal and Solar Photovoltaic Installations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baltazar-Cervantes, J. C.; Gilman, D.; Haberl, J. S.; Culp, C.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents the design, construction, and operation of a 100% solar-powered house from an engineering perspective. This includes energy simulation results, selection of systems, design of systems, assembly of ...

  9. Midtemperature solar systems test facility predictions for thermal performance based on test data. Polisolar Model POL solar collector with glass reflector surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1981-05-01

    Thermal performance predictions based on test data are presented for the Polisolar Model POL solar collector, with glass reflector surfaces, for three output temperatures at five cities in the United States.

  10. Solar-induced thermal activity and stratification in pond water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brownridge, James D

    2015-01-01

    Ponds are universally used to store water for a large number of uses. With the increasing demand for more fresh water, ponds, lakes and reservoirs are likely to be constructed on a larger scale. We must understand the effects of environmental changes on fresh water if we are to most efficiently utilize this resource. This study undertakes to increase our understanding of the rate of thermal response of ponds and other bodies of water to every-day environmental changes. The central research agenda is to investigate how the temperature of pond water from top to bottom responds to the day/night cycle, changes in air temperature just above the surface, cloud conditions, and other sudden environmental changes. Data collection for this study spanned October 2007 to June 2011 and had a continuous time resolution of 50 seconds.

  11. Panel results of the solar thermal program research requirement assessment review. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1983-11-01

    The objectives of the assessment were to identify: research needs by topic and activity, relative priority of research needs, options for performing needed research, potential performers, costs and duration of R and D activities, gaps and duplications within the R and D program, and activities underway that appear to be of low priority. To achieve these objectives, research programs of the Division of Solar Thermal Technologies within the Office of Renewable Energy and Conservation and the Materials and Advanced Energy Programs of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences were reviewed. Several recent assessments of solar thermal research needs made within the past two years by various groups were also reviewed, and the key research issues and needs were extracted. The primary results from the assessment are a set of prioritized activities to meet the most important research needs for solar thermal technologies. These activities belong to four disciplines: materials science, thermal science, thermochemistry, and engineering. Further, priorities associated with the needs for research result from the various activities allow the recommended activities to be grouped into two categories; a core group which should be at the heart of any future program developed by the department, and a set of important needs that should, at least, find their way into a program at some time during its existence. The recommended research program is outlined, and the complete set of ranked research needs is listed.

  12. Gas Atomization of Amorphous Aluminum: Part I. Thermal Behavior Calculations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Baolong; Lin, Yaojun; Zhou, Yizhang; Lavernia, Enrique J.

    2009-01-01

    which are summarized below: 1. Gas composition is moree?ective than gas pressure on in?uencing cooling rate for app. 210–11. 37. J.E.A. John: Gas Dynamics, Allyn and Bacon,

  13. Thermal performance simulation of a solar cavity receiver under windy conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, J.B.; Wei, J.J.; Dong, X.W.; Wang, Y.S.

    2011-01-15

    Solar cavity receiver plays a dominant role in the light-heat conversion. Its performance can directly affect the efficiency of the whole power generation system. A combined calculation method for evaluating the thermal performance of the solar cavity receiver is raised in this paper. This method couples the Monte-Carlo method, the correlations of the flow boiling heat transfer, and the calculation of air flow field. And this method can ultimately figure out the surface heat flux inside the cavity, the wall temperature of the boiling tubes, and the heat loss of the solar receiver with an iterative solution. With this method, the thermal performance of a solar cavity receiver, a saturated steam receiver, is simulated under different wind environments. The highest wall temperature of the boiling tubes is about 150 C higher than the water saturation temperature. And it appears in the upper middle parts of the absorbing panels. Changing the wind angle or velocity can obviously affect the air velocity inside the receiver. The air velocity reaches the maximum value when the wind comes from the side of the receiver (flow angle {alpha} = 90 ). The heat loss of the solar cavity receiver also reaches a maximum for the side-on wind. (author)

  14. High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems;

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nA Guide to TappingWORK BREAKDOWNEnergyEnergy details the methods

  15. Facilities - Center for Solar and Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid you not find whatGasEnergy Technologies | Blandinenewsand Privacy

  16. Concentrating Solar Power Thermal Storage System Basics | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p aDepartment ofCommercialEnergy Computers,dish/engine

  17. City of Dubuque - Solar Thermal Licensing Requirement | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p aDepartment of Energy < Back EligibilityEnergy < Back

  18. Thermal Effects of Circumplanetary Disk Formation around Proto-Gas Giant Planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masahiro N. Machida

    2008-10-15

    The formation of a circumplanetary disk and accretion of angular momentum onto a protoplanetary system are investigated using 3D hydrodynamical simulations. The local region around a protoplanet in a protoplanetary disk is considered with sufficient spatial resolution: the region from outside the Hill sphere to the Jovian radius is covered by the nested-grid method. To investigate the thermal effects of the circumplanetary disk, various equations of state are adopted. Large thermal energy around the protoplanet slightly changes the structure of the circumplanetary disk. Compared with a model adopting an isothermal equation of state, in a model with an adiabatic equation of state, the protoplanet's gas envelope extends farther, and a slightly thick disk appears near the protoplanet. However, different equations of state do not affect the acquisition process of angular momentum for the protoplanetary system. Thus, the specific angular momentum acquired by the system is fitted as a function only of the protoplanet's mass. A large fraction of the total angular momentum contributes to the formation of the circumplanetary disk. The disk forms only in a compact region in very close proximity to the protoplanet. Adapting the results to the solar system, the proto-Jupiter and Saturn have compact disks in the region of r < 21 r_J (r < 0.028 r_HJ) and r < 66 r_S (r < 0.061 r_HS), respectively, where r_J (r_HJ) and r_S (r_HS) are the Jovian and Saturnian (Hill) radius, respectively. The surface density has a peak in these regions due to the balance between centrifugal force and gravity of the protoplanet. The size of these disks corresponds well to the outermost orbit of regular satellites around Jupiter and Saturn. Regular satellites may form in such compact disks around proto-gas giant planets.

  19. MINICHANNEL-TUBE SOLAR THERMAL COLLECTORS FOR LOW TO MEDIUM TEMPERATURE APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duong, Van Thuc

    2015-01-01

    solar water heaters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Performance of aluminum minichannel solar water heater . . .solar water heater . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  20. MINICHANNEL-TUBE SOLAR THERMAL COLLECTORS FOR LOW TO MEDIUM TEMPERATURE APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duong, Van Thuc

    2015-01-01

    Minichannel Solar Collector Design . . . . . . . . . . . . .Solar Collector Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 MINICHANNEL SOLAR COLLECTOR DESIGNS . . . . . . . . .

  1. Automated Decision-Analytic Diagnosis of Thermal Performance in Gas Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horvitz, Eric

    Automated Decision-Analytic Diagnosis of Thermal Performance in Gas Turbines To be presented Abstract We have developed an expert system for diagno- sis of efficiency problems for large gas turbines the ultimate goal of applying the system in the day-to-day maintenance of gas- turbine power plants. A Overview

  2. Automated DecisionAnalytic Diagnosis of Thermal Performance in Gas Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horvitz, Eric

    Automated Decision­Analytic Diagnosis of Thermal Performance in Gas Turbines To be presented Abstract We have developed an expert system for diagno­ sis of e#ciency problems for large gas turbines the ultimate goal of applying the system in the day­to­day maintenance of gas­ turbine power plants. A Overview

  3. Simulation of the Pre-Thermal Quench Stage of Disruptions During Massive Gas Injection and Projections for ITER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simulation of the Pre-Thermal Quench Stage of Disruptions During Massive Gas Injection and Projections for ITER

  4. Novel Molten Salts Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrating Solar Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reddy, Ramana G.

    2013-10-23

    The explicit UA program objective is to develop low melting point (LMP) molten salt thermal energy storage media with high thermal energy storage density for sensible heat storage systems. The novel Low Melting Point (LMP) molten salts are targeted to have the following characteristics: 1. Lower melting point (MP) compared to current salts (<222şC) 2. Higher energy density compared to current salts (>300 MJ/m3) 3. Lower power generation cost compared to current salt In terms of lower power costs, the program target the DOE's Solar Energy Technologies Program year 2020 goal to create systems that have the potential to reduce the cost of Thermal Energy Storage (TES) to less than $15/kWh-th and achieve round trip efficiencies greater than 93%. The project has completed the experimental investigations to determine the thermo-physical, long term thermal stability properties of the LMP molten salts and also corrosion studies of stainless steel in the candidate LMP molten salts. Heat transfer and fluid dynamics modeling have been conducted to identify heat transfer geometry and relative costs for TES systems that would utilize the primary LMP molten salt candidates. The project also proposes heat transfer geometry with relevant modifications to suit the usage of our molten salts as thermal energy storage and heat transfer fluids. The essential properties of the down-selected novel LMP molten salts to be considered for thermal storage in solar energy applications were experimentally determined, including melting point, heat capacity, thermal stability, density, viscosity, thermal conductivity, vapor pressure, and corrosion resistance of SS 316. The thermodynamic modeling was conducted to determine potential high temperature stable molten salt mixtures that have thermal stability up to 1000 °C. The thermo-physical properties of select potential high temperature stable (HMP) molten salt mixtures were also experimentally determined. All the salt mixtures align with the go/no-go goals stipulated by the DOE for this project. Energy densities of all salt mixtures were higher than that of the current solar salt. The salt mixtures costs have been estimated and TES system costs for a 2 tank, direct approach have been estimated for each of these materials. All estimated costs are significantly below the baseline system that used solar salt. These lower melt point salts offer significantly higher energy density per volume than solar salt – and therefore attractively smaller inventory and equipment costs. Moreover, a new TES system geometry has been recommended A variety of approaches were evaluated to use the low melting point molten salt. Two novel changes are recommended that 1) use the salt as a HTF through the solar trough field, and 2) use the salt to not only create steam but also to preheat the condensed feedwater for Rankine cycle. The two changes enable the powerblock to operate at 500°C, rather than the current 400°C obtainable using oil as the HTF. Secondly, the use of salt to preheat the feedwater eliminates the need to extract steam from the low pressure turbine for that purpose. Together, these changes result in a dramatic 63% reduction required for 6 hour salt inventory, a 72% reduction in storage volume, and a 24% reduction in steam flow rate in the power block. Round trip efficiency for the Case 5 - 2 tank “direct” system is estimated at >97%, with only small losses from time under storage and heat exchange, and meeting RFP goals. This attractive efficiency is available because the major heat loss experienced in a 2 tank “indirect” system - losses by transferring the thermal energy from oil HTF to the salt storage material and back to oil to run the steam generator at night - is not present for the 2 tank direct system. The higher heat capacity values for both LMP and HMP systems enable larger storage capacities for concentrating solar power.

  5. CALIFORNIA SOLAR DATA MANUAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.

    2010-01-01

    Beckman, Solar Energy Thermal Processes (John Wiley & Sons,New York. Solar Energy Thermal Processes. John Duncan, C,

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS RECEIVER UTILIZING SMALL PARTICLES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, Arlon J.

    2012-01-01

    Symposium on Solar Thermal Power and Energy Systems,solar to thermal conversion is accomplished by a dispersion of ultra~fine partlcles suspended in a gas to absorb radlant energy

  7. CYCLIC THERMAL SIGNATURE IN A GLOBAL MHD SIMULATION OF SOLAR CONVECTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cossette, Jean-Francois; Charbonneau, Paul; Smolarkiewicz, Piotr K.

    2013-11-10

    Global magnetohydrodynamical simulations of the solar convection zone have recently achieved cyclic large-scale axisymmetric magnetic fields undergoing polarity reversals on a decadal time scale. In this Letter, we show that these simulations also display a thermal convective luminosity that varies in-phase with the magnetic cycle, and trace this modulation to deep-seated magnetically mediated changes in convective flow patterns. Within the context of the ongoing debate on the physical origin of the observed 11 yr variations in total solar irradiance, such a signature supports the thesis according to which all, or part, of the variations on decadal time scales and longer could be attributed to a global modulation of the Sun's internal thermal structure by magnetic activity.

  8. Enabling Greater Penetration of Solar Power via the Use of CSP with Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.; Mehos, M.

    2011-11-01

    At high penetration of solar generation there are a number of challenges to economically integrating this variable and uncertain resource. These include the limited coincidence between the solar resource and normal demand patterns and limited flexibility of conventional generators to accommodate variable generation resources. Of the large number of technologies that can be used to enable greater penetration of variable generators, concentrating solar power (CSP) with thermal energy storage (TES) presents a number of advantages. The use of storage enables this technology to shift energy production to periods of high demand or reduced solar output. In addition, CSP can provide substantial grid flexibility by rapidly changing output in response to the highly variable net load created by high penetration of solar (and wind) generation. In this work we examine the degree to which CSP may be complementary to PV by performing a set of simulations in the U.S. Southwest to demonstrate the general potential of CSP with TES to enable greater use of solar generation, including additional PV.

  9. Building America Best Practices Series, Volume 6: High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Ruiz, Kathleen A.; Steward, Heidi E.; Love, Pat M.

    2007-06-04

    This guide is was written by PNNL for the US Department of Energy's Building America program to provide information for residential production builders interested in building near zero energy homes. The guide provides indepth descriptions of various roof-top photovoltaic power generating systems for homes. The guide also provides extensive information on various designs of solar thermal water heating systems for homes. The guide also provides construction company owners and managers with an understanding of how solar technologies can be added to their homes in a way that is cost effective, practical, and marketable. Twelve case studies provide examples of production builders across the United States who are building energy-efficient homes with photovoltaic or solar water heating systems.

  10. Acceptance Performance Test Guideline for Utility Scale Parabolic Trough and Other CSP Solar Thermal Systems: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehos, M. S.; Wagner, M. J.; Kearney, D. W.

    2011-08-01

    Prior to commercial operation, large solar systems in utility-size power plants need to pass a performance acceptance test conducted by the engineering, procurement, and construction (EPC) contractor or owners. In lieu of the present absence of ASME or other international test codes developed for this purpose, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has undertaken the development of interim guidelines to provide recommendations for test procedures that can yield results of a high level of accuracy consistent with good engineering knowledge and practice. Progress on interim guidelines was presented at SolarPACES 2010. Significant additions and modifications were made to the guidelines since that time, resulting in a final report published by NREL in April 2011. This paper summarizes those changes, which emphasize criteria for assuring thermal equilibrium and steady state conditions within the solar field.

  11. Concentrated solar thermal (cst) system for fuelwood replacement and for household water sanitation in developing countries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akinjiola, O. P.; Balachandran, U. (Energy Systems); (Rsage Research, LLC)

    2012-01-01

    Concentrated Solar Thermal (CST) is a proven renewable energy technology that harnesses solar irradiation in its most primitive form. This technology with roots in ancient history is growing at a fast pace in recent times. Developing countries could use CST to solve fundamental human-needs challenges, such as for the substitution of fuelwood and the treatment of water for household use. This paper proposes a conceptual design for a standardized modular CST for these applications in developing countries. A modular-designed parabolic CST with an aperture area of 7.5 m2 is adequate to provide enough solar thermal energy to replace the fuelwood need (5 tons/yr) or to pasteurize the minimum daily water requirement (2500 liters) for a household. Critical parameters of the CST are discussed and an affordable solid thermal storage is recommended to be used as a backup when sunlight is unavailable. A funding program that includes in-country resources and external funding will be needed to sustain the development and wide spread adaptation of this technology.

  12. Design of a Thermally-Actuated Gas Lift Safety Valve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbertson, Eric W.

    Gas-lifted oil wells are susceptible to failure through malfunction of gas lift valve assemblies (GLV). One failure mode occurs when the GLV check valve fails and product passes into the well annulus, potentially reaching ...

  13. Avoiding Carbon Bed Hot Spots in Thermal Process Off-Gas Systems...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hot Spots in Thermal Process Off-Gas Systems Mercury has had various uses in nuclear fuel reprocessing and other nuclear processes, and so is often present in radioactive and...

  14. Measurements of Non-Thermal Line Widths in Solar Active Regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brooks, David H

    2015-01-01

    Spectral line widths are often observed to be larger than can be accounted for by thermal and instrumental broadening alone. This excess broadening is a key observational constraint for both nanoflare and wave dissipation models of coronal heating. Here we present a survey of non-thermal velocities measured in the high temperature loops (1--5MK) often found in the cores of solar active regions. This survey of $\\textit{Hinode}$ Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) observations covers 15 non-flaring active regions that span a wide range of solar conditions. We find relatively small non-thermal velocities, with a mean value of 17km s$^{-1}$, and no significant trend with temperature or active region magnetic flux. These measurements appear to be inconsistent with those expected from reconnection jets in the corona, chromospheric evaporation induced by coronal nanoflares, and Alfv\\'en wave turbulence models. Furthermore, because the observed non-thermal widths are generally small their measurements are ...

