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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas reformulated blended" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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1

Interaction blending equations enhance reformulated gasoline profitability  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The interaction approach to gasoline blending gives refiners an accurate, simple means of re-evaluating blending equations and increasing profitability. With reformulated gasoline specifications drawing near, a detailed description of this approach, in the context of reformulated gasoline is in order. Simple mathematics compute blending values from interaction equations and interaction coefficients between mixtures. A timely example of such interactions is: blending a mixture of catalytically cracked gasoline plus light straight run (LSR) from one tank with alkylate plus reformate from another. This paper discusses blending equations, using interactions, mixture interactions, other blending problems, and obtaining equations.

Snee, R.D. (Joiner Associates, Madison, WI (United States)); Morris, W.E.; Smith, W.E.

1994-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

2

Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues The United States has 11...

3

On-line RVP analysis improves gas blending  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

New government regulations on gasoline quality are making gasoline blending an increasingly important aspect of refining. The Environmental Protection Agency volatility regulations that establish maximum summertime commercial gasoline volatility levels provide that gasoline Reid Vapor Pressor starting in 1989 may not exceed 10.5, or 9.0 psi. Additionally, beginning in 1992, it may not exceed either 9.0 or 7.8 psi, depending on the area of the country and the month. This article discusses the on-line analysis of gas blending to minimize the volatile organic compounds released to the air.

Lo, P.T. [BP Oil Alliance Refinery, Belle Chasse, LA (United States)

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Reformulated Gasoline Complex Model  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Refiners Switch to Reformulated Refiners Switch to Reformulated Gasoline Complex Model Contents * Summary * Introduction o Table 1. Comparison of Simple Model and Complex Model RFG Per Gallon Requirements * Statutory, Individual Refinery, and Compliance Baselines o Table 2. Statutory Baseline Fuel Compositions * Simple Model * Complex Model o Table 3. Complex Model Variables * Endnotes Related EIA Short-Term Forecast Analysis Products * RFG Simple and Complex Model Spreadsheets * Areas Particpating in the Reformulated Gasoline Program * Environmental Regulations and Changes in Petroleum Refining Operations * Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances in the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting Model * Reformulated Gasoline Foreign Refinery Rules * Demand, Supply, and Price Outlook for Reformulated Motor Gasoline, 1995 , (Adobe

5

Effects of Propane/Natural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant Emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

U.S. natural gas composition is expected to be more variable in the future. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports to the U.S. are expected to grow significantly over the next 10-15 years. Unconventional gas supplies, like coal-bed methane, are also expected to grow. As a result of these anticipated changes, the composition of fuel sources may vary significantly from existing domestic natural gas supplies. To allow the greatest use of gas supplies, end-use equipment should be able to accommodate the widest possible gas composition. For this reason, the effect of gas composition on combustion behavior is of interest. This paper will examine the effects of fuel variability on pollutant emissions for premixed gas turbine conditions. The experimental data presented in this paper have been collected from a pressurized single injector combustion test rig at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The tests are conducted at 7.5 atm with a 589K air preheat. A propane blending facility is used to vary the Wobbe Index of the site natural gas. The results indicate that propane addition of about five (vol.) percent does not lead to a significant change in the observed NOx emissions. These results vary from data reported in the literature for some engine applications and potential reasons for these differences are discussed.

D. Straub; D. Ferguson; K. Casleton; G. Richards

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Effects of Propane/Natural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant Emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports to the U.S. are expected to grow significantly over the next 10-15 years. Likewise, it is expected that changes to the domestic gas supply may also introduce changes in natural gas composition. As a result of these anticipated changes, the composition of fuel sources may vary significantly from conventional domestic natural gas supplies. This paper will examine the effects of fuel variability on pollutant emissions for premixed gas turbine conditions. The experimental data presented in this paper have been collected from a pressurized single injector combustion test rig at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The tests are conducted at 7.5 atm with a 588 K air preheat. A propane blending facility is used to vary the Wobbe Index of the site natural gas. The results indicate that propane addition of about five (vol.) percent does not lead to a significant change in the observed NOx or CO emissions. These results are different from data collected on some engine applications and potential reasons for these differences will be described.

Straub, D.L.; Ferguson, D.H.; Casleton, K.H.; Richards, G.A.

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Blending Hydrogen into Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues M. W. Melaina, O. Antonia, and M. Penev Technical Report NREL/TP-5600-51995 March 2013 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues M. W. Melaina, O. Antonia, and M. Penev Prepared under Task No. HT12.2010 Technical Report NREL/TP-5600-51995 March 2013 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government.

8

Reformulated diesel fuel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Reformulated diesel fuels for automotive diesel engines which meet the requirements of ASTM 975-02 and provide significantly reduced emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO.sub.x) and particulate matter (PM) relative to commercially available diesel fuels.

McAdams, Hiramie T [Carrollton, IL; Crawford, Robert W [Tucson, AZ; Hadder, Gerald R [Oak Ridge, TN; McNutt, Barry D [Arlington, VA

2006-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

9

Reformulated gasoline: Costs and refinery impacts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Studies of reformulated gasoline (RFG) costs and refinery impacts have been performed with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model (ORNL-RYM), a linear program which has been updated to blend gasolines to satisfy emissions constraints defined by preliminary complex emissions models. Policy makers may use the reformulation cost knee (the point at which costs start to rise sharply for incremental emissions control) to set emissions reduction targets, giving due consideration to the differences between model representations and actual refining operations. ORNL-RYM estimates that the reformulation cost knee for the US East Coast (PADD I) is about 15.2 cents per gallon with a 30 percent reduction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The estimated cost knee for the US Gulf Coast (PADD III) is about 5.5 cents per gallon with a VOC reduction of 35 percent. Reid vapor pressure (RVP) reduction is the dominant VOC reduction mechanism. Even with anti-dumping constraints, conventional gasoline appears to be an important sink which permits RFG to be blended with lower aromatics and sulfur contents in PADD III. In addition to the potentially large sensitivity of RFG production to different emissions models, RFG production is sensitive to the non-exhaust VOC share assumption for a particular VOC model. ORNL-RYM has also been used to estimate the sensitivity of RFG production to the cost of capital; to the RVP requirements for conventional gasoline; and to the percentage of RFG produced in a refining region.

Hadder, G.R.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Organic gas emissions from a stoichiometric direct injection spark ignition engine operating on ethanol/gasoline blends  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The organic gas emissions from a stoichiometric direct injection spark ignition engine operating on ethanol/gasoline blends have been assessed under warmed-up and cold idle conditions. The speciated emissions show that the ...

Kar, Kenneth

11

Reformulated Gasoline Foreign Refinery Rules  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reformulated Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Foreign Refinery Rules Contents * Introduction o Table 1. History of Foreign Refiner Regulations * Foreign Refinery Baseline * Monitoring Imported Conventional Gasoline * Endnotes Related EIA Short-Term Forecast Analysis Products * Areas Participating in the Reformulated Gasoline Program * Environmental Regulations and Changes in Petroleum Refining Operations * Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances in the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting Model * Refiners Switch to Reformulated Gasoline Complex Model * Demand, Supply, and Price Outlook for Reformulated Motor Gasoline, 1995 Introduction On August 27, 1997, the EPA promulgated revised the rules that allow foreign refiners to establish and use individual baselines, but it would not be mandatory (the optional use of an

12

23 Reformulated Fuels and Related Issues REFORMULATED FUELS AND  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INTRODUCTION Reformulated gasoline (RFG) is a cleaner burning fuel than conventional gasoline that will significantly improve air quality by reducing emissions from all gasoline-burning motor vehicles and engines. The chapter also includes a description of CARB's Phase 2 Reformulated Gasoline Advisory Committee and its

13

Truck loading rack blending  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Blending, the combining of two or more components to make a single product, has become widely used in most loading rack applications. Blending should not be confused with additive injection, which is the injection of very small doses of enhancers, detergents and dyes into a product stream. Changes in the environmental protection laws in the early 90`s have put increasing demands on marketing terminals with regards to reformulated fuels and environmental protection concerns. As a result of these new mandates, terminals have turned to blending at the loading rack as an economical and convenient means in meeting these new requirements. This paper will discuss some of these mandates and how loading rack blending is used for different applications. Various types of blending will also be discussed along with considerations for each method.

Boubenider, E. [Daniel Flow Products, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Overview of Two Hydrogen Energy Storage Studies: Wind Hydrogen in California and Blending in Natural Gas Pipelines (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation provides an overview of two NREL energy storage studies: Wind Hydrogen in California: Case Study and Blending Hydrogen Into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues. The presentation summarizes key issues, major model input assumptions, and results.

Melaina, M. W.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Combustion Characteristics and Heat Release Analysis of a Spark-Ignited Engine Fueled with Natural Gas?Hydrogen Blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It can be seen that the laminar-burning velocity of hydrogen is 5 times that of natural gas and that the quenching distance of hydrogen is one-third that of natural gas, while the latter is beneficial to reduce the unburned hydrocarbons near the wall and from the top-land crevice. ... The signal of cylinder pressure was acquired for every 0.5 deg CA, the acquisition process covered 254 completed cycles, and the averaged value of these 254 cycles was outputted as the pressure data for calculation of the combustion parameters. ... Two factors are considered to influence the cylinder pressure:? one is the increase in flame propagation speed or combustion speed with the increase of the hydrogen fraction in the blends, and this will cause a rapid rising in the cylinder pressure and bring a higher value of the peak cylinder pressure; another is the decrease in the heating value of the fuel blends with the increase of the hydrogen fraction in natural gas?hydrogen blends, and this will decrease the volumetric heat release rate and the cylinder pressure rising, leading to the lower value of the peak cylinder pressure. ...

Zuohua Huang; Bing Liu; Ke Zeng; Yinyu Huang; Deming Jiang; Xibin Wang; Haiyan Miao

2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

16

“Petroleum Gas Oil?Ethanol” Blends Used as Feeds: Increased Production of Ethylene and Propylene over Catalytic Steam-Cracking (CSC) Hybrid Catalysts. Different Behavior of Methanol in Blends with Petroleum Gas Oil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

“Petroleum Gas Oil?Ethanol” Blends Used as Feeds: Increased Production of Ethylene and Propylene over Catalytic Steam-Cracking (CSC) Hybrid Catalysts. ... Recently developed hybrid catalysts used in the catalytic steam cracking (CSC, formerly called selective deep catalytic cracking or SDCC(1, 2) and also thermal catalytic cracking or TCC(3, 4)) of hydrocarbon heavy feedstocks (naphthas and gas oils) are very efficient in the production of light olefins, particularly ethylene and propylene with a product propylene-to-ethylene ratio close to 1.0. ...

A. Muntasar; R. Le Van Mao; H. T. Yan

2010-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

17

Experimental study on combustion characteristics of a spark-ignition engine fueled with natural gas–hydrogen blends combining with EGR  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An experimental study on the effect of hydrogen fraction and EGR rate on the combustion characteristics of a spark-ignition engine fueled with natural gas–hydrogen blends was investigated. The results show that flame development duration, rapid combustion duration and total combustion duration are increased with the increase of EGR rate and decreased with the increase of hydrogen fraction in the blends. Hydrogen addition shows larger influence on flame development duration than that on rapid combustion duration. The coefficient of variation of the indicated mean effective pressure increases with the increase of EGR rate. And hydrogen addition into natural gas decreases the coefficient of variation of the indicated mean effective pressure, and this effectiveness becomes more obviously at high EGR rate. Engine fueled with natural gas–hydrogen blends combining with proper EGR rate can realize the stable low temperature combustion in gas engine.

Erjiang Hu; Zuohua Huang; Bing Liu; Jianjun Zheng; Xiaolei Gu

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The United States has 11 distinct natural gas pipeline corridors: five originate in the Southwest, four deliver natural gas from Canada, and two extend from the Rocky Mountain region. This study assesses the potential to deliver hydrogen through the existing natural gas pipeline network as a hydrogen and natural gas mixture to defray the cost of building dedicated hydrogen pipelines.

Melaina, M. W.; Antonia, O.; Penev, M.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Ignition Delay Times of Natural Gas/Hydrogen Blends at Elevated Pressures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Applications of natural gases that contain high levels of hydrogen have become a primary interest in the gas turbine market. For reheat gas turbines, understanding of the ignition delay times of high-hydrogen natural gases is important for two...

Brower, Marissa

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

20

Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This study assesses the potential to deliver hydrogen through the existing natural gas pipeline network as a hydrogen and natural gas mixture to defray the cost of building dedicated hydrogen pipelines.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas reformulated blended" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This study assesses the potential to deliver hydrogen through the existing natural gas pipeline network as a hydrogen and natural gas mixture to defray the cost of building dedicated hydrogen pipeline

22

Analysis of Biodiesel/Petroleum Diesel Blends with Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC GC...assembled from a conventional gas chromatograph fitted with...bined with the high cost of crude oil, has sparked...interest in biodiesel production and distribution. Biodiesel...methods use single column gas chromatography (GC......

John V. Seeley; Stacy K. Seeley; Elise K. Libby; James D. McCurry

23

A Reformulation of Newtonian Dynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is postulated that all dynamical laws must be formulated in terms of variables measured relative to interacting particles. This implies that the two-particle system is the fundamental interaction unit. When this postulate is applied to Newtonian mechanics a radically new conceptual structure is revealed. The two major changes which result are the absence of the law of inertia and a broadening of the space and time invariance to include accelerated observers. Although energy and angular momentum remain conserved in this reformulation the usual linear momentum theorem does not appear. It is further shown that the theory can be expressed in the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms in a straightforward manner. Finally applications are made to several simple two-body and three-body systems which demonstrate that many-particle interactions can be formulated without reference to the dynamics of a single particle.

C. Gregory Hood

1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Areas Participating in the Reformulated Gasoline Program  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reformulated Gasoline Program Reformulated Gasoline Program Contents * Introduction * Mandated RFG Program Areas o Table 1. Mandated RFG Program Areas * RFG Program Opt-In Areas o Table 2. RFG Program Opt-In Areas * RFG Program Opt-Out Procedures and Areas o Table 3. History of EPA Rulemaking on Opt-Out Procedures o Table 4. RFG Program Opt-Out Areas * State Programs o Table 5. State Reformulated Gasoline Programs * Endnotes Spreadsheets Referenced in this Article * Reformulated Gasoline Control Area Populations Related EIA Short-Term Forecast Analysis Products * Demand and Price Outlook for Phase 2 Reformulated Gasoline, 2000 * Environmental Regulations and Changes in Petroleum Refining Operations * Areas Participating in Oxygenated Gasoline Program

25

TIME-VARYING FLAME IONIZATION SENSING APPLIED TO NATURAL GAS AND PROPANE BLENDS IN A PRESSURIZED LEAN PREMIXED (LPM) COMBUSTOR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In-situ monitoring of combustion phenomena is a critical need for optimal operation and control of advanced gas turbine combustion systems. The concept described in this paper is based on naturally occurring flame ionization processes that accompany the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels. Previous work has shown that flame ionization techniques may be applied to detect flashback, lean blowout, and some aspects of thermo-acoustic combustion instabilities. Previous work has focused on application of DC electric fields. By application of time-varying electric fields, significant improvements to sensor capabilities have been observed. These data have been collected in a lean premixed combustion test rig operating at 0.51-0.76 MPa (5-7.5 atm) with air preheated to 588 K (600°F). Five percent of the total fuel flow is injected through the centerbody tip as a diffusion pilot. The fuel composition is varied independently by blending approximately 5% (volume) propane with the pipeline natural gas. The reference velocity through the premixing annulus is kept constant for all conditions at a nominal value of 70 m/s. The fuel-air equivalence ratio is varied independently from 0.46 – 0.58. Relative to the DC field version, the time-varying combustion control and diagnostic sensor (TV-CCADS) shows a significant improvement in the correlation between the measured flame ionization current and local fuel-air equivalence ratio. In testing with different fuel compositions, the triangle wave data show the most distinct change in flame ionization current in response to an increase in propane content. Continued development of this sensor technology will improve the capability to control advanced gas turbine combustion systems, and help address issues associated with variations in fuel supplies.

D. L. Straub; B. T. Chorpening; E. D. Huckaby; J. D. Thornton; W. L. Fincham

2008-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

26

Sunco Oil manufactures three types of gasoline (gas 1, gas 2 and gas 3). Each type is produced by blending three types of crude oil (crude 1, crude 2 and crude 3). The sales price per barrel of gasoline and the purchase price per  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sunco Oil manufactures three types of gasoline (gas 1, gas 2 and gas 3). Each type is produced by blending three types of crude oil (crude 1, crude 2 and crude 3). The sales price per barrel of gasoline and the purchase price per barrel of crude oil are given in following table: Gasoline Sale Price per barrel Gas 1

Phillips, David

27

Vehicle Technologies Office: Intermediate Ethanol Blends  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Intermediate Ethanol Intermediate Ethanol Blends to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Intermediate Ethanol Blends on AddThis.com... Just the Basics Hybrid & Vehicle Systems Energy Storage Advanced Power Electronics & Electrical Machines Advanced Combustion Engines Fuels & Lubricants Fuel Effects on Combustion Lubricants Natural Gas Research Biofuels End-Use Research

28

Hydrogen/Natural Gas Blends for Heavy and Light-Duty Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

exhaust emissions that can be achieved relative to both diesel and natural gas alternatives. The design $ For applications that now use diesel engines $ Develop engine configurations that can replace existing diesel that minimizes the surface to volume ratio. However, care must be taken to avoid engine knock. This can require

29

Development and Demonstration of Hydrogen and Compressed Natural Gas (H/CNG) Blend Transit Buses: October 15, 2002-September 30, 2004  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Development and Demonstration Development and Demonstration of Hydrogen and Compressed Natural Gas (H/CNG) Blend Transit Buses October 15, 2002 - September 30, 2004 A. Del Toro SunLine Services Group Thousand Palms, California M. Frailey National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, Colorado F. Lynch Hydrogen Components Inc. Littleton, Colorado S. Munshi Westport Innovations Inc. Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada S. Wayne West Virginia University Morgantown, West Virginia Technical Report NREL/TP-540-38707 November 2005 Development and Demonstration of Hydrogen and Compressed Natural Gas (H/CNG) Blend Transit Buses October 15, 2002 - September 30, 2004 A. Del Toro SunLine Services Group Thousand Palms, California M. Frailey National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, Colorado

30

Engine combustion, performance and emission characteristics of gas to liquid (GTL) fuels and its blends with diesel and bio-diesel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Crude oil price hikes, energy security concerns and environmental drivers have turned the focus to alternative fuels. Gas to liquid (GTL) diesel is regarded as a promising alternative diesel fuel, considering the adeptness to use directly as a diesel fuel or in blends with petroleum-derived diesel or bio-diesel. GTL fuel derived from Fischer–Tropsch synthesis is of distinctly different characteristics than fossil diesel fuel due to its paraffinic nature, virtually zero sulfur, low aromatic contents and very high cetane number. GTL fuel is referred to as a “clean fuel” for its inherent ability to reduce engine exhaust emission even with blends of diesel and bio-diesel. This paper illustrates feasibility of GTL fuel in context of comparative fuel properties with conventional diesel and bio-diesels. This review also describes the technical attributes of GTL and its blends with diesel and bio-diesel focusing their impact on engine performance and emission characteristics on the basis of the previous research works. It can introduce an efficacious guideline to devise several blends of alternative fuels, further the development of engine performance and constrain exhaust emission to cope with the relentless efforts to manufacture efficient and environment friendly powertrains.

H. Sajjad; H.H. Masjuki; M. Varman; M.A. Kalam; M.I. Arbab; S. Imtenan; S.M. Ashrafur Rahman

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

1995 Reformulated Gasoline Market Affected Refiners Differently  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 Reformulated Gasoline Market Affected 5 Reformulated Gasoline Market Affected Refiners Differently by John Zyren, Charles Dale and Charles Riner Introduction The United States has completed its first summer driving season using reformulated gasoline (RFG). Motorists noticed price increases at the retail level, resulting from the increased cost to produce and deliver the product, as well as from the tight sup- ply/demand balance during the summer. This arti- cle focuses on the costs of producing RFG as experienced by different types of refiners and on how these refiners fared this past summer, given the prices for RFG at the refinery gate. RFG Regulatory Requirements The use of RFG is a result of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA). The CAAA cover a wide range of programs aimed at improving air qual-

32

Investigation on characteristics of ionization current in a spark-ignition engine fueled with natural gas–hydrogen blends with BSS de-noising method  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Investigation on ionization current characteristic in a spark-ignition engine fueled with natural gas, natural gas–hydrogen bends and gasoline was conducted. Blind Source Separation (BSS) de-noising method is employed to separate the ionization current signal from the interference of spark tail generated by ignition discharge. Cylinder pressure was recorded, and local temperature at spark plug gap is calculated using AVL-FIRE simulation code. Results show that the simulated cylinder pressures are in good agreement with those of measured and the spark tail and ionization current can be separated using BSS method. Front flame stage and post flame stage in ionization current can be used to analyze the combustion characteristics of natural gas–hydrogen blends. De-noised current shows that the appearance of front flame stage and post flame stage (including the peaks in the stages) fueled with natural gas is postponed and compared with that fueled with gasoline, and the appearance of front flame stage and post flame stage advance with the increase of hydrogen fraction in natural gas–hydrogen blends. In addition, the amplitude of ionization currents in both front flame and post flame (including the two peaks) fueled with natural gas gives lower values compared with those fueled with gasoline and hydrogen addition can increase the amplitude. Maximum post flame current shows similar trend to maximum cylinder pressure and it has good correlation between the timing of maximum post flame current and the timing of maximum cylinder pressure. High correlation coefficient between maximum post flame current and maximum pressure is presented.

Zhongquan Gao; Xiaomin Wu; Hui Gao; Bing Liu; Jie Wang; Xiangwen Meng; Zuohua Huang

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

On the Reformulation of Vehicle Routing Problems and Scheduling Problems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Beck,J.C. Prosser,P. Selensky,E. Proceedings of SARA 2002, Symposium on Abstraction, Reformulation and Approximation pp 282 - 289 LNCS, Springer

Beck, J.C.; Prosser, P.

34

Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon Excluding...

35

Meet changing fuel requirements with online blend optimization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Compania Espanola de Petroleos (CEPSA) embarked on an overall refinery automation program, with state-of-the-art gasoline blending being one of the highest priorities. The result of this effort is a sophisticated computerized gasoline blending system using offline LPs for initial optimal recipe calculation, an online LP for real-time blend recipe reformulation using online analyzers for blending model adjustment, complete automation of blending sequence startup and shutdown, generation of end of blend quality performance reports, and real-time integration between lab, tank gauging, plant information, and blending systems. The entry of Spain in the EEC brought with it the need to quickly adapt to the requirements of an openly competitive marketplace emphasizing no lead, oxygenated, high performance gasolines and ISO 9000 quality standards. The blending system allowed CEPSA to produce lowest cost, minimum giveaway gasolines, while having the flexibility to produce a wide variety of modern gasolines serving the Western European market. The paper describes the blender architecture, optimizer linear programming, man machine interface, and results from the blending system.

Diaz, A. [Compania Espanola de Petroleos, S.A., Cadiz (Spain). Algeciras Refinery; Barsamian, J.A. [ABB Simcon Inc., Bloomfield, NJ (United States)

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

DOE Awarded Patent for Reformulated Diesel Fuel | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Awarded Patent for Reformulated Diesel Fuel Awarded Patent for Reformulated Diesel Fuel DOE Awarded Patent for Reformulated Diesel Fuel May 19, 2006 - 10:46am Addthis Available free of Licensing Fees, Cleaner for the Environment WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy today announced that it has developed, patented, and made commercially available reformulated diesel fuels which when used can reduce nitrogen oxides up to 10% and particulate matter up to 22% compared to those currently available. The diesel fuel formulations covered under this patent will be commercially available for use without licensing or royalty fees. This reformulated diesel fuel patent resulted from research conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and its subcontractors. "DOE's personnel continue to bring to the forefront technologies and

37

Desulfurization of coke oven gas from the coking of coking coal blended with a sorbent and waste plastic  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A new way to implement the simultaneous reutilization of solid waste, the desulfurization of coke oven gas (COG), and even the desulfurization of coke by the co-coking of coking coal (CC) and waste plastic (WP).....

Zhao Rongfang; Ye Shufeng; Xie Yusheng…

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

E-Print Network 3.0 - assisted query reformulation Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

query reformulation Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Predicting Query Reformulation During Web Searching Summary: and Assistance account for approximately 45 percent of all query...

39

EIA Report 9/4/08 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil & Natural Gas Energy  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4, 4:00 pm See current 4, 4:00 pm See current U.S. Oil and Natural Gas Market Impacts Prices NYMEX Futures Prices (for October delivery) 9/4/2008 8/29/2008 change Week Ago 8/28/2008 Year Ago 9/4/2007 WTI Crude Oil ($/Bbl) 107.89 115.46 -7.57 115.59 75.08 Gasoline RBOB* (c/gal) 274.04 285.42 -11.38 286.44 199.10 Heating Oil (c/gal) 302.37 319.19 -16.82 320.21 207.95 Natural Gas ($/MMBtu) 7.32 7.94 -0.62 8.05 5.63 *RBOB = Reformulated Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (RBOB), the base gasoline that needs to be blended with some type of oxygenate, now usually ethanol, to be turned into finished reformulated gasoline (RFG). Ethanol is not blended into the gasoline mixture until just before the gasoline is shipped to the retail stations. Petroleum As of 12:30 pm EDT (11:30 am CDT), September 4, the Minerals Management

40

EIA Report 9/16/08 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil & Natural Gas Energy  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Tuesday, September 16, 4:00 pm See current Tuesday, September 16, 4:00 pm See current U.S. Oil and Natural Gas Market Impacts Prices NYMEX Futures Prices (for October delivery) 9/16/2008 Pre-Gustav 8/29/2008 change Week Ago 9/9/2008 Year Ago 9/17/2007 WTI Crude Oil ($/Bbl) 91.15 115.46 -24.31 103.26 80.57 Gasoline RBOB* (c/gal) 240.08 285.42 -45.34 265.26 204.42 Heating Oil (c/gal) 271.97 319.19 -47.22 292.47 222.87 Natural Gas ($/MMBtu) 7.28 7.94 -0.66 7.54 6.65 *RBOB = Reformulated Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (RBOB), the base gasoline that needs to be blended with some type of oxygenate, now usually ethanol, to be turned into finished reformulated gasoline (RFG). Ethanol is not blended into the gasoline mixture until just before the gasoline is shipped to the retail stations. Petroleum As of 12:30 pm EDT (11:30 am CDT), September 16, the Minerals Management

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas reformulated blended" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

EIA Report 9/17/08 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil & Natural Gas Energy  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7, 4:00 pm See current 7, 4:00 pm See current U.S. Oil and Natural Gas Market Impacts Prices NYMEX Futures Prices (for October delivery) 9/17/2008 Pre-Gustav 8/29/2008 change Week Ago 9/10/2008 Year Ago 9/17/2007 WTI Crude Oil ($/Bbl) 97.16 115.46 -18.30 102.58 80.57 Gasoline RBOB* (c/gal) 246.30 285.42 -39.12 266.16 204.42 Heating Oil (c/gal) 282.47 319.19 -36.72 290.24 222.87 Natural Gas ($/MMBtu) 7.91 7.94 -0.03 7.39 6.65 *RBOB = Reformulated Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (RBOB), the base gasoline that needs to be blended with some type of oxygenate, now usually ethanol, to be turned into finished reformulated gasoline (RFG). Ethanol is not blended into the gasoline mixture until just before the gasoline is shipped to the retail stations. Petroleum As of 12:30 pm EDT (11:30 am CDT), September 17, the Minerals Management

42

EIA Report 9/8/08 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil & Natural Gas Energy  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8, 4:00 pm See current 8, 4:00 pm See current U.S. Oil and Natural Gas Market Impacts Prices NYMEX Futures Prices (for October delivery) 9/8/2008 Pre-Gustav 8/29/2008 change Week Ago 9/2/2008 Year Ago 9/7/2007 WTI Crude Oil ($/Bbl) 106.34 115.46 -9.12 109.71 76.70 Gasoline RBOB* (c/gal) 275.03 285.42 -10.39 273.37 198.64 Heating Oil (c/gal) 301.31 319.19 -17.88 307.36 214.32 Natural Gas ($/MMBtu) 7.53 7.94 -0.41 7.26 5.50 *RBOB = Reformulated Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (RBOB), the base gasoline that needs to be blended with some type of oxygenate, now usually ethanol, to be turned into finished reformulated gasoline (RFG). Ethanol is not blended into the gasoline mixture until just before the gasoline is shipped to the retail stations. Petroleum As of 12:30 pm EDT (11:30 am CDT), September 8, the Minerals Management

43

EIA Report 9/5/08 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil & Natural Gas Energy  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5, 4:00 pm See current 5, 4:00 pm See current U.S. Oil and Natural Gas Market Impacts Prices NYMEX Futures Prices (for October delivery) 9/5/2008 Pre-Gustav 8/29/2008 change Week Ago 8/29/2008 Year Ago 9/5/2007 WTI Crude Oil ($/Bbl) 106.23 115.46 -9.23 115.46 75.73 Gasoline RBOB* (c/gal) 268.61 285.42 -16.81 285.42 199.65 Heating Oil (c/gal) 298.28 319.19 -20.91 319.19 209.99 Natural Gas ($/MMBtu) 7.45 7.94 -0.49 7.94 5.81 *RBOB = Reformulated Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (RBOB), the base gasoline that needs to be blended with some type of oxygenate, now usually ethanol, to be turned into finished reformulated gasoline (RFG). Ethanol is not blended into the gasoline mixture until just before the gasoline is shipped to the retail stations. Petroleum As of 12:30 pm EDT (11:30 am CDT), September 5, the Minerals Management

44

EIA Report 9/26/08 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil & Natural Gas Energy  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

26, 4:00 pm 26, 4:00 pm U.S. Oil and Natural Gas Market Impacts Prices NYMEX Futures Prices (for October delivery) 9/26/2008 Pre-Gustav 8/29/2008 change Week Ago 9/19/2008 Year Ago 9/26/2007 WTI Crude Oil ($/Bbl) 108.89 115.46 -8.57 104.55 80.30 Gasoline RBOB* (c/gal) 266.51 285.42 -18.91 259.97 202.74 Heating Oil (c/gal) 299.49 319.19 -19.70 289.78 218.26 Natural Gas ($/MMBtu) 7.47 7.94 -0.47 7.53 6.40 *RBOB = Reformulated Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (RBOB), the base gasoline that needs to be blended with some type of oxygenate, now usually ethanol, to be turned into finished reformulated gasoline (RFG). Ethanol is not blended into the gasoline mixture until just before the gasoline is shipped to the retail stations. Petroleum As of 12:30 pm EDT (11:30 am CDT), September 26, the Minerals Management

45

EIA Report 9/23/08 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil & Natural Gas Energy  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3, 4:00 pm See current 3, 4:00 pm See current U.S. Oil and Natural Gas Market Impacts Prices NYMEX Futures Prices (for October delivery) 9/23/2008 Pre-Gustav 8/29/2008 change Week Ago 9/16/2008 Year Ago 9/21/2007 WTI Crude Oil ($/Bbl) 106.61 115.46 -8.85 91.15 81.62 Gasoline RBOB* (c/gal) 259.50 285.42 -25.92 240.08 211.45 Heating Oil (c/gal) 299.63 319.19 -19.56 271.97 225.62 Natural Gas ($/MMBtu) 7.93 7.94 -0.01 7.28 6.08 *RBOB = Reformulated Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (RBOB), the base gasoline that needs to be blended with some type of oxygenate, now usually ethanol, to be turned into finished reformulated gasoline (RFG). Ethanol is not blended into the gasoline mixture until just before the gasoline is shipped to the retail stations. Petroleum As of 12:30 pm EDT (11:30 am CDT), September 23, the Minerals Management

46

EIA Report 9/14/08 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil & Natural Gas Energy  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Sunday, September 14, 3:00 pm See current Sunday, September 14, 3:00 pm See current U.S. Oil and Natural Gas Market Impacts Prices NYMEX Futures Prices (for October delivery) 2:30pm 9/14/2008 Pre-Gustav 8/29/2008 change Week Ago 9/5/2008 Year Ago 9/12/2007 WTI Crude Oil ($/Bbl) 99.17 115.46 -16.29 106.23 79.91 Gasoline RBOB* (c/gal) 264.65 285.42 -20.77 268.61 201.60 Heating Oil (c/gal) 284.80 319.19 -34.39 298.28 221.91 Natural Gas ($/MMBtu) 7.43 7.94 -0.51 7.45 6.44 *RBOB = Reformulated Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (RBOB), the base gasoline that needs to be blended with some type of oxygenate, now usually ethanol, to be turned into finished reformulated gasoline (RFG). Ethanol is not blended into the gasoline mixture until just before the gasoline is shipped to the retail stations. Petroleum

47

EIA Report 9/19/08 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil & Natural Gas Energy  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

19, 4:00 pm See current 19, 4:00 pm See current U.S. Oil and Natural Gas Market Impacts Prices NYMEX Futures Prices (for October delivery) 9/19/2008 Pre-Gustav 8/29/2008 change Week Ago 9/12/2008 Year Ago 9/18/2007 WTI Crude Oil ($/Bbl) 104.55 115.46 -10.91 101.18 81.93 Gasoline RBOB* (c/gal) 259.97 285.42 -25.45 276.96 209.34 Heating Oil (c/gal) 289.78 319.19 -29.41 293.91 224.53 Natural Gas ($/MMBtu) 7.53 7.94 -0.41 7.37 6.18 *RBOB = Reformulated Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (RBOB), the base gasoline that needs to be blended with some type of oxygenate, now usually ethanol, to be turned into finished reformulated gasoline (RFG). Ethanol is not blended into the gasoline mixture until just before the gasoline is shipped to the retail stations. Petroleum As of 12:30 pm EDT (11:30 am CDT), September 19, the Minerals Management

48

EIA Report 9/22/08 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil & Natural Gas Energy  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

22, 4:00 pm See current 22, 4:00 pm See current U.S. Oil and Natural Gas Market Impacts Prices NYMEX Futures Prices (for October delivery) 9/22/2008 Pre-Gustav 8/29/2008 change Week Ago 9/15/2008 Year Ago 9/21/2007 WTI Crude Oil ($/Bbl) 120.92 115.46 5.46 95.71 81.62 Gasoline RBOB* (c/gal) 270.38 285.42 -15.04 256.14 211.45 Heating Oil (c/gal) 304.30 319.19 -14.89 279.12 225.62 Natural Gas ($/MMBtu) 7.66 7.94 -0.28 7.37 6.08 *RBOB = Reformulated Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (RBOB), the base gasoline that needs to be blended with some type of oxygenate, now usually ethanol, to be turned into finished reformulated gasoline (RFG). Ethanol is not blended into the gasoline mixture until just before the gasoline is shipped to the retail stations. Petroleum As of 12:30 pm EDT (11:30 am CDT), September 22, the Minerals Management

49

EIA Report 9/24/08 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil & Natural Gas Energy  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4, 4:00 pm 4, 4:00 pm U.S. Oil and Natural Gas Market Impacts Prices NYMEX Futures Prices (for October delivery) 9/24/2008 Pre-Gustav 8/29/2008 change Week Ago 9/17/2008 Year Ago 9/24/2007 WTI Crude Oil ($/Bbl) 105.73 115.46 -9.73 91.16 80.95 Gasoline RBOB* (c/gal) 259.47 285.42 -25.95 246.30 208.34 Heating Oil (c/gal) 301.33 319.19 -17.86 282.47 223.06 Natural Gas ($/MMBtu) 7.68 7.94 -0.26 7.91 6.37 *RBOB = Reformulated Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (RBOB), the base gasoline that needs to be blended with some type of oxygenate, now usually ethanol, to be turned into finished reformulated gasoline (RFG). Ethanol is not blended into the gasoline mixture until just before the gasoline is shipped to the retail stations. Petroleum As of 12:30 pm EDT (11:30 am CDT), September 24, the Minerals Management

50

EIA Report 9/3/08 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil & Natural Gas Energy  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3, 4:00 pm See current 3, 4:00 pm See current U.S. Oil and Natural Gas Market Impacts Prices NYMEX Futures Prices (for October delivery) 9/3/2008 8/29/2008 change Week Ago 8/27/2008 Year Ago 9/4/2007 WTI Crude Oil ($/Bbl) 109.35 115.46 -6.11 118.15 75.08 Gasoline RBOB* (c/gal) 276.68 285.42 -8.74 291.72 199.10 Heating Oil (c/gal) 307.88 319.19 -11.31 328.15 207.95 Natural Gas ($/MMBtu) 7.26 7.94 -0.68 8.61 5.63 *RBOB = Reformulated Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (RBOB), the base gasoline that needs to be blended with some type of oxygenate, now usually ethanol, to be turned into finished reformulated gasoline (RFG). Ethanol is not blended into the gasoline mixture until just before the gasoline is shipped to the retail stations. Petroleum As of 12:30 pm EDT (11:30 am CDT), September 3, the Minerals Management

51

EIA Report 9/15/08 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil & Natural Gas Energy  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

15, 4:00 pm See current 15, 4:00 pm See current U.S. Oil and Natural Gas Market Impacts Prices NYMEX Futures Prices (for October delivery) 9/15/2008 Pre-Gustav 8/29/2008 change Week Ago 9/8/2008 Year Ago 9/14/2007 WTI Crude Oil ($/Bbl) 95.71 115.46 -19.75 106.34 79.10 Gasoline RBOB* (c/gal) 256.14 285.42 -29.28 275.03 203.64 Heating Oil (c/gal) 279.12 319.19 -40.07 301.31 220.78 Natural Gas ($/MMBtu) 7.37 7.94 -0.57 7.53 6.28 *RBOB = Reformulated Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (RBOB), the base gasoline that needs to be blended with some type of oxygenate, now usually ethanol, to be turned into finished reformulated gasoline (RFG). Ethanol is not blended into the gasoline mixture until just before the gasoline is shipped to the retail stations. Petroleum As of 12:30 pm EDT (11:30 am CDT), September 15, the Minerals Management

