Sample records for gas propane electricity

  1. Knoxville Area Transit: Propane Hybrid Electric Trolleys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A 2-page fact sheet summarizing the evaluation done by the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity on the Knoxville Area Transit's use of propane hybrid electric trolleys.

  2. QER- Comment of National Propane Gas Association

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Ladies and Gentlemen: Please find attached the QER comments of the National Propane Gas Association. Please feel to contact us if we can provide further information. Thank you for your attention to our submission.

  3. National propane safety week caps fifth anniversary of GAS Check

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prowler, S.

    1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on National Propane Safety Week. The publicity encompassed everything from preventative maintenance to safe winter storage of cylinders. This campaign focused much of its attention on GAS (gas appliance system) Check, the propane industry's most well-known safety program.

  4. Experimental studies of steam-propane and enriched gas injection for the Minas light crude oil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yudishtira, Wan Dedi

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental studies were carried out to compare the benefits of propane as an additive in steam injection and in lean gas injection to enhance production for the Minas light crude oil (34?API). The studies on steam-propane were specifically...

  5. Experimental studies of steam-propane and enriched gas injection for the Minas light crude oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yudishtira, Wan Dedi

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental studies were carried out to compare the benefits of propane as an additive in steam injection and in lean gas injection to enhance production for the Minas light crude oil (34?API). The studies on steam-propane were specifically...

  6. Investigation of the flame speeds of propane/methanol gas mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foote, K.L.; Villareal, J.

    1985-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of tests was conducted in an acoustically tuned flame tube in order to determine the laminar burning velocities in air of various propane/methanol gas mixtures. The experimental method is explained in detail, along with the tabular results. A 90% propane, 10% methanol mixture is shown to have a maximum burning velocity of 40.8 cm/s. A 65% propane, 35% methanol mixture has a maximum velocity of 41.8 cm/s. These maximum flame speeds are shown to be about the same as that of pure propane by the same method. Gulder has found evidence that the presence of methanol in some hydrocarbon fuels may actually inhibit combustion, but we see no apparent modifications in the combustion of propane when mixed with methanol.

  7. Effects of Propane/Natural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Straub, D.L.; Ferguson, D.H.; Casleton, K.H.; Richards, G.A.

    2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports to the U.S. are expected to grow significantly over the next 10-15 years. Likewise, it is expected that changes to the domestic gas supply may also introduce changes in natural gas composition. As a result of these anticipated changes, the composition of fuel sources may vary significantly from conventional domestic natural gas supplies. This paper will examine the effects of fuel variability on pollutant emissions for premixed gas turbine conditions. The experimental data presented in this paper have been collected from a pressurized single injector combustion test rig at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The tests are conducted at 7.5 atm with a 588 K air preheat. A propane blending facility is used to vary the Wobbe Index of the site natural gas. The results indicate that propane addition of about five (vol.) percent does not lead to a significant change in the observed NOx or CO emissions. These results are different from data collected on some engine applications and potential reasons for these differences will be described.

  8. Natural Gas Ethanol Flex-Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natural Gas Propane Electric Ethanol Flex-Fuel Biodiesel Vehicle Buyer's Guide Clean Cities 2012 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 About This Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Compressed Natural Gas and emissions. Alternative fueling infrastructure is expanding in many regions, making natural gas, propane

  9. TIME-VARYING FLAME IONIZATION SENSING APPLIED TO NATURAL GAS AND PROPANE BLENDS IN A PRESSURIZED LEAN PREMIXED (LPM) COMBUSTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. L. Straub; B. T. Chorpening; E. D. Huckaby; J. D. Thornton; W. L. Fincham

    2008-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    In-situ monitoring of combustion phenomena is a critical need for optimal operation and control of advanced gas turbine combustion systems. The concept described in this paper is based on naturally occurring flame ionization processes that accompany the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels. Previous work has shown that flame ionization techniques may be applied to detect flashback, lean blowout, and some aspects of thermo-acoustic combustion instabilities. Previous work has focused on application of DC electric fields. By application of time-varying electric fields, significant improvements to sensor capabilities have been observed. These data have been collected in a lean premixed combustion test rig operating at 0.51-0.76 MPa (5-7.5 atm) with air preheated to 588 K (600°F). Five percent of the total fuel flow is injected through the centerbody tip as a diffusion pilot. The fuel composition is varied independently by blending approximately 5% (volume) propane with the pipeline natural gas. The reference velocity through the premixing annulus is kept constant for all conditions at a nominal value of 70 m/s. The fuel-air equivalence ratio is varied independently from 0.46 – 0.58. Relative to the DC field version, the time-varying combustion control and diagnostic sensor (TV-CCADS) shows a significant improvement in the correlation between the measured flame ionization current and local fuel-air equivalence ratio. In testing with different fuel compositions, the triangle wave data show the most distinct change in flame ionization current in response to an increase in propane content. Continued development of this sensor technology will improve the capability to control advanced gas turbine combustion systems, and help address issues associated with variations in fuel supplies.

  10. UTILITIES PROBLEMS AND FAILURES Electrical or plumbing failure/Flooding/Water leak/Natural gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    UTILITIES PROBLEMS AND FAILURES Electrical or plumbing failure/Flooding/Water leak/Natural gas for electrical shock. NOTIFY University Police. What should I do if I smell natural or propane gas? LEAVE/Repair line, 7-6333, or CALL the Campus University Police or Security at (561) 297-3500 or 911

  11. The Gas/Electric Partnership 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmeal, W. R.; Royall, D.; Wrenn, K. F. Jr.

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    as this occurs. Through an Electric Power Research Institute initiative, an inter-industry organization, the Gas/Electric Partnership, has formed between the electric utilities and gas pipelines. The initial focus of this partnership is to explore issues...

  12. U.S. Natural Gas Supplemental Gas - Propane Air (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb MarDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3OtherPropane

  13. Published in Journal de Physique IV, vol 11, pp. Pr3-101 ---Pr3-108 Kinetic modelling of gas-phase decomposition of propane : correlation with pyrocarbon deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    -phase decomposition of propane : correlation with pyrocarbon deposition Cédric Descamps, Gerard L. Vignoles , Olivier : A chemical kinetic model for gas-phase pyrolysis of propane has been set up, partially reduced, and validated the notion of "maturation" from propane to lighter hydrocarbons, then to aromatic compounds and PAHs. The gas

  14. The Gas/Electric Partnership

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmeal, W. R.; Royall, D.; Wrenn, K. F. Jr.

    The GaslElectric Partnership W. Richard Schmeal Dwight Royall K. Fred Wrenn, Jr. EPRI Chemical & Petroleum Center TU Electric Columbia Gas Transmission Corp. Houston, Texas Dallas, Texas Charleston, West Virginia The electric and gas industries... of information about emergmg technologies Cultural Issues A number of electric utilities formed an Electric Power For Compression Working Group with EPRI to address these issues openly and honestly to see if the issues were real and, if so to see...

  15. Dynamics of Propane in Silica Mesopores Formed upon Propylene Hydrogenation over Pt Nanoparticles by Time-Resolved FT-IR Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waslylenko, Walter; Frei, Heinz

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A steady state distribution of propane between gas andK). A steady state distribution of propane between gas phasesteady state distribution between propane inside and outside

  16. Impact of Natural Gas Appliances on Pollutant Levels in California Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mullen, Nasim A.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    be combined with storage WH) N N N Propane Don't know/blan kstorage water heater) __ Other (describe) K.2 Is this water heater powered by natural gas, electricity or propane? [Propane __ Electric! Skip to §L K.3 Do you have more than one storage

  17. Fuels outlook for oil/propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weigand, P.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The outlook for using oil and propane as fuels is outlined. The following topics are discussed: factors affecting price of the burner tip, supply and demand forecast, distribution costs and availability, alternate fuels economics, propane prices, No. 2 oil prices, natural gas vs. 1% residual HP prices, and future for industrial oil and propane consumers.

  18. LIQUID PROPANE GAS (LPG) STORAGE AREA BOILING LIQUID EXPANDING VAPOR EXPLOSION (BLEVE) ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PACE, M.E.

    2004-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The PHA and the FHAs for the SWOC MDSA (HNF-14741) identified multiple accident scenarios in which vehicles powered by flammable gases (e.g., propane), or combustible or flammable liquids (e.g., gasoline, LPG) are involved in accidents that result in an unconfined vapor cloud explosion (UVCE) or in a boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE), respectively. These accident scenarios are binned in the Bridge document as FIR-9 scenarios. They are postulated to occur in any of the MDSA facilities. The LPG storage area will be in the southeast corner of CWC that is relatively remote from store distaged MAR. The location is approximately 30 feet south of MO-289 and 250 feet east of 2401-W by CWC Gate 10 in a large staging area for unused pallets and equipment.

  19. Understanding the use of natural gas storage for generators of electricity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beckman, K.L. [International Gas Consulting, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Underground natural gas storage is aggressively used by a handful of utility electric generators in the United States. While storage facilities are often utilized by the natural gas pipeline industry and the local distribution companies (LDCs), regional electric generators have taken advantgage of abundant storage and pipeline capacity to develop very cost efficient gas fired electric generating capacity, especially for peaking demand. Most types of natural gas storage facilities are located underground, with a few based above-ground. These facilities have served two basic types of natural gas storage service requirements: seasonal baseload and needle peakshaving. Baseload services are typically developed in depleted oil and gas reservoirs and aquifers while mined caverns and LNG facilities (also Propane-air facilities) typically provide needle peakshaving services. Reengineering of the natural gas infrastructure will alter the historical use patterns, and will provide the electric industry with new gas supply management tools. Electric generators, as consumers of natural gas, were among the first open access shippers and, as a result of FERC Order 636, are now attempting to reposition themselves in the {open_quotes}new{close_quotes} gas industry. Stated in terms of historical consumption, the five largest gas burning utilities consume 40% of all the gas burned for electric generation, and the top twenty accounted for approximately 70%. Slightly more than 100 utilities, including municipals, have any gas fired generating capacity, a rather limited number. These five are all active consumers of storage services.

  20. Gas and Electric Utilities Regulation (South Dakota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This legislation contains provisions for gas and electric utilities. As part of these regulations, electric utilities are required to file with the Public Utilities Commission a document regarding...

  1. Danish Energy Authority Poland -Electricity and gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danish Energy Authority Poland - Electricity and gas market development study and practical guidelines for using EU Funds Electricity sector analyses December 2004 #12;Danish Energy Authority Poland - Electricity and gas market development study and practical guidelines for using EU Funds Electricity sector

  2. ELECTRICITY AND NATURAL GAS DATA COLLECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION HISTORICAL ELECTRICITY AND NATURAL GAS DATA COLLECTION Formsand of Power Plants Semi-Annual Report ..................................... 44 CEC-1306D UDC Natural Gas Tolling Agreement Quarterly Report.......................... 46 i #12;Natural Gas Utilities and Retailers

  3. Dynamics of Propane in Silica Mesopores Formed upon Propylene Hydrogenation over Pt Nanoparticles by Time-Resolved FT-IR Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waslylenko, Walter; Frei, Heinz

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    state distribution of propane between gas and mesopore phaseWavenumber (cm ) B Gas Phase Propane 2968 cm k 1 = 3.1 ± 0.4slices showing the gas phase propane component at 216, 648,

  4. Affording Gas and Electricity: Self Disconnection and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feigon, Brooke

    Affording Gas and Electricity: Self Disconnection and Rationing by Prepayment and Low Income Credit interview schedule................................... liv #12;2 Fuel Usage and Consumption Patterns of Low electricity, but this seems to be because gas prepayers have lower average income than electricity prepayers

  5. Baltimore Gas and Electric Company (Electric)- Commercial Energy Efficiency Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Baltimore Gas and Electric (BGE) provides incentives for technical assistance, retrofitting inefficient equipment, starting a new construction project, launching a major renovation, purchasing new...