  15. ECOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS OF THE SOLAR ALTERNATIVE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davidson, M.

    2010-01-01

    et al. , April 1975. 4. Solar Thermal Conversion Missionof.Several Central Reveiver Solar Thermal Power Plant Designterm solar energy are: Included solar thermal conversion to

  16. The Thermal Environment of the Fiber Glass Dome for the New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. P. Verdoni; C. Denker; J. R. Varsik; S. Shumko; J. Nenow; R. Coulter

    2007-08-04

    The New Solar Telescope (NST) is a 1.6-meter off-axis Gregory-type telescope with an equatorial mount and an open optical support structure. To mitigate the temperature fluctuations along the exposed optical path, the effects of local/dome-related seeing have to be minimized. To accomplish this, NST will be housed in a 5/8-sphere fiberglass dome that is outfitted with 14 active vents evenly spaced around its perimeter. The 14 vents house louvers that open and close independently of one another to regulate and direct the passage of air through the dome. In January 2006, 16 thermal probes were installed throughout the dome and the temperature distribution was measured. The measurements confirmed the existence of a strong thermal gradient on the order of 5 degree Celsius inside the dome. In December 2006, a second set of temperature measurements were made using different louver configurations. In this study, we present the results of these measurements along with their integration into the thermal control system (ThCS) and the overall telescope control system (TCS).

  17. EFFECT OF PTFE ON THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF GAS DIFFUSION LAYERS OF PEM FUEL CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    The efficiency and performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) depends heavily on the heat, the added PTFE can change the thermal resistance of GDLs and, hence, affects the fuel cell heat managementEFFECT OF PTFE ON THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF GAS DIFFUSION LAYERS OF PEM FUEL CELLS Hamidreza

  18. Texas Gas Service- Residential Solar Water Heating Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Only active systems with panels (or collectors) that are certified OG-100 by the Solar Rating Certification Corporation (SRCC) qualify for this rebate. Work must be completed by a licensed contra...

  19. MINICHANNEL-TUBE SOLAR THERMAL COLLECTORS FOR LOW TO MEDIUM TEMPERATURE APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duong, Van Thuc

    2015-01-01

    of copper minichannel solar collector . . . . SteamMinichannel Solar Collector Design . . . . . . . . . . . . .of Copper Minichannel Solar Collector During Two-Phase

  20. Performance analysis of medium temperature non-tracking solar thermal concentrators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balkoski, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Considerations for CPC Solar Collectors." Solar Energy2]. DeWinter, Francis. Solar Collectors, Energy Storage, andHigh-temperature, Solar Collectors for Mass Production.

  1. Solar Carbon Monoxide, Thermal Profiling, and the Abundances of C, O, and their Isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas R. Ayres; Claude Plymate; Christoph U. Keller

    2006-06-07

    A solar photospheric "thermal profiling" analysis is presented, exploiting the infrared rovibrational bands of carbon monoxide (CO) as observed with the McMath-Pierce Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) at Kitt Peak, and from above the Earth's atmosphere by the Shuttle-borne ATMOS experiment. Visible continuum intensities and center-limb behavior constrained the temperature profile of the deep photosphere, while CO center-limb behavior defined the thermal structure at higher altitudes. The oxygen abundance was self consistently determined from weak CO absorptions. Our analysis was meant to complement recent studies based on 3-D convection models which, among other things, have revised the historical solar oxygen (and carbon) abundance downward by a factor of nearly two; although in fact our conclusions do not support such a revision. Based on various considerations, an oxygen abundance of 700+/-100 ppm (parts per million relative to hydrogen) is recommended; the large uncertainty reflects the model sensitivity of CO. New solar isotopic ratios also are reported for 13C, 17O, and 18O.

  2. Thermal chemical recuperation method and system for use with gas turbine systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, W.C.; Newby, R.A.; Bannister, R.L.

    1999-04-27

    A system and method are disclosed for efficiently generating power using a gas turbine, a steam generating system and a reformer. The gas turbine receives a reformed fuel stream and an air stream and produces shaft power and exhaust. Some of the thermal energy from the turbine exhaust is received by the reformer. The turbine exhaust is then directed to the steam generator system that recovers thermal energy from it and also produces a steam flow from a water stream. The steam flow and a fuel stream are directed to the reformer that reforms the fuel stream and produces the reformed fuel stream used in the gas turbine. 2 figs.

  3. Thermal chemical recuperation method and system for use with gas turbine systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Wen-Ching (Export, PA); Newby, Richard A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Bannister, Ronald L. (Winter Springs, FL)

    1999-01-01

    A system and method for efficiently generating power using a gas turbine, a steam generating system (20, 22, 78) and a reformer. The gas turbine receives a reformed fuel stream (74) and an air stream and produces shaft power and exhaust. Some of the thermal energy from the turbine exhaust is received by the reformer (18). The turbine exhaust is then directed to the steam generator system that recovers thermal energy from it and also produces a steam flow from a water stream. The steam flow and a fuel stream are directed to the reformer that reforms the fuel stream and produces the reformed fuel stream used in the gas turbine.

  4. Dish/Stirling systems: Overview of an emerging commercial solar thermal electric technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strachan, J.W.; Diver, R.B.; Estrada, C.

    1995-11-01

    Dish/Stirling is a solar thermal electric technology which couples parabolic, point-focusing solar collectors and heat engines which employ the Stirling thermodynamic cycle. Since the late 1970s, the development of Dish/Stirling systems intended for commercial use has been in progress in Germany, Japan, and the US. In the next several years it is expected that one or more commercial systems will enter the market place. This paper provides a general overview of this emerging technology, including: a description of the fundamental principles of operation of Dish/Stirling systems; a presentation of the major components of the systems (concentrator, receiver, engine/alternator, and controls); an overview of the actual systems under development around the world, with a discussion of some of the technical issues and challenges facing the Dish/Stirling developers. A brief discussion is also presented of potential applications for small Dish/Stirling systems in northern Mexico.

  5. Neural network modelling of thermal stratification in a solar DHW storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geczy-Vig, P.; Farkas, I.

    2010-05-15

    In this study an artificial neural network (ANN) model is introduced for modelling the layer temperatures in a storage tank of a solar thermal system. The model is based on the measured data of a domestic hot water system. The temperatures distribution in the storage tank divided in 8 equal parts in vertical direction were calculated every 5 min using the average 5 min data of solar radiation, ambient temperature, mass flow rate of collector loop, load and the temperature of the layers in previous time steps. The introduced ANN model consists of two parts describing the load periods and the periods between the loads. The identified model gives acceptable results inside the training interval as the average deviation was 0.22 C during the training and 0.24 C during the validation. (author)

  6. Evaluation of annual efficiencies of high temperature central receiver concentrated solar power plants with thermal energy storage.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehrhart, Brian David; Gill, David Dennis

    2013-07-01

    The current study has examined four cases of a central receiver concentrated solar power plant with thermal energy storage using the DELSOL and SOLERGY computer codes. The current state-of-the-art base case was compared with a theoretical high temperature case which was based on the scaling of some input parameters and the estimation of other parameters based on performance targets from the Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. This comparison was done for both current and high temperature cases in two configurations: a surround field with an external cylindrical receiver and a north field with a single cavity receiver. There is a fairly dramatic difference between the design point and annual average performance, especially in the solar field and receiver subsystems, and also in energy losses due to the thermal energy storage being full to capacity. Additionally, there are relatively small differences (<2%) in annual average efficiencies between the Base and High Temperature cases, despite an increase in thermal to electric conversion efficiency of over 8%. This is due the increased thermal losses at higher temperature and operational losses due to subsystem start-up and shut-down. Thermal energy storage can mitigate some of these losses by utilizing larger thermal energy storage to ensure that the electric power production system does not need to stop and re-start as often, but solar energy is inherently transient. Economic and cost considerations were not considered here, but will have a significant impact on solar thermal electric power production strategy and sizing.

  7. Kinematic Stirling engine as an energy conversion subsystem for paraboloidal dish solar thermal power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowyer, J.M.

    1984-04-15

    The potential of a suitably designed and economically manufactured Stirling engine as the energy conversion subsystem of a paraboloidal dish-Stirling solar thermal power module has been estimated. Results obtained by elementary cycle analyses have been shown to match quite well the performance characteristics of an advanced kinematic Stirling engine, the United Stirling P-40, as established by current prototypes of the engine and by a more sophisticated analytic model of its advanced derivative. In addition to performance, brief consideration has been given to other Stirling engine criteria such as durability, reliability, and serviceability. Production costs have not been considered here.

  8. Simulating the Value of Concentrating Solar Power with Thermal Energy Storage in a Production Cost Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.; Hummon, M.

    2012-11-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) deployed with thermal energy storage (TES) provides a dispatchable source of renewable energy. The value of CSP with TES, as with other potential generation resources, needs to be established using traditional utility planning tools. Production cost models, which simulate the operation of grid, are often used to estimate the operational value of different generation mixes. CSP with TES has historically had limited analysis in commercial production simulations. This document describes the implementation of CSP with TES in a commercial production cost model. It also describes the simulation of grid operations with CSP in a test system consisting of two balancing areas located primarily in Colorado.

  9. Numerical Study of a Propagating Non-Thermal Microwave Feature in a Solar Flare Loop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Minoshima; T. Yokoyama

    2008-06-24

    We analytically and numerically study the motion of electrons along a magnetic loop, to compare with the observation of the propagating feature of the non-thermal microwave source in the 1999 August 28 solar flare reported by Yokoyama et al. (2002). We model the electron motion with the Fokker-Planck equation and calculate the spatial distribution of the gyrosynchrotron radiation. We find that the microwave propagating feature does not correspond to the motion of electrons with a specific initial pitch angle. This apparent propagating feature is a consequence of the motion of an ensemble of electrons with different initial pitch angles, which have different time and position to produce strong radiation in the loop. We conclude that the non-thermal electrons in the 1999 August 28 flare were isotropically accelerated and then are injected into the loop.

  10. Zirconia and Pyrochlore Oxides for Thermal Barrier Coatings in Gas Turbine Engines

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fergus, Jeffrey W.

    2014-04-12

    One of the important applications of yttria stabilized zirconia is as a thermal barrier coating for gas turbine engines. While yttria stabilized zirconia performs well in this function, the need for increased operating temperatures to achieve higher energy conversion efficiencies, requires the development of improved materials. To meet this challenge, some rare-earth zirconates that form the cubic fluorite derived pyrochlore structure are being developed for use in thermal barrier coatings due to their low thermal conductivity, excellent chemical stability and other suitable properties. In this paper, the thermal conductivities of current and prospective oxides for use in thermal barrier coatingsmore »are reviewed. The factors affecting the variations and differences in the thermal conductivities and the degradation behaviors of these materials are discussed.« less

  11. Zirconia and Pyrochlore Oxides for Thermal Barrier Coatings in Gas Turbine Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fergus, Jeffrey W.

    2014-04-12

    One of the important applications of yttria stabilized zirconia is as a thermal barrier coating for gas turbine engines. While yttria stabilized zirconia performs well in this function, the need for increased operating temperatures to achieve higher energy conversion efficiencies, requires the development of improved materials. To meet this challenge, some rare-earth zirconates that form the cubic fluorite derived pyrochlore structure are being developed for use in thermal barrier coatings due to their low thermal conductivity, excellent chemical stability and other suitable properties. In this paper, the thermal conductivities of current and prospective oxides for use in thermal barrier coatings are reviewed. The factors affecting the variations and differences in the thermal conductivities and the degradation behaviors of these materials are discussed.

  12. EUV Non-thermal Line Broadening and High-energy particles during Solar Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kawate, Tomoko

    2013-01-01

    We have studied the relationship between the location of EUV nonthermal broadening and high-energy particles during the large flares by using EUV imaging spectrometer onboard {\\it Hinode}, Nobeyama Radio Polarimeter, Nobeyama Radioheliograph, and Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard {\\it Solar Dynamic Observatory}. We have analyzed the five large flare events which contain thermal rich, intermediate, and thermal poor flares classified by the definition discussed in the paper. We found that, in the case of thermal rich flares, the nonthermal broadening of \\ion{Fe}{24} occurred at the top of the flaring loop at the beginning of the flares. The source of the 17 GHz microwave is located at the footpoint of the flare loop. On the other hand, in the case of intermediate/thermal poor flares, the nonthermal broadening of \\ion{Fe}{24} occurred at the footpoint of the flare loop at the beginning of the flares. The source of the 17 GHz microwave is located at the top of the flaring loop. We discussed the difference betw...

  13. The application of expansion foam on liquefied natural gas (LNG) to suppress LNG vapor and LNG pool fire thermal radiation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suardin, Jaffee Arizon

    2009-05-15

    Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) hazards include LNG flammable vapor dispersion and LNG pool fire thermal radiation. A large LNG pool fire emits high thermal radiation thus preventing fire fighters from approaching and extinguishing the fire. One...

  14. Mechanism of Thermal Reversal of the (Fulvalene)tetracarbonyldiruthenium Photoisomerization: Toward Molecular Solar-Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kanai, Y; Srinivasan, V; Meier, S K; Vollhardt, K P; Grossman, J C

    2010-02-18

    In the currently intensifying quest to harness solar energy for the powering of our planet, most efforts are centered around photoinduced generic charge separation, such as in photovoltaics, water splitting, other small molecule activation, and biologically inspired photosynthetic systems. In contrast, direct collection of heat from sunlight has received much less diversified attention, its bulk devoted to the development of concentrating solar thermal power plants, in which mirrors are used to focus the sun beam on an appropriate heat transfer material. An attractive alternative strategy would be to trap solar energy in the form of chemical bonds, ideally through the photoconversion of a suitable molecule to a higher energy isomer, which, in turn, would release the stored energy by thermal reversal. Such a system would encompass the essential elements of a rechargeable heat battery, with its inherent advantages of storage, transportability, and use on demand. The underlying concept has been explored extensively with organic molecules (such as the norbornadiene-quadricyclane cycle), often in the context of developing photoswitches. On the other hand, organometallic complexes have remained relatively obscure in this capacity, despite a number of advantages, including expanded structural tunability and generally favorable electronic absorption regimes. A highly promising organometallic system is the previously reported, robust photo-thermal fulvalene (Fv) diruthenium couple 1 {l_reversible} 2 (Scheme 1). However, although reversible and moderately efficient, lack of a full, detailed atom-scale understanding of its key conversion and storage mechanisms have limited our ability to improve on its performance or identify optimal variants, such as substituents on the Fv, ligands other than CO, and alternative metals. Here we present a theoretical investigation, in conjunction with corroborating experiments, of the mechanism for the heat releasing step of 2 {yields} 1 and its Fe (4) and Os (6) relatives. The results of the combined study has enabled a rigorous interpretation of earlier and new experimental measurements and paint a surprising picture. First-principles calculations were employed based on spin unrestricted density functional theory (DFT) with a non-empirical gradient corrected exchange-correlation functional. Ultrasoft pseudopotentials were used to describe the valence-core interactions of electrons, including scalar relativistic effects of the core. Wavefunctions and charge densities were expanded in plane waves with kinetic energies up to 25 and 200 Rydberg, respectively. Reaction pathways were delineated with the string method, as implemented within the Car-Parrinello approach. This method allows for the efficient determination of the minimum energy path (MEP) of atomistic transitions and thus also saddle points (transition states, TSs), which are the energy maxima along the MEP. All geometries were optimized until all forces on the atoms were less than 0.02 eV/{angstrom}. The calculated structures of 1 and 2 were in good agreement with their experimental counterparts.