52

EIA Report 9/18/08 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil & Natural Gas Energy  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

18, 4:00 pm See current 18, 4:00 pm See current U.S. Oil and Natural Gas Market Impacts Prices NYMEX Futures Prices (for October delivery) 9/18/2008 Pre-Gustav 8/29/2008 change Week Ago 9/11/2008 Year Ago 9/18/2007 WTI Crude Oil ($/Bbl) 97.88 115.46 -17.58 100.87 81.51 Gasoline RBOB* (c/gal) 248.24 285.42 -37.18 274.88 206.03 Heating Oil (c/gal) 278.24 319.19 -40.95 291.55 224.23 Natural Gas ($/MMBtu) 7.62 7.94 -0.32 7.25 6.57 *RBOB = Reformulated Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (RBOB), the base gasoline that needs to be blended with some type of oxygenate, now usually ethanol, to be turned into finished reformulated gasoline (RFG). Ethanol is not blended into the gasoline mixture until just before the gasoline is shipped to the retail stations. Petroleum As of 12:30 pm EDT (11:30 am CDT), September 18, the Minerals Management

53

EIA Report 9/13/08 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil & Natural Gas Energy  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Saturday, September 13, 4:00 pm See current Saturday, September 13, 4:00 pm See current U.S. Oil and Natural Gas Market Impacts Prices NYMEX Futures Prices (for October delivery) 9/12/2008 Pre-Gustav 8/29/2008 change Week Ago 9/5/2008 Year Ago 9/12/2007 WTI Crude Oil ($/Bbl) 101.18 115.46 -14.28 106.23 79.91 Gasoline RBOB* (c/gal) 276.96 285.42 -8.46 268.61 201.60 Heating Oil (c/gal) 293.91 319.19 -25.28 298.28 221.91 Natural Gas ($/MMBtu) 7.37 7.94 -0.57 7.45 6.44 *RBOB = Reformulated Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (RBOB), the base gasoline that needs to be blended with some type of oxygenate, now usually ethanol, to be turned into finished reformulated gasoline (RFG). Ethanol is not blended into the gasoline mixture until just before the gasoline is shipped to the retail stations. Petroleum As of 12:30 pm EDT (11:30 am CDT), September 13, the Minerals Management

54

EIA Report 9/12/08 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil & Natural Gas Energy  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2, 4:00 pm See current 2, 4:00 pm See current U.S. Oil and Natural Gas Market Impacts Prices NYMEX Futures Prices (for October delivery) 9/12/2008 Pre-Gustav 8/29/2008 change Week Ago 9/5/2008 Year Ago 9/12/2007 WTI Crude Oil ($/Bbl) 101.18 115.46 -14.28 106.23 79.91 Gasoline RBOB* (c/gal) 276.96 285.42 -8.46 268.61 201.60 Heating Oil (c/gal) 293.91 319.19 -25.28 298.28 221.91 Natural Gas ($/MMBtu) 7.37 7.94 -0.57 7.45 6.44 *RBOB = Reformulated Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (RBOB), the base gasoline that needs to be blended with some type of oxygenate, now usually ethanol, to be turned into finished reformulated gasoline (RFG). Ethanol is not blended into the gasoline mixture until just before the gasoline is shipped to the retail stations. Petroleum As of 12:30 pm EDT (11:30 am CDT), September 12, the Minerals Management

55

EIA Report 9/9/08 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil & Natural Gas Energy  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

9, 4:00 pm See current 9, 4:00 pm See current U.S. Oil and Natural Gas Market Impacts Prices NYMEX Futures Prices (for October delivery) 9/9/2008 Pre-Gustav 8/29/2008 change Week Ago 9/2/2008 Year Ago 9/10/2007 WTI Crude Oil ($/Bbl) 103.26 115.46 -12.20 109.71 77.49 Gasoline RBOB* (c/gal) 265.26 285.42 -20.16 273.37 197.86 Heating Oil (c/gal) 292.47 319.19 -26.72 307.36 217.16 Natural Gas ($/MMBtu) 7.54 7.94 -0.40 7.26 5.89 *RBOB = Reformulated Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (RBOB), the base gasoline that needs to be blended with some type of oxygenate, now usually ethanol, to be turned into finished reformulated gasoline (RFG). Ethanol is not blended into the gasoline mixture until just before the gasoline is shipped to the retail stations. Petroleum As of 12:30 pm EDT (11:30 am CDT), September 9, the Minerals Management

56

EIA Report 9/11/08 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil & Natural Gas Energy  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1, 4:00 pm See current 1, 4:00 pm See current U.S. Oil and Natural Gas Market Impacts Prices NYMEX Futures Prices (for October delivery) 9/11/2008 Pre-Gustav 8/29/2008 change Week Ago 9/4/2008 Year Ago 9/11/2007 WTI Crude Oil ($/Bbl) 100.87 115.46 -14.59 107.89 78.23 Gasoline RBOB* (c/gal) 274.88 285.42 -10.54 274.04 198.11 Heating Oil (c/gal) 291.55 319.19 -27.64 302.37 218.27 Natural Gas ($/MMBtu) 7.25 7.94 -0.69 7.32 5.93 *RBOB = Reformulated Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (RBOB), the base gasoline that needs to be blended with some type of oxygenate, now usually ethanol, to be turned into finished reformulated gasoline (RFG). Ethanol is not blended into the gasoline mixture until just before the gasoline is shipped to the retail stations. Petroleum As of 12:30 pm EDT (11:30 am CDT), September 11, the Minerals Management

57

EIA Report 9/1/08 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil & Natural Gas Energy  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

, 4:00 pm See current , 4:00 pm See current U.S. Oil and Natural Gas Market Impacts Prices NYMEX Futures Prices (for October delivery) (2pm) 9/1/2008 8/29/2008 change Week Ago 8/25/2008 Year Ago 8/31/2007 WTI Crude Oil ($/Bbl) 111.16 115.46 -4.30 115.11 73.98 Gasoline RBOB* (c/gal) 275.10 285.42 -10.32 280.69 196.45 Heating Oil (c/gal) 309.24 319.19 -9.95 317.90 205.74 Natural Gas ($/MMBtu) 7.98 8.36 -0.38 7.94 6.46 OPEC Basket ($Bbl) NA 111.23 NA 110.61 69.60 *RBOB = Reformulated Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (RBOB), the base gasoline that needs to be blended with some type of oxygenate, now usually ethanol, to be turned into finished reformulated gasoline (RFG). Ethanol is not blended into the gasoline mixture until just before the gasoline is shipped to the retail stations. Petroleum As of 12:30 pm EDT (11:30 am CDT), August 31, the Minerals Management

58

EIA Report 9/25/08 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil & Natural Gas Energy  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

25, 4:00 pm See current 25, 4:00 pm See current U.S. Oil and Natural Gas Market Impacts Prices NYMEX Futures Prices (for October delivery) 9/25/2008 Pre-Gustav 8/29/2008 change Week Ago 9/18/2008 Year Ago 9/25/2007 WTI Crude Oil ($/Bbl) 108.02 115.46 -7.44 97.88 79.53 Gasoline RBOB* (c/gal) 269.73 285.42 -15.69 248.24 203.79 Heating Oil (c/gal) 302.58 319.19 -16.61 278.24 218.13 Natural Gas ($/MMBtu) 7.64 7.94 -0.30 7.62 6.36 *RBOB = Reformulated Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (RBOB), the base gasoline that needs to be blended with some type of oxygenate, now usually ethanol, to be turned into finished reformulated gasoline (RFG). Ethanol is not blended into the gasoline mixture until just before the gasoline is shipped to the retail stations. Petroleum As of 12:30 pm EDT (11:30 am CDT), September 25, the Minerals Management

59

Measurement of Turbulent Flame Speeds of Hydrogen and Natural Gas Blends (C1-C5 Alkanes) using a Newly Developed Fan-Stirred Vessel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in displacement speeds were observed for blends of NG2/H_(2) and CH_(4)/H_(2), thus validating the newly established experimental technique. Additionally, turbulent flame speeds of hydrogen and a generic, high-hydrogen-content syngas blend (50:50 H_(2):CO) were...

Ravi, Sankaranarayana

2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

60

0101,"SPRAGUE ENERGY CORP",1,150,"MOGAS, REFORMULATED",0131,...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

101,"SPRAGUE ENERGY CORP",1,150,"MOGAS, REFORMULATED",0131,"PORTSMOUTH, NH","NH",100,260,"CANADA",240,0,0 0101,"SPRAGUE ENERGY CORP",2,462,"DIST, > 0.05% SUL (DOM.)",0401,"BOSTON,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas reformulated blended" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

70.8 92.7 90.7 81.5 72.8 - 78.0 See footnotes at end of table. 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 146 Energy Information...

62

Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

71.7 92.3 89.9 82.6 72.7 - 78.2 See footnotes at end of table. 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 146 Energy Information...

63

Investigations on emission characteristics of the pongamia biodiesel–diesel blend fuelled twin cylinder compression ignition direct injection engine using exhaust gas recirculation methodology and dimethyl carbonate as additive  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Experiments were carried out on a twin cylinder direct injection compression ignition engine using pongamia biodiesel–diesel blend as fuel with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) as additive. The experimental results showed that pongamia biodiesel–diesel blend fuelled engine with EGR and DMC can simultaneously reduce smoke and nitric oxide ( NO x ) emission. The NO x emission was reduced by about 17.68% for 10% of EGR introduction and about 13.55% increase in smoke emission. When dimethyl carbonate was added with EGR the engine emits lower smoke with lesser NO x emission and it showed that the smoke reduction rate had a linear relationship with DMC percentage. The carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions also decreased when DMC was added. However the addition of DMC with EGR caused an increase in both BSEC and BTE.

M. Pandian; S. P. Sivapirakasam; M. Udayakumar

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Table S1. Fuel Properties. JP-8 Blend-1 FT-1 Blend-2 FT-2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

58 45 51 H Content (% mass) 13.6 14.5 15.5 14.3 15.1 Heat of Combust. (MJ/kg) 43.3 43.8 44.4 43.8 441 Table S1. Fuel Properties. JP-8 Blend-1 FT-1 Blend-2 FT-2 Feedstock Petroleum Petroleum & Natural Gas Natural Gas Petroleum & Coal Coal Sulfur (ppm by mass) 1148 699 19 658 22 Alkanes (% vol.) 50

Meskhidze, Nicholas

65

Demand and Price Outlook for Phase 2 Reformulated Gasoline, 2000  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Demand and Price Outlook for Demand and Price Outlook for Phase 2 Reformulated Gasoline, 2000 Tancred Lidderdale and Aileen Bohn (1) Contents * Summary * Introduction * Reformulated Gasoline Demand * Oxygenate Demand * Logistics o Interstate Movements and Storage o Local Distribution o Phase 2 RFG Logistics o Possible Opt-Ins to the RFG Program o State Low Sulfur, Low RVP Gasoline Initiatives o NAAQS o Tier 2 Gasoline * RFG Production Options o Toxic Air Pollutants (TAP) Reduction o Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) Reduction o Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) Reduction o Summary of RFG Production Options * Costs of Reformulated Gasoline o Phase 1 RFG Price Premium o California Clean Gasoline Price Premium o Phase 2 RFG Price Premium o Reduced Fuel Economy

66

Demand, Supply, and Price Outlook for Reformulated Motor Gasoline 1995  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Demand, Supply, and Price Outlook for Reformulated Demand, Supply, and Price Outlook for Reformulated Motor Gasoline 1995 by Tancred Lidderdale* Provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 designed to reduce ground-level ozone will increase the demand for reformulated motor gaso- line in a number of U.S. metropolitan areas. Refor- mulated motor gasoline is expected to constitute about one-third of total motor gasoline demand in 1995, and refiners will have to change plant opera- tions and modify equipment in order to meet the higher demand. The costs incurred are expected to create a wholesale price premium for reformu- lated motor gasoline of up to 4.0 cents per gallon over the price of conventional motor gasoline. This article discusses the effects of the new regulations on the motor gasoline market and the refining

67

Assessment of California reformulated gasoline impact on vehicle fuel economy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fuel economy data contained in the 1996 California Air Resources Board (CAROB) report with respect to the introduction of California Reformulated Gasoline (CaRFG) has been examined and reanalyzed by two additional statistical methodologies. Additional data has also been analyzed by these two statistical approaches. Within the assumptions of the analysis, point estimates for the reduction in fuel economy using CaRFG as compared to conventional, non-reformulated gasoline were 2-4 %, with a 95% upper confidence bound of 6 %. Substantial variations in fuel economy are routine and inevitable due to additional factors which affect mileage, even if there is no change in fuel reformulation. This additional analysis confirms the conclusion reached by CAROB with respect to the impact of CaRFG on fuel economy.

Aceves, S.; Glaser, R.; Richardson, J.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Assessment of California reformulated gasoline impact on vehicle fuel economy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fuel economy data contained in the 1996 California Air Resources Board (CARB) report with respect to the introduction of California Reformulated Gasoline (CaRFG) has been examined and reanalyzed by two additional statistical methodologies. Additional data has also been analyzed by these two statistical approaches. Within the assumptions of the analysis, point estimates for the reduction in fuel economy using CaRFG as compared to conventional, non-reformulated gasoline were 2-4%, with a 95% upper confidence bound of 6%. Substantial variations in fuel economy are routine and inevitable due to additional factors which affect mileage, even if there is no change in fuel reformulation. This additional analysis confirms the conclusion reached by CARB with respect to the impact of CaRFG on fuel economy.

Aceves, S., LLNL

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Effects of Bioethanol-Blended Diesel Fuel on Combustion and Emission Reduction Characteristics in a Direct-Injection Diesel Engine with Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Sungdong-gu, Seoul 133-791, Korea ... As a fuel for compression engines, bioethanol-blended diesel fuels have some different trends on the exhaust emission characteristics according to the engine load. ... The paper begins with an introduction of general information on the nature of emissions of exhaust gases, including the toxicity and causes of emissions for both spark-ignition and diesel engines. ...

Su Han Park; Junepyo Cha; Chang Sik Lee

2010-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

70

High precision in-cylinder gas thermometry using Laser Induced Gratings: Quantitative measurement of evaporative cooling with gasoline/alcohol blends in a GDI optical engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The first application of Laser Induced Thermal Gratings Spectroscopy (LITGS) for precision thermometry in a firing GDI optical engine is reported. Crank-angle resolved temperature values were derived from LITGS signals generated in fuel vapour with a pressure dependent precision in the range 0.1–1.0% allowing differences in evaporative or charge cooling effects arising from a variety of ethanol and methanol blends with a model gasoline fuel to be quantified. In addition, fluctuations in temperature arising from cyclic variations in compression were directly detected and measured.

Ben Williams; Megan Edwards; Richard Stone; John Williams; Paul Ewart

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Sandia National Laboratories: blending feedstock varieties  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

blending feedstock varieties Biofuels Blend Right In: Researchers Show Ionic Liquids Effective for Pretreating Mixed Blends of Biofuel Feedstocks On February 26, 2013, in Biofuels,...

72

AN EFFICIENT REFORMULATION BASED VLSI ARCHITECTURE FOR ADAPTIVE VITERBI DECODING IN WIRELESS APPLICATIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AN EFFICIENT REFORMULATION BASED VLSI ARCHITECTURE FOR ADAPTIVE VITERBI DECODING IN WIRELESS dictated the need for dynamical adaptation of communication sys- tems in order to suit enviromental requirements. The au- thors present a reformulation based VLSI architecture for threhold selection for Adaptive

Arslan, Tughrul

73

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blends  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Blends to Blends to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blends on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blends on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blends on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blends on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blends on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blends on AddThis.com... More in this section... Biodiesel Basics Blends Production & Distribution Specifications Related Links Benefits & Considerations Stations Vehicles Laws & Incentives Biodiesel Blends Biodiesel can be blended and used in many different concentrations, including B100 (pure biodiesel), B20 (20% biodiesel, 80% petroleum diesel),

74

Multiperiod Competitive Supply Chain Networks with Inventorying and A Transportation Network Equilibrium Reformulation Multiperiod Competitive Supply Chain Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Multiperiod Competitive Supply Chain Networks with Inventorying and A Transportation Network Equilibrium Reformulation Multiperiod Competitive Supply Chain Networks with Inventorying and A Transportation Competitive Supply Chain Networks with Inventorying and A Transportation Network Equilibrium Reformulation

Nagurney, Anna

75

Ethanol-blended Fuels  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Ethanol-Blended Ethanol-Blended Fuels A Study Guide and Overview of: * Ethanol's History in the U.S. and Worldwide * Ethanol Science and Technology * Engine Performance * Environmental Effects * Economics and Energy Security The Curriculum This curriculum on ethanol and its use as a fuel was developed by the Clean Fuels Development Coalition in cooperation with the Nebraska Ethanol Board. This material was developed in response to the need for instructional materials on ethanol and its effects on vehicle performance, the environment, and the economy. As a renewable alternative energy source made from grain and other biomass resources, ethanol study serves as an excellent learning opportunity for students to use in issue clarification and problem-solving activities. Ethanol illustrates that science and technology can provide us with new

76

Ethers have good gasoline-blending attributes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Because of their compatibility with hydrocarbon gasoline-blending components, their high octane blending values, and their low volatility blending values, ethers will grow in use as gasoline blending components. This article discusses the properties of ethers as blending components, and environmental questions.

Unzelman, G.H.

1989-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

77

Reformulation of nonperturbative density-functional theories of classical nonuniform systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is shown that most nonperturbative density-functional theories of classical systems can be reformulated as second-order truncations of exact perturbative expansions, thus eliminating the ad hoc nature of such theories. This reformulation is used as a basis for discussion as to why some theories work better than others when applied to hard spheres, why most theories perform poorly for continuous potentials, and in what direction they might be modified so as to improve their performance.

J. F. Lutsko

1991-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

78

Mid-Level Ethanol Blends  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Test Program DOE, NREL, and ORNL Team Presented by Keith Knoll Work supported by DOEEERE Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer...

79

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Blends to Blends to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends on AddThis.com... More in this section... Ethanol Basics Blends E15 E85 Specifications Production & Distribution Feedstocks Related Links Benefits & Considerations Stations Vehicles Laws & Incentives Ethanol Blends Ethanol is blended with gasoline in various amounts for use in vehicles. E10 E10 is a low-level blend composed of 10% ethanol and 90% gasoline. It is

80

The Effect of the Di-Tertiary Butyl Peroxide (DTBP) additive on HCCI Combustion of Fuel Blends of Ethanol and Diethyl Ether  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ignition Using Isooctane, Ethanol and Natural Gas - AModel for High Temperature Ethanol Oxidation," Internationalof Bio-Derived Carbon from Ethanol-in-Diesel Blends in the

Mack, John Hunter; Buchholz, Bruce A; Flowers, Daniel L; Dibble, Robert W

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas reformulated blended" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Definition  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Blend Blend Definition to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Definition on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Definition on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Definition on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Definition on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Definition on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Definition on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Blend Definition An ethanol blend is defined as a blended motor fuel containing ethyl alcohol that is at least 99% pure, derived from agricultural products, and

82

,"U.S. Reformulated Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Reformulated Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes" Reformulated Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Reformulated Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes",6,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1994" ,"Release Date:","12/2/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/2/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_cons_refmg_c_nus_epm0r_mgalpd_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_cons_refmg_c_nus_epm0r_mgalpd_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov"

83

,"U.S. Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices" Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices",6,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1994" ,"Release Date:","12/2/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/2/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_pri_refmg2_c_nus_epm0r_dpgal_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pri_refmg2_c_nus_epm0r_dpgal_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov"

84

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Standards  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Biodiesel Blend Biodiesel Blend Standards to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Standards on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Standards on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Standards on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Standards on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Standards on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Standards on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blend Standards Biodiesel blends are considered compliant with Texas Low Emissions Diesel Fuel (TxLED) regulations if the diesel fuel is compliant with TxLED

85

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blending Regulation  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Ethanol Blending Ethanol Blending Regulation to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blending Regulation on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blending Regulation on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blending Regulation on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blending Regulation on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blending Regulation on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blending Regulation on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Blending Regulation Gasoline suppliers who provide fuel to distributors in the state must offer gasoline that is suitable for blending with fuel alcohol. Suppliers may not

86

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Ethanol Blend Ethanol Blend Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Blend Requirement Suppliers that import gasoline for sale in North Carolina must offer fuel that is not pre-blended with fuel alcohol but that is suitable for future

87

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Ethanol Blend Mandate Ethanol Blend Mandate to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Blend Mandate All gasoline offered for sale at retail stations within the state must contain 10% ethanol (E10). This requirement is waived only if a distributor is unable to purchase ethanol or ethanol-blended gasoline at the same or

88

Method to blend separator powders  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for making a blended powder mixture, whereby two or more powders are mixed in a container with a liquid selected from nitrogen or short-chain alcohols, where at least one of the powders has an angle of repose greater than approximately 50 degrees. The method is useful in preparing blended powders of Li halides and MgO for use in the preparation of thermal battery separators.

Guidotti, Ronald A. (Albuquerque, NM); Andazola, Arthur H. (Albuquerque, NM); Reinhardt, Frederick W. (Albuquerque, NM)

2007-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

89

Sandia National Laboratories: Biofuels Blend Right In: Researchers...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Show Ionic Liquids Effective for Pretreating Mixed Blends of Biofuel Feedstocks Biofuels Blend Right In: Researchers Show Ionic Liquids Effective for Pretreating Mixed Blends...

90

Automatic Reformulation of Children's Search Queries Maarten van Kalsbeek, Joost de Wit, Dolf Trieschnigg,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Terms Algorithms, Human Factors, Design Keywords Automatic Query Expansion, Search Behavior, 1 children may make. Most of the search engines offer only the possibility to enter a Boolean queryAutomatic Reformulation of Children's Search Queries Maarten van Kalsbeek, Joost de Wit, Dolf

Hiemstra, Djoerd

91

Efficient Reformulation of Solid-Phase Diffusion in Physics-Based Lithium-Ion Battery Models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Efficient Reformulation of Solid-Phase Diffusion in Physics-Based Lithium-Ion Battery Models or approximation for the solid phase. One of the major difficulties in simulating Li-ion battery models is the need typically solve electrolyte con- centration, electrolyte potential, solid-state potential, and solid-state

Subramanian, Venkat

92

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Ethanol-Diesel Blends in Buses and  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Ethanol-Diesel Blends in Buses and Tractors Ethanol-Diesel Blends in Buses and Tractors Project Summary Full Title: Fuel-Cycle Energy and Emission Impacts of Ethanol-Diesel Blends in Urban Buses and Farming Tractors Project ID: 86 Principal Investigator: Michael Wang Brief Description: This project studied the full fuel-cycle energy and emissions effects of ethanol-diesel blends relative to those of petroleum diesel when used in urban transit buses and farming tractors. Keywords: Ethanol; diesel; emissions; well-to-wheels (WTW) Purpose Numerous studies have been conducted to evaluate the fuel-cycle energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission effects of ethanol-gasoline blends relative to those of gasoline for applications in spark- ignition engine vehicles. Those studies did not address the energy and emission effects of

93

Relationship between coking pressure generated by coal blends and the composition of their primary tars  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Four coals that develop different pressures during the coking process were selected together with 10 blends (7 binary and 3 ternary) prepared with the same coals. Their semicoke contraction/expansion was measured by means of two tests (the Koppers-INCAR and the sole heated oven) and the variation in coking pressure during coking was determined in a movable wall oven. The coals and blends were then pyrolysed and the tars were analysed by gas chromatography (GC-FID–MS). The additivity law was applied to the properties used to evaluate the dangerousness of the blends and to the composition of the tar produced from the blends. Afterwards, the composition of the tar was studied in relation to contraction/expansion and the coking pressure generated by the coals and blends.

C. Barriocanal; M.A. Díez; R. Alvarez; M.D. Casal

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Blend Mandate Blend Mandate to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Blend Mandate Within one year after the Montana Department of Transportation has certified that ethanol producers in the state have produced a total of 40 million gallons of denatured ethanol and have maintained that level of

95

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Mandate  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Blend Mandate Blend Mandate to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Mandate on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Mandate on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Mandate on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Mandate on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Mandate on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Mandate on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biofuel Blend Mandate All Gasoline sold or offered for sale in Minnesota must contain at least: 10% corn-based ethanol by volume or the maximum percent by volume of corn-based ethanol authorized in a waiver issued by the U.S. Environmental

96

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Biodiesel Blend Biodiesel Blend Mandate to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blend Mandate All diesel fuel sold to state agencies, political subdivisions of the state, and public schools for use in on-road motor vehicles must contain at

97

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Biodiesel Blend Biodiesel Blend Mandate to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blend Mandate In September 2013, the commissioners of the Minnesota Department of Agriculture, Department of Commerce, and Pollution Control Agency determined that all conditions had been satisfied to implement a 10%

98

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Biodiesel Blend Biodiesel Blend Mandate to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blend Mandate Pursuant to state law, all diesel motor vehicle fuel and all other liquid fuel used to operate motor vehicle diesel engines in Massachusetts must

99

,"U.S. Refinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural Gas Plant Stocks...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Stocks at Refineries, Bulk Terminals, and Natural Gas Plants (Thousand Barrels)","U.S. Gasoline Blending Components Stocks at Refineries, Bulk Terminals, and Natural Gas Plants...

100

Certification of alternative aviation fuels and blend components  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aviation turbine engine fuel specifications are governed by ASTM International, formerly known as the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) International, and the British Ministry of Defence (MOD). ASTM D1655 Standard Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuels and MOD Defence Standard 91-91 are the guiding specifications for this fuel throughout most of the world. Both of these documents rely heavily on the vast amount of experience in production and use of turbine engine fuels from conventional sources, such as crude oil, natural gas condensates, heavy oil, shale oil, and oil sands. Turbine engine fuel derived from these resources and meeting the above specifications has properties that are generally considered acceptable for fuels to be used in turbine engines. Alternative and synthetic fuel components are approved for use to blend with conventional turbine engine fuels after considerable testing. ASTM has established a specification for fuels containing synthesized hydrocarbons under D7566, and the MOD has included additional requirements for fuels containing synthetic components under Annex D of DS91-91. New turbine engine fuel additives and blend components need to be evaluated using ASTM D4054, Standard Practice for Qualification and Approval of New Aviation Turbine Fuels and Fuel Additives. This paper discusses these specifications and testing requirements in light of recent literature claiming that some biomass-derived blend components, which have been used to blend in conventional aviation fuel, meet the requirements for aviation turbine fuels as specified by ASTM and the MOD. The 'Table 1' requirements listed in both D1655 and DS91-91 are predicated on the assumption that the feedstocks used to make fuels meeting these requirements are from approved sources. Recent papers have implied that commercial jet fuel can be blended with renewable components that are not hydrocarbons (such as fatty acid methyl esters). These are not allowed blend components for turbine engine fuels as discussed in this paper.

Wilson III, George R. (Southwest Research Institute, 6220 Culebra Road, San Antonio, Texas 78238 (United States)); Edwards, Tim; Corporan, Edwin (United States Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States)); Freerks, Robert L. (Rentech, Incorporated, 1331 17th Street, Denver, Colorado 80202 (United States))

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas reformulated blended" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Hybrid Time Formulation for Diesel Blending and Distribution Scheduling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hybrid Time Formulation for Diesel Blending and Distribution Scheduling ... Schematic of diesel in-line blending and distribution infrastructure. ...

Sérgio M. S. Neiro; Valéria V. Murata; José M. Pinto

2014-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

102

The Fusibility of Blended Coal Ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ash fusibility temperatures (AFT) of coal ash are found at temperatures below the predicted liquidus temperature and, for ashes from blended coals, are generally nonlinear with respect to the blend proportion. ... ashing. ...

G. W. Bryant; G. J. Browning; H. Emanuel; S. K. Gupta; R. P. Gupta; J. A. Lucas; T. F. Wall

2000-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

103

PRESY: A Context Based Query Reformulation Tool for Information Retrieval on the Web  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Problem Statement: The huge number of information on the web as well as the growth of new inexperienced users creates new challenges for information retrieval. It has become increasingly difficult for these users to find relevant documents that satisfy their individual needs. Certainly the current search engines (such as Google, Bing and Yahoo) offer an efficient way to browse the web content. However, the result quality is highly based on uses queries which need to be more precise to find relevant documents. This task still complicated for the majority of inept users who cannot express their needs with significant words in the query. For that reason, we believe that a reformulation of the initial user's query can be a good alternative to improve the information selectivity. This study proposes a novel approach and presents a prototype system called PRESY (Profile-based REformulation SYstem) for information retrieval on the web. Approach: It uses an incremental approach to categorize users by constructing a c...

Bouramoul, Abdelkrim; Doan, Bich-Lien; 10.3844/jcssp.2010.470.477

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Nonsingular Collapse of a Perfect Fluid Sphere Within a Dilaton-Gravity Reformulation of the Oppenheimer Model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A generic four-dimensional dilaton gravity is considered as a basis for reformulating the paradigmatic Oppenheimer–Synder model of a gravitationally collapsing star ... Einstein–Langevin equations, a modification...

Steven David Miller

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Sulfur meter for blending coal at Plant Monroe: Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An on-line sulfur analyzer, installed at the Detroit Edison, Monroe Power station, was placed into service and evaluated for coal blending optimization to minimize the cost of complying with changing stack gas sulfur dioxide regulations. The project involved debugging the system which consisted of an /open quotes/as-fired/close quotes/ sampler and nuclear source sulfur analyzer. The system was initially plagued with mechanical and electronic problems ranging from coal flow pluggages to calibration drifts in the analyzer. Considerable efforts were successfully made to make the system reliable and accurate. On-line testing showed a major improvement in control of sulfur dioxide emission rates and fuel blending optimization equivalent to as much as $6 million in fuel costs at the time of the evaluation. 7 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs.

Trentacosta, S.D.; Yurko, J.O.

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Dispenser Labeling Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Biofuel Blend Biofuel Blend Dispenser Labeling Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Dispenser Labeling Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Dispenser Labeling Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Dispenser Labeling Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Dispenser Labeling Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Dispenser Labeling Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blend Dispenser Labeling Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biofuel Blend Dispenser Labeling Requirement

107

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Dispensing Regulations  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Ethanol Fuel Blend Ethanol Fuel Blend Dispensing Regulations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Dispensing Regulations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Dispensing Regulations on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Dispensing Regulations on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Dispensing Regulations on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Dispensing Regulations on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Dispensing Regulations on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Fuel Blend Dispensing Regulations

108

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Purchase Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Blend Blend Purchase Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Purchase Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Purchase Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Purchase Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Purchase Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Purchase Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Purchase Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blend Purchase Requirement Diesel fuel that the New Hampshire Department of Transportation

109

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Infrastructure Grant Program  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Ethanol Blend Ethanol Blend Infrastructure Grant Program to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Infrastructure Grant Program on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Infrastructure Grant Program on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Infrastructure Grant Program on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Infrastructure Grant Program on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Infrastructure Grant Program on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Infrastructure Grant Program on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Blend Infrastructure Grant Program

110

The Energy Information Administration`s assessment of reformulated gasoline. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains EIA`s findings and analyses on reformulated gasoline as it affects the petroleum industry. The data contained herein should assist members of the Congress, Federal, State and local governments, analysts, researchers, the media and academia to understand the RFG program and the current status of implementation. The second volume contains 10 appendices that include letter from Congressman Dingell, survey results, survey forms, and historical summary data. A glossary and a list of acronyms and abbreviations are printed in Volumes 1 and 2.

NONE

1994-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

111

The Energy Information Administration`s assessment of reformulated gasoline. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains EIA`s findings and analyses on reformulated gasoline as it affects the petroleum industry. The data contained herein should assist members of the Congress, Federal, State and local governments, analysts, researchers, the media and academia to understand the RFG program and the current status of implementation. This second volume contains 10 appendices that include letter from Congressman Dingell, survey results, survey forms, and historical summary data. A glossary and a list of acronyms and abbreviations are printed in Volumes 1 and 2.

NONE

1994-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

112

Radiation effects on polypropylene/polybutylene blends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Polymer blends of polypropylene and polybutylene have been found to exhibit substantial maintenance of structural integrity after exposure to ionizing radiation. This radiation resistance has been found to be related to processing conditions and the resulting morphology of the blend. This article discusses (a) the processing conditions and the resulting mechanical properties after irradiation and (b) the role of morphology in this unexpected blend property.

Rolando, R.J. (3M Engineering Systems and Technology, St. Paul, MN (United States))

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Performance of Biofuels and Biofuel Blends  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Complete 4 Relevance Objective: Solve technical problems that are preventing expanded markets for current and future biofuels and biofuel blends Necessary to achieve MYPP...

114

Renewable Oxygenate Blending Effects on Gasoline Properties  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Renewable Oxygenate Blending Effects on Gasoline Properties ... National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States ... Energy Fuels, 2011, 25 (10), ...

Earl Christensen; Janet Yanowitz; Matthew Ratcliff; Robert L. McCormick

2011-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

115

Physical and chemical characteristics of an interesterified blend of butterfat and cottonseed oil with possible industrial applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: dilatometry, glyceride compositional analysis, thin layer chromatography, gas liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, and pancreatic lipase hydrolysis. physical/Chemical properties of the Modified pats Use of official methods of the American Oil... butterfat, cottonseed oil, the blend, the interesterified blend, and cheese. The following tests were conducted: Free fatty acids A. O. C. S. official method Ca 5a-40 was used. The molten samples were well mixed and a sample size of 28. 2 g of each...

Rashidi, Nabil

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

116

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Capability Requirements and  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Biofuel Blending Biofuel Blending Capability Requirements and Regulations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Capability Requirements and Regulations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Capability Requirements and Regulations on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Capability Requirements and Regulations on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Capability Requirements and Regulations on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Capability Requirements and Regulations on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Capability Requirements and Regulations on AddThis.com... More in this section...

117

EffectsIntermediateEthanolBlends.pdf | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

ctsIntermediateEthanolBlends.pdf More Documents & Publications Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 Updated Feb 2009...

118

Intermediate Ethanol Blends: Plans and Status | Department of...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Intermediate Ethanol Blends: Plans and Status Intermediate Ethanol Blends: Plans and Status Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle Technologies "Mega" Merit Review 2008...

119

Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 Updated Feb 2009 Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and...

120

Mid-Blend Ethanol Fuels - Implementation Perspectives | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Mid-Blend Ethanol Fuels - Implementation Perspectives Mid-Blend Ethanol Fuels - Implementation Perspectives Breakout Session 2: Frontiers and Horizons Session 2-B: End Use and Fuel...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas reformulated blended" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Advancing Biorefining of Distiller's Grain and Corn Stover Blends...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Advancing Biorefining of Distiller's Grain and Corn Stover Blends Advancing Biorefining of Distiller's Grain and Corn Stover Blends This fact sheet summarizes a U.S. Department of...

122

Effect of Biodiesel Blends on NOx Emissions | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Biodiesel Blends on NOx Emissions Effect of Biodiesel Blends on NOx Emissions Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007)....

123

Green emitting phosphors and blends thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Phosphor compositions, blends thereof and light emitting devices including white light emitting LED based devices, and backlights, based on such phosphor compositions. The devices include a light source and a phosphor material as described. Also disclosed are phosphor blends including such a phosphor and devices made therefrom.

Setlur, Anant Achyut (Niskayuna, NY); Siclovan, Oltea Puica (Rexford, NY); Nammalwar, Prasanth Kumar (Bangalore, IN); Sathyanarayan, Ramesh Rao (Bangalore, IN); Porob, Digamber G. (Goa, IN); Chandran, Ramachandran Gopi (Bangalore, IN); Heward, William Jordan (Saratoga Springs, NY); Radkov, Emil Vergilov (Euclid, OH); Briel, Linda Jane Valyou (Niskayuna, NY)

2010-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

124

PAIRWISE BLENDING OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate a mission scenario that uses pairwise and incidental blending of high level waste (HLW) to reduce the total mass of HLW glass. Secondary objectives include understanding how recent refinements to the tank waste inventory and solubility assumptions affect the mass of HLW glass and how logistical constraints may affect the efficacy of HLW blending.

CERTA, P.J.

2006-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

125

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Credit  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Biodiesel Blend Tax Biodiesel Blend Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blend Tax Credit Licensed biodiesel blenders are eligible for a tax credit for special fuel, including diesel, blended with biodiesel to create a biodiesel blend. The

126

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blended Fuel Definition  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Ethanol Blended Fuel Ethanol Blended Fuel Definition to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blended Fuel Definition on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blended Fuel Definition on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blended Fuel Definition on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blended Fuel Definition on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blended Fuel Definition on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blended Fuel Definition on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Blended Fuel Definition Ethanol blended fuel, such as gasohol, is defined as any gasoline blended with 10% or more of anhydrous ethanol. (Reference Idaho Statutes 63-240

127

High-pressure Storage Vessels for Hydrogen, Natural Gas andHydrogen...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Gas and Blends - Materials Testing and Design Requirements for Hydrogen Components and Tanks International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum 2010 Proceedings Hydrogen...

128

FEAST fundamental framework for electronic structure calculations: Reformulation and solution of the muffin-tin problem  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In a recent article Polizzi (2009) [15], the FEAST algorithm has been presented as a general purpose eigenvalue solver which is ideally suited for addressing the numerical challenges in electronic structure calculations. Here, FEAST is presented beyond the “black-box” solver as a fundamental modeling framework which can naturally address the original numerical complexity of the electronic structure problem as formulated by Slater in 1937 [3]. The non-linear eigenvalue problem arising from the muffin-tin decomposition of the real-space domain is first derived and then reformulated to be solved exactly within the FEAST framework. This new framework is presented as a fundamental and practical solution for performing both accurate and scalable electronic structure calculations, bypassing the various issues of using traditional approaches such as linearization and pseudopotential techniques. A finite element implementation of this FEAST framework along with simulation results for various molecular systems is also presented and discussed.