  6. Central Hudson Gas and Electric (Electric)- Commercial Lighting Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Central Hudson Gas and Electric's (Central Hudson) Commercial Lighting Rebate Program is for businesses, retailers, institutional customers and non-profit customers of Central Hudson. The progam...

  7. Correlation between homogeneous propane pyrolysis and pyrocarbon deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Correlation between homogeneous propane pyrolysis and pyrocarbon deposition C´edric Descamps, G propane pyrolysis is studied in a 1-D hot-wall CVD furnace. The gas-phase pyrolysis is modelled in previous reports [6]: total pressure equal to 2 kPa, temperature between 900 K and 1400 K, and pure propane

  8. Study of the Low Temperature Oxidation of Propane Maximilien Cord

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Study of the Low Temperature Oxidation of Propane Maximilien Cord , Benoit Husson , Juan of China, Hefei, Anhui 230029, P. R. China Abstract The lowtemperature oxidation of propane oxidation of propane in the gas phase has been the subject of very few experimental studies, mainly

  9. NIPSCO (Gas and Electric)- Residential Natural Gas Efficiency Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Northern Indiana Public Service Corporation (NIPSCO) offers rebates to residential customers that install energy efficient gas and electric measures in homes through the NIPSCO Energy Efficiency...

  10. Economics of Electric Compressors for Gas Transmission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmeal, W. R.; Hibbs, J. J.

    Three new factors are coming together to motivate gas pipeline firms to consider electric motors for replacement of older reciprocating gas engines for compressor systems, and for new compressor installations. These factors are environmental...

  11. NIPSCO Prescriptive Electric and Natural Gas Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NIPSCO’s Commercial and Industrial Prescriptive Natural Gas & Electric Program offers rebates to NIPSCO's large commercial, industrial, non-profit, governmental and institutional customers, who...

  12. Electricity and Natural Gas Efficiency Improvements for Residential Gas Furnaces in the U.S.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Meyers, Steve; McMahon, James E.; McNeil, Michael; Lutz, Jim

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    offsets the sizable electricity savings. References TitleElectricity and Natural Gas Efficiency Improvements forfueled by natural gas. Electricity consumption by a furnace

  13. Propane on Titan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. G. Roe; T. K. Greathouse; M. J. Richter; J. H. Lacy

    2003-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the first observations of propane (C$_3$H$_8$) on Titan that unambiguously resolve propane features from other numerous stratospheric emissions. This is accomplished using a $R=\\lambda/\\delta\\lambda\\approx10^5$ spectrometer (TEXES) to observe propane's $\

  14. Mid-South Metallurgical Makes Electrical and Natural Gas System...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Mid-South Metallurgical Makes Electrical and Natural Gas System Upgrades to Reduce Energy Use and Achieve Cost Savings Mid-South Metallurgical Makes Electrical and Natural Gas...

  15. New York State Electric & Gas Corporation Smart Grid Demonstration...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Electric & Gas Corporation Smart Grid Demonstration Project Jump to: navigation, search Project Lead New York State Electric & Gas Corporation Country United States Headquarters...

  16. Pacific Gas and Electric Company_14-36-NG_3422

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ) PACIFIC GAS AND ELECTRIC COMPANY ) DOCKET NO. 14-36-NG ) ORDER GRANTING BLANKET AUTHORIZATION TO IMPORT NATURAL GAS FROM...

  17. Nationwide: Southeast Propane Autogas Development Program Brings...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Southeast Propane Autogas Development Program Brings 1200 Propane Vehicles to the Road Nationwide: Southeast Propane Autogas Development Program Brings 1200 Propane Vehicles to the...

  18. Electric and Gas Fired Radiant Tubes 'ERT'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nilsen, E. K.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper covers a unique development by the Surface Division of Midland Ross of a radiant tube heating element which will heat an industrial furnace with either gas or electric without any down time or physical conversion required...

  19. Electric and Gas Fired Radiant Tubes 'ERT' 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nilsen, E. K.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper covers a unique development by the Surface Division of Midland Ross of a radiant tube heating element which will heat an industrial furnace with either gas or electric without any down time or physical conversion required...

  20. All-optical remote monitoring of propane gas using a 5-km-long, low-loss optical fiber link and an InGaP light-emitting diode in the 1. 68-. mu. m region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chan, K.; Ito, H.; Inaba, H.

    1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the fully optical remote detection of low-level propane (C/sub 3/H/sub 8/) gas realized by the scheme based on a long distance, very low-loss silica optical fiber link connected to a compact absorption cell in conjunction with a high radiant InGaP light-emitting diode at 1.68 ..mu..m. For this application, the near-infrared absorption spectrum of propane was measured and studied to find very complicated bands around 1.69, 1.53, and 1.38 ..mu..m. This simple system, employing a 5-km-long silica optical fiber link, was demonstrated to be capable of achieving reproducibly the detection sensitivity less than 2.4 Torr for propane gas in air, i.e., about 14% of the lower explosion limit of propane density. This result verifies a large capability for major applications to various strategic points within the environment, such as industrial complexes as well as urban and residential areas, with considerably increased reliability and safety over the existing techniques.

  1. Effect of a current polarisation on BIMEVOX membranes for oxidation of propane in a Catalytic Dense Membrane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effect of a current polarisation on BIMEVOX membranes for oxidation of propane in a Catalytic Dense of propane under OCV and under electrical bias. The propane conversion remained constantly equal to 12 by partial oxidation and oxidative dehydrogenation of propane, respectively. An anodic polarisation led

  2. State Heating Oil & Propane Program. Final report 1997/98 heating season

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunton, G.

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The following is a summary report of the New Hampshire Governor`s Office of Energy and Community Services (ECS) participation in the State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP) for the 1997/98 heating season. SHOPP is a cooperative effort, linking energy offices in East Coast and Midwest states, with the Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA) for the purpose of collecting retail price data for heating oil and propane. The program is funded by the participating state with a matching grant from DOE. SHOPP was initiated in response to congressional inquires into supply difficulties and price spikes of heating oil and propane associated with the winter of 1989/90. This is important to New Hampshire because heating oil controls over 55% of the residential heating market statewide. Propane controls 10% of the heating market statewide and is widely used for water heating and cooking in areas of the state where natural gas is not available. Lower installation cost, convenience, lower operating costs compared to electricity, and its perception as a clean heating fuel have all worked to increase the popularity of propane in New Hampshire and should continue to do so in the future. Any disruption in supply of these heating fuels to New Hampshire could cause prices to skyrocket and leave many residents in the cold.

  3. Oilfield Flare Gas Electricity Systems (OFFGASES Project)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rachel Henderson; Robert Fickes

    2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Oilfield Flare Gas Electricity Systems (OFFGASES) project was developed in response to a cooperative agreement offering by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under Preferred Upstream Management Projects (PUMP III). Project partners included the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) as lead agency working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) and the California Oil Producers Electric Cooperative (COPE). The project was designed to demonstrate that the entire range of oilfield 'stranded gases' (gas production that can not be delivered to a commercial market because it is poor quality, or the quantity is too small to be economically sold, or there are no pipeline facilities to transport it to market) can be cost-effectively harnessed to make electricity. The utilization of existing, proven distribution generation (DG) technologies to generate electricity was field-tested successfully at four marginal well sites, selected to cover a variety of potential scenarios: high Btu, medium Btu, ultra-low Btu gas, as well as a 'harsh', or high contaminant, gas. Two of the four sites for the OFFGASES project were idle wells that were shut in because of a lack of viable solutions for the stranded noncommercial gas that they produced. Converting stranded gas to useable electrical energy eliminates a waste stream that has potential negative environmental impacts to the oil production operation. The electricity produced will offset that which normally would be purchased from an electric utility, potentially lowering operating costs and extending the economic life of the oil wells. Of the piloted sites, the most promising technologies to handle the range were microturbines that have very low emissions. One recently developed product, the Flex-Microturbine, has the potential to handle the entire range of oilfield gases. It is deployed at an oilfield near Santa Barbara to run on waste gas that is only 4% the strength of natural gas. The cost of producing oil is to a large extent the cost of electric power used to extract and deliver the oil. Researchers have identified stranded and flared gas in California that could generate 400 megawatts of power, and believe that there is at least an additional 2,000 megawatts that have not been identified. Since California accounts for about 14.5% of the total domestic oil production, it is reasonable to assume that about 16,500 megawatts could be generated throughout the United States. This power could restore the cost-effectiveness of thousands of oil wells, increasing oil production by millions of barrels a year, while reducing emissions and greenhouse gas emissions by burning the gas in clean distributed generators rather than flaring or venting the stranded gases. Most turbines and engines are designed for standardized, high-quality gas. However, emerging technologies such as microturbines have increased the options for a broader range of fuels. By demonstrating practical means to consume the four gas streams, the project showed that any gases whose properties are between the extreme conditions also could be utilized. The economics of doing so depends on factors such as the value of additional oil recovered, the price of electricity produced, and the alternate costs to dispose of stranded gas.

  4. Electricity and Natural Gas Efficiency Improvements for Residential Gas Furnaces in the U.S.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Meyers, Steve; McMahon, James E.; McNeil, Michael; Lutz, Jim

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by natural gas. Electricity consumption by a furnace blowerto the annual electricity consumption of a major appliance.not account for the electricity consumption of the appliance

  5. SCADA system aids BGE`s Notch Cliff propane-air facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, B.A. [Baltimore Gas and Electric Co., MD (United States)

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SCADA systems in the natural gas industry are commonly associated with distribution networks and transmission pipelines. There is however, another application for SCADA technology that is increasingly being utilized in the industry. By implementing automation technology and process control concepts more typically associated with industrial and petrochemical process facilities, Baltimore Gas and Electric Co. (BGE) has significantly improved the efficiency, performance, and safety at its Notch Cliff Propane-Air peak shaving facility. These results have contributed to BGE`s ongoing efforts to effectively operate in the competitive energy marketplace. When the Notch Cliff plant was built in the early 1960s, it was a state-of-the-art facility. The plant blends propane vapor and compressed air to create a supplement to the natural gas supply during peak demand periods.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF THFEGENERAL ELECTRIC STIRLING ENGINE GAS HEAT PUMP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    DEVELOPMENT OF THFEGENERAL ELECTRIC STIRLING ENGINE GAS HEAT PUMP R. C. Meier, Program Manager, Gas for the market- place of the 1980's. 1 7//AA -'6 1 #12;DEVELOPMENT OF THE GENERAL ELECTRIC STIRLING ENGINE GAS Heat Pump Program General Electric Company P. 0. Box 8555 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19101 FILE COPY DO

  7. A NEW GAS TURBINE ENGINE CONCEPT FOR ELECTRICITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A NEW GAS TURBINE ENGINE CONCEPT FOR ELECTRICITY GENERATION WITH INCREASED EFFICIENCY AND POWER REPORT (FAR) A NEW GAS TURBINE ENGINE CONCEPT FOR ELECTRICITY GENERATION WITH INCREASED EFFICIENCY://www.energy.ca.gov/research/index.html. #12;Page 1 A New Gas Turbine Engine Concept For Electricity Generation With Increased

  8. Standby Electric Generators for Emergency Farm Use Susan W. Gay, Extension Engineer, Biological Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    -phase system. This publication only discusses single-phase motors. Electric motors for agricultural use require start. Gasoline-, liquid-propane- (LP-) gas-, and diesel-fueled models are available. Engine

  9. Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grant Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jack Mallinger

    2004-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Project Description: Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants The Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants was established to demonstrate the benefits of new propane equipment. The US Department of Energy, the Propane Education & Research Council (PERC) and the Propane Vehicle Council (PVC) partnered in this program. The project impacted ten different states, 179 vehicles, and 15 new propane fueling facilities. Based on estimates provided, this project generated a minimum of 1,441,000 new gallons of propane sold for the vehicle market annually. Additionally, two new off-road engines were brought to the market. Projects originally funded under this project were the City of Portland, Colorado, Kansas City, Impco Technologies, Jasper Engines, Maricopa County, New Jersey State, Port of Houston, Salt Lake City Newspaper, Suburban Propane, Mutual Liquid Propane and Ted Johnson.

