National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for gas reduction policies

  1. CALIFORNIA CLIMATE POLICY MODELING (CCPM) DIALOG Greenhouse Gas Emissions Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    H2 CALIFORNIA CLIMATE POLICY MODELING (CCPM) DIALOG Greenhouse Gas Emissions Modeling ­ California goals of criteria pollutant and GHG emission reduction. · Modelers need to work with policy makers more to policy-makers and stakeholders. 5 #12;Greenhouse Gas Emissions Modeling ­ California 2030 #12;

  2. Greenhouse Gas Reductions: SF6

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Anderson, Diana

    2013-04-19

    Argonne National Laboratory is leading the way in greenhouse gas reductions, particularly with the recapture and recycling of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). SF6 is a gas used in industry as an anti-arcing agent. It is an extremely potent greenhouse gas ? one pound of SF6 is equivalent to 12 tons of carbon dioxide. While the U.S. does not currently regulate SF6 emissions, Argonne is proactively and voluntarily recovering and recycling to reduce SF6 emissions. Argonne saves over 16,000 tons of SF6 from being emitted into the atmosphere each year, and by recycling the gas rather than purchasing it new, we save taxpayers over $208,000 each year.

  3. Compressed Gas Cylinder Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of pressure from a compressed gas cylinder and pose a serious threat to life and property. To minimize risk cylinders to and from a designated work are

  4. Multi-objective fuel policies: Renewable fuel standards versus Fuel greenhouse gas intensity standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Deepak

    2010-01-01

    Gas Reductions under Low Carbon Fuel Standards? Americanto Implement the Low Carbon Fuel Standard, Volume I Sta?Paper Series Multi-objective fuel policies: Renewable fuel

  5. NOx reduction in gas turbine combustors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sung, Nak Won

    1976-01-01

    NOx REDUCTION IN GAS TURBINE COMBUSTORS A Thesis by Nak Won Sung Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fullfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1976 Major Subject: Mechanical... Engineering NOx REDUCTION IN GAS TURBINE COMBUSTORS A Thesis by Nak Won Sung Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committe (Head of Department) (Member) August 1976 "40308 (Member) 1 1. 1 ABSTRACT NOx Reduction in Gas Turbine...

  6. Mexico - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mexico - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings Jump to: navigation, search Name Mexico - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction...

  7. Selective Catalytic Reduction and Exhaust Gas Recirculation Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reduction and Exhaust Gas Recirculation Systems Optimization Selective Catalytic Reduction and Exhaust Gas Recirculation Systems Optimization A patented EGR-SCR approach was shown...

  8. The economics of US greenhouse gas emissions reduction policy : assessing distributional effects across households and the 50 United States using a recursive dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Look, Wesley Allen

    2013-01-01

    The political economy of US climate policy has revolved around state- and district- level distributional economics, and to a lesser extent household-level distribution questions. Many politicians and analysts have suggested ...

  9. Bibliography of greenhouse-gas reduction strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tompkins, M.M.; Mintz, M.M.

    1995-03-01

    A bibliography of greenhouse-gas reduction strategies has been compiled to assist the Climate change Action Plan Task Force in their consideration of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions from personal motor vehicles. The document contains a summary of the literature, including it major directions and implications; and annotated listing of 32 recent pertinent documents; and a listing of a larger group of related reports.

  10. Okaloosa Gas District Smart Grid RFI: Addressing Policy and Logistical...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Okaloosa Gas District Smart Grid RFI: Addressing Policy and Logistical Challenges to Smart Grid Implementation Okaloosa Gas District Smart Grid RFI: Addressing Policy and...

  11. Natural Gas Industry Comments on Smart Grid RFI: Addressing Policy...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Natural Gas Industry Comments on Smart Grid RFI: Addressing Policy and Logistical Challenges to Smart Grid Natural Gas Industry Comments on Smart Grid RFI: Addressing Policy and...

  12. Greenhouse Gas Reductions Under Low Carbon Fuel Standards?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holland, Stephen P.; Knittel, Christopher R; Hughes, Jonathan E.

    2007-01-01

    CSEM WP 167 Greenhouse Gas Reductions under Low Carbon Fuel94720-5180 www.ucei.org Greenhouse Gas Reductions under LowLCFS) seeks to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by capping an

  13. Greenhouse Gas Reductions under Low Carbon Fuel Standards?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holland, Stephen P.; Knittel, Christopher R; Hughes, Jonathan E.

    2008-01-01

    Admin- istration. Wang, M. The Greenhouse Gases, RegulatedGreenhouse Gas Reductions under Low Carbon Fuel Standards?LCFS) seeks to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by capping an

  14. South Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and Reduction...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    South Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings Jump to: navigation, search Name South Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and...

  15. Delaware Greenhouse Gas Reduction Projects Grant Program (Delaware)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Delaware Greenhouse Gas Reduction Projects Grant Program is funded by the Greenhouse Gas Reduction Projects Fund, established by the Act to Amend Title 7 of the Delaware Code Relating to a...

  16. Shale Gas & Tight Oil Economic and Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Dongning

    Dependence on Fossil Fuels Fracking concerns Potential impact on water resources Will LNG exports drive more Information Michael Ratner Specialist in Energy Policy Congressional Research Service 101 Independence Avenue · Hydraulic fracturing New Technology: Shale gas deposit Source: U.S. Department of Energy Northwestern -6 #12

  17. Sauget Plant Flare Gas Reduction Project 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ratkowski, D. P.

    2007-01-01

    Empirical analysis of stack gas heating value allowed the Afton Chemical Corporation Sauget Plant to reduce natural gas flow to its process flares by about 50% while maintaining the EPA-required minimum heating value of the gas streams....

  18. NREL: Sustainable NREL - Greenhouse Gas Reduction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines lightGeospatial ToolkitSMARTS - Simple ModelCafeteria A photoGreenhouse Gas

  19. Generalised hydrodynamic reductions of the kinetic equation for soliton gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Generalised hydrodynamic reductions of the kinetic equation for soliton gas Gennady A. El1 , Maxim of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 53 Leninskij Prospekt, Moscow, Russia 3 Laboratory of Geometric, Moscow, Russia 4 Institute for Nuclear Research, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 47 pr. Nauky

  20. Catalytic Methane Reduction in the Exhaust Gas of Combustion Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    Catalytic Methane Reduction in the Exhaust Gas of Combustion Engines Peter Mauermann1,* , Michael Dornseiffer6 , Frank Amkreutz6 1 Institute for Combustion Engines , RWTH Aachen University, Schinkelstr. 8, D of the hydrocarbon exhaust of internal combustion engines. In contrast to other gaseous hydrocarbons, significant

  1. DIRECT USE OF NATURAL GAS: ANALYSIS AND POLICY OPTIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electric heat efficiency - 1.0 Heat pump efficiency - 2.0 Electric water heat efficiency - .88 Combined1 DIRECT USE OF NATURAL GAS: ANALYSIS AND POLICY OPTIONS Northwest Power Planning Council Issue gas as a fuel for electricity generation. In the Northwest Power Planning Council's 1991 Northwest

  2. Policy Analysis Landfill-Gas-to-Energy Projects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaramillo, Paulina

    perspectives in comparison to current subsidies. It was found that the private breakeven price of electricityPolicy Analysis Landfill-Gas-to-Energy Projects: Analysis of Net Private and Social Benefits P A U gas also has the potential to be used to generate electricity.In1994,the

  3. Evaluation of Reformer Produced Synthesis Gas for Emissions Reductions in Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark V. Scotto; Mark A. Perna

    2010-05-30

    Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) has developed a system that produces synthesis gas from air and natural gas. A near-term application being considered for this technology is synthesis gas injection into reciprocating engines for reducing NOx emissions. A proof of concept study using bottled synthesis gas and a two-stroke reciprocating engine showed that injecting small amounts of highflammables content synthesis gas significantly improved combustion stability and enabled leaner engine operation resulting in over 44% reduction in NOx emissions. The actual NOx reduction that could be achieved in the field is expected to be engine specific, and in many cases may be even greater. RRFCS demonstrated that its synthesis gas generator could produce synthesis gas with the flammables content that was successfully used in the engine testing. An economic analysis of the synthesis gas approach estimates that its initial capital cost and yearly operating cost are less than half that of a competing NOx reduction technology, Selective Catalytic Reduction. The next step in developing the technology is an integrated test of the synthesis gas generator with an engine to obtain reliability data for system components and to confirm operating cost. RRFCS is actively pursuing opportunities to perform the integrated test. A successful integrated test would demonstrate the technology as a low-cost option to reduce NOx emissions from approximately 6,000 existing two-stroke, natural gas-fired reciprocating engines used on natural gas pipelines in North America. NOx emissions reduction made possible at a reasonable price by this synthesis gas technology, if implemented on 25% of these engines, would be on the order of 25,000 tons/year.

  4. Evaluation of Reformer Produced Synthesis Gas for Emissions Reductions in Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Scotto

    2010-05-30

    Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) has developed a system that produces synthesis gas from air and natural gas. A near-term application being considered for this technology is synthesis gas injection into reciprocating engines for reducing NO{sub x} emissions. A proof of concept study using bottled synthesis gas and a two-stroke reciprocating engine showed that injecting small amounts of high-flammable content synthesis gas significantly improved combustion stability and enabled leaner engine operation resulting in over 44% reduction in NO{sub x} emissions. The actual NO{sub x} reduction that could be achieved in the field is expected to be engine specific, and in many cases may be even greater. RRFCS demonstrated that its synthesis gas generator could produce synthesis gas with the flammable content that was successfully used in the engine testing. An economic analysis of the synthesis gas approach estimates that its initial capital cost and yearly operating cost are less than half that of a competing NO{sub x} reduction technology, Selective Catalytic Reduction. The next step in developing the technology is an integrated test of the synthesis gas generator with an engine to obtain reliability data for system components and to confirm operating cost. RRFCS is actively pursuing opportunities to perform the integrated test. A successful integrated test would demonstrate the technology as a low-cost option to reduce NO{sub x} emissions from approximately 6,000 existing two-stroke, natural gas-fired reciprocating engines used on natural gas pipelines in North America. NO{sub x} emissions reduction made possible at a reasonable price by this synthesis gas technology, if implemented on 25% of these engines, would be on the order of 25,000 tons/year.

  5. Overestimation Reduction in Forecasting Telecommuting as a TDM Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tal, Gil

    2008-01-01

    California Transportation Implications of Telecommuting Energy,California Energy Commission Department of Transportation Department of EnergyTransportation Policy Study Commission California Energy

  6. Natural Gas Regulatory Policy: Current Issues 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watkins, G.

    1988-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-IE-88-09-56.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 1211 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IE-88-09-56.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 NATURAL GAS... REGULATORY roLICY: CURRENT ISSUES G. GAIL WATKINS Railroad Commission of Texas Austin, Texas ABSTRACT Many changes have occurred in recent months in both federal and state natural gas regulation. Those changes have increased the options of industrial...

  7. Technology options and effective policies to reduce greenhouse gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Technology options and effective policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve security); DNE21+ model. · National Institute for Environmental Studies (Japan); AIM model. · Natural Resources both the climate problem and security of supply, and thus provide synergies, while others represent

  8. Apparatus and method to inject a reductant into an exhaust gas feedstream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Viola, Michael B. (Macomb Township, MI)

    2009-09-22

    An exhaust aftertreatment system for an internal combustion engine is provided including an apparatus and method to inject a reductant into the exhaust gas feedstream. Included is a fuel metering device adapted to inject reductant into the exhaust gas feedstream and a controllable pressure regulating device. A control module is operatively connected to the reductant metering device and the controllable pressure regulating device, and, adapted to effect flow of reductant into the exhaust gas feedstream over a controllable flow range.

  9. Contribution of cooperative sector recycling to greenhouse gas emissions reduction: A case study of Ribeirão Pires, Brazil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, Megan F.; Gutberlet, Jutta

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Cooperative recycling achieves environmental, economic and social objectives. • We calculate GHG emissions reduction for a recycling cooperative in São Paulo, Brazil. • The cooperative merits consideration as a Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) project. • A CDM project would enhance the achievements of the recycling cooperative. • National and local waste management policies support the recycling cooperative. - Abstract: Solid waste, including municipal waste and its management, is a major challenge for most cities and among the key contributors to climate change. Greenhouse gas emissions can be reduced through recovery and recycling of resources from the municipal solid waste stream. In São Paulo, Brazil, recycling cooperatives play a crucial role in providing recycling services including collection, separation, cleaning, stocking, and sale of recyclable resources. The present research attempts to measure the greenhouse gas emission reductions achieved by the recycling cooperative Cooperpires, as well as highlight its socioeconomic benefits. Methods include participant observation, structured interviews, questionnaire application, and greenhouse gas accounting of recycling using a Clean Development Mechanism methodology. The results show that recycling cooperatives can achieve important energy savings and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, and suggest there is an opportunity for Cooperpires and other similar recycling groups to participate in the carbon credit market. Based on these findings, the authors created a simple greenhouse gas accounting calculator for recyclers to estimate their emissions reductions.

  10. Advancing Development and Greenhouse Gas Reductions in Vietnam's Wind Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bilello, D.; Katz, J.; Esterly, S.; Ogonowski, M.

    2014-09-01

    Clean energy development is a key component of Vietnam's Green Growth Strategy, which establishes a target to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from domestic energy activities by 20-30 percent by 2030 relative to a business-as-usual scenario. Vietnam has significant wind energy resources, which, if developed, could help the country reach this target while providing ancillary economic, social, and environmental benefits. Given Vietnam's ambitious clean energy goals and the relatively nascent state of wind energy development in the country, this paper seeks to fulfill two primary objectives: to distill timely and useful information to provincial-level planners, analysts, and project developers as they evaluate opportunities to develop local wind resources; and, to provide insights to policymakers on how coordinated efforts may help advance large-scale wind development, deliver near-term GHG emission reductions, and promote national objectives in the context of a low emission development framework.

  11. Multiscale model reduction for shale gas transport in fractured media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akkutlu, I Y; Vasilyeva, Maria

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a multiscale model reduction technique that describes shale gas transport in fractured media. Due to the pore-scale heterogeneities and processes, we use upscaled models to describe the matrix. We follow our previous work \\cite{aes14}, where we derived an upscaled model in the form of generalized nonlinear diffusion model to describe the effects of kerogen. To model the interaction between the matrix and the fractures, we use Generalized Multiscale Finite Element Method. In this approach, the matrix and the fracture interaction is modeled via local multiscale basis functions. We developed the GMsFEM and applied for linear flows with horizontal or vertical fracture orientations on a Cartesian fine grid. In this paper, we consider arbitrary fracture orientations and use triangular fine grid and developed GMsFEM for nonlinear flows. Moreover, we develop online basis function strategies to adaptively improve the convergence. The number of multiscale basis functions in each coarse region ...

  12. Climate change: Clinton affirms binding emissions reduction policy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fairley, P.

    1996-12-04

    In Australia last month President Clinton called for an international agreement to negotiate {open_quotes}legally binding commitments to fight climate change.{close_quotes} His comments affirmed the line the Administration adopted in July and lent prominence to the effort to bring about a treaty by December 1997. Environmentalists welcomed Clinton`s comments, but industry response is divided. The Global Climate Coalition (Washington), of which CMA is a member, has tried to slow negotiations by questioning the scientific consensus on climate change and suggesting {open_quotes}serious damage to the American economy{close_quotes} could result from emissions reduction.

  13. Russian Policy on Methane Emissions in the Oil and Gas Sector: A Case Study in Opportunities and Challenges in Reducing Short-Lived Forcers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, Meredydd; Roshchanka, Volha

    2014-08-04

    This paper uses Russian policy in the oil and gas sector as a case study in assessing options and challenges for scaling-up emission reductions. We examine the challenges to achieving large-scale emission reductions, successes that companies have achieved to date, how Russia has sought to influence methane emissions through its environmental fine system, and options for helping companies achieve large-scale emission reductions in the future through simpler and clearer incentives.

  14. Meeting an 80% Reduction in Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Transportation by 2050: A Case Study in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Christopher; McCollum, David L; McCarthy, Ryan; Leighty, Wayne

    2009-01-01

    an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from ,Board, 2008. California Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory.A. , 2003. Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from US

  15. Policy effectiveness for road passenger transport emissions reductions across the world

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mercure, J -F

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of policy for emissions reductions in private passenger road transport depends on its ability to incentivise consumers to make choices oriented towards lower emissions vehicles. However, car purchase choices are known to be strongly socially determined, and this sector is highly diverse due to significant socio-economic differences between consumer groups. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of the structure of the 2012 private passenger vehicle fleet-years in six major economies across the World (UK, USA, China, India, Japan and Brazil) in terms of prices, engine sizes and emissions. This is done in order to evaluate the effectiveness of existing and possible fiscal and technological change policies for emissions reductions. We provide tools to understand and evaluate the effectiveness of policy taking account of the distributive structure of prices and emissions in segments of a diverse market, both for conventional as well as unconventional engine technologies. We furthermore explai...

  16. Investigation of greenhouse gas reduction strategies by industries : an enterprise systems architecting approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanthullu Athmaram, Kumaresh Babu

    2012-01-01

    This thesis explores an enterprise systems architecting approach to investigate the greenhouse gas reduction strategies followed by industries, especially for automotive industry and Information Technology industry. The ...

  17. Greenhouse Emission Reductions and Natural Gas Vehicles: A Resource Guide on Technology Options and Project Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orestes Anastasia; NAncy Checklick; Vivianne Couts; Julie Doherty; Jette Findsen; Laura Gehlin; Josh Radoff

    2002-09-01

    Accurate and verifiable emission reductions are a function of the degree of transparency and stringency of the protocols employed in documenting project- or program-associated emissions reductions. The purpose of this guide is to provide a background for law and policy makers, urban planners, and project developers working with the many Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission reduction programs throughout the world to quantify and/or evaluate the GHG impacts of Natural Gas Vehicle (NGVs). In order to evaluate the GHG benefits and/or penalties of NGV projects, it is necessary to first gain a fundamental understanding of the technology employed and the operating characteristics of these vehicles, especially with regard to the manner in which they compare to similar conventional gasoline or diesel vehicles. Therefore, the first two sections of this paper explain the basic technology and functionality of NGVs, but focus on evaluating the models that are currently on the market with their similar conventional counterparts, including characteristics such as cost, performance, efficiency, environmental attributes, and range. Since the increased use of NGVs, along with Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFVs) in general, represents a public good with many social benefits at the local, national, and global levels, NGVs often receive significant attention in the form of legislative and programmatic support. Some states mandate the use of NGVs, while others provide financial incentives to promote their procurement and use. Furthermore, Federal legislation in the form of tax incentives or procurement requirements can have a significant impact on the NGV market. In order to implement effective legislation or programs, it is vital to have an understanding of the different programs and activities that already exist so that a new project focusing on GHG emission reduction can successfully interact with and build on the experience and lessons learned of those that preceded it. Finally, most programs that deal with passenger vehicles--and with transportation in general--do not address the climate change component explicitly, and thus there are few GHG reduction goals that are included in these programs. Furthermore, there are relatively few protocols that exist for accounting for the GHG emissions reductions that arise from transportation and, specifically, passenger vehicle projects and programs. These accounting procedures and principles gain increased importance when a project developer wishes to document in a credible manner, the GHG reductions that are achieved by a given project or program. Section four of this paper outlined the GHG emissions associated with NGVs, both upstream and downstream, and section five illustrated the methodology, via hypothetical case studies, for measuring these reductions using different types of baselines. Unlike stationary energy combustion, GHG emissions from transportation activities, including NGV projects, come from dispersed sources creating a need for different methodologies for assessing GHG impacts. This resource guide has outlined the necessary context and background for those parties wishing to evaluate projects and develop programs, policies, projects, and legislation aimed at the promotion of NGVs for GHG emission reduction.

  18. Compressed and Liquid Gas Usage Policy Faculty must fill out and submit the gas usage form when picking up compressed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manley, Steven L.

    Compressed and Liquid Gas Usage Policy · Faculty must fill out and submit the gas usage form when for gases in the future. Effective July 1, 2011 College of Natural Sciences and Mathematics Approved

  19. Campus Energy, Water, and Waste Reduction Policy Page 1 of 7 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University No. 5505 Rev.: 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virginia Tech

    , constructed, renovated, operated and maintained in accordance with the latest energy/wateCampus Energy, Water, and Waste Reduction Policy Page 1 of 7 Virginia Polytechnic Institute __________________________________________________________________________________ Subject: Campus Energy, Water, and Waste Reduction Policy

  20. ASSESSING GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTIONS IN THE TRANSITION ECONOMIES USING A HYBRID ENERGY-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ASSESSING GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTIONS IN THE TRANSITION ECONOMIES USING A HYBRID ENERGY- ECONOMY: Assessing Greenhouse Gas Reductions in the Transition Economies Using a Hybrid Energy- Economy Model Project/Approved: _______________________________________ #12;iii ABSTRACT In this research, the CIMS hybrid energy-economy modelling framework is used

  1. Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) for Hawaii: Policy, Economic, and Technical Questions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) for Hawaii: Policy, Economic, and Technical Questions This report Natural Gas for Hawai`i: Policy Economic and Technical Questions Prepared for the U.S. Department Hawai`i Energy Sustainability Program Task 4: Deliverable on Liquefied Natural Gas Prepared by FACTS

  2. Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in California: The California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenblatt, Jeffery B.

    2013-10-10

    A California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) model was developed to explore the impact of combinations of state policies on state greenhouse gas (GHG) and regional criteria pollutant emissions. The model included representations of all GHG- emitting sectors of the California economy (including those outside the energy sector, such as high global warming potential gases, waste treatment, agriculture and forestry) in varying degrees of detail, and was carefully calibrated using available data and projections from multiple state agencies and other sources. Starting from basic drivers such as population, numbers of households, gross state product, numbers of vehicles, etc., the model calculated energy demands by type (various types of liquid and gaseous hydrocarbon fuels, electricity and hydrogen), and finally calculated emissions of GHGs and three criteria pollutants: reactive organic gases (ROG), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and fine (2.5 ?m) particulate matter (PM2.5). Calculations were generally statewide, but in some sectors, criteria pollutants were also calculated for two regional air basins: the South Coast Air Basin (SCAB) and the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). Three scenarios were developed that attempt to model: (1) all committed policies, (2) additional, uncommitted policy targets and (3) potential technology and market futures. Each scenario received extensive input from state energy planning agencies, in particular the California Air Resources Board. Results indicate that all three scenarios are able to meet the 2020 statewide GHG targets, and by 2030, statewide GHG emissions range from between 208 and 396 MtCO2/yr. However, none of the scenarios are able to meet the 2050 GHG target of 85 MtCO2/yr, with emissions ranging from 188 to 444 MtCO2/yr, so additional policies will need to be developed for California to meet this stringent future target. A full sensitivity study of major scenario assumptions was also performed. In terms of criteria pollutants, targets were less well-defined, but while all three scenarios were able to make significant reductions in ROG, NOx and PM2.5 both statewide and in the two regional air basins, they may nonetheless fall short of what will be required by future federal standards. Specifically, in Scenario 1, regional NOx emissions are approximately three times the estimated targets for both 2023 and 2032, and in Scenarios 2 and 3, NOx emissions are approximately twice the estimated targets. Further work is required in this area, including detailed regional air quality modeling, in order to determine likely pathways for attaining these stringent targets.

  3. Stress reduction in sputter deposited films using nanostructured compliant layers by high working-gas pressures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Gwo-Ching

    Stress reduction in sputter deposited films using nanostructured compliant layers by high working October 2004; accepted 13 December 2004; published 27 June 2005 We present a strategy of stress reduction as a compliant layer to reduce the stress of the subsequently deposited continuous film grown under low gas

  4. Sensitivity of Multi-gas Climate Policy to Emission Metrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Steven J.; Karas, Joseph F.; Edmonds, James A.; Eom, Jiyong; Mizrahi, Andrew H.

    2013-04-01

    Multi-gas greenhouse emission targets require that different emissions be combined into an aggregate total. The Global Warming Potential (GWP) index is currently used for this purpose, despite various criticisms of the underlying concept. It is not possible to uniquely define a single metric that perfectly captures the different impacts of emissions of substances with widely disparate atmospheric lifetimes, which leads to a wide range of possible index values. We examine the sensitivity of emissions and climate outcomes to the value of the index used to aggregate methane emissions using a technologically detailed integrated assessment model. We find that the sensitivity to index value is of order 4-14% in terms of methane emissions and 2% in terms of total radiative forcing, using index values between 4 and 70 for methane, with larger regional differences in some cases. The sensitivity to index value is much higher in economic terms, with total 2-gas mitigation cost decreasing 4-5% for a lower index and increasing 10-13% for a larger index, with even larger changes if the emissions reduction targets are small. The sensitivity to index value also depends on the assumed maximum amount of mitigation available in each sector. Evaluation of the maximum mitigation potential for major sources of non-CO2 greenhouse gases would greatly aid analysis

  5. Pre-converted nitric oxide gas in catalytic reduction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsiao, M.C.; Merritt, B.T.; Penetrante, B.M.; Vogtlin, G.E.

    1999-04-06

    A two-stage catalyst comprises an oxidative first stage and a reductive second stage. The first stage is intended to convert NO to NO{sub 2} in the presence of O{sub 2}. The second stage serves to convert NO{sub 2} to environmentally benign gases that include N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O. By preconverting NO to NO{sub 2} in the first stage, the efficiency of the second stage for NO{sub x} reduction is enhanced. For example, an internal combustion engine exhaust is connected by a pipe to a first chamber. An oxidizing first catalyst converts NO to NO{sub 2} in the presence of O{sub 2} and includes platinum/alumina, e.g., Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. A flow of hydrocarbons (C{sub x}H{sub y}) is input from a pipe into a second chamber. For example, propene can be used as a source of hydrocarbons. The NO{sub 2} from the first catalyst mixes with the hydrocarbons in the second chamber. The mixture proceeds to a second reduction catalyst that converts NO{sub 2} to N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O, and includes a {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The hydrocarbons and NO{sub x} are simultaneously reduced while passing through the second catalyst. 9 figs.

  6. Pre-converted nitric oxide gas in catalytic reduction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsiao, Mark C. (Livermore, CA); Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA); Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA); Vogtlin, George E. (Fremont, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A two-stage catalyst comprises an oxidative first stage and a reductive second stage. The first stage is intended to convert NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2. The second stage serves to convert NO.sub.2 to environmentally benign gases that include N2, CO2, and H.sub.2 O. By preconverting NO to NO.sub.2 in the first stage, the efficiency of the second stage for NO.sub.x reduction is enhanced. For example, an internal combustion engine exhaust is connected by a pipe to a first chamber. An oxidizing first catalyst converts NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2 and includes platinum/alumina, e.g., Pt/Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 catalyst. A flow of hydrocarbons (C.sub.x H.sub.y) is input from a pipe into a second chamber. For example, propene can be used as a source of hydrocarbons. The NO.sub.2 from the first catalyst mixes with the hydrocarbons in the second chamber. The mixture proceeds to a second reduction catalyst that converts NO.sub.2 to N2, CO2, and H.sub.2 O, and includes a gamma-alumina .gamma.-Al.sub.2 O.sub.3. The hydrocarbons and NO.sub.x are simultaneously reduced while passing through the second catalyst.

  7. Anode shroud for off-gas capture and removal from electrolytic oxide reduction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bailey, James L.; Barnes, Laurel A.; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G.; Williamson, Mark A.; Willit, James L.

    2014-07-08

    An electrolytic oxide reduction system according to a non-limiting embodiment of the present invention may include a plurality of anode assemblies and an anode shroud for each of the anode assemblies. The anode shroud may be used to dilute, cool, and/or remove off-gas from the electrolytic oxide reduction system. The anode shroud may include a body portion having a tapered upper section that includes an apex. The body portion may have an inner wall that defines an off-gas collection cavity. A chimney structure may extend from the apex of the upper section and be connected to the off-gas collection cavity of the body portion. The chimney structure may include an inner tube within an outer tube. Accordingly, a sweep gas/cooling gas may be supplied down the annular space between the inner and outer tubes, while the off-gas may be removed through an exit path defined by the inner tube.

  8. NOx reduction technology for natural-gas-industry prime movers. Special report, August 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castaldini, C.

    1990-08-01

    The applicability, performance, and costs are summarized for state-of-the-art NOx emission controls for prime movers used by the natural gas industry to drive pipeline compressors. Nearly 7700 prime movers of 300 hp or greater are in operation at compressor stations. NOx control technologies for application to reciprocating engines are catalytic reduction, engine modification, exhaust gas recirculation, and pre-stratified charge. Technologies discussed for application to gas turbines are catalytic reduction, water or steam injection, and low-NOx combustors.