Alan R. Levin; Deyin Zhang; Eric Polizzi

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Refinery & Blenders Net Input of Crude Oil  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Input Input Product: Total Crude Oil & Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane Normal Butane Isobutane Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Hydrogen Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) All Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Other Hydrocarbons Unfinished Oils (net) Unfinished Oils, Naphthas and Lighter Unfinished Oils, Kerosene and Light Gas Oils Unfinished Oils, Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Components (MGBC) (net) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated - RBOB MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Ether MGBC - Reformulated, GTAB MGBC - Conventional MGBC - CBOB MGBC - Conventional, GTAB MGBC - Other Conventional Aviation Gasoline Blending Components (net) Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

130

A Blended Space for Tourism: Genesee Village Country & Museum  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Blended Space for Tourism: Genesee Village Country & Museum Abstract Blended spaces are spaces on this enables us to provide general guidance and framework on the design of blended spaces for digital tourism. Author Keywords Design, Tourism, Blended Spaces, User Experience ACM Classification Keywords H.5.2 User

Deussen, Oliver

131

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Equipment  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Biodiesel Production Biodiesel Production and Blending Equipment Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Equipment Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Equipment Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Equipment Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Equipment Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Equipment Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Equipment Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State

132

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Blend Use Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Biofuels Blend Use Biofuels Blend Use Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Blend Use Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Blend Use Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Blend Use Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Blend Use Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Blend Use Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Blend Use Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biofuels Blend Use Requirement Whenever possible, governmental entities and state educational institutions must fuel diesel vehicles with biodiesel blends containing at least 2%

133

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Blending Tax Blending Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit A biodiesel blender located in Indiana may receive a credit of $0.02 per gallon of blended biodiesel produced at a facility located in Indiana. The

134

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Fuel Blend Tax Exemption  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Diesel Fuel Blend Tax Diesel Fuel Blend Tax Exemption to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Fuel Blend Tax Exemption on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Fuel Blend Tax Exemption on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Fuel Blend Tax Exemption on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Fuel Blend Tax Exemption on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Fuel Blend Tax Exemption on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Fuel Blend Tax Exemption on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Diesel Fuel Blend Tax Exemption The biodiesel or ethanol portion of blended fuel containing taxable diesel

135

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Exemption  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Biodiesel Blend Tax Biodiesel Blend Tax Exemption to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Exemption on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Exemption on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Exemption on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Exemption on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Exemption on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Tax Exemption on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blend Tax Exemption Biodiesel blends of at least 20% (B20) that are used for personal, noncommercial use by the individual that produced the biodiesel portion of

136

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Ethanol Blend Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement An ethanol retailer selling a blend of 10% ethanol by volume or higher must

137

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Blending Tax Blending Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blending Tax Credit Businesses and individuals are eligible for a tax credit of up to 15% of the cost of qualified equipment used for storing or blending biodiesel with

138

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Retailer Tax Credit  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Biodiesel Blend Biodiesel Blend Retailer Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Retailer Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Retailer Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Retailer Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Retailer Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Retailer Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Retailer Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blend Retailer Tax Credit Retailers whose total diesel sales consist of at least 50% biodiesel blends

139

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Labeling Requirements  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Ethanol Blend Labeling Ethanol Blend Labeling Requirements to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Labeling Requirements on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Labeling Requirements on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Labeling Requirements on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Labeling Requirements on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Labeling Requirements on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Labeling Requirements on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Blend Labeling Requirements Pumps that dispense ethanol-blended gasoline available for purchase must be

140

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Equipment Tax Exemption  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Blending Blending Equipment Tax Exemption to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Equipment Tax Exemption on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Equipment Tax Exemption on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Equipment Tax Exemption on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Equipment Tax Exemption on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Equipment Tax Exemption on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Equipment Tax Exemption on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biofuel Blending Equipment Tax Exemption Qualified equipment used for storing and blending petroleum-based fuel with

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas reformulated blended" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Drive cycle analysis of butanol/diesel blends in a light-duty vehicle.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The potential exists to displace a portion of the petroleum diesel demand with butanol and positively impact engine-out particulate matter. As a preliminary investigation, 20% and 40% by volume blends of butanol with ultra low sulfur diesel fuel were operated in a 1999 Mercedes Benz C220 turbo diesel vehicle (Euro III compliant). Cold and hot start urban as well as highway drive cycle tests were performed for the two blends of butanol and compared to diesel fuel. In addition, 35 MPH and 55 MPH steady-state tests were conducted under varying road loads for the two fuel blends. Exhaust gas emissions, fuel consumption, and intake and exhaust temperatures were acquired for each test condition. Filter smoke numbers were also acquired during the steady-state tests.

Miers, S. A.; Carlson, R. W.; McConnell, S. S.; Ng, H. K.; Wallner, T.; LeFeber, J.; Energy Systems; Esper Images Video & Multimedia

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

BLENDING PROBLEM A refinery blends four petroleum components into three grades of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BLENDING PROBLEM A refinery blends four petroleum components into three grades of gasoline/day $/barrel #1 5,000 $9.00 #2 2,400 7.00 #3 4,000 12.00 #4 1,500 6.00 Blending formulas and selling price 4,000 x4R + x4P + x4L 1,500 #12;blending: (1) x1R / (x1R + x2R + x3R + x4R) .40 or x1R .40(x1R

Shier, Douglas R.

143

Mid-Blend Ethanol Fuels ? Implementation Perspectives  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Wall" * E15 is the answer to the question nobody asked * E85 has no market penetration * GHG Rulemaking removes incentives for OEMs to produce FFV vehicles Page 15 Mid Blend...

144

Intermediate Ethanol Blends: Plans and Status  

Energy Savers [EERE]

* 60,000 E85 stations vs 1,200 today. Background * DOE intermediate ethanol blend test plan development began March 2007 - DOE funding: 14.6M (2007 & 2008) - Organizational...

145

Imaginative play with blended reality characters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The idea and formative design of a blended reality character, a new class of character able to maintain visual and kinetic continuity between the fully physical and fully virtual; the technical underpinnings of its unique ...

Robert, David Yann

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit (Kentucky)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

blended biodiesel does not qualify. The biodiesel tax credit is applied against the corporation income tax imposed under KRS 141.040 and/or the limited liability entity tax (LLET) imposed under KRS...

147

Continuous blending of dry pharmaceutical powders  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Conventional batch blending of pharmaceutical powders coupled with long quality analysis times increases the production cycle time leading to strained cash flows. Also, scale-up issues faced in process development causes ...

Pernenkil, Lakshman

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Storage Stability of Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Storage Stability of Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends ... The biodiesels were selected to represent unstable material (D) with an induction time of 0.5 h and moderately stable material (B) with an induction time of 3.1 h. ...

Robert L. McCormick; Steven R. Westbrook

2009-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

149

Vehicle Technologies Office: Intermediate Ethanol Blends  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Ethanol can be combined with gasoline in blends ranging from E10 (10% or less ethanol, 90% gasoline) up to E85 (up to 85% ethanol, 15% gasoline). The Renewable Fuels Standard (under the Energy...

150

Pilot plant assessment of blend properties and their impact on critical power plant components  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of tests were performed to determine the effects of blending eastern bituminous coals with western subbituminous coals on utility boiler operation. Relative to the baseline bituminous coal, the testing reported here indicated that there were significant impacts to boiler performance due to the blending of the eastern and western coals. Results indicated that fuel blending can be used to adequately control flue gas emissions of both SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} at the expense of reduced milling efficiency, increased sootblowing in the high-temperature and low-temperature regions of the boiler and, to a lesser extent, decreased collection efficiency for an electrostatic precipitator. The higher reactivity of the subbituminous coal increased the overall combustion efficiency, which may tend to decrease the impact of milling efficiency losses. The extent of these impacts was directly related to the percentage of subbituminous coal in the blends. At the lowest blend ratios of subbituminous coal, the impacts were greatly reduced.

NONE

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

WI Biodiesel Blending Progream Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Wisconsin State Energy Office�¢����s (SEO) primary mission is to implement cost�¢���effective, reliable, balanced, and environmentally�¢���friendly clean energy projects. To support this mission the Wisconsin Biodiesel Blending Program was created to financially support the installation infrastructure necessary to directly sustain biodiesel blending and distribution at petroleum terminal facilities throughout Wisconsin. The SEO secured a federal directed award of $600,000 over 2.25 years. With these funds, the SEO supported the construction of inline biodiesel blending facilities at two petroleum terminals in Wisconsin. The Federal funding provided through the state provided a little less than half of the necessary investment to construct the terminals, with the balance put forth by the partners. Wisconsin is now home to two new biodiesel blending terminals. Fusion Renewables on Jones Island (in the City of Milwaukee) will offer a B100 blend to both bulk and retail customers. CITGO is currently providing a B5 blend to all customers at their Granville, WI terminal north of the City of Milwaukee.

Redmond, Maria E; Levy, Megan M

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Use Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Ethanol Fuel Blend Use Ethanol Fuel Blend Use Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Use Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Use Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Use Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Use Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Use Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Use Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Fuel Blend Use Requirement State government agencies and universities owning or operating motor

153

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Use Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Biodiesel Blend Use Biodiesel Blend Use Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Use Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Use Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Use Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Use Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Use Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Use Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blend Use Requirement Any diesel-powered vehicle the state, county or local government, school district, community college, public college or university, or mass transit

154

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Distribution Mandate  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Biodiesel Blend Biodiesel Blend Distribution Mandate to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Distribution Mandate on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Distribution Mandate on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Distribution Mandate on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Distribution Mandate on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Distribution Mandate on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Distribution Mandate on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blend Distribution Mandate All state-owned diesel fueling facilities must provide fuel containing at

155

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Tax Rate  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Ethanol Fuel Blend Tax Ethanol Fuel Blend Tax Rate to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Tax Rate on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Tax Rate on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Tax Rate on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Tax Rate on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Tax Rate on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Tax Rate on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Fuel Blend Tax Rate The tax rate on fuel containing ethanol is $0.06 per gallon less than the tax rate on other motor fuels in certain geographic areas. This reduced

156

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Retailer Tax Credit  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Ethanol Blend Retailer Ethanol Blend Retailer Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Retailer Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Retailer Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Retailer Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Retailer Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Retailer Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Retailer Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Blend Retailer Tax Credit The Ethanol Promotion Tax Credit is available to any fuel retailer for up

157

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Contract Regulation  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Biofuel Blending Biofuel Blending Contract Regulation to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Contract Regulation on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Contract Regulation on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Contract Regulation on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Contract Regulation on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Contract Regulation on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Blending Contract Regulation on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biofuel Blending Contract Regulation Any provision in a contract between a fuel wholesaler and a refiner or

158

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Standard  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Ethanol Fuel Blend Ethanol Fuel Blend Standard to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Standard on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Standard on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Standard on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Standard on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Standard on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Blend Standard on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Fuel Blend Standard At least 85% of gasoline supplied to a retailer or sold in Hawaii must contain a minimum of 10% ethanol (E10), unless the Director determines that

159

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Ethanol Blend Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement A retail motor fuel dispenser that dispenses fuel containing more than 10%

160

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Facility Tax Credit  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Biodiesel Blending Biodiesel Blending Facility Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Facility Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Facility Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Facility Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Facility Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Facility Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blending Facility Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blending Facility Tax Credit A tax credit is available for up to 30% of the cost of purchasing or

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas reformulated blended" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Methylal and Methylal-Diesel Blended Fuels from Use In Compression-Ignition Engines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gas-to-liquids catalytic conversion technologies show promise for liberating stranded natural gas reserves and for achieving energy diversity worldwide. Some gas-to-liquids products are used as transportation fuels and as blendstocks for upgrading crude derived fuels. Methylal (CH{sub 3}-O-CH{sub 2}-O-CH{sub 3}) also known as dimethoxymethane or DMM, is a gas-to-liquid chemical that has been evaluated for use as a diesel fuel component. Methylal contains 42% oxygen by weight and is soluble in diesel fuel. The physical and chemical properties of neat methylal and for blends of methylal in conventional diesel fuel are presented. Methylal was found to be more volatile than diesel fuel, and special precautions for distribution and fuel tank storage are discussed. Steady state engine tests were also performed using an unmodified Cummins 85.9 turbocharged diesel engine to examine the effect of methylal blend concentration on performance and emissions. Substantial reductions of particulate matter emissions h ave been demonstrated 3r IO to 30% blends of methylal in diesel fuel. This research indicates that methylal may be an effective blendstock for diesel fuel provided design changes are made to vehicle fuel handling systems.

Keith D. Vertin; James M. Ohi; David W. Naegeli; Kenneth H. Childress; Gary P. Hagen; Chris I. McCarthy; Adelbert S. Cheng; Robert W. Dibble

1999-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

162

Total Blender Net Input of Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Input Input Product: Total Input Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Pentanes Plus Liquid Petroleum Gases Normal Butane Isobutane Other Liquids Oxygenates/Renewables Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Unfinished Oils (net) Unfinished Oils, Naphthas and Lighter Unfinished Oils, Kerosene and Light Gas Oils Unfinished Oils, Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Components (MGBC) (net) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated - RBOB MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Ether MGBC - Reformulated, GTAB MGBC - Conventional MGBC - Conventional, CBOB MGBC - Conventional, GTAB MGBC - Other Conventional Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

163

A reformulated, reconstituted water for testing the freshwater amphipod, Hyalella azteca  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Toxicity testing with the freshwater amphipod, Hyalella azteca, has routinely been conducted using nonstandard waters. Four waters were tested for acceptability for aqueous reference toxicant testing with H. azteca. These included three formulated (standardized) waters: moderately hard reconstituted water (MHRW), reformulated moderately hard reconstituted water (RMHRW), and 25% dilute mineral water (DMW). The water used for comparison was a nonstandard, in-house culture water mixture of well water and dechlorinated tap water, diluted with Super-Q{reg_sign} deionized water to a hardness of 100 mg/L, as CaCO{sub 3} (LL/SQ). Control survival was less than the 90% minimum control survival criteria in all tests with MHRW. Two of five tests with DMW also failed to pass the minimum control survival criteria. All five tests with the RMHRW passed the control survival criteria. The mean 50% lethal concentration (LC50) for the tests in RMHRW was 320 mg/L KCl, with a coefficient of variation of 8.5%. Concurrent tests with the in-house water yielded control survival greater than 90% and a mean LC50 of 216 mg/L KCl with a coefficient of variation of 13.4%. Tests in an interlaboratory study yielded similar results. Whole-sediment toxicity tests conducted using RMHRW as the overlying water routinely exceed the 80% minimum survival criteria in the control and reference sediments. The failure of MHRW and DMW to produce acceptable results, as well as the inability of other laboratories to produce LL/SQ, makes RMHRW the best candidate for a standard water for H. azteca testing.

Smith, M.E.; Herrin, L.E.; Thoeny, W.T. [SBI Environmental, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lazorchak, J.M. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Brewer-Swartz, S. [EMPE, Nashville, TN (United States)

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Mid-Level Ethanol Blends | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

2009 -- Washington D.C. ft05knoll.pdf More Documents & Publications Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Test Program Intermediate Ethanol Blends: Plans and Status Biofuels Quality Surveys...

165

Quality Assessment of Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Quality Assessment of Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends Quality Assessment of Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends The results of a quality survey of B20 fuel in the United States were...

166

Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Test Program | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Blends Test Program Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Test Program 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 --...

167

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Biodiesel Production Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit

168

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Advanced Ethanol Fuel Blend Research Grants  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Advanced Ethanol Fuel Advanced Ethanol Fuel Blend Research Grants to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Advanced Ethanol Fuel Blend Research Grants on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Advanced Ethanol Fuel Blend Research Grants on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Advanced Ethanol Fuel Blend Research Grants on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Advanced Ethanol Fuel Blend Research Grants on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Advanced Ethanol Fuel Blend Research Grants on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Advanced Ethanol Fuel Blend Research Grants on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Advanced Ethanol Fuel Blend Research Grants

169

The viscoelastic properties of linear-star blends  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In order to understand the nature of polydispersity and characterize the effect of branching architecture, the model blend of linear and star polymer, which is the simplest branched polymer, is contrived. In this blend system, chain dynamics...

Lee, Jung Hun

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Emission of Nanosize Particles in the Process of Nanoclay Blending  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Blending is one of the dustiest operations in the process of developing new fire-safe polyurethane foams. This paper presents the results of an investigation of the emission of nanosize particles released Nanofil®5 nanoclay is blended. Ten 5–20 ... Keywords: nanoclay, blending, emission of nanosize particles

Elzbieta Jankowska; Wojciech Zatorski

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Lyapunov-based Optimizing Control of Nonlinear Blending Process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. I. INTRODUCTION Blending processes arise in a wide range of industries, for example gasoline1 Lyapunov-based Optimizing Control of Nonlinear Blending Process Tor A. Johansen£ , Daniel Sb. ££ Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Concepci´on, Concepci´on, Chile. Abstract Blending

Johansen, Tor Arne

172

Lyapunov-based Optimizing Control of Nonlinear Blending Processes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

processes arise in a wide range of industries, for example gasoline blending [1], [2], [3], [4], food1 Lyapunov-based Optimizing Control of Nonlinear Blending Processes Tor A. Johansen , Daniel Sb. Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Concepci´on, Concepci´on, Chile. Abstract Blending

Johansen, Tor Arne

173

Total Refinery Net Input of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Input Input Product: Total Crude Oil & Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Plant Liquids Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Normal Butane Isobutane Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Hydrogen Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) All Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Other Hydrocarbons Unfinished Oils (net) Unfinished Oils, Naphthas and Lighter Unfinished Oils, Kerosene and Light Gas Oils Unfinished Oils, Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Components (MGBC) (net) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated - RBOB MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Ether MGBC - Conventional MGBC - CBOB MGBC - Conventional, GTAB MGBC - Other Conventional Aviation Gasoline Blending Components (net) Alaskan Crude Oil Receipts Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

174

Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

applied repair procedures have been investigated to determine if they can be used for pipeline repair under hydrogen service. The focus was on the pipeline load and the effect...

175

HEU to LEU conversion and blending facility: Metal blending alternative to produce LEU oxide for disposal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

US DOE is examining options for disposing of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials and storage of all weapons-usable fissile materials. The nuclear material is converted to a form more proliferation- resistant than the original form. Blending HEU (highly enriched uranium) with less-enriched uranium to form LEU has been proposed as a disposition option. Five technologies are being assessed for blending HEU. This document provides data to be used in environmental impact analysis for the HEU-LEU disposition option that uses metal blending with an oxide waste product. It is divided into: mission and assumptions, conversion and blending facility descriptions, process descriptions and requirements, resource needs, employment needs, waste and emissions from plant, hazards discussion, and intersite transportation.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Decomposition method for the Multiperiod Blending Problem  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

· Flows between which tanks in which time periods · Inventories/concentrations for tanks in each period for many applications 4 · Gasoline and crude oil blending · Raw material feed scheduling · Storage. "no bounds" on concentration total inventory mass balance in tanks inventory mass balance by component

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

177

Decomposition method for the Multiperiod Blending Problem  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

problem is a general model for many applications, and it is difficult to solve · Gasoline and crude oil tanks in which time periods · Inventories/concentrations for tanks in each period · Maximum total profit total inventory mass balance in tanks inventory mass balance by component in blending tanks

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

178

BIODIESEL BLENDS IN SPACE HEATING EQUIPMENT.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biodiesel is a diesel-like fuel that is derived from processing vegetable oils from various sources, such as soy oil, rapeseed or canola oil, and also waste vegetable oils resulting from cooking use. Brookhaven National laboratory initiated an evaluation of the performance of blends of biodiesel and home heating oil in space heating applications under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy (DOE) through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). This report is a result of this work performed in the laboratory. A number of blends of varying amounts of a biodiesel in home heating fuel were tested in both a residential heating system and a commercial size boiler. The results demonstrate that blends of biodiesel and heating oil can be used with few or no modifications to the equipment or operating practices in space heating. The results also showed that there were environmental benefits from the biodiesel addition in terms of reductions in smoke and in Nitrogen Oxides (NOx). The latter result was particularly surprising and of course welcome, in view of the previous results in diesel engines where no changes had been seen. Residential size combustion equipment is presently not subject to NOx regulation. If reductions in NOx similar to those observed here hold up in larger size (commercial and industrial) boilers, a significant increase in the use of biodiesel-like fuel blends could become possible.

KRISHNA,C.R.

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Exciting careers blending engineering, science, and ecology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Exciting careers blending engineering, science, and ecology New Opportunities Making the world://bee.oregonstate.edu/ecoe Ecological Engineering is: · Ecosystem restoration and habitat design at multiple scales · Watershed · Phytoremediation and bioremediation · Industrial ecology · Constructed wetlands and tidal marshlands · Mitigation

Tullos, Desiree

180

Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Total Stocks Stocks by Type  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Product: Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil All Oils (Excluding Crude Oil) Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Butylene Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excluding Fuel Ethanol) MTBE Other Oxygenates Renewables (including Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Unfinished Oils Unfinished Oils, Naphthas & Lighter Unfinished Oils, Kerosene & Light Gas Unfinished Oils, Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Comp. (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB w/ Alcohol MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB w/ Ether MGBC - Reformulated, GTAB MGBC - Conventional MGBC - Conventional, CBOB MGBC - Conventional, GTAB MGBC - Conventional Other Aviation Gasoline Blending Comp. Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Reformulated Gasoline, Other Conventional Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Blended Fuel Ethanol Conventional Gasoline Blended Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 and Lower Conventional Other Gasoline Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm Sulfur and under Distillate F.O., Greater than 15 to 500 ppm Sulfur Distillate F.O., Greater 500 ppm Sulfur Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., than 1.00% Sulfur Petrochemical Feedstocks Naphtha for Petro. Feedstock Use Other Oils for Petro. Feedstock Use Special Naphthas Lubricants Waxes Petroleum Coke Asphalt and Road Oil Miscellaneous Products Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas reformulated blended" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

U.S. Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Stocks by Type  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Product: Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil All Oils (Excluding Crude Oil) Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Ethylene Propane/Propylene Propylene (Nonfuel Use) Normal Butane/Butylene Refinery Grade Butane Isobutane/Butylene Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excluding Fuel Ethanol) MTBE Other Oxygenates Renewables (including Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Unfinished Oils Unfinished Oils, Naphthas & Lighter Unfinished Oils, Kerosene & Light Gas Unfinished Oils, Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Comp. (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB w/ Alcohol MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB w/ Ether MGBC - Reformulated, GTAB MGBC - Conventional MGBC - Conventional, CBOB MGBC - Conventional, GTAB MGBC - Conventional Other Aviation Gasoline Blending Comp. Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Reformulated Gasoline, Other Conventional Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Blended Fuel Ethanol Conventional Gasoline Blended Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 and Lower Conventional Other Gasoline Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm Sulfur and under Distillate F.O., Greater than 15 to 500 ppm Sulfur Distillate F.O., Greater 500 ppm Sulfur Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., than 1.00% Sulfur Petrochemical Feedstocks Naphtha for Petro. Feedstock Use Other Oils for Petro. Feedstock Use Special Naphthas Lubricants Waxes Petroleum Coke Asphalt and Road Oil Miscellaneous Products

182

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Supply of Petroleum Products for Blending  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Supply of Petroleum Supply of Petroleum Products for Blending with Biofuels to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Supply of Petroleum Products for Blending with Biofuels on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Supply of Petroleum Products for Blending with Biofuels on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Supply of Petroleum Products for Blending with Biofuels on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Supply of Petroleum Products for Blending with Biofuels on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Supply of Petroleum Products for Blending with Biofuels on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Supply of Petroleum Products for Blending with Biofuels on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal

183

Characteristics of the performance and emissions of a HSDI diesel engine running with cottonseed oil or its methyl ester and their blends with diesel fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An experimental study has been conducted to evaluate the use of various blends of cottonseed oil or its methyl ester (bio-diesel) with diesel fuel, in blend ratios from 10/90 up to 100/0, in a fully instrumented, four-stroke, High Speed Direct Injection (HSDI), Ricardo/Cussons 'Hydra' diesel engine. The tests were conducted using each of the above fuel blends or neat fuels, with the engine working at a medium and a high load. Volumetric fuel consumption, exhaust smokiness and exhaust-regulated gas emissions such as nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and unburnt hydrocarbons were measured. The differences in the performance and exhaust emissions from the baseline operation of the engine, that is, when working with neat diesel fuel, were determined and compared, as well as the differences between cottonseed oil or its methyl ester and their blends. Theoretical aspects of diesel engine combustion were used to aid the correct interpretation of the engine behaviour.

Constantine D. Rakopoulos; Kimon A. Antonopoulos; Dimitrios C. Rakopoulos; Emmanuel C. Kakaras; Efthimios G. Pariotis

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Selection of best biodiesel blend for IC engines: an integrated approach with FAHP-TOPSIS and FAHP-VIKOR  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The aim of this study is to select the best blend using multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) technique. The six alternative fuel blends diesel, B20, B40, B60, B80 and B100 are prepared by varying the amount of diesel in biodiesel. Brake thermal efficiency (BTE), exhaust gas temperature (EGT), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), smoke, hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are considered as evaluation criteria. A single cylinder, constant speed, direct injection diesel engine (4.4 kW) was used for exploratory analysis of evaluation criteria at different load conditions. Two models fuzzy analytical hierarchy process-technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (FAHP-TOPSIS) and VlseKriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje (FAHP-VIKOR, in Serbian) are proposed to evaluate the best blend. Here, the FAHP is used to analyse the structure of best blend selection and to determine the weights of the criteria. The TOPSIS and VIKOR are used to obtain the final ranking of the blend. [Received: July 10, 2012; Accepted: October 16, 2012].

G. Sakthivel; M. Ilangkumaran; G. Nagarajan; P. Shanmugam

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Air and oxy-fuel combustion behaviour of petcoke/lignite blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The pyrolysis and combustion behaviour of a petroleum coke (petcoke), an indigenous lignite and their 70/30 wt.% blend in air and oxy-fuel conditions were investigated by using non-isothermal thermo-gravimetric method (TGA) coupled with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. Blend samples were prepared by mixing lignite, which has low calorific value, high ash and moisture contents with petcoke that has high calorific value, low ash and moisture content, in the proportion of 70:30. Pyrolysis tests were carried out in nitrogen and carbon dioxide environments which are the main diluting gases of air and oxy-fuel environments, respectively. Pyrolysis curves of parent fuels and their blend reveal close resemblance up to 700 °C in both N2 and CO2 environments. At higher temperatures, further weight loss taking place in N2 and CO2 atmospheres is attributed to calcite decomposition and CO2-char gasification reaction, respectively. Gasification reaction leads to significant increase in CO and COS formation as observed in FTIR evolution profiles. Almost identical experimental and theoretical pyrolysis profiles of the blend samples show that there is no synergy between the parent fuels of the blend in both pyrolysis environments. Combustion experiments were carried out in four different atmospheres; air, oxygen-enriched air environment (30% O2–70% N2), oxy-fuel environment (21% O2–79% CO2) and oxygen-enriched oxy-fuel environment (30% O2–70% CO2). Combustion experiments show that replacing nitrogen in the gas mixture by the same concentration of CO2 leads to delay in combustion (lower maximum rate of weight loss and higher burnout temperatures). Overall comparison of derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) profiles shows that effect of oxygen content on combustion characteristics is more significant than that of diluting gas in the combustion environment. At elevated oxygen levels, profiles shift through lower temperature zone, peak and burnout temperatures decrease, weight loss rate increases significantly and complete combustion is achieved at lower temperatures and shorter times. Theoretical and experimental combustion profiles of the blend mainly display different trends, which indicate synergistic interactions between lignite and petcoke during their combustion in different environments.

Nur Sena Yuzbasi; Nevin Selçuk

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Method and apparatus for manufacturing gas tags  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

For use in the manufacture of gas tags employed in a gas tagging failure detection system for a nuclear reactor, a plurality of commercial feed gases each having a respective noble gas isotopic composition are blended under computer control to provide various tag gas mixtures having selected isotopic ratios which are optimized for specified defined conditions such as cost. Using a new approach employing a discrete variable structure rather than the known continuous-variable optimization problem, the computer controlled gas tag manufacturing process employs an analytical formalism from condensed matter physics known as stochastic relaxation, which is a special case of simulated annealing, for input feed gas selection. For a tag blending process involving M tag isotopes with N distinct feed gas mixtures commercially available from an enriched gas supplier, the manufacturing process calculates the cost difference between multiple combinations and specifies gas mixtures which approach the optimum defined conditions. The manufacturing process is then used to control tag blending apparatus incorporating tag gas canisters connected by stainless-steel tubing with computer controlled valves, with the canisters automatically filled with metered quantities of the required feed gases.

Gross, Kenny C. (Bolingbrook, IL); Laug, Matthew T. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Method and apparatus for manufacturing gas tags  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

For use in the manufacture of gas tags employed in a gas tagging failure detection system for a nuclear reactor, a plurality of commercial feed gases each having a respective noble gas isotopic composition are blended under computer control to provide various tag gas mixtures having selected isotopic ratios which are optimized for specified defined conditions such as cost. Using a new approach employing a discrete variable structure rather than the known continuous-variable optimization problem, the computer controlled gas tag manufacturing process employs an analytical formalism from condensed matter physics known as stochastic relaxation, which is a special case of simulated annealing, for input feed gas selection. For a tag blending process involving M tag isotopes with N distinct feed gas mixtures commercially available from an enriched gas supplier, the manufacturing process calculates the cost difference between multiple combinations and specifies gas mixtures which approach the optimum defined conditions. The manufacturing process is then used to control tag blending apparatus incorporating tag gas canisters connected by stainless-steel tubing with computer controlled valves, with the canisters automatically filled with metered quantities of the required feed gases. 4 figs.

Gross, K.C.; Laug, M.T.

1996-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

188

Vehicle Technologies Office: Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Effects of Intermediate Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 on Digg

189

Fact Sheet: Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends Fact Sheet: Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends October 7, 2008 - 4:14pm Addthis In August 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a test program to assess the potential impacts of higher intermediate ethanol blends on conventional vehicles and other engines that rely on gasoline. The test program focuses specifically on the effects of intermediate blends of E15 and E20-gasoline blended with 15 and 20 percent ethanol, respectively-on emissions, catalyst and engine durability, drivability or operability, and materials associated with these vehicles and engines. This DOE test program includes technical expertise from DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

190

Report on intermediate ethanol blends research published | ornl...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Final report on intermediate ethanol blends research published February 01, 2012 Mileage accumulation dynamometers at subcontractor facilities were used to "age" many of the...

191

Water Content in Biodiesel, Diesel, and Biodiesel–Diesel Blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Water Content in Biodiesel, Diesel, and Biodiesel–Diesel Blends ... In what concerns road transportation, biodiesel is being considered a good alternative to conventional diesels. ...

Patricia Bogalhos Lucente Fregolente; Leonardo Vasconcelos Fregolente; Maria Regina Wolf Maciel

2012-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

192

Heavy Alcohols as a Fuel Blending Agent for Compression Ignition...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Applications Blends of Phytol and diesel (by volume) were compared against baseline diesel experiments and simulations p-21ramirez.pdf More Documents & Publications HD...

193

Properties, performance and emissions of biofuels in blends with gasoline.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The emission performance of fuels and their blends in modern combustion systems have been studied with the purpose of reducing regulated and unregulated emissions, understanding… (more)

Eslami, Farshad

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

HASKELL & WHITE CORPORATEREPORTING & GOVERNANCE CONFERENCE SERIES Blending Theory with Practice  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HASKELL & WHITE CORPORATEREPORTING & GOVERNANCE CONFERENCE SERIES Blending Theory with Practice The 13th Haskell & White Corporate Reporting & Governance conference is intended to provide opportunities

de Lijser, Peter

195

Multiresidue Analysis of Pesticides in Wool Wax and Lanolin Using Gel Permeation and Gas Chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Multiresidue Analysis of Pesticides in Wool Wax and Lanolin Using Gel Permeation and Gas Chromatography ... This is a result of both the blending of different lots of raw wool before scouring and the subsequent blending of wool wax from a variety of sources to make up commercial shipments. ...

F. William Jones

1996-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

196

Purification Testing for HEU Blend Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Savannah River Site (SRS) is working to dispose of the inventory of enriched uranium (EU) formerly used to make fuel for production reactors. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has agreed to take the material after blending the EU with either natural or depleted uranium to give a {sup 235}U concentration of 4.8 percent low-enriched uranium will be fabricated by a vendor into reactor fuel for use in TVA reactors. SRS prefers to blend the EU with existing depleted uranium (DU) solutions, however, the impurity concentrations in the DU and EU are so high that the blended material may not meet specifications agreed to with TVA. The principal non-radioactive impurities of concern are carbon, iron, phosphorus and sulfur. Neptunium and plutonium contamination levels are about 40 times greater than the desired specification. Tests of solvent extraction and fuel preparation with solutions of SRS uranium demonstrate that the UO{sub 2} prepared from these solutions will meet specifications for Fe, P and S, but may not meet the specifications for carbon. The reasons for carbon remaining in the oxide at such high levels is not fully understood, but may be overcome either by treatment of the solutions with activated carbon or heating the UO{sub 3} in air for a longer time during the calcination step of fuel preparation.Calculations of the expected removal of Np and Pu from the solutions show that the specification cannot be met with a single cycle of solvent extraction. The only way to ensure meeting the specification is dilution with natural U which contains no Np or Pu. Estimations of the decontamination from fission products and daughter products in the decay chains for the U isotopes show that the specification of 110 MEV Bq/g U can be met as long as the activities of the daughters of U- 235 and U-238 are excluded from the specification.

Thompson, M.C. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Pierce, R.A.

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Synthesis of grafted polyamide/polyglutarimide blends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Polyglutarimides are high Tg thermoplastics, prepared by a reactive extrusion process involving polymethylmethacrylate and primary amines in a plasticating extruder at high pressures and temperatures. The resulting polymers can be synthesized with various levels of carboxylic acid and/or anhydride functionality as part of the polyglutarimide polymer. In a recent discovery, these polymers can be grafted to polyamides in a highly efficient manner by means of a reactive extrusion process. This talk will discuss the synthesis of these blends and techniques for their analysis. Partial fractionation, and spectroscopic analysis of these materials was used to monitor the reaction. The effects of extrusion temperature and catalyst level will be presented.

Hallden-Abberton, M. [Rohm and Haas Corp., Bristol, PA (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

198

Electromagnetism 70006 Answers to Problem Set 9 Spring 2006 1. Jackson Prob. 5.1: Reformulate the Biot-Savart law in terms of the solid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electromagnetism 70006 Answers to Problem Set 9 Spring 2006 1. Jackson Prob. 5.1: Reformulate series by the replacement d |z|. (e) For a Helmholtz coil one sets b = a. With this choice the terms-2 the limit is 0.305. Below is a figure showing the variation of Bz on the axis between two coils located

Johnson, Walter R.

199

Gasification improvement of a poor quality solid recovered fuel (SRF). Effect of using natural minerals and biomass wastes blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The need to produce energy from poor quality carbonaceous materials has increased, in order to reduce European dependency on imported fuels, diversify the use of new and alternative fuels and to guarantee secure energy production routes. The valorisation of a poor quality solid residual fuel (SRF), with high content of ash and volatile matter, through its conversion into fuel gas was studied. The rise of gasification temperature and equivalent ratio (ER) led to higher gas yields and to lower undesirable gaseous components, though higher ER values led to a gas with lower energetic content. To reduce the negative effect of SRF unfavourable characteristics and to diversify the feedstocks used, SRF blended with three different types of biomass wastes: forestry pine, almond shells and olive bagasse was co-gasified. The use of biomass wastes tested was valuable for SRF gasification, as there was an increase in the overall reactivity and in H2 production and a reduction of about 55% in tar released, without great changes in gas yield and in its HHV. The use of natural minerals mixed with silica sand was also studied with the aim of improving SRF gasification performance and fuel gas quality. The best results were obtained in presence of dolomite, as the lowest tar and H2S contents were obtained, while an increase in gas yield was observed. Co-gasification of this poor quality SRF blended with biomass wastes in presence of dolomite increased gas yield by 25% while tar contents decreased by 55%.

Filomena Pinto; Rui Neto André; Carlos Carolino; Miguel Miranda; Pedro Abelha; Daniel Direito; Nikos Perdikaris; Ioannis Boukis

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on "E85...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Blending Streams on "E85" Engine Optimization The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on "E85" Engine Optimization deer12szybist.pdf More Documents &...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas reformulated blended" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Proton NMR characterization of gasoline–ethanol blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) can be conveniently used for accurate measurement of water and ethanol concentrations in gasoline–ethanol fuel blends. The spectra also contain information on proton exchange rates. In addition, NMR pulsed-field-gradient diffusion measurement allows estimation of ethanol–water clusters and viscosity of the fuel blends.

A. Turanov; A.K. Khitrin

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Effect of Ethanol on Blending Stability and Diesel Engine Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Effect of Ethanol on Blending Stability and Diesel Engine Emissions ... Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research2013 52 (44), 15504-15508 ... This article describes the effects of hydroxylated biodiesel (castor oil methyl ester – COME) on the properties, combustion, and emissions of butanol–diesel blends used within compression ignition engines. ...

Magín Lapuerta; Octavio Armas; Reyes García-Contreras

2009-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

203

Blend lines in the polarized spectrum of the Sun  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......July 2012 research-article Papers Blend lines in the polarized spectrum of the Sun K...Astrophysics, Bangalore 560034, India Blend lines form an integral part of the theoretical...Their interaction with other spectral lines needs to be explored and understood before......