  10. Impact of Natural Gas Infrastructure on Electric Power Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, Yong

    Impact of Natural Gas Infrastructure on Electric Power Systems MOHAMMAD SHAHIDEHPOUR, FELLOW, IEEE of electricity has introduced new risks associated with the security of natural gas infrastructure on a sig the essence of the natural gas infrastructure for sup- plying the ever-increasing number of gas-powered units

  11. Electrical swing adsorption gas storage and delivery system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Judkins, R.R.; Burchell, T.D.

    1999-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods for electrical swing natural gas adsorption are described. An apparatus includes a pressure vessel; an electrically conductive gas adsorptive material located within the pressure vessel; and an electric power supply electrically connected to said adsorptive material. The adsorptive material can be a carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS). The systems and methods provide advantages in that both a high energy density and a high ratio of delivered to stored gas are provided. 5 figs.

  12. Electrical swing adsorption gas storage and delivery system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Judkins, Roddie R. (Knoxville, TN); Burchell, Timothy D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods for electrical swing natural gas adsorption are described. An apparatus includes a pressure vessel; an electrically conductive gas adsorptive material located within the pressure vessel; and an electric power supply electrically connected to said adsorptive material. The adsorptive material can be a carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS). The systems and methods provide advantages in that both a high energy density and a high ratio of delivered to stored gas are provided.

  13. Syngas Production from Propane Using Atmospheric Non-thermal Plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ouni, Fakhreddine; Cormier, Jean Marie; 10.1007/s11090-009-9166-2

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Propane steam reforming using a sliding discharge reactor was investigated under atmospheric pressure and low temperature (420 K). Non-thermal plasma steam reforming proceeded efficiently and hydrogen was formed as a main product (H2 concentration up to 50%). By-products (C2-hydrocarbons, methane, carbon dioxide) were measured with concentrations lower than 6%. The mean electrical power injected in the discharge is less than 2 kW. The process efficiency is described in terms of propane conversion rate, steam reforming and cracking selectivity, as well as by-products production. Chemical processes modelling based on classical thermodynamic equilibrium reactor is also proposed. Calculated data fit quiet well experimental results and indicate that the improvement of C3H8 conversion and then H2 production can be achieved by increasing the gas fraction through the discharge. By improving the reactor design, the non-thermal plasma has a potential for being an effective way for supplying hydrogen or synthesis gas.

  14. Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres, Part 0: General introduction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IEC Technical Committee

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Recommendation has been prepared by IEC Technical Committee No. 31, Electrical Apparatus for Explosive Atmospheres; It forms one of a series of publications dealing with electrical apparatus for use in explosive gas atmospheres. This particular...

  15. Gas storage and separation by electric field swing adsorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Currier, Robert P; Obrey, Stephen J; Devlin, David J; Sansinena, Jose Maria

    2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Gases are stored, separated, and/or concentrated. An electric field is applied across a porous dielectric adsorbent material. A gas component from a gas mixture may be selectively separated inside the energized dielectric. Gas is stored in the energized dielectric for as long as the dielectric is energized. The energized dielectric selectively separates, or concentrates, a gas component of the gas mixture. When the potential is removed, gas from inside the dielectric is released.

  16. NIPSCO Custom Commercial and Industrial Gas and Electric Incentive Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NIPSCO’s Commercial and Industrial Custom Electric and Natural Gas Incentive Program offers financial incentives to qualifying large commercial, industrial, non-profit, governmental and...

  17. Regulation of Gas, Electric, and Water Companies (Maryland)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Public Service Commission is responsible for regulating gas, electric, and water companies in the state. This legislation contains provisions for such companies, addressing planning and siting...

  18. ,"New Mexico Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"3292015 10:05:26 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: New Mexico Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers (MMcf)"...

  19. The catalytic oxidation of propane 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanderson, Charles Frederick

    1949-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OP PROPANE A Thesis By Charles Frederick Sandersont * * June 1949 Approval as to style and content recommended: Head of the Department of Chemical Engineering THE CATALYTICi OXIDATTON OF PROPANE A Thesis By Charles... Frederick ;Sandersonit * June 1949 THE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OP PROPANE A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy Major...

  20. The catalytic oxidation of propane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanderson, Charles Frederick

    1949-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OP PROPANE A Thesis By Charles Frederick Sandersont * * June 1949 Approval as to style and content recommended: Head of the Department of Chemical Engineering THE CATALYTICi OXIDATTON OF PROPANE A Thesis By Charles... Frederick ;Sandersonit * June 1949 THE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OP PROPANE A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy Major...

  1. Baltimore Gas and Electric Company (Electric)- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Baltimore Gas and Electric Company (BGE) offers rebates for residential customers to improve the energy efficiency of eligible homes. Rebates are available for Energy Star clothes washers,...

  2. Clean Fuel Advanced Technology Public Education Campaign: Billboards According to the U.S. Department of Energy's July 2013 alternative fuel price report, the price of propane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .S. Department of Energy's July 2013 alternative fuel price report, the price of propane (LPG) in North Carolina at least $1,000 in yearly fuel costs by driving on natural gas or propane. · According to the U

  3. Baltimore Gas and Electric Company (Gas)- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Baltimore Gas and Electric Company (BGE) offers the Smart Energy Savers Program for residential natural gas customers to improve the energy efficiency of eligible homes. Rebates are available...

  4. Applications for Certificates for Electric, Gas, or Natural Gas Transmission Facilities (Ohio)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    An applicant for a certificate to site a major electric power, gas, or natural gas transmission facility shall provide a project summary and overview of the proposed project. In general, the...

  5. California Food Processing Industry Wastewater Demonstration Project: Phase I Final Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Glen

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    report electricity, natural gas and propane usage and directetc. ), facility natural gas and propane usage. Integrate

  6. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil pricepropane price05, 2014propane

  7. Residential propane prices available

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil pricepropane price05,propane prices

  8. Residential propane prices decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil pricepropane price05,propane prices5, 2014

  9. Residential propane prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil pricepropane price05,propane prices5,

  10. Residential propane prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil pricepropane price05,propane

  11. 2013 Propane Market Outlook

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del(ANL-IN-03-032) -Less isNFebruary 2004AugustApril 20133 Audit2013 NUFOPlasma Propane

  12. Method for minimizing contaminant particle effects in gas-insulated electrical apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pace, Marshall O. (Knoxville, TN); Adcock, James L. (Knoxville, TN); Christophorou, Loucas G. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrical breakdown of a gas insulator in high voltage apparatus is preved by placing an electrical insulative coating on contaminant particles in the gas insulator.

  13. EA-1752: Pacific Gas & Electric Company (PG&E), Compressed Air...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    52: Pacific Gas & Electric Company (PG&E), Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Compression Testing Phase Project, San Joaquin County, California EA-1752: Pacific Gas & Electric...

  14. Louisville Gas & Electric- Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Louisville Gas and Electric (LGE) offers rebates to all commercial customers who pay a DSM charge on monthly bills. Rebates are available on lighting measures, sensors, air conditioners, heat pumps...

  15. Certificate of Public Good--Gas and Electric (Vermont)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Public Service Board rule limits the construction of electric and natural gas facilities and restricts the amounts that companies can buy from non-Vermont sources. No company, as defined in...

  16. ,"New Mexico Natural Gas Price Sold to Electric Power Consumers...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"3292015 10:05:26 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: New Mexico Natural Gas Price Sold to Electric Power Consumers (Dollars per Thousand Cubic...

  17. Holyoke Gas and Electric- Residential Energy Efficiency Loan Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Holyoke Gas and Electric (HG&E) Residential Energy Efficiency Program provides residential customers with loans to help make energy saving improvements on eligible homes. The loan provides...

  18. Madison Gas & Electric- Clean Power Partner Solar Buyback Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Customer-generators enrolled in the Madison Gas & Electric (MGE) green power purchase program (Green Power Tomorrow) are eligible to receive a special rate for the power produced from solar p...

  19. ,"New York Natural Gas Price Sold to Electric Power Consumers...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"2262015 9:13:19 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: New York Natural Gas Price Sold to Electric Power Consumers (Dollars per Thousand Cubic...

  20. ,"New York Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"2262015 9:13:19 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: New York Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","N3045NY2"...

  1. Titan's Prolific Propane: The Cassini CIRS Perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nixon, C A; Flaud, J -M; Bezard, B; Teanby, N A; Irwin, P G J; Ansty, T M; Coustenis, A; Vinatier, S; Flasar, F M; 10.1016/j.pss.2009.06.021

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we select large spectral averages of data from the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) obtained in limb-viewing mode at low latitudes (30S--30N), greatly increasing the path length and hence signal-to-noise ratio for optically thin trace species such as propane. By modeling and subtracting the emissions of other gas species, we demonstrate that at least six infrared bands of propane are detected by CIRS, including two not previously identified in Titan spectra. Using a new line list for the range 1300-1400cm -1, along with an existing GEISA list, we retrieve propane abundances from two bands at 748 and 1376 cm-1. At 748 cm-1 we retrieve 4.2 +/- 0.5 x 10(-7) (1-sigma error) at 2 mbar, in good agreement with previous studies, although lack of hotbands in the present spectral atlas remains a problem. We also determine 5.7 +/- 0.8 x 10(-7) at 2 mbar from the 1376 cm-1 band - a value that is probably affected by systematic errors including continuum gradients due to haze and also an imperf...