  15. Super-hot (T > 30 MK) Thermal Plasma in Solar Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caspi, Amir

    2010-01-01

    B = 100 G Total Thermal Energy Thermal Energy Density B 2 /B = 100 G Total Thermal Energy Thermal Energy Density B 2 /Total thermal energy (red) and thermal energy density (blue)

  16. Assessment of optical performance of three non-tracking, non-imaging, external compound parabolic concentrators designed for high temperature solar thermal collector units

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cisneros, Jesus

    2010-01-01

    a motorized sun-tracker to the collectors, designing a non-the sun onto each of the three solar thermal collectors. ix

  17. Enhancement of specific heat capacity of high-temperature silica-nanofluids synthesized in alkali chloride salt eutectics for solar thermal-energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banerjee, Debjyoti

    chloride salt eutectics for solar thermal-energy storage applications Donghyun Shin, Debjyoti Banerjee December 2010 Keywords: Nanoparticle Specific heat capacity Alkali chloride eutectic Silicon dioxide

  18. Chaotic mean wind in turbulent thermal convection and long-term correlations in solar activity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Bershadskii

    2009-12-25

    It is shown that correlation function of the mean wind velocity in a turbulent thermal convection (Rayleigh number $Ra \\sim 10^{11}$) exhibits exponential decay with a very long correlation time, while corresponding largest Lyapunov exponent is certainly positive. These results together with the reconstructed phase portrait indicate presence of a chaotic component in the examined mean wind. Telegraph approximation is also used to study relative contribution of the chaotic and stochastic components to the mean wind fluctuations and an equilibrium between these components has been studied. Since solar activity is based on the thermal convection processes, it is reasoned that the observed solar activity long-term correlations can be an imprint of the mean wind chaotic properties. In particular, correlation function of the daily sunspots number exhibits exponential decay with a very long correlation time and corresponding largest Lyapunov exponent is certainly positive, also relative contribution of the chaotic and stochastic components follows the same pattern as for the convection mean wind.

  19. Solar heat pipe testing of the Stirling thermal motors 4-120 Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andraka, C.E.; Rawlinson, K.S.; Moss, T.A.; Adkins, D.R.; Moreno, J.B.; Gallup, D.R.; Cordeiro, P.G.; Johansson, S.

    1996-07-01

    Stirling-cycle engines have been identified as a promising technology for the conversion of concentrated solar energy into usable electrical power. A 25kW electric system takes advantage of existing Stirling-cycle engines and existing parabolic concentrator designs. In previous work, the concentrated sunlight impinged directly on the heater head tubes of the Stirling Thermal Motors (STM) 4-120 engine. A Sandia-designed felt-metal-wick heat pipe receiver was fitted to the STM 4-120 engine for on-sun testing on Sandia`s Test Bed Solar Concentrator. The heat pipe uses sodium metal as an intermediate two-phase heat transfer fluid. The receiver replaces the directly-illuminated heater head previously tested. The heat pipe receiver provides heat isothermally to the engine, and the heater head tube length is reduced, both resulting in improved engine performance. The receiver also has less thermal losses than the tube receiver. The heat pipe receiver design is based on Sandia`s second-generation felt-wick heat pipe receiver. This paper presents the interface design, and compares the heat pipe/engine test results to those of the directly-illuminated receiver/engine package.

  20. Investigation of the thermal conductivity of unconsolidated sand packs containing oil, water, and gas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gore, David Eugene

    1958-01-01

    INVESTIGATION OF THE THERNAL CONDUCTIVITY OF UNCONSOLIDATED SAND PACKS CONTAINING OIL, WATER, AND GAS A Thesis David E. Gore Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Nechanical College oi' Texas in Partial fulfillment... and thxee-phase fluid saturation on the thermal conductivity of sand packs. The current research was conducted using a sand and lubricating oil on which related studies had been pexfoxmed. The thermal conductivity measuxements were made undex condi...

  1. Noble Gas Geochemistry In Thermal Springs | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsourceII Jump to:Information 3rd congressionalNearshoreNilamGeochemistry In Thermal

  2. Modelling Concentrating Solar Power with Thermal Energy Storage for Integration Studies (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hummon, M.; Jorgenson, J.; Denholm, P.; Mehos, M.

    2013-10-01

    Concentrating solar power with thermal energy storage (CSP-TES) can provide multiple benefits to the grid, including low marginal cost energy and the ability to levelize load, provide operating reserves, and provide firm capacity. It is challenging to properly value the integration of CSP because of the complicated nature of this technology. Unlike completely dispatchable fossil sources, CSP is a limited energy resource, depending on the hourly and daily supply of solar energy. To optimize the use of this limited energy, CSP-TES must be implemented in a production cost model with multiple decision variables for the operation of the CSP-TES plant. We develop and implement a CSP-TES plant in a production cost model that accurately characterizes the three main components of the plant: solar field, storage tank, and power block. We show the effect of various modelling simplifications on the value of CSP, including: scheduled versus optimized dispatch from the storage tank and energy-only operation versus co-optimization with ancillary services.

  3. Modelling Concentrating Solar Power with Thermal Energy Storage for Integration Studies: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hummon, M.; Denholm, P.; Jorgenson, J.; Mehos, M.

    2013-10-01

    Concentrating solar power with thermal energy storage (CSP-TES) can provide multiple benefits to the grid, including low marginal cost energy and the ability to levelize load, provide operating reserves, and provide firm capacity. It is challenging to properly value the integration of CSP because of the complicated nature of this technology. Unlike completely dispatchable fossil sources, CSP is a limited energy resource, depending on the hourly and daily supply of solar energy. To optimize the use of this limited energy, CSP-TES must be implemented in a production cost model with multiple decision variables for the operation of the CSP-TES plant. We develop and implement a CSP-TES plant in a production cost model that accurately characterizes the three main components of the plant: solar field, storage tank, and power block. We show the effect of various modelling simplifications on the value of CSP, including: scheduled versus optimized dispatch from the storage tank and energy-only operation versus co-optimization with ancillary services.

  4. Methods for Analyzing the Economic Value of Concentrating Solar Power with Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, Paul; Jorgenson, Jennie; Miller, Mackay; Zhou, Ella; Wang, Caixia

    2015-07-20

    Concentrating solar power with thermal energy storage (CSP-TES) provides multiple quantifiable benefits compared to CSP without storage or to solar photovoltaic (PV) technology, including higher energy value, ancillary services value, and capacity value. This report describes modeling approaches to quantifying these benefits that have emerged through state-level policymaking in the United States as well as the potential applicability of these methods in China. The technical potential for CSP-TES in China is significant, but deployment has not yet achieved the targets established by the Chinese government. According to the 12th Five Year Plan for Renewable Energy (2011-2015), CSP was expected to reach 1 GW by 2015 and 3 GW by 2020 in China, yet as of December 2014, deployment totaled only 13.8 MW. One barrier to more rapid deployment is the lack of an incentive specific to CSP, such as a feed-in tariff. The 13th Five Year Plan for Solar Generation (2016-2020), which is under development, presents an opportunity to establish a feed-in tariff specific to CSP. This report, produced under the auspices of the U.S.-China Renewable Energy Partnership, aims to support the development of Chinese incentives that advance CSP deployment goals.

  5. MINICHANNEL-TUBE SOLAR THERMAL COLLECTORS FOR LOW TO MEDIUM TEMPERATURE APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duong, Van Thuc

    2015-01-01

    minichannel solar collector by analyzing efficiency (q fminichannel solar collector by analyzing efficiency (q ffluid. Increase in efficiency of solar water heaters can

  6. Thermal Conductivity Enhancement of High Temperature Phase Change Materials for Concentrating Solar Power Plant Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roshandell, Melina

    2013-01-01

    3 Fig. 1.2. Solar power plant operation [Materials for Concentrating Solar Power Plant Applications AMaterials for Concentrating Solar Power Plant Applications

  7. MINICHANNEL-TUBE SOLAR THERMAL COLLECTORS FOR LOW TO MEDIUM TEMPERATURE APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duong, Van Thuc

    2015-01-01

    aluminum minichannel and copper flat-plate solar waterPerformance of aluminum minichannel solar water heater . . .comparison with conventional copper flat-plate solar water

  8. Micro/Nano-Scale Phase Change Systems for Thermal Management and Solar Energy Conversion Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coso, Dusan

    2013-01-01

    Organometallic Frames for Solar Energy Storage, Berkeley. [Nocera D. G. , 2010, “Solar Energy Supply and Storage forof Abiotic Photo-chemical Solar Energy Storage Systems,”

  9. Thermal Conductivity Enhancement of High Temperature Phase Change Materials for Concentrating Solar Power Plant Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roshandell, Melina

    2013-01-01

    3 Fig. 1.2. Solar power plant operation [Materials for Concentrating Solar Power Plant Applications Afor Concentrating Solar Power Plant Applications by Melina

  10. Micro/Nano-Scale Phase Change Systems for Thermal Management and Solar Energy Conversion Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coso, Dusan

    2013-01-01

    Nocera D. G. , 2010, “Solar Energy Supply and Storage forof Abiotic Photo-chemical Solar Energy Storage Systems,”Power Plants,” Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, 124 (2),

  11. Micro/Nano-Scale Phase Change Systems for Thermal Management and Solar Energy Conversion Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coso, Dusan

    2013-01-01

    Photo-chemical Solar Energy Storage Systems,” AngewandteExploitation of Solar Energy Storage Systems . ValenceOrganometallic Frames for Solar Energy Storage, Berkeley. [

  12. INTERACTION OF A SOLAR SPACE HEATING SYSTEM WITH THE THERMAL BEHAVIOR OF A BUILDING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vilmer, Christian

    2013-01-01

    system for different solar storage temperatures, outdoorhydronic solar and space that heating adjusts the storagethe heat source is solar heated water at the storage tank

  13. Micro/Nano-Scale Phase Change Systems for Thermal Management and Solar Energy Conversion Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coso, Dusan

    2013-01-01

    and Photovoltaic Solar Energy Converters,” American ChemicalNocera D. G. , 2010, “Solar Energy Supply and Storage forof Abiotic Photo-chemical Solar Energy Storage Systems,”

  14. MINICHANNEL-TUBE SOLAR THERMAL COLLECTORS FOR LOW TO MEDIUM TEMPERATURE APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duong, Van Thuc

    2015-01-01

    the abundance and potential of harnessing solar energy: itminichannel solar collector has the potential to competeMarket potential of the minichannel solar collectors are

  15. Daily Thermal Predictions of the AGR-1 Experiment with Gas Gaps Varying with Time

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grant Hawkes; James Sterbentz; John Maki; Binh Pham

    2012-06-01

    A new daily as-run thermal analysis was performed at the Idaho National Laboratory on the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) test experiment number one at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This thermal analysis incorporates gas gaps changing with time during the irradiation experiment. The purpose of this analysis was to calculate the daily average temperatures of each compact to compare with experimental results. Post irradiation examination (PIE) measurements of the graphite holder and fuel compacts showed the gas gaps varying from the beginning of life. The control temperature gas gap and the fuel compact – graphite holder gas gaps were linearly changed from the original fabrication dimensions, to the end of irradiation measurements. A steady-state thermal analysis was performed for each daily calculation. These new thermal predictions more closely match the experimental data taken during the experiment than previous analyses. Results are presented comparing normalized compact average temperatures to normalized log(R/B) Kr-85m. The R/B term is the measured release rate divided by the predicted birth rate for the isotope Kr-85m. Correlations between these two normalized values are presented.

  16. Frank Vignola Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    (independent power producer) electric generating facility (e.g., gas turbines, etc.). In the mid-1980s, solar prompted utilities to either build their own solar generating facilities or, more often, enter into firm there was a hiatus in building large solar thermal electric facilities. Ten years ago, photovoltaic (PV) systems

  17. Standard Test Method for Determining Thermal Performance of Tracking Concentrating Solar Collectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1987-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of thermal performance of tracking concentrating solar collectors that heat fluids for use in thermal systems. 1.2 This test method applies to one- or two-axis tracking reflecting concentrating collectors in which the fluid enters the collector through a single inlet and leaves the collector through a single outlet, and to those collectors where a single inlet and outlet can be effectively provided, such as into parallel inlets and outlets of multiple collector modules. 1.3 This test method is intended for those collectors whose design is such that the effects of diffuse irradiance on performance is negligible and whose performance can be characterized in terms of direct irradiance. Note 1—For purposes of clarification, this method shall apply to collectors with a geometric concentration ratio of seven or greater. 1.4 The collector may be tested either as a thermal collection subsystem where the effects of tracking errors have been essentially removed from t...

  18. Thermal Conductivity Enhancement of High Temperature Phase Change Materials for Concentrating Solar Power Plant Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roshandell, Melina

    2013-01-01

    3 Fig. 1.2. Solar power plant operation [Different types of solar power plants have been designed andAmong the concentrating solar power plants (CSPP) are Solar

  19. Thermal Conductivity Enhancement of High Temperature Phase Change Materials for Concentrating Solar Power Plant Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roshandell, Melina

    2013-01-01

    storage: heat storage materials, Solar Energy 30 (1983) 313–and phase change materials, Solar Energy 62 (1998) 19–28 99-heat storage materials. Solar Energy Mater Solar Sells 1992;

  20. MINICHANNEL-TUBE SOLAR THERMAL COLLECTORS FOR LOW TO MEDIUM TEMPERATURE APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duong, Van Thuc

    2015-01-01

    SolarEnergy.pdf (2010). [92] US solar market insight report:and Thermosyphon Effects . . solar 6 ECONOMIC AND MARKET6.1, according to the U.S. Solar Market Insight Report: 2011

  1. A NEW SOLAR THERMAL RECEIVER UTILIZING A SMALL PARTICLE HEAT EXCHANGER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, Arlon J.

    2011-01-01

    of advanced concept solar power plants. For conditions ofthe operation of a solar power plant is very small. Plant

  2. Thermal and radiolytic gas generation from Tank 241-S-102 waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, C.M.; Pederson, L.R.; Bryan, S.A.

    1997-07-01

    This report summarizes progress in evaluating thermal and radiolytic rate parameters for flammable gas generation in Hanford single-shell tank wastes based on the results of laboratory tests using actual waste from Tank 241-S-102 (S-102). Work described in this report was conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Flammable Gas Safety Project, whose purpose is to develop information to support Fluor Daniel Hanford (FDH) and its Project Management Hanford Contract (PHMC) subcontractors in their efforts to ensure the safe interim storage of wastes at the Hanford Site. This work is related to gas generation studies being performed at Georgia Institute of Technology (GIT) under subcontract to PNNL, using simulated wastes, and to studies being performed at Numatec Hanford Corporation (formerly Westinghouse Hanford Company) using actual wastes. The results of gas generation from Tank S-102 waste under thermal and radiolytic conditions are described in this report. The accurate measurement of gas generation rates in actual waste from highly radioactive waste tanks is needed to assess the potential for producing and storing flammable gases within the waste tanks. This report addresses the gas generation capacity of the waste from Tank S-102, a waste tank listed as high priority by the Flammable Gas Safety Program due to its potential for flammable gas accumulation above the flammability limit.

  3. A HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS RECEIVER UTILIZING SMALL PARTICLES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, Arlon

    2012-01-01

    of Energy under Arlon Hunt, "A New Solar Thermal Receiversolar thermal receiver that utilizes a dispersion of very small particles susŁe2ded in a gas to absorb the radiant energy

  4. Solar thermal enhanced oil recovery (STEOR). Sections 2-8. Final report, October 1, 1979-June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elzinga, E.; Arnold, C.; Allen, D.; Garman, R.; Joy, P.; Mitchell, P. Shaw, H.

    1980-11-01

    The program objectives were: (1) determine the technical, economic, operational, and environmental feasibility of solar thermal enhanced oil recovery using line focusing distributed collectors at Exxon's Edison Field, and (2) estimate the quantity of solar heat which might be applied to domestic enhanced oil recovery. This volume of the report summarizes all of the work done under the contract Statement of Work. Topics include the selection of the solar system, trade-off studies, preliminary design for steam raising, cost estimate for STEOR at Edison Field, the development plan, and a market and economics analysis. (WHK)

  5. Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Hyuck

    2011-01-01

    ocean thermal energy, distributed solar thermal energy,heat source can be solar thermal energy, biological thermaland concentrated solar thermal energy farms. They demand

  6. Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Hyuck

    2011-01-01

    heat source can be solar thermal energy, biological thermaland concentrated solar thermal energy farms. They demandsources include solar thermal energy, geo-thermal energy,

  7. Active microuidic mixer and gas bubble lter driven by thermal bubble micropump$

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Liwei

    Active microŻuidic mixer and gas bubble ®lter driven by thermal bubble micropump$ Jr-Hung Tsaia interface to increase the contact area of mixing Żuids to accelerate the mixing process. The micro and successfully demonstrated in the microŻuidic mixing system. A model based on the principle of threshold

  8. Purely thermal wave based nonchemical photopyroelectric gas sensor: Application to hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandelis, Andreas

    in the presence o&her ambient gases due to the high solubility of hydrogen in the palladium matrix. The hypothesisPurely thermal wave based nonchemical photopyroelectric gas sensor: Application to hydrogen of Mechanical Engineering and Center jbr Hydrogen and Electrochemical Studies (CHES), University of Toronto

  9. Questar Gas - Residential Solar Assisted Water Heating Rebate Program |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nAandSummary From: JuliaDepartment of Energy < Back Eligibility

  10. Testing and evaluation of large-area heliostats for solar thermal applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strachan, J.W.; Houser, R.M.