  9. Fiscal Policy and Utah's Oil and Gas Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    features of Utah's oil and gas industry. The Oil and Gas Industry in Utah Reserves and Production Oil of production. New discoveries of oil and gas, as well as extensions of known oil and gas fields, increase and gas production has taken place on federal lands. · Oil and gas reserves are as much an economic

  10. The Influence of Shale gas on U.S. Energy and Environmental Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacoby, H.D.

    The emergence of U.S. shale gas resources to economic viability affects the nation’s energy outlook and the expected role of natural gas in climate policy. Even in the face of the current shale gas boom, however, questions ...

  11. Title: Working Together in Shale Gas Policy Hosts: Todd Cowen, Teresa Jordan and Christine Shoemaker

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    Title: Working Together in Shale Gas Policy Hosts: Todd Cowen, Teresa Jordan and Christine and environmental groups. The Shale Gas Roundtable of the Institute of Politics at the University of Pittsburgh produced a report with several recommendations dealing especially with shale gas research, water use

  12. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Benefits of Workplace Charging |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nA Guide to Tapping STD-1128-2013 April 2013DepartmentGreenPaulDepartment of

  13. DOE Technical Assistance on Greenhouse Gas Reduction Strategies in the

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment ofOffice of Headquarters AccountingDOEEnergyHuman Capital

  14. California's Greenhouse Gas Policies: Local Solutions to a Global Problem?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bushnell, Jim B; Peterman, Carla Joy; Wolfram, Catherine D

    2007-01-01

    greater than a current combined-cycle natural gas plant. Inemissions level based on a Combined Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT)profiles worse than the combined cycle gas plants upon which

  15. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation and Marine Transportation: Mitigation Potential and Policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L; Gould, Gregory; Greene, David L

    2010-01-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG), Wind power (sails) Aviationand Policies the use of LNG will result in a small 2 percentbe a much greater potential to use LNG aboard most ships if

  16. California's Greenhouse Gas Policies: Local Solutions to a Global Problem?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bushnell, Jim B; Peterman, Carla Joy; Wolfram, Catherine D

    2007-01-01

    States Agree to Cut Greenhouse Gases. ” Washington Post,H. Ling. 2006. “Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Technologies.In Managing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in California. Hanemann

  17. Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) for Hawaii: Policy, Economic, and Technical Questions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) for Hawaii: Policy, Economic, and Technical Questions This report presents analyses for the potential demand for LNG in Hawai`i, potential benefits and costs of LNG importation, and features of the regulatory structure, policy, and practices for LNG. The report was submitted

  18. Climate change policy and its effect on market power in the gas market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newbery, David

    2006-03-14

    Climate change policy and its effect on market power in the gas market David Newbery Faculty of Economics, Cambridge 10 November 2005 Abstract The European Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) limits CO2 emissions from covered sectors... the market power of gas suppliers, and also amplifying the impact of gas price increases on the price of electricity. A rough estimate using just British data suggests that this could increase gas market power by 50%. Key words Climate change...

  19. Refinery Furnaces Retrofit with Gas Turbines Achieve Both Energy Savings and Emission Reductions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giacobbe, F.; Iaquaniello, G.; Minet, R. G.; Pietrogrande, P.

    1985-01-01

    RETROFIT WITH GAS TURBINES ACHIEVE BOTH ENERGY SAVINGS AND EMISSION REDUCTIONS F. Giacobbe*, G. Iaquaniello**, R. G. Minet*, P. Pietrogrande* *KTI Corp., Research and Development Division, Monrovia, California **KTI SpA., Rome, Italy ABSTRACT... Integrating gas turbines with refinery furnaces can be a cost effective means of reducing NO emissions while also generating electricity ~t an attractive heat rate. Design considerations and system costs are presented. INTRODUCTION Petroleum refining...

  20. Economic Potential of Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions: Comparative Role for Soil Sequestration in Agriculture and Forestry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    for presentation at DOE First National Conference on Carbon Sequestration, May 14-17, 2001, Washington D.C. #12 sequestration generally refers to the absorption of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through photosyntheticEconomic Potential of Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions: Comparative Role for Soil Sequestration

  1. Transformative Reduction of Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Opportunities for Change in Technologies and Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vimmerstedt, Laura; Brown, Austin; Newes, Emily; Markel, Tony; Schroeder, Alex; Zhang, Yimin; Chipman, Peter; Johnson, Shawn

    2015-04-30

    The transportation sector is changing, influenced by concurrent, ongoing, dynamic trends that could dramatically affect the future energy landscape, including effects on the potential for greenhouse gas emissions reductions. Battery cost reductions and improved performance coupled with a growing number of electric vehicle model offerings are enabling greater battery electric vehicle market penetration, and advances in fuel cell technology and decreases in hydrogen production costs are leading to initial fuel cell vehicle offerings. Radically more efficient vehicles based on both conventional and new drivetrain technologies reduce greenhouse gas emissions per vehicle-mile. Net impacts also depend on the energy sources used for propulsion, and these are changing with increased use of renewable energy and unconventional fossil fuel resources. Connected and automated vehicles are emerging for personal and freight transportation systems and could increase use of low- or non-emitting technologies and systems; however, the net effects of automation on greenhouse gas emissions are uncertain. The longstanding trend of an annual increase in transportation demand has reversed for personal vehicle miles traveled in recent years, demonstrating the possibility of lower-travel future scenarios. Finally, advanced biofuel pathways have continued to develop, highlighting low-carbon and in some cases carbon-negative fuel pathways. We discuss the potential for transformative reductions in petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions through these emerging transportation-sector technologies and trends and present a Clean Transportation Sector Initiative scenario for such reductions, which are summarized in Table ES-1.

  2. The FIA BioSum model was used to simulate three fire-hazard-reduction policies in an area comprising northern California. southwestern Oregon. and the east slopes of the Cascade Mountains in Oregon. The policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fried, Jeremy S.

    The FIA BioSum model was used to simulate three fire-hazard-reduction policies in an area. The policy scenarios. all subject to a stand-scale fire-hazard-reduction effectiveness constraint. included merchantable timber removal (Min Merch). Differences in the area treated under each scenario were considerable

  3. GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTION POTENTIAL WITH COMBINED HEAT AND POWER WITH DISTRIBUTED GENERATION PRIME MOVERS - ASME 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curran, Scott; Theiss, Timothy J; Bunce, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Pending or recently enacted greenhouse gas regulations and mandates are leading to the need for current and feasible GHG reduction solutions including combined heat and power (CHP). Distributed generation using advanced reciprocating engines, gas turbines, microturbines and fuel cells has been shown to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) compared to the U.S. electrical generation mix due to the use of natural gas and high electrical generation efficiencies of these prime movers. Many of these prime movers are also well suited for use in CHP systems which recover heat generated during combustion or energy conversion. CHP increases the total efficiency of the prime mover by recovering waste heat for generating electricity, replacing process steam, hot water for buildings or even cooling via absorption chilling. The increased efficiency of CHP systems further reduces GHG emissions compared to systems which do not recover waste thermal energy. Current GHG mandates within the U.S Federal sector and looming GHG legislation for states puts an emphasis on understanding the GHG reduction potential of such systems. This study compares the GHG savings from various state-of-the- art prime movers. GHG reductions from commercially available prime movers in the 1-5 MW class including, various industrial fuel cells, large and small gas turbines, micro turbines and reciprocating gas engines with and without CHP are compared to centralized electricity generation including the U.S. mix and the best available technology with natural gas combined cycle power plants. The findings show significant GHG saving potential with the use of CHP. Also provided is an exploration of the accounting methodology for GHG reductions with CHP and the sensitivity of such analyses to electrical generation efficiency, emissions factors and most importantly recoverable heat and thermal recovery efficiency from the CHP system.

  4. California's Greenhouse Gas Policies: Local Solutions to a Global Problem?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bushnell, Jim B; Peterman, Carla Joy; Wolfram, Catherine D

    2007-01-01

    Rate/kWh Fuel type Year Gas Coal (SUB and BIT) 2000-2005type and the following regressions were calculated: Gas Plants Coalcoal (1.969 lbs/kWh as compared to 2.095lbs/kWh) and both fuel types

  5. Identifying Options for Deep Reductions in Greenhouse Gas Emissions from California Transportation: Meeting an 80% Reduction Goal in 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Christopher; McCollum, David L; McCarthy, Ryan; Leighty, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    vehicles used liquefied natural gas, liquefied petroleum1,793 -100 to -84% Other Fuels Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG)

  6. Impacts of greenhouse gas mitigation policies on agricultural land

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Xiaodong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are widely acknowledged to be responsible for much of the global warming in the past century. A number of approaches have been proposed to mitigate GHG emissions. Since the burning of ...

  7. California's Greenhouse Gas Policies: Local Solutions to a Global Problem?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bushnell, Jim B; Peterman, Carla Joy; Wolfram, Catherine D

    2007-01-01

    physical limits on how much hydro power flows south from thethe Kyoto protocol, the hydro power in British Columbia andHydro Total WECC SB1368 Compliant Supply in WECC Gas Coal CA baseload demand Figure 2 Importing Clean Power

  8. Tapping Landfill Gas to Provide Significant Energy Savings and Greenhouse Gas Reductions - Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-04-30

    BroadRock Renewables, LLC built two high efficiency electricity generating facilities that utilize landfill gas in California and Rhode Island. The two projects received a total of $25 million in U.S. Department of Energy funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009. Private-sector cost share for the projects totaled approximately $186 million.

  9. policy

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal GasAdministration Medal01 Sandia4) August 20123/%2A en46Afedkcp8/%2A4/%2A en NNSA Policy

  10. State policies affecting natural gas consumption (Notice of inquiry issued on August 14, 1992)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemon, R.; Kamphuis-Zatopa, W.

    1993-03-25

    On August 14, 1992, the United States Department of Energy issued a Request for Comments Concerning State Policies Affecting Natural Gas Consumption. This Notice of (NOI) noted the increasing significance of the role played by states and sought to gain better understanding of how state policies impact the gas industry. The general trend toward a. more competitive marketplace for natural gas, as well as recent regulatory and legislative changes at the Federal level, are driving State regulatory agencies to reevaluate how they regulate natural gas. State action is having a significant impact on the use of natural gas for generating electricity, as well as affecting the cost-effective trade-off between conservation expenditures and gas use. Additionally, fuel choice has an impact upon the environment and national energy security. In light of these dimensions, the Department of Energy initiated this study of State regulation. The goals of this NOI are: (1) help DOE better understand the impact of State policies on the efficient use of gas; (2) increase the awareness of the natural gas industry and Federal and State officials to the important role of State policies and regulations; (3) create an improved forum for dialogue on State and Federal natural gas issues; and, (4) develop a consensus on an analytical agenda that would be most helpful in addressing the regulatory challenges faced by the States. Ninety-seven parties filed comments, and of these ninety-seven, fifteen parties filed reply comments. Appendix One lists these parties. This report briefly syntheses the comments received. The goal is to assist parties to judging the extent of consensus on the problems posed and the remedies suggested, aid in identifying future analytical analyses, and assist parties in assessing differences in strategies and regulatory philosophies which shape these issues and their resolution.

  11. Identifying Options for Deep Reductions in Greenhouse Gas Emissions from California Transportation: Meeting an 80% Reduction Goal in 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Christopher; McCollum, David L; McCarthy, Ryan; Leighty, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    Diesel (Coal-to- Liquids) Hydrogen (Natural Gas, pipeline)Hydrogen (Natural Gas, liquid H2 truck) Hydrogen (Coal,Natural Gas, on-site Natural Gas, liquid H2 truck, w/o or w/

  12. Evaluation of Efficiency Activities in the Industrial Sector Undertaken in Response to Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Lu, Hongyou; Horvath, Arpad

    2010-05-21

    The 2006 California Global Warming Solutions Act calls for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. Meeting this target will require action from all sectors of the California economy, including industry. The industrial sector consumes 25% of the energy used and emits 28% of the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) produced in the state. Many countries around the world have national-level GHG reduction or energy-efficiency targets, and comprehensive programs focused on implementation of energy efficiency and GHG emissions mitigation measures in the industrial sector are essential for achieving their goals. A combination of targets and industry-focused supporting programs has led to significant investments in energy efficiency as well as reductions in GHG emissions within the industrial sectors in these countries. This project has identified program and policies that have effectively targeted the industrial sector in other countries to achieve real energy and CO{sub 2} savings. Programs in Ireland, France, The Netherlands, Denmark, and the UK were chosen for detailed review. Based on the international experience documented in this report, it is recommended that companies in California's industrial sector be engaged in a program to provide them with support to meet the requirements of AB32, The Global Warming Solution Act. As shown in this review, structured programs that engage industry, require members to evaluate their potential efficiency measures, plan how to meet efficiency or emissions reduction goals, and provide support in achieving the goals, can be quite effective at assisting companies to achieve energy efficiency levels beyond those that can be expected to be achieved autonomously.

  13. Identifying Options for Deep Reductions in Greenhouse Gas Emissions from California Transportation: Meeting an 80% Reduction Goal in 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Christopher; McCollum, David L; McCarthy, Ryan; Leighty, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    and A. Schafer, Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from U.S.Council. Marintek, Study of Greenhouse Gas Emissions fromfor Biofuels Increases Greenhouse Gases Through Emissions

  14. A comparison of ground source heat pumps and micro-combined heat and power as residential greenhouse gas reduction strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guyer, Brittany (Brittany Leigh)

    2009-01-01

    Both ground source heat pumps operating on electricity and micro-combined heat and power systems operating on fossil fuels offer potential for the reduction of green house gas emissions in comparison to the conventional ...

  15. Electricity Generation and Emissions Reduction Decisions under Policy Uncertainty: A General Equilibrium Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris, J.

    The electric power sector, which accounts for approximately 40% of U.S. carbon dioxide emissions, will be a critical component of any policy the U.S. government pursues to confront climate change. In the context of uncertainty ...

  16. Recent advances in carbon emissions reduction: policies, technologies, monitoring, assessment and modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, John

    energy systems Carbon capture and storage Geoengineering approaches Carbon trade/tax schemes a b s t r Keywords: Carbon emissions reduction Improved energy use efficiency Implementation of low-fossil carbon in this special volume assess alternative carbon emissions reduction approaches, such as carbon capture

  17. Gas Carburization of Thin-Walled Austenitic Stainless Steel Formed via the Reduction of Metal Oxide Extrusions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Mo

    Gas Carburization of Thin-Walled Austenitic Stainless Steel Formed via the Reduction of Metal Oxide with constant carbon composition. In the case of stainless steels, the protective layer of chrome oxide must the surface hardness of steel by introducing a carbon-rich gas environment to a specimen at an elevated

  18. Energy policy act transportation study: Interim report on natural gas flows and rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-11-17

    This report, Energy Policy Act Transportation Study: Interim Report on Natural Gas Flows and Rates, is the second in a series mandated by Title XIII, Section 1340, ``Establishment of Data Base and Study of Transportation Rates,`` of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102--486). The first report Energy Policy Act Transportation Study: Availability of Data and Studies, was submitted to Congress in October 1993; it summarized data and studies that could be used to address the impact of legislative and regulatory actions on natural gas transportation rates and flow patterns. The current report presents an interim analysis of natural gas transportation rates and distribution patterns for the period from 1988 through 1994. A third and final report addressing the transportation rates and flows through 1997 is due to Congress in October 2000. This analysis relies on currently available data; no new data collection effort was undertaken. The need for the collection of additional data on transportation rates will be further addressed after this report, in consultation with the Congress, industry representatives, and in other public forums.

  19. A fuel cycle framework for evaluating greenhouse gas emission reduction technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashton, W.B.; Barns, D.W. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Bradley, R.A. (USDOE Office of Policy, Planning and Analysis, Washington, DC (USA). Office of Environmental Analysis)

    1990-05-01

    Energy-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions arise from a number of fossil fuels, processes and equipment types throughout the full cycle from primary fuel production to end-use. Many technology alternatives are available for reducing emissions based on efficiency improvements, fuel switching to low-emission fuels, GHG removal, and changes in end-use demand. To conduct systematic analysis of how new technologies can be used to alter current emission levels, a conceptual framework helps develop a comprehensive picture of both the primary and secondary impacts of a new technology. This paper describes a broad generic fuel cycle framework which is useful for this purpose. The framework is used for cataloging emission source technologies and for evaluating technology solutions to reduce GHG emissions. It is important to evaluate fuel mix tradeoffs when investigating various technology strategies for emission reductions. For instance, while substituting natural gas for coal or oil in end-use applications to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, natural gas emissions of methane in the production phase of the fuel cycle may increase. Example uses of the framework are given.

  20. Achieving California’s Land Use and Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emission Targets Under AB 32: An Exploration of Potential Policy Processes and Mechanisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaheen, Susan A.; Bejamin-Chung, Jade; Allen, Denise; Howe-Steiger, Linda

    2009-01-01

    1999?for fuel economy, CO2 emissions, car dealerships Tax onfor passenger cars and induce GHG emission reductions. Taxesregulates CO2 emissions from passenger cars; the policy

  1. Identifying Options for Deep Reductions in Greenhouse Gas Emissions from California Transportation: Meeting an 80% Reduction Goal in 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Christopher; McCollum, David L; McCarthy, Ryan; Leighty, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    Electricity (Natural Gas Combined Cycle) Electricity (Coal,efficiency enabled by combined cycle systems at stationarybut also using combined cycle and fuel cell-based power

  2. Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978: Natural Gas Rate Design Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-05-01

    First, the comments on May 3, 1979 Notice of Inquiry of DOE relating to the Gas Utility Rate Design Study Required by Section 306 of PURPA are presented. Then, comments on the following are included: (1) ICF Gas Utility Model, Gas Utility Model Data Outputs, Scenario Design; (2) Interim Model Development Report with Example Case Illustrations; (3) Interim Report on Simulation of Seven Rate Forms; (4) Methodology for Assessing the Impacts of Alternative Rate Designs on Industrial Energy Use; (5) Simulation of Marginal-Cost-Based Natural Gas Rates; and (6) Preliminary Discussion Draft of the Gas Rate Design Study. Among the most frequent comments expressed were the following: (a) the public should be given the opportunity to review the final report prior to its submission to Congress; (b) results based on a single computer model of only four hypothetical utility situations cannot be used for policy-making purposes for individual companies or the entire gas industry; (c) there has been an unobjective treatment of traditional and economic cost rate structures; the practical difficulties and potential detrimental consequences of economic cost rates are not fully disclosed; and (d) it is erroneous to assume that end users, particularly residential customers, are influenced by price signals in the rate structure, as opposed to the total bill.

  3. Assessment of the Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Potential of Ultra-Clean Hybrid-Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, A.F.; Miller, M.

    1997-01-01

    internal combustion enginesand gas turbines, fuel cells,2, the external combustion engines(gas turbine and Stifling)or external combustion engines, such as the gas turbine or

  4. Alleviation of effective permeability reduction of gas-condensate due to condensate buildup near wellbore 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carballo Salas, Jose Gilberto

    2006-04-12

    When the reservoir pressure is decreased below dew point pressure of the gas near the wellbore, gas-condensate wells start to decrease production because condensate is separated from the gas around the wellbore causing a decrease in gas relative...

  5. Hydrogen production from steam reforming of coke oven gas and its utility for indirect reduction of iron oxides in blast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leu, Tzong-Shyng "Jeremy"

    a remarkable source of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from anthropogenic and industrial activities [4 for indirect reduction (IR) of iron oxides in blast furnaces (BFs), carbon dioxide emissions can be lessened. Motivated from utilizing hydrogen and mitigating greenhouse gas emissions in ironmaking, the reaction

  6. MELTER OFF-GAS FLAMMABILITY ASSESSMENT FOR DWPF ALTERNATE REDUCTANT FLOWSHEET OPTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, A.

    2011-07-08

    Glycolic acid and sugar are being considered as potential candidates to substitute for much of the formic acid currently being added to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter feed as a reductant. A series of small-scale melter tests were conducted at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) in January 2011 to collect necessary data for the assessment of the impact of these alternate reductants on the melter off-gas flammability. The DM10 melter with a 0.021 m{sup 2} melt surface area was run with three different feeds which were prepared at SRNL based on; (1) the baseline formic/nitric acid flowsheet, (2) glycolic/formic/nitric acid flowsheet, and (3) sugar/formic/nitric acid flowsheet - these feeds will be called the baseline, glycolic, and sugar flowsheet feeds, respectively, hereafter. The actual addition of sugar to the sugar flowsheet feed was made at VSL before it was fed to the melter. For each feed, the DM10 was run under both bubbled (with argon) and non-bubbled conditions at varying melter vapor space temperatures. The goal was to lower its vapor space temperature from nominal 500 C to less than 300 C at 50 C increments and maintain steady state at each temperature at least for one hour, preferentially for two hours, while collecting off-gas data including CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2} concentrations. Just a few hours into the first test with the baseline feed, it was discovered that the DM10 vapor space temperature would not readily fall below 350 C simply by ramping up the feed rate as the test plan called for. To overcome this, ambient air was introduced directly into the vapor space through a dilution air damper in addition to the natural air inleakage occurring at the operating melter pressure of -1 inch H{sub 2}O. A detailed description of the DM10 run along with all the data taken is given in the report issued by VSL. The SRNL personnel have analyzed the DM10 data and identified 25 steady state periods lasting from 32 to 92 minutes for all six melter runs (bubbled and non-bubbled runs for each of the three feeds). The steady state selection was made by limiting the standard deviation of the average vapor space temperature readings from two bare thermocouples (TT-03 and TT-05) to less than 5 C in most cases at a constant feed rate. The steady state data thus selected were mass and heat balanced and the off-gas data were re-baselined to assess the flammability potential of each feed under the DWPF melter operating conditions. Efforts were made to extract as much information out of the data as possible necessary to extend the applicability of the existing baseline cold cap and off-gas combustion models to the glycolic and sugar flowsheet feeds. This report details the outcome of these activities.

  7. Importance Sampling Variance Reduction for the Fokker-Planck Rarefied Gas Particle Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collyer, Benjamin; Lockerby, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    Models and methods that are able to accurately and efficiently predict the flows of low-speed rarefied gases are in high demand, due to the increasing ability to manufacture devices at micro and nano scales. One such model and method is a Fokker-Planck approximation to the Boltzmann equation, which can be solved numerically by a stochastic particle method. The stochastic nature of this method leads to noisy estimates of the thermodynamic quantities one wishes to sample when the signal is small in comparison to the thermal velocity of the gas. Recently, Gorji et al have proposed a method which is able to greatly reduce the variance of the estimators, by creating a correlated stochastic process which acts as a control variate for the noisy estimates. However, there are potential difficulties involved when the geometry of the problem is complex, as the method requires the density to be solved for independently. Importance sampling is a variance reduction technique that has already been shown to successfully redu...

  8. Modeling and Measuring Greenhouse Gas Reduction from Low Carbon Airport Access Modes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smirti, Megan

    2008-01-01

    Updated State?level Greenhouse  Gas Emission Coefficients Agency (EPA) (2006) Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the U.S.  Port of Seattle (2008) Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory.  

  9. NOx Reduction with Natural Gas for Lean Large-Bore Engine Applications Using Lean NOx Trap Aftertreatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parks, JE

    2005-02-11

    Large-bore natural gas engines are used for distributed energy and gas compression since natural gas fuel offers a convenient and reliable fuel source via the natural gas pipeline and distribution infrastructure. Lean engines enable better fuel efficiency and lower operating costs; however, NOx emissions from lean engines are difficult to control. Technologies that reduce NOx in lean exhaust are desired to enable broader use of efficient lean engines. Lean NOx trap catalysts have demonstrated greater than 90% NOx reduction in lean exhaust from engines operating with gasoline, diesel, and natural gas fuels. In addition to the clean nature of the technology, lean NOx traps reduce NOx with the fuel source of the engine thereby eliminating the requirement for storage and handling of secondary fuels or reducing agents. A study of lean NOx trap catalysts for lean natural gas engines is presented here. Testing was performed on a Cummins C8.3G (CG-280) engine on a motor dynamometer. Lean NOx trap catalysts were tested for NOx reduction performance under various engine operating conditions, and the utilization of natural gas as the reductant fuel source was characterized. Engine test results show that temperature greatly affects the catalytic processes involved, specifically methane oxidation and NOx storage on the lean NOx trap. Additional studies on a bench flow reactor demonstrate the effect of precious metal loading (a primary cost factor) on lean NOx trap performance at different temperatures. Results and issues related to the potential of the lean NOx trap technology for large-bore engine applications will be discussed.

  10. State policies affecting natural gas consumption (Notice of inquiry issued on August 14, 1992). Summary of comments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemon, R.; Kamphuis-Zatopa, W.

    1993-03-25

    On August 14, 1992, the United States Department of Energy issued a Request for Comments Concerning State Policies Affecting Natural Gas Consumption. This Notice of (NOI) noted the increasing significance of the role played by states and sought to gain better understanding of how state policies impact the gas industry. The general trend toward a. more competitive marketplace for natural gas, as well as recent regulatory and legislative changes at the Federal level, are driving State regulatory agencies to reevaluate how they regulate natural gas. State action is having a significant impact on the use of natural gas for generating electricity, as well as affecting the cost-effective trade-off between conservation expenditures and gas use. Additionally, fuel choice has an impact upon the environment and national energy security. In light of these dimensions, the Department of Energy initiated this study of State regulation. The goals of this NOI are: (1) help DOE better understand the impact of State policies on the efficient use of gas; (2) increase the awareness of the natural gas industry and Federal and State officials to the important role of State policies and regulations; (3) create an improved forum for dialogue on State and Federal natural gas issues; and, (4) develop a consensus on an analytical agenda that would be most helpful in addressing the regulatory challenges faced by the States. Ninety-seven parties filed comments, and of these ninety-seven, fifteen parties filed reply comments. Appendix One lists these parties. This report briefly syntheses the comments received. The goal is to assist parties to judging the extent of consensus on the problems posed and the remedies suggested, aid in identifying future analytical analyses, and assist parties in assessing differences in strategies and regulatory philosophies which shape these issues and their resolution.

  11. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation and Marine Transportation: Mitigation Potential and Policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L; Gould, Gregory; Greene, David L

    2010-01-01

    Aviation and Marine Transportation: Mitigation Potential and Policies Additional optimization of shipping logistics, routing and maintenance

  12. Assessment of the Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Potential of Ultra-Clean Hybrid-Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, A.F.; Miller, M.

    1997-01-01

    Powerplant Efficiency (%) FF Vehicle Fuel/Technologies gmC02) pp I Llecmcity gmC02 ] j KJ)Fuel gm j Coal Steam Oil Steam GasGas from Biomass from Solar Carbon Dioxide Table 2: [gin ~mlsslons~-~iJf°r Usage for Various Powerplant

  13. An investigation of gas separation membranes for reduction of thermal treatment emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stull, D.M.; Logsdon, B.W.; Pellegrino, J.J.

    1994-05-16

    Gas permeable membranes were evaluated for possible use as air pollution control devices on a fluidized bed catalytic incineration unit. The unit is a candidate technology for treatment of certain mixed hazardous and radioactive wastes at the Rocky Flats Plant. Cellulose acetate and polyimide membranes were tested to determine the permeance of typical off-gas components such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and oxygen. Multi-component permeation studies included gas mixtures containing light hydrocarbons. Experiments were also conducted to discover information about potential membrane degradation in the presence of organic compounds.

  14. Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in California: The California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenblatt, Jeffery B.

    2014-01-01

    NAS mpg, +ZEVs, automation NGV, more efficiency, automationSciences; NG = natural gas; NGV = natural gas vehicle; OTC =and ignored, as EV and NGV demand forecasts were provided by

  15. Policies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid youOxygen Generation | Center for GasPhysics Physics Acknowledge NERSC

  16. Reduction of green house gas emission by clean power Jinxu Ding and Arun Somani

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , fossil fuels play an important role. The estimation of Energy Information Administration [7] of Depart.8%, coal 26.6% and natural gas 22.9%. The total value of these sources is 86.3% share for fossil fuels in primary energy production in the world. Burning fossil fuels produces about 21.3 billion tons of CO2 every

  17. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation and Marine Transportation: Mitigation Potential and Policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L; Gould, Gregory; Greene, David L

    2010-01-01

    and the Environment. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from AviationD17): 4560. EPA (2006). Greenhouse Gas Emissions from theEPA (2008a). Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and

  18. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation and Marine Transportation: Mitigation Potential and Policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L; Gould, Gregory; Greene, David L

    2010-01-01

    fossil fuels (e.g. , liquefied natural gas and marine dieseldiesel oil (MDO), Liquefied natural gas (LNG), Wind power (marine diesel oil or liquefied natural gas for heavy fuel

  19. Int. J. Global Energy Issues, Vol. 23, No. 4, 2005 307 Canada's efforts towards greenhouse gas emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Int. J. Global Energy Issues, Vol. 23, No. 4, 2005 307 Canada's efforts towards greenhouse gas greenhouse gas emissions reductions. Without a major change in direction towards more compulsory policies, it seems unlikely that Canada will achieve significant domestic greenhouse gas reductions over and beyond

  20. Effects of Travel Reduction and Efficient Driving on Transportation: Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Numerous transportation strategies are directed at reducing energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by changing the behavior of individual drivers or travelers. These behavioral changes may have the effect of reducing travel, shifting travel to more efficient modes, or improving the efficiency of existing travel. Since the 1970s, federal, regional, state and municipal agencies have tried to reduce energy use, emissions, and congestion by influencing travel behavior. This report reviews and summarizes the literature on relationships between these strategies and transportation-related energy use and GHG emissions to examine how changes to travel behavior can reduce transportation energy use and discuss the potential for federal actions to affect travel behavior.