  2. Comparing the Risk Profiles of Renewable and Natural Gas Electricity Contracts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Comparing the Risk Profiles of Renewable and Natural Gas Electricity Contracts: A Summary.............................................................................20 B. Natural Gas Tolling Contracts.............................................................................24 B. Natural Gas Tolling Contracts

  3. WHAT IS A NETWORK? (Gas and Electricity) A complex, interconnected group or

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, Francis

    WHAT IS A NETWORK? (Gas and Electricity) A complex, interconnected group or system Electricity and Gas: A system used to distribute electricity and gas around the world/certain area, by compromising to minimise costs and generate the most electricity and gas as possible, which maximises profits

  4. Central Hudson Gas and Electric (Gas)- Commercial Energy Efficiency Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Business Energy SavingsCentral program is for non-residential gas customers of Central Hudson. This includes businesses, local governments, not-for-profits, private institutions, public and...

  5. Infrastructure Needs: Natural Gas/Electricity Transmission,...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4,200 miles of transmission lines, 72,000 miles of distribution lines, and 6,300 miles of natural gas pipelines. Our over 8,600 employees are committed to our mission to deliver...

  6. Transient fission gas release during direct electrical heating experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fenske, G.R.; Emerson, J.E.; Savoie, F.E.

    1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The gas release behavior of irradiated EBR-II fuel was observed to be dependent on several factors: the presence of cladding, the retained gas content, and the energy absorbed. Fuel that retained in excess of 16 to 17 ..mu..moles/g of fission gas underwent spallation as the cladding melted and released 22 to 45% of its retained gas, while fuel with retained gas levels below approx. 15 to 16 ..mu..moles/g released less than approx. 9% of its gas as the cladding melted. During subsequent direct electrical heating ramps, fuel that did not spall released an additional quantity of gas (up to 4 ..mu..moles/g), depending on the energy absorbed.

  7. Ethane enrichment and propane depletion in subsurface gases indicate gas hydrate occurrence in marine sediments at southern Hydrate Ridge offshore Oregon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milkov, Alexei V.; Claypool, G E.; Lee, Young-Joo; Torres, Marta E.; Borowski, W S.; Tomaru, H; Sassen, Roger; Long, Philip E.

    2004-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The recognition of finely disseminated gas hydrate in deep marine sediments heavily depends on various indirect techniques because this mineral quickly decomposes upon recovery from in situ pressure and temperature conditions. Here, we discuss molecular properties of closely spaced gas voids (formed as a result of core recovery) and gas hydrates from an area of relatively low gas flux at the flanks of the southern Hydrate Ridge Offshore Oregon (ODP Sites 1244, 1245 and 1247).

  8. Rochester Gas and Electric | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f < RAPID‎ |Rippey Jump to: navigation, searchRobbins CornRochester Gas

  9. Liquid Propane Injection Technology Conductive to Today's North...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology Conductive to Today's North American Specification Liquid Propane Injection Technology Conductive to Today's North American Specification Liquid propane injection...

  10. Propane - A Mid-Heating Season Assessment

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report will analyze some of the factors leading up to the rapid increase in propane demand and subsequent deterioration in supply that propelled propane prices to record high levels during December and early January.

  11. Costs Associated With Propane Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M.; Gonzales, J.

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with propane vehicle fueling infrastructure. It provides an overview of the equipment and processes necessary to develop a propane fueling station and offers estimated cost ranges.

  12. Improving Grid Performance with Electric Vehicle Charging 2011San Diego Gas & Electric Company. All copyright and trademark rights reserved.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Improving Grid Performance with Electric Vehicle Charging © 2011San Diego Gas & Electric Company · Education SDG&E Goal ­ Grid Integrated Charging · More plug-in electric vehicles · More electric grid to a hairdryer) per PEV in the population · Instantaneous demand, 40 all-electric vehicles for one day (8

  13. 1, 2341, 2001 OH + propane and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 1, 23­41, 2001 OH + propane and iodopropanes S. A. Carl and J. N. Crowley Title Page Abstract + propane and iodopropanes S. A. Carl and J. N. Crowley Title Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions #12;ACPD 1, 23­41, 2001 OH + propane and iodopropanes S. A. Carl and J. N. Crowley Title Page Abstract

  14. Geothermal Developments at San Diego Gas & Electric

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anastas, George; Hoaglin, Gregory J.

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1972, the first well flow tests were conducted by NARCO and Magma Power to determine reservoir characteristics such as mass flow, temperature, stability, and mineral content of geothermal brine from the exploration wells. The results of these tests were encouraging. Brine temperatures were relatively hot, and salinity was less than previously experienced. Results were sufficient to justify further testing of the process design to determine an appropriate energy conversion cycle for a power plant. Both the flash cycle and binary cycle were considered. In the binary cycle, geothermal heat is transferred from hot brine to a secondary working fluid by means of heat exchangers. The heated secondary fluid expands to drive a turbine-generator. The flash cycle was rejected because the high measured noncondensible gas content of the brines seriously reduced the cycle efficiency. The reduced salinity was expected to result in reduced scaling characteristics. For these reasons the binary cycle was selected for initial design and field testing. In 1973, a series of field tests was conducted to support the design of the binary conversion cycle. Unfortunately, a rapid decline in heat exchanger performance resulting from scaling demonstrated a need to reevaluate the cycle design. A flash/binary process was chosen as the basis for facility design modifications and additional field testing. Design modifications were to use as much of the original design as possible in order to minimize cost. In March of 1974, SDG&E resumed field testing at Niland using reduced size models of the new flash/binary design. The 1974 test program confirmed the decision to modify the design, construction, and operation of the GLEF in a four-stage, flash/binary cycle configuration. In May of 1975, the design was completed and construction of the GLEF began. Startup operations were initiated and in June 1976 the facility was dedicated. In the fall of 1976 while debugging and initial operation was being accomplished, a test program was developed to provide additional basic information necessary for the design of a commercial flash/binary geothermal plant. The primary objective of the program was to develop binary heat exchanger heat design data under a variety of conditions.

  15. Electricity Shortage in California: Issues for Petroleum and Natural Gas Supply

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report addresses the potential impact of rotating electrical outages on petroleum product and natural gas supply in California.

  16. Etude cin\\'etique de CVD de pyrocarbone obtenu par pyrolyse de propane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ziegler-Devin, Isabelle; Marquaire, Paul-Marie

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High temeperature (900-1000\\degree C) low pressure (propane yields a pyrocarbon deposit, but also mainly hydrogen and hydrocarbons from methane to polyaromatics. 30 reaction products were exeperimentally quantified at different operating conditions. A detailed kinetic pyrolysis model (600 reactions) has been developed and validated based on the totality of experiments. This model includes a homogeneous model (describing the gas phase pyrolysis of propane) coupled with a heterogeneous model describing the pyrocarbon deposit.

  17. Propane Market Model documentation report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Propane Market Model (PMM), describe its basic approach, and to provide details on model functions. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the general public. Documentation of the model is in accordance with EIA`s legal obligation to provide adequate documentation in support of its models. The PMM performs a short-term (6- to 9-months) forecast of demand and price for consumer-grad propane in the national US market; it also calculates the end-of-month stock level during the term of the forecast. Another part of the model allows for short-term demand forecasts for certain individual Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) districts. The model is used to analyze market behavior assumptions or shocks and to determine the effect on market price, demand, and stock level.

  18. Silane-propane ignitor/burner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, Richard W. (Livermore, CA); Skinner, Dewey F. (Livermore, CA); Thorsness, Charles B. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A silane propane burner for an underground coal gasification process which is used to ignite the coal and to controllably retract the injection point by cutting the injection pipe. A narrow tube with a burner tip is positioned in the injection pipe through which an oxidant (oxygen or air) is flowed. A charge of silane followed by a supply of fuel, such as propane, is flowed through the tube. The silane spontaneously ignites on contact with oxygen and burns the propane fuel.

  19. Silane-propane ignitor/burner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, R.W.; Skinner, D.F. Jr.; Thorsness, C.B.

    1983-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A silane propane burner for an underground coal gasification process which is used to ignite the coal and to controllably retract the injection point by cutting the injection pipe. A narrow tube with a burner tip is positioned in the injection pipe through which an oxidant (oxygen or air) is flowed. A charge of silane followed by a supply of fuel, such as propane, is flowed through the tube. The silane spontaneously ignites on contact with oxygen and burns the propane fuel.

  20. Comparison of Hydrogen and Propane Fuels (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Factsheet comparing the chemical, physical, and thermal properties of hydrogen and propane, designed to facilitate an understanding of the differences and similarites of the two fuels

  1. Comparison of Hydrogen and Propane Fuels (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Factsheet comparing the chemical, physical, and thermal properties of hydrogen and propane, designed to facilitate an understanding of the differences and similarites of the two fuels.

  2. Pacific Gas and Electric Company | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOfRoseConcernsCompanyPCN Technology Jump to:PPLPacific Gas and Electric

  3. Pacific Gas & Electric Co | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer PlantMunhall,Missouri:EnergyOssian, New York:Ozark,Pacific Gas & Electric Co (Redirected

  4. Pacific Gas & Electric Co | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer PlantMunhall,Missouri:EnergyOssian, New York:Ozark,Pacific Gas & Electric Co

  5. Pacific Gas & Electric Company Smart Grid Demonstration Project | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer PlantMunhall,Missouri:EnergyOssian, New York:Ozark,Pacific Gas & Electric CoEnergy

  6. Madison Gas & Electric Co | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOfRose Bend < MHKconverter <WAGMadison Gas & Electric Co

  7. Madison Gas & Electric Co | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant Jump to:LandownersLuther, Oklahoma:EnergyECOFlorida:Madison Gas & Electric Co

  8. Madison Gas & Electric Co | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant Jump to:LandownersLuther, Oklahoma:EnergyECOFlorida:Madison Gas & Electric

  9. Sixth Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan Chapter 8: Direct Use of Natural Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sixth Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan Chapter 8: Direct Use of Natural Gas....................................................................... 1 Analysis of the Direct Use of Natural Gas for the Sixth Power Plan electricity to natural gas for residential space and water heating a lower-cost and lower-risk alternative

  10. Residential propane price decreases slightly

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil pricepropane price05, 2014propane price

  11. EIS-0164: Pacific Gas Transmission/Pacific Gas and Electric and Altamont Natural Gas Pipeline Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) has prepared the PGT/PG&E and Altamont Natural Gas Pipeline Projects Environmental Impact Statement to satisfy the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act. This project addresses the need to expand the capacity of the pipeline transmission system to better transfer Canadian natural gas to Southern California and the Pacific Northwest. The U.S. Department of Energy cooperated in the preparation of this statement because Section 19(c) of the Natural Gas Act applies to the Department’s action of authorizing import/export of natural gas, and adopted this statement by the spring of 1992. "

  12. Heating Oil and Propane Update - Energy Information Administration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Petroleum Reports Heating Oil and Propane Update Weekly heating oil and propane prices are only collected during the heating season, which extends from October through March....

  13. Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres, Part 10: Classification of hazardous areas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IEC Technical Committee

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Report has been prepared by IEC Technical Committee No. 31, Electrical Apparatus for Explosive Atmospheres. It forms one of a series of publications dealing with electrical apparatus for use in explosive gas atmospheres. ...

  14. Market Opportunities for Electric Drive Compressors for Gas Transmission, Storage, and Processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parent, L. V.; Ralph, H. D.; Schmeal, W. R.

    for replacement of older gas engines and for new compressor installations. In ozone nonattainment regions, bringing gas compressor stations into compliance with NOx emission regulations is a must. Outside those regions, new electric drives are being considered...