K. Sowmya; K. N. Nagendra; M. Sampoorna

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

First International Conference on E-Learning and Blended Education  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at the conference will appear in its proceedings. The Conference's academic committee will also select some highFirst International Conference on E-Learning and Blended Education as a Strategic Choice for Arab Universities ICELBE 2012 : 13­11 ()2112 #12;First International Conference on E-Learning and Blended

205

Blended language learning in tertiary education  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper examines the supporting and enhancing role of technology in language learning and teaching in a higher education institution in Slovenia. Despite the fact that the vast majority of foreign language teaching is still carried out in face-to-face environments, a growing extent of foreign language teaching in a number of tertiary education institutions has moved, at least partly, online. In this paper, the development of e-learning practices in Slovenia is described first, together with the evolution of computer technologies – from multimedia to the internet – and their potential for language learning and teaching purposes. Against this background, the practical application of the Blended Language Learning (BLL) experience at the Faculty of Management Koper is discussed. The paper also addresses the changing role of teachers in blended language teaching/learning environments and analyses the opinions of students who participated in a combination of Face-to-Face (F2F) and Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) courses and expressed their opinions on the BLL experience in a questionnaire.

Igor Riznar

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Novel Characterization of GDI Engine Exhaust for Gasoline and Mid-Level Gasoline-Alcohol Blends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines can offer improved fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected (PFI) counterparts, and are now appearing in increasingly more U.S. and European vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged GDI engines are replacing large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, in order for manufacturers to meet more stringent fuel economy standards. GDI engines typically emit the most particulate matter (PM) during periods of rich operation such as start-up and acceleration, and emissions of air toxics are also more likely during this condition. A 2.0 L GDI engine was operated at lambda of 0.91 at typical loads for acceleration (2600 rpm, 8 bar BMEP) on three different fuels; an 87 anti-knock index (AKI) gasoline (E0), 30% ethanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel (E30), and 48% isobutanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel. E30 was chosen to maximize octane enhancement while minimizing ethanol-blend level and iBu48 was chosen to match the same fuel oxygen level as E30. Particle size and number, organic carbon and elemental carbon (OC/EC), soot HC speciation, and aldehydes and ketones were all analyzed during the experiment. A new method for soot HC speciation is introduced using a direct, thermal desorption/pyrolysis inlet for the gas chromatograph (GC). Results showed high levels of aromatic compounds were present in the PM, including downstream of the catalyst, and the aldehydes were dominated by the alcohol blending.

Storey, John Morse [ORNL] [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL] [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL] [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL] [ORNL; Barone, Teresa L [ORNL] [ORNL; Eibl, Mary A [ORNL] [ORNL; Nafziger, Eric J [ORNL] [ORNL; Kaul, Brian C [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Properties and performance of cotton seed oil–diesel blends as a fuel for compression ignition engines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents the evaluation of properties of straight vegetable cotton seed oil (CSO) and its blends with diesel fuel in various proportions to evaluate the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder compression ignition (CI) engine at constant speed of 1500 rev ? min . Diesel and CSO oil fuel blends (10% 30% 50% and 70%) were used to conduct engine performance and smoke emission tests at varying loads of 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% and 100% of full load in addition to their straight CSO and diesel fuel. The performance parameters of brake specific energy consumption (BSFC) brake thermal efficiency (BTE) mechanical efficiency (ME) exhaust gas temperature (EGT) and exhaust emission (smoke) were evaluated to find the optimum CSO and diesel fuel blend. From the experimental results the CSO10D90 blend fuel showed 3.7% reduction in BSFC 1.7% increase in BTE 6.7% increase in ME and 21.7% reduction in the smoke emissions in comparison with conventional diesel operated engine. Finally it is concluded that CSO10D90 can be used straight away in CI engines without any major modifications to the engine as it showed good performance and improved emission compared to all other fuels tested for the entire range of engine operation in comparison with diesel.

B. Murali Krishna; J. M. Mallikarjuna

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Development of decision support system to select the best fuel blend in IC engines to enhance the energy efficiency  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper describes an application of hybrid MCDM technique for the selection of optimum blend in fish oil biodiesel among the six alternative fuel blends diesel, B20, B40, B60, B80 and B100 which is prepared by varying the amount of diesel with biodiesel. Brake thermal efficiency (BTE), exhaust gas temperature (EGT), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), smoke, hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), ignition delay (ID), combustion duration (CD) and maximum rate of pressure rise (MRPR) are considered as evaluation criteria. A single cylinder, constant speed and direct injection diesel engine with a rated output of 4.4 kW was used for exploratory analysis of evaluation criteria at different load conditions. The proposed model, fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP) is integrated with elimination et and choice translating reality (ELECTRE) to evaluate the optimum blend. Here the FAHP is used to determine the relative weights of the criteria, whereas ELECTRE is used for obtaining the final ranking of alternative blends.

G. Sakthivel; M. Ilangkumaran

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Refinery Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Product: Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Petroleum Products Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) All Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Other Hydrocarbons Unfinished Oils Naphthas and Lighter Kerosene and Light Gas Oils Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Components MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated - RBOB MGBC - RBOB for Blending with Alcohol* MGBC - RBOB for Blending with Ether* MGBC - Conventional MGBC - Conventional CBOB MGBC - Conventional GTAB MGBC - Conventional Other Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Reformulated Blended with Fuel Ethanol Reformulated, Other Conventional Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Blended with Fuel Ethanol Conventional Gasoline Blended with Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 and Lower Conventional Other Gasoline Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate Fuel Oil, 15 ppm and Under Distillate Fuel Oil, Greater than 15 ppm to 500 ppm Distillate Fuel Oil, Greater than 500 ppm Residual Fuel Oil Less than 0.31 Percent Sulfur 0.31 to 1.00 Percent Sulfur Greater than 1.00 Percent Sulfur Petrochemical Feedstocks Naphtha for Petrochemical Feedstock Use Other Oils for Petrochemical Feedstock Use Special Naphthas Lubricants Waxes Petroleum Coke Marketable Coke Asphalt and Road Oil Miscellaneous Products Period-Units: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels

210

REFORMULATION OF COAL-DERIVED TRANSPORTATION FUELS: SELECTIVE OXIDATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE ON METAL FOAM CATALYSTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Uses for structured catalytic supports, such as ceramic straight-channel monoliths and ceramic foams, have been established for a long time. One of the most prominent examples is the washcoated ceramic monolith as a three-way catalytic converter for gasoline-powered automobiles. A distinct alternative to the ceramic monolith is the metal foam, with potential use in fuel cell-powered automobiles. The metal foams are characterized by their pores per inch (ppi) and density ({rho}). In previous research, using 5 wt% platinum (Pt) and 0.5 wt% iron (Fe) catalysts, washcoated metal foams, 5.08 cm in length and 2.54 cm in diameter, of both varying and similar ppi and {rho} were tested for their activity (X{sub CO}) and selectivity (S{sub CO}) on a CO preferential oxidation (PROX) reaction in the presence of a H{sub 2}-rich gas stream. The variances in these metal foams' activity and selectivity were much larger than expected. Other structured supports with 5 wt% Pt, 0-1 wt% Fe weight loading were also examined. A theory for this phenomenon states that even though these structured supports have a similar nominal catalyst weight loading, only a certain percentage of the Pt/Fe catalyst is exposed on the surface as an active site for CO adsorption. We will use two techniques, pulse chemisorption and temperature programmed desorption (TPD), to characterize our structured supports. Active metal count, metal dispersion, and other calculations will help clarify the causes for the activity and selectivity variations between the supports. Results on ceramic monoliths show that a higher Fe loading yields a lower dispersion, potentially because of Fe inhibition of the Pt surface for CO adsorption. This theory is used to explain the reason for activity and selectivity differences for varying ppi and {rho} metal foams; less active and selective metal foams have a lower Fe loading, which justifies their higher metal dispersion. Data on the CO desorption temperature and average metal crystallite size for TPD are also collected.

Paul Chin; George W. Roberts; James J. Spivey

2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

211

Differences in the Physical Characteristics of Diesel PM with Increasing Biofuel Blend Level  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Measure physical characteristics, carbon state, and surface bound oxygen of soot from biodiesel blends.

212

Heavy Alcohols as a Fuel Blending Agent for Compression Ignition Engine Applications  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Blends of Phytol and diesel (by volume) were compared against baseline diesel experiments and simulations

213

NMOG Emissions Characterization and Estimation for Vehicles Using Ethanol-Blended Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ethanol is a biofuel commonly used in gasoline blends to displace petroleum consumption; its utilization is on the rise in the United States, spurred by the biofuel utilization mandates put in place by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA). The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has the statutory responsibility to implement the EISA mandates through the promulgation of the Renewable Fuel Standard. EPA has historically mandated an emissions certification fuel specification that calls for ethanol-free fuel, except for the certification of flex-fuel vehicles. However, since the U.S. gasoline marketplace is now virtually saturated with E10, some organizations have suggested that inclusion of ethanol in emissions certification fuels would be appropriate. The test methodologies and calculations contained in the Code of Federal Regulations for gasoline-fueled vehicles have been developed with the presumption that the certification fuel does not contain ethanol; thus, a number of technical issues would require resolution before such a change could be accomplished. This report makes use of the considerable data gathered during the mid-level blends testing program to investigate one such issue: estimation of non-methane organic gas (NMOG) emissions. The data reported in this paper were gathered from over 600 cold-start Federal Test Procedure (FTP) tests conducted on 68 vehicles representing 21 models from model year 2000 to 2009. Most of the vehicles were certified to the Tier-2 emissions standard, but several older Tier-1 and national low emissions vehicle program (NLEV) vehicles were also included in the study. Exhaust speciation shows that ethanol, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde dominate the oxygenated species emissions when ethanol is blended into the test fuel. A set of correlations were developed that are derived from the measured non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions and the ethanol blend level in the fuel. These correlations were applied to the measured NMHC emissions from the mid-level ethanol blends testing program and the results compared against the measured NMOG emissions. The results show that the composite FTP NMOG emissions estimate has an error of 0.0015 g/mile {+-}0.0074 for 95% of the test results. Estimates for the individual phases of the FTP are also presented with similar error levels. A limited number of tests conducted using the LA92, US06, and highway fuel economy test cycles show that the FTP correlation also holds reasonably well for these cycles, though the error level relative to the measured NMOG value increases for NMOG emissions less than 0.010 g/mile.

Sluder, Scott [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Status Update: New Mid-Level Ethanol Blends  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

New New Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Certification Path, UL Meeting, and Mid-Level Blends Testing (August 2009) to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Status Update: New Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Certification Path, UL Meeting, and Mid-Level Blends Testing (August 2009) on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Status Update: New Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Certification Path, UL Meeting, and Mid-Level Blends Testing (August 2009) on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Status Update: New Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Certification Path, UL Meeting, and Mid-Level Blends Testing (August 2009) on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Status Update: New Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Certification Path, UL Meeting, and Mid-Level Blends Testing

215

Conversion and Blending Facility highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as metal. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The mission of this Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) will be to blend surplus HEU metal and alloy with depleted uranium metal to produce an LEU product. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. The blended LEU will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal.

NONE

1995-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

216

Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit (Kentucky) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Production and Blending Tax Credit (Kentucky) Production and Blending Tax Credit (Kentucky) No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on February 12, 2013. EZFeed Policy Place Kentucky Name Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit (Kentucky) Policy Category Financial Incentive Policy Type Corporate Tax Incentive Affected Technologies Biomass/Biogas Active Policy Yes Implementing Sector State/Province Primary Website http://energy.ky.gov/biofuels/Pages/biofuelsIncentives.aspx Summary blended biodiesel does not qualify. The biodiesel tax credit is applied against the corporation income tax imposed under KRS 141.040 and/or the limited liability entity tax (LLET) imposed under KRS 141.0401. The amount

217

Time phased alternate blending of feed coals for liquefaction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to a method for reducing process performance excursions during feed coal or process solvent changeover in a coal hydroliquefaction process by blending of feedstocks or solvents over time. ,

Schweigharett, Frank (Allentown, PA); Hoover, David S. (New Tripoli, PA); Garg, Diwaker (Macungie, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Settling of rubber particles in asphalt-rubber blends  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Traditional asphalt-rubber binders have faced problems ics. in pavement compaction, due to phase separation or sedimentation of undissolved rubber. A homogeneous asphalt-rubber binder is desirable for alleviating this problem. In addition, a blend...

Wattanachai, Piyachat

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Toughened blends of poly(butylene terephthalate) and BPA polycarbonate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The morphologies of melt blends of poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) and bisphenol A polycarbonate (PC) toughened with a core/shell impact modifier have been characterized by transmission and scanning electro...

S. Y. Hobbs; M. E. J. Dekkers; V. H. Watkins

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Toughened blends of poly(butylene terephthalate) and BPA polycarbonate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The toughening mechanisms of blends of poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) and bisphenol-A polycarbonate (PC) toughened with core/shell impact modifier have been studied by transmission electron microscopy, not...

M. E. J. Dekkers; S. Y. Hobbs; V. H. Watkins

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas reformulated blended" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Eco-Friendly Complex Blends into Desert | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Eco-Friendly Complex Blends into Desert Eco-Friendly Complex Blends into Desert Eco-Friendly Complex Blends into Desert October 7, 2010 - 11:58am Addthis Paul Lester Communications Specialist, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy What does this project do? Rooftop solar panels provide 27 percent of the facility's energy. Maricopa County officials estimate the complex is 42 percent more energy efficient than many modern day buildings. Next month, hikers marveling at the sun bathed canyons and ridges of White Tank Mountain in the Sonoran Desert will see something on the horizon - if they look hard. Built to blend into the desert landscape, the new 29,000 square-foot White Tank Library and Nature Center in Surprise, Ariz., is set to open on Nov. 13. Rooftop solar panels provide 27 percent of the facility's energy.

222

High-pressure Storage Vessels for Hydrogen, Natural Gas and Hydrogen-Natural Gas Blends  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

These slides were presented at the International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum on September 27 – 29, 2010, in Beijing, China.

223

Droplet combustion studies of hydrocarbon-monopropellant blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract An experimental investigation was conducted to characterize the monopropellant droplet combustion of pure and blended isopropyl nitrate (IPN), suspended on quartz fibers in a quiescent atmosphere. The blends were prepared by mixing varying percentages by weight of IPN with less viscous n-heptane, as well as highly viscous desensitizer dibutyl sebacate (DBS). Ignition was achieved by using a heated 60 ?m Nichrome wire. The dependence of the burning rate constant of pure IPN on initial droplet diameter was investigated in the droplet size range of 0.79–1.97 mm. The blended IPN studies were carried out with initial droplet diameters of 2 and 1.5 mm for IPN-n-heptane and IPN-DBS blends respectively, to characterize the effect of gravimetric composition. The experiments revealed a strong dependence of IPN burning rate on droplet size. The IPN-DBS blends were characterized by severe micro-explosions, further atomizing the droplet, governed by the preferential evaporation of IPN over DBS. However, micro-explosions were conspicuously absent in case of IPN-n-heptane blends due to simultaneous gasification of both components.

Anirudha Ambekar; Arindrajit Chowdhury; Suryanarayana Challa; D. Radhakrishna

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Morphological studies on block copolymer modified PA 6 blends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent studies show that compounding polyamide 6 (PA 6) with a PA 6 polyether block copolymers made by reaction injection molding (RIM) or continuous anionic polymerization in a reactive extrusion process (REX) result in blends with high impact strength and high stiffness compared to conventional rubber blends. In this paper, different high impact PA 6 blends were prepared using a twin screw extruder. The different impact modifiers were an ethylene propylene copolymer, a PA PA 6 polyether block copolymer made by reaction injection molding and one made by reactive extrusion. To ensure good particle matrix bonding, the ethylene propylene copolymer was grafted with maleic anhydride (EPR-g-MA). Due to the molecular structure of the two block copolymers, a coupling agent was not necessary. The block copolymers are semi-crystalline and partially cross-linked in contrast to commonly used amorphous rubbers which are usually uncured. The combination of different analysis methods like atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) gave a detailed view in the structure of the blends. Due to the partial cross-linking, the particles of the block copolymers in the blends are not spherical like the ones of ethylene propylene copolymer. The differences in molecular structure, miscibility and grafting of the impact modifiers result in different mechanical properties and different blend morphologies.

Poindl, M., E-mail: marcus.poindl@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de; Bonten, C., E-mail: marcus.poindl@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de [Institut für Kunststofftechnik, University of Stuttgart (Germany)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

225

Study on ash deposition under oxyfuel combustion of coal/biomass blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Combustion in an O2/CO2 mixture (oxyfuel) has been recognized as a promising technology for CO2 capture as it produces a high CO2 concentration flue gas. Furthermore, biofuels in general contribute to CO2 reduction in comparison with fossil fuels as they are considered CO2 neutral. Ash formation and deposition (surface fouling) behavior of coal/biomass blends under O2/CO2 combustion conditions is still not extensively studied. Aim of this work is the comparative study of ash formation and deposition of selected coal/biomass blends under oxyfuel and air conditions in a lab scale pulverized coal combustor (drop tube). The fuels used were Russian and South African coals and their blends with Shea meal (cocoa). A horizontal deposition probe, equipped with thermocouples and heat transfer sensors for on line data acquisition, was placed at a fixed distance from the burner in order to simulate the ash deposition on heat transfer surfaces (e.g. water or steam tubes). Furthermore, a cascade impactor (staged filter) was used to obtain size distributed ash samples including the submicron range at the reactor exit. The deposition ratio and propensity measured for the various experimental conditions were higher in all oxyfuel cases. The SEM/EDS and ICP analyses of the deposit and cascade impactor ash samples indicate K interactions with the alumina silicates and to a smaller extend with Cl, which was all released in the gas phase, in both the oxyfuel and air combustion samples. Sulfur was depleted in both the air or oxyfuel ash deposits. S and K enrichment was detected in the fine ash stages, slightly increased under air combustion conditions. Chemical equilibrium calculations were carried out to facilitate the interpretation of the measured data; the results indicate that temperature dependence and fuels/blends ash composition are the major factors affecting gaseous compounds and ash composition rather than the combustion environment, which seems to affect the fine ash (submicron) ash composition, and the ash deposition mechanisms.

L. Fryda; C. Sobrino; M. Cieplik; W.L. van de Kamp

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Numerical study of the effect of oxygenated blending compounds on soot formation in shock tubes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This numerical study deals with the influence of blends on the amount of soot formed in shock tubes, which were simulated by assuming a homogeneous plug flow reactor model. For this purpose, first, the reaction model used here was validated against experimental results previously obtained in the literature. Then, the soot volume fractions of various mixtures of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-benzene, isobutene-benzene, methanol-benzene, and ethanol-benzene diluted in argon were simulated and compared to the results of benzene-argon pyrolysis at 1721 K and 5.4 MPa. For MTBE, isobutene, methanol, and ethanol, small amounts of additives to benzene-argon mixtures promoted soot formation, for the shock tube model assumed, while higher concentrations of these additives led to smaller soot volume fractions in comparison to pure benzene-argon pyrolysis. The most significant soot promotion effect was found for the additives MTBE and isobutene. The channel for MTBE decomposition producing isobutene and methanol is very effective at temperatures beyond 1200 K. Thus, both MTBE-benzene and isobutene-benzene mixtures diluted in argon showed rather similar behavior in regard to soot formation. Special emphasis was directed toward the causes for the concentration-dependent influence of the blends on the amount of soot formed. Aromatic hydrocarbons and acetylene were identified as key gas-phase species that determine the trends in the formation of soot of various mixtures. From reaction flux analysis for phenanthrene, it was deduced that the combinative routes including phenyl species play a major role in forming PAHs, especially at early reaction times. It is found that the additives play an important role in providing material to grow side chains, such as by reaction channels including phenylacetylene or benzyl, which are confirmed to form aromatic hydrocarbons and thus to influence the amount of soot formed, particularly when the concentrations of the blends are increased. (author)

Boehm, H. [Physikalische Chemie I, Universitaet Bielefeld (Germany); Braun-Unkhoff, M. [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Stuttgart (Germany)

2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

227

Blending of Radioactive Salt Solutions in Million Gallon Tanks - 13002  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research was completed at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate processes related to the blending of radioactive, liquid waste, salt solutions in 4920 cubic meter, 25.9 meter diameter storage tanks. One process was the blending of large salt solution batches (up to 1135 - 3028 cubic meters), using submerged centrifugal pumps. A second process was the disturbance of a settled layer of solids, or sludge, on the tank bottom. And a third investigated process was the settling rate of sludge solids if suspended into slurries by the blending pump. To investigate these processes, experiments, CFD models (computational fluid dynamics), and theory were applied. Experiments were performed using simulated, non-radioactive, salt solutions referred to as supernates, and a layer of settled solids referred to as sludge. Blending experiments were performed in a 2.44 meter diameter pilot scale tank, and flow rate measurements and settling tests were performed at both pilot scale and full scale. A summary of the research is presented here to demonstrate the adage that, 'One good experiment fixes a lot of good theory'. Experimental testing was required to benchmark CFD models, or the models would have been incorrectly used. In fact, CFD safety factors were established by this research to predict full-scale blending performance. CFD models were used to determine pump design requirements, predict blending times, and cut costs several million dollars by reducing the number of required blending pumps. This research contributed to DOE missions to permanently close the remaining 47 of 51 SRS waste storage tanks. (authors)

Leishear, Robert A.; Lee, Si Y.; Fowley, Mark D.; Poirier, Michael R. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken. S.C., 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken. S.C., 29808 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Blending Of Radioactive Salt Solutions In Million Gallon Tanks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research was completed at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate processes related to the blending of radioactive, liquid waste, salt solutions in 4920 cubic meter, 25.9 meter diameter storage tanks. One process was the blending of large salt solution batches (up to 1135 ? 3028 cubic meters), using submerged centrifugal pumps. A second process was the disturbance of a settled layer of solids, or sludge, on the tank bottom. And a third investigated process was the settling rate of sludge solids if suspended into slurries by the blending pump. To investigate these processes, experiments, CFD models (computational fluid dynamics), and theory were applied. Experiments were performed using simulated, non-radioactive, salt solutions referred to as supernates, and a layer of settled solids referred to as sludge. Blending experiments were performed in a 2.44 meter diameter pilot scale tank, and flow rate measurements and settling tests were performed at both pilot scale and full scale. A summary of the research is presented here to demonstrate the adage that, ?One good experiment fixes a lot of good theory?. Experimental testing was required to benchmark CFD models, or the models would have been incorrectly used. In fact, CFD safety factors were established by this research to predict full-scale blending performance. CFD models were used to determine pump design requirements, predict blending times, and cut costs several million dollars by reducing the number of required blending pumps. This research contributed to DOE missions to permanently close the remaining 47 of 51 SRS waste storage tanks.

Leishear, Robert A.; Lee, Si Y.; Fowley, Mark D.; Poirier, Michael R.

2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

229

Evaluation of Ethanol Blends for PHEVs using Simulation andEngine...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Evaluation of Ethanol Blends for PHEVs using Simulation and Engine-in-the-Loop Evaluation of Ethanol Blends for PHEVs using Simulation and Engine-in-the-Loop 2011 DOE Hydrogen and...

230

Behaviour and effects of alcohol-blended petrol in the subsurface  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Science of the Total Environment , 339 , 117-126...blends. Biomass and Bioenergy , 33 , 1175-1181...C.A. 2001. A review of the environmental...ethanol-blended gasoline in the environment. A literature review and transport modeling...

Philip Morgan; Simon Firth; Beate Hildenbrand

231

Thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetric studies on nanoclay-filled TPU/PP blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermal stability of ester-thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU)/polypropylene (PP) and ether-TPU/PP blends was evaluated by thermogravimetric studies. Thermal studies were made as a function of blend ratio. Effect...

Murugasamy Kannan; S. S. Bhagawan…

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Nanoclay effect on transport properties of thermoplastic polyurethane/polypropylene (TPU/PP) blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper the diffusion of water through the nanoclay filled TPU/PP blends was investigated at ... The effect of blend ratio, compatibilisation and nanoclay addition on the transport properties was studied .....

Murugasamy Kannan; S. S. Bhagawan; Sabu Thomas…

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

A Review of Chromatographic Characterization Techniques for Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......determination of the biodiesel content of...blends of biodiesel in conventional...Sciences and Engineering Division...characterization of biodiesel and its blends...addressed. Introduction Biodiesel...commercial fuels. These fuels......

R. E. Pauls

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

untitled  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

... 10,235 - 10,235 - - 54 54 Reformulated Blended with Fuel Ethanol ... 10,235 - 10,235 - - 54 54 Reformulated Other ......

235

Characterization of Particulate Emissions from GDI Engine Combustion with Alcohol-blended Fuels  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Analysis showed that gasoline direct injection engine particulates from alcohol-blended fuels are significantly different in morphology and nanostructures

236

Fuel Puddle Model and AFR Compensator for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Flex-Fuel Engines*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fuel Puddle Model and AFR Compensator for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Flex-Fuel Engines* Kyung vehicles (FFVs) can operate on a blend of gasoline and ethanol in any concentration of up to 85% ethanol for gasoline-ethanol blends is, thus, necessary for the purpose of air-to-fuel ratio control. In this paper, we

Stefanopoulou, Anna

237

A Fast Spatial Patch Blending Algorithm for Artefact Reduction in Pattern-based Image Inpainting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Fast Spatial Patch Blending Algorithm for Artefact Reduction in Pattern-based Image Inpainting Mar´echal Juin, 14050 Caen/France Figure 1: Illustration of our proposed spatial patch blending propose a fast and generic spatial patch blending technique that can be embedded within any kind

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

238

HEU to LEU Conversion and Blending Facility: UNH blending alternative to produce LEU UNH for commercial use  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

US DOE is examining options for disposing of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials and storage of all weapons-usable fissile materials. The nuclear material is converted to a form that is more proliferation-resistant than the original form. Examining options for increasing the proliferation resistance of highly enriched uranium (HEU) is part of this effort. Five technologies for blending HEU will be assessed. This document provides data to be used in the environmental impact analysis for the UNH blending HEU disposition option. Process requirements, resource needs, employment needs, waste/emissions from plant, hazards, accident scenarios, and intersite transportation are discussed.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

100% Pet coke or pet coke blends combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Information is outlined on the combustion of 100 percent petroleum coke or petroleum coke blends. Data are presented on NISCO overviews; fuel (coke) characteristics; delayed coke analysis (1995-96); limestone characteristics/effects; limestone preparation; ash characteristics; vortex finders; agglomerization; and NISCO performance results.

Swindle, D.L.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

240

Blending world map projections with Flex Projector Bernhard Jennya  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Projector and then documents the new approaches to projection blending. The integration of the three methods into Flex Projector makes creating new projections simple and easy to control and allows the user.flexprojector.com) is a free, open- source, cross-platform application with a graphical user interface for designing world map

Jenny, Bernhard

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas reformulated blended" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Fuel and fuel blending components from biomass derived pyrolysis oil  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for the conversion of biomass derived pyrolysis oil to liquid fuel components is presented. The process includes the production of diesel, aviation, and naphtha boiling point range fuels or fuel blending components by two-stage deoxygenation of the pyrolysis oil and separation of the products.

McCall, Michael J.; Brandvold, Timothy A.; Elliott, Douglas C.

2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

242

Why do we power our cars with gas? NBC Chicago  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Why can we only power our cars with gas? NBC-Chicago tackles this question with a trip to Argonne National Lab, where work on the Omnivorous Engine (runs on any blend of ethanol, butanol, and gasoline) and electric vehicles continues. A segment from NBC-Chicago's "Good Question" series.

None

2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

243

U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, Hydrogen/CNG Blended Fuels Performance Testing in a Ford F-150  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Federal regulation requires energy companies and government entities to utilize alternative fuels in their vehicle fleets. To meet this need, several automobile manufacturers are producing compressed natural gas (CNG)-fueled vehicles. In addition, several converters are modifying gasoline-fueled vehicles to operate on both gasoline and CNG (Bifuel). Because of the availability of CNG vehicles, many energy company and government fleets have adopted CNG as their principle alternative fuel for transportation. Meanwhile, recent research has shown that blending hydrogen with CNG (HCNG) can reduce emissions from CNG vehicles. However, blending hydrogen with CNG (and performing no other vehicle modifications) reduces engine power output, due to the lower volumetric energy density of hydrogen in relation to CNG. Arizona Public Service (APS) and the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (DOE AVTA) identified the need to determine the magnitude of these effects and their impact on the viability of using HCNG in existing CNG vehicles. To quantify the effects of using various blended fuels, a work plan was designed to test the acceleration, range, and exhaust emissions of a Ford F-150 pickup truck operating on 100% CNG and blends of 15 and 30% HCNG. This report presents the results of this testing conducted during May and June 2003 by Electric Transportation Applications (Task 4.10, DOE AVTA Cooperative Agreement DEFC36- 00ID-13859).

James E. Francfort

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Diesel vehicle performance on unaltered waste soybean oil blended with petroleum fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Interest in using unaltered vegetable oil as a fuel in diesel engines has experienced an increase due to uncertainty in the crude oil market supply and the detrimental effects petroleum fuels have on the environment. Unaltered vegetable oil blended with petroleum fuels is less expensive, uses less energy to produce and is more environmentally friendly compared to petroleum diesel or biodiesel. Here we investigate the engine performance of unaltered waste soybean oil blended with petroleum diesel and kerosene for three vehicles. Five biofuel blends ranging from 15% to 50% oil by volume were tested on a 2006 Jeep Liberty CRD, a 1999 Mercedes E300 and a 1984 Mercedes 300TD. A DynoJet 224x chassis dynamometer was used to test vehicle engine performance for horsepower and torque through a range of RPMs. Results for the Jeep showed a modest decrease in horsepower and torque compared to petroleum diesel ranging from 0.9% for the 15% oil blend to 5.0% lower for the 50% oil blend. However, a 30% oil blend showed statistically better performance (P < 0.05) compared to petroleum diesel. For the 1999 Mercedes, horsepower performance was 1.1% lower for the 15% oil blend to 6.4% lower for the 50% oil blend. Engine performance for a 30% blend was statistically the same (P < 0.05) compare to diesel. Finally, horsepower performance was 1.1% lower for the 15% oil blend to 4.7% lower for the 50% oil blend for the 1984 Mercedes. Overall, the performance on these oil blended fuels was excellent and, on average 1.1% lower than petroleum diesel for blends containing 40% or lower waste soybean oil content. The more significant decrease in power between the 40% and 50% oil blends indicates that oil content in these blended fuels should be no more than 40%.

Eugene P. Wagner; Patrick D. Lambert; Todd M. Moyle; Maura A. Koehle

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

HIGH PERFORMANCE BLENDS AND COMPOSITES: PART (I) CLAY AEROGEL/POLYMER COMPOSITES PART (II) MECHANISTIC INVESTIGATION OF COLOR GENERATION IN PET/MXD6 BARRIER BLENDS.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??High performance in polymer blends and composites can be achieved through the addition of a strong filler component into a polymer matrix. The overall physical… (more)

Bandi, Suneel A

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Polymer blends for use in photoelectrochemical cells for conversion of solar energy to electricity and methods for manufacturing such blends  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

There is disclosed a polymer blend of a highly conductive polymer and a solid polymer electrolyte that is designed to achieve better charge transfer across the conductive film/polymer electrolyte interface of the electrochemical photovoltaic cell. The highly conductive polymer is preferably polypyrrole or poly-N-p-nitrophenylpyrrole and the solid polymer electrolyte is preferably polyethylene oxide or polypropylene oxide.

Skotheim, Terje (East Patchogue, NY)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Conversion and Blending Facility highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as oxide. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) will have two missions: (1) convert HEU materials into pure HEU oxide and (2) blend the pure HEU oxide with depleted and natural uranium oxide to produce an LWR grade LEU product. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. To the extent practical, the chemical and isotopic concentrations of blended LEU product will be held within the specifications required for LWR fuel. Such blended LEU product will be offered to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) to be sold as feed material to the commercial nuclear industry. Otherwise, blended LEU will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal.

NONE

1995-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

248

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Prohibition of the Sale of Ethanol-Blended  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Prohibition of the Prohibition of the Sale of Ethanol-Blended Gasoline to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Prohibition of the Sale of Ethanol-Blended Gasoline on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Prohibition of the Sale of Ethanol-Blended Gasoline on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Prohibition of the Sale of Ethanol-Blended Gasoline on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Prohibition of the Sale of Ethanol-Blended Gasoline on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Prohibition of the Sale of Ethanol-Blended Gasoline on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Prohibition of the Sale of Ethanol-Blended Gasoline on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type

249

Review Of Rheology Models For Hanford Waste Blending  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The area of rheological property prediction was identified as a technology need in the Hanford Tank Waste - waste feed acceptance initiative area during a series of technical meetings among the national laboratories, Department of Energy-Office of River Protection, and Hanford site contractors. Meacham et al. delivered a technical report in June 2012, RPP-RPT-51652 ''One System Evaluation of Waste Transferred to the Waste Treatment Plant'' that included estimating of single shell tank waste Bingham plastic rheological model constants along with a discussion of the issues inherent in predicting the rheological properties of blended wastes. This report was selected as the basis for moving forward during the technical meetings. The report does not provide an equation for predicting rheological properties of blended waste slurries. The attached technical report gives an independent review of the provided Hanford rheological data, Hanford rheological models for single tank wastes, and Hanford rheology after blending provided in the Meacham report. The attached report also compares Hanford to SRS waste rheology and discusses some SRS rheological model equations for single tank wastes, as well as discussing SRS experience with the blending of waste sludges with aqueous material, other waste sludges, and frit slurries. Some observations of note: Savannah River Site (SRS) waste samples from slurried tanks typically have yield stress >1 Pa at 10 wt.% undissolved solids (UDS), while core samples largely have little or no yield stress at 10 wt.% UDS. This could be due to how the waste has been processed, stored, retrieved, and sampled or simply in the differences in the speciation of the wastes. The equations described in Meacham's report are not recommended for extrapolation to wt.% UDS beyond the available data for several reasons; weak technical basis, insufficient data, and large data scatter. When limited data are available, for example two to three points, the equations are not necessarily satisfactory (justified) for interpolations, due to the number of unknown variables equal the number of known data points, resulting in a coefficient of determination of one. SRS has had some success predicting the rheology of waste blends for similar waste types using rheological properties of the individual wastes and empirical blending viscosity equations. Both the Kendall-Monroe and Olney-Carlson equations were used. High accuracy was not obtained, but predictions were reasonable compared to measured flow curves. Blending SRS processed waste with frit slurry (much larger particles and the source of SRS glass formers) is a different sort of problem than that of two similar slurries of precipitated waste particles. A different approach to rheology prediction has had some success describing the incorporation of large frit particles into waste than the one used for blending two wastes. In this case, the Guth-Simha equation was used. If Hanford waste is found to have significant particles in the >100 ?m diameter range, then it might be necessary to handle those particles differently from broadly distributed waste particles that are primarily <30 ?m in diameter. The following are recommendations for the Hanford tank farms: Investigate the impact of large-scale mixing operations on yield stress for one or more Hanford tanks to see if Hanford waste rheological properties change to become more like SRS waste during both tank retrieval and tank qualification operations; Determine rheological properties of mobilized waste slurries by direct measurement rather than by prediction; Collect and characterize samples during the waste feed qualification process for each campaign; o From single source tanks that feed the qualification tanks; o Blends from the qualification tanks; Predictive rheological models must be used with caution, due to the lack of data to support such models and the utilization of the results that come from these models in making process decisions (e.g. the lack of actual operation experience). As experience is ga

Koopman, D. C.; Stone, M.

2013-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

250

Fueling Infrastructure Polymer Materials Compatibility to Ethanol-blended  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Fueling Infrastructure Polymer Materials Compatibility to Ethanol-blended Fueling Infrastructure Polymer Materials Compatibility to Ethanol-blended Gasoline Dataset Summary Description These data files contain volume, mass, and hardness changes of elastomers and plastics representative exposed to gasoline containing various levels of ethanol. These materials are representative of those used in gasoline fuel storage and dispensing hardware. All values are compared to the original untreated condition. The data sets include results from specimens exposed directly to the fuel liquid and also a set of specimens exposed only to the fuel vapors. Source Mike Kass, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Date Released August 16th, 2012 (2 years ago) Date Updated August 16th, 2012 (2 years ago) Keywords compatibility elastomers ethanol gasoline

251

Application of the distributed activation energy model to blends devolatilisation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, an investigation was carried out into the thermal behaviour of coal, petcoke and their blend as a generic feedstock in combustion and IGCC plants for energy production. The samples were pyrolysed in a TG analyzer in nitrogen atmosphere (constant flow of 0.0335 m/s) at several heating rates with temperatures ranging from 300 to 1223 K. The distributed activation energy model was applied to study the effects of heating rates on the reactions of single solids. The results obtained were used in the calculation of curves mass loss vs. temperature at more realistic heating rates. The algorithm used to obtain the distribution of reactivities for single solids was successfully implemented to allow the prediction of blends performance.

M.V. Navarro; A. Aranda; T. Garcia; R. Murillo; A.M. Mastral

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Course redesign for blended learning: modern optics for technical professionals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Philips Centre for Technical Training (CTT) is responsible for the on-going professional education of scientific staff in Philips Research Laboratories worldwide. This article addresses the ''why'' and ''how'' of an evolution toward more flexible learning at the CTT in which various models for blended learning supported by a web-based course-management system are being piloted and evaluated, and describes one of the courses in more detail. The ''why'' relates to CTT's challenge to give more participants at distant locations access to its courses. The ''how'' has to be appropriate to the very specific situation in which CTT functions the transfer of Philips' highly technical knowledge and experience to relatively small numbers of scientific staff within Philips. This knowledge and experience is being refreshed continuously so the contents of the learning also are in steady change. The blended learning models evolving at the CTT are grounded in these characteristics.

Betty Collis; Huib Bruijstens; Jan Kees van der Veen

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Effect of n-Butanol Blending with a Blend of Diesel and Biodiesel on Performance and Exhaust Emissions of a Diesel Engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Effect of n-Butanol Blending with a Blend of Diesel and Biodiesel on Performance and Exhaust Emissions of a Diesel Engine ... Mechanical Engineering, Batman University, Batman 72100, Turkey ... Diesel engines are widely used for transportation, energy production, and agricultural and industrial applications because of their high fuel conversion efficiencies and durability. ...