    1993-02-01

    Two heliostats representing the state-of-the-art in glass-metal designs for central receiver (and photovoltaic tracking) applications were tested and evaluated at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility in Albuquerque, New Mexico from 1986 to 1992. These heliostats have collection areas of 148 and 200 m{sup 2} and represent low-cost designs for heliostats that employ glass-metal mirrors. The evaluation encompassed the performance and operational characteristics of the heliostats, and examined heliostat beam quality, the effect of elevated winds on beam quality, heliostat drives and controls, mirror module reflectance and durability, and the overall operational and maintenance characteristics of the two heliostats. A comprehensive presentation of the results of these and other tests is presented. The results are prefaced by a review of the development (in the United States) of heliostat technology.

  11. Thermal barrier coating deposition by rarefied gas jet assisted processes: Simulations of deposition on a stationary airfoil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    Thermal barrier coating deposition by rarefied gas jet assisted processes: Simulations) The uniform coating of a complex shaped substrate, such as a gas turbine airfoil, by collisionless physical thermal barrier coating are used to investigate fundamental aspects of the deposition process, including

  12. Green Systems Solar Hot Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schladow, S. Geoffrey

    Green Systems Solar Hot Water Heating the Building Co-generation: Heat Recovery System: Solar Thermal Panels (Trex enclosure) Hot Water Storage Tank (TS-5; basement) Hot Water Heaters (HW-1,2; basement) Pre-heats water so water heaters don't need to use as much energy Gas-powered, high efficiency

  13. Thermal Conductivity Enhancement of High Temperature Phase Change Materials for Concentrating Solar Power Plant Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roshandell, Melina

    2013-01-01

    RL.In: Proceedings on thermal energy storage and energypolymer microcomposites for thermal energy storage. SAE Sochigher volumetric energy density and thermal conductivity.

  14. Micro/Nano-Scale Phase Change Systems for Thermal Management and Solar Energy Conversion Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coso, Dusan

    2013-01-01

    2002, “Survey of Thermal Energy Storage for Parabolic TroughChange Materials for Thermal Energy Storage,” Renewable andTemperature Thermal Energy Storage for Power Generation.

  15. Solar thermal hydrogen production process: Final report, January 1978-December 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-12-01

    Under sponsorship by the United States Department of Energy, Westinghouse Advanced Energy-Systems Division has investigated the potential for using solar thermal energy to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. A hybrid thermochemical/electrochemical process, known as the Sulfur Cycle, has been the focus of these investigations. Process studies have indicated that, with adequate and ongoing research and development, the Sulfur Cycle can be effectively driven with solar heat. Also, economic analyses have indicated that the cycle has the potential to produce hydrogen in economic competitiveness with conventional methods (e.g. methane/steam reforming) by the turn of the century. A first generation developmental system has been defined along with its critical components, i.e. those components that need substantial engineering development. Designs for those high temperature components that concentrate, vaporize and decompose the process circulating fluid, sulfuric acid, have been prepared. Extensive experimental investigations have been conducted with regard to the selection of construction materials for these components. From these experiments, which included materials endurance tests for corrosion resistance for periods up to 6000 hours, promising materials and catalysts have been identified.

  16. Experimental investigation on the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system on water-heating mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Guiyin; Hu, Hainan; Liu, Xu

    2010-09-15

    An experimental study on operation performance of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was conducted in this paper. The experimental system of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was set up. The performance parameters such as the evaporation pressure, the condensation pressure and the coefficient of performance (COP) of heat pump air-conditioning system, the water temperature and receiving heat capacity in water heater, the photovoltaic (PV) module temperature and the photovoltaic efficiency were investigated. The experimental results show that the mean photovoltaic efficiency of photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) solar heat pump air-conditioning system reaches 10.4%, and can improve 23.8% in comparison with that of the conventional photovoltaic module, the mean COP of heat pump air-conditioning system may attain 2.88 and the water temperature in water heater can increase to 42 C. These results indicate that the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system has better performances and can stably work. (author)

  17. Oxidation-resistant, solution-processed plasmonic Ni nanochain-SiO{sub x} (x?solar thermal absorbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Xiaobai; Wang, Xiaoxin; Liu, Jifeng; Zhang, Qinglin; Li, Juchuan

    2014-08-21

    Metal oxidation at high temperatures has long been a challenge in cermet solar thermal absorbers, which impedes the development of atmospherically stable, high-temperature, high-performance concentrated solar power (CSP) systems. In this work, we demonstrate solution-processed Ni nanochain-SiO{sub x} (x?solar thermal absorbers that exhibit a strong anti-oxidation behavior up to 600?°C in air. The thermal stability is far superior to previously reported Ni nanoparticle-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} selective solar thermal absorbers, which readily oxidize at 450?°C. The SiO{sub x} (x?solar absorptance of ?90% and a low emittance ?18% measured at 300?°C. These results open the door towards atmospheric stable, high temperature, high-performance solar selective absorber coatings processed by low-cost solution-chemical methods for future generations of CSP systems.

  18. Hybrid solar central receiver for combined cycle power plant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bharathan, D.; Bohn, M.S.; Williams, T.A.

    1995-05-23

    A hybrid combined cycle power plant is described including a solar central receiver for receiving solar radiation and converting it to thermal energy. The power plant includes a molten salt heat transfer medium for transferring the thermal energy to an air heater. The air heater uses the thermal energy to preheat the air from the compressor of the gas cycle. The exhaust gases from the gas cycle are directed to a steam turbine for additional energy production. 1 figure.

  19. Hybrid solar central receiver for combined cycle power plant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bharathan, Desikan (Lakewood, CO); Bohn, Mark S. (Golden, CO); Williams, Thomas A. (Arvada, CO)

    1995-01-01

    A hybrid combined cycle power plant including a solar central receiver for receiving solar radiation and converting it to thermal energy. The power plant includes a molten salt heat transfer medium for transferring the thermal energy to an air heater. The air heater uses the thermal energy to preheat the air from the compressor of the gas cycle. The exhaust gases from the gas cycle are directed to a steam turbine for additional energy production.

  20. 3.12.2014bo Akademi Univ -Thermal and Flow Engineering Piispankatu 8, 20500 Turku 1/56 9. Solar cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    .iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/Solar_Heating_Cooling_Road map_2012_WEB.pdf 3.12.2014 Ĺbo Akademi Univ - Thermal and Flow Engineering - Piispankatu 8, 20500.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/Solar_Heating_Cooling_Road map_2012_WEB.pdf #12;3.12.2014Ĺbo Akademi Univ - Thermal and Flow Engineering - Piispankatu 8, 20500.12.2014Ĺbo Akademi Univ - Thermal and Flow Engineering - Piispankatu 8, 20500 Turku 8/56 http://www.brighton-webs

  1. CALIFORNIA SOLAR DATA MANUAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.

    2010-01-01

    and William A. Beckman, Solar Energy Thermal Processes (JohnWiley, Inc" New York. Solar Energy Thermal Processes. John1977): SOLCOST, Solar Energy Design Program for Non-Thermal

  2. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.-F.

    2011-01-01

    time-varying solar energy inputs and thermal or powerthermal energy becomes apparent with the development of solar

  3. Project Profile: Reducing the Cost of Thermal Energy Storage for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Abengoa, under the Thermal Storage FOA, is looking at innovative ways to reduce thermal energy storage (TES) system costs.

  4. Gas core nuclear thermal rocket engine research and development in the former USSR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koehlinger, M.W.; Bennett, R.G.; Motloch, C.G.; Gurfink, M.M.

    1992-09-01

    Beginning in 1957 and continuing into the mid 1970s, the USSR conducted an extensive investigation into the use of both solid and gas core nuclear thermal rocket engines for space missions. During this time the scientific and engineering. problems associated with the development of a solid core engine were resolved. At the same time research was undertaken on a gas core engine, and some of the basic engineering problems associated with the concept were investigated. At the conclusion of the program, the basic principles of the solid core concept were established. However, a prototype solid core engine was not built because no established mission required such an engine. For the gas core concept, some of the basic physical processes involved were studied both theoretically and experimentally. However, no simple method of conducting proof-of-principle tests in a neutron flux was devised. This report focuses primarily on the development of the. gas core concept in the former USSR. A variety of gas core engine system parameters and designs are presented, along with a summary discussion of the basic physical principles and limitations involved in their design. The parallel development of the solid core concept is briefly described to provide an overall perspective of the magnitude of the nuclear thermal propulsion program and a technical comparison with the gas core concept.

  5. Performance analysis of medium temperature non-tracking solar thermal concentrators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balkoski, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    take advantage of solar energy, one must first understanda non-tracking solar concentrator, one must first understandOne provides the reader with some of the fundamentals of solar

  6. Super-hot (T > 30 MK) Thermal Plasma in Solar Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caspi, Amir

    2010-01-01

    MNRAS, 148, 17 Kane, S. R. , et al. 1980, in Solar Flares: AMonograph from SKYLAB Solar Workshop II, ed. P. A.Moore, R. , et al. 1980, in Solar Flares: A Monograph from

  7. Super-hot (T > 30 MK) Thermal Plasma in Solar Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caspi, Amir

    2010-01-01

    R. , et al. 1980, in Solar Flares: A Monograph from SKYLABR. , et al. 1980, in Solar Flares: A Monograph from SKYLAB1988, The Physics of Solar Flares (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge

  8. Thermal Conductivity Enhancement of High Temperature Phase Change Materials for Concentrating Solar Power Plant Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roshandell, Melina

    2013-01-01

    164. Golden, Colorado, USA: Solar Energy Research Institute;heat storage materials, Solar Energy 30 (1983) 313–332 13-experimental. Trans ASME, J Solar Energy Eng 1990;112:125–

  9. Thermal Conductivity Enhancement of High Temperature Phase Change Materials for Concentrating Solar Power Plant Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roshandell, Melina

    2013-01-01

    40. 10- Lane GA. Solar heat storage—latent heat materials,332 13- Lane, G.A. Solar Heat Storage: Latent Heat Material,14-Lane, G.A. Solar Heat Storage: Latent Heat Material, vol.

  10. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of advanced reactor concepts: The Gas Core Nuclear Rocket

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banjac, V.; Heger, A.S.

    1995-12-31

    The Gas Core Nuclear Rocket (GCNR), a design first proposed in the 1960s for fast round-trip missions to Mars and the outer planets, is generally considered to be the most advanced, and therefore the most complex, iteration of the fission reactor concept. The GCNR technology involves the extraction of fission energy, by means of thermal radiation, from a high-temperature plasma core to a working fluid. A specific derivative of GCNR technology is the nuclear fight bulb (NLB) rocket engine, first proposed by the then United Aircraft Research Laboratories (UARL) in the early 1960s. The potential operating parameters provided the motivation for a detailed thermal hydraulics analysis.

  11. CAST solar axion search with 3^He buffer gas: Closing the hot dark matter gap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Arik; S. Aune; K. Barth; A. Belov; S. Borghi; H. Brauninger; G. Cantatore; J. M. Carmona; S. A. Cetin; J. I. Collar; E. Da Riva; T. Dafni; M. Davenport; C. Eleftheriadis; N. Elias; G. Fanourakis; E. Ferrer-Ribas; P. Friedrich; J. Galan; J. A. Garcia; A. Gardikiotis; J. G. Garza; E. N. Gazis; T. Geralis; E. Georgiopoulou; I. Giomataris; S. Gninenko; H. Gomez; M. Gomez Marzoa; E. Gruber; T. Guthorl; R. Hartmann; S. Hauf; F. Haug; M. D. Hasinoff; D. H. H. Hoffmann; F. J. Iguaz; I. G. Irastorza; J. Jacoby; K. Jakovcic; M. Karuza; K. Konigsmann; R. Kotthaus; M. Krcmar; M. Kuster; B. Lakic; P. M. Lang; J. M. Laurent; A. Liolios; A. Ljubicic; V. Lozza; G. Luzon; S. Neff; T. Niinikoski; A. Nordt; T. Papaevangelou; M. J. Pivovaroff; G. Raffelt; H. Riege; A. Rodriguez; M. Rosu; J. Ruz; I. Savvidis; I. Shilon; P. S. Silva; S. K. Solanki; L. Stewart; A. Tomas; M. Tsagri; K. van Bibber; T. Vafeiadis; J. Villar; J. K. Vogel; S. C. Yildiz; K. Zioutas

    2014-09-15

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) has finished its search for solar axions with 3^He buffer gas, covering the search range 0.64 eV < m_a <1.17 eV. This closes the gap to the cosmological hot dark matter limit and actually overlaps with it. From the absence of excess X-rays when the magnet was pointing to the Sun we set a typical upper limit on the axion-photon coupling of g_ag < 3.3 x 10^{-10} GeV^{-1} at 95% CL, with the exact value depending on the pressure setting. Future direct solar axion searches will focus on increasing the sensitivity to smaller values of g_a, for example by the currently discussed next generation helioscope IAXO.

  12. Bright Ideas in Solar Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melville, Jo

    2014-01-01

    output of 300 megawatts, though Solar Thermal Energy (STE).Solar Thermal Energy is solar it is expected to reach 550This class of solar thermal energy collection, known as a

  13. Efficient solar cooling: first ever non-tracking solar collectors powering a double effect absorption chiller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poiry, Heather Marie

    2011-01-01

    cost effective solar thermal collector capable of producinghow to design a solar thermal collector that could achievedesign and model solar thermal collectors. In 2007 our group

  14. MINICHANNEL-TUBE SOLAR THERMAL COLLECTORS FOR LOW TO MEDIUM TEMPERATURE APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duong, Van Thuc

    2015-01-01

    and data of solar water heater installation size and costsSolar Analysts were able to obtain data from a survey of installation sizes and costs

  15. Greenhouse Gas Abatement with Distributed Generation in California's Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2010-01-01

    photovoltaics and solar thermal collectors; • electricalexchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers,

  16. Greenhouse Gas Abatement with Distributed Generation in California's Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2010-01-01

    exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers,photovoltaics and solar thermal collectors; • electrical

  17. MESO-SCALE MODELING OF THE INFLUENCE OF INTERGRANULAR GAS BUBBLES ON EFFECTIVE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul C. Millett; Michael Tonks

    2011-06-01

    Using a mesoscale modeling approach, we have investigated how intergranular fission gas bubbles, as observed in high-burnup nuclear fuel, modify the effective thermal conductivity in a polycrystalline material. The calculations reveal that intergranular porosity has a significantly higher resistance to heat transfer compared to randomly-distributed porosity. A model is developed to describe this conductivity reduction that considers an effective grain boundary Kapitza resistance as a function of the fractional coverage of grain boundaries by bubbles.

  18. Thermal Conductivity Enhancement of High Temperature Phase Change Materials for Concentrating Solar Power Plant Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roshandell, Melina

    2013-01-01

    global warming affects. Recent advances on deployment of solar energy to generate electricity shows potential

  19. IDENTIFICATION OF AN {sup 84}Sr-DEPLETED CARRIER IN PRIMITIVE METEORITES AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THERMAL PROCESSING IN THE SOLAR PROTOPLANETARY DISK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paton, Chad; Schiller, Martin; Bizzarro, Martin E-mail: schiller@snm.ku.dk

    2013-02-01

    The existence of correlated nucleosynthetic heterogeneities in solar system reservoirs is now well demonstrated for numerous nuclides. However, it has proven difficult to discriminate between the two disparate processes that can explain such correlated variability: incomplete mixing of presolar material or secondary processing of a well-mixed disk. Using stepwise acid-leaching of the Ivuna CI-chondrite, we show that unlike other nuclides such as {sup 54}Cr and {sup 50}Ti, Sr-isotope variability is the result of a carrier depleted in {sup 84}Sr. The carrier is most likely presolar SiC, which is known to have both high Sr-concentrations relative to solar abundances and extremely depleted {sup 84}Sr compositions. Thus, variability in {sup 84}Sr in meteorites and their components can be attributed to varying contributions from presolar SiC. The observed {sup 84}Sr excesses in calcium-aluminum refractory inclusions (CAIs) suggest their formation from an SiC-free gaseous reservoir, whereas the {sup 84}Sr depletions present in differentiated meteorites require their formation from material with an increased concentration of SiC relative to CI chondrites. The presence of a positive correlation between {sup 84}Sr and {sup 54}Cr, despite being hosted in carriers of negative and positive anomalies, respectively, is not compatible with incomplete mixing of presolar material but instead suggests that the solar system's nucleosynthetic heterogeneity reflects selective thermal processing of dust. Based on vaporization experiments of SiC under nebular conditions, the lack of SiC material in the CAI-forming gas inferred from our data requires that the duration of thermal processing of dust resulting in the vaporization of CAI precursors was extremely short-lived, possibly lasting only hours to days.