  15. Gas production response to price signals: Implications for electric power generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrell, M.L.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural gas production response to price signals is outlined. The following topics are discussed: Structural changes in the U.S. gas exploration and production industry, industry outlook, industry response to price signals, and implications for electric power generators.

  16. Future States: The Convergence of Smart Grid, Renewables, Shale Gas, and Electric Vehicles

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Dick Cirillo; Guenter Conzelmann

    2013-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Dick Cirillo and Guenter Conzelmann present on research involving renewable energy sources, the use of natural gas, electric vehicles, and the SMART grid.

  17. Electric, Gas, Water, Heating, Refrigeration, and Street Railways Facilities and Service (South Dakota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This legislation contains provisions for facilities and service related to electricity, natural gas, water, heating, refrigeration, and street railways. The chapter addresses the construction and...

  18. Midwest Energy (Gas and Electric)- How$mart Energy Efficiency Finance Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Midwest Energy offers its residential and small commercial electricity and natural gas customers in good standing a way to finance energy efficiency improvements on eligible properties. Under the...

  19. Future States: The Convergence of Smart Grid, Renewables, Shale Gas, and Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dick Cirillo; Guenter Conzelmann

    2013-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Dick Cirillo and Guenter Conzelmann present on research involving renewable energy sources, the use of natural gas, electric vehicles, and the SMART grid.

  20. 29Counting Atoms in a Molecule The complex molecule Propanal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    29Counting Atoms in a Molecule The complex molecule Propanal was discovered in a dense interstellar is the ratio of carbon atoms to hydrogen atoms in propanal? Problem 4 - If the mass of a hydrogen atom of a propanal molecule in AMUs? Problem 5 - What is the complete chemical formula for propanal? C3 H __ O

  1. Alternative Fuel Tool Kit How to Implement: Propane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 08/2014 Alternative Fuel Tool Kit How to Implement: Propane Contents Introduction to Propane (LPG...........................................................................................................2 Benefits of Using Propane (LPG) for Transportation of Energy under Award Number DE-EE0006083. #12;2 08/2014 Introduction to Propane (LPG) for Transportation

  2. Evolutionary History of a Specialized P450 Propane Monooxygenase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Frances H.

    Evolutionary History of a Specialized P450 Propane Monooxygenase Rudi Fasan1 , Yergalem T-evolved P450 propane mono- oxygenase (P450PMO) having 20 heme domain substitutions compared to P450BM3 of propane activity. In contrast, refinement of the enzyme catalytic efficiency for propane oxidation (9000

  3. Propane vehicles : status, challenges, and opportunities.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rood Werpy, M.; Burnham, A.; Bertram, K.; Energy Systems

    2010-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Propane as an auto fuel has a high octane value and has key properties required for spark-ignited internal combustion engines. To operate a vehicle on propane as either a dedicated fuel or bi-fuel (i.e., switching between gasoline and propane) vehicle, only a few modifications must be made to the engine. Until recently propane vehicles have commonly used a vapor pressure system that was somewhat similar to a carburetion system, wherein the propane would be vaporized and mixed with combustion air in the intake plenum of the engine. This leads to lower efficiency as more air, rather than fuel, is inducted into the cylinder for combustion (Myers 2009). A newer liquid injection system has become available that injects propane directly into the cylinder, resulting in no mixing penalty because air is not diluted with the gaseous fuel in the intake manifold. Use of a direct propane injection system will improve engine efficiency (Gupta 2009). Other systems include the sequential multi-port fuel injection system and a bi-fuel 'hybrid' sequential propane injection system. Carbureted systems remain in use but mostly for non-road applications. In the United States a closed-loop system is used in after-market conversions. This system incorporates an electronic sensor that provides constant feedback to the fuel controller to allow it to measure precisely the proper air/fuel ratio. A complete conversion system includes a fuel controller, pressure regulator valves, fuel injectors, electronics, fuel tank, and software. A slight power loss is expected in conversion to a vapor pressure system, but power can still be optimized with vehicle modifications of such items as the air/fuel mixture and compression ratios. Cold start issues are eliminated for vapor pressure systems since the air/fuel mixture is gaseous. In light-duty propane vehicles, the fuel tank is typically mounted in the trunk; for medium- and heavy-duty vans and trucks, the tank is located under the body of the vehicle. Propane tanks add weight to a vehicle and can slightly increase the consumption of fuel. On a gallon-to-gallon basis, the energy content of propane is 73% that of gasoline, thus requiring more propane fuel to travel an equivalent distance, even in an optimized engine (EERE 2009b).

  4. Process Parameters and Energy Use of Gas and Electric Ovens in Industrial Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kosanovic, D.; Ambs, L.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The study was conducted to evaluate the energy use of natural gas and electric ovens in the production of polymer bearings and components. Tests were conducted to evaluate and compare the performance of natural gas and electric ovens in the process...

  5. Process Parameters and Energy Use of Gas and Electric Ovens in Industrial Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kosanovic, D.; Ambs, L.

    The study was conducted to evaluate the energy use of natural gas and electric ovens in the production of polymer bearings and components. Tests were conducted to evaluate and compare the performance of natural gas and electric ovens in the process...

  6. EFFECT OF GAS ADSORPTION ON THE ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF SINGLE WALLED CARBON NANOTUBES MATS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    filtration process followed by high temperature annealing under vacuum (1200 °C). In this work we present results on the influence of the surrounding gas nature (N2, H2, CO2, H2O...) on the electrical resistivity1 EFFECT OF GAS ADSORPTION ON THE ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF SINGLE WALLED CARBON NANOTUBES MATS C

  7. Joint Modelling of Gas and Electricity spot prices N. Frikha1 , V. Lemaire2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joint Modelling of Gas and Electricity spot prices N. Frikha1 , V. Lemaire2 October 9, 2009 for developing a risk management framework as well as pricing of options. Many derivatives on both electricity to price projects in energy (see [10] for an introduction). Thus, modelling jointly the evolution of gas

  8. QER- Comment of Propane Education & Research Council

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    I plan to attend and ask a question of the Secretary regarding propane supply for the upcoming winter. Please do not hesitate to call or email if you have questions. Tucker Perkins

  9. Executive Summary - Natural Gas and the Transformation of the U.S. Energy Sector: Electricity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Logan, J.; Heath, G.; Macknick, J.; Paranhos, E.; Boyd, W.; Carlson, K.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In November 2012, the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis (JISEA) released a new report, 'Natural Gas and the Transformation of the U.S. Energy Sector: Electricity.' The study provides a new methodological approach to estimate natural gas related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, tracks trends in regulatory and voluntary industry practices, and explores various electricity futures. The Executive Summary provides key findings, insights, data, and figures from this major study.

  10. Light transmissive electrically conductive oxide electrode formed in the presence of a stabilizing gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tran, Nang T. (Cottage Grove, MN); Gilbert, James R. (Maplewood, MN)

    1992-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A light transmissive, electrically conductive oxide is doped with a stabilizing gas such as H.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O. The oxide is formed by sputtering a light transmissive, electrically conductive oxide precursor onto a substrate at a temperature from 20.degree. C. to 300.degree. C. Sputtering occurs in a gaseous mixture including a sputtering gas and the stabilizing gas.

  11. Operational, technological and economic drivers for convergence of the electric power and gas industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linden, H.R.

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The economically recoverable natural gas resource base continues to grow as a result of exploration and production technology advances, and improvements in gas storage and delivery. As a result, the convergence of the electric power and gas industries and the parallel development of distributed generation will benefit consumers and minimize environmental impacts cost-effectively.

  12. Hydrogen Safety Issues Compared to Safety Issues with Methane and Propane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Green, Michael A.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Issues with Methane and Propane Michael A. Green LawrenceSAFETY ISSUES WITH METHANE AND PROPANE M. A. Green Lawrencehydrogen. Methane and propane are commonly used by ordinary

  13. 4-70C Propane (molar mass = 44.1 kg/kmol) poses a greater fire danger than methane (molar mass = 16 kg/kmol) since propane is heavier than air (molar mass = 29 kg/kmol), and it will settle near the floor.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    4-36 Ideal Gas 4-70C Propane (molar mass = 44.1 kg/kmol) poses a greater fire danger than methane (molar mass = 16 kg/kmol) since propane is heavier than air (molar mass = 29 kg/kmol), and it will settle MATERIAL. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers

  14. Fact #844: October 27, 2014 Electricity Generated from Coal has Declined while Generation from Natural Gas has Grown – Dataset

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file with dataset for Fact #844: Electricity Generated from Coal has Declined while Generation from Natural Gas has Grown

  15. Syngas Production from Propane using Atmospheric Non-Thermal Plasma F. Ouni, A. Khacef*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Syngas Production from Propane using Atmospheric Non-Thermal Plasma F. Ouni, A. Khacef* and J. M applications (1, 2) . Synthesis gas or syngas (mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) are used as a major. The conventional reformers allowing syngas production are based on steam reforming of hydrocarbons (3) following

  16. Easing the Natural Gas Crisis: Reducing Natural Gas Prices Through Electricity Supply Diversification -- Testimony

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NANGAS (North American Natural Gas Analysis System), E2020 (Modeling Forum (EMF). 2003. Natural Gas, Fuel Diversity and2003. Increasing U.S. Natural Gas Supplies: A Discussion

  17. The determination of compressibility factors of gaseous propane-nitrogen mixtures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hodges, Don

    1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of thc Beg;voc cf kBSTBACT The propane-nitrogen system has been investigated in the gaseous phase at a temperature of 300 F. and at pressures up to 4/0 atmospheres. Compressibility curves for three mixtures of this system have been determined. A... the pressure corresponding to the "n " expansion ? th? the partial pressure of nitrogen the partial pressure oi' propane the total pressure of a gaseous system the universal gas constant (0. 08206 liter-atmosphere/ gram mole - oK) the absolute...

  18. The determination of compressibility factors of gaseous propane-nitrogen mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hodges, Don

    1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of thc Beg;voc cf kBSTBACT The propane-nitrogen system has been investigated in the gaseous phase at a temperature of 300 F. and at pressures up to 4/0 atmospheres. Compressibility curves for three mixtures of this system have been determined. A... the pressure corresponding to the "n " expansion ? th? the partial pressure of nitrogen the partial pressure oi' propane the total pressure of a gaseous system the universal gas constant (0. 08206 liter-atmosphere/ gram mole - oK) the absolute...

  19. Implications of changing natural gas prices in the United States electricity sector for SO and life cycle GHG emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaramillo, Paulina

    Implications of changing natural gas prices in the United States electricity sector for SO 2 , NO X of changing natural gas prices in the United States electricity sector for SO2, NOX and life cycle GHG to projections of low natural gas prices and increased supply. The trend of increasing natural gas use

  20. Natural Gas and the Transformation of the U.S. Energy Sector: Electricity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Logan, J.; Heath, G.; Macknick, J.; Paranhos, E.; Boyd, W.; Carlson, K.

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis (JISEA) designed this study to address four related key questions, which are a subset of the wider dialogue on natural gas: 1. What are the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with shale gas compared to conventional natural gas and other fuels used to generate electricity?; 2. What are the existing legal and regulatory frameworks governing unconventional gas development at federal, state, and local levels, and how are they changing in response to the rapid industry growth and public concerns?; 3. How are natural gas production companies changing their water-related practices?; and 4. How might demand for natural gas in the electric sector respond to a variety of policy and technology developments over the next 20 to 40 years?