  1. Catalytic activity of oxidized (combusted) oil shale for removal of nitrogen oxides with ammonia as a reductant in combustion gas streams, Part 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, J.G.; Taylor, R.W.; Morris, C.J.

    1993-01-04

    Oxidized oil shale from the combustor in the LLNL Hot-Recycled-Solids (HRS) oil shale retorting process has been found to be a catalyst for removing nitrogen oxides from laboratory gas streams using NH[sub 3] as a reductant. Oxidized Green River oil shale heated at 10[degree]C/min in an Ar/O[sub 2]/NO/NH[sub 3] mixture ([approximately]93%/6%/2000 ppM/4000 ppM) with a gas residence time of [approximately]0.6 sec removed NO between 250 and 500[degree]C, with maximum removal of 70% at [approximately]400[degree]C. Under isothermal conditions with the same gas mixture, the maximum NO removal was [approximately]64%. When CO[sub 2] was added to the gas mixture at [approximately]8%, the NO removal dropped to [approximately]50%. However, increasing the gas residence time to [approximately]1.2 sec, increased NO removal to 63%. Nitrogen balances of these experiments suggest selective catalytic reduction of NO is occurring using NH[sub 3] as the reductant. These results are not based on completely optimized process conditions, but indicate oxidized oil shale is an effective catalyst for NO removal from combustion gas streams using NH[sub 3] as the reductant. Parameters calculated for implementing oxidized oil shale for NO[sub x] remediation on the current HRS retort indicate an abatement device is practical to construct.

  2. Catalytic activity of oxidized (combusted) oil shale for removal of nitrogen oxides with ammonia as a reductant in combustion gas streams, Part 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, J.G.; Taylor, R.W.; Morris, C.J.

    1993-01-04

    Oxidized oil shale from the combustor in the LLNL Hot-Recycled-Solids (HRS) oil shale retorting process has been found to be a catalyst for removing nitrogen oxides from laboratory gas streams using NH{sub 3} as a reductant. Oxidized Green River oil shale heated at 10{degree}C/min in an Ar/O{sub 2}/NO/NH{sub 3} mixture ({approximately}93%/6%/2000 ppM/4000 ppM) with a gas residence time of {approximately}0.6 sec removed NO between 250 and 500{degree}C, with maximum removal of 70% at {approximately}400{degree}C. Under isothermal conditions with the same gas mixture, the maximum NO removal was {approximately}64%. When CO{sub 2} was added to the gas mixture at {approximately}8%, the NO removal dropped to {approximately}50%. However, increasing the gas residence time to {approximately}1.2 sec, increased NO removal to 63%. Nitrogen balances of these experiments suggest selective catalytic reduction of NO is occurring using NH{sub 3} as the reductant. These results are not based on completely optimized process conditions, but indicate oxidized oil shale is an effective catalyst for NO removal from combustion gas streams using NH{sub 3} as the reductant. Parameters calculated for implementing oxidized oil shale for NO{sub x} remediation on the current HRS retort indicate an abatement device is practical to construct.

  3. Multi-criteria comparison of fuel policies: Renewable fuel mandate, fuel emission-standards, and fuel carbon tax

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Deepak; Hochman, G.; Zilberman, D.

    2012-01-01

    order for the low carbon fuel standard, 2012. URL http://mediated e?ects of low carbon fuel policies. AgBioForum, 15(Gas Reductions under Low Carbon Fuel Standards? American

  4. Quantifying the fuel use and greenhouse gas reduction potential of electric and hybrid vehicles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, M.; Wang, M.; Hazard, N.; Lewis, G.; Energy Systems; Northeast Sustainable Energy Association; Univ. of Michigan

    2000-01-01

    Since 1989, the Northeast Sustainable Energy Association (NESEA) has organized the American Tour de Sol in which a wide variety of participants operate electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) for several hundred miles under various roadway conditions (e.g., city center and highway). The event offers a unique opportunity to collect on-the-road energy efficiency data for these EVs and HEVs as well as comparable gasoline-fueled conventional vehicles (CVs) that are driven under the same conditions. NESEA and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) collaborated on collecting and analyzing vehicle efficiency data during the 1998 and 1999 NESEA American Tour de Sols. Using a transportation fuel-cycle model developed at ANL with data collected on vehicle fuel economy from the two events as well as electric generation mix data from the utilities that provided the electricity to charge the EVs on the two Tours, we estimated full fuel-cycle energy use and GHG emissions of EVs and CVs. This paper presents the data, methodology, and results of this study, including the full fuel-cycle energy use and GHG emission reduction potential of the EVs operating on the Tour.

  5. Project Information Form Project Title Working toward a policy framework for reducing greenhouse gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Project Information Form Project Title Working toward a policy framework for reducing greenhouse of the total greenhouse gases emissions, should embark on a dramatic transformation, if the United States

  6. The Impact of Biofuel and Greenhouse Gas Policies on Land Management, Agricultural Production, and Environmental Quality 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Justin Scott

    2012-10-19

    emissions and mitigation, commodity prices, production, net exports, sectoral economic welfare, and shifts in management practices and intensity. Direct and indirect consequences of RFS2 and carbon policy are highlighted, including regional production...

  7. Multi-objective fuel policies: Renewable fuel standards versus Fuel greenhouse gas intensity standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Deepak

    2010-01-01

    E?ect of Biofuels on Crude Oil Markets. Agbioforum, 2010(Price elasticity of demand for crude oil: estimates for 23of alter- natives to crude oil. These policies are viewed as

  8. MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to economic viability affects the nation's energy outlook and the expected role of natural gas in climate, the other using price to achieve a 50% emissions reduction. The shale gas is shown both to benefitMIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change The Influence of Shale Gas on U

  9. International Experience with Key Program Elements of IndustrialEnergy Efficiency or Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Target-SettingPrograms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Kramer, Klaas Jan

    2008-02-02

    Target-setting agreements, also known as voluntary ornegotiated agreements, have been used by a number of governments as amechanism for promoting energy efficiency within the industrial sector. Arecent survey of such target-setting agreement programs identified 23energy efficiency or GHG emissions reduction voluntary agreement programsin 18 countries. International best practice related to target-settingagreement programs calls for establishment of a coordinated set ofpolicies that provide strong economic incentives as well as technical andfinancial support to participating industries. The key program elementsof a target-setting program are the target-setting process,identification of energy-saving technologies and measures usingenergy-energy efficiency guidebooks and benchmarking as well as byconducting energy-efficiency audits, development of an energy-savingsaction plan, development and implementation of energy managementprotocols, development of incentives and supporting policies, monitoringprogress toward targets, and program evaluation. This report firstprovides a description of three key target-setting agreement programs andthen describes international experience with the key program elementsthat comprise such programs using information from the three keytarget-setting programs as well as from other international programsrelated to industrial energy efficiency or GHG emissionsreductions.

  10. Greenhouse gas policy influences climate via direct effects of land-use change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, A.D.

    2014-01-01

    warming through the greenhouse effect.  Proceedings of the the radiative effect of greenhouse gases.   Philosophical Change for  Scenarios of Greenhouse Gas and Sulfur Dioxide 

  11. Energy Policy Act Transportation Study: Interim Report on Natural Gas Flows and Rates

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1995-01-01

    This report, summarized data and studies that could be used to address the impact of legislative and regulatory actions on natural gas transportation rates and flow patterns.

  12. On mitigating emissions leakage under biofuel policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, D

    2015-01-01

    Biofuel (and renewable energy) policies are multi-objective.renewable fuels standard: Economic and greenhouse gas implications. Energy Policy,

  13. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation as a Structural Change and Policies that Offset Its Depressing Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Babiker, Mustafa H.M.

    The current economic modeling of emissions limitations does not embody economic features that are likely to be particularly important in the short term, yet the politics of limiting greenhouse gas emissions are often ...

  14. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation and Marine Transportation: Mitigation Potential and Policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L; Gould, Gregory; Greene, David L

    2010-01-01

    Marine diesel oil (MDO), Liquefied natural gas (LNG), Winddiesel oil) or to other renewable energy sources, such as winddiesel oil), or to other renewable energy sources, such as wind

  15. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation and Marine Transportation: Mitigation Potential and Policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L; Gould, Gregory; Greene, David L

    2010-01-01

    aboard ships (e.g. , heavy fuel oil and residual fuel oil)natural gas for heavy fuel oil (i.e. , residual fuel oil).fuels. Residual fuel oil (also called heavy fuel oil (HFO))

  16. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation and Marine Transportation: Mitigation Potential and Policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L; Gould, Gregory; Greene, David L

    2010-01-01

    natural gas for heavy fuel oil (i.e. , residual fuel oil).fuel oil (also called heavy fuel oil (HFO)) can be replacedaboard ships (e.g. , heavy fuel oil and residual fuel oil)

  17. Multi-objective fuel policies: Renewable fuel standards versus Fuel greenhouse gas intensity standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Deepak

    2010-01-01

    non-crude oil fuels (i.e, oilsand and biofuel) when comparedthe primary feedstock (oilsand, coal or gas) into usefulthe blending obligation for oilsand is higher under the FGIS

  18. Utilization of Common Automotive Three-Way NO{sub x} Reduction Catalyst for Managing Off- Gas from Thermal Treatment of High-Nitrate Waste - 13094

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foster, Adam L.; Ki Song, P.E.

    2013-07-01

    Studsvik's Thermal Organic Reduction (THOR) steam reforming process has been tested and proven to effectively treat radioactive and hazardous wastes streams with high nitrate contents to produce dry, stable mineral products, while providing high conversion (>98%) of nitrates and nitrites directly to nitrogen gas. However, increased NO{sub x} reduction may be desired for some waste streams under certain regulatory frameworks. In order to enhance the NO{sub x} reduction performance of the THOR process, a common Three-Way catalytic NO{sub x} reduction unit was installed in the process gas piping of a recently completed Engineering Scale Technology Demonstration (ESTD). The catalytic DeNO{sub x} unit was located downstream of the main THOR process vessel, and it was designed to catalyze the reduction of residual NO{sub x} to nitrogen gas via the oxidation of the hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds that are inherent to the THOR process gas. There was no need for auxiliary injection of a reducing gas, such as ammonia. The unit consisted of four monolith type catalyst sections positioned in series with a gas mixing section located between each catalyst section. The process gas was monitored for NO{sub x} concentration upstream and downstream of the catalytic DeNO{sub x} unit. Conversion efficiencies ranged from 91% to 97% across the catalytic unit, depending on the composition of the inlet gas. Higher concentrations of hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the THOR process gas increased the NO{sub x} reduction capability of the catalytic DeNO{sub x} unit. The NO{sub x} destruction performance of THOR process in combination with the Three-Way catalytic unit resulted in overall system NO{sub x} reduction efficiencies of greater than 99.9% with an average NO{sub x} reduction efficiency of 99.94% for the entire demonstration program. This allowed the NO{sub x} concentration in the ESTD exhaust gas to be maintained at less than 40 parts per million (ppm), dry basis with an average concentration of approximately 17 ppm, dry basis. There were no signs of catalyst deactivation throughout the 6 day demonstration program, even under the high steam (>50%) content and chemically reducing conditions inherent to the THOR process. Utilization of the common Three-Way automotive catalyst may prove to be a cost effective method for improving NO{sub x} emissions from thermal treatment processes that utilize similar processing conditions. This paper will discuss the details of the implementation and performance of the Three-Way catalytic DeNO{sub x} unit at the THOR ESTD, as well as a discussion of future work to determine the long-term durability of the catalyst in the THOR process. (authors)

  19. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options in ISEEM Global Energy Model: 2010-2050 Scenario Analysis for Least-Cost Carbon Reduction in Iron and Steel Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karali, Nihan; Xu, Tengfang; Sathaye, Jayant

    2013-12-01

    The goal of the modeling work carried out in this project was to quantify long-term scenarios for the future emission reduction potentials in the iron and steel sector. The main focus of the project is to examine the impacts of carbon reduction options in the U.S. iron and steel sector under a set of selected scenarios. In order to advance the understanding of carbon emission reduction potential on the national and global scales, and to evaluate the regional impacts of potential U.S. mitigation strategies (e.g., commodity and carbon trading), we also included and examined the carbon reduction scenarios in China’s and India’s iron and steel sectors in this project. For this purpose, a new bottom-up energy modeling framework, the Industrial Sector Energy Efficiency Modeling (ISEEM), (Karali et al. 2012) was used to provide detailed annual projections starting from 2010 through 2050. We used the ISEEM modeling framework to carry out detailed analysis, on a country-by-country basis, for the U.S., China’s, and India’s iron and steel sectors. The ISEEM model applicable to iron and steel section, called ISEEM-IS, is developed to estimate and evaluate carbon emissions scenarios under several alternative mitigation options - including policies (e.g., carbon caps), commodity trading, and carbon trading. The projections will help us to better understand emission reduction potentials with technological and economic implications. The database for input of ISEEM-IS model consists of data and information compiled from various resources such as World Steel Association (WSA), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), China Steel Year Books, India Bureau of Mines (IBM), Energy Information Administration (EIA), and recent LBNL studies on bottom-up techno-economic analysis of energy efficiency measures in the iron and steel sector of the U.S., China, and India, including long-term steel production in China. In the ISEEM-IS model, production technology and manufacturing details are represented, in addition to the extensive data compiled from recent studies on bottom-up representation of efficiency measures for the sector. We also defined various mitigation scenarios including long-term production trends to project country-specific production, energy use, trading, carbon emissions, and costs of mitigation. Such analyses can provide useful information to assist policy-makers when considering and shaping future emissions mitigation strategies and policies. The technical objective is to analyze the costs of production and CO{sub 2} emission reduction in the U.S, China, and India’s iron and steel sectors under different emission reduction scenarios, using the ISEEM-IS as a cost optimization model. The scenarios included in this project correspond to various CO{sub 2} emission reduction targets for the iron and steel sector under different strategies such as simple CO{sub 2} emission caps (e.g., specific reduction goals), emission reduction via commodity trading, and emission reduction via carbon trading.

  20. Electricity Generation and Emissions Reduction Decisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electricity Generation and Emissions Reduction Decisions under Policy Uncertainty: A General;1 Electricity Generation and Emissions Reduction Decisions under Policy Uncertainty: A General Equilibrium Analysis Jennifer Morris* , Mort Webster* and John Reilly* Abstract The electric power sector, which

  1. State Commission electricity regulation under Federal Greenhouse gas cap-and-trade policy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keeler, Andrew G.

    2008-05-15

    Given the current uncertainty about the timing and severity of greenhouse gas constraints on electric generation that will result from a federal program, commissions need to begin crafting strategies and procedures to best serve the public interest in this new environment. (author)

  2. Meeting today's challenges to supply tomorrow's energy. Clean fossil energy technical and policy seminar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-07-01

    Papers discussed the coal policy of China, Russia, Indonesia and Vietnam; clean coal technology (small-scale coal power plants, carbon capture and sequestration, new coking process SCOPE21, coal gasification (HyPr-RING), CO{sub 2} reduction technology, Supercritical coal-fired units and CFB boilers, EAGLE project, coal liquefaction), the coal consumer's view of clean fossil energy policy, and natural gas policy and technology. Some of the papers only consist of the presentation overheads/viewgraphs.

  3. Evaluation of Efficiency Activities in the Industrial Sector Undertaken in Response to Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    management program following national energy managementwith national-level energy or GHG tax programs, LBNLnational level energy efficiency and GHG emissions reduction programs.

  4. Selective catalytic reduction system and process for control of NO.sub.x emissions in a sulfur-containing gas stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sobolevskiy, Anatoly

    2015-08-11

    An exhaust gas treatment process, apparatus, and system for reducing the concentration of NOx, CO and hydrocarbons in a gas stream, such as an exhaust stream (29), via selective catalytic reduction with ammonia is provided. The process, apparatus and system include a catalytic bed (32) having a reducing only catalyst portion (34) and a downstream reducing-plus-oxidizing portion (36). Each portion (34, 36) includes an amount of tungsten. The reducing-plus-oxidizing catalyst portion (36) advantageously includes a greater amount of tungsten than the reducing catalyst portion (36) to markedly limit ammonia salt formation.

  5. Accepted for publication in Energy Policy Greenhouse-gas Emissions from Solar Electric-and Nuclear Power: A Life-cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Accepted for publication in Energy Policy Greenhouse-gas Emissions from Solar Electric- and Nuclear., 2002). However, all anthropogenic means of energy production, including solar and nuclear, generate Power: A Life-cycle Study Vasilis M. Fthenakis1,2, * and Hyung Chul Kim1 1 Energy Sciences

  6. Clean Coal Technology: Reduction of NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} using gas reburning, sorbent injection, and integrated technologies. Topical report No. 3, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (also referred to as the CCT Program), is a unique government/industry cost-shared effort to develop these advanced coal-based technologies. The CCT Program provides numerous options for addressing a wide range of energy and environmental issues, including acid rain, global climate change, improved energy efficiency, energy security, and environmental qualitiy. It is intended to demonstrate a new generation of full-scale, ``showcase`` facilities built through the United States. Gas Reburning, Sorbent Injection and Integrated Technologies -- the subject of this Topical Report -- are one such set of promising innovative developments. In addition to discussing the technologies involved, this report will describe two specific projects, results to date, and the commercial promise of these processes. The objectives of Gas Reburning and Sorbent Injection were to have a 60% reduction in NO{sub x} emissions and a 50% reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions. These objectives have been achieved at the tangentially-fired boiler at the Hennepin site of Illinois Power and at the cyclone-fired boiler operated by City Water, Light and Power in Springfield, Illinois. The other project, Gas Reburning and Low NO{sub x} Burners had the goal of a 70% NO{sub x} reduction from the wall-fired boiler operated by Public Service of Colorado at Denver. In early preliminary testing, this goal was also achieved. Energy and Environmental Research (EER) is now ready to design and install Gas Rebunting and Sorbent Injection systems, and Gas Reburning-Low NO{sub x}, Burner systems for any utility or industrial application. These technologies are offered with performance and emission control guarantees.

  7. Kathryn Clay, Ph.D. Vice President of Policy Strategy American Gas Association

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nAand DOE Safety Standards Implementation July 17,76Patterson -Written Remarks

  8. EIA-914 Monthly Crude Oil, Lease Condensate, and Natural Gas Production Report Revision Policy

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets 9, 3:00Markets 26, MethodologyRevision

  9. Catalytic activity of oxidized (combusted) oil shale for removal of nitrogen oxides with ammonia as a reductant in combustion gas streams, Part 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, J.G.; Taylor, R.W.; Morris, C.J.

    1992-06-10

    Oxidized oil shale from the combustor in the LLNL hot recycle solids oil shale retorting process has been studied as a catalyst for removing nitrogen oxides from laboratory gas streams using NH{sub 3} as areductant. Combusted Green River oil shale heated at 10{degrees}C/min in an Ar/O{sub 2}/NO/NH{sub 3} mixture ({approximately}93%/6%/2000 ppm/4000 ppm) with a gas residence time of {approximately}0.6 sec exhibited NO removal between 250 and 500{degrees}C, with maximum removal of 70% at {approximately}400{degrees}C. Under isothermal conditions with the same gas mixture, the maximum NO removal was found to be {approximately}64%. When CO{sub 2} was added to the gas mixture at {approximately}8%, the NO removal dropped to {approximately}50%. However, increasing the gas residence time to {approximately}1.2 sec, increased NO removal to 63%. These results are not based on optimized process conditions, but indicate oxidized (combusted) oil shale is an effective catalyst for NO removal from combustion gas streams using NH{sub 3} as the reductant.

  10. Evaluation of Efficiency Activities in the Industrial Sector Undertaken in Response to Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    fuel switching, and cogeneration. These measures can oftenthe installation of cogeneration natural gas plants. Cement:They also implemented cogeneration plants and have increased

  11. Evaluation of Efficiency Activities in the Industrial Sector Undertaken in Response to Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    They also implemented cogeneration plants and have increasedinstallation of cogeneration natural gas plants. Cement: Therefineries, 27 power plants, and 5 cogeneration facilities (

  12. Ancillary effects of selected acid deposition control policies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moe, R.J.; Lyke, A.J.; Nesse, R.J.

    1986-08-01

    NAPAP is examining a number of potential ways to reduce the precursors (sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) to acid deposition. However, the policies to reduce acid deposition will have other physical, biological and economic effects unrelated to acid deposition. For example, control policies that reduce sulfur dioxide emissions may also increase visibility. The effects of an acid deposition policy that are unrelated to acid deposition are referred to as ''ancillary'' effects. This reserch identifies and characterizes the principle physical and economic ancillary effects associated with acid deposition control and mitigation policies. In this study the ancillary benefits associated with four specific acid deposition policy options were investigated. The four policy options investigated are: (1) flue gas desulfurization, (2) coal blending or switching, (3) reductions in automobile emissions of NO/sub x/, and (4) lake liming. Potential ancillary benefits of each option were identified and characterized. Particular attention was paid to the literature on economic valuation of potential ancillary effects.

  13. Policy Discussion- Heavy-Duty Truck Fuel Economy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presesntation: National Commission on Energy Policy

  14. Effects of Various Membrane Electrode Assemblies on the Electrochemical Reduction of Carbon Dioxide in the Gas Phase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    Effects of Various Membrane Electrode Assemblies on the Electrochemical Reduction of Carbon Dioxide to decrease net carbon dioxide emissions and mitigate the effects of global warming, it is necessary to find are primarily responsible for the increase in carbon dioxide concentrations and therefore a main cause

  15. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Effects of Travel Reduction and Efficient Driving on Transportation: Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, C. D.; Brown, A.; DeFlorio, J.; McKenzie, E.; Tao, W.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2013-03-01

    Since the 1970s, numerous transportation strategies have been formulated to change the behavior of drivers or travelers by reducing trips, shifting travel to more efficient modes, or improving the efficiency of existing modes. This report summarizes findings documented in existing literature to identify strategies with the greatest potential impact. The estimated effects of implementing the most significant and aggressive individual driver behavior modification strategies range from less than 1% to a few percent reduction in transportation energy use and GHG emissions. Combined strategies result in reductions of 7% to 15% by 2030. Pricing, ridesharing, eco-driving, and speed limit reduction/enforcement strategies are widely judged to have the greatest estimated potential effect, but lack the widespread public acceptance needed to accomplish maximum results. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  16. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Effects of Travel Reduction and Efficient Driving on Transportation. Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, C. D.; Brown, A.; DeFlorio, J.; McKenzie, E.; Tao, W.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2013-03-01

    Since the 1970s, numerous transportation strategies have been formulated to change the behavior of drivers or travelers by reducing trips, shifting travel to more efficient modes, or improving the efficiency of existing modes. This report summarizes findings documented in existing literature to identify strategies with the greatest potential impact. The estimated effects of implementing the most significant and aggressive individual driver behavior modification strategies range from less than 1% to a few percent reduction in transportation energy use and GHG emissions. Combined strategies result in reductions of 7% to 15% by 2030. Pricing, ridesharing, eco-driving, and speed limit reduction/enforcement strategies are widely judged to have the greatest estimated potential effect, but lack the widespread public acceptance needed to accomplish maximum results. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  17. Review of U.S. and European Regional Modeling Studies of Policies Intended to Reduce Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnston, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    emissions of pollutants and greenhouse gases are possible (accidents, noise, and greenhouse gas emissions. We reviewto Reduce Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emissions Robert A.

  18. Partitioning of mercury, arsenic, selenium, boron, and chloride in a full-scale coal combustion process equipped with selective catalytic reduction, electrostatic precipitation, and flue gas desulfurization systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chin-Min Cheng; Pauline Hack; Paul Chu; Yung-Nan Chang; Ting-Yu Lin; Chih-Sheng Ko; Po-Han Chiang; Cheng-Chun He; Yuan-Min Lai; Wei-Ping Pan

    2009-09-15

    A full-scale field study was carried out at a 795 MWe coal-fired power plant equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR), an electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems to investigate the distribution of selected trace elements (i.e., mercury, arsenic, selenium, boron, and chloride) from coal, FGD reagent slurry, makeup water to flue gas, solid byproduct, and wastewater streams. Flue gases were collected from the SCR outlet, ESP inlet, FGD inlet, and stack. Concurrent with flue gas sampling, coal, bottom ash, economizer ash, and samples from the FGD process were also collected for elemental analysis. By combining plant operation parameters, the overall material balances of selected elements were established. The removal efficiencies of As, Se, Hg, and B by the ESP unit were 88, 56, 17, and 8%, respectively. Only about 2.5% of Cl was condensed and removed from flue gas by fly ash. The FGD process removed over 90% of Cl, 77% of B, 76% of Hg, 30% of Se, and 5% of As. About 90% and 99% of the FGD-removed Hg and Se were associated with gypsum. For B and Cl, over 99% were discharged from the coal combustion process with the wastewater. Mineral trona (trisodium hydrogendicarbonate dehydrate, Na{sub 3}H(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O) was injected before the ESP unit to control the emission of sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}). By comparing the trace elements compositions in the fly ash samples collected from the locations before and after the trona injection, the injection of trona did not show an observable effect on the partitioning behaviors of selenium and arsenic, but it significantly increased the adsorption of mercury onto fly ash. The stack emissions of mercury, boron, selenium, and chloride were for the most part in the gas phase. 47 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

  19. Assess Policy Retire Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammack, Richard

    Assess Policy Need Retire Policy Revise Policy Evaluate Effectiveness Enforce Compliance Educate Employees Evaluate Risks to VCU Decide Course of Action Draft Policy Acquire Approval Communicate Policy Solicit Feedback Policy Lifecycle Page 1 of 3 #12;1. Assess need 2. Analyze impact on University

  20. Plasma-assisted catalytic reduction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogtlin, G.E.; Merritt, B.T.; Hsiao, M.C.; Wallman, P.H.; Penetrante, B.M.

    1998-01-27

    Non-thermal plasma gas treatment is combined with selective catalytic reduction to enhance NO{sub x} reduction in oxygen-rich vehicle engine exhausts. 8 figs.

  1. Dynamics of the UK Natural Gas Industry: System Dynamics Modelling and Long-Term Energy Policy Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chi, K. C.; Reiner, David; Nuttall, William J.

    of the allocation problem between oil and gas exploration and appraisal (E&A) drilling. The DTI “Brown Book” (DTI, 2007) reported the data on capital investment which included the total cost of exploration and appraisal drilling for oil and gas wells. To derive... the cost of gas E&A drilling alone we have calculated the share of successfully drilled gas wells against oil wells. This share gave us an approximation of investment that went on gas E&A. The methodology for calculating COE&A employed in this study...

  2. Status of flue-gas treatment technologies for combined SO[sub 2]/NO[sub x] reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Livengood, C.D. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.); Markussen, J.M. (USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments and passage of state legislation leading to more stringent nitrogen oxides (NO.) regulations have fueled research and development efforts on the technologies for the combined control of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) and NO[sub x]. The integrated removal of both SO[sub 2] and NO[sub x] in a single system can offer significant advantages over the use of several separate processes, including such factors as reduced system complexity, better operability, and lower costs. This paper reviews the status of a number of integrated flue-gas-cleanup systems that have reached a significant stage of development, focusing on post-combustion processes that have been tested or are ready for testing at the pilot scale or larger. A brief process description, a summary of the development status and performance achieved to date, pending commercialization issues, and process economics (when available) are given for each technology.

  3. Vietnam: A Forestry Investment Opportunity The proposed Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme (CPRS) is the Australian policy response to reduce the country's

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vietnam: A Forestry Investment Opportunity The proposed Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme (CPRS-exported as finished and semi-finished products. Since 1997 Vietnam has risen to become one of the world's largest

  4. International Experiences with Quantifying the Co-Benefits of Energy-Efficiency and Greenhouse-Gas Mitigation Programs and Policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    solar, wind, and biomass), non-energy sector technologyenergy technology are assessed. For electricity, fuels such as coal, natural gas, nuclear power, wind,

  5. Distributional Impacts of a U.S. Greenhouse Gas Policy: A General Equilibrium Analysis of Carbon Pricing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paltsev, Sergey

    We develop a new model of the U.S., the U.S. Regional Energy Policy (USREP) model that is resolved for large states and regions of the U.S. and by income class and apply the model to investigate a $15 per ton CO2 equivalent ...