S?ehmus Altun; Cengiz O?ner; Fevzi Yas?ar; Hamit Adin

2011-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

254

Achieving High Chilled Water Delta T Without Blending Station  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Achieving High Chilled Water Delta T without Blending Station Zhan Wang, Gang Wang, Ke Xu, Yuebin Yu and Mingsheng Liu Energy System Laboratory, Department of Architectural Engineering University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Omaha, NE 68182, USA...-12?C) after all 3-way control valves in the system were converted to 2-way valves. It seems that the use of 3-way control valves is accused of the lower chilled water temperature differential. Wang [2006] investigated the cooling coil performance...

Wang, Z.; Wang, G.; Xu, K.; Yu, Y.; Liu, M.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Properties and Performance of Levulinate Esters as Diesel Blend Components  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The esters were treated with the cetane-enhancing compound 2-ethyl hexyl nitrate and were tested as blends with diesel fuel in a 2008 model year Cummins ISB engine with the measurement of regulated pollutant emissions over the federal heavy duty diesel transient cycle. ... The various approaches to biomass conversion can be divided into two general types: thermochemical (gasification, pyrolysis, acid hydrolysis, combustion, and liquefaction) and biochemical (fermentation, enzymatic hydrolysis, and anaerobic and aerobic digestion). ...

Earl Christensen; Aaron Williams; Stephen Paul; Steve Burton; Robert L. McCormick

2011-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

256

Effect of use of low oxygenate gasoline blends upon emissions from California vehicles. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to investigate the emissions effects of low-oxygenate gasoline blends on exhaust and evaporative emissions from a test fleet of California certified light-duty autos. Thirteen vehicles were procured and tested using four gasoline-oxygenate blends over three test cycles. The four gasoline blends were: Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE), Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE), and 'match' and 'splash' blends of ethanol (in the 'match' blend the fuel Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP) is held constant, while in the 'splash' blend the fuel RVP is allowed to increase). Hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide exhaust emissions were generally reduced for the oxygenated blends, the exception being the 'splash-blended' ethanol gasoline which showed mixed results. Older technology vehicles (e.g., non-catalyst and oxidation catalyst) showed the greatest emissions reductions regardless of gasoline blend, while later technology vehicles showed the smallest reductions. Evaporative emissions and toxics were generally reduced for ETBE, while results for the other blends were mixed.

Born, G.L.; Lucas, S.V.; Scott, R.D.; DeFries, T.H.; Kishan, S.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Source: Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85 and Other Ethanol Blends.  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

A1: Tank Manufacturer Compatibility with Ethanol Blends. September 2013. A1: Tank Manufacturer Compatibility with Ethanol Blends. September 2013. Tank Manufacturer Compatibility with Ethanol Blends Manufacturer Compatibility Statement Fiberglass 1 Containment Solutions Tanks manufactured after January 1, 1995 are all compatible with ethanol blends up to 100% (E100) (UL Listed) Owens Corning Single Wall Tanks Tanks manufactured between 1965 and 1994 are approved to store up to 10% ethanol (E10) Double Wall Tanks Tanks manufactured between 1965 and July 1, 1990 are approved to store up to 10% ethanol (E10) Tanks manufactured between July 2, 1990 and December 31, 1994 were warrantied to store any ethanol blend Xerxes Single Wall Tanks Tanks manufactured prior to 1981 are not compatible with ethanol blends Tanks manufactured from February 1981 through June 2005 are

258

Comparative Study of Thermomechanical Properties of Indigenous Blended Clay and Clay of Ukraine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper investigates the particle size distribution chemical composition fired modulus of rupture (MOR) and apparent porosity of blended clay utilizing clays available in Bikaner region and comparison with a imported Ukrainian clay. The blended clay B2 presents good white buff fired colour higher fired modulus of rupture and low porosity. The blend is suitable for Traditional Indian ceramic industries and a substitute of Ukrainian clay in India.

M. S. Shekhawat; S. K. Tak; R. Mangal; A. K. Gupta

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

A new blending agent and its effects on methanol-gasoline fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The major difficulty encountered with the use of methanol-gasoline blends as SI engine fuel is their tendency to phase separation due to the hydrophilic properties of methanol. Phase separation can lead to some utilization problems. Using a blending agent for the methanol-gasoline system is the common approach taken towards solving the phase separation problem. In this study introduces fraction of molasses fuel oil as an effective new blending agent for methanol-gasoline fuel.

Karaosmanoglu, F.; Isigiguer-Erguedenler, A.; Aksoy, H.A.

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

E-Print Network 3.0 - alternatives blending private Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for mixing as polymer feedstock. This feedstock was melt-blended with high- density polyethylene... mechanical properties and thermal properties of paintHDPE and paintPMMA...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas reformulated blended" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

E-Print Network 3.0 - anti-d rh1 blend Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Metallocene Summary: -Natta and Metallocene Hexene Linear Low-Density Polyethylene Blends with Low-Density Polyethylene Ibnelwaleed A. Hussein... and mechanical...

262

E-Print Network 3.0 - anhydride ternary blend Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

13 Phase Structure and Properties of Poly(ethylene terephthalate)High-Density Polyethylene Based on Summary: 1 (NCO stretching) disappeared in the blends,...

263

Effects of bio-diesel fuel blends on the performance and emissions of diesel engine.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This study presents an experimental investigation into the effects of running biodiesel fuel blends on conventional diesel engines. Bio fuels provide a way to produce… (more)

Bastiani, Sergio.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Multi-scale analysis and simulation of powder blending in pharmaceutical manufacturing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Multi-Scale Analysis methodology was developed and carried out for gaining fundamental understanding of the pharmaceutical powder blending process. Through experiment, analysis and computer simulations, microscopic ...

Ngai, Samuel S. H

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Evaluation of the Effects of Nanofil® Nanoclays in the Blending of Polypropylene and Polystyrene.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This study evaluated the effects of Nanofil® nanoclay on morphology development of an immiscible polymer blend of polypropylene (PP) and polystyrene (PS). The hypothesis that… (more)

Opalko, Robert J.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

HASKELL & WHITE CORPORATE REPORTING & GOVERNANCE CONFERENCE SERIES Blending Theory with Practice  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HASKELL & WHITE CORPORATE REPORTING & GOVERNANCE CONFERENCE SERIES Blending Theory with Practice Pinnell, Managing Partner of Haskell & White. GUIDELINES FOR PAPER SUBMISSION Papers are invited from

de Lijser, Peter

267

Effect of PCI blending on combustion characteristics for iron-making.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The PCI technology is well established for reducing the consumption of economic and environmentally expensive coke in blast furnace iron-making. Often, coal blends show unexpected… (more)

Gill, Trilochan Singh

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

The Effects of Ethanol/Gasoline Blends on Advanced Combustion Strategies in Internal Combustion Engines.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This dissertation presents the effects of blending ethanol with gasoline on advanced combustion strategies in internal combustion engines. The unique chemical, physical and thermal properties… (more)

Fatouraie, Mohammad

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Natural Gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

30 May 1974 research-article Natural Gas C. P. Coppack This paper reviews the world's existing natural gas reserves and future expectations, together with natural gas consumption in 1972, by main geographic...

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Evaluating the use of EN 14078 for determination of biodiesel in diesel blends sold in the Brazilian market  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In Brazil, the National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels (ANP) is a regulatory agency responsible for monitoring the distribution and sale of fuels. After the introduction of biodiesel in Brazil, problems began to emerge as well as questions regarding the quality of diesel fuel in the country. One of the problems is related to the determination of biodiesel content in the diesel available in fuel stations. This work shows that biodiesel prepared from different feedstock during storage suffers oxidative degradation leading to different oxygenated compounds. The presence of these biodiesel oxidation products affects the accuracy of the result provided by the standard method EN 14078 in relation to the content of biodiesel in diesel. The result showed determination errors of almost 100%. Indeed, a B5 blend after accelerated oxidation was determined using EN 14078 as B10. Another problem observed using EN 14078 was that in countries like Brazil, where different oleaginous or alcohol are used to produce biodiesel, it is mandatory to calibrate the method with the same biodiesel present in diesel blends. Indeed, it was observed important changes in the position of the stretching related to the ester carboxyl group according to the raw materials used to prepare the biofuel, leading to significant errors in the biodiesel content determination.

David M.M. Pinho; Vianey O. Santos Jr.; Vitor M.L. dos Santos; Maria C.S. Oliveira; Monica T. da Silva; Patrícia G.T. Piza; Angelo C. Pinto; Michelle J.C. Rezende; Paulo A.Z. Suarez

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Single Stage Contactor Testing Of The Next Generation Solvent Blend  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is actively pursuing the transition from the current BOBCalixC6 based solvent to the Next Generation Solvent (NGS)-MCU solvent to increase the cesium decontamination factor. To support this integration of NGS into the MCU facility the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed testing of a blend of the NGS (MaxCalix based solvent) with the current solvent (BOBCalixC6 based solvent) for the removal of cesium (Cs) from the liquid salt waste stream. This testing utilized a blend of BOBCalixC6 based solvent and the NGS with the new extractant, MaxCalix, as well as a new suppressor, tris(3,7dimethyloctyl) guanidine. Single stage tests were conducted using the full size V-05 and V-10 liquid-to-liquid centrifugal contactors installed at SRNL. These tests were designed to determine the mass transfer and hydraulic characteristics with the NGS solvent blended with the projected heel of the BOBCalixC6 based solvent that will exist in MCU at time of transition. The test program evaluated the amount of organic carryover and the droplet size of the organic carryover phases using several analytical methods. The results indicate that hydraulically, the NGS solvent performed hydraulically similar to the current solvent which was expected. For the organic carryover 93% of the solvent is predicted to be recovered from the stripping operation and 96% from the extraction operation. As for the mass transfer, the NGS solvent significantly improved the cesium DF by at least an order of magnitude when extrapolating the One-stage results to actual Seven-stage extraction operation with a stage efficiency of 95%.

Herman, D. T.; Peters, T. B.; Duignan, M. R.; Williams, M. R.; Poirier, M. R.; Brass, E. A.; Garrison, A. G.; Ketusky, E. T.

2014-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

272

Experimental Study of Biodiesel Blends’ Effects on Diesel Injection Processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It can be said that a lot of studies performed with biodiesel are mere emissions and performances comparisons against a standard diesel fuel using multicylinder engines and fundamental combustion and overall injections aspects are not being completely addressed yet. ... Emissions variations from 2 different engine models and 2 driving cycles were also obsd. ... Lujan, J. M.; Tormos, B.; Salvador, F. J.; Gargar, K. Comparative analysis of a DI diesel engine fuelled with biodiesel blends during the European MVEG-A cycle: Preliminary study (I). ...

José M. Desantes; Raúl Payri; Antonio García; Julien Manin

2009-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

273

Emissions mitigation of blended coals through systems optimization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For coal fired power stations, such as those located in the US, that have installed NOx and SOx emissions abatement equipment substantial carbon dioxide reduction could be achieved by shifting from pure PRB coal to blended coals with local bituminous coal. Don Labbe explains how. The article is based on a presentation at Power-Gen Asia 2009, which takes place 7-9 October in Bangkok, Thailand and an ISA POWID 2009 paper (19th Annual Joint ISA POWID/EPRI Controlls and Instrumentation Conference, Chicago, Illinois, May 2009). 4 refs., 3 figs.

Don Labbe [IOM Invensys Operations Management (United States)

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

274

Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 ? Updated Feb 2009  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 ? Updated Feb 2009

275

Puddle Dynamics and Air-to-Fuel Ratio Compensation for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Puddle Dynamics and Air-to-Fuel Ratio Compensation for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Flex-Fuel Engines* Kyung-ho Ahn, Anna G. Stefanopoulou, and Mrdjan Jankovic Abstract--Ethanol is being increasingly flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) can operate on a blend of gasoline and ethanol in any concentration of up

Stefanopoulou, Anna

276

Exhaust emissions and mutagenic effects of diesel fuel, biodiesel and biodiesel blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The replacement of petroleum-derived fuels by renewable biogenic fuels has become of worldwide interest with the environmental effects being scientifically investigated. Biodiesel has been proven to be a suitable alternative to petrodiesel and blending up to 20% biodiesel with petrodiesel is policy promoted in the USA and the EU. To investigate the influence of blends on the exhaust emissions and possible health effects, we performed a series of studies with several engines (Euro 0, III and IV) using blends of rapeseed-derived biodiesel and petrodiesel. Regulated and non-regulated exhaust compounds were measured and their mutagenic effects were determined using the Bacterial Reverse Mutation Assay (Ames-Test) according to OECD Guideline 471. Exhaust emissions of blends were approximately linearly dependent on the blend composition, particularly when considering regulated emissions. However, a negative effect of blends was observed with respect to mutagenicity of the exhaust emissions. In detail, an increase of the mutagenic potential was found for blends with the maximum observed for B20. From this point of view, B20 must be considered as a critical blend when petrodiesel and biodiesel are used as binary mixtures.

Olaf Schröder; Jürgen Bünger; Axel Munack; Gerhard Knothe; Jürgen Krahl

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Aerodynamically Optimal Regional Aircraft Concepts: Conventional and Blended Wing-Body Designs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Aerodynamically Optimal Regional Aircraft Concepts: Conventional and Blended Wing-Body Designs aircraft such as those that serve regional routes. We thus explore the optimal aerodynamic shape of both a blended wing-body and conventional tube-and-wing regional aircraft through high-fidelity aerodynamic shape

Zingg, David W.

278

Shear-induced shift of spinodal line in entangled polymer blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We study the shear-flow effects on phase separation of entangled polymer blends by incorporating into the chemical potential a nonequilibrium contribution due to the flow. The results are compared with those of a previous analysis by other authors which did not modify the chemical potential but used a different assumption for the stress tensor of the blend.

M. Criado-Sancho; D. Jou; J. Casas-Vázquez; L. F. del Castillo

2002-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

279

"Performance, Emission and Particle distribution of Diesel Engines Fueled with Diesel-Dimethoxymethane (DMM) Blends"  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Xibin Wang "Performance, Emission and Particle distribution of Diesel Engines Fueled with Diesel-Dimethoxymethane (DMM) Blends" Abstract : Combustion, performance and emission were studied for DI diesel engine fuelled with DMM/diesel fuel blends for DMM content from 0 to 50%. Results showed that, for diesel engine with fuel

280

Enhanced Miscibility of Low-Molecular-Weight Polystyrene/Polyisoprene Blends in Supercritical CO2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with nitrogen decouple the plasticization efficacy of CO2 from free-volume compression due to hydrostaticEnhanced Miscibility of Low-Molecular-Weight Polystyrene/Polyisoprene Blends in Supercritical CO2 solution temperature (UCST) polymer blend in the presence of supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2

Raghavan, Srinivasa

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas reformulated blended" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Synergistic Effect of coal blends on thermoplasticity evaluated using a temperature-variable dynamic viscoelastic measurement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To maximize the conversion of low-quality coal into good coke, we investigated the thermoplasticity of various binary blends of caking coals with slightly or noncaking coals using a dynamic viscoelastic technique with a temperature-variable rheometer. Coal blend samples were prepared by mixing two coals (1:1 by weight), which were heated from room temperature to 600 C at a rate of 3-80{sup o}C/min. At the slow rate of 3{sup o}C/min, the blends had a tan {delta} that was generally lower than the calculated value, showing that a negative interaction caused a loss of thermoplasticity. In contrast, at the rapid heating rate of 80{sup o}C/min, the tan {delta} of some blends was higher than the calculated value, indicating a positive interaction that enhanced the thermoplasticity. With rapid heating, the thermoplasticity of each coal itself increased, and their thermoplastic temperature ranges widened with rapid heating. Therefore, rapid heating was effective at converting these coal blends into good cokes. Moreover, even with slow heating, when a combination of coals (Gregory:Enshu, 1:1) showing some thermoplasticity in nearly the same temperature range was blended, a desirable synergistic effect of the blend was obtained. This suggests that blending coal with an overlapping thermoplastic temperature range is important for the synergistic effect, regardless of the heating rate. 15 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

Toshimasa Takanohashi; Takahiro Shishido; Ikuo Saito; Kensuke Masaki; Atsushi Dobashi; Kiyoshi Fukada [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan)

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

282

Effects of HyperCoal addition on coke strength and thermoplasticity of coal blends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ashless coal, also known as HyperCoal (HPC), was produced by thermal extraction of three coals of different ranks (Gregory caking coal, Warkworth steam coal, and Pasir subbituminous coal) with 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN) at 360, 380, and 400{sup o}C. The effects of blending these HPCs into standard coal blends were investigated. Blending HPCs as 5-10% of a standard blend (Kouryusho:Goonyella:K9) enhanced the thermoplasticity over a wide temperature range. For blends made with the Pasir-HPC, produced from a noncaking coal, increasing the extraction temperature from 360 to 400{sup o}C increased the thermoplasticity significantly. Blends containing Warkworth-HPC, produced from a slightly caking coal, had a higher tensile strength than the standard blend in semicoke strength tests. The addition of 10% Pasir-HPC, extracted at 400{sup o}C, increased the tensile strength of the semicokes to the same degree as those made with Gregory-HPC. Furthermore, all HPC blends had a higher tensile strength and smaller weight loss during carbonization. These results suggest that the HPC became integrated into the coke matrix, interacting strongly with the other raw coals. 14 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

Toshimasa Takanohashi; Takahiro Shishido; Ikuo Saito [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan). Energy Technology Research Institute

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

283

Combustion Characteristics of Coal and Biomass Blends and Thermal Dynamic Analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

By using TGA technology, the combustion characteristics under different conditions of hard coal and biomass blends has been discussed. The combustion curves of blends exhibited the characteristics with two peaks. Results also exhibited that there was ... Keywords: coal, biomass, thermal analysis, combustion characteristics

Haizhen Huang; Haibo Chen; Guohua Wang; Jun Liu

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Compatibilizing Poly(vinylidene fluoride)/Nylon-6 Blends with Nanoclay  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Blends of poly(vinylidene fluoride)/nylon-6 (PVDF/N6) 30:70 were melt compounded with various organoclays directly or sequentially. The morphology, thermal, and mechanical properties of the blend nanocomposites were investigated. It was determined that ...

Loan T. Vo; Emmanuel P. Giannelis

2007-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

285

Conformational properties of blends of cyclic and linear polymer melts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An adapted version of the annealing algorithm to identify primitive paths of a melt of ring polymers is presented. This algorithm ensures that the primitive path length becomes zero for nonconcatenated rings, and that no entanglements are observed. The bond-fluctuation model was used to simulate ring-linear blends with N=150 and 300 monomers. The primitive path length and the average number of entanglements of the linear component were found to be independent of the blend composition. In contrast, the primitive path length and the average number of entanglements on a ring molecule increased approximately linearly with the fraction of linear chains, and for large N, they approached values comparable with linear chains. Threading of ring molecules by linear chains, and ring-ring interactions were observed only in the presence of linear chains. It is conjectured that for large N, these latter interactions facilitate the formation of a percolating entangled network, thereby resulting in a disproportionate retardation of the dynamical processes.

Gopinath Subramanian and Sachin Shanbhag

2008-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

286

JV Task 112-Optimal Ethanol Blend-Level Investigation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highway Fuel Economy Test (HWFET) and Federal Test Procedure 75 (FTP-75) tests were conducted on four 2007 model vehicles; a Chevrolet Impala flex-fuel and three non-flex-fuel vehicles: a Ford Fusion, a Toyota Camry, and a Chevrolet Impala. This investigation utilized a range of undenatured ethanol/Tier II gasoline blend levels from 0% to 85%. HWFET testing on ethanol blend levels of E20 in the flex fuel Chevrolet Impala and E30 in the non-flex-fuel Ford Fusion and Toyota Camry resulted in miles-per-gallon (mpg) fuel economy greater than Tier 2 gasoline, while E40 in the non-flex-fuel Chevrolet Impala resulted in an optimum mpg based on per-gallon fuel Btu content. Exhaust emission values for non-methane organic gases (NMOG), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) obtained from both the FTP-75 and the HWFET driving cycles were at or below EPA Tier II, Light-Duty Vehicles, Bin 5 levels for all vehicles tested with one exception. The flex-fuel Chevrolet Impala exceeded the NMOG standard for the FTP-75 on E-20 and Tier II gasoline.

Richard Shockey; Ted Aulich; Bruce Jones; Gary Mead; Paul Steevens

2008-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

287

Compact reaction cell for homogenizing and down-blending highly enriched uranium metal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a specialized reaction cell for converting uranium metal to uranium oxide. In a preferred form, the reaction cell comprises a reaction chamber with increasing diameter along its length (e.g. a cylindrical chamber having a diameter of about 2 inches in a lower portion and having a diameter of from about 4 to about 12 inches in an upper portion). Such dimensions are important to achieve the necessary conversion while at the same time affording criticality control and transportability of the cell and product. The reaction chamber further comprises an upper port and a lower port, the lower port allowing for the entry of reactant gases into the reaction chamber, the upper port allowing for the exit of gases from the reaction chamber. A diffuser plate is attached to the lower port of the reaction chamber and serves to shape the flow of gas into the reaction chamber. The reaction cell further comprises means for introducing gases into the reaction chamber and a heating means capable of heating the contents of the reaction chamber. The present invention also relates to a method for converting uranium metal to uranium oxide in the reaction cell of the present invention. The invention is useful for down-blending highly enriched uranium metal by the simultaneous conversion of highly enriched uranium metal and natural or depleted uranium metal to uranium oxide within the reaction cell. 4 figs.

McLean, W. II; Miller, P.E.; Horton, J.A.

1995-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

288

Anisotropic membranes for gas separation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas separation membrane has a dense separating layer about 10,000 Angstroms or less thick and a porous support layer 10 to 400 microns thick that is an integral unit with gradually and continuously decreasing pore size from the base of the support layer to the surface of the thin separating layer and is made from a casting solution comprising ethyl cellulose and ethyl cellulose-based blends, typically greater than 47.5 ethoxyl content ethyl cellulose blended with compatible second polymers, such as nitrocellulose. The polymer content of the casting solution is from about 10% to about 35% by weight of the total solution with up to about 50% of this polymer weight a compatible second polymer to the ethyl cellulose in a volatile solvent such as isopropanol, methylacetate, methanol, ethanol, and acetone. Typical nonsolvents for the casting solutions include water and formamide. The casting solution is cast in air from about zero to 10 seconds to allow the volatile solvent to evaporate and then quenched in a coagulation bath, typically water, at a temperature of 7--25 C and then air dried at ambient temperature, typically 10--30 C. 2 figs.

Gollan, A.Z.

1987-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

289

Anisotropic membranes for gas separation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas separation membrane has a dense separating layer about 10,000 Angstroms or less thick and a porous support layer 10 to 400 microns thick that is an integral unit with gradually and continuously decreasing pore size from the base of the support layer to the surface of the thin separating layer and is made from a casting solution comprising ethyl cellulose and ethyl cellulose-based blends, typically greater than 47.5 ethoxyl content ethyl cellulose blended with compatible second polymers, such as nitrocellulose. The polymer content of the casting solution is from about 10% to about 35% by weight of the total solution with up to about 50% of this polymer weight a compatible second polymer to the ethyl cellulose in a volatile solvent such as isopropanol, methylacetate, methanol, ethanol, and acetone. Typical nonsolvents for the casting solutions include water and formamide. The casting solution is cast in air from about zero to 10 seconds to allow the volatile solvent to evaporate and then quenched in a coagulation bath, typically water, at a temperature of 7.degree.-25.degree. C. and then air dried at ambient temperature, typically 10.degree.-30.degree. C.

Gollan, Arye Z. (Newton, MA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Effect of compatibilizer on impact and morphological analysis of recycled HDPE/PET blends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Blends based on recycled high density polyethylene (rHDPE) and recycled polyethylene terephthalate (rPET) were prepared using a corotating twin screw extruder. PET and HDPE are incompatible polymers and their blends showed poor properties. Compatibilization is a step to obtain blends with good mechanical properties and in this work, ethylene glycidyl methacrylate copolymer (E-GMA) was used as a compatibilizing agent. The effect of blends based on rHDPE and rPET with and without a compatibilizer, E-GMA were examined. From the studies clearly showed that the addition of 5% E-GMA increased the impact strength. SEM analysis of rHDPE/rPET blends confirmed the morphological interaction and improved interfacial bonding between two phases.

Salleh, Mohd Nazry [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia and School of Materials Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 02600 Jejawi, Perlis (Malaysia); Ahmad, Sahrim; Ghani, Mohd Hafizuddin Ab; Chen, Ruey Shan [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

2013-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

291

Chapter 30 - Biofuel Economics and Policy: The Renewable Fuel Standard, the Blend Wall, and Future Uncertainties  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Biofuels are currently in a state of flux. The main operative policy for biofuels in the United States is the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS). It specifies a minimum quantity of four different types of biofuels that must be blended each year in the United States through 2022. However, the United States also faces what is called the blend wall, which is a physical limit on blending given that the United States blends at a 10% rate. The blend wall upper limit is now below the RFS lower limit for corn ethanol, and that is causing problems with the administration of the RFS. This chapter explains how the RFS functions and then examines alternatives to the current administration of the RFS. The RFS is critical for cellulosic biofuels and biodiesel, and its elimination would likely end use of those fuels. Corn ethanol, however, is now much less expensive than gasoline and would continue.

Wallace E. Tyner

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

ABJM theory as a Fermi gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The partition function on the three-sphere of many supersymmetric Chern-Simons-matter theories reduces, by localization, to a matrix model. We develop a new method to study these models in the M-theory limit, but at all orders in the 1/N expansion. The method is based on reformulating the matrix model as the partition function of an ideal Fermi gas with a non-trivial, one-particle quantum Hamiltonian. This new approach leads to a completely elementary derivation of the N^{3/2} behavior for ABJM theory and N=3 quiver Chern-Simons-matter theories. In addition, the full series of 1/N corrections to the original matrix integral can be simply determined by a next-to-leading calculation in the WKB or semiclassical expansion of the quantum gas, and we show that, for several quiver Chern-Simons-matter theories, it is given by an Airy function. This generalizes a recent result of Fuji, Hirano and Moriyama for ABJM theory. It turns out that the semiclassical expansion of the Fermi gas corresponds to a strong coupling expansion in type IIA theory, and it is dual to the genus expansion. This allows us to calculate explicitly non-perturbative effects due to D2-brane instantons in the AdS background.

Marcos Marino; Pavel Putrov

2012-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

293

Insight into the Molecular Arrangement of High-Density Polyethylene Polymer Chains in Blends of Polystyrene/High-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Insight into the Molecular Arrangement of High-Density Polyethylene Polymer Chains in Blends of Polystyrene/High- Density Polyethylene from Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Raman Techniques JAYANT/high-density polyethylene (PS/HDPE) blends were synthe- sized by melt blending in a single screw extruder. Co

294

Flow boundary conditions for chain-end adsorbing polymer blends  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using the phenol-terminated polycarbonate blend as an example, we demonstrate that the hydrodynamic boundary conditions for a flow of an adsorbing polymer melt are extremely sensitive to the structure of the epitaxial layer. Under shear, the adsorbed parts (chain ends) of the polymer melt move along the equipotential lines of the surface potential whereas the adsorbed additives serve as the surface defects. In response to the increase of the number of the adsorbed additives the surface layer becomes thinner and solidifies. This results in a gradual transition from the slip to the no-slip boundary condition for the melt flow, with a non-monotonic dependence of the slip length on the surface concentration of the adsorbed ends.

X. Zhou; D. Andrienko; L. Delle Site; K. Kremer

2005-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

295

Gas Turbines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

When the gas turbine generator was introduced to the power generation ... fossil-fueled power plant. Twenty years later, gas turbines were established as an important means of ... on utility systems. By the early...

Jeffrey M. Smith

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Gas Turbines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... the time to separate out the essentials and the irrelevancies in a text-book. The gas ...gasturbine ...

H. CONSTANT

1950-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

297

Conversion and Blending Facility highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as uranyl nitrate hexahydrate. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) will have two missions: (1) convert HEU materials to pure HEU uranyl nitrate (UNH) and (2) blend pure HEU UNH with depleted and natural UNH to produce HEU UNH crystals. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. To the extent practical, the chemical and isotopic concentrations of blended LEU product will be held within the specifications required for LWR fuel. Such blended LEU product will be offered to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) to be sold as feed material to the commercial nuclear industry. Otherwise, blended LEU Will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal.

NONE

1995-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

298

Colorado Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Colorado Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

299

California Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) California Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

300

Louisiana Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Louisiana Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas reformulated blended" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Michigan Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Michigan Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

302

Oklahoma Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Oklahoma Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

303

Virginia Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Virginia Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

304

Tennessee Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Tennessee Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

305

Pennsylvania Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Pennsylvania Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

306

Arkansas Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Arkansas Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

307

Maryland Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Maryland Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

308

Illinois Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Illinois Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

309

Missouri Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Missouri Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

310

Mississippi Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Mississippi Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

311

Nebraska Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Nebraska Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

312

Reformulated diesel fuel and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for mathematically identifying at least one diesel fuel suitable for combustion in an automotive diesel engine with significantly reduced emissions and producible from known petroleum blendstocks using known refining processes, including the use of cetane additives (ignition improvers) and oxygenated compounds.

McAdams, Hiramie T [Carrollton, IL; Crawford, Robert W [Tucson, AZ; Hadder, Gerald R [Oak Ridge, TN; McNutt, Barry D [Arlington, VA

2006-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

313

Reformulations in Mathematical Programming: Symmetry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dec 3, 2008 ... ... group where no AMPL presolved alternative is explicitly given might ..... fuel. 15

2008-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

314

PERSPECTIVE REFORMULATION AND APPLICATIONS 1 ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ria and Soares characterize the closure of the convex hull of the union of ...... solve. We performed a small experiment designed to test the impact of the.

2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

315

HEU to LEU Conversion and Blending Facility: UF{sub 6} blending alternative to produce LEU UF{sub 6} for commercial use  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

US DOE is examining options for disposing of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials and storage of all weapons-usable fissile materials; the nuclear material will be converted to a form more proliferation- resistant than the original form. Examining options for increasing the proliferation resistance of highly enriched uranium (HEU) is part of this effort. Five technologies for blending HEU will be assessed; blending as UF{sub 6} to produce a UF{sub 6} product for commercial use is one of them. This document provides data to be used in the environmental impact analysis for the UF{sub 6} blending HEU disposition option. Resource needs, employment needs, waste and emissions from plant, hazards, accident scenarios, and intersite transportation are discussed.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Melt blend studies of nanoclay-filled polypropylene (PP)–high-density polyethylene (HDPE) composites  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The objective of this work is to study how the rheological factors of unfilled and nanoclay-filled HDPE–PP blend series influence the ... 100 wt % HDPE), with and without nanoclay, was prepared by using melt-mixi...

T. P. Mohan; K. Kanny

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Morphology development in nanoclay filled rubber compounds and rubber blends detected by online measured electrical conductance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The online measured electrical conductance (OMEC) during the rubber mixing process has been used as a novel method to characterize the dispersion of organoclay in rubber compounds and blends. This method was a...

Z. Ali; H. H. Le; S. Ilisch; H.-J. Radusch

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

A Design Experiment for Blending Knowledge Community And Inquiry in Secondary School Science  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Design Experiment for Blending Knowledge Community And Inquiry:00-1:15 Education Building 2010 Abstract. This presentation describes a design experiment objectives. Drawing on data from two design cycles, I examine the validity

Stanford, Kyle

319

Solid State Blending of Poly(ethylene terephthalate) with Polystyrene: Extent of PET Amorphization and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

state via cryogenic mechanical attrition (CMA) and in the melt through conventional twin-screw extrusion of compatibilization was previously deter- mined to be both higher than that of extruded blends and also dependent upon

Mitchell, Brian S.

320

The morphology and deformation behavior of poly(butylene terephthalate)/BPA polycarbonate blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this communication the results of a series of recent studies of the morphology and deformation behavior of toughened poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT)/BPA polycarbonate (PC) blends are briefly summarized....

S. Y. Hobbs; M. E. J. Dekkers; V. H. Watkins

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas reformulated blended" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

A Blended Soundproof-to-Compressible Numerical Model for Small- to Mesoscale Atmospheric Dynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A blended model for atmospheric flow simulations is introduced that enables seamless transition from fully compressible to pseudo-incompressible dynamics. The model equations are written in nonperturbation form and integrated using a well-balanced ...

Tommaso Benacchio; Warren P. O’Neill; Rupert Klein

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

E-Print Network 3.0 - administration blending initiative Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

TPW.... 2 History Began with a 1998 grant to CIRA to use AMSU... Microwave Sounding Unit. Weather and Forecasting, 15, 476-483. 12;22 Jan 2007 Blended TPW.... 3 ... Source:...

323

A Review of Chromatographic Characterization Techniques for Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......June 2011 385 I. General References Several...presence can impact engine performance and emissions...method Outline I. General References. II...of B100 Content of Diesel Blends VI. Determination...esters (FAME) for diesel engines--Requirements......

R. E. Pauls

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Blended Straight-Run Gasolines with Composite Additives Containing Watery Ethanol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cranking and antiknock properties of gasoline-alcohol blends based on straight-run gasoline with additives containing watery ethanol and other ... components are studied. The composition of the gasoline-alcohol b...

Yu. O. Beiko; A. P. Pavlovskii; O. A. Beiko

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Formulation, Grade, Sales Type U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Formulation, Grade, Sales Type Definitions Key Terms Definition Bulk Sales Wholesale sales of gasoline in individual transactions which exceed the size of a truckload. Conventional Finished motor gasoline not included in the oxygenated or reformulated gasoline categories. Excludes reformulated gasoline blendstock for oxygenate blending (RBOB) as well as other blendstock. Dealer Tank Wagon Sales (DTW) Wholesale sales of gasoline priced on a delivered basis to a retail outlet. Gas Plant Operator Any firm, including a gas plant owner, which operates a gas plant and keeps the gas plant records. A gas plant is a facility in which natural gas liquids are separated from natural gas or in which natural gas liquids are fractionated or otherwise separated into natural gas liquid products or both. For the purposes of this survey, gas plant operator data are contained in the refiner categories.

326

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Motor Gasoline Prices by Formulation, Grade, Sales Type Motor Gasoline Prices by Formulation, Grade, Sales Type Definitions Key Terms Definition Bulk Sales Wholesale sales of gasoline in individual transactions which exceed the size of a truckload. Conventional Finished motor gasoline not included in the oxygenated or reformulated gasoline categories. Excludes reformulated gasoline blendstock for oxygenate blending (RBOB) as well as other blendstock. Dealer Tank Wagon Sales (DTW) Wholesale sales of gasoline priced on a delivered basis to a retail outlet. Gas Plant Operator Any firm, including a gas plant owner, which operates a gas plant and keeps the gas plant records. A gas plant is a facility in which natural gas liquids are separated from natural gas or in which natural gas liquids are fractionated or otherwise separated into natural gas liquid products or both. For the purposes of this survey, gas plant operator data are contained in the refiner categories.

327

Blending high sulfer coal with refuse derived fuel to make SO{sub 2} compliant slurry fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The need for a better method of disposing of the international community`s garbage hardly needs emphasizing. In 1993, the United States alone generated approximately 207 million ton per year of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), with 62% landfilled, 220/6 recycled, and 16% combusted for energy recovery. Despite strenuous efforts to make these disposal methods meet present needs, the cost of disposal is rising dramatically. Concurrently, the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 have severely restricted the SO{sub 2} emissions from coal fired boilers. Medium and high sulfur coals will not comply with the Phase II CAAA regulation limit of 1.2 lb SO{sub 2}/MM Btu, without advanced coal cleaning technologies or flue gas desulfurization, including the majority of the North Dakota lignite reserves. Utility power plants have attempted to burn refuse derived fuel (RDF), a heterogeneous solid fuel produced from MSW, with coal in utility scale boilers (generally referred to as co-firing). Co-firing of RDF with coal has been attempted in sixteen different boilers, five commercially. While lower SO{sub 2} emissions provided the impetus, co-firing RDF with coal suffered from several disadvantages including increased solids handling, increased excess air requirements, higher HCI, CO, NO{sub x} and chlorinated organic emissions, increased slag formation in the boiler, and higher fly ash resistivity. Currently, only two of the sixteen boilers are still regularly used to co-fire RDF. The overall objective of this research program was to assess the feasibility of blending RDF with lignite coal to form SO{sub 2} Compliant slurry fuels using EnerTech`s SlurryCarb{trademark} process. In particular, the objective was to overcome the difficulties of conventional co-firing. Blended slurry fuels were produced with the Energy & Environmental Research Center`s (EERC) bench-scale autoclave and were combusted in a pressurized fluidized-bed reactor (PFBR).

Klosky, M. [EnerTech Environmental, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States); Anderson, C. [Energy & Environmental Research Center, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

328

Development of Kinetics and Mathematical Models for High Pressure Gasification of Lignite-Switchgrass Blends  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Kinetics and Mathematical Kinetics and Mathematical Models for High Pressure Gasification of Lignite-Switchgrass Blends Background Significant progress has been made in recent years in controlling emissions resulting from coal-fired electricity generation in the United States through the research, development, and deployment of innovative technologies such as gasification. Gasification is a process that converts solid feedstocks such as coal, biomass, or blends

329

Empirical Study of the Stability of Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends: Milestone Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this work was to develop a database that supports specific proposals for a stability test and specification for biodiesel and biodiesel blends. B100 samples from 19 biodiesel producers were obtained in December of 2005 and January of 2006 and tested for stability. Eight of these samples were then selected for additional study, including long-term storage tests and blending at 5% and 20% with a number of ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels.

McCormick, R. L.; Westbrook, S. R.