  1. Heat exchanger design for thermoelectric electricity generation from low temperature flue gas streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Latcham, Jacob G. (Jacob Greco)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An air-to-oil heat exchanger was modeled and optimized for use in a system utilizing a thermoelectric generator to convert low grade waste heat in flue gas streams to electricity. The NTU-effectiveness method, exergy, and ...

  2. Baltimore Gas and Electric Company- Home Performance with Energy Star Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Baltimore Gas and Electric Company (BG&E) offers the Home Performance with Energy Star Program that provides incentives for residential customers who have audits performed by participating...

  3. Regulating electricity and natural gas in Peru : solutions for a sustainable energy sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Breckel, Alex Cade

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Peru is one of the fastest growing countries in Latin America, thanks in part to industry fueled by generous endowments of hydro power capacity and natural gas reserves. However, investment in electricity generation capacity ...

  4. Comparison of Gas Catalytic and Electric Infrared Performance for Industrial Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eshraghi, R. R.; Welch, D. E.

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study was conducted to evaluate the performance of gas catalytic and electric infrared for industrial applications. The project focused on fabric drying, paper drying, metal heating, and plastic forming as target industrial applications. Tests...

  5. Comparison of Gas Catalytic and Electric Infrared Performance for Industrial Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eshraghi, R. R.; Welch, D. E.

    A study was conducted to evaluate the performance of gas catalytic and electric infrared for industrial applications. The project focused on fabric drying, paper drying, metal heating, and plastic forming as target industrial applications. Tests...

  6. Regulations for Electric Transmission and Fuel Gas Transmission Lines Ten or More Miles Long (New York)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Any person who wishes to construct an electric or gas transmission line that is more than ten miles long must file documents describing the construction plans and potential land use and...

  7. Natural gas treatment process using PTMSP membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toy, L.G.; Pinnau, I.

    1996-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for separating C{sub 3}+ hydrocarbons, particularly propane and butane, from natural gas. The process uses a poly(trimethylsilylpropyne) membrane. 6 figs.

  8. Natural gas treatment process using PTMSP membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toy, Lora G. (San Francisco, CA); Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for separating C.sub.3 + hydrocarbons, particularly propane and butane, from natural gas. The process uses a poly(trimethylsilylpropyne) membrane.

  9. Propane Vehicle and Infrastructure Codes and Standards Citations (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document lists codes and standards typically used for U.S. propane vehicle and infrastructure projects.

  10. Adapting On-site Electrical Generation Platforms for Producer Gas

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Internal combustion reciprocating engine generators (gensets) are regularly deployed at distribution centers, small municipal utilities, and public institutions to provide on-site electricity...

  11. EFFECTS OF TRITIUM GAS EXPOSURE ON ELECTRICALLY CONDUCTING POLYMERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kane, M.; Clark, E.; Lascola, R.

    2009-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Effects of beta (tritium) and gamma irradiation on the surface electrical conductivity of two types of conducting polymer films are documented to determine their potential use as a sensing and surveillance device for the tritium facility. It was shown that surface conductivity was significantly reduced by irradiation with both gamma and tritium gas. In order to compare the results from the two radiation sources, an approximate dose equivalence was calculated. The materials were also sensitive to small radiation doses (<10{sup 5} rad), showing that there is a measurable response to relatively small total doses of tritium gas. Spectroscopy was also used to confirm the mechanism by which this sensing device would operate in order to calibrate this sensor for potential use. It was determined that one material (polyaniline) was very sensitive to oxidation while the other material (PEDOT-PSS) was not. However, polyaniline provided the best response as a sensing material, and it is suggested that an oxygen-impermeable, radiation-transparent coating be applied to this material for future device prototype fabrication. A great deal of interest has developed in recent years in the area of conducting polymers due to the high levels of conductivity that can be achieved, some comparable to that of metals [Gerard 2002]. Additionally, the desirable physical and chemical properties of a polymer are retained and can be exploited for various applications, including light emitting diodes (LED), anti-static packaging, electronic coatings, and sensors. The electron transfer mechanism is generally accepted as one of electron 'hopping' through delocalized electrons in the conjugated backbone, although other mechanisms have been proposed based on the type of polymer and dopant [Inzelt 2000, Gerard 2002]. The conducting polymer polyaniline (PANi) is of particular interest because there are extensive studies on the modulation of the conductivity by changing either the oxidation state of the main backbone chain, or by protonation of the imine groups [de Acevedo, 1999]. There are several types of radiation sensors commercially available, including ionization chambers, geiger counters, proportional counters, scintillators and solid state detectors. Each type has advantages, although many of these sensors require expensive electronics for signal amplification, are large and bulky, have limited battery life or require expensive materials for fabrication. A radiation sensor constructed of a polymeric material could be flexible, light, and the geometry designed to suit the application. Very simple and inexpensive electronics would be necessary to measure the change in conductivity with exposure to radiation and provide an alarm system when a set change of conductivity occurs in the sensor that corresponds to a predetermined radiation dose having been absorbed by the polymer. The advantages of using a polymeric sensor of this type rather than those currently in use are the flexibility of sensor geometry and relatively low cost. It is anticipated that these sensors can be made small enough for glovebox applications or have the ability to monitor the air tritium levels in places where a traditional monitor cannot be placed. There have been a few studies on the changes in conductivity of polyaniline specifically for radiation detection [de Acevedo, 1999; Lima Pacheco, 2003], but there have been no reports on the effects of tritium (beta radiation) on conducting polymers, such as polyaniline or polythiophene. The direct implementation of conducting polymers as radiation sensor materials has not yet been commercialized due to differing responses with total dose, dose rate, etc. Some have reported a large increase in the surface conductivity with radiation dose while others report a marked decrease in conductive properties; these differing observations may reflect the competing mechanisms of chain scission and cross-linking. However, it is clear that the radiation dose effects on conducting polymers must be fully understood before these materials can be used

  12. Evolutionary History of a Specialized P450 Propane Monooxygenase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Frances H.

    Evolutionary History of a Specialized P450 Propane Monooxygenase Rudi Fasan1 , Yergalem T hydroxylase (P450BM3) to a laboratory-evolved P450 propane mono- oxygenase (P450PMO) having 20 heme domain substrate range and the emergence of propane activity. In contrast, refinement of the enzyme catalytic

  13. Comparing the risk profiles of renewable and natural gas electricity contracts: A summary of the California Department of Water Resources contracts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bachrach, Devra; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Golove, William

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CEC). 2000. California Natural Gas Analysis and Issues.2002. Average Price of Natural Gas Sold to Electric Utilityfor investments in natural gas and renewables to complement

  14. Portland Public School Children Move with Propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This 2-page Clean Cities fact sheet describes the use of propane as a fuel source for Portland Public Schools' fleet of buses. It includes information on the history of the program, along with contact information for the local Clean Cities Coordinator and Portland Public Schools.

  15. Proper Use of Electric/Gas UtilityType Vehicles (FS4) Form FS-4 8/24/2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beex, A. A. "Louis"

    Proper Use of Electric/Gas UtilityType Vehicles (FS4) Form FS-4 8/24/2011 Regulation Governing Use of Electric/Gas Utility­Type Vehicles (EGUV): Individual operators will use their judgment on whether. · Electric vehicles will be recharged at a location appropriate for such use. Use of extension cords from

  16. Alliant Energy Interstate Power and Light (Gas and Electric)...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    or natural gas on a retail rate basis for the applicable technology. Interest rates for financing range from 0% - 6.9%. The maximum loan amount under this program is...

  17. Automatic isochoric apparatus for PVT and phase equilibrium studies of natural gas mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Jingjun

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    ........................................................................................ 51 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION .................................................................................... 54 Carbon Dioxide and Propane Measurement........................................................... 54 91% Methane Natural Gas... 94% Methane Natural Gas ..................................................................................... 65 Phase Boundary....................................................................................... 65...

  18. Oklahoma Gas & Electric Co | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOfRoseConcernsCompany Oil and Gas Company Address PlaceOjai,Oklahoma Gas

  19. An analysis of US propane markets, winter 1996-1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In late summer 1996, in response to relatively low inventory levels and tight world oil markets, prices for crude oil, natural gas, and products derived from both began to increase rapidly ahead of the winter heating season. Various government and private sector forecasts indicated the potential for supply shortfalls and sharp price increases, especially in the event of unusually severe winter weather. Following a rapid runup in gasoline prices in the spring of 1996, public concerns were mounting about a possibly similar situation in heating fuels, with potentially more serious consequences. In response to these concerns, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) participated in numerous briefings and meetings with Executive Branch officials, Congressional committee members and staff, State Energy Offices, and consumers. EIA instituted a coordinated series of actions to closely monitor the situation and inform the public. This study constitutes one of those actions: an examination of propane supply, demand, and price developments and trends.

  20. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Electricity Generation (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Analysts at NREL have developed and applied a systematic approach to review the LCA literature, identify primary sources of variability and, where possible, reduce variability in GHG emissions estimates through a procedure called 'harmonization.' Harmonization of the literature provides increased precision and helps clarify the impacts of specific electricity generation choices, producing more robust results.

  1. Effect of propane-air on NGVs and vehicle fueling stations. Topical report, January 1-October 1, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liss, W.E.; Moulton, D.S.

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Propane-air (P/A) peakshaving is an important element of peak-load management for some U.S. gas utilities. P/A is used as a supplemental energy medium with natural gas and has been shown to operate satisfactorily in most natural gas applications. The propane levels injected are compatible with the pressures (under 200 psig) and temperatures (over 40 F) found in utility distribution networks. However, P/A can create problems for natural gas vehicles (NGVs) operating on compressed gas as well as NGV fueling stations. This report contains information on P/A peakshaving and its compatibility with NGVs by documenting condensation impacts at nine conditions--i.e., three propane levels and three temperatures. These data portray the depressurization of a vehicle tank, an area selected because it illustrates NGV operation and can discriminate between acceptable and potentially non-acceptable operating points. These analyses show, not surprisingly, a correlation exists between propane level, ambient temperature, and condensation.

  2. Electric and gas utility marketing of residential energy conservation case studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research was to obtain information about utility conservation marketing techniques from companies actively engaged in performing residential conservation services. Many utilities currently are offering comprehensive services (audits, listing of contractors and lenders, post-installation inspection, advertising, and performing consumer research). Activities are reported for the following utilities: Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation; Tampa Electric Company; Memphis Light, Gas, and Water Division; Northern States Power-Wisconsin; Public Service Company of Colorado; Arizona Public Service Company; Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Sacramento Municipal Utility District; and Pacific Power and Light Company.

  3. Gas separation device based on electrical swing adsorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Judkins, Roddie R. (Knoxville, TN); Burchell, Timothy D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1999-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for separating one constituent, especially carbon dioxide, from a fluid mixture, such as natural gas. The fluid mixture flows through an adsorbent member having an affinity for molecules of the one constituent, the molecules being adsorbed on the adsorbent member. A voltage is applied to the adsorbent member, the voltage imparting a current flow which causes the molecules of the one constituent to be desorbed from the adsorbent member.