  6. For more policy briefs, click here. Policy Brief 2014-03

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    For more policy briefs, click here. Policy Brief 2014-03 Energy and Climate Experts Find Wide Range is a leader in developing and implementing policies that reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, improve air or proposed policy targets and policy instruments. The California Climate Policy Modeling (CCPM) is an ongoing

  7. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options in ISEEM Global Energy Model: 2010-2050 Scenario Analysis for Least-Cost Carbon Reduction in Iron and Steel Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karali, Nihan

    2014-01-01

    Natural Gas Miscellaneous Oil TOTAL Energy Consumption of the China’Natural Gas Miscellaneous Oil TOTAL Energy Consumption of the China’Natural Gas Miscellaneous Oil TOTAL Energy Consumption of the China’

  8. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options in ISEEM Global Energy Model: 2010-2050 Scenario Analysis for Least-Cost Carbon Reduction in Iron and Steel Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karali, Nihan

    2014-01-01

    in BF N.A. Injection of coke oven gas in BF Top-pressureVariable speed drive coke oven gas compressors Coke dryin BF Injection of coke oven gas in BF Top-pressure recovery

  9. Greenhouse gas mitigation options for Washington State

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia, N.

    1996-04-01

    President Clinton, in 1993, established a goal for the United States to return emissions of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels by the year 2000. One effort established to help meet this goal was a three part Environmental Protection Agency state grant program. Washington State completed part one of this program with the release of the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory and 2010 projected inventory. This document completes part two by detailing alternative greenhouse gas mitigation options. In part three of the program EPA, working in partnership with the States, may help fund innovative greenhouse gas reduction strategies. The greenhouse gas control options analyzed in this report have a wide range of greenhouse gas reductions, costs, and implementation requirements. In order to select and implement a prudent mix of control strategies, policy makers need to have some notion of the potential change in climate, the consequences of that change and the uncertainties contained therein. By understanding the risks of climate change, policy makers can better balance the use of scarce public resources for concerns that are immediate and present against those that affect future generations. Therefore, prior to analyzing alternative greenhouse gas control measures, this report briefly describes the phenomenon and uncertainties of global climate change, and then projects the likely consequences for Washington state.

  10. Information technology and innovative drainage management practices for selenium load reduction from irrigated agriculture to provide stakeholder assurances and meet contaminant mass loading policy objectives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinn, N.W.T.

    2009-10-15

    Many perceive the implementation of environmental regulatory policy, especially concerning non-point source pollution from irrigated agriculture, as being less efficient in the United States than in many other countries. This is partly a result of the stakeholder involvement process but is also a reflection of the inability to make effective use of Environmental Decision Support Systems (EDSS) to facilitate technical information exchange with stakeholders and to provide a forum for innovative ideas for controlling non-point source pollutant loading. This paper describes one of the success stories where a standardized Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodology was modified to better suit regulation of a trace element in agricultural subsurface drainage and information technology was developed to help guide stakeholders, provide assurances to the public and encourage innovation while improving compliance with State water quality objectives. The geographic focus of the paper is the western San Joaquin Valley where, in 1985, evapoconcentration of selenium in agricultural subsurface drainage water, diverted into large ponds within a federal wildlife refuge, caused teratogenecity in waterfowl embryos and in other sensitive wildlife species. The fallout from this environmental disaster was a concerted attempt by State and Federal water agencies to regulate non-point source loads of the trace element selenium. The complexity of selenium hydrogeochemistry, the difficulty and expense of selenium concentration monitoring and political discord between agricultural and environmental interests created challenges to the regulation process. Innovative policy and institutional constructs, supported by environmental monitoring and the web-based data management and dissemination systems, provided essential decision support, created opportunities for adaptive management and ultimately contributed to project success. The paper provides a retrospective on the contentious planning process and offers suggestions as to how the technical and institutional issues could have been resolved faster through early adoption of some of the core principles of sound EDSS design.

  11. Policy Coversheet Policy Title: Green IT Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lucy, David

    Policy Coversheet Policy Title: Green IT Policy Policy reference number: SEC/2011/2/0316 Committee/ Office- assigned reference number: (if applicable) Name of Committee/ Office which approved the policy: Information Technology Policy Committee (ITPC) Date of committee/ office approval: 27 January 2010 Expiry date

  12. The Climate Policy Dilemma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pindyck, Robert S.

    Climate policy poses a dilemma for environmental economists. The economic argument for stringent greenhouse gas (GHG) abatement is far from clear. There is disagreement among both climate scientists and economists concerning ...

  13. Administration Policy Complete Policy Title

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hitchcock, Adam P.

    Administration Policy Complete Policy Title: Financial Accountability Policy for Student Organizations that receive Fee Remittances from the University Policy Number: Approved by: Associate Vice Recent Approval: November 2013 Date of Original Approval: Supersedes/Amends Policy dated: Guidelines

  14. Conference on natural gas use state regulation and market dynamics in the Post 636/Energy Policy Act Era: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    Reports in this Record of Proceedings explore a wide variety of issues related to the regulation of natural gas and its future role as one of the critical fuels that powers the economy of the United States. The focus is mainly on problems, obstacles, barriers, and the incredibly complex system created to bring a fuel from wellhead to burner tip. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  15. Policy on University Policies Policy on University Policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sridhar, Srinivas

    Policy on University Policies 10/16/2013 Policy on University Policies I. Purpose and Scope University policies promote the University's mission, enhance operational efficiency and University University policies. In order to promote accessibility to current policies, as well as consistency

  16. Essays on energy and environmental policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Novan, Kevin Michael

    2012-01-01

    1 Valuing the Wind: Renewable Energy Policies and Air Pollu-Emissions Reductions from Wind Energy: Location, Location,High-capacity factor wind energy systems, Jounal of Solar

  17. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of State Renewables Portfolio Standards in the United States: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Cliff

    2009-01-01

    Role of Forward Natural Gas Prices. ” Energy Policy, 34 (6):Downward Pressure on Natural Gas Prices. Energy Policy, 35(most obviously, natural gas prices (and price expectations)

  18. Administration Policy Complete Policy Title

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Michael

    Administration Policy Complete Policy Title: McMaster University Alcohol Policy Policy Number, 1998 Supersedes/Amends Policy dated: May 11, 1998 Responsible Executive: Vice-President (Administration policy and the written copy held by the policy owner, the written copy prevails. INTRODUCTION Mc

  19. Administration Policy Complete Policy Title

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Michael

    Administration Policy Complete Policy Title: Gifts and Awards Policy Policy Number: Approved by: President Date of Most Recent Approval: November 1, 2013 Date of Original Approval: Supersedes/Amends Policy DISCLAIMER: If there is a discrepancy between this electronic policy and the written copy held by the policy

  20. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options in ISEEM Global Energy Model: 2010-2050 Scenario Analysis for Least-Cost Carbon Reduction in Iron and Steel Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karali, Nihan

    2014-01-01

    systems in EAF plants Variable speed drives for flue gas control, pumps, fans in integrated steel mills Cogeneration

  1. Catalytic reduction system for oxygen-rich exhaust

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogtlin, G.E.; Merritt, B.T.; Hsiao, M.C.; Wallman, P.H.; Penetrante, B.M.

    1999-04-13

    Non-thermal plasma gas treatment is combined with selective catalytic reduction to enhance NO{sub x} reduction in oxygen-rich vehicle engine exhausts. 8 figs.

  2. Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction in the ENERGY STAR Commercial, Industrial and Residential Sectors. An Example of How the Refinery Industry is Capitalizing on ENERGY STAR 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patrick, K.

    2008-01-01

    to accomplish strategically a reduction in emissions. Through its development, ENERGY STAR has become an integral player with many Green Buildings Program to help them carry the energy efficiency banner to higher levels of cooperation. What is occurring today...

  3. Financial Policy Manual ACCOUNTING POLICIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George, Edward I.

    Financial Policy Manual Page 1 ACCOUNTING POLICIES 1101 General Accounting Policy ­ University Financial Activity 1102 General Accounting Policy ­ Financial Resources 1103 Accounting System Maintenance ACCOUNTING - UNIVERSITY FINANCIAL ACTIVITY Effective: December 1986 Revised: May 2006 Last Reviewed: March

  4. Incentives for Methane Mitigation and Energy-Efficiency Improvements in Case of Ukraine’s Natural Gas Transmission System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roshchanka, Volha; Evans, Meredydd

    2014-06-01

    Reducing methane losses is a concern for climate change policy and energy policy. The energy sector is the major source of methane emissions into the atmosphere. Reducing methane emissions and avoiding combustion can be very cost-effective, but various barriers prevent such energy-efficiency measures from taking place. To date, few examples of industry-wide improvements exist. One example of substantial investments into upgrading natural gas transmission system comes from Ukraine. The Ukrainian transmission company, Ukrtransgaz, reduced its own system’s natural gas consumption by 68 percent in 2011 compared to the level in 2005. Evaluating reductions in methane emissions is challenging because of lack of accurate data and gaps in accounting methodologies. At the same time, Ukraine’s transmission system has undergone improvements that, at the very least, have contained methane emissions, if not substantially reduced them. In this paper, we describe recent developments in Ukraine’s natural gas transmission system and analyze the incentives that forced the sector to pay close attention to its methane losses. Ukraine is one of most energy-intensive countries, among the largest natural gas consumers in the world, and a significant emitter of methane. The country is also dependent on imports of natural gas. A combination of steep increases in the price of imported natural gas, and comprehensive domestic environmental and energy policies, regional integration policy, and international environmental agreements has created conditions for successful methane emission and combustion reductions. Learning about such case studies can help us design better policies elsewhere.

  5. Limiting net greenhouse gas emissions in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, R A; Watts, E C; Williams, E R

    1991-09-01

    In 2988 the Congress requested DOE produce a study on carbon dioxide inventory and policy to provide an inventory of emissions sources and to analyze policies to achieve a 20% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions in 5 to 10 years and a 50% reduction in 15 to 20 years. This report presents the results of that study. Energy and environmental technology data were analyzed using computational analysis models. This information was then evaluated, drawing on current scientific understanding of global climate change, the possible consequences of anthropogenic climate change (change caused by human activity), and the relationship between energy production and use and the emission of radiactively important gases. Topics discussed include: energy and environmental technology to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, fossil energy production and electricity generation technologies, nuclear energy technology, renewable energy technologies, energy storage, transmission, and distribution technology, transportation, technology, industrial technology, residential and commercial building technology, greenhouse gas removal technology, approaches to restructuring the demand for energy.

  6. POLICY: A:VPFA # / Purchasing Policy PROCEDURES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Jeff

    POLICY: A:VPFA # / Purchasing Policy PROCEDURES: APPENDIX: Approved: April 1, 2013 Revised: Cross References: Purchasing Policy Capital Projects and Renovations Policy Conflict of Interest Policy Sustainability Policy Green Procurement Policy 1 of 9 PROCEDURES: Purchasing Policy AUTHORITY: University

  7. Energy related environmental policies in Turkey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaygusuz, K.; Bilgen, S.

    2008-07-01

    There is increasing consensus in both the scientific and political communities that significant reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are necessary to limit the magnitude and extent of climate change. Renewable energy systems already reduce GHG emissions from the energy sector, although on a modest scale. Turkey is heavily dependent on expensive imported energy resources (oil, gas, and coal) that place a big burden on the economy, and air pollution is becoming a great environmental concern in the country. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be one of the most efficient and effective solutions for clean and sustainable energy development in Turkey. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of these renewable energy sources. This article presents a review of the energy related environmental policies in Turkey.

  8. Demand Reduction

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Grantees may use funds to coordinate with electricity supply companies and utilities to reduce energy demands on their power systems. These demand reduction programs are usually coordinated through...

  9. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Renewables Portfolio Standards: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Role of Forward Natural Gas Prices. ” Energy Policy, 34 (6):Gas Crisis: Reducing Natural Gas Prices Through Increased56 8.3 Natural Gas Price

  10. THE ENVIRONMENT Green Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Sophie

    · reducing waste arising from food preparation by means of better stock control and portion management and of water · minimise waste and pollution and operate effective waste management and recycling procedures: · researching techniques to achieve energy and waste reduction · implementing stringent intra-College policies

  11. Analysis of International Policies In The Solar Electricity Sector: Lessons for India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deshmukh, Ranjit

    2011-01-01

    power policy. Solar power has tremendous potential in termslarge potential for cost reduction, especially in high solarlarge potential for cost reduction, especially in high solar

  12. Home Safety: Radon Gas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Bryan W.; Denny, Monica L.

    1999-11-12

    Every home should be tested for radon, an invisible, odorless, radioactive gas that occurs naturally. This publication explains the health risks, testing methods, and mitigation and reduction techniques....

  13. Trade Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashford, Nicholas A.

    2014-01-01

    In an otherwise insightful and thoughtful article, Sebastian Pfotenhauer (Trade Policy Is Science Policy,” Issues, Fall 2013) might better have entitled his contribution “Trade Policy Needs to Be Reconciled with Science ...

  14. Putting downward pressure on natural gas prices: The impact of renewable energy and energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; St. Clair, Matthew

    2004-05-20

    Increased deployment of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) is expected to reduce natural gas demand and in turn place downward pressure on gas prices. A number of recent modeling studies include an evaluation of this effect. Based on data compiled from those studies summarized in this paper, each 1% reduction in national natural gas demand appears likely to lead to a long-term average wellhead gas price reduction of 0.75% to 2.5%, with some studies predicting even more sizable reductions. Reductions in wellhead prices will reduce wholesale and retail electricity rates, and will also reduce residential, commercial, and industrial gas bills. We further find that many of these studies appear to represent the potential impact of RE and EE on natural gas prices within the bounds of current knowledge, but that current knowledge of how to estimate this effect is extremely limited. While more research is therefore needed, existing studies suggest that it is not unreasonable to expect that any increase in consumer electricity costs attributable to RE and/or EE deployment may be substantially offset by the corresponding reduction in delivered natural gas prices. This effect represents a wealth transfer (from natural gas producers to consumers) rather than a net gain in social welfare, and is therefore not a standard motivation for policy intervention on economic grounds. Reducing gas prices and thereby redistributing wealth may still be of importance in policy circles, however, and may be viewed in those circles as a positive ancillary effect of RE and EE deployment.

  15. Easing the natural gas crisis: Reducing natural gas prices through increased deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; St. Clair, Matt

    2004-12-21

    Heightened natural gas prices have emerged as a key energy-policy challenge for at least the early part of the 21st century. With the recent run-up in gas prices and the expected continuation of volatile and high prices in the near future, a growing number of voices are calling for increased diversification of energy supplies. Proponents of renewable energy and energy efficiency identify these clean energy sources as an important part of the solution. Increased deployment of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) can hedge natural gas price risk in more than one way, but this paper touches on just one potential benefit: displacement of gas-fired electricity generation, which reduces natural gas demand and thus puts downward pressure on gas prices. Many recent modeling studies of increased RE and EE deployment have demonstrated that this ''secondary'' effect of lowering natural gas prices could be significant; as a result, this effect is increasingly cited as justification for policies promoting RE and EE. This paper summarizes recent studies that have evaluated the gas-price-reduction effect of RE and EE deployment, analyzes the results of these studies in light of economic theory and other research, reviews the reasonableness of the effect as portrayed in modeling studies, and develops a simple tool that can be used to evaluate the impact of RE and EE on gas prices without relying on a complex national energy model. Key findings are summarized.

  16. PHYSICAL PLANT OPERATING POLICY AND PROCEDURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gelfond, Michael

    natural gas supply contract and gas transportation agreement when required for Texas Tech UniversityPHYSICAL PLANT OPERATING POLICY AND PROCEDURE PP/OP 05.09: Gas Supply and Transportation Contract, 2010 Page 2 PP/OP 05.09 d. Gas Transportation Agreement - Two main gas transportation lines serve

  17. Greenhouse Gas Abatement with Distributed Generation in California's Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael; Lipman, Tim; Lai, Judy; Cardoso, Goncalo; Megel, Olivier

    2009-09-01

    The motivation and objective of this research is to determine the role of distributed generation (DG) in greenhouse gas reductions by: (1) applying the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM); (2) using the California Commercial End-Use Survey (CEUS) database for commercial buildings; (3) selecting buildings with electric peak loads between 100 kW and 5 MW; (4) considering fuel cells, micro-turbines, internal combustion engines, gas turbines with waste heat utilization, solar thermal, and PV; (5) testing of different policy instruments, e.g. feed-in tariff or investment subsidies.

  18. Greenhouse gas and air pollutant emission reduction potentials of renewable energy - case studies on photovoltaic and wind power introduction considering interactions among technologies in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu-Ming Kuo; Yasuhiro Fukushima

    2009-03-15

    To achieve higher energy security and lower emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and pollutants, the development of renewable energy has attracted much attention in Taiwan. In addition to its contribution to the enhancement of reliable indigenous resources, the introduction of renewable energy such as photovoltaic (PV) and wind power systems reduces the emission of GHGs and air pollutants by substituting a part of the carbon- and pollutant-intensive power with power generated by methods that are cleaner and less carbon-intensive. To evaluate the reduction potentials, consequential changes in the operation of different types of existing power plants have to be taken into account. In this study, a linear mathematical programming model is constructed to simulate a power mix for a given power demand in a power market sharing a cost-minimization objective. By applying the model, the emission reduction potentials of capacity extension case studies, including the enhancement of PV and wind power introduction at different scales, were assessed. In particular, the consequences of power mix changes in carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, and particulates were discussed. Seasonally varying power demand levels, solar irradiation, and wind strength were taken into account. In this study, we have found that the synergetic reduction of carbon dioxide emission induced by PV and wind power introduction occurs under a certain level of additional installed capacity. Investigation of a greater variety of case studies on scenario development with emerging power sources becomes possible by applying the model developed in this study. 15 refs., 8 figs., 11 tabs.

  19. Essays in monetary policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lakdawala, Aeimit Kirti

    2012-01-01

    Monetary Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.11.2.3 Optimal Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Monetary policy shocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  20. Achieving California’s Land Use and Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emission Targets Under AB 32: An Exploration of Potential Policy Processes and Mechanisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaheen, Susan A.; Bejamin-Chung, Jade; Allen, Denise; Howe-Steiger, Linda

    2009-01-01

    bioethanol fuels in Brazil and liquefied petroleum gas or LPG taxis in Tokyo Brazil ? Brazilian National Alcohol Programme: supports production

  1. NOx reduction methods and apparatuses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tonkyn, Russell G.; Barlow, Stephan E.; Balmer, M. Lou; Maupin, Gary D.

    2004-10-26

    A NO.sub.x reduction method includes treating a first gas containing NO.sub.x, producing a second gas containing NO.sub.2, reducing a portion of the NO.sub.2 in the second gas to N.sub.2, and producing a third gas containing less NO.sub.x than the first gas, substantially all of the third gas NO.sub.x being NO. The method also includes treating the third gas, producing a fourth gas containing NO.sub.2, reducing a portion of the NO.sub.2 in the fourth gas to N.sub.2, and producing a fifth gas containing less NO.sub.x than the third gas, substantially all of the fifth gas NO.sub.x being NO. Treating the first and/or third gas can include treatment with a plasma. Reducing a portion of the NO.sub.2 in the second and/or fourth gas can include reducing with a catalyst. The method can further include controlling energy consumption of the plasmas independent of each other.

  2. Plant-Wide NOx Reduction Strategies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baukal, C.; Waibel, D.; Webster, T.

    2006-01-01

    flue gases into the flame is a proven technique for reducing NOx emissions (see Figure 6). There are two common ways to recirculate combustion exhaust products through a flame – flue gas recirculation (FGR) and internal flue gas recirculation... reduces NOx. Garg (1992) estimated NOx reductions of up to 50% using flue gas recirculation [7]. combustor burner fuel recirculated combustion products air ID fan to atmosphere Figure 7. Schematic of flue gas recirculation [8]. Internal flue gas...

  3. Greenhouse Gas Abatement with Distributed Generation in California's Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marnay, Chris

    2010-01-01

    BERKELEY NATIONAL LABORATORY Greenhouse Gas Abatement withan equal opportunity employer. Greenhouse Gas Abatement withgeneration (DG) in greenhouse gas reductions by * a p p l y

  4. Tapping Landfill Gas to Provide Significant Energy Savings and...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Tapping Landfill Gas to Provide Significant Energy Savings and Greenhouse Gas Reductions - Case Study, 2013 Tapping Landfill Gas to Provide Significant Energy Savings and...

  5. Administration Policy Complete Policy Title

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Michael

    Administration Policy Complete Policy Title: Office of Legal Services & Access to External Legal Responsible Executive: Vice-President (Administration) Enquiries: University Secretariat DISCLAIMER for retention of external counsel for University legal matters; and · the administrative and financial oversight

  6. English Language Policy 1 English Language Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    University of Technology, Sydney

    English Language Policy 1 English Language Policy Abstract This Policy sets out the University their courses of study. Dates Policy approved Policy takes effect Policy is due for review (up to five years) 03/11/2010 22/11/2010 11/2015 Policy amendment approved Policy amendment takes effect 11/12/2014 19

  7. Green Industrial Policy: Trade and Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karp, Larry; Stevenson, Megan

    2012-01-01

    power and China emphasizes wind power. A broad based policy,Nevertheless, solar and wind power, two of the fastestinclude a tax reduction for wind power projects and lowered

  8. Valve for gas centrifuges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hahs, C.A.; Rurbage, C.H.

    1982-03-17

    The invention is pneumatically operated valve assembly for simulatenously (1) closing gas-transfer lines connected to a gas centrifuge or the like and (2) establishing a recycle path between two on the lines so closed. The value assembly is especially designed to be compact, fast-acting, reliable, and comparatively inexpensive. It provides large reductions in capital costs for gas-centrifuge cascades.

  9. Putting policy in drive : coordinating measures to reduce fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions from U.S. light-duty vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Christopher W. (Christopher William)

    2008-01-01

    The challenges of energy security and climate change have prompted efforts to reduce fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions in light-duty vehicles within the United States. Failures in the market for lower rates of fuel ...

  10. natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery+ water creation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    flue gas heat recovery+ water creation+ CO2 reduction+ cool exhaust gases+ Energy efficiency+ commercial building energy efficiency+ industrial energy efficiency+ power plant...

  11. Identify Petroleum Reduction Strategies for Vehicles and Mobile Equipment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As defined by the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction strategies for Federal vehicles and equipment are based on the three driving principles of petroleum reduction: Reduce vehicle miles traveled Improve fuel efficiency Use alternative fuels.

  12. Navigating the Numbers: Greenhouse Gas Data and International...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Navigating the Numbers: Greenhouse Gas Data and International Climate Policy Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Navigating the Numbers: Greenhouse Gas Data...

  13. Integrability Singular reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patrick, George

    Motivation Integrability Singular reduction Integration of Singular quotients Summary References Singular reduction of Poisson manifolds and integrability Rui L. Fernandes1 Joint work with J.P. Ortega Fernandes Singular reduction and integrability #12;Motivation Integrability Singular reduction Integration

  14. University Policy Process Policy Development Checklist

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rev. 5/09 University Policy Process Policy Development Checklist The University Policy Office (UPO) has designed the Policy Development Checklist to assist you develop or revise university policy. This document provides a basic framework to follow as you navigate through the policy process. Policy

  15. UNIVERSITY POLICY DEVELOPMENT AND PUBLICATION Policy Statement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Robert D.

    Page 1 UNIVERSITY POLICY DEVELOPMENT AND PUBLICATION Policy Statement All University Policies must be developed, approved and published in accordance with the standards outlined in this Policy and must be published on the University's central policy web page. Reason for Policy/Purpose This Policy is required

  16. Energy Policy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Energy Department is focusing on an all-of-the-above energy policy, investing in all sources of American energy.

  17. Calculator Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    charlotb

    2015-06-10

    MA 15300Y Calculator Policy. ONLY a computer desktop calculator in scientific view is allowed on exams. If you have questions, please email the course ...

  18. Calculator Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    charlotb

    2015-08-21

    MA 15300 Calculator Policy. ONLY a TI-30Xa scientific calculator is allowed on quizzes and exams. If you have questions, please email the course coordinator ...

  19. CO2 emissions mitigation and fossil fuel markets: Dynamic and international aspects of climate policies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, Nico; Bosetti, Valentina; Hamdi-Cherif, Meriem; Kitous, Alban; McCollum, David; Mejean, Aurelie; Rao, Shilpa; Turton, Hal; Paroussos, Leonidas; Ashina, Shuichi; Calvin, Katherine V.; Wada, Kenichi; Van Vuuren, Detlef

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores a multi-model scenario ensemble to assess the impacts of idealized and non-idealized climate change stabilization policies on fossil fuel markets. Under idealized conditions climate policies significantly reduce coal use in the short- and long-term. Reductions in oil and gas use are much smaller, particularly until 2030, but revenues decrease much more because oil and gas prices are higher and decrease with mitigation. A first deviation from the optimal transition pathway relaxes global emission targets until 2030, in accordance with the Copenhagen pledges and regionally-specific low-carbon technology targets. Fossil fuel markets revert back to the no-policy case: though coal use increases strongest, revenue gains are higher for oil and gas. To balance the carbon budget over the 21st century, the long-term reallocation of fossil fuels is significantly larger - twice and more - than the short-term distortion. This amplifying effect results from coal lock-in and inter-fuel substitution effects. The second deviation from the optimal transition pathway relaxes the global participation assumption. The result here is less clear cut across models, as we find carbon leakage effects ranging from positive to negative because leakage and substitution patterns of coal, oil, and gas differ. In summary, distortions of fossil fuel markets resulting from relaxed short-term global emission targets are more important and less uncertain than the issue of carbon leakage from early mover action.

  20. CO? emission mitigation and fossil fuel markets: Dynamic and international aspects of climate policies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, Nico; Bosetti, Valentina; Hamdi-Cherif, Meriem; Kitous, Alban; McCollum, David; Méjean, Aurélie; Rao, Shilpa; Turton, Hal; Paroussos, Leonidas; Ashina, Shuichi; Calvin, Katherine; Wada, Kenichi; van Vuuren, Detlef

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores a multi-model scenario ensemble to assess the impacts of idealized and non-idealized climate change stabilization policies on fossil fuel markets. Under idealized conditions climate policies significantly reduce coal use in the short- and long-term. Reductions in oil and gas use are much smaller, particularly until 2030, but revenues decrease much more because oil and gas prices are higher than coal prices. A first deviation from optimal transition pathways is delayed action that relaxes global emission targets until 2030 in accordance with the Copenhagen pledges. Fossil fuel markets revert back to the no-policy case: though coal use increases strongest, revenue gains are higher for oil and gas. To balance the carbon budget over the 21st century, the long-term reallocation of fossil fuels is significantly larger—twice and more—than the short-term distortion. This amplifying effect results from coal lock-in and inter-fuel substitution effects to balance the full-century carbon budget. The second deviation from the optimal transition pathway relaxes the global participation assumption. The result here is less clear-cut across models, as we find carbon leakage effects ranging from positive to negative because trade and substitution patterns of coal, oil, and gas differ across models. In summary, distortions of fossil fuel markets resulting from relaxed short-term global emission targets are more important and less uncertain than the issue of carbon leakage from early mover action.