  20. A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zachary Mills

    2011-01-01

    in solar thermal electricity technology. Solar Energy 76(1-solar energy is ubiquitous, and valuable when converted to high-grade heat or electricity.electricity in a natural gas, coal or nuclear power plant can instead harness solar energy

  1. Benchmark Test of Differential Emission Measure Codes and Multi-Thermal Energies in Solar Active Regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aschwanden, M J; Caspi, A; McTiernan, J M; Ryan, D; Warren, H P

    2015-01-01

    We compare the ability of 11 Differential Emission Measure (DEM) forward-fitting and inversion methods to constrain the properties of active regions and solar flares by simulating synthetic data using the instrumental response functions of SDO/AIA, SDO/EVE, RHESSI, and GOES/XRS. The codes include the single-Gaussian DEM, a bi-Gaussian DEM, a fixed-Gaussian DEM, a linear spline DEM, the spatial synthesis DEM, the Monte-Carlo Markov chain DEM, the regularized DEM inversion, the Hinode/XRT method, a polynomial spline DEM, an EVE+GOES, and an EVE+RHESSI method. Averaging the results from all 11 DEM methods, we find the following accuracies in the inversion of physical parameters: the EM-weighted temperature $T_w^{fit}/T_w^{sim}=0.9\\pm0.1$, the peak emission measure $EM_p^{fit}/EM_p^{sim}=0.6\\pm0.2$, the total emission measure $EM_t^{fit}/EM_t^{sim}=0.8\\pm0.3$, and the multi-thermal energies $E_{th}^{fit}/EM_{th}^{sim}=1.2\\pm0.4$. We find that the AIA spatial synthesis, the EVE+GOES, and the EVE+RHESSI method yiel...

  2. Thermal degradation mechanisms in GaAs solar cells with high-temperature contacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tobin, S.P.; Bajgar, C.; Vernon, S.M.; Keavney, C.J.; Chung, M.A.; Ruby, D.S.

    1988-01-01

    This objective of this work was to characterize the thermal stability of GaAs solar cells with high-temperature contacts. High-temperature stability is important for threat environments in space, for compatibility with high-temperature assembly techniques, and for enhanced reliability of cells. Our contact system, described previously, relies on a Pt solid-phase ohmic contact, a TiN barrier layer, and an Au conductor, with contact to a heavily doped p-GaAs contact layer. The behavior of both flat-plate and concentrator cells has been characterized as a function of temperature (400-600/degree/C) and time (5-15 minutes) of the anneal. We find that GaAs cells experience minimal electrical degradation up to 550/degree/C for 5 minutes, or to 490/degree/C for 15 minutes. Increases in the 2kT perimeter dark current are responsible for small decreases in Voc and FF up to these temperatures. At higher temperatures a drastic decrease in efficiency is caused by metallurgical reactions at isolated regions along the grid lines. The reaction, which appears to involve Au-Ga, is initiated at the edges of the grid lines. Away from edges, the contacts are metallurgically stable to at least 600/degree/C. 4 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Thermal influence on charge carrier transport in solar cells based on GaAs PN junctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osses-Márquez, Juan; Calderón-Muńoz, Williams R.

    2014-10-21

    The electron and hole one-dimensional transport in a solar cell based on a Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) PN junction and its dependency with electron and lattice temperatures are studied here. Electrons and heat transport are treated on an equal footing, and a cell operating at high temperatures using concentrators is considered. The equations of a two-temperature hydrodynamic model are written in terms of asymptotic expansions for the dependent variables with the electron Reynolds number as a perturbation parameter. The dependency of the electron and hole densities through the junction with the temperature is analyzed solving the steady-state model at low Reynolds numbers. Lattice temperature distribution throughout the device is obtained considering the change of kinetic energy of electrons due to interactions with the lattice and heat absorbed from sunlight. In terms of performance, higher values of power output are obtained with low lattice temperature and hot energy carriers. This modeling contributes to improve the design of heat exchange devices and thermal management strategies in photovoltaic technologies.

  4. Comparative Analysis of Non-thermal Emissions and Study of Electron Transport in a Solar Flare

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Minoshima; T. Yokoyama; N. Mitani

    2007-10-02

    We study the non-thermal emissions in a solar flare occurring on 2003 May 29 by using RHESSI hard X-ray (HXR) and Nobeyama microwave observations. This flare shows several typical behaviors of the HXR and microwave emissions: time delay of microwave peaks relative to HXR peaks, loop-top microwave and footpoint HXR sources, and a harder electron energy distribution inferred from the microwave spectrum than from the HXR spectrum. In addition, we found that the time profile of the spectral index of the higher-energy ($\\gsim 100$ keV) HXRs is similar to that of the microwaves, and is delayed from that of the lower-energy ($\\lsim 100$ keV) HXRs. We interpret these observations in terms of an electron transport model called {\\TPP}. We numerically solved the spatially-homogeneous {\\FP} equation to determine electron evolution in energy and pitch-angle space. By comparing the behaviors of the HXR and microwave emissions predicted by the model with the observations, we discuss the pitch-angle distribution of the electrons injected into the flare site. We found that the observed spectral variations can qualitatively be explained if the injected electrons have a pitch-angle distribution concentrated perpendicular to the magnetic field lines rather than isotropic distribution.

  5. Distributed Energy Resources On-Site Optimization for Commercial Buildings with Electric and Thermal Storage Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2008-01-01

    absorption chiller solar thermal photovoltaics Resultsand fuel cells; photovoltaics and solar thermal collectors;

  6. Bond Coating Performance of Thermal Barrier Coatings for Industrial Gas Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, Ian G; Pint, Bruce A

    2005-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings are intended to work in conjunction with internal cooling schemes to reduce the metal temperature of critical hot gas path components in gas turbine engines. The thermal resistance is typically provided by a 100--250 {mu}m thick layer of ceramic (most usually zirconia stabilized with an addition of 7--8 wt% of yttria), and this is deposited on to an approximately 50 {mu} thick, metallic bond coating that is intended to anchor the ceramic to the metallic surface, to provide some degree of mechanical compliance, and to act as a reservoir of protective scale-forming elements (Al) to protect the underlying superalloy from high-temperature corrosion. A feature of importance to the durability of thermal barrier coatings is the early establishment of a continuous, protective oxide layer (preferably {alpha}-alumina) at the bond coating-ceramic interface. Because zirconia is permeable to oxygen, this oxide layer continues to grow during service. Some superalloys are inherently resistant to high-temperature oxidation, so a separate bond coating may not be needed in those cases. Thermal barrier coatings have been in service in aeroengines for a number of years, and the use of this technology for increasing the durability and/or efficiency of industrial gas turbines is currently of significant interest. The data presented were taken from an investigation of routes to optimize bond coating performance, and the focus of the paper is on the influences of reactive elements and Pt on the oxidation behaviour of NiAl-based alloys determined in studies using cast versions of bond coating compositions.

  7. Thermal transport of the solar captured dark matter and its impact on the indirect dark matter search

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Chian-Shu; Lin, Yen-Hsun

    2015-01-01

    We study the thermal transport occurring in the system of solar captured dark matter (DM) and explore its impact on the DM indirect search signal. We particularly focus on the scenario of self-interacting DM (SIDM). The flows of energies in and out of the system are caused by solar captures via DM-nucleon and DM-DM scatterings, the energy dissipation via DM annihilation, and the heat exchange between DM and solar nuclei. We examine the DM temperature evolution and demonstrate that the DM temperature can be higher than the core temperature of the Sun if the DM-nucleon cross section is sufficiently small such that the energy flow due to DM self-interaction becomes relatively important. We argue that the correct DM temperature should be used for accurately predicting the DM annihilation rate, which is relevant to the DM indirect detection.

  8. Thermal transport of the solar captured dark matter and its impact on the indirect dark matter search

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chian-Shu Chen; Guey-Lin Lin; Yen-Hsun Lin

    2015-09-01

    We study the thermal transport occurring in the system of solar captured dark matter (DM) and explore its impact on the DM indirect search signal. We particularly focus on the scenario of self-interacting DM (SIDM). The flows of energies in and out of the system are caused by solar captures via DM-nucleon and DM-DM scatterings, the energy dissipation via DM annihilation, and the heat exchange between DM and solar nuclei. We examine the DM temperature evolution and demonstrate that the DM temperature can be higher than the core temperature of the Sun if the DM-nucleon cross section is sufficiently small such that the energy flow due to DM self-interaction becomes relatively important. We argue that the correct DM temperature should be used for accurately predicting the DM annihilation rate, which is relevant to the DM indirect detection.

  9. Modeling and analysis of hybrid geothermal-solar thermal energy conversion systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenhut, Andrew David

    2010-01-01

    Innovative solar-geothermal hybrid energy conversion systems were developed for low enthalpy geothermal resources augmented with solar energy. The goal is to find cost-effective hybrid power cycles that take advantage of ...

  10. INLINE HIGH-RATE THERMAL EVAPORATION OF ALUMINUM FOR NOVEL INDUSTRIAL SOLAR CELL METALLIZATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in the food industry. For the metallization of solar cells Schott Solar AG used a batch evaporation system, seven vacuum chambers and an unloading area and may be used either in a continuous or in an oscillating

  11. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.-F.

    2011-01-01

    varying solar energy inputs and thermal or power demands. Itusing aquifers for thermal energy storage. Problems outlinedmatical Modeling of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers,"

  12. X-Ray Evidence for Multiphase Hot Gas with Solar Abundances in the Brightest Elliptical Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David A. Buote

    1999-06-22

    We examine whether isothermal models of the hot gas can successfully describe the ASCA and ROSAT spectra of NGC 1399, NGC 4472, NGC 4636, and NGC 5044. Broad-band spectral fitting of the ASCA SIS and GIS data accumulated within a radius of ~5 arcmin for each galaxy shows that isothermal models are unable to fit the SIS data near 1 keV. In addition, these isothermal models typically fail to produce the large equivalent widths of the K-alpha line blends of the H-like and He-like ions of Si and S which are measured independently of the Fe L emission lines. Two-temperature models provide excellent broad-band fits to both the SIS and GIS data of each galaxy with the relative abundances (except for NGC 4636) fixed at their solar values. A simple multiphase cooling flow model fits nearly as well as the two-temperature model for NGC 1399, NGC 4472, and NGC 5044. The multiphase models also predict more accurately the Si and S equivalent widths and the ratios of Si XIV/XIII and S XVI/XV than the isothermal models. Using various approaches we find that the temperature gradients inferred from the ROSAT PSPC data of these galaxies, especially for NGC 1399 and NGC 5044, are inconsistent with the isothermal models derived from fitting the ASCA data within a single-aperture but are very consistent with the multiphase models. Therefore, models which assume isothermal gas within r ~5 arcmin are inconsistent with both the ASCA and ROSAT PSPC data of these elliptical galaxies. Simple two-temperature models and multiphase cooling flows provide good descriptions of these data sets with Fe abundances of ~1-2 solar and (except for NGC 4636) relative abundances fixed at their solar values. We discuss the implications of these nearly solar abundances. (Abridged)

  13. A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zachary Mills

    2011-01-01

    to be more suited to solar thermal energy sources. Airrenewable energy technologies in solar thermal and PV, andunit of solar thermal and solar electric energy from a DCS-

  14. Summary Report for Concentrating Solar Power Thermal Storage Workshop: New Concepts and Materials for Thermal Energy Storage and Heat-Transfer Fluids, May 20, 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glatzmaier, G.

    2011-08-01

    This document summarizes a workshop on thermal energy storage for concentrating solar power (CSP) that was held in Golden, Colorado, on May 20, 2011. The event was hosted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratories. The objective was to engage the university and laboratory research communities to identify and define research directions for developing new high-temperature materials and systems that advance thermal energy storage for CSP technologies. This workshop was motivated, in part, by the DOE SunShot Initiative, which sets a very aggressive cost goal for CSP technologies -- a levelized cost of energy of 6 cents per kilowatt-hour by 2020 with no incentives or credits.

  15. The design, construction, and monitoring of photovoltaic power system and solar thermal system on the Georgia Institute of Technology Aquatic Center. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, R.C.

    1996-12-31

    This is a report on the feasibility study, design, and construction of a PV and solar thermal system for the Georgia Tech Aquatic Center. The topics of the report include a discussion of site selection and system selection, funding, design alternatives, PV module selection, final design, and project costs. Included are appendices describing the solar thermal system, the SAC entrance canopy PV mockup, and the PV feasibility study.

  16. Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Hyuck

    2011-01-01

    and nuclear power plants, solar thermal energy, geothermalpower plants, distributed solar thermal energy, geo/ocean-power plants and concentrated solar thermal energy farms.

  17. Receiver subsystem analysis report (RADL Item 4-1). 10-MWe Solar Thermal Central-Receiver Pilot Plant: solar-facilities design integration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    The results are presented of those thermal hydraulic, structural, and stress analyses required to demonstrate that the Receiver design for the Barstow Solar Pilot Plant will satisfy the general design and performance requirements during the plant's design life. Recommendations resulting from those analyses and supporting test programs are presented regarding operation of the receiver. The analyses are limited to receiver subsystem major structural parts (primary tower, receiver unit core support structure), pressure parts (absorber panels, feedwater, condensate and steam piping/components, flash tank, and steam mainfold) and shielding. (LEW)

  18. Performance Analysis of XCPC Powered Solar Cooling Demonstration Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Widyolar, Bennett

    2013-01-01

    since the 1970s. Solar thermal collectors are generallyin developing solar thermal collectors that can efficientlyfor the collector efficiency, thermal COP, and solar COP of

  19. Solar Power in the Desert: Are the current large-scale solar developments really improving California’s environment?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Michael F.; McHughen, Alan

    2011-01-01

    habitat loss from solar and thermal power expansions (Photovoltaic vs Solar Thermal. In: Planetary Stewardship.of the vegetation for thermal solar power units. The net C

  20. Application of subgroup decomposition in diffusion theory to gas cooled thermal reactor problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yasseri, S.; Rahnema, F. [Nuclear and Radiological Engineering and Medical Physics Program, George W. Woodruff School, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0405 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, the accuracy and computational efficiency of the subgroup decomposition (SGD) method in diffusion theory is assessed in a ID benchmark problem characteristic of gas cooled thermal systems. This method can be viewed as a significant improvement in accuracy of standard coarse-group calculations used for VHTR whole core analysis in which core environmental effect and energy angle coupling are pronounced. It is shown that a 2-group SGD calculation reproduces fine-group (47) results with 1.5 to 6 times faster computational speed depending on the stabilizing schemes while it is as efficient as single standard 6-group diffusion calculation. (authors)

  1. Bushing retention system for thermal medium cooling delivery tubes in a gas turbine rotor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mashey, Thomas Charles (Coxsackie, NY)

    2002-01-01

    Bushings are provided in counterbores for wheels and spacers for supporting thermal medium cooling tubes extending axially adjacent the rim of the gas turbine rotor. The retention system includes a retaining ring disposed in a groove adjacent an end face of the bushing and which retaining ring projects radially inwardly to prevent axial movement of the bushing in one direction. The retention ring has a plurality of circumferentially spaced tabs along its inner diameter whereby the ring is supported by the lands of the tube maintaining its bushing retention function, notwithstanding operation in high centrifugal fields and rotation of the ring in the groove into other circular orientations.