  4. Opportunities for Synergy Between Natural Gas and Renewable Energy in the Electric Power and Transportation Sectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, A.; Zinaman, O.; Logan, J.

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Use of both natural gas and renewable energy has grown significantly in recent years. Both forms of energy have been touted as key elements of a transition to a cleaner and more secure energy future, but much of the current discourse considers each in isolation or concentrates on the competitive impacts of one on the other. This paper attempts, instead, to explore potential synergies of natural gas and renewable energy in the U.S. electric power and transportation sectors.

  5. Central Hudson Gas and Electric (Electric)- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Home Energy SavingsCentral Program offers customers rebates of between $25 and $600 for energy efficient equipment and measures. This is for residential electric customers who upgrade heating,...

  6. Flexible gas insulated transmission line having regions of reduced electric field

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cookson, Alan H. (Pittsburgh, PA); Fischer, William H. (Wilkins Township, Allegheny County, PA); Yoon, Kue H. (Pittsburgh, PA); Meyer, Jeffry R. (Penn Hills Township, Allegheny County, PA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas insulated transmission line having radially flexible field control means for reducing the electric field along the periphery of the inner conductor at predetermined locations wherein the support insulators are located. The radially flexible field control means of the invention includes several structural variations of the inner conductor, wherein careful controlling of the length to depth of surface depressions produces regions of reduced electric field. Several embodiments of the invention dispose a flexible connector at the predetermined location along the inner conductor where the surface depressions that control the reduced electric field are located.

  7. Florida Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers (Million Cubic

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688Electricity UseFoot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May

  8. Georgia Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers (Million Cubic

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688Electricity UseFoot) Year Jan2009SamplingSee%

  9. Hawaii Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers (Million Cubic

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688ElectricityLess than 200Decade Year-0

  10. Idaho Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers (Million Cubic

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688ElectricityLess than 200DecadeCubic1.IV.% of

  11. Illinois Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers (Million Cubic

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688ElectricityLess thanThousand Cubic Feet)% ofFeet)

  12. Indiana Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers (Million Cubic

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688ElectricityLessApril 2015 IndependentFoot)%

  13. Iowa Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers (Million Cubic

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688ElectricityLessApril 2015Year JanFoot) Year

  14. Kansas Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers (Million Cubic

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688ElectricityLessApril 2015YearYearFoot) Year

  15. San Diego Gas and Electric | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit with form HistoryRistma AG Jump to:Energysource HistorySamElectric Home

  16. Oklahoma Gas & Electric Co | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer PlantMunhall,Missouri: EnergyExcellenceOffice of StateOklahoma Electric Coop Inc Jump

  17. Oklahoma Gas & Electric Co | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer PlantMunhall,Missouri: EnergyExcellenceOffice of StateOklahoma Electric Coop Inc

  18. Oklahoma Gas and Electric Company Smart Grid Project | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer PlantMunhall,Missouri: EnergyExcellenceOffice of StateOklahoma Electric Coop

  19. Louisville Gas & Electric Co | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant Jump to:Landowners andLodgepole,Lotsee, Oklahoma: EnergyInformationLouisville Gas

  20. Comments of Baltimore Gas & Electric Company | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613PortsmouthBartlesville EnergyDepartment. CashDay-June 22, 2015 |atfrom theBaltimore Gas

  1. Rochester Gas & Electric Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit with form HistoryRistma AG Jump to: navigation, searchRochester Gas &

  2. Florida Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers (Million Cubic

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803 Table A1.Gas ProvedCommercialNov-14

  3. Georgia Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers (Million Cubic

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803 Table A1.GasYear JanPrice Data59.2Year Jan FebFeet)

  4. Hawaii Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers (Million Cubic

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803 Table A1.GasYearperHOW TO OBTAIN EIACubicDecade227

  5. Idaho Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers (Million Cubic

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803 Table A1.GasYearperHOWYear-Month Week2009Feet)

  6. OpenEI Community - San Diego Gas and Electric

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOfRoseConcernsCompany Oil and GasOff thedriving dataHighlights from the

  7. Washington Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers (Million

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content4,367,470 4,364,790 4,363,909 4,363,143 4,363,967 4,363,549 1973-2015 Alaska 14,197 14,197Cubic Feet) Gas, WetCubic

  8. Comments of Baltimore Gas & Electric Company | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof"Wave the WhiteNational Broadband Plan byComments of Baltimore Gas &

  9. Baltimore Gas & Electric Co | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovation in Carbon CaptureAtriaPower Systems Jump to:Baltimore Gas &

  10. Baltimore Gas & Electric Co | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovation in Carbon CaptureAtriaPower Systems Jump to:Baltimore Gas

  11. Table 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Marketing Annual 1999 Table 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Residual Fuel Oil by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) -...

  12. Table 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    See footnotes at end of table. 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Residual Fuel Oil by PAD District and State 386 Energy Information...

  13. Table 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Marketing Annual 1995 Table 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Residual Fuel Oil by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) -...

  14. Table 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Marketing Annual 1998 Table 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Residual Fuel Oil by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) -...

  15. Microsoft Word - Joe Rose - Providence remarks.propane.JUR -...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    for propane consumers in acquiring adequate supply at affordable prices. Crop drying demand of 500% of last year's demand combined with heating demand of 20% above the...

  16. Interdependencies of Electricity Markets with Gas Markets A Case Study of Transmission System Operators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dixon, Juan

    1 Interdependencies of Electricity Markets with Gas Markets ­ A Case Study of Transmission System and regulatory intervention. Three generic Case Studies of countries belonging to the Americas are discussed Case Studies (Latin America; Canada and the USA). 2. 1. Latin America The primary challenge for Latin

  17. Electric & Gas Conservation Programs Connecticut Energy Efficiency Fund Programs for Commercial & Industrial Customers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sermakekian, E.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1 Electric & Gas Conservation Programs Connecticut Energy Efficiency Fund Programs for Commercial & Industrial Customers Presented by: CL&P?s Conservation and Load Management Department 2 ? Connecticut Energy Efficiency... Fund (CEEF) was created in 1998 by CT State Legislature ? Energy efficiency is a valuable resource for Connecticut, it: ? Reduces air pollutants and greenhouse gases ? Creates monetary savings for customers ? Reduces need for more energy...

  18. UTILITIES PROBLEMS AND FAILURES Electrical or plumbing failure/Flooding/Water leak/Natural gas or

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    UTILITIES PROBLEMS AND FAILURES Electrical or plumbing failure/Flooding/Water leak/Natural gas Physical Plant (772) 242-2246 M - F 8a - 5p (954) 762-5040 HBOI@FAU Security (772) 216-1124 Afterhours University Police. NOTIFY Building Safety personnel when possible. What should I do if I smell natural

  19. PROCESS PARAMETERS AND ENERGY USE OF GAS AND ELECTRIC OVENS IN INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    . BACKGROUND This paper will evaluate current practices of clients in the New England/New York whichPROCESS PARAMETERS AND ENERGY USE OF GAS AND ELECTRIC OVENS IN INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS Dr for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering University

  20. Combined Steam Reforming and Partial Oxidation of Methane to Synthesis Gas under Electrical Discharge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mallinson, Richard

    Combined Steam Reforming and Partial Oxidation of Methane to Synthesis Gas under Electrical production from simultaneous steam reforming and partial oxidation of methane using an ac corona discharge production has been steam reforming, shown in reaction 4. It is very useful to use low-cost materials

  1. San Diego Gas & Electric Company v. Sellers of Energy and Ancillary Services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    Fact Sheet San Diego Gas & Electric Company v. Sellers of Energy and Ancillary Services Docket No. EL00-95-000 July 6, 2007 The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission today approved an $18 million uncontested settlement that resolves matters and claims related to BP Energy Company (BP) and California

  2. Joint Modelling of Gas and Electricity spot prices N. Frikha1 , V. Lemaire2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    The recent deregulation of energy markets has led to the development in several countries of market places for developing a risk management framework as well as pricing of options. Many derivatives on both electricity to price projects in energy (see [12] for an introduction). Thus, modelling jointly the evolution of gas

  3. 2008 San Diego Gas & Electric Company. All copyright and trademark rights reserved. Smart Meters, Rates and the Customer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    © 2008 San Diego Gas & Electric Company. All copyright and trademark rights reserved. Smart Meters, OR #12;2 SDG&E Smart Meter Goals · Install AMI/smart metering for all SDG&E electric and gas business're starting to recreate our relationship with customers and transform our company #12;Smart Meter Business

  4. Semi-flexible gas-insulated transmission line using electric field stress shields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cookson, A.H.; Dale, S.J.; Bolin, P.C.

    1982-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes an outer sheath, an inner conductor, an insulating gas electrically insulating the inner conductor from the outer sheath, and insulating supports insulatably supporting the inner conductor within the outer sheath. The inner conductor is provided with flexibility by use of main conductor sections which are joined together through a conductor hub section and flexible flexing elements. Stress shields are provided to control the electric field at the locations of the conductor hub sections where the insulating supports are contacting the inner conductor. The flexing elements and the stress shields may also be utilized in connection with a plug and socket arrangement for providing electrical connection between main conductor sections. 10 figs.

  5. Winter fuels report, week ending February 12, 1993. [Contains Glossary and feature article on Midwest Propane Markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: Distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD's 1, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD'S; as well as selected National average prices. Residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; selected cities; and a 6--10 Day, 30-Day, and 90-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city.

  6. Synthesis Gas Production from Partial Oxidation of Methane with Air in AC Electric Gas Discharge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mallinson, Richard

    depending on the ratio of hydrogen to carbon monoxide. Most synthesis gas is produced by the steam reform reaction. Industrially, steam reforming is performed over a Ni/ Al2O3 catalyst.9 The typical problem

  7. Central Hudson Gas and Electric (Gas)- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Home Energy SavingsCentral Program offers customers rebates of up to $1,000 on energy efficient equipment and measures for residential gas customers who upgrade heating, cooling or ventilation...

  8. Recovery Act: Johnston Rhode Island Combined Cycle Electric Generating Plant Fueled by Waste Landfill Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galowitz, Stephen

    2013-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of the Project was to maximize the productive use of the substantial quantities of waste landfill gas generated and collected at the Central Landfill in Johnston, Rhode Island. An extensive analysis was conducted and it was determined that utilization of the waste gas for power generation in a combustion turbine combined cycle facility was the highest and best use. The resulting project reflected a cost effective balance of the following specific sub-objectives. 1) Meet environmental and regulatory requirements, particularly the compliance obligations imposed on the landfill to collect, process and destroy landfill gas. 2) Utilize proven and reliable technology and equipment. 3) Maximize electrical efficiency. 4) Maximize electric generating capacity, consistent with the anticipated quantities of landfill gas generated and collected at the Central Landfill. 5) Maximize equipment uptime. 6) Minimize water consumption. 7) Minimize post-combustion emissions. To achieve the Project Objective the project consisted of several components. 1) The landfill gas collection system was modified and upgraded. 2) A State-of-the Art gas clean up and compression facility was constructed. 3) A high pressure pipeline was constructed to convey cleaned landfill gas from the clean-up and compression facility to the power plant. 4) A combined cycle electric generating facility was constructed consisting of combustion turbine generator sets, heat recovery steam generators and a steam turbine. 5) The voltage of the electricity produced was increased at a newly constructed transformer/substation and the electricity was delivered to the local transmission system. The Project produced a myriad of beneficial impacts. 1) The Project created 453 FTE construction and manufacturing jobs and 25 FTE permanent jobs associated with the operation and maintenance of the plant and equipment. 2) By combining state-of-the-art gas clean up systems with post combustion emissions control systems, the Project established new national standards for best available control technology (BACT). 3) The Project will annually produce 365,292 MWh?s of clean energy. 4) By destroying the methane in the landfill gas, the Project will generate CO{sub 2} equivalent reductions of 164,938 tons annually. The completed facility produces 28.3 MWnet and operates 24 hours a day, seven days a week.