  1. CO? emission mitigation and fossil fuel markets: Dynamic and international aspects of climate policies

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bauer, Nico; Bosetti, Valentina; Hamdi-Cherif, Meriem; Kitous, Alban; McCollum, David; Méjean, Aurélie; Rao, Shilpa; Turton, Hal; Paroussos, Leonidas; Ashina, Shuichi; et al

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores a multi-model scenario ensemble to assess the impacts of idealized and non-idealized climate change stabilization policies on fossil fuel markets. Under idealized conditions climate policies significantly reduce coal use in the short- and long-term. Reductions in oil and gas use are much smaller, particularly until 2030, but revenues decrease much more because oil and gas prices are higher than coal prices. A first deviation from optimal transition pathways is delayed action that relaxes global emission targets until 2030 in accordance with the Copenhagen pledges. Fossil fuel markets revert back to the no-policy case: though coal use increasesmore »strongest, revenue gains are higher for oil and gas. To balance the carbon budget over the 21st century, the long-term reallocation of fossil fuels is significantly larger—twice and more—than the short-term distortion. This amplifying effect results from coal lock-in and inter-fuel substitution effects to balance the full-century carbon budget. The second deviation from the optimal transition pathway relaxes the global participation assumption. The result here is less clear-cut across models, as we find carbon leakage effects ranging from positive to negative because trade and substitution patterns of coal, oil, and gas differ across models. In summary, distortions of fossil fuel markets resulting from relaxed short-term global emission targets are more important and less uncertain than the issue of carbon leakage from early mover action.« less

  2. CO2 emission mitigation and fossil fuel markets: Dynamic and international aspects of climate policies

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bauer, Nico; Bosetti, Valentina; Hamdi-Cherif, Meriem; Kitous, Alban; McCollum, David; Méjean, Aurélie; Rao, Shilpa; Turton, Hal; Paroussos, Leonidas; Ashina, Shuichi; et al

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores a multi-model scenario ensemble to assess the impacts of idealized and non-idealized climate change stabilization policies on fossil fuel markets. Under idealized conditions climate policies significantly reduce coal use in the short- and long-term. Reductions in oil and gas use are much smaller, particularly until 2030, but revenues decrease much more because oil and gas prices are higher than coal prices. A first deviation from optimal transition pathways is delayed action that relaxes global emission targets until 2030 in accordance with the Copenhagen pledges. Fossil fuel markets revert back to the no-policy case: though coal use increasesmore »strongest, revenue gains are higher for oil and gas. To balance the carbon budget over the 21st century, the long-term reallocation of fossil fuels is significantly larger—twice and more—than the short-term distortion. This amplifying effect results from coal lock-in and inter-fuel substitution effects to balance the full-century carbon budget. The second deviation from the optimal transition pathway relaxes the global participation assumption. The result here is less clear-cut across models, as we find carbon leakage effects ranging from positive to negative because trade and substitution patterns of coal, oil, and gas differ across models. In summary, distortions of fossil fuel markets resulting from relaxed short-term global emission targets are more important and less uncertain than the issue of carbon leakage from early mover action.« less

  3. Building Energy-Efficiency Best Practice Policies and Policy Packages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levine, Mark; Can, Stephane de la Rue de; Zheng, Nina; Williams, Christopher; Amman, Jennifer; Staniaszek, Dan

    2012-10-26

    This report addresses the single largest source of greenhouse gas emissions and the greatest opportunity to reduce these emissions. The IPCC 4th Assessment Report estimates that globally 35% to 40% of all energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions (relative to a growing baseline) result from energy use in buildings. Emissions reductions from a combination of energy efficiency and conservation (using less energy) in buildings have the potential to cut emissions as much as all other energy-using sectors combined. This is especially the case for China, India and other developing countries that are expected to account for 80% or more of growth in building energy use worldwide over the coming decades. In short, buildings constitute the largest opportunity to mitigate climate change and special attention needs to be devoted to developing countries. At the same time, the buildings sector has been particularly resistant to achieving this potential. Technology in other sectors has advanced more rapidly than in buildings. In the recent past, automobile companies have made large investments in designing, engineering, and marketing energy efficient and alternative fuel vehicles that reduce greenhouse gas emissions. At the same time, the buildings sector – dependent on millions and millions of decisions by consumers and homeowners – face a large variety of market barriers that cause very substantial underinvestment in energy efficiency. How can the trajectory of energy use in buildings be changed to reduce the associated CO{sub 2} emissions? Is it possible to greatly accelerate this change? The answer to these questions depends on policy, technology, and behavior. Can policies be crafted and implemented to drive the trajectory down? Can the use of existing energy efficiency technologies be increased greatly and new technologies developed and brought to market? And what is the role of behavior in reducing or increasing energy use in buildings? These are the three overarching issues. The information assembled in this study and the knowledge derived from it needs to be brought to bear on these three questions. And thus we turn to some of the insights from the study, presented in the form of findings and recommendation.

  4. Petroleum Reduction Strategies to Improve Vehicle Fuel Efficiency

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For reducing greenhouse gas emissions, the table below describes petroleum reduction strategies to improve vehicle fuel efficiency, as well as guidance and best practices for each strategy.

  5. Petroleum Reduction Strategies to Reduce Vehicle Miles Traveled

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For reducing greenhouse gas emissions, the table below describes petroleum reduction strategies to reduce vehicle miles traveled, as well as guidance and best practices for each strategy.

  6. Climate and energy policy for U.S. passenger vehicles : a technology-rich economic modeling and policy analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karplus, Valerie J

    2011-01-01

    Climate and energy security concerns have prompted policy action in the United States and abroad to reduce petroleum use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from passenger vehicles. Policy affects the decisions of firms and ...

  7. Reduction of NOx Emissions in Alamo Area Council of Government Projects 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J. S.; Zhu, Y.; Im, P.

    2004-01-01

    This reports summarizes the electricity, natural gas and NOx emissions reductions from retrofit measures reported as part of the AACOG emissions reduction effort. The electricity and natural gas savings were collected by ...

  8. Rural Food Security in Tigray, Ethiopia: Policy Impact Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rural Food Security in Tigray, Ethiopia: Policy Impact Evaluation Tagel Gebrehiwot March, 2008 #12;Rural Food Security in Tigary, Ethiopia: Policy Impact Evaluation by Tagel Gebrehiwot Thesis submitted on the effectiveness of food security policy in ensuring rural food security and poverty reduction in Tigray region

  9. NuclearHydrogen Oil and gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birmingham, University of

    Policy NuclearHydrogen Transport Education Oil and gas Distribution Society Supply Ecology Demand Hydrogen 08 Policy and society 10 Environment 11 Transport 12 Manufacturing 14 Oil and gas 15 Nuclear 16 and infrastructure, and broaden our methods of generation. Our declining reserves of oil and gas must be repla

  10. Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1997-10-01

    This report serves as the technology basis of a needed national climate change technology strategy, with the confidence that a strong technology R&D program will deliver a portfolio of technologies with the potential to provide very substantial greenhouse gas emission reductions along with continued economic growth. Much more is needed to define such a strategy, including identification of complementary deployment policies and analysis to support the seeping and prioritization of R&D programs. A national strategy must be based upon governmental, industrial, and academic partnerships.

  11. 2 Key Achievements 7 Greenhouse Gas Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DomesticWater Stormwater Management 26 Research, Education & Civic Engagement Research & Education Student conservation, and research, education, and civic engagement. In addition to providing further statistical since 2008, even with the addition of more than 560,000 square feet of building space. · Electricity

  12. Danish Greenhouse Gas Reduction Scenarios for 2020

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .4 ECONOMIC GROWTH 51 2.5 GROWTH IN ENERGY SERVICES 52 2.6 FUEL PRICES 53 2.7 CO2-PRICE 54 2.8 TECHNOLOGY DATA to coordinate the assumptions of the reference projections for 2020 with the Danish Energy Authority Analyses The work has been followed by a project steering group with representatives from Danish

  13. Technologies and Policies to Improve Energy Efficiency in Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    of Policy Instruments for Energy-Efficiency Improvements inand Graus, W. , 2007. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Costimplementation of energy-efficiency and greenhouse gas

  14. Aluminum reduction cell electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, J.R.

    1983-09-20

    The invention is directed to an anode-cathode structure for an electrolytic cell for the reduction of alumina wherein the structure is comprised of a carbon anode assembly which straddles a wedge-shaped refractory hard metal cathode assembly having steeply sloped cathodic surfaces, each cathodic surface being paired in essentially parallel planar relationship with an anode surface. The anode-cathode structure not only takes into account the structural weakness of refractory hard metal materials but also permits the changing of the RHM assembly during operation of the cell. Further, the anode-cathode structure enhances the removal of anode gas from the interpolar gap between the anode and cathode surfaces. 10 figs.

  15. Gas supplies of interstate/natural gas pipeline companies 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-18

    This publication provides information on the interstate pipeline companies' supply of natural gas during calendar year 1989, for use by the FERC for regulatory purposes. It also provides information to other Government agencies, the natural gas industry, as well as policy makers, analysts, and consumers interested in current levels of interstate supplies of natural gas and trends over recent years. 5 figs., 18 tabs.

  16. Emerging Energy-efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions-reduction Technologies for the Iron and Steel Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    sulfur dioxide smelting reduction smelting reduction iron three-dimensional tonne top-gas recycling blast furnace tonnes per day ultra-low-

  17. Revisiting the Long-Term Hedge Value of Wind Power in an Era of Low Natural Gas Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Downward Pressure on Natural Gas Prices? ” Energy Policy.Tensions at the Nexus of Natural Gas and Renewable Energy. ”Profiles of Renewable and Natural Gas Electricity Contracts:

  18. POLICY FLASH

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    a new policy requiring a small business that merges or is acquired to recertify itself as small on all current contracts. The recertification does not affect the status of the...

  19. The Essential Role of State Enforcement in the Brave New World of Greenhouse Gas Emission Limits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bogoshian, Matt; Alex, Ken

    2009-01-01

    the Brave New World of Greenhouse Gas Emission Limits MattNATURE AND EXTENT OF THE GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSION REDUCTIONa similar situation with greenhouse gas emission reductions.

  20. April 2014 POLICY BRIEF 15 Blent Aras

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yanikoglu, Berrin

    government has pursued a policy to utilize the leverage of oil and natural gas projects and pipeline policies in order to evolve to an influential player in regional politics and in energy security in the East a multidimensional diplomacy that centred on the occupied territories and the efficient use of natural resources

  1. Office of the President University Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    as throwing stars), tear gas gun, chemical weapon or device, electric conductive device (either contact gun) which will, is designed to, or may readily be converted to expel a projectile by the actionOffice of the President University Policy SUBJECT: Effective Date: Policy Number: WEAPONS

  2. Revisiting the Long-Term Hedge Value of Wind Power in an Era of Low Natural Gas Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Downward Pressure on Natural Gas Prices? ” Energy Policy.The Role of Forward Natural Gas Prices” Energy Policy. Volwithin an era of low natural gas prices, and even if the PTC

  3. Valve for gas centrifuges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hahs, Charles A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Burbage, Charles H. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a pneumatically operated valve assembly for simultaneously (1) closing gas-transfer lines connected to a gas centrifuge or the like and (2) establishing a recycle path between two of the lines so closed. The valve assembly is especially designed to be compact, fast-acting, reliable, and comparatively inexpensive. It provides large reductions in capital costs for gas-centrifuge cascades.

  4. Policies, Procedures and Guidelines Complete Policy Title

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Michael

    - Research vs. Operating Activities Appendix C - Types of Research Agreements #12;Research Accounts PolicyPolicies, Procedures and Guidelines Complete Policy Title: Research Accounts Policy Policy Number, Interim V-P (Administration) Mo Elbestawi, V-P (Research and International Affairs) John Kelton, Dean & V

  5. POLICY TEMPLATE Policy on Administrative Student

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fletcher, Robin

    POLICY TEMPLATE Policy on Administrative Student Surveys Category: Leave this blank; a category will be assigned Approval: The University Secretary, on the advice of the Policy Advisory Subcommittee/Reason for Policy: This policy is intended to facilitate efficient, effective and high quality student survey

  6. Limiting net greenhouse gas emissions in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, R A; Watts, E C; Williams, E R

    1991-09-01

    In 1988, Congress requested that DOE produce a study on carbon dioxide inventory and policy to provide an inventory of emissions sources and to analyze policies to achieve a 20% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions in 5 to 10 years and a 50% reduction in 15 to 20 years. Energy and environmental technology data were analyzed using computational analysis models. This information was then evaluated, drawing on current scientific understanding of global climate change, the possible consequences of anthropogenic climate change (change caused by human activity) and the relationship between energy production and use and the emission of radiatively important gases. Topics discussed include: state of the science in estimating atmosphere/climate change relationships, the potential consequences of atmosphere/climate change, us greenhouse emissions past and present, an approach to analyzing the technical potential and cost of reducing US energy-related greenhouse gas emissions, current policy base and National Energy Strategy actions, fiscal instruments, regulatory instruments, combined strategies and instruments, macroeconomic impacts, carbon taxation and international trade, a comparison to other studies.

  7. The Venezuelan natural gas industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silva, P.V.; Hernandez, N.

    1988-01-01

    Venezuela's consumption energy of comes from three primary sources: hydroelectricity, liquid hydrocarbons and natural gas. In 1986, the energy consumption in the internal market was 95.5 thousand cubic meters per day of oil equivalent, of which 32% was natural gas, 46% liquid hydrocarbons and 22% hydroelectricity. The Venezuelan energy policy established natural gas usage after hydroelectricity, as a substitute of liquid hydrocarbons, in order to increase exports of these. This policy permits a solid development of the natural gas industry, which is covered in this paper.

  8. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions: Voluntary reporting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-10-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report on their emissions of greenhouse gases, and on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions or sequestered carbon, to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). This, the second annual report of the Voluntary Reporting Program, describes information provided by the participating organizations on their aggregate emissions and emissions reductions, as well as their emissions reduction or avoidance projects, through 1995. This information has been compiled into a database that includes reports from 142 organizations and descriptions of 967 projects that either reduced greenhouse gas emissions or sequestered carbon. Fifty-one reporters also provided estimates of emissions, and emissions reductions achieved, for their entire organizations. The projects described actions taken to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide from energy production and use; to reduce methane and nitrous oxide emissions from energy use, waste management, and agricultural processes; to reduce emissions of halocarbons, such as CFCs and their replacements; and to increase carbon sequestration.

  9. Financial Policy Manual RISK MANAGEMENT POLICIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plotkin, Joshua B.

    Financial Policy Manual Page 1 RISK MANAGEMENT POLICIES 2601 Departmental Scope & Responsibility;Financial Policy Manual Page 1 2601 DEPARTMENTAL SCOPE & RESPONSIBILITY Subject: Risk Management & Insurance Effective: December 1986 Revised: May 2011 Last Reviewed: March 2014 Resp. Office: Risk Management

  10. Practitioner Perspectives Matter: Public Policy and Private Investment in the U.S. Electric Power Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barradale, Merrill Jones

    2010-01-01

    role of forward natural gas prices. ” Energy Policy Bonavia,2001). “Which way the natural gas price: an attempt tofor the case of natural gas prices. This is an example of

  11. The effects of interactions between federal and state climate policies : implications for federal climate policy design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGuinness, Meghan

    2008-01-01

    In the absence of a federal policy to cap greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions many states are moving forward with their own initiatives, which currently range from announcements of commitments to reduce greenhouse gases to a ...

  12. Direct electrochemical reduction of metal-oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, Laszlo I. (Downers Grove, IL); Gourishankar, Karthick (Downers Grove, IL)

    2003-01-01

    A method of controlling the direct electrolytic reduction of a metal oxide or mixtures of metal oxides to the corresponding metal or metals. A non-consumable anode and a cathode and a salt electrolyte with a first reference electrode near the non-consumable anode and a second reference electrode near the cathode are used. Oxygen gas is produced and removed from the cell. The anode potential is compared to the first reference electrode to prevent anode dissolution and gas evolution other than oxygen, and the cathode potential is compared to the second reference electrode to prevent production of reductant metal from ions in the electrolyte.

  13. Voluntary Agreements for Energy Efficiency or GHG EmissionsReduction in Industry: An Assessment of Programs Around the World

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn

    2005-06-01

    Voluntary agreements for energy efficiency improvement and reduction of energy-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been a popular policy instrument for the industrial sector in industrialized countries since the 1990s. A number of these national-level voluntary agreement programs are now being modified and strengthened, while additional countries--including some recently industrialized and developing countries--are adopting these type of agreements in an effort to increase the energy efficiency of their industrial sectors.Voluntary agreement programs can be roughly divided into three broad categories: (1) programs that are completely voluntary, (2) programs that use the threat of future regulations or energy/GHG emissions taxes as a motivation for participation, and (3) programs that are implemented in conjunction with an existing energy/GHG emissions tax policy or with strict regulations. A variety of government-provided incentives as well as penalties are associated with these programs. This paper reviews 23 energy efficiency or GHG emissions reduction voluntary agreement programs in 18 countries, including countries in Europe, the U.S., Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, South Korea, and Chinese Taipei (Taiwan) and discusses preliminary lessons learned regarding program design and effectiveness. The paper notes that such agreement programs, in which companies inventory and manage their energy use and GHG emissions to meet specific reduction targets, are an essential first step towards GHG emissions trading programs.

  14. UNIVERSITY POLICY ON EQUAL OPPORTUNITY Policy Statement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vertes, Akos

    UNIVERSITY POLICY ON EQUAL OPPORTUNITY Policy Statement The university is an Equal Employment, or on any other basis prohibited by applicable law in any of its programs or activities. Reason for Policy/Purpose This policy is necessary to re-affirm the university's commitment and for compliance with Title VII

  15. Committee on Educational Policy MAJOR QUALIFICATION POLICY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Committee on Educational Policy MAJOR QUALIFICATION POLICY CEP encourages all undergraduate to formalize these guidelines by implementing a policy that restricts qualification to one or more majors. CEP of the major qualifications policy on other undergraduate programs; · discuss the potential effects

  16. LIQUOR POLICY University Policy No.: AD2400

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    Page 1 LIQUOR POLICY University Policy No.: AD2400 Classification: Administration Approving and Appendices: Procedures Associated with the University Liquor Policy Appendix ,,A - Licensed Establishments on University Property PURPOSE 1.00 The purpose of this policy is to: set out requirements regarding

  17. Policy #3012 Safety and Security Policy 1 OLD DOMINION UNIVERSITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Policy #3012 ­ Safety and Security Policy 1 OLD DOMINION UNIVERSITY University Policy Policy #3012;Policy #3012 ­ Safety and Security Policy 2 C. DEFINITIONS Campus - The term "campus" means (1) any

  18. Natural Gas Exports from Iran

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2012-01-01

    This assessment of the natural gas sector in Iran, with a focus on Iran’s natural gas exports, was prepared pursuant to section 505 (a) of the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 2012 (Public Law No: 112-158). As requested, it includes: (1) an assessment of exports of natural gas from Iran; (2) an identification of the countries that purchase the most natural gas from Iran; (3) an assessment of alternative supplies of natural gas available to those countries; (4) an assessment of the impact a reduction in exports of natural gas from Iran would have on global natural gas supplies and the price of natural gas, especially in countries identified under number (2); and (5) such other information as the Administrator considers appropriate.

  19. Rural electrification, climate change, and local economies: Facilitating communication in development policy and practice on Nicaragua's Atlantic Coast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Casillas, Christian E.

    2012-01-01

    reducing risk: renewable energy policies for Nicaragua  ( policies Energy Supply  Reduction of fossil fuel subsidies  Taxes or carbon charges on fossil fuels   Feed?in tariffs for renewable 

  20. Policy Research Working Paper 5332 Energy Access, Efficiency, and Poverty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gertz, Michael

    Policy Research Working Paper 5332 Energy Access, Efficiency, and Poverty How Many Households, and estimates the household minimum energy requirement that could be used as a basis for an energy poverty line of a larger effort in the department to understand the role of energy in growth and poverty reduction. Policy

  1. Greenhouse gas performance standards: From each according to his emission intensity or from each according to his emissions?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Hughes, and C.R. Knittel. Greenhouse Gas Reductions underoil sands industry’s greenhouse gas emissions. EnvironmentalA cost curve for greenhouse gas reduction. McKinsey

  2. LIQUID NATURAL GAS (LNG): AN ALTERNATIVE FUEL FROM LANDFILL GAS (LFG) AND WASTEWATER DIGESTER GAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VANDOR,D.

    1999-03-01

    This Research and Development Subcontract sought to find economic, technical and policy links between methane recovery at landfill and wastewater treatment sites in New York and Maryland, and ways to use that methane as an alternative fuel--compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquid natural gas (LNG) -- in centrally fueled Alternative Fueled Vehicles (AFVs).

  3. User Policy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired SolarAbout /Two0 - 19PortalStatusUserUser FacilityUser GuidePolicy

  4. Web Policies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDidDevelopmentat LENA|UpcomingVisit12/10/15 WIPP Home|MonitoringPolicies

  5. Publication Policy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid youOxygen Generation | CenterPressthisPublication Policy Publication of

  6. User Policy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With WIPPfinalUnexpectedofWykoW03: Datathe use of JavaScriptPolicy

  7. User Policy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With WIPPfinalUnexpectedofWykoW03: Datathe use of JavaScriptPolicyUser

  8. Natural Gas Multi-Year Program Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-01

    This document comprises the Department of Energy (DOE) Natural Gas Multi-Year Program Plan, and is a follow-up to the `Natural Gas Strategic Plan and Program Crosscut Plans,` dated July 1995. DOE`s natural gas programs are aimed at simultaneously meeting our national energy needs, reducing oil imports, protecting our environment, and improving our economy. The Natural Gas Multi-Year Program Plan represents a Department-wide effort on expanded development and use of natural gas and defines Federal government and US industry roles in partnering to accomplish defined strategic goals. The four overarching goals of the Natural Gas Program are to: (1) foster development of advanced natural gas technologies, (2) encourage adoption of advanced natural gas technologies in new and existing markets, (3) support removal of policy impediments to natural gas use in new and existing markets, and (4) foster technologies and policies to maximize environmental benefits of natural gas use.

  9. Asymmetric Cache Coherency: Policy Modifications to Improve Multicore Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    coherency policy, generated a 60% coherency cost reduction (reduction of latencies due to coherency messages-Sud Guy Gogniat, Lab-STICC, Universit´e de Bretagne-Sud Asymmetric coherency is a new optimisation method page or initial screen of a display along with the full citation. Copyrights for components

  10. Final Flue Gas Cleaning (FFGC) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stinger, D. H.; Romero, M. H.

    2006-01-01

    -scale FFGC plant. I. EMISSION REDUCTION TECHNOLOGIES Pollution reduction technologies addressed in this document can be used to clean up any type of flue gas including the high pollution levels from untreated coal fired power plants. A typical... tons by 2010 and at 15 tons by 2018. Although coal fired industry representatives state, “there still is no mercury control technology that exists today that can achieve the reduction levels finalized by the Clean Air Mercury rule”( g ), WOW...

  11. Revised Draft Guidance on Consideration of Greenhouse Gas Emissions...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    departments and agencies should consider the effects of greenhouse gas emissions and climate change in their National Environmental Policy Act reviews. The revised draft...

  12. JAMES A. BAKER III INSTITUTE FOR PUBLIC POLICY RICE UNIVERSITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    of technically recoverable natural gas. A recent study by the Baker Institute indicates that removing gas (LNG) import dependence.3 This is particularly salient since natural gas is becoming INSTITUTE FOR PUBLIC POLICY. #12;The OCS Leasing Moratorium 3 As the price of gasoline reaches unprecedented

  13. Power System Modeling of 20percent Wind-Generated Electricity by 2030

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hand, Maureen

    2008-01-01

    The Role of Forward Natural Gas Prices,” Energy Policy, vol.Gas Crisis: Reducing Natural Gas Prices through Increasedemission reductions, natural gas price reductions, and water

  14. The Projected Impacts of Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reduction Legislation on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;The Projected Impacts of Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reduction Legislation on Electricity Prices the impact of proposed federal regulations aimed at reductions in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions gas emissions; however, it does not attempt to model the full details of the proposed legislation

  15. HEADQUARTERS POLICY FLASH

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department's extendlcompete policies or when an option is exercised. 4. Advise Trudy Wood in the Office of Procurement and Assistance Policy (See e-mail address below) when...

  16. Compositional Policy Priors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wingate, David

    2013-04-12

    This paper describes a probabilistic framework for incorporating structured inductive biases into reinforcement learning. These inductive biases arise from policy priors, probability distributions over optimal policies. ...

  17. Policies, Procedures and Guidelines Complete Policy Title

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Michael

    Policies, Procedures and Guidelines Complete Policy Title: Policy on Environmentally Green owner, the written copy prevails 1. OVERVIEW McMaster University advocates a practice of buying "green" goods and services. Environmentally responsible or "green" procurement is the selection of products

  18. Policy on Research Misconduct Policy on Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sridhar, Srinivas

    Policy on Research Misconduct 12/20/2013 Policy on Research Misconduct I. Purpose and Scope procedures for the inquiry and investigation of allegations of misconduct of research, with due care there are allegations of misconduct in research. This policy and accompanying procedures apply to all university

  19. Policy on Export Controls Export Control Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sridhar, Srinivas

    Policy on Export Controls 8/5/2014 Export Control Policy I. Purpose and Scope Northeastern, the export of certain goods, information, technology and services is restricted for reasons relating to U.S. national security, economic interests, and foreign policy goals. The export laws and regulations address

  20. Water and Energy Savings, and Carbon Emission Reductions From Rain Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Suman

    Water and Energy Savings, and Carbon Emission Reductions From Rain Water Harvesting, Combined Heat Infrastructure Ecology Decentralized Water Resource Development: Low Impact Development (LID) Decentralized Energy Production: Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Policies for Adoption of Rain Water Harvesting

  1. Driving down emissions : analyzing a plan for meeting Massachusetts' carbon emission reduction targets for passenger vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Irvin, Elizabeth J. (Elizabeth Joanna)

    2015-01-01

    Massachusetts is one of the US states at the forefront of carbon emission reduction policy, and has the potential to model success to the rest of the country. The state's Global Warming Solutions Act (GWSA) passed in 2008, ...

  2. emergency policy

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal GasAdministration Medal01 Sandia4) August 20123/%2A en46A NAME6/%2A/%2A9/%2A en0/%2A

  3. Design of Environmental Regulatory Policies for Sustainable Emission Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linninger, Andreas A.

    unit of emitted pollutant. When the marginal pollution abatement cost are lower than the tax compliance levels through process innovation. Alternatively, market-based regulations stimulate continued. It assesses the feasibility of treatment options, estimates their cost and expected emissions. Rigorous

  4. Fermentation and Hydrogen Metabolism Affect Uranium Reduction by Clostridia

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gao, Weimin; Francis, Arokiasamy J.

    2013-01-01

    Previously, it has been shown that not only is uranium reduction under fermentation condition common among clostridia species, but also the strains differed in the extent of their capability and the pH of the culture significantly affected uranium(VI) reduction. In this study, using HPLC and GC techniques, metabolic properties of those clostridial strains active in uranium reduction under fermentation conditions have been characterized and their effects on capability variance of uranium reduction discussed. Then, the relationship between hydrogen metabolism and uranium reduction has been further explored and the important role played by hydrogenase in uranium(VI) and iron(III) reduction bymore »clostridia demonstrated. When hydrogen was provided as the headspace gas, uranium(VI) reduction occurred in the presence of whole cells of clostridia. This is in contrast to that of nitrogen as the headspace gas. Without clostridia cells, hydrogen alone could not result in uranium(VI) reduction. In alignment with this observation, it was also found that either copper(II) addition or iron depletion in the medium could compromise uranium reduction by clostridia. In the end, a comprehensive model was proposed to explain uranium reduction by clostridia and its relationship to the overall metabolism especially hydrogen (H 2 ) production. « less

  5. EP 1165-2-1 FLOOD DAMAGE REDUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    EP 1165-2-1 30 Jul 99 13-1 CHAPTER 13 FLOOD DAMAGE REDUCTION 13-1. The Federal Interest. Congress, in the Flood Control Act of 1936, established as a nationwide policy that flood control (i.e., flood damage consideration of all alternatives in controlling flood waters, reducing the susceptibility of property to flood

  6. Accounting for Depletion of Oil and Gas Resources in Malaysia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Othman, Jamal Jafari, Yaghoob

    2012-12-15

    Since oil and gas are non-renewable resources, it is important to identify the extent to which they have been depleted. Such information will contribute to the formulation and evaluation of appropriate sustainable development policies. This paper provides an assessment of the changes in the availability of oil and gas resources in Malaysia by first compiling the physical balance sheet for the period 2000-2007, and then assessing the monetary balance sheets for the said resource by using the Net Present Value method. Our findings show serious reduction in the value of oil reserves from 2001 to 2005, due to changes in crude oil prices, and thereafter the depletion rates decreased. In the context of sustainable development planning, albeit in the weak sustainability sense, it will be important to ascertain if sufficient reinvestments of the estimated resource rents in related or alternative capitals are being attempted by Malaysia. For the study period, the cumulative resource rents were to the tune of RM61 billion. Through a depletion or resource rents policy, the estimated quantum may guide the identification of a reinvestment threshold (after considering needed capital investment for future development of the industry) in light of ensuring the future productive capacity of the economy at the time when the resource is exhausted.

  7. The domestic natural gas and oil initiative. Energy leadership in the world economy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    Two key overarching goals of this Initiative are enhancing the efficiency and competitiveness of U.S. industry and reducing the trends toward higher imports. These goals take into account new Federal policies that reflect economic needs, including economic growth, deficit reduction, job creation and security, and global competitiveness, as well as the need to preserve the environment, improve energy efficiency, and provide for national security. The success of this Initiative clearly requires coordinated strategies that range far beyond policies primarily directed at natural gas and oil supplies. Therefore, this Initiative proposes three major strategic activities: Strategic Activity 1 -- increase domestic natural gas and oil production and environmental protection by advancing and disseminating new exploration, production, and refining technologies; Strategic Activity 2 -- stimulate markets for natural gas and natural-gas-derived products, including their use as substitutes for imported oil where feasible; and Strategic Activity 3 -- ensure cost-effective environmental protection by streamlining and improving government communication, decision making, and regulation. Finally, the Initiative will reexamine the costs and benefits of increase oil imports through a broad new Department of Energy study. This study will form the basis for additional actions found to be warranted under the study.