  2. Removal of Elemental Mercury from a Gas Stream Facilitated by a Non-Thermal Plasma Device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Mones

    2006-12-01

    Mercury generated from anthropogenic sources presents a difficult environmental problem. In comparison to other toxic metals, mercury has a low vaporization temperature. Mercury and mercury compounds are highly toxic, and organic forms such as methyl mercury can be bio-accumulated. Exposure pathways include inhalation and transport to surface waters. Mercury poisoning can result in both acute and chronic effects. Most commonly, chronic exposure to mercury vapor affects the central nervous system and brain, resulting in neurological damage. The CRE technology employs a series of non-thermal, plasma-jet devices to provide a method for elemental mercury removal from a gas phase by targeting relevant chemical reactions. The technology couples the known chemistry of converting elemental mercury to ionic compounds by mercury-chlorine-oxygen reactions with the generation of highly reactive species in a non-thermal, atmospheric, plasma device. The generation of highly reactive metastable species in a non-thermal plasma device is well known. The introduction of plasma using a jet-injection device provides a means to contact highly reactive species with elemental mercury in a manner to overcome the kinetic and mass-transfer limitations encountered by previous researchers. To demonstrate this technology, WRI has constructed a plasma test facility that includes plasma reactors capable of using up to four plasma jets, flow control instrumentation, an integrated control panel to operate the facility, a mercury generation system that employs a temperature controlled oven and permeation tube, combustible and mercury gas analyzers, and a ductless fume hood designed to capture fugitive mercury emissions. Continental Research and Engineering (CR&E) and Western Research Institute (WRI) successfully demonstrated that non-thermal plasma containing oxygen and chlorine-oxygen reagents could completely convert elemental mercury to an ionic form. These results demonstrate potential the application of this technology for removing elemental mercury from flue gas streams generated by utility boilers. On an absolute basis, the quantity of reagent required to accomplish the oxidation was small. For example, complete oxidation of mercury was accomplished using a 1% volume fraction of oxygen in a nitrogen stream. Overall, the tests with mercury validated the most useful aspect of the CR&E technology: Providing a method for elemental mercury removal from a gas phase by employing a specific plasma reagent to either increase reaction kinetics or promote reactions that would not have occurred under normal circumstances.

  3. Simulating the escaping atmospheres of hot gas planets in the solar neighborhood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salz, M; Schneider, P C; Schmitt, J H M M

    2015-01-01

    Absorption of high-energy radiation in planetary thermospheres is believed to lead to the formation of planetary winds. The resulting mass-loss rates can affect the evolution, particularly of small gas planets. We present 1D, spherically symmetric hydrodynamic simulations of the escaping atmospheres of 18 hot gas planets in the solar neighborhood. Our sample only includes strongly irradiated planets, whose expanded atmospheres may be detectable via transit spectroscopy. The simulations were performed with the PLUTO-CLOUDY interface, which couples a detailed photoionization and plasma simulation code with a general MHD code. We study the thermospheric escape and derive improved estimates for the planetary mass-loss rates. Our simulations reproduce the temperature-pressure profile measured via sodium D absorption in HD 189733 b, but show unexplained differences in the case of HD 209458 b. In contrast to general assumptions, we find that the gravitationally more tightly bound thermospheres of massive and compact...

  4. ECOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS OF THE SOLAR ALTERNATIVE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davidson, M.

    2010-01-01

    result in sustantial thermal pollution. The refining ofconstruction pollution operation accidents SOLAR THERMAL

  5. Project Profile: Novel Molten Salts Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrating Solar Power Generation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The University of Alabama, under the Thermal Storage FOA, is developing thermal energy storage (TES) media consisting of low melting point (LMP) molten salt with high TES density for sensible heat storage systems.

  6. Project Profile: Novel Thermal Energy Storage Systems for Concentrating Solar Power

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The University of Connecticut, under the Thermal Storage FOA, is developing innovative heat transfer devices and methodologies for novel thermal energy storage (TES) systems for CSP involving phase change materials (PCMs).

  7. Method of making improved gas storage carbon with enhanced thermal conductivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burchell, Timothy D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Rogers, Michael R. (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-11-05

    A method of making an adsorbent carbon fiber based monolith having improved methane gas storage capabilities is disclosed. Additionally, the monolithic nature of the storage carbon allows it to exhibit greater thermal conductivity than conventional granular activated carbon or powdered activated carbon storage beds. The storage of methane gas is achieved through the process of physical adsorption in the micropores that are developed in the structure of the adsorbent monolith. The disclosed monolith is capable of storing greater than 150 V/V of methane [i.e., >150 STP (101.325 KPa, 298K) volumes of methane per unit volume of storage vessel internal volume] at a pressure of 3.5 MPa (500 psi).

  8. Phase-field simulations of intragranular fission gas bubble evolution in UO2 under post-irradiation thermal annealing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Montgomery, Robert O.; Gao, Fei; Sun, Xin

    2013-05-15

    Fission gas bubble is one of evolving microstructures, which affect thermal mechanical properties such as thermo-conductivity, gas release, volume swelling, and cracking, in operating nuclear fuels. Therefore, fundamental understanding of gas bubble evolution kinetics is essential to predict the thermodynamic property and performance changes of fuels. In this work, a generic phasefield model was developed to describe the evolution kinetics of intra-granular fission gas bubbles in UO2 fuels under post-irradiation thermal annealing conditions. Free energy functional and model parameters are evaluated from atomistic simulations and experiments. Critical nuclei size of the gas bubble and gas bubble evolution were simulated. A linear relationship between logarithmic bubble number density and logarithmic mean bubble diameter is predicted which is in a good agreement with experimental data.

  9. Evacuated tube solar thermal collector arrays have a wide range of applications. While most of these applications are limited in performance due to relatively low maximum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evacuated tube solar thermal collector arrays have a wide range of applications. While most of these applications are limited in performance due to relatively low maximum operating temperatures, these collectors can still be useful in low grade thermal systems. An array of fifteen Apricus AP-30 evacuated tube

  10. Thermal Conductivity Enhancement of High Temperature Phase Change Materials for Concentrating Solar Power Plant Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roshandell, Melina

    2013-01-01

    demand for improving the thermal conductivity of PCM has led us to study effect of aluminum and copper

  11. CAST search for sub-eV mass solar axions with 3He buffer gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Arik; S. Aune; K. Barth; A. Belov; S. Borghi; H. Bräuninger; G. Cantatore; J. M. Carmona; S. A. Cetin; J. I. Collar; T. Dafni; M. Davenport; C. Eleftheriadis; N. Elias; C. Ezer; G. Fanourakis; E. Ferrer-Ribas; P. Friedrich; J. Galán; J. A. García; A. Gardikiotis; E. N. Gazis; T. Geralis; I. Giomataris; S. Gninenko; H. Gómez; E. Gruber; T. Guthörl; R. Hartmann; F. Haug; M. D. Hasinoff; D. H. H. Hoffmann; F. J. Iguaz; I. G. Irastorza; J. Jacoby; K. Jakov?i?; M. Karuza; K. Königsmann; R. Kotthaus; M. Kr?mar; M. Kuster; B. Laki?; J. M. Laurent; A. Liolios; A. Ljubi?i?; V. Lozza; G. Lutz; G. Luzón; J. Morales; T. Niinikoski; A. Nordt; T. Papaevangelou; M. J. Pivovaroff; G. Raffelt; T. Rashba; H. Riege; A. Rodríguez; M. Rosu; J. Ruz; I. Savvidis; P. S. Silva; S. K. Solanki; L. Stewart; A. Tomás; M. Tsagri; K. van Bibber; T. Vafeiadis; J. Villar; J. K. Vogel; S. C. Yildiz; K. Zioutas

    2012-10-04

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) has extended its search for solar axions by using 3He as a buffer gas. At T=1.8 K this allows for larger pressure settings and hence sensitivity to higher axion masses than our previous measurements with 4He. With about 1 h of data taking at each of 252 different pressure settings we have scanned the axion mass range 0.39 eV < m_a < 0.64 eV. From the absence of excess X-rays when the magnet was pointing to the Sun we set a typical upper limit on the axion-photon coupling of g_ag < 2.3 x 10^{-10} GeV^{-1} at 95% CL, the exact value depending on the pressure setting. KSVZ axions are excluded at the upper end of our mass range, the first time ever for any solar axion search. In future we will extend our search to m_a < 1.15 eV, comfortably overlapping with cosmological hot dark matter bounds.

  12. Rapid hydrogen gas generation using reactive thermal decomposition of uranium hydride.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kanouff, Michael P.; Van Blarigan, Peter; Robinson, David B.; Shugard, Andrew D.; Gharagozloo, Patricia E.; Buffleben, George M.; James, Scott Carlton; Mills, Bernice E.

    2011-09-01

    Oxygen gas injection has been studied as one method for rapidly generating hydrogen gas from a uranium hydride storage system. Small scale reactors, 2.9 g UH{sub 3}, were used to study the process experimentally. Complimentary numerical simulations were used to better characterize and understand the strongly coupled chemical and thermal transport processes controlling hydrogen gas liberation. The results indicate that UH{sub 3} and O{sub 2} are sufficiently reactive to enable a well designed system to release gram quantities of hydrogen in {approx} 2 seconds over a broad temperature range. The major system-design challenge appears to be heat management. In addition to the oxidation tests, H/D isotope exchange experiments were performed. The rate limiting step in the overall gas-to-particle exchange process was found to be hydrogen diffusion in the {approx}0.5 {mu}m hydride particles. The experiments generated a set of high quality experimental data; from which effective intra-particle diffusion coefficients can be inferred.

  13. Thermal annealing study on P3HT: PCBM based bulk heterojunction organic solar cells using impedance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gollu, Sankara Rao; Sharma, Ramakant G, Srinivas Gupta, Dipti

    2014-10-15

    Recently, Thermal annealing is an important process for bulk heterojunction organic solar cells (BHJ OSCs) to improve the device efficiency and performance of the organic solar cells. Here in, we have examined the changes in the efficiency and morphology of P3HT: PCBM film according to the thermal annealing temperature to find the changes during the annealing process by measuring the optical absorption, atomic force microscope and X-ray diffraction. We also investigated the effect of different annealing process conditions (without, pre- and post-annealing) on the device performance of the inverted bulk heterojunction organic solar cells consist the structure of ITO/ ZnO / P3HT: PCBM / MoO{sub 3}/ Al by measuring AC impedance characteristics. Particularly, the power conversion efficiency (PCE), crystalline nature of the polymer, light absorption and the surface smoothness of P3HT: PCBM films are significantly improved after the annealing process. These results indicated the improvement in terms of PCE, interface smoothness between the P3HT: PCBM and MoO{sub 3} layers of the post annealed device originated from the decrease of series resistance between P3HT: PCBM layer and Al electrodes, which could be due to decrease in the effective life time of charge carriers.

  14. Performance analysis of medium temperature non-tracking solar thermal concentrators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balkoski, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Energy 3 Sun-of solar energy, descriptions of sun-Earth geometricemission of the energy by the sun can be used to understand

  15. Micro/Nano-Scale Phase Change Systems for Thermal Management and Solar Energy Conversion Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coso, Dusan

    2013-01-01

    permission from Energy and Environmental Science, CopyrightRenewable Energy,” Energy & Environmental Science, 2 (6), p.Solar Energy,” Energy & Environmental Science, 4 (11), pp. [

  16. Novel Molten Salts Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrating Solar Power Generation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23–25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona.

  17. Performance analysis of medium temperature non-tracking solar thermal concentrators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balkoski, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    normal to the sun at solar noon (not tracking) and recordingSun-Earth Geometry To understand the design of a non-tracking

  18. Performance analysis of medium temperature non-tracking solar thermal concentrators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balkoski, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Energy 3 Sun-that describe the sun as an energy source. Additionally, theof solar energy, descriptions of sun-Earth geometric

  19. MINICHANNEL-TUBE SOLAR THERMAL COLLECTORS FOR LOW TO MEDIUM TEMPERATURE APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duong, Van Thuc

    2015-01-01

    diagram. . . . . . . 30 Energy balance of a minichannelheating applications ”. In California Energy Commission 40thweather conditions”. Solar Energy. 110, 356-364. V. Duong

  20. THR-TH: a high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor core thermal hydraulics code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vondy, D.R.

    1984-07-01

    The ORNL version of PEBBLE, the (RZ) pebble bed thermal hydraulics code, has been extended for application to a prismatic gas cooled reactor core. The supplemental treatment is of one-dimensional coolant flow in up to a three-dimensional core description. Power density data from a neutronics and exposure calculation are used as the basic information for the thermal hydraulics calculation of heat removal. Two-dimensional neutronics results may be expanded for a three-dimensional hydraulics calculation. The geometric description for the hydraulics problem is the same as used by the neutronics code. A two-dimensional thermal cell model is used to predict temperatures in the fuel channel. The capability is available in the local BOLD VENTURE computation system for reactor core analysis with capability to account for the effect of temperature feedback by nuclear cross section correlation. Some enhancements have also been added to the original code to add pebble bed modeling flexibility and to generate useful auxiliary results. For example, an estimate is made of the distribution of fuel temperatures based on average and extreme conditions regularly calculated at a number of locations.

  1. ECOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS OF THE SOLAR ALTERNATIVE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davidson, M.

    2010-01-01

    J. A. , and Beckman, W. A. , Solar Energy Thermal Processes,term solar energy are: Included solar thermal conversion toNew York, 1966. 8. Solar Sea Thermal Energy, Ninety-Third

  2. ECOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS OF THE SOLAR ALTERNATIVE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davidson, M.

    2010-01-01

    on site. 7) Climatology. Solar power plants of the centralCentral Reveiver Solar Thermal Power Plant Design Concepts,l ,2,3,4,5 A. Solar Thermal Power Solar thermal power

  3. On the transition from photoluminescence to thermal emission and its implication on solar energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manor, Assaf; Rotschild, Carmel

    2014-01-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) is a fundamental light-matter interaction, which conventionally involves the absorption of energetic photon, thermalization and the emission of a red-shifted photon. Conversely, in optical-refrigeration the absorption of low energy photon is followed by endothermic-PL of energetic photon. Both aspects were mainly studied where thermal population is far weaker than photonic excitation, obscuring the generalization of PL and thermal emissions. Here we experimentally study endothermic-PL at high temperatures. In accordance with theory, we show how PL photon rate is conserved with temperature increase, while each photon is blue shifted. Further rise in temperature leads to an abrupt transition to thermal emission where the photon rate increases sharply. We also show how endothermic-PL generates orders of magnitude more energetic photons than thermal emission at similar temperatures. Relying on these observations, we propose and theoretically study thermally enhanced PL (TEPL) for highly eff...

  4. Summary of: Simulating the Value of Concentrating Solar Power with Thermal Energy Storage in a Production Cost Model (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.; Hummon, M.

    2013-02-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) deployed with thermal energy storage (TES) provides a dispatchable source of renewable energy. The value of CSP with TES, as with other potential generation resources, needs to be established using traditional utility planning tools. Production cost models, which simulate the operation of grid, are often used to estimate the operational value of different generation mixes. CSP with TES has historically had limited analysis in commercial production simulations. This document describes the implementation of CSP with TES in a commercial production cost model. It also describes the simulation of grid operations with CSP in a test system consisting of two balancing areas located primarily in Colorado.

  5. Exploring the Potential of Fulvalene Dimetals as Platforms for Molecular Solar Thermal Energy Storage: Computations, Syntheses, Structures, Kinetics, and Catalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borjesson, K; Coso, D; Gray, V; Grossman, JC; Guan, JQ; Harris, CB; Hertkorn, N; Hou, ZR; Kanai, Y; Lee, D; Lomont, JP; Majumdar, A; Meier, SK; Moth-Poulsen, K; Myrabo, RL; Nguyen, SC; Segalman, RA; Srinivasan, V; Tolman, WB; Vinokurov, N; Vollhardt, KPC; Weidman, TW

    2014-10-03

    A study of the scope and limitations of varying the ligand framework around the dinuclear core of FvRu(2) in its function as a molecular solar thermal energy storage framework is presented. It includes DFT calculations probing the effect of substituents, other metals, and CO exchange for other ligands on Delta H-storage. Experimentally, the system is shown to be robust in as much as it tolerates a number of variations, except for the identity of the metal and certain substitution patterns. Failures include 1,1',3,3'-tetra-tert-butyl (4), 1,2,2',3'-tetraphenyl (9), diiron (28), diosmium (24), mixed iron-ruthenium (27), dimolybdenum (29), and di-tungsten (30) derivatives. An extensive screen of potential catalysts for the thermal reversal identified AgNO3-SiO2 as a good candidate, although catalyst decomposition remains a challenge.

  6. Survey and evaluation of available thermal insulation materials for use on solar heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    This is the final report of a survey and evaluation of insulation materials for use with components of solar heating and cooling systems. The survey was performed by mailing questionnaires to manufacturers of insulation materials and by conducting an extensive literature search to obtain data on relevant properties of various types of insulation materials. The study evaluated insulation materials for active and passive solar heating and cooling systems and for multifunction applications. Primary and secondary considerations for selecting insulation materials for various components of solar heating and cooling systems are presented.