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

A Study on Coal Properties and Combustion Characteristics of Blended Coals in Northwestern China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Because of the tight supply situation and rising price of coals, the actual coals used in coal-fired power plants of China are usually significantly different from the design coal, which may seriously deteriorate the safety and economy of power plants. ... Accurate prediction of coal characteristics of blended coals from those of individual coals is quite significant to ensure the reliable and economic operation of a blended-coal-fired power plant. ...

Chang’an Wang; Yinhe Liu; Xiaoming Zhang; Defu Che

2011-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

331

Reducing hazardous waste incinerator emissions through blending: A study of 1,1,1-trichloroethane injection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigate whether blending liquid hazardous wastes with hydrocarbons such as alkanes can improve the destruction efficiency and reduce the combustion byproduct levels in the post-flame region of a laboratory scale combustor. Outlet species concentrations are measured with an FTIR spectrometer for mixtures of 1,1,1-trichloroethane and 25% (by volume) dodecane or heptane injected as a spray of droplets. We also inject sprays of liquid pure 1,1,1-trichloroethane, gaseous pure 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and gaseous 1,1,1-trichloroethane with 25% (by volume) heptane. Once vaporized, the 1,1,1-trichloroethane decomposes to form CO{sub 2} and HCl through the intermediates 1,1-dichloroethylene, phosgene, acetylene, and carbon monoxide. The 1,1,1-trichloroethane/alkane mixtures also form the intermediate ethylene. No significant differences are observed between injecting the compounds as a droplet spray or as a gaseous jet, not as unexpected result as the mixing time of the gas jet is longer than the vaporization time of the droplets. The addition of heptane or dodecane to 1,1,1-trichloroethane produces two principal effects: an increase in ethylene, acetylene and carbon monoxide levels for injection temperatures between 950 to 1040 K, and a decrease in 1,1-dichloroethylene, phosgene, acetylene, and carbon monoxide levels for injection temperatures greater than 1050 K. Reaction of the injected alkane causes the former effect, while the additional heat of combustion of the alkane additives causes the latter. 17 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Thomson, M.; Koshland, C.P.; Sawyer, R.F. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)] [and others

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

332

NEXT GENERATION GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS STUDY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation has conducted a study of Next Generation Gas Turbine Systems that embraces the goals of the DOE's High Efficiency Engines and Turbines and Vision 21 programs. The Siemens Westinghouse Next Generation Gas Turbine (NGGT) Systems program was a 24-month study looking at the feasibility of a NGGT for the emerging deregulated distributed generation market. Initial efforts focused on a modular gas turbine using an innovative blend of proven technologies from the Siemens Westinghouse W501 series of gas turbines and new enabling technologies to serve a wide variety of applications. The flexibility to serve both 50-Hz and 60-Hz applications, use a wide range of fuels and be configured for peaking, intermediate and base load duty cycles was the ultimate goal. As the study progressed the emphasis shifted from a flexible gas turbine system of a specific size to a broader gas turbine technology focus. This shift in direction allowed for greater placement of technology among both the existing fleet and new engine designs, regardless of size, and will ultimately provide for greater public benefit. This report describes the study efforts and provides the resultant conclusions and recommendations for future technology development in collaboration with the DOE.

Benjamin C. Wiant; Ihor S. Diakunchak; Dennis A. Horazak; Harry T. Morehead

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Profit and policy implications of producing biodiesel–ethanol–diesel fuel blends to specification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A nonlinear optimization model is developed in this work to analyze biodiesel–ethanol–diesel (BED) ternary blending processes. The model establishes optimal blends to improve the system profitability given production costs, market demand, and fuel prices while meeting multiple property criteria such as kinematic viscosity, density, lower heating value, cloud point, cetane number, fuel stability and sulfur content. Pertinent fuel mixing rules for predicting the fuel properties of BED blends were extrapolated from previous works and applied as constraints to the present model. Several dynamic and/or uncertainty factors were explored in further depth to quantify their impacts on the fuel composition of BED blends including petro-diesel supply reduction, diesel production cost, diesel blends market retail price, and policy changes on bio-fuel subsidies. By examining key optimization sensitivity analysis such as shadow prices and opportunity costs, the crucial limits or constraints on fuel specifications can be identified and used to proactively identify and promote the development of potential additives. The model also suggests the government policy of simultaneously implementing bio-fuel tax credits and mandates may not have a higher contribution to promoting bio-fuel production than the case only with tax credits for the firms with the goal of profit maximization. The firms enable 5–8% increase of the optimal profit from BED blends by utilizing ethanol derived from food waste feedstocks instead of edible biomass.

Jiefeng Lin; Gabrielle Gaustad; Thomas A. Trabold

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Hybrid Dynamic Density Functional Theory for Polymer Melts and Blends  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We propose a high-speed and accurate hybrid dynamic density functional theory for the computer simulations of the phase separation processes of polymer melts and blends. The proposed theory is a combination of the dynamic self-consistent field (SCF) theory and a time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau type theory with the random phase approximation (GRPA). The SCF theory is known to be accurate in evaluating the free energy of the polymer systems in both weak and strong segregation regions although it has a disadvantage of the requirement of a considerable amount of computational cost. On the other hand, the GRPA theory has an advantage of much smaller amount of required computational cost than the SCF theory while its applicability is limited to the weak segregation region. To make the accuracy of the SCF theory and the high-performance of the GRPA theory compatible, we adjust the chemical potential of the GRPA theory by using the SCF theory every constant time steps in the dynamic simulations. The performance of the GRPA and the hybrid theories is tested by using several systems composed of an A/B homopolymer, an AB diblock copolymer, or an ABC triblock copolymer. Using the hybrid theory, we succeeded in reproducing the metastable complex phase-separated domain structures of an ABC triblock copolymer observed by experiments.

Takashi Honda; Toshihiro Kawakatsu

2006-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

335

A NMR-Based Carbon-Type Analysis of Diesel Fuel Blends From Various Sources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In collaboration with participants of the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Advanced Vehicle/Fuels/Lubricants (AVFL) Committee, and project AVFL-19, the characteristics of fuels from advanced and renewable sources were compared to commercial diesel fuels. The main objective of this study was to highlight similarities and differences among the fuel types, i.e. ULSD, renewables, and alternative fuels, and among fuels within the different fuel types. This report summarizes the carbon-type analysis from 1H and 13C{1H} nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) of 14 diesel fuel samples. The diesel fuel samples come from diverse sources and include four commercial ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels (ULSD), one gas-to-liquid diesel fuel (GTL), six renewable diesel fuels (RD), two shale oil-derived diesel fuels, and one oil sands-derived diesel fuel. Overall, the fuels examined fall into two groups. The two shale oil-derived samples and the oil-sand-derived sample closely resemble the four commercial ultra-low sulfur diesels, with SO1 and SO2 most closely matched with ULSD1, ULSD2, and ULSD4, and OS1 most closely matched with ULSD3. As might be expected, the renewable diesel fuels, with the exception of RD3, do not resemble the ULSD fuels because of their very low aromatic content, but more closely resemble the gas-to-liquid sample (GTL) in this respect. RD3 is significantly different from the other renewable diesel fuels in that the aromatic content more closely resembles the ULSD fuels. Fused-ring aromatics are readily observable in the ULSD, SO, and OS samples, as well as RD3, and are noticeably absent in the remaining RD and GTL fuels. Finally, ULSD3 differs from the other ULSD fuels by having a significantly lower aromatic carbon content and higher cycloparaffinic carbon content. In addition to providing important comparative compositional information regarding the various diesel fuels, this report also provides important information about the capabilities of NMR spectroscopy for the detailed characterization and comparison of fuels and fuel blends.

Bays, J. Timothy; King, David L.

2013-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

336

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

,366 ,366 95,493 1.08 0 0.00 1 0.03 29,406 0.56 1,206 0.04 20,328 0.64 146,434 0.73 - Natural Gas 1996 Million Percent of Million Percent of Cu. Feet National Total Cu. Feet National Total Net Interstate Movements: Industrial: Marketed Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Electric Residential: Utilities: Commercial: Total: South Carolina South Carolina 88. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas South Carolina, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ...........................................

337

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0,216 0,216 50,022 0.56 135 0.00 49 1.67 85,533 1.63 8,455 0.31 45,842 1.45 189,901 0.95 - Natural Gas 1996 Million Percent of Million Percent of Cu. Feet National Total Cu. Feet National Total Net Interstate Movements: Industrial: Marketed Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Electric Residential: Utilities: Commercial: Total: M a r y l a n d Maryland 68. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Maryland, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... NA NA NA NA NA Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 9 7 7 7 8 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 33 28 26 22 135 From Oil Wells ...........................................

338

Tailoring key fuel properties of diesel–biodiesel–ethanol blends for diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Alternative fuel research for the profusely growing number of diesel run automotive has intensified due to environmental reasons and turmoil in petroleum market. Government initiatives all around the world, their energy policies and steps to emphasis the use of biodiesel; proved biodiesel as a number one renewable substitute for No. 2 diesel fuels. Among all biodiesel feedstock, palm oil is a potential source with higher yield rate without much fertilizer use especially in tropical region. However, the application of transesterified palm biodiesel is objected by many auto-manufacturers due to adverse effects on engine in long term operation. The aim of this study was to modify the key fuel properties of palm biodiesel which causes engine fouling in long term operation. A significant amount of work is devoted to mix biodiesel and diesel at arbitrary percentages and test engine performance. Numerous fuel additives are developed for biodiesels automotive use. In this study, chemical properties of biodiesel are tailored by ethanol and an optimum formulation is derived mathematically. Ethanol is used at a controlled proportion (6%) with palm oil methyl ester (POME) as additive to reduce the higher viscosity of POME. This optimum palm biodiesel–ethanol blend was mixed at varying proportions (i.e. 0–30%) with No. 2 diesel to produce ternary blends of diesel–palm biodiesel–ethanol. Cold flow properties (such as, could point, pour point) of these ternary blends has improved and minute percentage of ethanol adding did not adversely affect the oxidation stability and corrosiveness of the fuel blend. Ethanol has significantly reduces the flash point, but the flammability of ternary blends is classified as Class II; similar to that of diesel. Cetane number is reduced in ternary blends by ethanol. So, palm biodiesel with minute percentage of anhydrous ethanol as additive in the ternary blend significantly improved key fuel properties significantly.

Md. Jayed Hussan; Masjuki Hj. Hassan; Md. Abul Kalam; Liaquat Ali Memon

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Degradation studies on acid–base blends for both LT and intermediate T fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this study the ex-situ and in-situ behavior of acid–base blend membranes from sulfonated polyethersulfone and a partially fluorinated sulfonated polymer (prepared by condensation of decafluorobipenyl with bisphenol AF, followed by sulfonation of the obtained polymer) and two different polybenzmidazoles (F6-PBI and PBIOO®) was investigated. Two types of acid–base blend membranes from the abovementioned polymers were prepared and characterized: acid–base blend membranes with a molar excess of acidic blend component for low-T H2 fuel cells (LT-FC) where the proton conductivity is overtaken by the sulfonic acid groups, and blend membranes comprising a molar excess of basic blend component which were subsequently doped with phosphoric acid for the usage in intermediate-T H2 fuel cells (IT-FC) where the network of phosphoric acid molecules in the membrane provides the proton conduction. For elucidation of the radical stability of the membranes, the membranes were subjected to Fenton's Reagent and were operated in a H2-PEMFC. After these tests, the membranes were investigated via SEC for molecular weight degradation. As a result, correlations could be found between degradation of the blend membranes in the fuel cell and after Fenton's test. Moreover, at IT-FC membranes, a correlation could be found between doping degree and fuel cell performance which are discussed in this paper. One of the membranes, a H3PO4-doped base-excess membrane from sPSU and PBIOO showed an excellent performance in an IT-FC at 180 °C of 0.85 A/cm2@0.5 V without pressurization of the reactant gases.

A. Chromik; J.A. Kerres

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Synthesis and Characterization of Surface Relaxations of Macrocyclic Polystyrenes and Interfacial Segregation in Blends with Linear Polystyrenes.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The effects of a topology with no chain ends on interfacial segregation in binary polymer blends and the surface fluctuations of films of macrocycles were… (more)

Wang, Shih-fan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas reformulated blended" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

,"Missouri Natural Gas Summary"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas Wells (MMcf)","Missouri Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Oil Wells (MMcf)","Missouri Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)","Missouri Natural...

342

SAVANNAH RIVER SITE INCIPIENT SLUDGE MIXING IN RADIOACTIVE LIQUID WASTE STORAGE TANKS DURING SALT SOLUTION BLENDING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper is the second in a series of four publications to document ongoing pilot scale testing and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of mixing processes in 85 foot diameter, 1.3 million gallon, radioactive liquid waste, storage tanks at Savannah River Site (SRS). Homogeneous blending of salt solutions is required in waste tanks. Settled solids (i.e., sludge) are required to remain undisturbed on the bottom of waste tanks during blending. Suspension of sludge during blending may potentially release radiolytically generated hydrogen trapped in the sludge, which is a safety concern. The first paper (Leishear, et. al. [1]) presented pilot scale blending experiments of miscible fluids to provide initial design requirements for a full scale blending pump. Scaling techniques for an 8 foot diameter pilot scale tank were also justified in that work. This second paper describes the overall reasons to perform tests, and documents pilot scale experiments performed to investigate disturbance of sludge, using non-radioactive sludge simulants. A third paper will document pilot scale CFD modeling for comparison to experimental pilot scale test results for both blending tests and sludge disturbance tests. That paper will also describe full scale CFD results. The final paper will document additional blending test results for stratified layers in salt solutions, scale up techniques, final full scale pump design recommendations, and operational recommendations. Specifically, this paper documents a series of pilot scale tests, where sludge simulant disturbance due to a blending pump or transfer pump are investigated. A principle design requirement for a blending pump is UoD, where Uo is the pump discharge nozzle velocity, and D is the nozzle diameter. Pilot scale test results showed that sludge was undisturbed below UoD = 0.47 ft{sup 2}/s, and that below UoD = 0.58 ft{sup 2}/s minimal sludge disturbance was observed. If sludge is minimally disturbed, hydrogen will not be released. Installation requirements were also determined for a transfer pump which will remove tank contents, and which is also required to not disturb sludge. Testing techniques and test results for both types of pumps are presented.

Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.; Lee, S.; Steeper, T.; Fowley, M.; Parkinson, K.

2011-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

343

Concentration fluctuations in miscible polymer blends: Influence of temperature and chain rigidity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In contrast to binary mixtures of small molecule fluids, homogeneous polymer blends exhibit relatively large concentration fluctuations that can strongly affect the transport properties of these complex fluids over wide ranges of temperatures and compositions. The spatial scale and intensity of these compositional fluctuations are studied by applying Kirkwood-Buff theory to model blends of linear semiflexible polymer chains with upper critical solution temperatures. The requisite quantities for determining the Kirkwood-Buff integrals are generated from the lattice cluster theory for the thermodynamics of the blend and from the generalization of the random phase approximation to compressible polymer mixtures. We explore how the scale and intensity of composition fluctuations in binary blends vary with the reduced temperature ? ? (T ? T{sub c})/T (where T{sub c} is the critical temperature) and with the asymmetry in the rigidities of the components. Knowledge of these variations is crucial for understanding the dynamics of materials fabricated from polymer blends, and evidence supporting these expectations is briefly discussed.

Dudowicz, Jacek; Freed, Karl F. [The James Franck Institute and the Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)] [The James Franck Institute and the Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Douglas, Jack F. [The James Franck Institute and the Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States) [The James Franck Institute and the Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

2014-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

344

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

68,747 68,747 34,577 0.39 0 0.00 34 1.16 14,941 0.29 0 0.00 11,506 0.36 61,058 0.31 I d a h o Idaho 60. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Idaho, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation.......................... 0 0 0 0 0 Vented

345

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0 0 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 540 0.01 0 0.00 2,132 0.07 2,672 0.01 H a w a i i Hawaii 59. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Hawaii, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation.......................... 0 0 0 0 0 Vented and Flared

346

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

483,052 483,052 136,722 1.54 6,006 0.03 88 3.00 16,293 0.31 283,557 10.38 41,810 1.32 478,471 2.39 F l o r i d a Florida 57. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Florida, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 47 50 98 92 96 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 7,584 8,011 8,468 7,133 6,706 Total.............................................................. 7,584 8,011 8,468 7,133 6,706 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ...............

347

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

291,898 291,898 113,995 1.29 0 0.00 4 0.14 88,078 1.68 3,491 0.13 54,571 1.73 260,140 1.30 I o w a Iowa 63. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Iowa, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation.......................... 0 0 0

348

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Vehicle Fuel: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Electric Residential: Utilities: Commercial: Total: New England New England 36. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas New England, 1992-1996 Table 691,089 167,354 1.89 0 0.00 40 1.36 187,469 3.58 80,592 2.95 160,761 5.09 596,215 2.98 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................

349

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

29,693 29,693 0 0.00 0 0.00 6 0.20 17,290 0.33 0 0.00 16,347 0.52 33,644 0.17 District of Columbia District of Columbia 56. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas District of Columbia, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation..........................

350

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

42,980 42,980 14,164 0.16 0 0.00 1 0.03 9,791 0.19 23,370 0.86 6,694 0.21 54,020 0.27 D e l a w a r e Delaware 55. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Delaware, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation..........................

351

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

-49,536 -49,536 7,911 0.09 49,674 0.25 15 0.51 12,591 0.24 3 0.00 12,150 0.38 32,670 0.16 North Dakota North Dakota 82. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas North Dakota, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 496 525 507 463 462 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 104 101 104 99 108 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 12,461 18,892 19,592 16,914 16,810 From Oil Wells ........................................... 47,518 46,059 43,640 39,760 38,906 Total.............................................................. 59,979 64,951 63,232 56,674 55,716 Repressuring ................................................

352

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

21,547 21,547 4,916 0.06 0 0.00 0 0.00 7,012 0.13 3 0.00 7,099 0.22 19,031 0.10 N e w H a m p s h i r e New Hampshire 77. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas New Hampshire, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation..........................

353

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

139,881 139,881 26,979 0.30 463 0.00 115 3.92 27,709 0.53 19,248 0.70 28,987 0.92 103,037 0.52 A r i z o n a Arizona 50. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Arizona, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... NA NA NA NA NA Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 6 6 6 7 7 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 721 508 711 470 417 From Oil Wells ........................................... 72 110 48 88 47 Total.............................................................. 794 618 759 558 464 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease

354

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Middle Middle Atlantic Middle Atlantic 37. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Middle Atlantic, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 1,857 1,981 2,042 1,679 1,928 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 36,906 36,857 26,180 37,159 38,000 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 161,372 152,717 140,444 128,677 152,494 From Oil Wells ........................................... 824 610 539 723 641 Total.............................................................. 162,196 153,327 140,982 129,400 153,134 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed

355

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

386,690 386,690 102,471 1.16 0 0.00 43 1.47 142,319 2.72 5,301 0.19 98,537 3.12 348,671 1.74 M i n n e s o t a Minnesota 71. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Minnesota, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation..........................

356

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1,108,583 1,108,583 322,275 3.63 298 0.00 32 1.09 538,749 10.28 25,863 0.95 218,054 6.90 1,104,972 5.52 I l l i n o i s Illinois 61. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Illinois, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... NA NA NA NA NA Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 382 385 390 372 370 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 337 330 323 325 289 From Oil Wells ........................................... 10 10 10 10 9 Total.............................................................. 347 340 333 335 298 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ...............

357

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

286,485 286,485 71,533 0.81 25 0.00 31 1.06 137,225 2.62 5,223 0.19 72,802 2.31 286,814 1.43 M i s s o u r i Missouri 73. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Missouri, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... NA NA NA NA NA Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 5 8 12 15 24 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 27 14 8 16 25 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 27 14 8 16 25 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation..........................

358

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

411,951 411,951 100,015 1.13 0 0.00 5 0.17 114,365 2.18 45,037 1.65 96,187 3.05 355,609 1.78 Massachusetts Massachusetts 69. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Massachusetts, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation..........................

359

Gas vesicles.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...in the suspending water, of concentration...MPa and balances the atmospheric pressure. Note that...versely, liquid water could not form by condensation inside the gas vesicle...presumably surrounded by water on all sides. At...

A E Walsby

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

226,798 226,798 104,124 1.17 0 0.00 0 0.00 58,812 1.12 2,381 0.09 40,467 1.28 205,783 1.03 North Carolina North Carolina 81. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas North Carolina, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation..........................

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas reformulated blended" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Chapter 13 - Substitute Natural Gas and Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Publisher Summary This chapter presents the direct conversion of syngas to hydrocarbons, either substitute natural gas, or higher hydrocarbons via the Fischer–Tropsch synthesis. Substitute natural gas (SNG), also known as synthetic natural gas, is methane that is formed during gasification. The syngas generally contain carbon dioxide that can be hydrogenated to produce methane. Fischer–Tropsch (FT) synthesis is a polymerization reaction. An alkane chain, absorbed on a catalyst site, reacts with carbon monoxide and hydrogen to add a methyl unit (CH2). The heat of reaction per methyl group, estimated from the gas phase heat of formation for dodecane, is –155.5 kJ/mole. This heat of reaction is about 20% of the heat of combustion of the feed gases. FT diesel fuel, due to its high alkane content, has very high cetane numbers. Blends of FT and conventional diesel are sold as premium products in Europe. Normal alkanes, however, have high melting points compared to branched or cyclic hydrocarbons. An FT diesel produced simply by distilling an FT fluid would have poor low temperature properties. Most FT diesel, however, is not simply an FT fluid distillation product, but a blend of this distillation product and products of hydrocracked FT wax.

David A Bell; Brian F Towler; Maohong Fan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Impact of thermal barrier coating application on the combustion, performance and emissions of a diesel engine fueled with waste cooking oil biodiesel–diesel blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Biodiesel fuel was produced from waste cooking oil by transesterification process. B20 and B50 blends of biodiesel–petroleum diesel were prepared. These blends and D2 fuels were tested in a single cylinder CI engine. Performance, combustion and emission values of the engine running with the mentioned fuels were recorded. Then the piston and both exhaust and intake valves of the test engine were coated with layers of ceramic materials. The mentioned parts were coated with 100 ?m of NiCrAl as lining layer. Later the same parts were coated with 400 ?m material of coating that was the mixture of 88% of ZrO2, 4% of MgO and 8% of Al2O3. After the engine coating process, the same fuels were tested in the coated engine at the same operation condition. Finally, the same engine out parameters were obtained and compared with those of uncoated engine parameters in order to find out how this modification would change the combustion, performance and emission parameters. Results showed that the modification of the engine with coating process resulted in better performance, especially in considerably lower brake specific fuel consumption (Bsfc) values. Besides, emissions of the engine were lowered both through coating process and biodiesel usage excluding the nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission. In addition, the results of the coated engine are better than the uncoated one in terms of cylinder gas pressure, heat release rate (HRR) and heat release (HR).

Selman Ayd?n; Cenk Say?n

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Combustion and emissions characteristics of high n-butanol/diesel ratio blend in a heavy-duty diesel engine and EGR impact  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this work, the combustion and emission fundamentals of high n-butanol/diesel ratio blend with 40% butanol (i.e., Bu40) in a heavy-duty diesel engine were investigated by experiment and simulation at constant engine speed of 1400 rpm and an IMEP of 1.0 MPa. Additionally, the impact of EGR was evaluated experimentally and compared with neat diesel fuel (i.e., Bu00). The results show that Bu40 has higher cylinder pressure, longer ignition delay, and faster burning rate than Bu00. Compared with Bu00, moreover, Bu40 has higher \\{NOx\\} due to wider combustion high-temperature region, lower soot due to local lower equivalence ratio distribution, and higher CO due to lower gas temperature in the late expansion process. For Bu40, EGR reduces \\{NOx\\} emissions dramatically with no obvious influence on soot. Meanwhile, there is no significant change in HC and CO emissions and indicated thermal efficiency (ITE) with EGR until EGR threshold is reached. When EGR rate exceeds the threshold level, HC and CO emissions increase dramatically, and ITE decreases markedly. Compared with Bu00, the threshold of Bu40 appears at lower EGR rate. Consequently, combining high butanol/diesel ratio blend with medium EGR has the potential to achieve ultra-low \\{NOx\\} and soot emissions simultaneously while maintaining high thermal efficiency level.

Zheng Chen; Zhenkuo Wu; Jingping Liu; Chiafon Lee

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Acid Based Blend Membranes for Redox Flow Batteries - Alan Cisar, Lynntech  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Acid Based Blend Membranes for Redox Flow Batteries Acid Based Blend Membranes for Redox Flow Batteries DOE Grant No: DE-SC0006306 Alan Cisar* and Chris Rhodes Lynntech, Inc., 2501 Earl Rudder Freeway South, College Station, TX 77845 *E-mail: alan.cisar@lynntech.com, Phone: 979.764.2311 Prof. Arumugam Manthiram University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 Prof. Fuqiang Liu University of Texas Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 Conclusions Lynntech, in conjunction with the University of Texas and the University of Texas at Arlington, developed a new series of low-cost polymer blend membranes with high proton conductivity and ultralow vanadium ion permeability. The proton conductivity and physical properties of these membranes are tunable by adjusting the ratio of acid and base components. Membrane conductivity was found to be more critical to

365

Citizens Advisory Board's Eco Fair Blends Fun and Facts for Schoolchildren  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Citizens Advisory Board's Eco Fair Blends Fun and Facts for Citizens Advisory Board's Eco Fair Blends Fun and Facts for Schoolchildren near Paducah Site Citizens Advisory Board's Eco Fair Blends Fun and Facts for Schoolchildren near Paducah Site June 1, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Lone Oak Middle School sixth-graders pet a mallard hen at the third annual Eco Fair May 15 in West Kentucky Wildlife Management Area. Lone Oak Middle School sixth-graders pet a mallard hen at the third annual Eco Fair May 15 in West Kentucky Wildlife Management Area. Ralph Young of Recycle Now! explains to Eco Fair attendees the value of recycling. Young is chairman of the Paducah Citizens Advisory Board, which advises the Department of Energy regarding cleanup issues at the Paducah site. Ralph Young of Recycle Now! explains to Eco Fair attendees the value of

366

The effects of blending hydrogen with methane on engine operation, efficiency, and emissions  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

-01-0474 -01-0474 The effects of blending hydrogen with methane on engine operation, efficiency, and emissions Thomas Wallner and Henry K. Ng Argonne National Laboratory Robert W. Peters University of Alabama at Birmingham Copyright © 2007 SAE International ABSTRACT Hydrogen is considered one of the most promising future energy carriers and transportation fuels. Because of the lack of a hydrogen infrastructure and refueling stations, widespread introduction of vehicles powered by pure hydrogen is not likely in the near future. Blending hydrogen with methane could be one solution. Such blends take advantage of the unique combustion properties of hydrogen and, at the same time, reduce the demand for pure hydrogen. In this paper, the authors analyze the combustion properties of hydrogen/methane

367

Performance of a direct diesel engine using aviation fuels blended with biodiesel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, jet fuel (JF) and railroad fuel (D2) with SME blends (5%, 20%, 50%) were used in a four-cylinder, naturally aspirated, direct (DI) diesel engine. The engine was operated under full load and tested at various speeds to determine the engine's performance and exhaust emission characteristics. The experimental results show that as the SME ratio of the fuels increases, the break specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and exhaust temperature increase; the SME and its blends show a slight drop in engine performance. In this experiment, carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and smoke opacity values were measured for each fuel. The results of the emission tests revealed that the oxygen content of SME provided a significant reduction in CO and smoke opacity emissions. However, when the test engine was fuelled by SME and its blends, NOx emissions increased.

Burak Gökalp; Hakan Serhad Soyhan; Halil ?brahim Sarac

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

The relationship between the thermoplastic behavior of blends and their component coals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The thermoplastic behaviors of a number of coking coal blends were measured using proton magnetic resonance thermal analysis (PMRTA) to determine to what extent they were affected by interactions between the component coals. Most blends showed evidence that at temperatures near their temperatures of maximum fluidity the extent to which they fused was different to that expected if the coals did not interact. Only blends of coking coals of different rank fused to a greater extent than expected in the absence of interactions. Semi-anthracite, low rank coals and charcoal reduced the extent of fusion of coking coals to values below those expected if they were acting as inert diluents. These interactions are interpreted as being mediated by transfer of volatile material between the coals on heating.

Sakurovs, R.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Citizens Advisory Board's Eco Fair Blends Fun and Facts for Schoolchildren  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Citizens Advisory Board's Eco Fair Blends Fun and Facts for Citizens Advisory Board's Eco Fair Blends Fun and Facts for Schoolchildren near Paducah Site Citizens Advisory Board's Eco Fair Blends Fun and Facts for Schoolchildren near Paducah Site June 1, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Lone Oak Middle School sixth-graders pet a mallard hen at the third annual Eco Fair May 15 in West Kentucky Wildlife Management Area. Lone Oak Middle School sixth-graders pet a mallard hen at the third annual Eco Fair May 15 in West Kentucky Wildlife Management Area. Ralph Young of Recycle Now! explains to Eco Fair attendees the value of recycling. Young is chairman of the Paducah Citizens Advisory Board, which advises the Department of Energy regarding cleanup issues at the Paducah site. Ralph Young of Recycle Now! explains to Eco Fair attendees the value of

370

Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from those exceeding the GHG target. Table: Summary ofBiofuel blending mandates. Low GHG fuel standards. Carbonpetroleum fuels. Use of lower GHG content fossil fuels (eg

Lutsey, Nicholas P.; Sperling, Dan

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Sample Results From The Extraction, Scrub, And Strip Test For The Blended NGS Solvent  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of the extraction, scrub, and strip testing for the September 2013 sampling of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) Blended solvent from the Modular Caustic Side-Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Solvent Hold Tank. MCU is in the process of transitioning from the BOBCalixC6 solvent to the NGS Blend solvent. As part of that transition, MCU has intentionally created a blended solvent to be processed using the Salt Batch program. This sample represents the first sample received from that blended solvent. There were two ESS tests performed where NGS blended solvent performance was assessed using either the Tank 21 material utilized in the Salt Batch 7 analyses or a simulant waste material used in the V-5/V-10 contactor testing. This report tabulates the temperature corrected cesium distribution, or DCs values, step recovery percentage, and actual temperatures recorded during the experiment. This report also identifies the sample receipt date, preparation method, and analysis performed in the accumulation of the listed values. The calculated extraction DCs values using the Tank 21H material and simulant are 59.4 and 53.8, respectively. The DCs values for two scrub and three strip processes for the Tank 21 material are 4.58, 2.91, 0.00184, 0.0252, and 0.00575, respectively. The D-values for two scrub and three strip processes for the simulant are 3.47, 2.18, 0.00468, 0.00057, and 0.00572, respectively. These values are similar to previous measurements of Salt Batch 7 feed with lab-prepared blended solvent. These numbers are considered compatible to allow simulant testing to be completed in place of actual waste due to the limited availability of feed material.

Washington, A. L. II; Peters, T. B.

2014-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

372

Petroleum Supply Annual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5.PDF 5.PDF Table 35. Refinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural Gas Plant Stocks of Selected Petroleum Products by PAD District and State, January 2012 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity Motor Gasoline Motor Gasoline Blending Components Kerosene Reformulated Conventional Total Reformulated Conventional Total PAD District 1 ............................................ 244 3,987 4,231 16,344 28,462 44,806 1,585 Connecticut ............................................. - - - 927 - 927 28 Delaware ................................................ - - - 887 652 1,539 148 District of Columbia ................................ - - - - - - - Florida ..................................................... - 978 978 - 5,532 5,532 - Georgia ................................................... - 370 370 - 2,767 2,767 20 Maine ......................................................

373

untitled  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Refinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural Gas Plant Stocks of Selected Petroleum Products by PAD District and State, 2012 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity Motor Gasoline Motor Gasoline Blending Components Kerosene Reformulated Conventional Total Reformulated Conventional Total PAD District 1 ............................................ 28 3,485 3,513 12,415 24,530 36,945 1,158 Connecticut ............................................. - - - 1,075 - 1,075 5 Delaware ................................................ - - - 692 755 1,447 106 District of Columbia ................................ - - - - - - - Florida ..................................................... - 747 747 - 4,523 4,523 - Georgia ................................................... - 220 220 4 2,600 2,604 14 Maine ......................................................

374

Small-Angle X-ray Scattering from Blends of PE and SBS. Observation of a Novel Kind of Deviation from Porod's Law  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the SAXS of modified poly(ethylene) (blends) a peculiar and reproducible deviation from Porod's law is found. The strength of this effect is a function of blend composition.

Stribeck, N.

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Properties Investigation of Sulfonated Poly(ether ether ketone)/Polyacrylonitrile Acid–Base Blend Membrane for Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Application  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Acid–base blend membrane prepared from sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) was detailedly evaluated for vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) application. SPEEK/PAN blend membrane exhibited dense and homogeneous cross-...

Zhaohua Li; Wenjing Dai; Lihong Yu; Le Liu; Jingyu Xi; Xinping Qiu; Liquan Chen

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

376

Numerical Model Investigation for Potential Methane Explosion and Benzene Vapor Intrusion Associated with High-Ethanol Blend  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Associated with High-Ethanol Blend Releases Jie Ma, Hong Luo, George E. DeVaull,§ William G. Rixey, and Pedro ABSTRACT: Ethanol-blended fuel releases usually stimulate methanogenesis in the subsurface, which could conditions exist. Ethanol- derived methane may also increase the vapor intrusion potential of toxic fuel

Alvarez, Pedro J.

377

Effects of the blends containing low ratios of alternative fuels on the performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The aim of this study is to experimentally investigate the effects of blends containing various alternative fuels and diesel fuel on the performance and emissions of a diesel engine. The considered parameters are brake power, specific fuel consumption and thermal efficiency as well as carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxide emissions. Blends of biodiesel, ethanol, methanol and vegetable oil with diesel fuel, each containing 15% alternative fuel in volume, were prepared. Then, these blends were tested in a naturally aspirated, direct injection diesel engine. The test results obtained with these blends were compared with those obtained with diesel fuel. It was found that the tested blends yielded usually different performance and emission characteristics compared to diesel fuel. The biodiesel blend resulted in performance parameters very close to those obtained in the use of diesel fuel. Ethanol and methanol blends yielded lower brake power, while they resulted in higher specific fuel consumption and lower carbon monoxide emissions. On the other hand, the vegetable oil blend yielded lower carbon monoxide emissions, while it caused only slight changes in the performance parameters.

Murat Karabektas; Gokhan Ergen; Murat Hosoz

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Photo-Curable Polymer Blend Dielectrics for Advancing Organic Field-Effect Transistor Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A solution method of photo-curable and -patternable polymer gate dielectrics was introduced by using blend solutions of poly(4-dimethylsilyl styrene) (PDMSS) and poly(melamine-co-formaldehyde) acrylate (PMFA). The fabrication was optimized to produce a smooth hydrophobic gate dielectric with good insulating and solvent-resistant properties. On the optimized PDMSS/PMFA blend gate dielectric, pentacene could grow into highly ordered structure, showing high electric performances for the resulting OFETs, as well as PTCDI-C13 and TES-ADT.

S Kim; K Hong; M Jang; J Jang; J Anthony; H Yang; C Park

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

379

Surface-induced First Order Transition in Athermal Polymer/Nanoparticle Blends  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the phase behavior of athermal polymer/nanoparticle blends near a hard substrate. We apply the density functional theory of Tripathi and Chapman to these blends. We find a first order phase transition where the nanoparticles expel the polymer from the surface to form a monolayer. The transition density depends on the polymer length and the system bulk density. The effect is due to the packing entropy of the species and configurational entropy of the polymer. The simplicity of the system allows us to understand the so-called ``entropic-push'' observed in experiments.

E. S. McGarrity; A. L. Frischknecht; L. J. D. Frink; M. E. Mackay

2007-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

380

Prediction of metallurgical coke strength from the petrographic composition of coal blends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Turkey, especially Zonguldak on the West Coast of Black Sea region, has large reserves of bituminous coal that can be used either directly or in blends with other coals for metallurgical coke production. It is possible to predict the coking properties of these coals by petrographic analysis. In this study, semi- and non-coking coals were blended with coking bituminous coals in varying proportions and an estimation was made as to their stability factors through petrographic techniques. It was established that semi- and non-coking bituminous coals could be used in the production of metallurgical coke.

Sutcu, H.; Toroglu, I.; Piskin, S. [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas reformulated blended" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Ground Gas Handbook  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...pathways of least resistance to gas transport, and applications are discussed, such as migrating landfill gas emissions, also from leaking landfill gas collection systems, as well as natural gas and oil-field gas leakage from abandoned production...

Allen W Hatheway

382

Gas Delivered  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

. Average . Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential Consumers, 1980-1996 Figure 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 40 80 120 160 200 240 280 320 Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet Dollars per Thousand Cubic Meters Nominal Dollars Constant Dollars Sources: Nominal dollars: Energy Information Administration (EIA), Form EIA-176, "Annual Report of Natural and Supplemental Gas Supply and Disposition." Constant dollars: Prices were converted to 1995 dollars using the chain-type price indexes for Gross Domestic Product (1992 = 1.0) as published by the U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis. Residential: Prices in this publication for the residential sector cover nearly all of the volumes of gas delivered. Commercial and Industrial: Prices for the commercial and industrial sectors are often associated with

383

Comparison of blends of conventional diesel fuel and CRBO containing high levels of FFA in a DI diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This work attempts to analyse the ability of high free fatty acid (FFA) crude rice bran oil (CRBO) in replacing diesel partially in a compression ignition (CI) engine. It was observed that the delay period and the maximum rate of pressure rise for CRBO blends are lower than diesel and is almost inversely proportional to FFA content. Maximum heat release rate for CRBO blends are lower and occur earlier than that of diesel. CRBO blends require longer duration to release 90% of heat than diesel and it decreases with increase in FFA content of CRBO. When operating with CRBO blends, all emission parameters were decreased significantly with a marginal increase in CO emission than that of diesel without affecting the brake thermal efficiency of the engine. It is concluded that higher FFA of CRBO blends does not inhibit its ability to be utilised as a fuel in CI engines.