  8. Reduction of Film Coolant in High Pressure Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirsum Institute of Power Plant Technology, Steam and Gas Turbines, RWTH Aachen Prof. Dr.-Ing. Ingo RöhleReduction of Film Coolant in High Pressure Turbines Bachelor Thesis in Computational Engineering Institute of Propulsion Technology, German Aerospace Center #12;Abstract Gas turbine development has been

  9. The effect of natural gas supply on US renewable energy and CO2emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shearer, C; Bistline, J; Inman, M; Davis, SJ

    2014-01-01

    leaks from North American natural gas systems Science 343of methane emissions at natural gas production sites in theUS exports of natural gas Energy Policy www.bipac.net/dow/

  10. Economic Analysis of Voluntary Carbon Offset Market and Bioenergy Policies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shiva, Layla

    2014-08-27

    This work studies the economic implications of some United States greenhouse gas mitigation related policies. The main items focused on in this work are: 1) possible agricultural entry into a voluntary carbon offset market, 2) use of marginal land...

  11. Waste-to-energy sector and the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fotis, S.C. [Van Ness Feldman, Washington, DC (United States); Sussman, D. [Poubelle Associates, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The waste-to-energy sector provides one important avenue for the United States to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the significant GHG reductions capable of being achieved by the waste-to-energy (WTE) sector through avoided fossil generation and reduced municipal landfills. The paper begins with a review of the current voluntary reporting mechanism for {open_quotes}registering{close_quotes} GHG reduction credits under section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. The paper then provides an overview of possible emerging international and domestic trends that could ultimately lead to mandatory targets and timetables for GHG mitigation in the United States and other countries. The paper ends with an analysis of the GHG benefits achievable by the WTE sector, based on the section 1605(b) report filed by the Integrated Waste Services Association IWSA on the GHG emissions avoided for year 1995.

  12. The Impact of Near-term Climate Policy Choices on Technology and Emissions Transition Pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eom, Jiyong; Edmonds, James A.; Krey, Volker; Johnson, Nils; Longden, Thomas; Luderer, Gunnar; Riahi, Keywan; Van Vuuren, Detlef

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the implications of delays associated with currently formulated climate policies (compared to optimal policies) for long-term transition pathways to limit climate forcing to 450ppm CO2e on the basis of the AMPERE Work Package 2 model comparison study. The paper highlights the critical importance of the 2030-2050 period for ambitious mitigation strategies. In this period, the most rapid shift to non-greenhouse gas emitting technology occurs. In the delayed response emissions mitigation scenarios, an even faster transition rate in this period is required to compensate for the additional emissions before 2030. Our physical deployment measures indicate that, without CCS, technology deployment rates in the 2030-2050 period would become considerably high. Yet the presence of CCS greatly alleviates the challenges to the transition particularly after the delayed climate policies. The results also highlight the critical role that bioenergy and CO2 capture and storage (BECCS) could play. If this technology is available, transition pathways exceed the emissions budget in the mid-term, removing the excess with BECCS in the long term. Excluding either BE or CCS from the technology portfolio implies that emission reductions need to take place much earlier.

  13. U.S. Natural Gas System Methane Emissions: State of Knowledge from LCAs, Inventories, and Atmospheric Measurements (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, G.

    2014-04-01

    Natural gas (NG) is a potential "bridge fuel" during transition to a decarbonized energy system: It emits less carbon dioxide during combustion than other fossil fuels and can be used in many industries. However, because of the high global warming potential of methane (CH4, the major component of NG), climate benefits from NG use depend on system leakage rates. Some recent estimates of leakage have challenged the benefits of switching from coal to NG, a large near-term greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction opportunity. During this presentation, Garvin will review evidence from multiple perspectives - life cycle assessments (LCAs), inventories and measurements - about NG leakage in the US. Particular attention will be paid to a recent article in Science magazine which reviewed over 20 years of published measurements to better understand what we know about total methane emissions and those from the oil and gas sectors. Scientific and policy implications of the state of knowledge will be discussed.

  14. Gas Saturation and Sensitivity Analysis Using CRiSP 1 Gas Saturation and Sensitivity Analysis Using CRiSP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    Gas Saturation and Sensitivity Analysis Using CRiSP 1 Gas Saturation and Sensitivity Analysis Using of Engineers began the Gas Abatement Study in order to address the problem of gas and its effects on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. One important question is how much gas reductions caused by structural changes at a few

  15. North American Natural Gas Markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

  16. CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSION REDUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delaware, University of

    ........................................................................................ 21 2.3.5 Pulp and paper industry Technologies and Measures in Pulp and Paper IndustryCARBON DIOXIDE EMISSION REDUCTION TECHNOLOGIES AND MEASURES IN US INDUSTRIAL SECTOR FINAL REPORT

  17. Paperwork Reduction Act

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Paperwork Reduction Act requires that all federal websites request permission from the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) before collecting information from 10 or more members of the public....

  18. Decoupling Policies: Options to Encourage Energy Efficiency Policies...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Decoupling Policies: Options to Encourage Energy Efficiency Policies for Utilities, Clean Energy Policies in States and Communities, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)...

  19. POLICY MEMORANDUM #1 Policy and Operating Procedures for Senior...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    MEMORANDUM 1 Policy and Operating Procedures for Senior Executive Service (SES) Performance Management System POLICY MEMORANDUM 1 Policy and Operating Procedures for Senior...

  20. POLICY GUIDANCE MEMORANDUM #38 EXCEPTION TO POLICY REGARDING...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    8 EXCEPTION TO POLICY REGARDING QUALITY STEP INCREASES POLICY GUIDANCE MEMORANDUM 38 EXCEPTION TO POLICY REGARDING QUALITY STEP INCREASES This has been rescinded and incorporated...

  1. Natural Gas: Major Legislative and Regulatory Actions (1935 - 2008)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    This special report Web-based product presents a chronology of some of the key federal legislative and regulatory actions that have helped shape the natural gas market, with particular emphasis on policy directives from 1978 to October 2008. Separate reports provide brief descriptions of specific legislation, regulations, or policies, and their impacts on the natural gas market.

  2. Can biofuels justify current transport policies?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Can biofuels justify current transport policies? Jérémie Mercier IARU Climate Congress - Copenhagen is growing 2) Today biofuels bring little or no greenhouse gas benefits 3) We need to change #12;IARU Climate;IARU Climate Congress, Copenhagen, 11th March 2009 - Jérémie Mercier 4 Biofuels consumption growing

  3. Air quality impacts and benefits under U.S. policy for air pollution, climate change, and clean energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saari, R. K. (Rebecca Kaarina)

    2015-01-01

    Policies that reduce greenhouse gas emissions can also reduce outdoor levels of air pollutants that harm human health by targeting the same emissions sources. However, the design and scale of these policies can affect the ...

  4. Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Climate Stabilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, David D.

    Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Climate Stabilization: Framing Regional Options L A U R A S C reduction of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by as much as 80% by 2050. Subnational efforts to cut The call to cut global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by up to 80% below 2000 levels, which researchers

  5. EIS-0164: Pacific Gas Transmission/Pacific Gas and Electric and Altamont Natural Gas Pipeline Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) has prepared the PGT/PG&E and Altamont Natural Gas Pipeline Projects Environmental Impact Statement to satisfy the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act. This project addresses the need to expand the capacity of the pipeline transmission system to better transfer Canadian natural gas to Southern California and the Pacific Northwest. The U.S. Department of Energy cooperated in the preparation of this statement because Section 19(c) of the Natural Gas Act applies to the Department’s action of authorizing import/export of natural gas, and adopted this statement by the spring of 1992. "

  6. A neural emission-receptor model for ozone reduction S.Barazzetta, G. Corani

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corani, Giorgio

    A neural emission-receptor model for ozone reduction planning S.Barazzetta, G. Corani , G- ulated areas. Ozone is produced by a series of photochemical reactions, activated by the emissions concen- trations are equally complex and cannot be directly used to optimize emission reduction policies

  7. Volume 1, Issue 2 2009 Article 5 Effectiveness of Poverty Reduction in the EU: A Descriptive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galis, Frietson

    Volume 1, Issue 2 · 2009 · Article 5 Effectiveness of Poverty Reduction in the EU: A Descriptive Organization Caminada, Koen and Goudswaard, Kees (2009) "Effectiveness of Poverty Reduction in the EU: A Descriptive Analysis," Poverty & Public Policy: Vol. 1: Iss. 2, Article 5. Available at: http

  8. The potential for biomass to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in the Northeastern US. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernow, S.S.; Gurney, K.; Prince, G.; Cyr, M.

    1992-04-01

    This study, for the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) of the Coalition of Northeast Governors (CONEG), evaluates the potential for local, state and regional biomass policies to contribute to an overall energy/biomass strategy for the reduction of greenhouse gas releases in the Northeastern United States. Biomass is a conditionally renewable resource that can play a dual role: by reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in meeting our energy needs; and by removing carbon from the atmosphere and sequestering it in standing biomass stocks and long-lived products. In this study we examine the contribution of biomass to the energy system in the Northeast and to the region`s net releases of carbon dioxide and methane, and project these releases over three decades, given a continuation of current trends and policies. We then compare this Reference Case with three alternative scenarios, assuming successively more aggressive efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through strategic implementation of energy efficiency and biomass resources. Finally, we identify and examine policy options for expanding the role of biomass in the region`s energy and greenhouse gas mitigation strategies.

  9. Financial Policy Manual 2701 INTERNAL CONTROL POLICY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George, Edward I.

    , budgets, schedules, job assignment and monitoring sheets, policy and procedure manuals, organization charts, job descriptions, employee training programs and various quality controls. C. Establish

  10. Financial Policy Manual INTERNAL CONTROL POLICIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George, Edward I.

    , budgets, schedules, job assignment and monitoring sheets, policy and procedure manuals, organization charts, job descriptions, employee training programs and various quality controls. C. Establish

  11. Cost reduction ideas for LNG terminals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habibullah, A.; Weldin, F.

    1999-07-01

    LNG projects are highly capital intensive and this has long been regarded as being inevitable. However, recent developments are forcing the LNG industry to aggressively seek cost reductions. For example, the gas-to-liquids (GTL) process is increasingly seen as a potential rival technology and is often being touted as an economically superior alternative fuel source. Another strong driving force behind needed cost reductions is the low crude oil price which seems to have settled in the $10--13/bb. range. LNG is well positioned as the fuel of choice for environmentally friendly new power projects. As a result of the projected demand for power especially in the Pacific Rim countries several LNG terminal projects are under consideration. Such projects will require a new generation of LNG terminal designs emphasizing low cost, small scale and safe and fully integrated designs from LNG supply to power generation. The integration of the LNG terminal with the combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power plant offers substantial cost savings opportunities for both plants. Various cost reduction strategies and their impact on the terminal design are discussed including cost reduction due to integration.

  12. Review: Knowledge and Environmental Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Little, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    of environmental policy, environmental studies, politicalReview: Knowledge and Environmental Policy: Re-Imagining theRobert. Knowledge and Environmental Policy: Re-Imagining the

  13. Review: Knowledge and Environmental Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Little, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    Review: Knowledge and Environmental Policy: Re-Imagining theRobert. Knowledge and Environmental Policy: Re-Imagining thepaperback. Knowledge and Environmental Policy continues the

  14. Review: Knowledge and Environmental Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Little, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    and Environmental Policy: Re-Imagining the Boundaries ofand Environmental Policy: Re-Imagining the Boundaries ofKnowledge and Environmental Policy continues the complex and

  15. The effects of energy policies in China on energy consumption and GDP1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

    policies have significant impacts on diesel oil, gasoline and natural gas consumption. However, some energy The effects of energy policies in China on energy consumption and GDP1 Ming-Jie Lu, C.-Y. Cynthia policies; energy consumption; GDP; China JEL codes: Q48, Q41, Q58

  16. Reduction of NOx by plasma-assisted methods , F. Leipold1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reduction of NOx by plasma-assisted methods A. Fateev1 , F. Leipold1 , Y. Kusano1 , B. Stenum1 , H acid rain and ozone production when it is released into the air. Reduction of NOx in the exhaust gas-assisted techniques for NOx-reduction: direct treatment of exhaust gases by plasma, injection of N atoms and injection

  17. Cars on a diet : the material and energy impacts of passenger vehicle weight reduction in the U.S.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheah, Lynette W. (Lynette Wan Ting)

    2010-01-01

    Vehicle weight reduction is a known strategy to address growing concerns about greenhouse gas emissions and fuel use by passenger vehicles. We find that every 10% reduction in vehicle weight can cut fuel consumption by ...

  18. Kinetics of Fe(III)*EDTA reduction by ascorbic acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, W.; Harkness, J.B.L.; Mendelsohn, M.H.

    1992-12-01

    The kinetics of the reduction of ferric chelate by ascorbic acid have been determined at a typical flue-gas scrubber-system operating temperature ({approximately}55{degrees}C). The ascorbic acid reaction has the same reduction rate expression as the reduction by bisulfite ions, namely, first order with respect to the concentrations of both Fe(III)*EDTA and monoionic species of ascorbic acid. The reaction rate isnegative first order with respect to Fe(II)*EDTA concentration. In the pH range of 6--8, reduction of the hydrolyzed form of the metal chelate compound was negligible. The rate constant for the ascorbic acid reduction reaction is almost 400 times larger than that for the bisulfite reduction reaction under the same reaction conditions. There was no contribution associated with the nonionized form of ascorbic acid.

  19. Kinetics of Fe(III)*EDTA reduction by ascorbic acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, W.; Harkness, J.B.L.; Mendelsohn, M.H.

    1992-01-01

    The kinetics of the reduction of ferric chelate by ascorbic acid have been determined at a typical flue-gas scrubber-system operating temperature ([approximately]55[degrees]C). The ascorbic acid reaction has the same reduction rate expression as the reduction by bisulfite ions, namely, first order with respect to the concentrations of both Fe(III)*EDTA and monoionic species of ascorbic acid. The reaction rate isnegative first order with respect to Fe(II)*EDTA concentration. In the pH range of 6--8, reduction of the hydrolyzed form of the metal chelate compound was negligible. The rate constant for the ascorbic acid reduction reaction is almost 400 times larger than that for the bisulfite reduction reaction under the same reaction conditions. There was no contribution associated with the nonionized form of ascorbic acid.

  20. Carbon Taxes: A Review of Experience and Policy Design Considerations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sumner, J.; Bird, L.; Smith, H.

    2009-12-01

    State and local governments in the United States are evaluating a wide range of policies to reduce carbon emissions, including, in some instances, carbon taxes, which have existed internationally for nearly 20 years. This report reviews existing carbon tax policies both internationally and in the United States. It also analyzes carbon policy design and effectiveness. Design considerations include which sectors to tax, where to set the tax rate, how to use tax revenues, what the impact will be on consumers, and how to ensure emissions reduction goals are achieved. Emission reductions that are due to carbon taxes can be difficult to measure, though some jurisdictions have quantified reductions in overall emissions and other jurisdictions have examined impacts that are due to programs funded by carbon tax revenues.

  1. Master of Urban Affairs & Policy: Economic/ Community Development Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Haiying

    Master of Urban Affairs & Policy: Economic/ Community Development Policy Student Name Relations __________ URPA 5311 Social Policy Formation and Analysis __________ URPA 5312 Urban Economic Policy __________ Research and Analysis Courses (12 hours) URPA 5302 Foundations of Urban Research

  2. Sustainability policy and environmental policy John C. V. Pezzey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pezzey, Jack

    Sustainability policy and environmental policy John C. V. Pezzey Australian National University Economics and Environment Network Working Paper EEN0211 October 2002 #12;Sustainability Policy and Environmental Policy John C. V. Pezzey Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies Australian National

  3. NEPA Policy | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy AEnergy Managing SwimmingMicrosoft The basics of05/24/2011NEPA policy. September

  4. National Policy Assurances - August 2008

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy AEnergy Managing SwimmingMicrosoftPolicy, on May 28, 2014,Thewith Clean) To the

  5. National Policy Assurances - July 2005

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy AEnergy Managing SwimmingMicrosoftPolicy, on May 28, 2014,Thewith Clean) To

  6. National Policy Assurances - October 2004

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy AEnergy Managing SwimmingMicrosoftPolicy, on May 28, 2014,Thewith Clean) ToOCT

  7. National Policy Assurances - September 2007

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy AEnergy Managing SwimmingMicrosoftPolicy, on May 28, 2014,Thewith Clean) ToOCT7)

  8. Policies | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid youOxygen Generation | Center for GasPhysics Physics AcknowledgePolicies

  9. Policy Memoranda | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy AEnergyPresidential PermitDAYS - WEReporting Requirements.Exceptionally0 POLICY

  10. Website Policies / Important Links | sciencecinema

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal GasAdministrationTechnicalTechnicalScience.gov App Find scienceWebsite Policies /

  11. Safety Policy LEAD IN PAINT POLICY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powers, Robert

    Safety Policy (10/96) LEAD IN PAINT POLICY://ehs.unl.edu/) Purpose: Lead is a recognized health hazard, and consequently, regulations have been developed to assure protection from excessive exposure to lead. Paints and coatings manufactured prior to 1978 often contained

  12. Patent and Copyright Policy I. Patent Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, Barbara

    K-1 04/2013 Appendix K Patent and Copyright Policy I. Patent Policy A. Functions of Patents Illinois Institute of Technology recognizes that patents on inventions arising from university research serve several important functions. A patent: 1. ensures that the potential scientific and social

  13. Food Safety Policy General Policy Statement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Food Safety Policy General Policy Statement St. Anne's College has a commitment to food safety. The College takes all reasonable precaution and exercises all due diligence to ensure that food which and maintain these standards, the College: Designates managers who have a special responsibility for food

  14. Policy Title: Policy Number: Federal Student Aid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franco, John

    . All such officials shall further distribute the Code to their direct and indirect reports who havePolicy Title: Policy Number: Federal Student Aid Code of Conduct 1.3.3 Category: Administrative Office of the Bursar University of Cincinnati Federal Student Aid Code of Conduct, page 1 of 5 Background

  15. Water Resources Policy & Economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buehrer, R. Michael

    Water Resources Policy & Economics FOR 4984 Selected Course Topics · Appropriative and riparian water institutions · Incentives for conservation · Water rights for in-stream environmental use · Surface water-groundwater management · Water quality regulations · Water markets · Economic and policy

  16. PROTECTION OF PRIVACY POLICY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    Page 1 PROTECTION OF PRIVACY POLICY University Policy No: GV0235 Classification: Governance Procedures for the Management of Personal Information University Information Security Classification other mechanism that produces records. 8.00 Surveillance Systems means an analog or digital video

  17. Office of Security Policy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Security Policy is the central source within the Department of Energy for the development and analysis of safeguards and security policies and standards affecting facilities, nuclear materials, personnel, and classified information.

  18. Family Policy in Scotland 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wasoff, Fran; Hill, Malcolm

    This briefing looks at the development of family policy in Scotland, considers the interplay between devolved and reserved matters, outlines the Departments of the Scottish Executive responsible for family policy, and considers the relationship...

  19. REDUCTIONS WITHOUT REGRET: SUMMARY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swegle, J.; Tincher, D.

    2013-09-16

    This paper briefly summarizes the series in which we consider the possibilities for losing, or compromising, key capabilities of the U.S. nuclear force in the face of modernization and reductions. The first of the three papers takes an historical perspective, considering capabilities that were eliminated in past force reductions. The second paper is our attempt to define the needed capabilities looking forward in the context of the current framework for force modernization and the current picture of the evolving challenges of deterrence and assurance. The third paper then provides an example for each of our undesirable outcomes: the creation of roach motels, box canyons, and wrong turns.

  20. UNIVERSITY POLICY APPROVAL PROCESS Definition of a University Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    UNIVERSITY POLICY APPROVAL PROCESS Definition of a University Policy Applies broadly, more than one compliance Promotes effectiveness/reduces risk. Roles Policy Manager (PM) Manages the policy review process Publishes policies and related information Notifies university community of new and revised policies

  1. University of Oxford Transgender Policy Purpose of this policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, Gideon

    University of Oxford Transgender Policy Purpose of this policy 1. The purpose of this policy the process of gender reassignment. The policy and associated guidance give more detail on how the Universitys Equality Policy applies to transgender people. 2. This policy also supports members of the University

  2. UC SANTA BARBARA POLICY AND PROCEDURE Policy Title

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    UC SANTA BARBARA POLICY AND PROCEDURE Policy Title Contact: Responsible Office(s) for administering the policy Issued: Month Year Supersedes: Policy/Procedure Title and its publication date Pages: Total POLICY context that needs to remain embedded in the policy rather than being presented in a transmittal letter

  3. Policy and Procedure Writing Tips University Policy Website

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    Policy and Procedure Writing Tips University Policy Website Policy and Procedure Writing Tips Updated May 2009 Page 1 of 2 · Differentiate between policies and procedures. o University Policies review and approval for policy issuance and revision. o University Procedures are the processes

  4. New York University UNIVERSITY POLICIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Den Eijnden, Eric

    1 New York University UNIVERSITY POLICIES Title: Developing University Policies Effective Date President, Office of the President Responsible Officer: General Counsel Policy It is the policy of New York

  5. Security Policy: Radio Network Controller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Security Policy: Radio Network Controller Encryption Module Controller (RNC EMC) Cryptographic, 2007 Security Policy: RNC EMC Page 1 of 22 #12;Security Policy: RNC EMC Page 2 of 22 #12;Table...........................................................14 7. IDENTIFICATION AND AUTHENTICATION POLICY

  6. Water Use Reduction | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Facilities Water Use Reduction Water Use Reduction Water Use Reduction Water Use Reduction The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides agencies with guidance and...

  7. TEBC Policy Page 1 of 32 Yale University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Post, David M.

    ................................................................................................ 19 A. Rebate Policy

  8. SUBSIDIARITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bateman, Ian J.

    SUBSIDIARITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY: WHICH LEVEL OF GOVERNMENT SHOULD DO WHAT IN THE EUROPEAN UNION? by Andrew Jordan CSERGE Working Paper GEC 99-13 #12;SUBSIDIARITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY: WHICH integration `by stealth', the EU's involve- ment in various policy areas, including environmental protection

  9. Graduate college policy handbook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farritor, Shane

    Graduate college policy handbook #12;1 The Graduate College Governance Documents and Related Policy Zuckweiler - Alternate Representative, UNK Handbook Layout by Shannon Malousek #12;2 University of Nebraska Graduate College Policy Handbook Table of Contents University Graduate College Governance Documents I

  10. International Energy Policy in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delaware, University of

    of Energy Policies of the U.S., U.K., Germany, France, Japan, China and Korea November 2013 #12;Mailing IN THE AFTERMATH OF THE FUKUSHIMA NUCLEAR DISASTER: An Analysis of Energy Policies of the U.S., U.K., GermanyInternational Energy Policy in the Aftermath of the Fukushima Nuclear Disaster An Analysis

  11. Methods for reduction of charging emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuecker, F.J.; Schulte, H. [Krupp Uhde GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    One of the most critical subjects in coking plants are charging emissions. The paper reviews the systems that have been used over the years to reduce charging emissions. The advantages and disadvantages are summarized for the following systems: Double collecting main with aspiration on both oven sides; Single collecting main with/without aspiration via standpipe, and extraction and cleaning of charging gas on charging car; Single collecting main with aspiration via standpipe and pretreatment of charging gas on the charging car as well as additional stationary exhaust and cleaning of charging gas; Single collecting main with aspiration via single standpipe; and Single collecting main with simultaneous aspiration via two standpipes and a U-tube connecting the oven chamber with the neighboring oven. The paper then briefly discusses prerequisites for reduction of charging emissions.

  12. Picturing wavepacket reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arthur Jabs

    2015-03-18

    A coherent picture of the wavepacket-reduction process is proposed which is formulated in the framework of a deterministic and realist interpretation where the concepts of knowledge or information and of point particles do not appear. It is shown how the picture accounts for the experiments on interaction-free and delayed-choice measurements and those on interference with partial absorption.

  13. University Policy Process Short Version

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rev. 5/09 University Policy Process Short Version Conduct Analysis Draft Documents Get Approvals. Identify policy owner 3. Assemble team 4. Engage Stakeholders 5. Draft policy 6. Submit proposed policy approves (or not) Do we need a policy? 11. Plan communication & training 12. UPO posts approved policy

  14. State of the States 2010: The Role of Policy in Clean Energy Market Transformation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This report uses statistical methods to better quantify the connection between a broad array of energy efficiency and renewable energy (collectively known as clean energy) policy and actual reductions in energy use and increases in renewable resource development.

  15. Analysis of International Policies In The Solar Electricity Sector: Lessons for India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deshmukh, Ranjit

    2011-01-01

    for Policy Makers Although solar costs are dropping rapidly,marketing. Effect on solar cost reduction Most countriesfor a steady decline in solar costs. Economies-of-scale or

  16. NATURAL GAS FOR TRANSPORTATION OR ELECTRICITY? CLIMATE CHANGE IMPLICATIONS Date: 27-Oct-11

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGaughey, Alan

    NATURAL GAS FOR TRANSPORTATION OR ELECTRICITY? CLIMATE CHANGE IMPLICATIONS Date: 27-Oct-11 Natural earlier this year encourages natural gas use for transportation and anticipates reductions in greenhouse Gas For Transportation or Electricity? Climate Change Implications Aranya Venkatesh, Paulina Jaramillo

  17. Russia's energy policy, 1992-2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milov, V.; Coburn, L.L.; Danchenko, I. [Inst. for Energy Policy, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2006-05-15

    A team comprising a former Russian policymaker and American analysts of the current Russian energy policy examines the course of that policy and its limitations during the post-Soviet period. In the process, they critically analyze key problems in Russia's oil, gas, coal, and electricity sectors that represent a potential drag on growth of the entire Russian economy and at the very least call into question the sustainability of further increases in exports to the West. The authors explore in considerable depth and detail both the factors underlying the recent increase in government intervention in the energy sector and the likely consequences for domestic production, consumption, resource security, and critical exports.

  18. Economics, ethics, and climate policy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howarth, R.B.; Monahan, P.A.

    1992-11-01

    Are the costs of greenhouse gas emissions abatement justified by the perceived benefits of sustained climate stability Do people of the present generation have a moral right to impose climate risks on their descendants in generations to come This report examines these questions in light of the emergent facts of climate science and their socioeconomic implications. We consider alternative normative criteria for social decision-making with particular emphasis on cost-benefit analysis and the principle of sustainable development. While each framework yields important insights, we argue that the gross uncertainties associated with climate change and the distribution of impacts between present and future generations constrain the usefulness of cost-benefit criteria in evaluating climate policy. If one accepts the ethical proposition that it is morally wrong to impose catastrophic risks on unborn generations when reducing those risks would not noticeably diminish the quality of life of existing persons, a case can be made for concerted policy action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

  19. Economics, ethics, and climate policy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howarth, R.B.; Monahan, P.A.

    1992-11-01

    Are the costs of greenhouse gas emissions abatement justified by the perceived benefits of sustained climate stability? Do people of the present generation have a moral right to impose climate risks on their descendants in generations to come? This report examines these questions in light of the emergent facts of climate science and their socioeconomic implications. We consider alternative normative criteria for social decision-making with particular emphasis on cost-benefit analysis and the principle of sustainable development. While each framework yields important insights, we argue that the gross uncertainties associated with climate change and the distribution of impacts between present and future generations constrain the usefulness of cost-benefit criteria in evaluating climate policy. If one accepts the ethical proposition that it is morally wrong to impose catastrophic risks on unborn generations when reducing those risks would not noticeably diminish the quality of life of existing persons, a case can be made for concerted policy action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

  20. Bayesian Policy Search with Policy Priors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wingate, David

    We consider the problem of learning to act in partially observable, continuous-state-and-action worlds where we have abstract prior knowledge about the structure of the optimal policy in the form of a distribution over ...

  1. www.corporate-env-strategy.com Climate Change Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoffman, Andrew J.

    and losers« Suncor Energy, Pechiney and Ontario Power Generation) joined in a voluntary reduction partnership that all companies can benefit from greenhouse gas reductions. Climate change controls represent a market shift; the formation of new markets in pollution, pollution credits, money and emission abatement

  2. Progress Update: Creating Mobile Emission Reduction Credits

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Emission Reduction Specialists

  3. Aluminum reduction cell electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goodnow, W.H.; Payne, J.R.

    1982-09-14

    The invention is directed to cathode modules comprised of refractory hard metal materials, such as TiB[sub 2], for an electrolytic cell for the reduction of alumina wherein the modules may be installed and replaced during operation of the cell and wherein the structure of the cathode modules is such that the refractory hard metal materials are not subjected to externally applied forces or rigid constraints. 9 figs.