  7. Efficient solar cooling: first ever non-tracking solar collectors powering a double effect absorption chiller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poiry, Heather Marie

    2011-01-01

    2004) “Advances in solar thermal electricity technology”.1: Comparison of the pros and cons for various solar thermalof Three Concentrating Solar Thermal Units Designed with

  8. Project Profile: Novel Thermal Storage Technologies for Concentrating Solar Power Generation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lehigh University, under the Thermal Storage FOA, is working to establish the technical feasibility of using phase change materials (PCM) at elevated temperatures and to acquire engineering results that will lead to the demonstration of large-scale thermal storage systems.

  9. Solar Rights

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A solar energy system is defined as "a system affixed to a building or buildings that uses solar devices, which are thermally isolated from living space or any other area where the energy is used...

  10. MINICHANNEL-TUBE SOLAR THERMAL COLLECTORS FOR LOW TO MEDIUM TEMPERATURE APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duong, Van Thuc

    2015-01-01

    Prediction of two-phase frictional pressure drop in copper minichannel solara prediction tool to model the copper minichannel solarprediction of heat transfer coefficient in the copper minichannel solar

  11. Design and validation of an air window for a molten salt solar thermal receiver

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paxson, Adam Taylor

    2009-01-01

    This thesis contributes to the development of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) receivers and focuses on the design of an efficient aperture. An air window is proposed for use as the aperture of a CSP molten salt receiver ...

  12. Sandia Energy - Concentrating Solar Power Technical Management...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Concentrating Solar Power Technical Management Position Home Renewable Energy Energy Facilities News Concentrating Solar Power Solar Job Listing National Solar Thermal Test...

  13. Lubricating system for thermal medium delivery parts in a gas turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mashey, Thomas Charles (Coxsackie, NY)

    2002-01-01

    Cooling steam delivery tubes extend axially along the outer rim of a gas turbine rotor for supplying cooling steam to and returning spent cooling steam from the turbine buckets. Because of the high friction forces at the interface of the tubes and supporting elements due to rotor rotation, a low coefficient of friction coating is provided at the interface of the tubes and support elements. On each surface, a first coating of a cobalt-based alloy is sprayed onto the surface at high temperature. A portion of the first coating is machined off to provide a smooth, hard surface. A second ceramic-based solid film lubricant is sprayed onto the first coating. By reducing the resistance to axial displacement of the tubes relative to the supporting elements due to thermal expansion, the service life of the tubes is substantially extended.

  14. A Continuous Solar Thermochemical Hydrogen Production Plant Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luc, Wesley Wai

    thermochemical plant. Solar thermal energy is harnessed bya solar thermal plant built by the Department of Energy in

  15. Solar access of residential rooftops in four California cities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levinson, Ronnen

    2010-01-01

    solar-energy systems, including photovoltaic panels and thermal collectors.solar-energy systems, including photovoltaic panels and thermal collectors.

  16. Thermal stress analysis of eccentric tube receiver using concentrated solar radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Fuqiang; Shuai, Yong; Yuan, Yuan; Yang, Guo; Tan, Heping [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 92, West Dazhi Street, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2010-10-15

    In the parabolic trough concentrator with tube receiver system, the heat transfer fluid flowing through the tube receiver can induce high thermal stress and deflection. In this study, the eccentric tube receiver is introduced with the aim to reduce the thermal stresses of tube receiver. The ray-thermal-structural sequential coupled numerical analyses are adopted to obtain the concentrated heat flux distributions, temperature distributions and thermal stress fields of both the eccentric and concentric tube receivers. During the sequential coupled numerical analyses, the concentrated heat flux distribution on the bottom half periphery of tube receiver is obtained by Monte-Carlo ray tracing method, and the fitting function method is introduced for the calculated heat flux distribution transformation from the Monte-Carlo ray tracing model to the CFD analysis model. The temperature distributions and thermal stress fields are obtained by the CFD and FEA analyses, respectively. The effects of eccentricity and oriented angle variation on the thermal stresses of eccentric tube receiver are also investigated. It is recommended to adopt the eccentric tube receiver with optimum eccentricity and 90 oriented angle as tube receiver for the parabolic trough concentrator system to reduce the thermal stresses. (author)

  17. Greenhouse Gas Abatement with Distributed Generation in California's Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2010-01-01

    and not only by PV / solar thermal systems. To satisfy theheat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorptionphotovoltaics and solar thermal collectors; • electrical

  18. A HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS RECEIVER UTILIZING SMALL PARTICLES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, Arlon

    2012-01-01

    organized by the Solar Thermal Test Facilities UsersMexico, Organized by the Solar Thermal Test Facilities Usersdevelop a new type of solar thermal receiver that utilizes a

  19. Operation o Solar Photovoltaic-Thermal (PVT) Hybrid System in KIER 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naveed, A.T.; Lee, E. J.; Kang, E. C.

    2006-01-01

    The details of the Photovoltaic Thermal (PVT) hybrid air heating system, UTC air heating system and its effect on the performance of photovoltaic (PV) module and room temperature in KIER are explained in this paper. Two identical test rooms were...

  20. Hybrid solar thermal-photovoltaic systems demonstration, Phase I and II. Final technical progress report, July 5, 1979-December 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loferski, J.J.

    1983-12-01

    The purpose of the project is to investigate a system based on combined photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) panels to supply the energy needs of a small single family residence. The system finally selected and constructed uses PV/T panels which utilize air as the heat transfer medium. Optimization of thermal performance was accomplished by attaching metal fins to the back surface of each cell which significantly increased the heat transfer coefficient from the solar cells to the air stream. The other major components of the selected system are an air-to-air heat pump, a rock bin thermal energy storage bin, a synchronous dc-to-ac converter, a microprocessor to control the system, a heat exchanger for the domestic hot water system and of course the building itself which is a one story, well insulated structure having a floor area of 1200 ft/sup 2/. A prototype collector was constructed and tested. Based on this experience, twenty collectors, containing 2860 four inch diameter solar cells, were constructed and installed on the building. Performance of the system was simulated using a TRNSYS-derived program, modified to accommodate PV/T panels and to include the particular components included in the selected system. Simulation of the performance showed that about 65 percent of the total annual energy needs of the building would be provided by the PV/T system. Of this total, about one half is produced at a time when it can be used in the building and one half must be sold back to the utility.

  1. A NEW SOLAR THERMAL RECEIVER UTILIZING A SMALL PARTICLE HEAT EXCHANGER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, Arlon J.

    2011-01-01

    a Small Particle Heat Exchange Receiver (SPHER) operates byof the Small Particle Heat Exchange Receiver (or SPHER), asabsorption process, the heat exchange to the gas, the their

  2. THERMAL FINE STRUCTURE AND MAGNETIC FIELDS IN THE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE: SPICULES AND FIBRILS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Judge, Philip G.; Low, Boon Chye [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research , P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States); Tritschler, Alexandra, E-mail: judge@ucar.edu, E-mail: low@ucar.edu, E-mail: ali@nso.edu [National Solar Observatory/Sacramento Peak , P.O. Box 62, Sunspot, NM-88349 (United States)

    2011-03-20

    The relationship between observed structures in the solar atmosphere and the magnetic fields threading them is known only for the solar photosphere, even then imprecisely. We suggest that some of the fine structures in the more tenuous chromosphere and corona-specifically some populations of spicules and fibrils-correspond to warps in two-dimensional sheet-like structures, as an alternative to conventional interpretations in terms of tube-like structures. The sheets are perhaps related to magnetic tangential discontinuities, which Parker has argued arise naturally in low-{beta} conditions. Some consequences of this suggestion, if it can be confirmed, are discussed.

  3. Exhaust gas fuel reforming of Diesel fuel by non-thermal arc discharge for NOx trap regeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    , coming into force in September 2014, set a 56 % reduction of NOx emissions compared to Euro stage V (80 trap technology, also called NOx Storage and Reduction (NSR), was first developed by Toyota in 199411 Exhaust gas fuel reforming of Diesel fuel by non- thermal arc discharge for NOx trap regeneration

  4. AURORA: A FORTRAN program for modeling well stirred plasma and thermal reactors with gas and surface reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meeks, E.; Grcar, J.F.; Kee, R.J.; Moffat, H.K.

    1996-02-01

    The AURORA Software is a FORTRAN computer program that predicts the steady-state or time-averaged properties of a well mixed or perfectly stirred reactor for plasma or thermal chemistry systems. The software was based on the previously released software, SURFACE PSR which was written for application to thermal CVD reactor systems. AURORA allows modeling of non-thermal, plasma reactors with the determination of ion and electron concentrations and the electron temperature, in addition to the neutral radical species concentrations. Well stirred reactors are characterized by a reactor volume, residence time or mass flow rate, heat loss or gas temperature, surface area, surface temperature, the incoming temperature and mixture composition, as well as the power deposited into the plasma for non-thermal systems. The model described here accounts for finite-rate elementary chemical reactions both in the gas phase and on the surface. The governing equations are a system of nonlinear algebraic relations. The program solves these equations using a hybrid Newton/time-integration method embodied by the software package TWOPNT. The program runs in conjunction with the new CHEMKIN-III and SURFACE CHEMKIN-III packages, which handle the chemical reaction mechanisms for thermal and non-thermal systems. CHEMKIN-III allows for specification of electron-impact reactions, excitation losses, and elastic-collision losses for electrons.

  5. Polycrystalline Silicon Solar Cells Fabricated by Pulsed Rapid Thermal Annealing of Amorphous Silicon 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, I-Syuan

    2014-05-07

    effect were also investigated. It has been demonstrated that a 30 nm thick amorphous silicon could be transformed into polycrystalline with 70%-80% of crystalline volume fraction in a short time. The thin-film polycrystalline silicon solar cells were...

  6. Advanced Organic Vapor Cycles for Improving Thermal Conversion Efficiency in Renewable Energy Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Tony

    2012-01-01

    reclamation and solar thermal energy," Energy [accepted]. [as geothermal energy [55], solar thermal energy [41], wastetemperature geothermal and solar thermal energy. His results

  7. Advanced Organic Vapor Cycles for Improving Thermal Conversion Efficiency in Renewable Energy Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Tony

    2012-01-01

    concentrated solar thermal energy and low grade waste heatreclamation and solar thermal energy," Energy [accepted]. [and M Dennis, "Solar thermal energy systems in Australia,"

  8. Distributed Energy Resources On-Site Optimization for Commercial Buildings with Electric and Thermal Storage Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2008-01-01

    photovoltaics and solar thermal collectors; electricalfor application of solar thermal and recovered heat to end-absorption chiller solar thermal photovoltaics Results

  9. Advanced Organic Vapor Cycles for Improving Thermal Conversion Efficiency in Renewable Energy Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Tony

    2012-01-01

    reclamation and solar thermal energy," Energy [accepted]. [and M Dennis, "Solar thermal energy systems in Australia,"and M Dennis, "Solar thermal energy systems in Australia,"

  10. Distributed Energy Resources On-Site Optimization for Commercial Buildings with Electric and Thermal Storage Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2008-01-01

    photovoltaics and solar thermal collectors; electricalelectricity) solar thermal collector (kW) PV (kW) electricelectricity) solar thermal collector (kW) PV (kW) electric

  11. Advanced Organic Vapor Cycles for Improving Thermal Conversion Efficiency in Renewable Energy Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Tony

    2012-01-01

    SA Kalogirou, "Solar thermal collectors and applications,"axis concentrating solar thermal (collectors such as linearof non- concentrated solar thermal collectors also operate

  12. 9.11.2014bo Akademi Univ -Thermal and Flow Engineering Piispankatu 8, 20500 Turku 1/44 3. Absorption, gas expansion and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    (AR) processes 1: NH3 #12;9.11.2014Ĺbo Akademi Univ - Thermal and Flow Engineering Piispankatu 8 energy, solar energy, biogas fuel, etc. Absorption refrigeration involves absorption of refrigerant Akademi Univ - Thermal and Flow Engineering Piispankatu 8, 20500 Turku 7/44 A practical NH3/H2O AR system

  13. Thermal response of a series- and parallel-connected solar energy storage to multi-day charge sequences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cruickshank, Cynthia A.; Harrison, Stephen J.

    2011-01-15

    The thermal response of a multi-tank thermal storage was studied under variable charge conditions. Tests were conducted on an experimental apparatus that simulated the thermal charging of the storage system by a solar collector over predetermined (prescribed) daylong periods. The storage was assembled from three standard 270 L hot-water storage tanks each charged through coupled, side-arm, natural convection heat exchangers which were connected in either a series- or parallel-flow configuration. Both energy storage rates and tank temperature profiles were experimentally measured during charge periods representative of two consecutive clear days or combinations of a clear and overcast day. During this time, no draw-offs were conducted. Of particular interest was the effect of rising and falling charge-loop temperatures and collector-loop flow rate on storage tank stratification levels. Results of this study show that the series-connected thermal storage reached high levels of temperature stratification in the storage tanks during periods of rising charge temperatures and also limited destratification during periods of falling charge temperature. This feature is a consequence of the series-connected configuration that allowed sequential stratification to occur in the component tanks and energy to be distributed according to temperature level. This effect was not observed in the parallel charge configuration. A further aspect of the study investigated the effect of increasing charge-loop flow rate on the temperature distribution within the series-connected storage and showed that, at high flow rates, the temperature distributions were found to be similar to those obtained during parallel charging. A disadvantage of both the high-flow series-connected and parallel-connected multi-tank storage is that falling charge-loop temperatures, which normally occur in the afternoon, tend to mix and destratify the storage tanks. (author)

  14. Catalytic conversion of solar thermal produced pyrolysis gases to liquid fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanley, T.R.; Benham, C.B.

    1981-01-01

    The conversion of a simulated pyrolysis gas and synthesis gas using a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst system in a fluidized-bed reactor is investigated. Liquid fuels were produced between 550 and 660/sup 0/F (288 and 349/sup 0/C) for the simulated pyrolysis gas feed. An analysis of both liquid and gaseous product streams is performed. This investigation indicates a need for more extensive research with respect to hydrogen-to-carbon-monoxide usage ratios and with respect to the role of alkenes in fuel production.

  15. A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zachary Mills

    2011-01-01

    12] Kalogirou, S. A. (2004). Solar thermal collectors andD. (2004). Advances in solar thermal electricity technology.December). Distributed solar-thermal/electric generation.

  16. A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zachary Mills

    2011-01-01

    S. A. (2004). Solar thermal collectors and applications.yet typical solar-thermal collectors at working temperaturescertain aspects of solar thermal collectors have been coded

  17. AEROSPACE TECHNOLOGY REVIEW FOR LBL WINDOW/PASSIVE SOLAR PROGRAM FINAL REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viswanathan, R.

    2011-01-01

    Tests of Collectors of Thermal Solar Energy A Flat PlatePerformance sts of Collectors of Solar Thermal Energy, AOptical & Thermal Characteristics of a Solar Collector with

  18. Innovative Application of Maintenance-Free Phase-Change Thermal Energy Storage for Dish-Engine Solar Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qui, Songgang; Galbraith, Ross

    2013-01-23

    This final report summarizes the final results of the Phase II Innovative Application of Maintenance-Free Phase-Change Thermal Energy Storage for Dish-Engine Solar Power Generation project being performed by Infinia Corporation for the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-FC36-08GO18157 during the project period of September 1, 2009 - August 30, 2012. The primary objective of this project is to demonstrate the practicality of integrating thermal energy storage (TES) modules, using a suitable thermal salt phase-change material (PCM) as its medium, with a dish/Stirling engine; enabling the system to operate during cloud transients and to provide dispatchable power for 4 to 6 hours after sunset. A laboratory prototype designed to provide 3 kW-h of net electrical output was constructed and tested at Infinia's Ogden Headquarters. In the course of the testing, it was determined that the system's heat pipe network - used to transfer incoming heat from the solar receiver to both the Stirling generator heater head and to the phase change salt - did not perform to expectations. The heat pipes had limited capacity to deliver sufficient heat energy to the generator and salt mass while in a charging mode, which was highly dependent on the orientation of the device (vertical versus horizontal). In addition, the TES system was only able to extract about 30 to 40% of the expected amount of energy from the phase change salt once it was fully molten. However, the use of heat pipes to transfer heat energy to and from a thermal energy storage medium is a key technical innovation, and the project team feels that the limitations of the current device could be greatly improved with further development. A detailed study of manufacturing costs using the prototype TES module as a basis indicates that meeting DOE LCOE goals with this hardware requires significant efforts. Improvement can be made by implementing aggressive cost-down initiatives in design and materials, improving system performance by boosting efficiencies, and by refining cost estimates with vendor quotes in lieu of mass-based approaches. Although the prototype did not fully demonstrate performance and realize projected cost targets, the project team believes that these challenges can be overcome. The test data showed that the performance can be significantly improved by refining the heat pipe designs. However, the project objective for phase 3 is to design and test on sun the field ready systems, the project team feels that is necessary to further refine the prototype heat pipe design in the current prototype TES system before move on to field test units, Phase 3 continuation will not be pursued.