S. Saravanan; G. Lakshmi Narayana Rao; S. Sampath; G. Nagarajan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Thermochemical and trace element behavior of coal gangue, agricultural biomass and their blends during co-combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The thermal decomposition behavior of coal gangue, peanut shell, wheat straw and their blends during combustion were determined via thermogravimetric analysis. The coal gangue/agricultural biomass blends were prepared in four weight ratios and oxidized under dynamic conditions from room temperature to 1000 °C by various heating rates. Kinetic models were carried out to evaluate the thermal reactivity. The overall mass balance was performed to assess the partition behavior of coal gangue, peanut shell and their blends during combustion in a fixed bed reactor. The decomposition processes of agricultural biomass included evaporation, release of volatile matter and combustion as well as char oxidation. The thermal reactivity of coal gangue could be improved through the addition of agricultural biomass in suitable proportion and subsequent appropriate heating rate during combustion. In combination with the heating value and base/acid ratio limitations, a blending ratio of 30% agricultural biomass is conservatively selected as optimum blending.

Chuncai Zhou; Guijian Liu; Siwei Cheng; Ting Fang; Paul Kwan Sing Lam

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Compressed Natural Gas and Hydrogen Fuels  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Compressed Natural Gas and Hydrogen Fuels Workshop Compressed Natural Gas and Hydrogen Fuels Workshop Fuel experts from China, India, and the United States shared lessons learned about deploying CNG- and hydrogen-fueled vehicles in public transit fleets and the consumer sector at the Compressed Natural Gas and Hydrogen Fuels: Lessons Learned for the Safe Deployment of Vehicles workshop. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) hosted the workshop on December 10-11, 2009. Here you'll find information about the workshop's focus, agenda and notes, and presentations. Some of the following documents are available as Adobe Acrobat PDFs. Download Adobe Reader. Focus of the Workshop The workshop aimed to: Compare fuel properties-including blends-industries, and applications (e.g., product specifications, tanks, reliability, safety procedures, risk mitigation, and dispensing)

386

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

73,669 73,669 141,300 1.59 221,822 1.12 3 0.10 46,289 0.88 33,988 1.24 31,006 0.98 252,585 1.26 A r k a n s a s Arkansas 51. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Arkansas, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 1,750 1,552 1,607 1,563 1,470 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 3,500 3,500 3,500 3,988 4,020 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 171,543 166,273 161,967 161,390 182,895 From Oil Wells ........................................... 39,364 38,279 33,446 33,979 41,551 Total.............................................................. 210,906 204,552 195,413 195,369 224,446 Repressuring ................................................

387

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

-1,080,240 -1,080,240 201,024 2.27 1,734,887 8.78 133 4.54 76,629 1.46 136,436 4.99 46,152 1.46 460,373 2.30 O k l a h o m a Oklahoma 84. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Oklahoma, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 13,926 13,289 13,487 13,438 13,074 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 28,902 29,118 29,121 29,733 29,733 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 1,674,405 1,732,997 1,626,858 1,521,857 1,467,695 From Oil Wells ........................................... 342,950 316,945 308,006 289,877 267,192 Total.............................................................. 2,017,356 2,049,942 1,934,864

388

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7,038,115 7,038,115 3,528,911 39.78 13,646,477 69.09 183 6.24 408,861 7.80 1,461,718 53.49 281,452 8.91 5,681,125 28.40 West South Central West South Central 42. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas West South Central, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 87,198 84,777 88,034 88,734 62,357 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 92,212 95,288 94,233 102,525 102,864 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 11,599,913 11,749,649 11,959,444 11,824,788 12,116,665 From Oil Wells ........................................... 2,313,831 2,368,395 2,308,634 2,217,752 2,151,247 Total..............................................................

389

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

77,379 77,379 94,481 1.07 81,435 0.41 8 0.27 70,232 1.34 1,836 0.07 40,972 1.30 207,529 1.04 K e n t u c k y Kentucky 65. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Kentucky, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 1,084 1,003 969 1,044 983 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 12,483 12,836 13,036 13,311 13,501 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 79,690 86,966 73,081 74,754 81,435 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 79,690 86,966 73,081 74,754 81,435 Repressuring ................................................

390

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

-67,648 -67,648 75,616 0.85 480,828 2.43 0 0.00 16,720 0.32 31,767 1.16 29,447 0.93 153,549 0.77 Pacific Noncontiguous Pacific Noncontiguous 45. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Pacific Noncontiguous, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 9,638 9,907 9,733 9,497 9,294 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 112 113 104 100 102 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 198,603 190,139 180,639 179,470 183,747 From Oil Wells ........................................... 2,427,110 2,588,202 2,905,261 3,190,433 3,189,837 Total.............................................................. 2,625,713 2,778,341

391

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

-310,913 -310,913 110,294 1.24 712,796 3.61 2 0.07 85,376 1.63 22,607 0.83 57,229 1.81 275,508 1.38 K a n s a s Kansas 64. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Kansas, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 9,681 9,348 9,156 8,571 7,694 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 18,400 19,472 19,365 22,020 21,388 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 580,572 605,578 628,900 636,582 629,755 From Oil Wells ........................................... 79,169 82,579 85,759 86,807 85,876 Total.............................................................. 659,741 688,157 714,659 723,389 715,631 Repressuring ................................................

392

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

819,046 819,046 347,043 3.91 245,740 1.24 40 1.36 399,522 7.62 32,559 1.19 201,390 6.38 980,555 4.90 M i c h i g a n Michigan 70. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Michigan, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 1,223 1,160 1,323 1,294 2,061 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 3,257 5,500 6,000 5,258 5,826 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 120,287 126,179 136,989 146,320 201,123 From Oil Wells ........................................... 80,192 84,119 91,332 97,547 50,281 Total.............................................................. 200,479 210,299 228,321 243,867 251,404 Repressuring ................................................

393

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

W W y o m i n g -775,410 50,253 0.57 666,036 3.37 14 0.48 13,534 0.26 87 0.00 9,721 0.31 73,609 0.37 Wyoming 98. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Wyoming, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 10,826 10,933 10,879 12,166 12,320 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 3,111 3,615 3,942 4,196 4,510 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 751,693 880,596 949,343 988,671 981,115 From Oil Wells ........................................... 285,125 142,006 121,519 111,442 109,434 Total.............................................................. 1,036,817 1,022,602 1,070,862 1,100,113 1,090,549 Repressuring

394

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

-67,648 -67,648 75,616 0.85 480,828 2.43 0 0.00 16,179 0.31 31,767 1.16 27,315 0.86 150,877 0.75 A l a s k a Alaska 49. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Alaska, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 9,638 9,907 9,733 9,497 9,294 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 112 113 104 100 102 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 198,603 190,139 180,639 179,470 183,747 From Oil Wells ........................................... 2,427,110 2,588,202 2,905,261 3,190,433 3,189,837 Total.............................................................. 2,625,713 2,778,341 3,085,900 3,369,904 3,373,584 Repressuring

395

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

628,189 628,189 449,511 5.07 765,699 3.88 100 3.41 528,662 10.09 39,700 1.45 347,721 11.01 1,365,694 6.83 West North Central West North Central 39. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas West North Central, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 10,177 9,873 9,663 9,034 8,156 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 18,569 19,687 19,623 22,277 21,669 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 594,551 626,728 651,594 655,917 648,822 From Oil Wells ........................................... 133,335 135,565 136,468 134,776 133,390 Total.............................................................. 727,886 762,293

396

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1,048,760 1,048,760 322,661 3.64 18,131 0.09 54 1.84 403,264 7.69 142,688 5.22 253,075 8.01 1,121,742 5.61 N e w Y o r k New York 80. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas New York, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 329 264 242 197 232 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 5,906 5,757 5,884 6,134 6,208 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 22,697 20,587 19,937 17,677 17,494 From Oil Wells ........................................... 824 610 539 723 641 Total.............................................................. 23,521 21,197 20,476 18,400 18,134 Repressuring ................................................

397

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1,554,530 1,554,530 311,229 3.51 3,094,431 15.67 442 15.08 299,923 5.72 105,479 3.86 210,381 6.66 927,454 4.64 Mountain Mountain 43. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Mountain, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 38,711 38,987 37,366 39,275 38,944 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 30,965 34,975 38,539 38,775 41,236 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 2,352,729 2,723,393 3,046,159 3,131,205 3,166,689 From Oil Wells ........................................... 677,771 535,884 472,397 503,986 505,903 Total.............................................................. 3,030,499 3,259,277 3,518,556

398

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1,592,465 1,592,465 716,648 8.08 239,415 1.21 182 6.21 457,792 8.73 334,123 12.23 320,153 10.14 1,828,898 9.14 South Atlantic South Atlantic 40. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas South Atlantic, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 3,307 3,811 4,496 4,427 4,729 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 39,412 35,149 41,307 37,822 36,827 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 206,766 208,892 234,058 236,072 233,409 From Oil Wells ........................................... 7,584 8,011 8,468 7,133 6,706 Total.............................................................. 214,349 216,903 242,526 243,204 240,115

399

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1,999,161 1,999,161 895,529 10.10 287,933 1.46 1,402 47.82 569,235 10.86 338,640 12.39 308,804 9.78 2,113,610 10.57 Pacific Contiguous Pacific Contiguous 44. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Pacific Contiguous, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 3,896 3,781 3,572 3,508 2,082 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 1,142 1,110 1,280 1,014 996 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 156,635 124,207 117,725 96,329 88,173 From Oil Wells ........................................... 294,800 285,162 282,227 289,430 313,581 Total.............................................................. 451,435 409,370

400

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

-122,394 -122,394 49,997 0.56 178,984 0.91 5 0.17 37,390 0.71 205 0.01 28,025 0.89 115,622 0.58 West Virginia West Virginia 96. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas West Virginia, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 2,356 2,439 2,565 2,499 2,703 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 38,250 33,716 39,830 36,144 35,148 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... E 182,000 171,024 183,773 186,231 178,984 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. E 182,000 171,024 183,773 186,231 178,984 Repressuring ................................................

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas reformulated blended" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Gas vesicles.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the gas vesicles simply reduce their sinking rates and...remaining suspended in the water column. A microorganism...phenomena as stratification, water- bloom formation, and...the many proteins that make up the phycobilisome (73...flagellate bacteria in natural waters. The natural selection...

A E Walsby

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Gas vesicles.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...these costs can be compared is in units of energy expenditure per time (joules per second...requires 7.24 x 10-18 kg of Gvp. The energy cost of making this protein, Eg, is...Eg = 2.84 x 101- o J. The rate of energy expenditure in gas vesicle synthesis then...

A E Walsby

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Gas sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas sensor is described which incorporates a sensor stack comprising a first film layer of a ferromagnetic material, a spacer layer, and a second film layer of the ferromagnetic material. The first film layer is fabricated so that it exhibits a dependence of its magnetic anisotropy direction on the presence of a gas, That is, the orientation of the easy axis of magnetization will flip from out-of-plane to in-plane when the gas to be detected is present in sufficient concentration. By monitoring the change in resistance of the sensor stack when the orientation of the first layer's magnetization changes, and correlating that change with temperature one can determine both the identity and relative concentration of the detected gas. In one embodiment the stack sensor comprises a top ferromagnetic layer two mono layers thick of cobalt deposited upon a spacer layer of ruthenium, which in turn has a second layer of cobalt disposed on its other side, this second cobalt layer in contact with a programmable heater chip.

Schmid, Andreas K.; Mascaraque, Arantzazu; Santos, Benito; de la Figuera, Juan

2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

404

Automated titration method for use on blended asphalts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for determining parameters and compatibility of a substance such as an asphalt or other petroleum substance uses titration to highly accurately determine one or more flocculation occurrences and is especially applicable to the determination or use of Heithaus parameters and optimal mixing of various asphalt stocks. In a preferred embodiment, automated titration in an oxygen gas exclusive system and further using spectrophotometric analysis (2-8) of solution turbidity is presented. A reversible titration technique enabling in-situ titration measurement of various solution concentrations is also presented.

Pauli, Adam T. (Cheyenne, WY); Robertson, Raymond E. (Laramie, WY); Branthaver, Jan F. (Chatham, IL); Schabron, John F. (Laramie, WY)

2012-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

405

Assessment of the impact of the next generation solvent on DWPF melter off-gas flammability  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An assessment has been made to evaluate the impact on the DWPF melter off-gas flammability of replacing the current solvent used in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Process Unit (MCU) process with the Next Generation Solvent (NGS-MCU) and blended solvent. The results of this study showed that the concentrations of nonvolatile carbon and hydrogen of the current solvent in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product would both be about 29% higher than their counterparts of the NGS-MCU and blended solvent in the absence of guanidine partitioning. When 6 ppm of guanidine (TiDG) was added to the effluent transfer to DWPF to simulate partitioning for the NGS-MCU and blended solvent cases and the concentration of Isopar{reg_sign} L in the effluent transfer was controlled below 87 ppm, the concentrations of nonvolatile carbon and hydrogen of the NGS-MCU and blended solvent were still about 12% and 4% lower, respectively, than those of the current solvent. It is, therefore, concluded that as long as the volume of MCU effluent transfer to DWPF is limited to 15,000 gallons per Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT)/SME cycle and the concentration of Isopar{reg_sign} L in the effluent transfer is controlled below 87 ppm, using the current solvent assumption of 105 ppm Isopar{reg_sign} L or 150 ppm solvent in lieu of NGS-MCU or blended solvent in the DWPF melter off-gas flammability assessment is conservative for up to an additional 6 ppm of TiDG in the effluent due to guanidine partitioning. This report documents the calculations performed to reach this conclusion.

Daniel, W. E.

2013-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

406

Behaviour and effects of alcohol-blended petrol in the subsurface  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...and gasoline blends. Biomass and Bioenergy , 33 , 1175-1181. McDowell...93-104. Staples, C.A. 2001. A review of the environmental fate and aquatic...gasoline in the environment. A literature review and transport modeling . Report...

Philip Morgan; Simon Firth; Beate Hildenbrand

407

Rapid Monitoring of Hydrocarbon Blending Stocks in Modified Aviation Turbine Fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......JP-4 jet fuel. For JP-4 turbine fuel, the analysis is relatively...blending stocks in JP-4 aviation turbine fuel. Introduction High resolution...principal Air Force aviation turbine fuel, and the incorporation...Scientific). The column's efficiency was measured and found to be......

P.C. Hayes; Jr.; E.W. Pitzer

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Co-firing of coal and biomass fuel blends M. Sami, K. Annamalai*, M. Wooldridge1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Co-firing of coal and biomass fuel blends M. Sami, K. Annamalai*, M. Wooldridge1 Department; accepted 6 June 2000 Abstract This paper reviews literature on co-firing of coal with biomass fuels. Here, the term biomass includes organic matter produced as a result of photosynthesis as well as municipal

Wooldridge, Margaret S.

409

Wood plastic composites based on microfibrillar blends of high density polyethylene/poly(ethylene terephthalate)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wood plastic composites based on microfibrillar blends of high density polyethylene January 2010 Keywords: Wood plastic composites Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Polyethylene Extrusion a b into wood plastic composites through a two-step reactive extrusion technology. Wood flour was added into pre

410

Polymer blends for use in photoelectrochemical cells for conversion of solar energy to electricity  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

There is disclosed a polymer blend of a highly conductive polymer and a solid polymer electrolyte that is designed to achieve better charge transfer across the conductive film/polymer electrolyte interface of the electrochemical photovoltaic cell. The highly conductive polymer is preferably polypyrrole or poly-N-p-nitrophenylpyrrole and the solid polymer electrolyte is preferably polyethylene oxide or polypropylene oxide.

Skotheim, T.

1984-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

411

Relatively low-cost solutions could improve reliability while making biodiesel blends an affordable option.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is vehicle stalling caused by fuel filter clogging, which prevents fuel from reaching the engine. ResearchRelatively low-cost solutions could improve reliability while making biodiesel blends an affordable option. While biodiesel has very low production costs and the potential to displace up to 10

412

Combined Impact of Branching and Unsaturation on the Autoignition of Binary Blends in a Motored Engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

From this test condition, a homogeneous charge of fuel and intake air can be achieved. ... The test fuels were prepared by addition of 5–20 vol % diisobutylene into n-heptane and isooctane. ... The 15 and 20 vol % blends of diisobutylene in isooctane were not able to reach high temperature heat release in the CFR engine system under these test conditions. ...

Dongil Kang; Stephen Kirby; John Agudelo; Magín Lapuerta; Khalid Al-Qurashi; André L. Boehman

2014-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

413

Enhanced Activated Carbon Cathode Performance for Microbial Fuel Cell by Blending Carbon Black  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Enhanced Activated Carbon Cathode Performance for Microbial Fuel Cell by Blending Carbon Black-based materials that have good catalytic activity, but the electrical conductivity of the AC is poor compared as a binder, as opposed to Nafion with Pt, which greatly reduces the cost of the cathode materials. AC

414

NO Reduction in Decoupling Combustion of Biomass and Biomass?Coal Blend  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

NO Reduction in Decoupling Combustion of Biomass and Biomass?Coal Blend ... Biomass is a form of energy that is CO2-neutral. ... However, NOx emissions in biomass combustion are often more than that of coal on equal heating-value basis. ...

Li Dong; Shiqiu Gao; Wenli Song; Jinghai Li; Guangwen Xu

2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

415

Adaptive microbial population shifts in response to a continuous ethanol blend release increases biodegradation potential  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Adaptive microbial population shifts in response to a continuous ethanol blend release increases 2013 Accepted 28 March 2013 Keywords: Pyrosequencing Ethanol Microbial diversity Temperature a b s t r a pilot- scale continuous release (10 months) of a 10% v:v ethanol solution mixed with benzene and toluene

Alvarez, Pedro J.

416

Polymer blends for use in photoelectrochemical cells for conversion of solar energy to electricity  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

There is disclosed a polymer blend of a highly conductive polymer and a solid polymer electrolyte that is designed to achieve better charge transfer across the conductive film/polymer electrolyte interface of the electrochemical photovoltaic cell. The highly conductive polymer is preferably polypyrrole or poly-N-p-nitrophenylpyrrole and the solid polymer electrolyte is preferably polyethylene oxide or polypropylene oxide.

Skotheim, Terje (East Patchogue, NY)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Spatial patch blending for artefact reduction in pattern-based inpainting techniques  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spatial patch blending for artefact reduction in pattern-based inpainting techniques Maxime Daisy Juin, 14050 Caen/France, {maxime.daisy,david.tschumperle,olivier.lezoray}@ensicaen.fr Abstract. Patch regions in images, by iteratively du- plicating blocks of known image data (patches) inside the area

Lezoray, Olivier

418

Hypocholesterolemic effect of some plants and their blend as studied on albino rats  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This work was carried out to evaluate the hypocholesterolemia effect of esparto grass leaves, fenugreek seeds powder, myrrh resin and their blend (prepared using equal amounts of each) on albino rats. Half, fenugreek and the blend were added to basal diet at 5% and 10%, while myrrh added at 2.5% and 5% hypercholesterolemia raised serum TC, TG, LDL and VLDL while HDL declined. Feeding on mentioned plants reversed the mentioned change provided that efficacy was different where the blend mostly came first, being of highest effect (indicating a synergistic action) and fenugreek of lowest effect. Fenugreek seeds powder showed 34.50-43.75% decrease of AI compared to control (+). Serum glucose showed 31.25% increase due to hypercholesterolemia, and decreased from 141.13 mg dl?1 (control+) to 97.1-127.0 mg dl?1 by experimental diets; in this concern the blend diet was of highest effect. More studies are needed to confirm the effect of myrrh as overweight and obesity controller agent.

Nadia Saleh Al-Amoudi

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Interfacial morphology and friction properties of thin PEO and PEO/PAA blend films  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The scanning force microscope (SFM) was used to investigate morphology of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) blend. The effect of solvent and dewetting in surface structure of PEO film was reported. The results manifested that the crystallization of PEO could be suppressed completely in ultrathin region via using chloroform as a solvent, and the branched-like crystallization was recovered after dewetting. Also, the effect of thickness, the ratio of PEO/PAA and dewetting in surface morphology of PEO–PAA blend films were investigated. These results showed that the crystallization was highly dependent on the ratio of PEO/PAA and the thickness of blend film. Furthermore, we assembled the PEO/PAA layer-by-layer film by spin-casting method for the first time, which exhibited highly efficiency. As a complementary tool, we also used lateral force microscopy (LFM) to explore surface information of these films. The result was indicative of interfacial constraints in ultrathin region, and also was supported by the results showing the spin-casting PEO/PAA blends rather than heterogeneous mixture.

Xianke Gu; Guojian Wang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Improvement of the Coal Ash Slagging Tendency by Coal Washing and Additive Blending with Mullite Generation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Four typical coals and two pretreatment methods were investigated to prevent slagging by facilitating mullite formation in coal ash at a high temperature. ... Both security and economy in power plant can be improved substantially as long as ash deposition and slagging tendency alleviated. ... Pilot-projects about coal washing and coal blending economic benefit are looking forward to put into practice. ...

Zhenyu Huang; Yan Li; Dan Lu; Zhijun Zhou; Zhihua Wang; Junhu Zhou; Kefa Cen

2013-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas reformulated blended" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Behaviour and effects of alcohol-blended petrol in the subsurface  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Lahvis, M.A. 2003. Evaluation of small-volume releases...J.J. 2013 a. Microbial processes influencing the transport...B. 1999. Screening model evaluation of the effects of ethanol...groundwater contaminated with a biodiesel blend (B20). Biodegradation...

Philip Morgan; Simon Firth; Beate Hildenbrand

422

Liquid Natural Gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Liquid Natural Gas ... IN A new technique for storing natural gas at the East Ohio Gas Co. plant, Cleveland, Ohio, the gas is liquefied before passing to the gas holders. ... Natural gas contains moisture and carbon dioxide, both of which liquefy before the natural gas and are somewhat of a nuisance because upon solidification they clog the pipes. ...

W. F. SCHAPHORST

1941-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

423

On-Road Use of Fischer-Tropsch Diesel Blends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Alternative compression ignition engine fuels are of interest both to reduce emissions and to reduce U.S. petroleum fuel demand. A Malaysian Fischer-Tropsch gas-to-liquid fuel was compared with California No.2 diesel by characterizing emissions from over the road Class 8 tractors with Caterpillar 3176 engines, using a chassis dynamometer and full scale dilution tunnel. The 5-Mile route was employed as the test schedule, with a test weight of 42,000 lb. Levels of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) were reduced by an average of 12% and particulate matter (PM) by 25% for the Fischer-Tropsch fuel over the California diesel fuel. Another distillate fuel produced catalytically from Fischer-Tropsch products originally derived from natural gas by Mossgas was also compared with 49-state No.2 diesel by characterizing emissions from Detroit Diesel 6V-92 powered transit buses, three of them equipped with catalytic converters and rebuilt engines, and three without. The CBD cycle was employed as the test schedule, with a test weight of 33,050 lb. For those buses with catalytic converters and rebuilt engines, NO x was reduced by 8% and PM was reduced by 31% on average, while for those buses without, NO x was reduced by 5% and PM was reduced by 20% on average. It is concluded that advanced compression ignition fuels from non-petroleum sources can offer environmental advantages in typical line haul and city transit applications.

Nigel Clark; Mridul Gautam; Donald Lyons; Chris Atkinson; Wenwei Xie; Paul Norton; Keith Vertin; Stephen Goguen; James Eberhardt

1999-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

424

NUCLEAR ISOTOPIC DILUTION OF HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM BY DRY BLENDING VIA THE RM-2 MILL TECHNOLOGY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

DOE has initiated numerous activities to focus on identifying material management strategies to disposition various excess fissile materials. In particular the INEEL has stored 1,700 Kg of offspec HEU at INTEC in CPP-651 vault facility. Currently, the proposed strategies for dispositioning are (a) aqueous dissolution and down blending to LEU via facilities at SRS followed by shipment of the liquid LEU to NFS for fabrication into LWR fuel for the TVA reactors and (b) dilution of the HEU to 0.9% for discard as a waste stream that would no longer have a criticality or proliferation risk without being processed through some type of enrichment system. Dispositioning this inventory as a waste stream via aqueous processing at SRS has been determined to be too costly. Thus, dry blending is the only proposed disposal process for the uranium oxide materials in the CPP-651 vault. Isotopic dilution of HEU to typically less than 20% by dry blending is the key to solving the dispositioning issue (i.e., proliferation) posed by HEU stored at INEEL. RM-2 mill is a technology developed and successfully tested for producing ultra-fine particles by dry grinding. Grinding action in RM-2 mill produces a two million-fold increase in the number of particles being blended in a centrifugal field. In a previous study, the concept of achieving complete and adequate blending and mixing (i.e., no methods were identified to easily separate and concentrate one titanium compound from the other) in remarkably short processing times was successfully tested with surrogate materials (titanium dioxide and titanium mono-oxide) with different particle sizes, hardness and densities. In the current project, the RM-2 milling technology was thoroughly tested with mixtures of natural uranium oxide (NU) and depleted uranium oxide (DU) stock to prove its performance. The effects of mill operating and design variables on the blending of NU/DU oxides were evaluated. First, NU and DU both made of the same oxide, UO{sub 3}, was used in the testing. Next, NU made up of UO{sub 3} and DU made up of UO{sub 2} was used in the test work. In every test, the blend achieved was characterized by spatial sampling of the ground product and analyzing for {sup 235}U concentration. The test work proved that these uranium oxide materials can be blended successfully. The spatial concentration was found to be uniform. Next, sintered thorium oxide pellets were used as surrogate for light water breeder reactor pellets (LWBR). To simulate LWBR pellet dispositioning, the thorium oxide pellets were first ground to a powder form and then the powder was blended with NU. In these tests also the concentration of {sup 235}U and {sup 232}Th in blended products fell within established limits proving the success of RM-2 milling technology. RM-2 milling technology is applicable to any dry radioactive waste, especially brittle solids that can be ground up and mixed with the non-radioactive stock.

Raj K. Rajamani; Sanjeeva Latchireddi; Vikas Devrani; Harappan Sethi; Roger Henry; Nate Chipman

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

High-Octane Fuel from Refinery Exhaust Gas: Upgrading Refinery Off-Gas to High-Octane Alkylate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Exelus is developing a method to convert olefins from oil refinery exhaust gas into alkylate, a clean-burning, high-octane component of gasoline. Traditionally, olefins must be separated from exhaust before they can be converted into another source of useful fuel. Exelus’ process uses catalysts that convert the olefin to alkylate without first separating it from the exhaust. The ability to turn up to 50% of exhaust directly into gasoline blends could result in an additional 46 million gallons of gasoline in the U.S. each year.

None

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

NATURAL GAS MARKET ASSESSMENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION NATURAL GAS MARKET ASSESSMENT PRELIMINARY RESULTS In Support.................................................................................... 6 Chapter 2: Natural Gas Demand.................................................................................................. 10 Chapter 3: Natural Gas Supply

427

,"Missouri Natural Gas Summary"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas Sold to Commercial Consumers (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Missouri Natural Gas Industrial Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Missouri Natural Gas Price Sold to...

428

Natural Gas Weekly Update  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

natural gas production output. Rigs Natural Gas Transportation Update Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company yesterday (August 4) said it is mobilizing equipment and manpower for...

429

Shale gas is natural gas trapped inside  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Shale gas is natural gas trapped inside formations of shale - fine grained sedimentary rocks that can be rich sources of petroleum and natural gas. Just a few years ago, much of...

430

Gas Chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Researchers from the University of Missouri and ICx Nomadics have reported on the use of a optofluidic ring resonator (OFRR) sensor for on-column detection ?. ... Although substantial differences were noted between fresh and aged (or oxidized) oils, many of the compounds in the oxidized oil went unidentified due to lack of library mass spectral data. ... A high resolution MEMS based gas chromatography column for the analysis of benzene and toluene gaseous mixtures ...

Frank L. Dorman; Joshua J. Whiting; Jack W. Cochran; Jorge Gardea-Torresdey

2010-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

431

Influence of coal thermoplastic properties on coking pressure generation: Part 2 – A study of binary coal blends and specific additives  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A number of coal blends and pitch/coal blends were evaluated using rheometry, thermogravimetric analysis and microscopy to confirm and further elucidate the coking pressure mechanism previously proposed by Duffy et al. (2007) [1]. We confirm that blending a low rank, high fluidity, low coking pressure coal, with a high rank, low fluidity, high coking pressure coal can significantly reduce the coking pressure associated with the latter. Interestingly, blending does not necessarily result in a fluidity that is midway between that of the two coals; sometimes the fluidity of the blend is less than that of the low fluidity coal, especially when the coals are significantly different in rank. This occurs because the increase in complex viscosity (?*) through resolidification of the low rank, high fluidity coal counteracts the reduction in ?* resulting from softening of the high rank, low fluidity coal. It has also been confirmed that the ?* of the resultant blend can be estimated from the ?* of each component coal using a logarithmic additivity rule commonly employed for polymer blends. Polarised light microscopy has indicated that the degree of mixing between coals of different rank is minimal, with fusion restricted to the particle surface. It is therefore inappropriate to think of such a coal blend in the same way as a single coal, since each component coal behaves relatively independently. This limited fusion is important for understanding the coking pressure mechanism for blends. It is proposed here that the lower rank coal, which softens at lower temperature, is able to expand into the interparticle voids between the high rank coal that is yet to soften, and these voids can create channels for volatiles to traverse. Then, and importantly, when the high rank coal begins to expand, the pore structure developed in the resolidified structures of the low rank coal can facilitate removal of volatiles, while the resolidified material may also act as a suitable sorbent for volatile matter. This is considered to be the primary mechanism by which coal blending is able to alleviate coking pressure, and applies to addition of inert material also. Addition of a coal tar pitch was found to increase fluidity but also to extend the thermoplastic range to lower temperatures. This caused an increase in the swelling range, which was accompanied by a long plateau in ?*, a feature which has previously been observed for certain high fluidity, high pressure coals. Elasticity and ?* at the onset of expansion were also higher for both the pitch impregnated coals and the high pressure blends, which supports previous findings for singly charged high pressure coals, and confirms the potential use of such criteria for identifying potentially dangerous coals/blends.

John J. Duffy; Merrick R. Mahoney; Karen M. Steel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of the Effects of Gasoline Blends on Single-Cylinder Diesel Engine Performance and Exhaust Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Experiments presented in this study for gasoline blends and experiments of Bilgin et al. for ethanol blends have been performed in a single-cylinder diesel engine at Karadeniz Technical University, Engineering Faculty, Mechanical Engineering Department, Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory. ... However, to determine the most favorable blend ratio for any vehicle diesel engine, to achieve general results, and to give general recommendations, more systematic experimental and theoretical studies for actual vehicle diesel engines must be performed. ... Union of Chambers of Turkish Engineers and Architects, Chamber of Mechanical Engineer, 1991; Vol. 383, pp 18? 29 (in Turkish). ...

Z. ?ahin

2008-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

433

Gas Sampling Considerations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Gas sampling is carried out to measure the quality of a gas. Gas samples are sometimes acquired by in situ observation within the main gas body by using remote or visual observation for specific properties. A mor...

Alvin Lieberman

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Georgia Tech Dangerous Gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Georgia Tech Dangerous Gas Safety Program March 2011 #12;Georgia Tech Dangerous Gas Safety.......................................................................................................... 5 6. DANGEROUS GAS USAGE REQUIREMENTS................................................. 7 6.1. RESTRICTED PURCHASE/ACQUISITION RULES: ................................................ 7 7. FLAMMABLE GAS

Sherrill, David

435

Market Digest: Natural Gas  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The Energy Information Administration's Natural Gas Market Digest provides information and analyses on all aspects of natural gas markets.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Gas Chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

He received his B.S. degree in 1970 from Rhodes College in Memphis, TN, his M.S. degree in 1973 from the University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, and his Ph.D. degree in 1975 from Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. ... A review (with 145 references) on the role of carrier gases on the separation process (A4) demonstrates that carrier gas interactions are integral to the chromatographic process. ... In another report, activity coefficients for refrigerants were evaluated with a polyol ester oil stationary phase (C22). ...

Gary A. Eiceman; Herbert H. Hill, Jr.; Jorge Gardea-Torresdey

2000-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

437

Research on viscosity-reduction technology by electric heating and blending light oil in ultra-deep heavy oil wells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the Tahe oilfield in China, heavy oil is commonly lifted using the light oil blending technology. However, due to the lack of light oil, the production of heavy oil has been seriously limited. Thus, a new c...

Mo Zhu; Haiquan Zhong; Yingchuan Li…

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Performance and Emissions of a Compression-Ignition Engine Fueled with Dimethyl Ether and Rapeseed Oil Blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sorenson and Mikkelsen2 had studied DME in a modified diesel engine, and their results showed that the engine could achieve ultralow-emission prospects without a fundamental change in combustion systems. ... Meanwhile, these parameters are compared with those of pure diesel fuel in order to clarify the effect of blends on the combustion and emission of engines (a CI engine cannot run for much longer of a period with pure DME fuel, so a comparison is only made with pure diesel fuel). ... Moreover, owing to the lower calorific value of the blend compared to diesel fuel, the fuel supply amount per cycle for blend operation is enlarged by increasing the plunger stroke of the fuel pump in order to make the power and torque output of the blends approach those of the corresponding diesel engine. ...

Wang Ying; Zhou Longbao

2007-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

439

An integrated video- and weight-monitoring system for the surveillance of highly enriched uranium blend down operations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An integrated video-surveillance and weight-monitoring system has been designed and constructed for tracking the blending down of weapons-grade uranium by the US Department of Energy. The instrumentation is being used by the International Atomic Energy Agency in its task of tracking and verifying the blended material at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Portsmouth, Ohio. The weight instrumentation developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory monitors and records the weight of cylinders of the highly enriched uranium as their contents are fed into the blending facility while the video equipment provided by Sandia National Laboratory records periodic and event triggered images of the blending area. A secure data network between the scales, cameras, and computers insures data integrity and eliminates the possibility of tampering. The details of the weight monitoring instrumentation, video- and weight-system interaction, and the secure data network is discussed.

Lenarduzzi, R.; Castleberry, K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Whitaker, M. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Martinez, R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Effect of idling on fuel consumption and emissions of a diesel engine fueled by Jatropha biodiesel blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract An engine running at low load and low rated speed is said to be subject to high idling conditions, a mode which represents one of the major problems currently the transport industry is facing. During this time, the engine can not work at peak operating temperature. This leads to incomplete combustion and emissions level increase due to having fuel residues in the exhaust. Also, idling results in increase in fuel consumption. The purpose of this study is to evaluate fuel consumption and emissions parameters under high idling conditions when diesel blended with Jatropha curcas biodiesel is used to operate a diesel engine. Although biodiesel–diesel blends decrease carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions, they increase nitrogen oxides emissions in high idling modes. Compared to pure diesel fuel, fuel consumption also increases under all high idling conditions for biodiesel–diesel blends, with a further increase occurring as blend percentage rises.

S.M. Ashrafur Rahman; H.H. Masjuki; M.A. Kalam; M.J. Abedin; A. Sanjid; S. Imtenan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas reformulated blended" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Combustion and emission characteristics of a turbo-charged common rail diesel engine fuelled with diesel-biodiesel-DEE blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The combustion and emission characteristics of a turbo-charged, common rail diesel engine fuelled with diesel-biodiesel-DEE blends were investigated. The study reports that the brake-specific fuel consumption of ...

Ni Zhang; Zuohua Huang; Xiangang Wang; Bin Zheng

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 - Updated  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Intended for policymakers and others who make decisions about, and set guidelines for, the proper use of intermediate ethanol blends such as E20 in both vehicle engines and other engine types.

Knoll, K.; West, B.; Clark, W.; Graves, R.; Orban, J.; Przesmitzki, S.; Theiss, T.

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Application and modeling of near-infrared frequency domain photon migration for monitoring pharmaceutical powder blending operations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of blending. A simulation method was developed which consisted of (i) dynamic simulation for generating the powder structure; (ii) the completely-randommixture model for predicting the spatial distribution of API particles within the powder bed; and (iii...

Pan, Tianshu

2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

444

Particulate Matter Emissions from a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine under Cold Fast Idle Conditions for Ethanol-Gasoline Blends  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The engine out particular matter number (PN) distributions at engine coolant temperature (ECT) of 0° C to 40° C for ethanol/ gasoline blends (E0 to E85) have been measured for a direct-injection spark ignition engine under ...

Dimou, Iason

445

Melt Strength Behaviour of Polyethylenes and Polyethylene Blends and its Relation to Bubble Stability in Film Blowing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Melt strength data are presented on the three major classes of commercial polyethylenes (LDPE, LLDPE and HDPE) and some of their binary blend systems. Melt strength was assessed from uniaxial tensile experiments ...