  4. Climate policy when the distant future matters: Catastrophic events with hyperbolic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karp, Larry S.

    eliminates the risk at a flow cost (caused by abatement efforts or a perpetual reduction of economic activity (MPE) to the optimal policy under time-consistent commitment. For some initial levels of risk discounting. This model provides a new way to analyze policy where low probability irreversible events

  5. Toward a zero-carbon energy policy in Europe: defining a viable solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Christopher; Glachant, Jean-Michel

    2010-04-15

    The present pace of carbon emission is not sustainable. Human societies need to react and to change. A rational responsive policy to deliver the required carbon emission reduction can be delineated if the key objective parameters are identified and addressed. This article attempts to lay the groundwork for a viable carbon energy policy for Europe. (author)

  6. The Production of High Levels of Renewable Natural Gas from Biomass Using Steam Hydrogasification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thanmongkhon, Yoothana

    2014-01-01

    Gas Development and Hydraulic Fracturing, A Policymaker’sThe Facts about Hydraulic Fracturing and Seismic Activity,~/media/Files/Policy/Hydraulic_Fracturing/Facts-HF-and-

  7. Forest Fuels ReductionForest Fuels Reduction Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolding, M. Chad

    are the soil management and watershed implications from alternative fuels reduction approaches? 3. How do are the productivity and cost rates for alternative choices of equipment for mechanical fuels reduction; what of mechanical fuel reduction alternatives? What are the economic differences related to stand type

  8. Policy #5340 Export Control Policy 1 OLD DOMINION UNIVERSITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Policy #5340 ­ Export Control Policy 1 OLD DOMINION UNIVERSITY University Policy Policy # 5340 EXPORT CONTROL POLICY Responsible Oversight Executive: Vice President for Research Date of Current investigators (PIs) and other individuals involved in research collaborate to assess the application of export

  9. 1 Food Safety Policy July 2010 Food Safety Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sussex, University of

    1 Food Safety Policy July 2010 Food Safety Policy Food Safety Policy 19.7.2010 19.7.2014 #12;2 Food 5. Organisational Responsibilities 6. The Legal References 7. Glossary of Terms #12;3 Food Safety Policy July 2010 Food Safety Policy 1. Introduction 1.1 The University has a duty to assess the risks

  10. Policy on Compliance in Athletics Policy on Compliance in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sridhar, Srinivas

    Policy on Compliance in Athletics 07/1/2014 Policy on Compliance in Athletics I. Purpose and Scope conference rules, and university policies and procedures. This policy applies to student with athletics rules, policies and procedures, including NCAA rules and regulations. Other terms used herein

  11. UMBC POLICY ON LOST AND FOUND PROPERTY I. POLICY STATEMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suri, Manil

    UMBC POLICY ON LOST AND FOUND PROPERTY I. POLICY STATEMENT The UMBC community will have access to a University Policy on Lost and Found Property. II. PURPOSE OF THE POLICY The purpose of the Lost and Found Property Policy is to provide procedures for the accountability and safekeeping of currency and tangible

  12. Disciplinary policy 1 Current Revision: 12/2012 Disciplinary policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammack, Richard

    Disciplinary policy 1 Current Revision: 12/2012 Disciplinary policy Policy Type: Local Responsible Office: Office of Development and Alumni Relations Initial Policy Approved: 12/2012 Current Revision Approved: 12/2012 Policy Statement and Purpose All users must comply

  13. POLICY ON CALENDAR SUBMISSIONS University Policy No: AC1120

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    1 POLICY ON CALENDAR SUBMISSIONS University Policy No: AC1120 Classification: Academic and Students relevant university policies and procedures, academic policies and regulations, university fees, courses and programs of study. The purpose of this policy is to outline requirements for publishing the University

  14. UMC CAMPUS POLICY/PROCEDURES FOR: "Campus Certificate Transfer Policy"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    UMC CAMPUS POLICY/PROCEDURES FOR: "Campus Certificate Transfer Policy" [The following is the overseeing University policy and the UMC procedures related to the policy. Questions should be directed to the contact(s) listed below.] UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA ADMINISTRATIVE POLICY LINK There is no additional

  15. CUNY CONFLICT OF INTEREST POLICY 1. General Statement of Policy.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Yi

    1 CUNY CONFLICT OF INTEREST POLICY 1. General Statement of Policy. It is the policy's credibility, objectivity, or fairness. Every individual to whom this Policy is applicable (each, a "Covered. Sections 2 and 3 of this Policy, which set forth the general standards of conduct and the rules regarding

  16. Page 1 of 2 Policy: Hot Works Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Page 1 of 2 Policy: Hot Works Policy Responsible Party: Director, Safety and Risk Management value. The Safety and Risk Management Policy endorses programs, procedures and resources which assist in this promotion. This policy is an overarching document that outlines the policies set in place by Safety and Risk

  17. Policy on Professional Standards and Business Conduct Policy on Professional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sridhar, Srinivas

    Policy on Professional Standards and Business Conduct 7/1/2014 Policy on Professional Standards requirements and university policies in all its activities. Faculty and staff have an obligation to perform. This policy applies to all Northeastern University faculty and staff. II. Definitions N/A III. Policy All

  18. Policy Name: Business Expense Policies Updated: September 1, 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Policy Name: Business Expense Policies Updated: September 1, 2014 Effective Date: April 1, 2011 Centers Policy Summary These Business Expense Policies provide specific requirements for Dartmouth College requests for reimbursement. These policies are necessary to ensure the proper use of Dartmouth resources

  19. Essays on energy and environmental policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Novan, Kevin Michael

    2012-01-01

    Energy Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.3 Simplethe Wind: Renewable Energy Policies and Air Pollu- tion3.4 Policy Evaluation . . . . . .

  20. Molten carbonate fuel cell reduction of nickel deposits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, James L. (Lemont, IL); Zwick, Stanley A. (Darien, IL)

    1987-01-01

    A molten carbonate fuel cell with anode and cathode electrodes and an eleolyte formed with two tile sections, one of the tile sections being adjacent the anode and limiting leakage of fuel gas into the electrolyte with the second tile section being adjacent the cathode and having pores sized to permit the presence of oxygen gas in the electrolyte thereby limiting the formation of metal deposits caused by the reduction of metal compositions migrating into the electrolyte from the cathode.

  1. A Non-Aqueous Reduction Process for Purifying 153Gd Produced in Natural Europium Targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnsen, Amanda M.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Fisher, Darrell R.

    2013-08-01

    Gadolinium-153 is a low-energy gamma-emitter used in nuclear medicine imaging quality assurance. Produced in nuclear reactors using natural Eu2O3 targets, 153Gd is radiochemically separated from europium isotopes by europium reduction. However, conventional aqueous europium reduction produces hydrogen gas, a flammability hazard in radiological hot cells. We altered the traditional reduction method, using methanol as the process solvent to nearly eliminate hydrogen gas production. This new, non-aqueous reduction process demonstrates greater than 98% europium removal and gadolinium yields of 90%.

  2. CONSIDERING SHALE GAS EXTRACTION IN NORTH CAROLINA: LESSONS FROM OTHER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Robert B.

    257 CONSIDERING SHALE GAS EXTRACTION IN NORTH CAROLINA: LESSONS FROM OTHER STATES SARAH K. ADAIR Carolina Geological Survey (NCGS) announced the existence of shale gas underlying the Deep and Dan River and the state legislature began to consider policy changes that would be necessary to develop the shale gas

  3. Work Area Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2005-04-19

    POLICY X.X.X. Volume V, Information Technology. Chapter 6, Acceptable Safety Work Locations. Issuing Office: Department of Mathematics. Responsible ...

  4. NNSA POLICY LETTER

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NNSA POLICY LETTER Approved: 12-11-13 QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION Office of the Administrator NAP-26 CONTROLLED COPIES AVAILABLE AT:...

  5. Departmental Directives Program Policy

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2006-08-16

    The Policy provides formal and organized communication of the Department's expectations for performance of work within the DOE complex. Cancels DOE P 251.1

  6. Green Industrial Policy: Trade and Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karp, Larry; Stevenson, Megan

    2012-01-01

    Policies in China,” Renewable Energy Policy Network for theStatus Report 2011,” Renewable Energy Policy Network for thesection summarizes renewable energy policies in Brazil, US,

  7. Personal Property Policy | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Personal Property Policy Personal Property Policy Personal Property Policy The DOE Personal Property Policy Division is responsible for development and oversight of the...

  8. HOUSING POLICY Table of Contents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    HOUSING POLICY Table of Contents Housing Policy Housing Rules and Regulations Appendix I contact: policies@aub.edu.lb. Last updated on: August 14, 2014 #12;HOUSING POLICY Section 1 - Policy Section 2 - Housing Purchase Plan (HPP) Section 3 - Procedure for the Implementation of the Housing

  9. Electrical Cost Reduction Via Steam Turbine Cogeneration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ewing, T. S.; Di Tullio, L. B.

    1991-01-01

    REDUCTION VIA STEAM TURBINE COGENERATION LYNN B. DI TULLIO, P.E. Project Engineer Ewing Power Systems, Inc. South Deerfield, Mass. ABSTRACT Steam turbine cogeneration is a well established technology which is widely used in industry. However... reducing valves with turbine generator sets in applications with flows as low as 4000 pounds of steam per hour. These systems produce electricity for $0.01 to $.02 per kWh (based on current costs of gas and oil); system cost is between $200 and $800 per...

  10. Building Energy-Efficiency Best Practice Policies and Policy Packages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Mark

    2014-01-01

    of Buildings: Energy Policies in Europe – Examples of BestCEC. (2005). Integrated Energy Policy Report. CEC-100-2005-Heating  Region.  Energy Policy , 37 (6), 2113-2118. Li,

  11. FIXED PRICE RESIDUAL FUNDS POLICY Policy dated March 29, 1999

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Ken

    FIXED PRICE RESIDUAL FUNDS POLICY Policy dated March 29, 1999 After completion of all deliverables in this process. May 1, 1999 Amendment to Policy · The first $75,000 of the residual balance will be transferred

  12. Risk Management Policy 1 Risk Management Policy (December, 2014)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wapstra, Erik

    Risk Management Policy 1 Risk Management Policy (December, 2014) Risk Management Policy Responsible Governance Level Principle No. 2 - Risk Management Responsible Organisational Unit Audit & Risk CONTENTS 1 ........................................................................................................2 3.1 Effective Risk Management

  13. Policymaker's Guide to Feed-in Tariff Policy Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Couture, T. D.; Cory, K.; Kreycik, C.; Williams, E.

    2010-07-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most widely used renewable energy policy in the world for driving accelerating renewable energy (RE) deployment, accounting for a greater share of RE development than either tax incentives or renewable portfolio standard (RPS) policies. FITs have generated significant RE deployment, helping bring the countries that have implemented them successfully to the forefront of the global RE industry. In the European Union (EU), FIT policies have led to the deployment of more than 15,000 MW of solar photovoltaic (PV) power and more than 55,000 MW of wind power between 2000 and the end of 2009. In total, FITs are responsible for approximately 75% of global PV and 45% of global wind deployment. Countries such as Germany, in particular, have demonstrated that FITs can be used as a powerful policy tool to drive RE deployment and help meet combined energy security and emissions reductions objectives. This policymaker's guide provides a detailed analysis of FIT policy design and implementation and identifies a set of best practices that have been effective at quickly stimulating the deployment of large amounts of RE generation. Although the discussion is aimed primarily at decision makers who have decided that a FIT policy best suits their needs, exploration of FIT policies can also help inform a choice among alternative renewable energy policies.

  14. Gas Mask 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2011-09-05

    The gas industry fostered more efficient energy utilization long before the idea of energy conservation became fashionable. It became apparent in the late '60's that misguided Federal Legislation was discouraging necessary search for new gas...

  15. Gas separating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gollan, Arye Z.

    1990-12-25

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing.

  16. Gas separating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gollan, Arye (Newton, MA)

    1988-01-01

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing.

  17. An analysis of the potential economic impact of natural gas production in Tanzania

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Umeike, Ekenedilinna (Ekenedilinna Onyedikachi)

    2014-01-01

    Following substantial discoveries of natural gas in recent years, Tanzania has new options for economic development. The country's policy makers are faced with having to make decisions about how best to utilize the gas in ...

  18. Natural Gas Pricing Reform in China: Getting Closer to a Market System?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paltsev, S.

    2015-08-31

    Recent policy in China targets an increase in the contribution of natural gas to the nation’s energy supply. Historically, China’s natural gas prices have been highly regulated with a goal to protect consumers. The old ...

  19. State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA): State Policy and...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA): State Policy and the Pursuit of Renewable Energy Manufacturing Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: State Clean...

  20. ATLAS Data Preservation Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The principal intent of this document is to describe the ATLAS policy ensuring that its data are maintained reliably in a form accessible to ATLAS members. A separate document describes the ATLAS policy for making its data available, and potentially useful, to scientists who are not members of ATLAS.

  1. One Dog Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hacker, Randi

    2009-08-19

    Broadcast Transcript: First the one child policy and now the one dog policy. First in Beijing and now in Guangzhou, the government is limiting the number of dogs in any household to one. And the regulation wasn't grandfathered in, meaning if you had...

  2. POLICIES FOR ACHIEVING ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delaware, University of

    TECHNOLOGIES TO LOW-INCOME HOUSING FINAL REPORT A Renewable Energy Applications for Delaware Yearly (READY) Project Center for Energy and Environmental Policy University of Delaware First Publication in July 2010 policy, sustainable development, political economy of energy, environment and development, environmental

  3. Sustainable Procurement Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burton, Geoffrey R.

    and utilities in a way that achieves value for money on a whole life basis in terms of generating benefits University of Bath policies, namely :- · EnvironmentalPolicy · Carbon principles to be used. · ThePublicServices(SocialValue)Act2012

  4. Riverside County- Sustainable Building Policy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In February 2009, the County of Riverside Board of Supervisors adopted Policy Number H-29, creating the Sustainable Building Policy. The Policy requires that all new county building projects...

  5. UNEP Policy Series ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 UNEP Policy Series ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT Sustaining Forests: Sustaining forests: Investing in our ...........................................................................6 II. Threats to the world's forests: a complex policy problem ............................7 A. Market failures, financial mechanisms and costs of business ..................8 III. Innovative policy

  6. NOx reduction by electron beam-produced nitrogen atom injection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA)

    2002-01-01

    Deactivated atomic nitrogen generated by an electron beam from a gas stream containing more than 99% N.sub.2 is injected at low temperatures into an engine exhaust to reduce NOx emissions. High NOx reduction efficiency is achieved with compact electron beam devices without use of a catalyst.

  7. Thermo-Wetting and Friction Reduction Characterization of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hidrovo, Carlos H.

    such surfaces include frost prevention on aircraft flight surfaces to self-cleaning features on solar energy Microtextured superhydrophobic surfaces have shown potential in friction reduction applications and could the Cassie state even under elevated pressure drops by increasing the temperature in the gas layer

  8. ASSESSMENT OF HOUSEHOLD CARBON FOOTPRINT REDUCTION POTENTIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, Klaas Jan; Homan, Greg; Brown, Rich; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2009-04-15

    The term ?household carbon footprint? refers to the total annual carbon emissions associated with household consumption of energy, goods, and services. In this project, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory developed a carbon footprint modeling framework that characterizes the key underlying technologies and processes that contribute to household carbon footprints in California and the United States. The approach breaks down the carbon footprint by 35 different household fuel end uses and 32 different supply chain fuel end uses. This level of end use detail allows energy and policy analysts to better understand the underlying technologies and processes contributing to the carbon footprint of California households. The modeling framework was applied to estimate the annual home energy and supply chain carbon footprints of a prototypical California household. A preliminary assessment of parameter uncertainty associated with key model input data was also conducted. To illustrate the policy-relevance of this modeling framework, a case study was conducted that analyzed the achievable carbon footprint reductions associated with the adoption of energy efficient household and supply chain technologies.

  9. Energy and greenhouse gas emission effects of corn and cellulosic ethanol with technology improvements and land use changes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.; Han, J.; Haq, Z; Tyner, .W.; Wu, M.; Elgowainy, A.

    2011-05-01

    Use of ethanol as a transportation fuel in the United States has grown from 76 dam{sup 3} in 1980 to over 40.1 hm{sup 3} in 2009 - and virtually all of it has been produced from corn. It has been debated whether using corn ethanol results in any energy and greenhouse gas benefits. This issue has been especially critical in the past several years, when indirect effects, such as indirect land use changes, associated with U.S. corn ethanol production are considered in evaluation. In the past three years, modeling of direct and indirect land use changes related to the production of corn ethanol has advanced significantly. Meanwhile, technology improvements in key stages of the ethanol life cycle (such as corn farming and ethanol production) have been made. With updated simulation results of direct and indirect land use changes and observed technology improvements in the past several years, we conducted a life-cycle analysis of ethanol and show that at present and in the near future, using corn ethanol reduces greenhouse gas emission by more than 20%, relative to those of petroleum gasoline. On the other hand, second-generation ethanol could achieve much higher reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. In a broader sense, sound evaluation of U.S. biofuel policies should account for both unanticipated consequences and technology potentials. We maintain that the usefulness of such evaluations is to provide insight into how to prevent unanticipated consequences and how to promote efficient technologies with policy intervention.

  10. MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , on balance increasing its role from present levels. The shale gas resource is a major contributor including the scale and cost of gas resources, the costs of competing technologies, the patternMIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change The Future of U.S. Natural Gas

  11. Greenhouse Gas Reductions under Low Carbon Fuel Standards?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holland, Stephen P; Knittel, Christopher R; Hughes, Jonathan E.

    2008-01-01

    permits and low carbon energy trading equilibria are bothx = 0 is equivalent to trading energy, then it follows thatthe LCFS by trading carbon, energy, or weighted emissions

  12. Greenhouse Gas Reductions Under Low Carbon Fuel Standards?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holland, Stephen P.; Knittel, Christopher R; Hughes, Jonathan E.

    2007-01-01

    permits and low carbon energy trading equilibria are bothx = 0 is equivalent to trading energy, then it follows thatthe LCFS by trading carbon, energy, or weighted emissions

  13. Greenhouse Gas Reductions Under Low Carbon Fuel Standards?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holland, Stephen P.; Knittel, Christopher R; Hughes, Jonathan E.

    2007-01-01

    production. The second best energy-based LCFS Propositions 1This section analyzes the best energy-based LCFS a regulator2 damages for the second-best energy-based LCFS. Tol (2005),

  14. Reduction in Fabrication Costs of Gas Diffusion Layers

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    throughout oven to maintain consistent heat treatment profile. With high temperature optics and fiber optic cable can accurately read temperatures above 250C without added...

  15. Greenhouse Gas Reductions under Low Carbon Fuel Standards?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holland, Stephen P; Knittel, Christopher R; Hughes, Jonathan E.

    2008-01-01

    power, and asymmetric ?rms are discussed in the section on trading.market power in the two industries for future work. Tradingpower. In Section 4, we discuss meeting the LCFS by trading

  16. Greenhouse Gas Reductions Under Low Carbon Fuel Standards?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holland, Stephen P.; Knittel, Christopher R; Hughes, Jonathan E.

    2007-01-01

    power, and asymmetric ?rms are discussed in the section on trading.market power in the two industries for future work. Tradingpower. In Section 4, we discuss meeting the LCFS by trading

  17. Selective Catalytic Reduction and Exhaust Gas Recirculation Systems Optimization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A patented EGR-SCR approach was shown to readily meet the 2010 EPA requirments for NOx and PM emisisons through independent testing programs.

  18. DOE Technical Assistance on Greenhouse Gas Reduction Strategies...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    For information on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) proposed carbon pollution standards, including the Clean Power Plan, visit EPA.gov. The proposed standards...

  19. GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTION POTENTIAL WITH COMBINED HEAT AND POWER...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (ORNL); National Transportation Research Center Sponsoring Org: EE USDOE - Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE) Country of Publication: United States Language:...

  20. Nitrogen oxides reduction by staged combustion of LCV gas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cabrera Sixto, Jose Manuel

    1990-01-01

    ); and the bottom (figure 4). The purpose of this design was to provide flexsMity to modify the CC. Figure 5 shows a sectional view of the cydone combustor designed. The dimensions in this drawing were calculated based on a CGT feeding rate in the gasifier... TABLES OF THE STATISTICAL ANALYSES Primary Equivalence Ratio Overall Equivalence Ratio Delay Time between Stages Inlet Reynolds Number Combustion Temperature F/A Ratio in Gasifier D COMPUTER PROGRAM USED IN THE CAMAC SYSTEM E EXAMPLE . 162 163...

  1. Greenhouse Gas Reductions Under Low Carbon Fuel Standards?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holland, Stephen P.; Knittel, Christopher R; Hughes, Jonathan E.

    2007-01-01

    relevant market power is at the re?ning and retail levels,growth, re?ning and retail. While market power does not

  2. Greenhouse Gas Reductions under Low Carbon Fuel Standards?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holland, Stephen P.; Knittel, Christopher R; Hughes, Jonathan E.

    2008-01-01

    relevant market power is at the re?ning and retail levels,growth, re?ning and retail. While market power does not

  3. Diesel emission reduction using internal exhaust gas recirculation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    He, Xin (Denver, CO); Durrett, Russell P. (Bloomfield Hills, MI)

    2012-01-24

    A method for controlling combustion in a direct-injection diesel engine includes monitoring a crankshaft rotational position of a cylinder of the engine, monitoring an engine load, determining an intake stroke within the cylinder based upon the crankshaft rotational position, and when the engine load is less than a threshold engine load, opening an exhaust valve for the cylinder during a portion of the intake stroke.

  4. Energy Market Impacts of Alternative Greenhouse Gas Intensity Reduction Goals

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    This report responds to a request from Senator Ken Salazar that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) analyze the impacts of implementing alternative variants of an emissions cap-and-trade program for greenhouse gases (GHGs).

  5. Reduction in Fabrication Costs of Gas Diffusion Layers | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation mn002morgan2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications DOE's...

  6. Reduction in Fabrication Costs of Gas Diffusion Layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jason Morgan; Donald Connors; Michael Hickner

    2012-07-10

    Ballard Material Products (BMP) performed a pre-design technical and cost analysis of state of the art production technologies feasible for high volume GDL manufacturing. Based upon criteria that also included environmental health and safety, customer quality requirements, and future needs, BMP selected technologies that can be integrated into its current manufacturing process. These selections included Many-At-A-Time (MAAT) coating and continuous mixing technologies, as well as various on-line process control tools. These processes have allowed BMP to produce high performance GDLs at lower cost for near-term markets, as well as to define the inputs needed to develop a conceptual Greenfield facility to meet the cost targets for automotive volumes of 500,000 vehicles per year.

  7. South Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and Reduction Potentials

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-Enhancing Capacity forSiliciumEnergy Inc JumpPennsylvania:Sound Beach, New|from

  8. Mexico - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials from

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland: Energy ResourcesDec 2005 WindPRO is developed by EMDPowerMexican

  9. Baselines for Greenhouse Gas Reductions: Problems, Precedents, Solutions |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar Energy LLC Jump to:Greece:Bajo en Carbono, MexicoBanhamOil Home There areOpen

  10. PPPL Celebrates Earth Day with Reduction in Greenhouse Gas Emissions |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access| Department ofStephen P rice Los ANot sure howSummaryPrinceton

  11. GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTION POTENTIAL WITH COMBINED HEAT AND POWER WITH

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article) |productionPatent: FreeformArticle) |

  12. Greenhouse Gas Reductions: SF6 | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation Current HABFESOpportunitiesNERSC GettingGraphene's 3DGreenGreen is

  13. Dose Reduction Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WAGGONER, L.O.

    2000-05-16

    As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the smart things that protect the worker but do not hinder him while the task is being accomplished. In addition, we should not demand that large amounts of money be spent for equipment that has marginal value in order to save a few millirem. We have broken the handout into sections that should simplify the presentation. Time, distance, shielding, and source reduction are methods used to reduce dose and are covered in Part I on work execution. We then look at operational considerations, radiological design parameters, and discuss the characteristics of personnel who deal with ALARA. This handout should give you an overview of what it takes to have an effective dose reduction program.

  14. Policy Flash 2005-53

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    8 DATE: June 8, 2011 TO: Procurement Directors FROM: Director, Policy Division Office of Procurement and Assistance Policy Office of Acquisition and Assistance Management SUBJECT:...

  15. Policy Flash 2005-53

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    3 DATE: January 19, 2011 TO: Procurement Directors FROM: Director, Policy Division Office of Procurement and Assistance Policy Office of Acquisition and Assistance Management...

  16. Policy Flash 2005-53

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    1-48 DATE: March 9, 2011 TO: Procurement Directors FROM: Director, Policy Division Office of Procurement and Assistance Policy Office of Acquisition and Assistance Management...

  17. Policy Flash 2005-53

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    6 DATE: May 19, 2011 TO: Procurement Directors FROM: Director, Policy Division Office of Procurement and Assistance Policy Office of Acquisition and Assistance Management SUBJECT:...

  18. Policy Flash 2005-53

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    86 DATE: June 23, 2011 TO: Procurement Directors FROM: Director, Policy Division Office of Procurement and Assistance Policy Office of Acquisition and Assistance Management...

  19. Policy Flash 2005-53

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    93 DATE: July 25, 2011 TO: Procurement Directors FROM: Director, Policy Division Office of Procurement and Assistance Policy Office of Acquisition and Assistance Management...

  20. Policy Flash 2005-53

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    7 DATE: February 3, 2011 TO: Procurement Directors FROM: Director, Policy Division Office of Procurement and Assistance Policy Office of Acquisition and Assistance Management...

  1. Policy Flash 2005-53

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    9 DATE: February 9, 2011 TO: Procurement Directors FROM: Director, Policy Division Office of Procurement and Assistance Policy Office of Acquisition and Assistance Management...

  2. Policy Flash 2005-53

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    3 DATE: February 16, 2011 TO: Procurement Directors FROM: Director, Policy Division Office of Procurement and Assistance Policy Office of Procurement and Assistance Management...

  3. Policy Flash 2005-53

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    2 DATE: May 9, 2011 TO: Procurement Directors FROM: Director, Policy Division Office of Procurement and Assistance Policy Office of Acquisition and Assistance Management SUBJECT:...

  4. Policy Flash 2005-53

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    20 DATE: November 17, 2010 TO: Procurement Directors FROM: Director, Policy Division Office of Procurement and Assistance Policy Office of Procurement and Assistance Management...

  5. Policies, Procedures and Guidelines Complete Policy Title

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Michael

    . The offering of such programs should reward sponsoring Faculties for their creativity, initiative and risk. · The University supports the spirit of enterprise and reasonable risk-taking that will increase the capabilities University labour agreements and purchasing policies, which are relevant to the provision of goods

  6. Policies, Procedures and Guidelines Complete Policy Title

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Michael

    organizations may be formed to address certain types of research problems; to plan for, manage and optimally of Research Institutes, Centres and Groups Policy Number (if applicable): Approved by: Senate Board of Research Groups, Centres and Institutes) Responsible Executive: Vice-President (Research and International

  7. Policies, Procedures and Guidelines Complete Policy Title

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Michael

    . The annual salary of the member on a reduced workload will be adjusted proportionally from the full-time salary. The equivalent full-time salary will be reviewed each year in accordance with the University salary policy. Salary payments will be made in twelve equal monthly installments throughout the year. ii

  8. Labour's Social Policy Record: Policy, Spending

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banaji,. Murad

    Hills, Kitty Stewart and Polly Vizard Research Report 1 June 2013 Social Policy in Cold Climate POVERTY in the UK since 2007, particularly their impact on the distribution of wealth, poverty, income inequality, charting their approach and assessing their impact on the distribution of outcomes and on poverty

  9. The Effect of Acid Additives on Carbonate Rock Wettability and Spent Acid Recovery in Low Permeability Gas Carbonates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saneifar, Mehrnoosh

    2012-10-19

    Spent acid retention in the near-wellbore region causes reduction of relative permeability to gas and eventually curtailed gas production. In low-permeability gas carbonate reservoirs, capillary forces are the key parameters that affect the trapping...

  10. PAPERWORK REDUCTION ACT SUBMISSION

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy AEnergy Managing853926Families | Department ofbookletThe AssetTopics. OMB

  11. Global Threat Reduction Initiative

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nA Guide to Tapping intoandMinimaland(GTO)GetSafeguards |Global

  12. Department of Mechanical Engineering Fall 2010 Geothermal Pressure Reduction Marcellus Shale Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    include the following: Supercritical fluid fractures rock, Subterranean heat exchanger, PressurizedPENNSTATE Department of Mechanical Engineering Fall 2010 Geothermal Pressure Reduction ­ Marcellus Shale natural gas wells have a wellhead pressure that exceeds the material limits of typical above

  13. EIS-0065: Review & Establishment of Natural Gas Curtailment Priorities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Economic Regulatory Administration developed this statement as part of a comprehensive programmatic review of alternatives to existing federal policy on curtailment of natural gas deliveries during periods of shortage.