  19. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.-F.

    2011-01-01

    thermal energy becomes apparent with the development of solarsolar energy systems, aquifer energy storage provides a buffer between time-varying solar energy inputs and thermal

  20. A steady state thermal duct model derived by fin-theory approach and applied on an unglazed solar collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stojanovic, B.; Hallberg, D.; Akander, J.

    2010-10-15

    This paper presents the thermal modelling of an unglazed solar collector (USC) flat panel, with the aim of producing a detailed yet swift thermal steady-state model. The model is analytical, one-dimensional (1D) and derived by a fin-theory approach. It represents the thermal performance of an arbitrary duct with applied boundary conditions equal to those of a flat panel collector. The derived model is meant to be used for efficient optimisation and design of USC flat panels (or similar applications), as well as detailed thermal analysis of temperature fields and heat transfer distributions/variations at steady-state conditions; without requiring a large amount of computational power and time. Detailed surface temperatures are necessary features for durability studies of the surface coating, hence the effect of coating degradation on USC and system performance. The model accuracy and proficiency has been benchmarked against a detailed three-dimensional Finite Difference Model (3D FDM) and two simpler 1D analytical models. Results from the benchmarking test show that the fin-theory model has excellent capabilities of calculating energy performances and fluid temperature profiles, as well as detailed material temperature fields and heat transfer distributions/variations (at steady-state conditions), while still being suitable for component analysis in junction to system simulations as the model is analytical. The accuracy of the model is high in comparison to the 3D FDM (the prime benchmark), as long as the fin-theory assumption prevails (no 'or negligible' temperature gradient in the fin perpendicularly to the fin length). Comparison with the other models also shows that when the USC duct material has a high thermal conductivity, the cross-sectional material temperature adopts an isothermal state (for the assessed USC duct geometry), which makes the 1D isothermal model valid. When the USC duct material has a low thermal conductivity, the heat transfer course of events adopts a 1D heat flow that reassembles the conditions of the 1D simple model (for the assessed USC duct geometry); 1D heat flow through the top and bottom fins/sheets as the duct wall reassembles a state of adiabatic condition. (author)

  1. Passive solar/earth sheltered office/dormitory cooling season thermal performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christian, J.

    1984-01-01

    Continuous detailed hourly thermal performance measurements have been taken since February 1982 in and around an occupied, underground, 4000 ft/sup 2/ office/dormitory building at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This building has a number of energy saving features which have been analyzed relative to their performance in a southeastern US climate and with respect to overall commercial building performance. This analysis documents cooling season performance, as well as effects of earth contact, interior thermal mass, an economizer cycle and interface of an efficient building envelope with a central three-ton heat pump. The Joint Institute Dormitory obtains a cooling energy savings of about 30% compared with an energy-efficient, above-grade structure and has the potential to save as much as 50%. The proper installation of the overhand, interior thermal mass, massive supply duct system, and earth contact team up to prevent summertime overheating. From May through September, this building cost a total of $300 (at 5.7 cents/kWh) to cool and ventilate 24 hours per day. Besides thermal performance of the building envelope, extensive comfort data was taken illustrating that at least 90% of the occupants are comfortable all of the time according to the PMV measurements.

  2. Reducing the Cost of Thermal Energy Storage for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gawlik, Keith

    2013-06-25

    Thermal energy storage systems using phase change materials were evaluated for trough systems that use oil, steam, and high temperature salts as heat transfer fluids. A variety of eutectic salts and metal alloys were considered as phase change materials in a cascaded arrangement. Literature values of specific heat, latent heat, density, and other thermophysical properties were used in initial analyses. Testing laboratories were contracted to measure properties for candidate materials for comparison to the literature and for updating the models. A TRNSYS model from Phase 1 was further developed for optimizing the system, including a novel control algorithm. A concept for increasing the bulk thermal conductivity of the phase change system was developed using expanded metal sheets. Outside companies were contracted to design and cost systems using platecoil heat exchangers immersed in the phase change material. Laboratory evaluations of the one-dimensional and three-dimensional behavior of expanded metal sheets in a low conductivity medium were used to optimize the amount of thermal conductivity enhancement. The thermal energy storage systems were compared to baseline conventional systems. The best phase change system found in this project, which was for the high temperature plant, had a projected cost of $25.2 per kWhth, The best system also had a cost that was similar to the base case, a direct two-tank molten salt system.

  3. Technical Potential of Solar Water Heating to Reduce Fossil Fuel Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.

    2007-03-01

    Use of solar water heating (SWH) in the United States grew significantly in the late 1970s and early 1980s, as a result of increasing energy prices and generous tax credits. Since 1985, however, expiration of federal tax credits and decreased energy prices have virtually eliminated the U.S. market for SWH. More recently, increases in energy prices, concerns regarding emissions of greenhouse gases, and improvements in SWH systems have created new interest in the potential of this technology. SWH, which uses the sun to heat water directly or via a heat-transfer fluid in a collector, may be particularly important in its ability to reduce natural gas use. Dependence on natural gas as an energy resource in the United States has significantly increased in the past decade, along with increased prices, price volatility, and concerns about sustainability and security of supply. One of the readily deployable technologies available to decrease use of natural gas is solar water heating. This report provides an overview of the technical potential of solar water heating to reduce fossil fuel consumption and associated greenhouse gas emissions in U.S. residential and commercial buildings.

  4. Improved power efficiency for very-high-temperature solar-thermal-cavity receivers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDougal, A.R.; Hale, R.R.

    1982-04-14

    This invention is an improved solar energy cavity receiver for exposing materials and components to high temperatures. The receiver includes a housing having an internal reflective surface defining a cavity and having an inlet for admitting solar radiation thereto. A photothermal absorber is positiond in the cavity to receive radiation from the inlet. A reflective baffle is positioned between the absorber and the inlet to severely restrict the re-radiation of energy through the inlet. The front surface of the baffle defines a narrow annulus with the internal reflective surface of the housing. The front surface of the baffle is contoured to reflect incoming radiation onto the internal surface of the housing, from which it is reflected through the annulus and onto the front surface of the absorber. The back surface of the baffle intercepts radiation from the front of the absorber. With this arrangement, a high percentage of the solar power input is retained in the cavity; thus, high internal temperatues are attained.

  5. Thermal instability in X-ray photoionized media in Active Galactic Nuclei: Influence on the gas structure and spectral features

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. C. Goncalves; S. Collin; A. -M. Dumont; L. Chevallier

    2006-12-01

    A photoionized gas in thermal equilibrium can display a thermal instability, with 3 or more solutions in the multi-branch region of the S-shape curve giving the temperature versus the radiation-to-gas-pressure ratio. Many studies have been devoted to this curve and to its dependence on different parameters, always in the optically thin case. The purpose of our study is the thermal instability in optically thick, stratified media, in total pressure equilibrium. We have developped a new algorithm to select the hot/cold stable solution, and thereof to compute a fully consistent photoionization model. We have implemented it in the TITAN code and computed a set of models encompassing the range of conditions valid for the Warm Absorber in Active Galactic Nuclei. We have demonstrated that the thermal instability problem is quite different in thin or thick media. In thick media the spectral distribution changes as the radiation progresses inside the ionized gas. This has observational implications in the emitted/absorbed spectra, ionization states, and variability. However impossible to know what solution the plasma will adopt when attaining the multi-solutions regime, we expect the emitted/absorbed spectrum to be intermediate between those resulting from pure cold and hot models. Large spectral fluctuations corresponding to the onset of a cold/hot solution could be observed in timescales of the order of the dynamical time. A strong turbulence implying supersonic velocities should permanently exist in the multi-branch region of thick, stratified, pressure equilibrium media.

  6. 1.Physics Department, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 2. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO 3. United Solar Ovonic, LLC Troy, MI, United States THERMAL ACTIVATION OF DEEP OXYGEN DEFECT FORMATION AND HYDROGEN EFFUSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1.Physics Department, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 2. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO 3. United Solar Ovonic, LLC Troy, MI, United States BACKGROUND THERMAL ACTIVATION OF DEEP was partially supported by a DOE grant through United Solar Ovonics, Inc., under the Solar America Initiative

  7. Impact of Temperature-dependent resistivity and thermal conduction on plasmoid Instabilities in current sheets in the solar corona

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ni, Lei; Lin, Jun; Ziegler, Udo

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we investigate, by means of two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations, the impact of temperature-dependent resistivity and thermal conduction on the development of plasmoid instabilities in reconnecting current sheets in the solar corona. We find that the plasma temperature in the current sheet region increases with time and it becomes greater than that in the inflow region. As secondary magnetic islands appear, the highest temperature is not always found at the reconnection $X$-points, but also inside the secondary islands. One of the effects of anisotropic thermal conduction is to decrease the temperature of the reconnecting $X-$points and transfer the heat into the $O-$points, the plasmoids, where it gets trapped. In the cases with temperature-dependent magnetic diffusivity, $\\eta \\sim T^{-3/2}$, the decrease in plasma temperature at the $X-$points leads to: (i) increase in the magnetic diffusivity until the characteristic time for magnetic diffusion becomes comparable to that of therma...

  8. Rooftop Solar Potential Distributed Solar Power in NW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Rooftop Solar Potential Distributed Solar Power in NW Massoud Jourabchi June 2013 1 Renewables;3 Regional Growth In Solar Energy Consumption Solar consumption both Thermal and PV h b t d i i lhas been on steady increase since early 1990s. From 2000-2010 Solar PV grow at annual rate of 13% and solar thermal

  9. ECOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS OF THE SOLAR ALTERNATIVE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davidson, M.

    2010-01-01

    7) Climatology. Solar power plants of the central receiverCentral Reveiver Solar Thermal Power Plant Design Concepts,Thermal Power Solar thermal power plants will most likely be

  10. ECOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS OF THE SOLAR ALTERNATIVE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davidson, M.

    2010-01-01

    New York, 1966. 8. Solar Sea Thermal Energy, Ninety-ThirdJ. A. , and Beckman, W. A. , Solar Energy Thermal Processes,solar thermal conversion to electricity, photo-voltaic conversion, wind energy,

  11. A model for thermally driven heat and air transport in passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, G.F.; Balcomb, J.D.; Otis, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    A model for transient interzone heat and air flow transport in passive solar buildings is presented incorporating wall boundary layers in stratified zones, and with interzone transport via apertures (doors and windows). The model includes features that have been observed in measurements taken in more than a dozen passive solar buildings. The model includes integral formulations of the laminar and turbulent boundary layer equations for the vertical walls which are then coupled to a one-dimensional core model for each zone. The cores in each zone exchange mass and energy through apertures that are modeled by an orifice type equation. The procedure is transient in that time dependence is retained only in the core equations which are solved by an explicit method. The model predicts room stratification of about 2/sup 0/C/m (1.1/sup 0/F/ft) for a room-to-room temperature difference of 0.56/sup 0/C(1/sup 0/F) which is in general agreement with the data.

  12. Model for thermally driven heat and air transport in passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, G.F.; Balcomb, J.D.; Otis, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    A model for transient interzone heat and air flow transport in passive solar buildings is presented incorporating wall boundary layers in stratified zones, and with interzone transport via apertures (doors and windows). The model includes features that have been observed in measurements taken in more than a dozen passive solar buildings. The model includes integral formulations of the laminar and turbulent boundary layer equations for the vertical walls which are then coupled to a one-dimensional core model for each zone. The cores in each zone exchange mass and energy through apertures that are modeled by an orifice type equation. The procedure is transient in that time dependence is retained only in the core equations which are solved by an explicit method. The model predicts room stratification of about 2/sup 0/C/m (1.1/sup 0/F/ft) for a room-to-room temperature difference of 0.56/sup 0/C(1/sup 0/F) which is in general agreement with the data. 38 references, 10 figures, 1 table.

  13. Graybox and adaptative dynamic neural network identification models to infer the steady state efficiency of solar thermal collectors starting from the transient condition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberto, Baccoli; Ubaldo, Carlini; Stefano, Mariotti; Roberto, Innamorati; Elisa, Solinas; Paolo, Mura

    2010-06-15

    This paper deals with the development of methods for non steady state test of solar thermal collectors. Our goal is to infer performances in steady-state conditions in terms of the efficiency curve when measures in transient conditions are the only ones available. We take into consideration the method of identification of a system in dynamic conditions by applying a Graybox Identification Model and a Dynamic Adaptative Linear Neural Network (ALNN) model. The study targets the solar collector with evacuated pipes, such as Dewar pipes. The mathematical description that supervises the functioning of the solar collector in transient conditions is developed using the equation of the energy balance, with the aim of determining the order and architecture of the two models. The input and output vectors of the two models are constructed, considering the measures of 4 days of solar radiation, flow mass, environment and heat-transfer fluid temperature in the inlet and outlet from the thermal solar collector. The efficiency curves derived from the two models are detected in correspondence to the test and validation points. The two synthetic simulated efficiency curves are compared with the actual efficiency curve certified by the Swiss Institute Solartechnik Puffung Forschung which tested the solar collector performance in steady-state conditions according to the UNI-EN 12975 standard. An acquisition set of measurements of only 4 days in the transient condition was enough to trace through a Graybox State Space Model the efficiency curve of the tested solar thermal collector, with a relative error of synthetic values with respect to efficiency certified by SPF, lower than 0.5%, while with the ALNN model the error is lower than 2.2% with respect to certified one. (author)

  14. Greenhouse Gas Abatement with Distributed Generation in California's Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2010-01-01

    lead acid absorption solar photo- storage batteries chillersolar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and storageand solar thermal collectors; • electrical storage, flow

  15. Hybrid solar collector using nonimaging optics and photovoltaic components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    thermal hybrid solar technology," Applied Energy, 87(2),thermal hybrid solar technology," Applied Energy, 87(2),thermal system, solar PVT collector, nonimaging optics, GaAs, solar energy,

  16. A Continuous Solar Thermochemical Hydrogen Production Plant Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luc, Wesley Wai

    level [19]. 2.5 Solar Thermal Energy and Solar Fields The SA21 2.5 Solar Thermal Energy and Solarprocess powered by solar thermal energy for hydrogen

  17. Performance Analysis of XCPC Powered Solar Cooling Demonstration Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Widyolar, Bennett

    2013-01-01

    of a solar-thermal-assisted HVAC system, Energy andsolar thermal absorption cooling system with a cold store, Solar energy,solar thermal cooling and heating system for a building: Experimental and model based performance analysis and design, Solar energy,

  18. Standard Practice for Generating All-Day Thermal Performance Data for Solar Collectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1987-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers a means of generating all-day thermal performance data for flat-plate collectors, concentrating collectors, and tracking collectors. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in the parentheses are for information only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  19. Software-as-a-Service Optimised Scheduling of a Solar-Assisted HVAC System with Thermal Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mammoli, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    consisting of 124 m of flat plate solar collectors, and 108m of evacuated solar collectors, coupled by a brazed- plate

  20. Intergrated function nonimaging concentrating collector tubes for solar thermal energy. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winston, R

    1982-09-01

    A substantial improvement in optical efficiency over contemporary external reflector evacuated tube collectors has been achieved by integrating the reflector surface into the outer glass envelope. Described are the design fabrication and test results for a prototype collector based on this concept. A comprehensive test program to measure performance and operational characteristics of a 2 m/sup 2/ panel (45 tubes) has been completed. Efficiencies above 50% relative to beam at 200/sup 0/C have been repeatedly demonstrated. Both the instantaneous and long term average performance of this totally stationary solar collector are comparable to those for tracking line focus parabolic troughs. The yield, reliability and stability of performance achieved have been excellent. Subcomponent assemblies and fabrication procedures have been used which are expected to be compatible with high volume production. The collector has a wide variety of applications in the 100/sup 0/C to 300/sup 0/C range including industrial process heat, air conditioning and Rankine engine operation.