A. Ghijsels; J. J. S. M. Ente; J. Raadsen

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Evaluation of Technical Feasibility of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine Fueled with Hydrogen, Natural Gas, and DME  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the proposed project was to confirm the feasibility of using blends of hydrogen and natural gas to improve the performance, efficiency, controllability and emissions of a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine. The project team utilized both engine simulation and laboratory testing to evaluate and optimize how blends of hydrogen and natural gas fuel might improve control of HCCI combustion. GTI utilized a state-of-the art single-cylinder engine test platform for the experimental work in the project. The testing was designed to evaluate the feasibility of extending the limits of HCCI engine performance (i.e., stable combustion, high efficiency and low emissions) on natural gas by using blends of natural gas and hydrogen. Early in the project Ricardo provided technical support to GTI as we applied their engine performance simulation program, WAVE, to our HCCI research engine. Modeling support was later provided by Digital Engines, LLC to use their proprietary model to predict peak pressures and temperatures for varying operating parameters included in the Design of Experiments test plan. Digital Engines also provided testing support for the hydrogen and natural gas blends. Prof. David Foster of University of Wisconsin-Madison participated early in the project by providing technical guidance on HCCI engine test plans and modeling requirements. The main purpose of the testing was to quantify the effects of hydrogen addition to natural gas HCCI. Directly comparing straight natural gas with the hydrogen enhanced test points is difficult due to the complexity of HCCI combustion. With the same air flow rate and lambda, the hydrogen enriched fuel mass flow rate is lower than the straight natural gas mass flow rate. However, the energy flow rate is higher for the hydrogen enriched fuel due to hydrogen’s significantly greater lower heating value, 120 mJ/kg for hydrogen compared to 45 mJ/kg for natural gas. With these caveats in mind, an analysis of test results indicates that hydrogen enhanced natural gas HCCI (versus neat natural gas HCCI at comparable stoichiometry) had the following characteristics: • Substantially lower intake temperature needed for stable HCCI combustion • Inconclusive impact on engine BMEP and power produced, • Small reduction in the thermal efficiency of the engine, • Moderate reduction in the unburned hydrocarbons in the exhaust, • Slight increase in NOx emissions in the exhaust, • Slight reduction in CO2 in the exhaust. • Increased knocking at rich stoichiometry The major accomplishments and findings from the project can be summarized as follows: 1. A model was calibrated for accurately predicting heat release rate and peak pressures for HCCI combustion when operating on hydrogen and natural gas blends. 2. A single cylinder research engine was thoroughly mapped to compare performance and emissions for micro-pilot natural gas compression ignition, and HCCI combustion for neat natural gas versus blends of natural gas and hydrogen.

Pratapas, John; Mather, Daniel; Kozlovsky, Anton

2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

447

An Experimental Study into the Ignition of Methane and Ethane Blends in a New Shock-tube Facility  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY INTO THE IGNITION OF METHANE AND ETHANE BLENDS IN A NEW SHOCK-TUBE FACILITY A Thesis by CHRISTOPHER JOSEPH ERIK AUL Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2009 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY INTO THE IGNITION OF METHANE AND ETHANE BLENDS IN A NEW SHOCK-TUBE FACILITY A Thesis...

Aul, Christopher Joseph Erik

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

448

Evaluation of Fuel Properties of Butanol?Biodiesel?Diesel Blends and Their Impact on Engine Performance and Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Values of specific fuel consumption of engine when fueled with different blends and pure diesel at different speeds are shown in Figure 4. ... Chandra, R.; Kumar, R. Fuel properties of some stable alcohol?diesel microemulsions for their use in compression ignition engines Energy Fuels 2007, 21, 3410– 3414 ... Liu, B.; Huang, Z.; Miao, H.; Di, Y.; Jiang, D.; Zeng, K. Combustion and emissions of a DI diesel engine fuelled with diesel?oxygenate blends Fuel 2008, 87, 2691– 2697 ...

Rakhi N. Mehta; Mousumi Chakraborty; Pinakeswar Mahanta; Parimal A. Parikh

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

449

Effect of Bioethanol Blended Diesel Fuel and Engine Load on Spray, Combustion, and Emissions Characteristics in a Compression Ignition Engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Yan et al.(8) investigated the combustion and emission characteristics of diesel engines fueled with ethanol–diesel blended fuel in a single cylinder diesel engine. ... Figure 11 shows the indicated specific fuel consumption (ISFC) characteristics of diesel–bioethanol blended fuels at various engine loads. ... Tests on the engine fuelled with diesel only were made, and the performance evaluated to form a basis for comparison for those of ethanol-diesel dual fuelling. ...

Su Han Park; In Mo Youn; Yunsung Lim; Chang Sik Lee

2012-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

450

Impact of Biofuel Blending on Diesel Soot Oxidation: Implications for Aftertreatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Control strategies for diesel particulate filters (DPFs) remain one of the most important aspects of aftertreatment research and understanding the soot oxidation mechanism is key to controlling regeneration. Currently, most DPF models contain simple, first order heterogeneous reactions oxidation models with empirically fit parameters. This work improves the understanding of fundamental oxidation kinetics necessary to advance the capabilities of predictive modeling, by leading to better control over regeneration of the device. This study investigated the effects of blending soybean-derived biodiesel fuel on diesel particulate emissions under conventional combustion from a 1.7L direct injection, common rail diesel engine. Five biofuel blend levels were investigated and compared to conventional certification diesel for the nanostructure, surface chemistry and major constituents of the soluble organic fraction (SOF) of diesel particulate matter (PM), and the relationship between these properties and the particulate oxidation kinetics.

Strzelec, Andrea [ORNL; Toops, Todd J [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Foster, David [University of Wisconsin; Rutland, Prof. Christopher J. [University of Wisconsin; Vander Wal, Dr. Randy [NASA-Glenn Research Center, Cleveland

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Polyethylene-supported polyvinylidene fluoride–cellulose acetate butyrate blended polymer electrolyte for lithium ion battery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The polyethylene (PE)-supported polymer membranes based on the blended polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) are prepared for gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) of lithium ion battery. The performances of the prepared membranes and the resulting \\{GPEs\\} are investigated by scanning electron microscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, linear potential sweep, and charge–discharge test. The effect of the ratio of PVDF to CAB on the performance of the prepared membranes is considered. It is found that the GPE based on the blended polymer with PVDF:CAB = 2:1 (in weight) has the largest ionic conductivity (2.48 × 10?3 S cm?1) and shows good compatibility with anode and cathode of lithium ion battery. The LiCoO2/graphite battery using this GPE exhibits superior cyclic stability at room temperature, storage performance at elevated temperature, and rate performance.

Jiansheng Liu; Weishan Li; Xiaoxi Zuo; Shengqi Liu; Zhao Li

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Conformational free energy of melts of ring-linear polymer blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The conformational free energy of ring polymers in a blend of ring and linear polymers is investigated using the bond-fluctuation model. Previously established scaling relationships for the free energy of a ring polymer are shown to be valid only in the mean-field sense, and alternative functional forms are investigated. It is shown that it may be difficult to accurately express the total free energy of a ring polymer by a simple scaling argument, or in closed form.

Gopinath Subramanian and Sachin Shanbhag

2009-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

453

The Pittsburg & Midway Coal Mining Co. Kemmerer Mine coal blending facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Pittsburg & Midway Coal Mining Company`s Kemmerer Mine recently completed a new coal processing facility for blending the mine`s low, medium, and high sulfur coals to meet the needs of our customers. This article will discuss the geology; mining and market conditions that led to the need for this facility; design considerations; the construction; and the system`s controls and performance.

Mulhall, K.; Crank, G. [Pittsburg & Midway Coal Mining Co., Kemmerer, WY (United States)

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Ab initio study of phase transition of boron nitride between zinc-blende and rhombohedral structures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Boron nitride has polymorphs such as zinc-blende (c-BN), wurtzite (w-BN), rhombohedral (r-BN), and graphite-like (h-BN) forms. We simulate the direct conversion of r-BN to c-BN through electronic excitation. In our calculation, the conversion is made possible by increasing the hole concentration to over 0.06/atom. This conversion should be experimentally possible by hole-doping via an electric double layer transistor (EDLT) or capacitor.

Nishida, S.; Funashima, H.; Sato, K.; Katayama-Yoshida, H. [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)

2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

455

Peer Evaluation of Video Lab Reports in a Blended Introductory Physics Course  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Georgia Tech blended introductory calculus-based mechanics course emphasizes scientific communication as one of its learning goals, and to that end, we gave our students a series of four peer-evaluation assignments intended to develop their abilities to present and evaluate scientific arguments. Within these assignments, we also assessed students' evaluation abilities by comparing their evaluations to a set of expert evaluations. We summarize our development efforts and describe the changes we observed in student evaluation behavior.

Douglas, Scott S; Aiken, John M; Thoms, Brian D; Greco, Edwin F; Caballero, Marcos D; Schatz, Michael F

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Hydrothermal Treatment of a Sub-bituminous Coal and Its Use in Coking Blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Crucible coking determinations suggest that hydrothermal treatment can greatly increase the coke strength and the particle coke strength after reaction toward CO2 and decrease the coke reactivity when the hydrothermally treated coals were used in the coal blends instead of the raw coal. ... While the cokes from the crucible coking experiments were subjected to 800 rotations at a speed of 25 rpm, the weight percent of coke particles (>0.2 ... The coal charges were coked in the lab. ...

Hengfu Shui; Ye Wu; Zhicai Wang; Zhiping Lei; Changhui Lin; Shibiao Ren; Chunxiu Pan; Shigang Kang

2012-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

457

In-cylinder pressure characteristics of a CI engine using blends of diesel fuel and methyl esters of beef tallow  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Cummins N14-410 diesel engine was operated on 12 fuels produced by blending methyl tallowate, methyl soyate, and ethanol with no. 2 diesel fuel. Engine in-cylinder pressure data were used to evaluate engine performance. Peak cylinder pressures for each fuel blend at all engine speeds were lower than peak pressure for diesel fuel with the exception of the 80% diesel, 13% methyl tallowate, and 7% ethanol; and the 80% diesel, 6.5% methyl tallowate, 6.5% methyl soyate and 7% ethanol blends. The indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) values for all fuel blends were less than for diesel fuel. The differences in IMEP values correlated with differences in power output of the engine. Similarly, maximum rates of pressure rise for most fuel blends were less than for diesel fuel. It was concluded that the fuel blends used in this study would have no detrimental long-term effects on engine performance, wear, and knock. 6 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

Ali, Y.; Hanna, M.A.; Borg, J.E. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Investigation on combustion characteristics of crude rice bran oil methyl ester blend as a heavy duty automotive engine fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the present work, an attempt was made to test the suitability of crude rice bran oil methyl ester (CRBME) blend as a heavy duty automotive engine fuel. A four stroke, six cylinder direct injection 117.6 kW turbo-charged compression ignition (CI) engine was used for the work. The operation of the engine with CRBME blend showed that the peak pressure increased with lower maximum rate of pressure rise and maximum heat release rate with shorter delay period. Burning rate of the CRBME blend was slower and required a higher crank angle to complete the combustion cycle when compared to diesel. The brake thermal efficiency of the CRBME blend was lower than that of diesel at all speeds except at 2300rpm. As the measured combustion and performance parameters for CRBME blend differs only by a smaller magnitude when compared with diesel, this investigation ensures the suitability of the CRBME blend as fuel for heavy duty automotive engine without any design modifications [Received: August 12, 2010; Accepted: August 29, 2010

S. Saravanan; G. Nagarajan; S. Sampath

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Refinery & Blender Net Production of Total Finished Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

& Blender Net Production & Blender Net Production Product: Total Finished Petroleum Products Liquefied Refinery Gases Ethane/Ethylene Ethane Ethylene Propane/Propylene Propane Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Normal Butane Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Isobutane Isobutylene Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Reformulated Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Reformulated Other Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 and Lower Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Greater than Ed55 Conventional Other Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm Sulfur and under Distillate F.O., Greater than 15 ppm to 500 ppm Sulfur Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Sulfur Residual Fuel Oil Residual Fuel Less Than 0.31 Percent Sulfur Residual Fuel 0.31 to 1.00 Percent Sulfur Residual Fuel Greater Than 1.00 Percent Sulfur Petrochemical Feedstocks Naphtha For Petro. Feed. Use Other Oils For Petro. Feed. Use Special Naphthas Lubricants Waxes Petroleum Coke Marketable Petroleum Coke Catalyst Petroleum Coke Asphalt and Road Oil Still Gas Miscellaneous Products Processing Gain(-) or Loss(+) Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

460

Recovery and Blend-Down Uranium for Beneficial use in Commercial Reactors - 13373  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In April 2001 the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) signed an Interagency Agreement to transfer approximately 33 MT of off-specification (off-spec) highly enriched uranium (HEU) from DOE to TVA for conversion to commercial reactor fuel. Since that time additional surplus off-spec HEU material has been added to the program, making the total approximately 46 MT off-spec HEU. The disposition path for approximately half (23 MT) of this 46 MT of surplus HEU material, was down blending through the H-canyon facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The HEU is purified through the H-canyon processes, and then blended with natural uranium (NU) to form low enriched uranium (LEU) solution with a 4.95% U-235 isotopic content. This material was then transported to a TVA subcontractor who converted the solution to uranium oxide and then fabricated into commercial light water reactor (LWR) fuel. This fuel is now powering TVA reactors and supplying electricity to approximately 1 million households in the TVA region. There is still in excess of approximately 10 to 14 MT of off-spec HEU throughout the DOE complex or future foreign and domestic research reactor returns that could be recovered and down blended for use in either currently designed light water reactors, ?5% enriched LEU, or be made available for use in subsequent advanced 'fast' reactor fuel designs, ?19% LEU. (authors)

Magoulas, Virginia [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas reformulated blended" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Source: Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85 and Other Ethanol Blends.  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

A2: Manufacturer Compatibility with Ethanol Blends (Other Equipment). September 2013. A2: Manufacturer Compatibility with Ethanol Blends (Other Equipment). September 2013. Manufacturer Compatibility with Ethanol Blends (Other Equipment) Manufacturer Product Model Ethanol Compatibility Bravo Systems Fiberglass Fittings Series F, FF, FPE, FR, F Retrofit- S, RPE Retrofit-Si, F BLR, F D-BLR-S, TBF E0-E100 Bravo Systems Spill Buckets B3XX E0-E100 Bravo Systems Tank Sumps & Covers B4XX E0-E100 Bravo Systems Transition Sumps (planter, walkover, H-20 rated) B5XX, B6XX, B7XX, B8XX E0-E100 Bravo Systems Transition Sumps B8XX E0-E100 Bravo Systems Under Dispenser Contain- ment Sumps B7XXX, B8XXX, B9XXX E0-E100 Brugg Pipes FLEXWELL-HL, SECON-X, NIROFLEX, LPG E0-E100 KPS Petrol Pipe Systems Pipes and Associated Products All single- and double-wall plastic pipes, flexible

462

Role of dopant counter-anion functionality in polyaniline salts/blends and implications to morphology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, wide and small angle X-ray scattering techniques (i.e., WAXS and SAXS) and light microscopy are used to characterize the influence of the dopant`s structure on the morphology of both polyaniline salt and blend. In an attempt to modify the morphology of the PANI-ES, the authors have evaluated a number of doping acids (i.e., methane sulfonic acid (HMSA), butane sulfonic acid (HBSA), dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid (HDBSA) and camphor sulfonic acid (HCSA)) that vary in size and polarity to better understand the role of the acid in PANI-ES`s morphology and the resulting electrical conductivity. These salts were solution blended with polycaprolactam using hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP) as a solvent. The other goal was to investigate the effect of the counter-anion structure on the nature of the phase separated PANI-ES network. The shape of the PANI-ES network in the host polycaprolactam has important implications on the nature of conduction behavior and the final electrical conductivity of the blend.

Hopkins, A.R.; Rasmussen, P.G. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Basheer, R.A. [General Motors Research and Development Center, Warren, MI (United States). Polymers Dept.; Annis, B.K.; Wignall, G.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Fuel gas conditioning process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas, so that it can be used as combustion fuel to run gas-powered equipment, including compressors, in the gas field or the gas processing plant. Compared with prior art processes, the invention creates lesser quantities of low-pressure gas per unit volume of fuel gas produced. Optionally, the process can also produce an NGL product.

Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

,"U.S. Blender Net Input"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Blender Net Input of Residuum (Thousand Barrels)","U.S. Blender Net Input of Gasoline Blending Components (Thousand Barrels)","U.S. Blender Net Input of Reformulated...

465

Emissions and engine performance from blends of soya and canola methyl esters with ARB {number_sign}2 diesel in a DCC 6V92TA MUI engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Detroit Diesel 6V92TA MUI engine was operated on several blends of EPA No. 2 diesel, California ARB No. 2 diesel, soya methyl ester (SME) and canola methyl ester (CME). Various fuels and fuel blend characteristics were determined and engine emissions from these fuels and blends were compared. Increasing percentages of SME and CME blended with either ARB or EPA diesels led to increased emissions of NO{sub x}, CO{sub 2} and soluble particulate matter. Also noted were reductions in total hydrocarbons, CO and insoluble particulate matter. Chassis dynamometer tests conducted on a 20/80 SME/ARB blend showed similar emissions trends. The data suggest that certain methyl ester/No. 2 diesel blends in conjunction with delays in engine timing and technologies that reduce the soluble fraction of particulate emissions merit further exploration as emissions reducing fuel options for North American mass transits (except in California, which mandates ARB diesel).

Spataru, A.; Romig, C.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

466

Emissions and engine performance from blends of soya and canola methyl esters with ARB No. 2 diesel in a DDC 6V92TA MUI engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Detroit Diesel 6V92TA MUI engine was operated on several blends of EPA No. 2 diesel, soya methyl ester (SME) and canola methyl ester (CME). Various fuels and fuel blend characteristics were determined and engine emissions from these fuels and blends were compared. Increasing percentages of SME and CME blended with either ARB or EPA diesels led to increased emissions of NO{sub x}, CO{sub 2} and soluble particulate matter. Also noted were reductions in total hydrocarbons, CO and insoluble particulate matter. Chassis dynamometer tests conducted on a 20/80 SME/ARB blend showed similar emission trends. The data suggest that certain methyl ester/No. 2 diesel blends in conjunction with technologies that reduce the soluble fraction of particulate emissions merit further exploration as emissions reducing fuel options for North American mass transit sectors (except California, which mandates ARB diesel).

Spataru, A.; Romig, C. [ADEPT Group, Inc., Los Angeles, CA (United States)

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Neutron Gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We assume that the neutron-neutron potential is well-behaved and velocity-dependent. We can then apply perturbation theory to find the energy per particle of a neutron gas, in the range of Fermi wave numbers 0.5

J. S. Levinger and L. M. Simmons

1961-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Optimization of combustion bowl geometry for the operation of kapok biodiesel – Diesel blends in a stationary diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The purpose of this research work is to optimize the combustion bowl geometry of a single cylinder stationary diesel engine for the effective operation of KME (kapok methyl ester) – diesel blends. Considering that the reported design modification would render the benefit of adaptation of higher blends of KME, in this study, two different combustion chamber geometries such as TRCC (trapezoidal combustion chamber) and TCC (toroidal combustion chamber) were chosen in addition to the convention design of HCC (hemispherical combustion chamber). In the experimental investigation, suitable blends such as B25 (25% KME + 75% diesel), B50 (50% KME + 50% diesel), B75 (75% KME + 25% diesel) and B100 (100% KME) were tested in a diesel engine with various combustion chamber geometries as mentioned above. Based on the results obtained from this study, TCC was shown to exhibit better performance and emission than TRCC and HCC for all test blends. Further, when compared to diesel, B25 and B50 were found to be the optimum blends with HCC and TCC, respectively, while TRCC seldom evinced better engine characteristics for any of the blends. Categorically, B50 showed a 5.2% increase in BTE (brake thermal efficiency) than diesel with TCC, whereas emissions such as CO (carbon monoxide) and smoke were reduced by 15.7% and 7.8%, respectively, with a comparable NOX (nitrogen oxides) emission with diesel. Similarly, combustion for B50 with TCC was found to be better than diesel, manifesting an increase in maximum heat release rate that that of diesel. Conclusively, from the experimental study, TCC was recognized as an ideal choice of combustion chamber design for the operation of blends up to B50 in a diesel engine.

S. Vedharaj; R. Vallinayagam; W.M. Yang; C.G. Saravanan; P.S. Lee

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Natural Gas Hydrates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Natural Gas Hydrates ... Formation Characteristics of Synthesized Natural Gas Hydrates in Meso- and Macroporous Silica Gels ... Formation Characteristics of Synthesized Natural Gas Hydrates in Meso- and Macroporous Silica Gels ...

Willard I. Wilcox; D. B. Carson; D. L. Katz

1941-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Gas Kick Mechanistic Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gas kicks occur during drilling when the formation pressure is greater than the wellbore pressure causing influx of gas into the wellbore. Uncontrolled gas kicks could result in blowout of the rig causing major financial loss and possible injury...

Zubairy, Raheel

2014-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

471

Historical Natural Gas Annual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

472

Historical Natural Gas Annual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

473

Historical Natural Gas Annual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

474

Future of Natural Gas  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

technology is improving - Producers are drilling in liquids rich gas and crude oil shale plays due to lower returns on dry gas production - Improved well completion time...

475

Natural Gas Industrial Price  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Power Price Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Coalbed Wells...

476

Odorization system upgrades gas utility`s pipelines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mountain Fuel Supply Co., a subsidiary of Questar Corp., salt Lake City, is a natural gas holding company with $1.6 billion in assets. From 1929 to 1984, Mountain Fuel Supply Co. owned and operated many natural gas wells, gathering systems, and transmission pipelines to serve its Utah and Wyoming customers. Gas is odorized at convenient points on the transmission lines and at each downstream location where unodorized gas entered the system. Since 40 to 60% of the gas delivered to the company`s customers passes through Coalville Station, it was vital that a reliable, state-of-the-art odorant station be constructed at this site. Construction began during the summer of 1994 and the system came on line Sept. 1, 1994. The station odorized 435 MMcfd with 330 lbs. of odorant during last winter`s peak day, a mild winter. Mountain Fuel is subject to Department of Transportation (DOT) codes which mandate that gas be readily detectable at one fifth the lower explosive limit (LEL), or about 1% gas in air. However, the company strives to maintain a readily detectable odor at 0.25% of gas in air as measured by odormeter tests throughout the distribution system. Experience has shown that maintaining an odorant injection rate of 0.75 lbs/MMcf provides adequate odor levels. A blend of odorant consisting of 50% tertiary butyl mercaptan (TBM) and 50% tetrahydrothiophene (THT) was used for many years by Questar Pipeline. Presently, it is used at all Mountain Fuel stations. This paper reviews the design and operation of this odorization station.

Niebergall, B. [Mountain Fuel Supply, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

The National Energy Modeling System: An Overview 2000 - Oil and Gas Supply  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

oil and gas supply module (OGSM) consists of a series of process submodules that project the availability of: oil and gas supply module (OGSM) consists of a series of process submodules that project the availability of: Domestic crude oil production and dry natural gas production from onshore, offshore, and Alaskan reservoirs Imported pipeline-quality gas from Mexico and Canada Imported liquefied natural gas. The OGSM regions are shown in Figure 12. Figure 12. Oil and Gas Supply Module Regions The driving assumption of OGSM is that domestic oil and gas exploration and development are undertaken if the discounted present value of the recovered resources at least covers the present value of taxes and the cost of capital, exploration, development, and production. In contrast, international gas trade is determined in part by scenario-dependent, noneconomic factors. Crude oil is transported to refineries, which are simulated in the petroleum market module, for conversion and blending into refined petroleum products. The individual submodules of the oil and gas supply module are solved independently, with feedbacks achieved through NEMS solution iterations (Figure 13).

478

Microfabricated BTU monitoring device for system-wide natural gas monitoring.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The natural gas industry seeks inexpensive sensors and instrumentation to rapidly measure gas heating value in widely distributed locations. For gas pipelines, this will improve gas quality during transfer and blending, and will expedite accurate financial accounting. Industrial endusers will benefit through continuous feedback of physical gas properties to improve combustion efficiency during use. To meet this need, Sandia has developed a natural gas heating value monitoring instrument using existing and modified microfabricated components. The instrument consists of a silicon micro-fabricated gas chromatography column in conjunction with a catalytic micro-calorimeter sensor. A reference thermal conductivity sensor provides diagnostics and surety. This combination allows for continuous calorimetric determination with a 1 minute analysis time and 1.5 minute cycle time using air as a carrier gas. This system will find application at remote natural gas mining stations, pipeline switching and metering stations, turbine generators, and other industrial user sites. Microfabrication techniques will allow the analytical components to be manufactured in production quantities at a low per-unit cost.

Einfeld, Wayne; Manginell, Ronald Paul; Robinson, Alex Lockwood; Moorman, Matthew Wallace

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Correlation between speciated hydrocarbon emissions and flame ionization detector response for gasoline/alcohol blends .  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. renewable fuel standard has made it a requirement to increase the production of ethanol and advanced biofuels to 36 billion by 2022. Ethanol will be capped at 15 billion, which leaves 21 billion to come from other sources such as butanol. Butanol has a higher energy density and lower affinity for water than ethanol. Moreover, alcohol fueled engines in general have been shown to positively affect engine-out emissions of oxides of nitrogen and carbon monoxide compared with their gasoline fueled counterparts. In light of these developments, the variety and blend levels of oxygenated constituents is likely to increase in the foreseeable future. The effect on engine-out emissions for total hydrocarbons is less clear due to the relative insensitivity of the flame ionization detector (FID) toward alcohols and aldehydes. It is well documented that hydrocarbon (HC) measurement using a conventional FID in the presence of oxygenates in the engine exhaust stream can lead to a misinterpretation of HC emissions trends for alcohol fuel blends. Characterization of the exhaust stream for all expected hydrocarbon constituents is required to accurately determine the actual concentration of unburned fuel components in the exhaust. In addition to a conventional exhaust emissions bench, this characterization requires supplementary instrumentation capable of hydrocarbon speciation and response factor independent quantification. Although required for certification testing, this sort of instrumentation is not yet widely available in engine development facilities. Therefore, an attempt is made to empirically determine FID correction factors for oxygenate fuels. Exhaust emissions of an engine fueled with several blends of gasoline and ethanol, n-butanol and iso-Butanol were characterized using both a conventional FID and a Fourier transform infrared. Based on these results, a response factor predicting the actual hydrocarbon emissions based solely on FID results as a function of alcohol type and content is presented. Finally, the correlation derived from data presented in this study is compared with equations and results found in the literature.

Wallner, T. (Energy Systems)

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Optical transitions in semiconductor superlattices with zinc-blende structure in the k?p approximation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Transition-matrix elements for superlattices consisting of materials with the zinc-blende structure are presented in analytical form in the k?p approximation including the ?6, ?7, and ?8 bands. The resulting selection rules for cases where the magnetic field is absent, and where the magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the superlattice layers, are discussed. The results can be used for type-I, -II, and -III superlattices. They can also be used for other systems, such as a single quantum well.

H. Luo and J. K. Furdyna

1990-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas reformulated blended" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Combustion and Emissions Characterization of Biodiesel Blends in a City-Car Engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Whereas in the available literature, most of the researches addressed the multicylinders diesel engine of large displacement;(7, 22-27) only some works have investigated the light duty engines, designed for agricultural purpose and mainly tested for a fixed value of the engine speed. ... Rakopoulos, C. D.; Antonopoulos, K. A.; Rakopoulos, D. C.; Hountalas, D. T.; Giakoumis, E. G.Comparative performance and emissions study of a direct injection Diesel engine using blends of diesel fuel with vegetable oils or bio-diesels of various origins Energy Convers. ... Heywood, J. B. Internal combustion engine fundamentals; Mcgraw-Hill: New York, 1988. ...

Giancarlo Chiatti; Ornella Chiavola; Fulvio Palmieri; Stefano Albertini

2014-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

482

Preliminary report on blending strategies for inert-matrix fuel recycling in LWRs.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Various recycle strategies have been proposed to manage the inventory of transuranics in commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF), with a particular goal of increasing the loading capacity of spent fuel and reprocessing wastes in the Yucca Mountain repository. Transuranic recycling in commercial LWRs can be seen as a viable means of slowing the accumulation of transuranics in the nationwide CSNF stockpile. Furthermore, this type of approach is an important first step in demonstrating the benefits of a nuclear fuel cycle which incorporates recycling, such as envisioned for Generation-IV reactor systems under development. Recycling strategies of this sort are not proposed as an attempt to eliminate the need of a geologic nuclear waste repository, but as a means to enhance the usefulness of the repository currently under construction in the U.S., perhaps circumventing the need for a second facility. A US-DOE Secretarial recommendation on the need for the construction of a second geologic repository is required by 2010. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) has supported a breadth of work to evaluate the ideal transuranic separation and recycle strategy. Previous AFCI studies of LWR-based transmutation have considered the benefits of homogeneously recycling plutonium, plutonium and neptunium, and all transuranic (TRU) species. A study of a wide range of hypothetical separation schemes (Pu, Pu+Np, Pu+Np+Am, etc.) with multi-recycling has also been performed, focusing on the proliferation resistance of the various fuel cycles and fuel handling issues. The direct recycle of the recovered TRU from spent inert-matrix fuel (IMF) into new IMF was found to be quite limited due to the rapid burndown of the fissile plutonium. The IMF is very effective at destroying the fissile fraction of the TRU with destruction rates in excess of 80% of the fissile material without recycling the IMF. Blending strategies have been proposed to mitigate the rapid burndown of the fissile plutonium by mixing high fissile feed from new sources (e.g., spent UO{sub 2} pins) with the low fissile material recovered from the recycled transmutation fuel. The blending of the fuels is anticipated to aid the multi-recycle of the transuranics. A systematic study of blending strategies (for both IMF and MOX) has been initiated and is currently ongoing. This work extends the previous study that considered separation strategies for plutonium, neptunium, and americium recycling in MOX, CORAIL, and IMF{sub 6} by considering blending schemes and approach to continuous recycle. Plutonium and americium are recycled in order to reduce the intermediate term (100 to 1500 years after spent fuel irradiation) decay heat of the disposed waste which accounts for the bulk of the repository heating. Since the long-term released dose from the repository is dominated by neptunium, it is sensible to consume it by transmutation in a reactor, as well. Curium accounts for {approx}0.6% of the TRU mass in spent UO{sub 2} fuel ({approx}0.008% of the heavy metal), but does constitute significantly higher fractions in spent transmutation fuels. This initial evaluation will focus on blending strategies for the multirecycling of Pu+Np+Am. The impact of curium recycle will be investigated as part of the systematic study of blending strategies. The initial study focuses on understanding a simple strategy for IMF recycle and blending. More complex strategies (i.e., heterogeneous assemblies) will be evaluated later in the year, including enriched uranium support options. Currently, a preliminary study of a serial blending strategy has been performed in order to evaluate the impact of blending on the performance of the IMF recycle and to evaluate the potential for continuous or infinite recycle. The continuous recycle of Pu+Np+Am in IMF would allow for complete destruction of all heat contributing actinides in the same LWRs that originally produced them. The only transuranics sent to the repository would be those lost in reprocessing and curium if it is not eventually recycled.

Hoffman, E. A.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2005-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

483

The Use of Triangular-Shaped PV Arrays to Better Blend into Historical Structures  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

When considering the installation of a solar PV array on a designated historical structure, placement of each solar panel requires extra attention to aesthetic considerations. If the solar array cannot be installed behind the structure or “hidden” on a roof plane that is not visible from the public street or sidewalk, it can sometimes be installed as an architectural feature that blends into the historical structure. One way to do this is to utilize triangular-shaped PV panels that conform with the building’s roof lines.

484

Phase identification and interfacial transitions in ternary polymer blends by ToF-SIMS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Phase identification and the study of the interphase region in multi-component polymer blends with a chemically similar structure using conventional techniques is a challenge. In this work, the detailed morphological analysis of such systems is examined. A ternary blend comprised of poly butylene succinate (PBS); poly lactic acid (PLA); and polycaprolactone (PCL) with a partial wetting morphology is carefully selected since all three components are polyesters with low interfacial tensions. It will be shown that a novel technique by applying multivariate analysis (MVA) on time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) data can effectively identify the complex phase structure, especially in blends with chemically similar components. Furthermore, for the first time for such systems, this technique provides detailed information about interfacial thicknesses and transitions. By employing the principal component analysis (PCA) method on the ToF-SIMS data of pure polymers, specific peaks with a certain molecular ion mass related to each polymer are determined. Using overlaid mappings on the surface of the blend by ToF-SIMS and selected ion masses to identify each polymer results in the differentiation of the various phases represented as a morphological image. In a second step, the multivariate curve resolution (MCR) method is used as a “self modeling curve resolution” for the recovery of pure components from a multi-component mixture when little or no prior information is available. Total pseudo-color RGB images of PBS/PLA/PCL show that PLA droplets unambiguously partially wet the PBS and PCL phases. Since each pixel from the analysis in the high lateral resolution image represents a 200 nm diameter, the interfacial transitions can also be studied for both PLA/PBS and PLA/PCL interfaces. The results show the concentration variation of phases across the interfaces. A complete trace line across the two interfaces (PLA/PBS and PLA/PCL) allows for the quantitative determination of interfacial thickness for the first time for such systems.

Sepehr Ravati; Suzie Poulin; Konstantinos Piyakis; Basil D. Favis

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Performance Synergies between Low-Temperature and High-Temperature Fischer?Tropsch Diesel Blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

With both LTFT and HTFT diesels being nontraditional, alternative diesel fuels that can be used directly in the current fuelling infrastructure, the objective of this study was to investigate the potential synergies in fuel properties with blends of LTFT diesel and HTFT DHT diesel. ... Regulated exhaust emissions measured over the engine dynamometer test cycle in grams of pollutant per unit of mechanical energy delivered by the engine (g/kW h) included total hydrocarbon (THC), generally referred to as HC, CO, carbon dioxide (CO2), NOx, and PM. ... However, the general consumer should most probably not be able to notice the difference in volumetric fuel consumption. ...

Delanie Lamprecht; Luis P. Dancuart; Kaveer Harrilall

2007-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

486

Powertrain Component Inspection from Mid-Level Blends Vehicle Aging Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 calls on the nation to significantly increase its use of renewable fuels to meet its transportation energy needs. The law expands the renewable fuel standard to require use of 36 billion gallons of renewable fuel by 2022. Given that ethanol is the most widely used renewable fuel in the U.S. market, ethanol will likely make up a significant portion of the 36-billion-gallon requirement. The vast majority of ethanol used in the United States is blended with gasoline to create E10-gasoline with up to 10% ethanol. The remaining ethanol is sold in the form of E85 - a gasoline blend with as much as 85% ethanol that can only be used in flexible-fuel vehicles (FFVs). Consumption of E85 is at present limited by both the size of the FFV fleet and the number of E85 fueling stations. Gasoline consumption in the United States is currently about 140 billion gallons per year; thus the maximum use of ethanol as E10 is only about 14 billion gallons. While the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) remains committed to expanding the E85 infrastructure, that market represented less than 1% of the ethanol consumed in 2010 and will not be able to absorb projected volumes of ethanol in the near term. Because of these factors, DOE and others have been assessing the viability of using mid-level ethanol blends (E15 or E20) as a way to accommodate growing volumes of ethanol. The DOE Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Test Program has been under way since 2007, supported jointly by the Office of the Biomass Program and the Vehicle Technologies Program. One of the larger projects, the Catalyst Durability Study, or Vehicle Aging Study, will be completed early in calendar year 2011. The following report describes a subproject of the Vehicle Aging Study in which powertrain components from 18 of the vehicles were examined at Southwest Research Institute under contract to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).

Shoffner, Brent [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio; Johnson, Ryan [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio; Heimrich, Martin J. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio; Lochte, Michael [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Exhaust particle characterization for lean and stoichiometric DI vehicles operating on ethanol-gasoline blends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines can offer better fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected (PFI) counterparts, and are now appearing in increasingly more U.S. and European vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged GDI engines are replacing large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, in order for manufacturers to meet the U.S. fuel economy standards for 2016. Furthermore, lean-burn GDI engines can offer even higher fuel economy than stoichiometric GDI engines and have overcome challenges associated with cost-effective aftertreatment for NOx control. Along with changes in gasoline engine technology, fuel composition may increase in ethanol content beyond the current 10% due to the recent EPA waiver allowing 15% ethanol. In addition, the Renewable Fuels Standard passed as part of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) mandates the use of biofuels in upcoming years. GDI engines are of environmental concern due to their high particulate matter (PM) emissions relative to port-fuel injected (PFI) gasoline vehicles; widespread market penetration of GDI vehicles may result in additional PM from mobile sources at a time when the diesel contribution is declining. In this study, we characterized particulate emissions from a European certified lean-burn GDI vehicle operating on ethanol-gasoline blends. Particle mass and particle number concentration emissions were measured for the Federal Test Procedure urban driving cycle (FTP 75) and the more aggressive US06 driving cycle. Particle number-size distributions and organic to elemental carbon ratios (OC/EC) were measured for 30 MPH and 80 MPH steady-state operation. In addition, particle number concentration was measured during wide open throttle accelerations (WOTs) and gradual accelerations representative of the FTP 75. Fuels included certification gasoline and 10% (E10) and 20% (E20) ethanol blends from the same supplier. The particle mass emissions were approximately 3 and 7 mg/mile for the FTP75 and US06, respectively, with lower emissions for the ethanol blends. The data are compared to a previous study on a U.S.-legal stoichiometric GDI vehicle operating on the same ethanol blends. The lean-burn GDI vehicle emitted a higher number of particles, but had an overall smaller average size. Particle number per mile decreased with increasing ethanol content for the transient tests. For the 30 and 80 mph tests, particle number concentration decreased with increasing ethanol content, although the shape of the particle size distribution remained the same. Engine-out OC/EC ratios were highest for the stoichiometric GDI vehicle with E20, but tailpipe OC/EC ratios were similar for all vehicles.

Storey, John Morse [ORNL] [ORNL; Barone, Teresa L [ORNL] [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL] [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL] [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Raman gas analyzer for determining the composition of natural gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We describe a prototype of a Raman gas analyzer designed for measuring the composition of natural gas. Operation of the gas analyzer was tested on a real natural gas. We show that our Raman gas analyzer prototype...

M. A. Buldakov; B. V. Korolev; I. I. Matrosov…

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Noble gas magnetic resonator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Precise measurements of a precessional rate of noble gas in a magnetic field is obtained by constraining the time averaged direction of the spins of a stimulating alkali gas to lie in a plane transverse to the magnetic field. In this way, the magnetic field of the alkali gas does not provide a net contribution to the precessional rate of the noble gas.

Walker, Thad Gilbert; Lancor, Brian Robert; Wyllie, Robert

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

490