  14. North American Natural Gas Markets. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group`s findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

  15. Electricity demand-side management for an energy efficient future in China : technology options and policy priorities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Chia-Chin

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to identify robust technology and policy options which achieve substantial reductions in electricity demand in China's Shandong Province. This research utilizes a scenario-based ...

  16. INFORMATION SECURITY POLICY.doc INFORMATION SECURITY POLICY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Sriram

    - 1 ­ INFORMATION SECURITY POLICY.doc INFORMATION SECURITY POLICY Ratified by RCA Senate, February 2007 Contents Introduction 2 Policy Statement 3 Information Security at RCA 5 Annexes A. Applicable ­ INFORMATION SECURITY POLICY.doc Introduction Why Information Security? The access, availability

  17. Environmental Studies Major Continuation Policy What is the Continuation Policy?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacCready, Parker

    Environmental Studies Major Continuation Policy What is the Continuation Policy? While (PoE) has set additional requirements of planning and grades for all students in the Environmental a Continuation Policy? For students: This policy helps ensure that students make satisfactory progress toward

  18. UNDERSTANDING THE ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY PROCESS The Policy Cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Callender, Craig

    UNDERSTANDING THE ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY PROCESS week 3 #12;The Policy Cycle Agenda Formulation Assessment Implementation Termination #12;How Can the Govt Affect Environmental Policy? Laws Market Services loss Many ways "in" to govt environmental policy #12;Consequences Incrementalism Some pluses, e

  19. Guidelines for Policy Briefs NTRES 4300 -Environmental Policy Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kraft, Clifford E.

    Guidelines for Policy Briefs NTRES 4300 - Environmental Policy Processes Barbara Bedford and Cliff such briefs on your selected environmental policy topic: (a) a 1-2 page "advocacy" brief; and (b) a longer examples of environmental policy briefs to the course web site and discuss them in class sessions. ADVOCACY

  20. Main Campus Urban Forest and Landscape Management Policy Policy Statement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart, Steven J.

    Main Campus Urban Forest and Landscape Management Policy Policy Statement: Clemson University and recreation. This Main Campus Urban Forest and Landscape Management Policy enables that commitment through procedures and requirements for achieving the purpose of this policy and its implementation ("Main Campus

  1. Data Protection Policy Page 1 DATA PROTECTION POLICY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jordan, David

    Data Protection Policy Page 1 DATA PROTECTION POLICY POLICY STATEMENT The University intends to fully comply with all requirements of the Data Protection Act 1998 (,,Act) in so far as it affects the Universitys activities. SCOPE This Data Protection Policy: Covers the processing of all personal information

  2. Policy on Openness in Research POLICY ON OPENNESS IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sridhar, Srinivas

    Policy on Openness in Research 04/27/2014 POLICY ON OPENNESS IN RESEARCH I. Purpose and Scope and results. This policy applies to research conducted at Northeastern University by faculty, students, staff and visiting researchers. II. Policy The University will not undertake research with restrictions on openness

  3. Policy Writer's Checklist Updating your policy sections and exhibits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    6/4/13 1 Policy Writer's Checklist Updating your policy sections and exhibits: Request the most recent word processing file from your unit policy coordinator (see http of the policy section. Think specifically about what information campus departments will need in order to use

  4. Financial Policy Manual 2351 TRAVEL AND ENTERTAINMENT POLICY OVERVIEW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George, Edward I.

    Financial Policy Manual Page 1 2351 ­ TRAVEL AND ENTERTAINMENT POLICY ­ OVERVIEW Resp. Office/Revision: April 1, 2015 PURPOSE To provide a policy overview for the purchase and payment/reimbursement of travel and entertainment on behalf of the University. SCOPE This policy applies to all affiliates (faculty, staff, students

  5. Complete Policy Title: Expenditure Policy: General Trust Funds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Michael

    Complete Policy Title: Expenditure Policy: General Trust Funds (Externally Restricted Endowments) Policy Number (if applicable): n/a Approved by: Board of Governors Date of Most Recent Approval: December 13, 2012 Date of Original Approval(s): March 19, 1998 Supersedes/Amends Policy dated: March 3, 2011

  6. University Policy Website Policy Development and Review Checklist

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    University Policy Website Policy Development and Review Checklist Updated May 2009 Page 1 of 3 UNIVERSITY POLICY DEVELOPMENT AND REVIEW CHECKLIST Purpose This checklist is designed to assist individuals developing and reviewing university policies and procedures. The questions below will not apply to every

  7. Policy on Non-Fraternization Policy on Non-Fraternization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sridhar, Srinivas

    Policy on Non-Fraternization 8/1/2014 Policy on Non-Fraternization I. Purpose and Scope relationships where there is supervision, direction or control between the parties. This policy applies to all Employees, as defined herein. II. Definitions For purposes of this policy: "Supervisor" shall mean any

  8. Policy on Temporary Non Student Employees Policy on Temporary Non-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sridhar, Srinivas

    Policy on Temporary Non Student Employees 10/29/2014 Policy on Temporary Non- Student Employees I-term project, job or assignment. This policy sets forth the hiring parameters for such temporary employees. II-term project, job, or assignment. Students cannot be hired as temporary employees. III. Policy Temporary

  9. Financial Policy Manual 2360 TRAVEL AND ENTERTAINMENT POLICY TELEPHONE USAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George, Edward I.

    Financial Policy Manual Page 1 2360 ­ TRAVEL AND ENTERTAINMENT POLICY ­ TELEPHONE USAGE Resp expenses incurred when traveling on behalf of the University. SCOPE This policy applies responsibilities of the employee, student or postdoc can be found in Policy #2352. RESPONSIBILITY OF APPROVERS

  10. 1 Public Policy and Public Administration PUBLIC POLICY AND PUBLIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vertes, Akos

    1 Public Policy and Public Administration PUBLIC POLICY AND PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION Through its Trachtenberg School of Public Policy and Public Administration, Columbian College of Arts and Sciences offers the Master of Public Policy, Master of Public Administration, and the Doctor of Philosophy in the field

  11. Policy on Pets on Campus Policy on Pets on Campus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sridhar, Srinivas

    Policy on Pets on Campus 10/30/2014 Policy on Pets on Campus I. Purpose and Scope The presence. This policy addresses pets on all property owned and controlled by the university and applies to all students. Policy The University prohibits pets in university-owned or leased buildings, except as provided below

  12. Social Media Policy 1.0 Policy Statement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daley, Monica A.

    Social Media Policy 1.0 Policy Statement 1.1 The College recognises that the internet provides to this policy, which outlines staff responsibilities when accessing and using social media websites. 1.3 This policy does not form part of any employee's contract of employment and may, after consultation

  13. Policy on Programs Involving Minors Policy on Programs Involving

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sridhar, Srinivas

    Policy on Programs Involving Minors 6/4/2014 Policy on Programs Involving Minors I. Purpose in University-sponsored activities that take place off campus. This policy applies to University or facilities that are operated or sponsored by third parties. This policy provides program registration

  14. Policy Brief For more policy briefs, click here.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Policy Brief March 2014 For more policy briefs, click here. Sustainable Communities: Implementation@ucdavis.edu Gian-Claudia Sciara, sciara@ucdavis.edu Policy Forum Series: January to March 2014 Issue California, the UC Davis Policy Institute for Energy, Environment and the Economy and the National Center

  15. Climate policy and competitiveness: Policy guidance and quantitative evidence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Climate policy and competitiveness: Policy guidance and quantitative evidence Jared C. Carbone NicholasRivers July 2014 Abstract When considering adoption of a domestic climate change policy survey the literature on the quantitative impacts of unilateral climate change policy derived from

  16. Policy #2010 Publications Policy and Graphic Guidelines 1 OLD DOMINION UNIVERSITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Policy #2010 ­ Publications Policy and Graphic Guidelines 1 OLD DOMINION UNIVERSITY University Policy Policy #2010 PUBLICATIONS POLICY AND GRAPHIC GUIDELINES Responsible Oversight Executive: Assistant to Old Dominion University's publications policy and graphic guidelines supporting the University's brand

  17. Policy on establishing scholarships and fellowships Current Policy on scholarships and fellowships

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammack, Richard

    Policy on establishing scholarships and fellowships Current Policy on scholarships and fellowships Policy Type: Local Responsible Office: Office of Development and Alumni Relations Initial Policy Approved: 05/2009 Revised Policy Approved: 01/2013 Policy Statement and Purpose

  18. Policy #1001 Development, Approval and Maintenance of University Policy 1 OLD DOMINION UNIVERSITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Policy #1001 ­ Development, Approval and Maintenance of University Policy 1 OLD DOMINION UNIVERSITY University Policy Policy #1001 DEVELOPMENT, APPROVAL AND MAINTENANCE OF UNIVERSITY POLICY Responsible 4, 2012 A. PURPOSE This policy defines the process for developing, reviewing, approving

  19. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1996 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-01

    The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1996, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1996. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1996 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  20. U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1995 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-11-01

    The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1995, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1995. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1995 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  1. Nox control for high nitric oxide concentration flows through combustion-driven reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeh, James T. (Bethel Park, PA); Ekmann, James M. (Bethel Park, PA); Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA); Drummond, Charles J. (Churchill, PA)

    1989-01-01

    An improved method for removing nitrogen oxides from concentrated waste gas streams, in which nitrogen oxides are ignited with a carbonaceous material in the presence of substoichiometric quantities of a primary oxidant, such as air. Additionally, reductants may be ignited along with the nitrogen oxides, carbonaceous material and primary oxidant to achieve greater reduction of nitrogen oxides. A scrubber and regeneration system may also be included to generate a concentrated stream of nitrogen oxides from flue gases for reduction using this method.

  2. ASSESSMENT OF HOUSEHOLD CARBON FOOTPRINT REDUCTION POTENTIALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masanet, Eric

    2010-01-01

    help California energy and policy analysts better assess end use detail  allows energy and policy analysts to better which would allow energy and policy analysts to better 

  3. Microfluidic Reactor for the Electrochemical Reduction of Carbon Dioxide: The Effect of pH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenis, Paul J. A.

    Microfluidic Reactor for the Electrochemical Reduction of Carbon Dioxide: The Effect of pH Devin T and characterization of a microfluidic reactor for the electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide. The use of gas submitted January 27, 2010; revised manuscript received April 7, 2010. Published June 29, 2010. Carbon

  4. Theoretical Calculation of Reduction Potentials Junming Ho, Michelle L. Coote1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Truhlar, Donald G

    of Reduction Potentials A. Gas phase free energies of reaction B. Free energies of solvation C. Standard states or free energy changes for electrochemical half-reactions. In practice, the high reactivity of many reduction potential difficult. For this reason, computational chemistry offers a valuable alternative

  5. U.S. Agriculture's Role Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation World

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    U.S. Agriculture's Role in a Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation World: An Economic Perspective the IMPAC project. #12;Abstract International agreements are likely to stimulate greenhouse gas mitigation Words Agricultural Sinks, Emissions Trading, Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions, Kyoto Protocol #12

  6. ANALYSIS OF MEASURES FOR REDUCING TRANSPORTATION SECTOR GREENHOUSE GAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ANALYSIS OF MEASURES FOR REDUCING TRANSPORTATION SECTOR GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS IN CANADA by Rose: Analysis of Measures for Reducing Transportation Sector Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Canada Project Number the problem of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the Canadian transportation sector. Reductions

  7. Gas separating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gollan, A.Z.

    1990-12-25

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing. 3 figs.

  8. Gas separating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gollan, A.

    1988-03-29

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing. 3 figs.

  9. The Climate Policy Dilemma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pindyck, Robert S.

    Climate policy poses a dilemma for environmental economists. The economic argument for stringent GHG abatement is far from clear. There is disagreement among both climate scientists and economists over the likelihood of ...

  10. Policy Brief October 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Kleeman Contact: Mike Kleeman UC Davis Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering mjkleeman@ucdavis.edu Issue California became a leader in climate change policy when it enacted Assembly Bill 32 (AB 32

  11. Hall Ammendment Policy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Joint statement providing interim policy on processing proposals for leasing DOE real property using the authority in 42 U.S.C. 7256, commonly referred to as the "Hall Amendment."

  12. ORISE: Policy Implementation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Policy Implementation The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) assists the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science in the implementation of its program...

  13. Public Policy Seminar 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wassoff, Fran

    Recent policy response to family breakdown has been to emphasise the importance of maintained contact between children and absent parents. Since 1995, with the Children (Scotland) Act, parents have had a responsibility to maintain contact...

  14. Housing policy in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Lu, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    In the last three decades, the People's Republic of China (PRC) has managed to replace its welfare-based urban housing system with a market-based housing provision scheme. With such significant housing policy changes, the ...

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Environmental Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haase, Markus

    ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Environmental Policy February 2013 The University of Leeds is responsible to reflect best environmental practice, implement an environmental management system to pursue sustainability and continuous improvement and seek innovative ways of meeting environmental objectives. These include: To meet

  16. COORDINATING EUROPEAN UNION ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bateman, Ian J.

    COORDINATING EUROPEAN UNION ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY: SHIFTING FROM PASSIVE TO ACTIVE COORDINATION UNION ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY: SHIFTING FROM PASSIVE TO ACTIVE COORDINATION? by Andrew Jordan1 , Adriaan;3 Abstract Environmental policy provides one of the oldest and most puzzling cases of policy coordination

  17. Risk Management Policy and Procedures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paxton, Anthony T.

    Risk Management Policy and Procedures #12;Risk Management Policy and Procedures Queen's University Belfast Updated January 2014 1. PURPOSE OF THIS DOCUMENT 1.1 This Risk Management Policy (the policy explains the University's underlying approach to risk management, documents the roles and responsibilities

  18. Swansea University Sustainable Catering Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aickelin, Uwe

    Sustainable Food Policy in 2010; this 2012 document updates the policy, reviews Campus Catering's performance within which Swansea University will increasingly provide healthy, local and more sustainable food to its in the development of our policies and procedures in respect of more sustainable food. The policy covers all food

  19. Pemex: Problems and Policy Options

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shields, David

    2006-01-01

    to US$70 billion) to finance oil industry projects, allowingOil Policy???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????5 Pemex Finances?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????

  20. POLICY SUMMARY BUSINESS ASSOCIATE CONTRACTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    POLICY SUMMARY BUSINESS ASSOCIATE CONTRACTS POLICY NUMBER 2003-04 To comply with HIPAA requirements PRIVACY AND SECURITY POLICY NUMBER 2003-07 To identify the mechanism by which appropriate staff receives policies related to security and privacy of protected health information. BREACHES OF PRIVACY & SECURITY

  1. UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA RETIREMENT POLICY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oklahoma, University of

    UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA RETIREMENT POLICY (Amended and Restated Effective: July 1, 2002) (Execution of all benefits under the University of Oklahoma Retirement Policy. Any conflict between the terms, modify or terminate the Policy at any time. #12;UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA RETIREMENT POLICY (Formerly

  2. Asilomar Declaration on Climate Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Dan

    2007-01-01

    Board, California Department of Transportation, Energyon Transportation and Energy Policy at California’s Asilomar

  3. Gas mixtures for gas-filled radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christophorou, Loucas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); McCorkle, Dennis L. (Knoxville, TN); Maxey, David V. (Knoxville, TN); Carter, James G. (Knoxville, TN)

    1982-01-05

    Improved binary and ternary gas mixtures for gas-filled radiation detectors are provided. The components are chosen on the basis of the principle that the first component is one molecular gas or mixture of two molecular gases having a large electron scattering cross section at energies of about 0.5 eV and higher, and the second component is a noble gas having a very small cross section at and below about 1.0 eV, whereby fast electrons in the gaseous mixture are slowed into the energy range of about 0.5 eV where the cross section for the mixture is small and hence the electron mean free path is large. The reduction in both the cross section and the electron energy results in an increase in the drift velocity of the electrons in the gas mixtures over that for the separate components for a range of E/P (pressure-reduced electric field) values. Several gas mixtures are provided that provide faster response in gas-filled detectors for convenient E/P ranges as compared with conventional gas mixtures.

  4. Improved gas mixtures for gas-filled radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christophorou, L.G.; McCorkle, D.L.; Maxey, D.V.; Carter, J.G.

    1980-03-28

    Improved binary and ternary gas mixtures for gas-filled radiation detectors are provided. The components are chosen on the basis of the principle that the first component is one molecular gas or mixture of two molecular gases having a large electron scattering cross section at energies of about 0.5 eV and higher, and the second component is a noble gas having a very small cross section at and below about 1.0 eV, whereby fast electrons in the gaseous mixture are slowed into the energy range of about 0.5 eV where the cross section for the mixture is small and hence the electron mean free path is large. The reduction in both the cross section and the electron energy results in an increase in the drift velocity of the electrons in the gas mixtures over that for the separate components for a range of E/P (pressure-reduced electric field) values. Several gas mixtures are provided that provide faster response in gas-filled detectors for convenient E/P ranges as compared with conventional gas mixtures.

  5. Gas mixtures for gas-filled particle detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christophorou, Loucas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); McCorkle, Dennis L. (Knoxville, TN); Maxey, David V. (Knoxville, TN); Carter, James G. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1980-01-01

    Improved binary and tertiary gas mixtures for gas-filled particle detectors are provided. The components are chosen on the basis of the principle that the first component is one gas or mixture of two gases having a large electron scattering cross section at energies of about 0.5 eV and higher, and the second component is a gas (Ar) having a very small cross section at and below aout 0.5 eV, whereby fast electrons in the gaseous mixture are slowed into the energy range of about 0.5 eV where the cross section for the mixture is small and hence the electron mean free path is large. The reduction in both the cross section and the electron energy results in an increase in the drift velocity of the electrons in the gas mixtures over that for the separate components for a range of E/P (pressure-reduced electron field) values. Several gas mixtures are provided that provide faster response in gas-filled detectors for convenient E/P ranges as compared with conventional gas mixtures.

  6. Combining a renewable portfolio standard with a cap-and-trade policy : a general equilibrium analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris Jennifer F. (Jennifer Faye)

    2009-01-01

    Most economists see incentive-based measures such a cap-and-trade system or a carbon tax as cost effective policy instruments for limiting greenhouse gas emissions. In actuality, many efforts to address GHG emissions combine ...

  7. MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    combined cycle (NGCC) without carbon capture and sequestration (CCS), natural gas combined cycle with CCS of this difficult issue, and combining them into policy assessments that serve the needs of ongoing national

  8. 5, 755794, 2005 Reduction methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 5, 755­794, 2005 Reduction methods for chemical schemes S. Szopa et al. Title Page Abstract Assessment of the reduction methods used to develop chemical schemes: building of a new chemical scheme for VOC oxidation suited to three-dimensional multiscale HOx-NOx-VOC chemistry simulations S. Szopa 1

  9. Environmental Sustainability Paper Usage / Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;carbon footprint and develop carbon reduction projects around IT and staff/student behaviour change is supported by the Environmental Sustainability Manager and is seen as a key link to the University's Carbon Management Programme (e.g. to produce a forecast of carbon reductions as required by the Carbon Trust

  10. Why did China's Energy Intensity Increase during 1998-2006: Decomposition and Policy Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Paul N.

    takes up about 70 percent of the total energy consumption. Per capita oil, natural gas and coal deposits consumption; Industrial policy; Energy price policy JEL: Q43; Q48 1. Introduction China's energy demand has. China's industrial energy consumption reached 1751.4 million ton of coal equivalent (mtce) in 2006

  11. Applicability of hydroxylamine nitrate reductant in pulse-column contactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reif, D.J.

    1983-05-01

    Uranium and plutonium separations were made from simulated breeder reactor spent fuel dissolver solution with laboratory-sized pulse column contactors. Hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN) was used for reduction of plutonium (1V). An integrated extraction-partition system, simulating a breeder fuel reprocessing flowsheet, carried out a partial partition of uranium and plutonium in the second contactor. Tests have shown that acceptable coprocessing can be ontained using HAN as a plutonium reductant. Pulse column performance was stable even though gaseous HAN oxidation products were present in the column. Gas evolution rates up to 0.27 cfm/ft/sup 2/ of column cross section were tested and found acceptable.

  12. Alumina catalysts for reduction of NOx from methanol fueled diesel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamamoto, Toshiro; Noda, Akira; Sakamoto, Takashi; Sato, Yoshio [Ministry of Transport of Japan, Kumamoto (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    NOx selective reducing catalysts are expected to be used for lean-burn gasoline engines and diesel engines as an effective NOx reduction measure. The authors are interested in the combination of methanol, as a reducing agent, and alumina catalyst, and have considered the NOx reduction method using effectively much unburned methanol. In this report, in order to investigate the effect of NOx reduction by the alumina catalyst, the experiment was carried out by feeding the actual exhaust gas from the methanol engine into the alumina catalyst. As a result, it was confirmed that, without addition of any other reducing agents into the exhaust gas, the alumina catalyst has activity to reduce NOx.

  13. Climate policy implications for agricultural water demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Wise, Marshall A.; Calvin, Katherine V.

    2013-03-28

    Energy, water and land are scarce resources, critical to humans. Developments in each affect the availability and cost of the others, and consequently human prosperity. Measures to limit greenhouse gas concentrations will inevitably exact dramatic changes on energy and land systems and in turn alter the character, magnitude and geographic distribution of human claims on water resources. We employ the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), an integrated assessment model to explore the interactions of energy, land and water systems in the context of alternative policies to limit climate change to three alternative levels: 2.5 Wm-2 (445 ppm CO2-e), 3.5 Wm-2 (535 ppm CO2-e) and 4.5 Wm-2 (645 ppm CO2-e). We explore the effects of two alternative land-use emissions mitigation policy options—one which taxes terrestrial carbon emissions equally with fossil fuel and industrial emissions, and an alternative which only taxes fossil fuel and industrial emissions but places no penalty on land-use change emissions. We find that increasing populations and economic growth could be anticipated to almost triple demand for water for agricultural systems across the century even in the absence of climate policy. In general policies to mitigate climate change increase agricultural demands for water still further, though the largest changes occur in the second half of the century, under both policy regimes. The two policies examined profoundly affected both the sources and magnitudes of the increase in irrigation water demands. The largest increases in agricultural irrigation water demand occurred in scenarios where only fossil fuel emissions were priced (but not land-use change emission) and were primarily driven by rapid expansion in bioenergy production. In these scenarios water demands were large relative to present-day total available water, calling into question whether it would be physically possible to produce the associated biomass energy. We explored the potential of improved water delivery and irrigation system efficiencies. These could potentially reduce demands substantially. However, overall demands remained high under our fossil-fuel-only tax policy. In contrast, when all carbon was priced, increases in agricultural water demands were smaller than under the fossil-fuel-only policy and were driven primarily by increased demands for water by non-biomass crops such as rice. Finally we estimate the geospatial pattern of water demands and find that regions such as China, India and other countries in south and east Asia might be expected to experience greatest increases in water demands.?

  14. Climate Policies and the Power Sector: Challenges and Issues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tseng, Chung-Li

    such as emissions trading schemes EU ETS in the European Union and the Re- gional Greenhouse Gas Initiative RGGI allowances to cover their emissions. Experience with the Clean Air Act CAA Title IV SO2 emissions-trading. Although the experience of emissions trading programs so far is encouraging, policy makers are still

  15. THE NATIONAL COMMISSION ON ENERGY POLICY December 2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    ENERGY SUPPLIES 41 Introduction 41 A. Natural Gas 44 B. Advanced Coal Technologies 51 C. Nuclear Energy ENERGY-SUPPLY INFRASTRUCTURE 84 A. Introduction 84 B. Site Critical Energy Infrastructure 84 C. ProtectTHE NATIONAL COMMISSION ON ENERGY POLICY December 2004 ENDING THE ENERGY STALEMATE A Bipartisan

  16. Usage Policies Notebook for Mark 50 Evaporation Revision date

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    Usage Policies Notebook for Mark 50 Evaporation Revision date March 2015 #12;Emergency Plan for CHA source N2 (nitrogen) gas Asphyxiant Alarms or indications of danger Alarm type Condition and response Shutdown the machine at once. Contact the staff and the lab manager. Emergency shutdown plan #1

  17. Draft report of the MarClim Policy Workshop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Power, Anne Marie

    for Habitats and Species h) OSPAR i) ICES j) Common Fisheries Policy k) North Sea Conferences l) "Rio + 10 and introductions will spread h) Guidance on changes to the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation (see Dr Jenkins environmental assessments of off-shore oil, gas and wind farm developments and marine aggregates k

  18. DRAG REDUCTION WITH SUPERHYDROPHOBIC RIBLETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbier, Charlotte N [ORNL; D'Urso, Brian R [ORNL; Jenner, Elliot [University of Pittsburgh

    2012-01-01

    Samples combining riblets and superhydrophobic surfaces are fabricated at University of Pittsburgh and their drag reduction properties are studied at the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS) in Oak Ridge National Laboratory with a commercial cone-and-plate rheometer. In parallel to the experiments, numerical simulations are performed in order to estimate the slip length at high rotational speed. For each sample, a drag reduction of at least 5% is observed in both laminar and turbulent regime. At low rotational speed, drag reduction up to 30% is observed with a 1 mm deep grooved sample. As the rotational speed increases, a secondary flow develops causing a slight decrease in drag reductions. However, drag reduction above 15% is still observed for the large grooved samples. In the turbulent regime, the 100 microns grooved sample becomes more efficient than the other samples in drag reduction and manages to sustain a drag reduction above 15%. Using the simulations, the slip length of the 100 micron grooved sample is estimated to be slightly above 100 micron in the turbulent regime.

  19. A Framework for Comparative Assessments of Energy Efficiency Policy Measures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blum, Helcio; Atkinson, Barbara; Lekov, Alex

    2011-05-24

    When policy makers propose new policies, there is a need to assess the costs and benefits of the proposed policy measures, to compare them to existing and alternative policies, and to rank them according to their effectiveness. In the case of equipment energy efficiency regulations, comparing the effects of a range of alternative policy measures requires evaluating their effects on consumers’ budgets, on national energy consumption and economics, and on the environment. Such an approach should be able to represent in a single framework the particularities of each policy measure and provide comparable results. This report presents an integrated methodological framework to assess prospectively the energy, economic, and environmental impacts of energy efficiency policy measures. The framework builds on the premise that the comparative assessment of energy efficiency policy measures should (a) rely on a common set of primary data and parameters, (b) follow a single functional approach to estimate the energy, economic, and emissions savings resulting from each assessed measure, and (c) present results through a set of comparable indicators. This framework elaborates on models that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has used in support of its rulemakings on mandatory energy efficiency standards. In addition to a rigorous analysis of the impacts of mandatory standards, DOE compares the projected results of alternative policy measures to those projected to be achieved by the standards. The framework extends such an approach to provide a broad, generic methodology, with no geographic or sectoral limitations, that is useful for evaluating any type of equipment energy efficiency market intervention. The report concludes with a demonstration of how to use the framework to compare the impacts estimated for twelve policy measures focusing on increasing the energy efficiency of gas furnaces in the United States.

  20. Benefits of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation on the Supply, Management, and Use of Water Resources in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strzepek, K.; Neumann, Jim; Smith, Joel; Martinich, Jeremy; Boehlert, Brent; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Henderson, Jim; Wobus, Cameron; Jones, Russ; Calvin, Katherine V.; Johnson, D.; Monier, Erwan; Strzepek, J.; Yoon, Jin-Ho

    2014-11-29

    Climate change impacts on water resources in the U.S. are likely to be far-reaching and substantial, because the water sector spans many parts of the economy, from supply and demand for agriculture, industry, energy production, transportation and municipal use to damages from natural hazards. This paper provides impact and damage estimates from five water resource-related models in the CIRA frame work, addressing drought risk, flooding damages, water supply and demand, and global water scarcity. The four models differ in the water system assessed, their spatial scale, and the units of assessment, but together they provide a quantitative and descriptive richness in characterizing water resource sector effects of climate change that no single model can capture. The results also address the sensitivity of these estimates to greenhouse gas emission scenarios, climate sensitivity alternatives, and global climate model selection. While calculating the net impact of climate change on the water sector as a whole may be impractical, because each of the models applied here uses a consistent set of climate scenarios, broad conclusions can be drawn regarding the patterns of change and the benefits of GHG mitigation policies for the water sector. Two key findings emerge: 1) climate mitigation policy substantially reduces the impact of climate change on the water sector across multiple dimensions; and 2) the more managed the water resources system, the more tempered the climate change impacts and the resulting reduction of impacts from climate mitigation policies.