  9. Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Propane on Vanadium, Molybdenum, and Tungsten Oxides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Propane on Vanadium, Molybdenum catalysts confirmed that oxidative dehydrogenation of propane occurs via similar pathways, which involve for propane dehydrogenation and for propene combustion increase in the sequence VOx/ZrO2

  10. CONTRIBUTION A L'TUDE DES FLAMMES D'HYDROCARBURES. PROPANE ET ACTYLNE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    CONTRIBUTION A L'ÉTUDE DES FLAMMES D'HYDROCARBURES. PROPANE ET ACÉTYLÈNE Par MM. JEAN VAN DER POLL du propane et de l'acétylène qui ont montré que, dans certains cas, les flammes oxy-propane et oxy

  11. Effect of catalyst structure on oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane and propane on alumina-supported vanadia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Argyle, Morris D.; Chen, Kaidong; Bell, Alexis T.; Iglesia, Enrique

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    catalysts: (a) ethane ODH, (b) propane ODH (663 K, 14 kPa CDehydrogenation of Ethane and Propane on Alumina-Supporteddehydrogenation of ethane and propane. UV-visible and Raman

  12. Indoor Air Quality in 24 California Residences Designed as High Performance Green Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Less, Brennan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    used either natural gas or propane for cooktop fuel. Of the1302 Cooktop Fuel Type Gas Propane Electric - ResistanceFuel Type Gas Electric Propane Cooktop and Oven Together

  13. Liquid Propane Injection Applications | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetterEconomy and EmissionsDepartment of EnergyLiquid propane

  14. Residential propane price decreases slightly decreases slightly

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil pricepropane price05, 2014propane price7,

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Related Links

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternative Fuels CleanReduceNewPropane Printable Version Share this

  16. Steady-State Electrical Conduction in the Periodic Lorentz Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. I. Chernov; G. L. Eyink; J. L. Lebowitz; Ya. G. Sinai

    1993-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We study nonequilibrium steady states in the Lorentz gas of periodic scatterers when an external field is applied and the particle kinetic energy is held fixed by a ``thermostat'' constructed according to Gauss' principle of least constraint (a model problem previously studied numerically by Moran and Hoover). The resulting dynamics is reversible and deterministic, but does not preserve Liouville measure. For a sufficiently small field, we prove the following results: (1) existence of a unique stationary, ergodic measure obtained by forward evolution of initial absolutely continuous distributions, for which the Pesin entropy formula and Young's expression for the fractal dimension are valid; (2) exact identity of the steady-state thermodyamic entropy production, the asymptotic decay of the Gibbs entropy for the time-evolved distribution, and minus the sum of the Lyapunov exponents; (3) an explicit expression for the full nonlinear current response (Kawasaki formula); and (4) validity of linear response theory and Ohm's transport law, including the Einstein relation between conductivity and diffusion matrices. Results (2) and (4) yield also a direct relation between Lyapunov exponents and zero-field transport (=diffusion) coefficients. Although we restrict ourselves here to dimension $d=2,$ the results carry over to higher dimensions and to some other physical situations: e.g. with additional external magnetic fields. The proofs use a well-developed theory of small perturbations of hyperbolic dynamical systems and the method of Markov sieves, an approximation of Markov partitions. In our context we discuss also the van Kampen objection to linear response theory, which, we point out, overlooks the ``structural stability'' of strongly hyperbolic flows.

  17. Comparative Life-cycle Air Emissions of Coal, Domestic Natural Gas, LNG, and SNG for Electricity Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaramillo, Paulina

    1 Comparative Life-cycle Air Emissions of Coal, Domestic Natural Gas, LNG, and SNG for Electricity from the LNG life-cycle. Notice that local distribution of natural gas falls outside our analysis boundary. Figure 1S: Domestic Natural Gas Life-cycle. Figure 2S: LNG Life-cycle. Processing Transmission

  18. Boost Converters for Gas Electric and Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKeever, JW

    2005-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are driven by at least two prime energy sources, such as an internal combustion engine (ICE) and propulsion battery. For a series HEV configuration, the ICE drives only a generator, which maintains the state-of-charge (SOC) of propulsion and accessory batteries and drives the electric traction motor. For a parallel HEV configuration, the ICE is mechanically connected to directly drive the wheels as well as the generator, which likewise maintains the SOC of propulsion and accessory batteries and drives the electric traction motor. Today the prime energy source is an ICE; tomorrow it will very likely be a fuel cell (FC). Use of the FC eliminates a direct drive capability accentuating the importance of the battery charge and discharge systems. In both systems, the electric traction motor may use the voltage directly from the batteries or from a boost converter that raises the voltage. If low battery voltage is used directly, some special control circuitry, such as dual mode inverter control (DMIC) which adds a small cost, is necessary to drive the electric motor above base speed. If high voltage is chosen for more efficient motor operation or for high speed operation, the propulsion battery voltage must be raised, which would require some type of two-quadrant bidirectional chopper with an additional cost. Two common direct current (dc)-to-dc converters are: (1) the transformer-based boost or buck converter, which inverts a dc voltage, feeds the resulting alternating current (ac) into a transformer to raise or lower the voltage, and rectifies it to complete the conversion; and (2) the inductor-based switch mode boost or buck converter [1]. The switch-mode boost and buck features are discussed in this report as they operate in a bi-directional chopper. A benefit of the transformer-based boost converter is that it isolates the high voltage from the low voltage. Usually the transformer is large, further increasing the cost. A useful feature of the switch mode boost converter is its simplicity. Its inductor must handle the entire current, which is responsible for its main cost. The new Z-source inverter technology [2,3] boosts voltage directly by actively using the zero state time to boost the voltage. In the traditional pulse width modulated (PWM) inverter, this time is used only to control the average voltage by disconnecting the supply voltage from the motor. The purpose of this study is to examine the Z-source's potential for reducing the cost and improving the reliability of HEVs.

  19. Electrical power obtained from burning landfill gas into a gas turbine generator: Experience after one year of operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fabbri, R.; Mignani, N.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A typical example of a ``waste to energy'' concept can be found also in the landfill environment. The biogas derived by fermentation process is usually burnt into gas engines. This choice is usually due to the electric efficiency that is normally higher than gas turbine application and to the size that usually, almost in Italian landfill size, does not allow power higher than 1,000 kW. On the other side gas turbine applications, typically based on generator sets greater than 1,000 kW do not require special biogas pre-treatment; require less maintenance and have an extremely higher reliability. The paper describes an application of a gas turbine generator of 4,800 kW outlining the experiences collected after one year of operation. During this period, the system fulfilled the target of a total operating time greater than 8,000 hours. Description is done of the biogas compression system feeding the turbine and also of the subsystem adopted to reach the above mentioned target reliability.

  20. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) nitrogen trailers propane tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrell, P.C.

    1998-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) is the evaluation and authorization of the onsite transport of propane tanks that are mounted on the Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation Characterization Project`s nitrogen trailers. This SEP authorizes onsite transport of the nitrogen trailers, including the propane tanks, until May 31, 1998. The three nitrogen trailers (HO-64-4966, HO-64-4968, and HO-64-5170) are rated for 1,361 kg (30,000 lb) and are equipped with tandem axles and pintel hitches. Permanently mounted on each trailer is a 5,678 L (1,500 gal) cryogenic dewar that is filled with nitrogen, and a propane fired water bath vaporizer system, and a 454 L (1 20 gal) propane tank. The nitrogen trailer system is operated only when it is disconnected from the tow vehicle and is leveled and stabilized. When the trailers are transported, the propane tanks are isolated via closed supply valves.

  1. Electric/Gas Utility-type Vehicle Page 1 of 5 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University No. 5501 Rev.: 0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beex, A. A. "Louis"

    Electric/Gas Utility-type Vehicle Page 1 of 5 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University __________________________________________________________________________________ Subject: Electric/Gas Utility-type Vehicle, purchasing, inventory and disposal of all Electric/Gas Utility-type Vehicles (EGUV, e.g. golf carts and non

  2. Dissolved gas supersaturation associated with the thermal effluent of an electric generating station and some effects on fishes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ciesluk, Alexander Frank

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    saturations of total dissolved gas were determined with a Weiss Gas Saturometer and ranged from 100. 5 to 115. 04 in the discharge water. Saturation levels were directly related to the power plant AT and the gas content of the intake water. Percent... hours. Red shiners were more susceptible to gas supersaturation than bluegiils or bass. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank the Texas Utilities System including Dallas Power E Light Company, Texas Electric Service Company, and Texas Power C Light...

  3. Should we transport coal, gas, or electricity: cost, efficiency, and environmental implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joule A. Bergerson; Lester B. Lave [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (US)

    2005-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors examine the life cycle costs, environmental discharges, and deaths of moving coal via rail, coal to synthetic natural gas via pipeline, and electricity via wire from the Powder River Basin (PRB) in Wyoming to Texas. Which method has least social cost depends on how much additional investment in rail line, transmission, or pipeline infrastructure is required, as well as how much and how far energy is transported. If the existing rail lines have unused capacity, coal by rail is the cheapest method (up to 200 miles of additional track could be added). If no infrastructure exists, greater distances and larger amounts of energy favor coal by rail and gasified coal by pipeline over electricity transmission. For 1,000 miles and 9 gigawatts of power, a gas pipeline is cheapest, has less environmental discharges, uses less land, and is least obtrusive. 28 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. VUV generation by adiabatically expanded and excited by a DC electrical discharge Argon gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pipergias, K.; Yasemidis, D.; Reppa, E.; Pentaris, D.; Efthimiopoulos, T. [Laser, Non linear and Quantum Optics Labs, Physics Department University of Patras, Patras, Greece 26500 (Greece); Merlemis, N. [Laser, Non linear and Quantum Optics Labs, Physics Department University of Patras, Patras, Greece 26500 (Greece); TEI of Athens, Phys. Chem. and Mater. Tech. Department, Athens, Greece, 12 210 (Greece); Giannetas, V. [Physics Department, University of Patras, Patras, Greece 26500 (Greece)

    2010-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the emission of Argon (Ar) gas which is adiabatically expanded through a nozzle and excited using a DC electrical discharge. Because of the expansion and the electronic excitation, Ar dimers and clusters are formed, which give radiation in the second (2nd) and in the third (3rd) continua of Ar, centered at about 126 and 254 nm respectively. We particularly focus our study on the 2nd continuum, in order to develop a laser at this wavelength.

  5. Multi-agent social and organizational modeling of the electric power and natural gas markets.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    North, M. J.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) can be applied to investigate large-scale socio-cognitive-technical systems. Viewing such systems from a multi-agent social and organizational perspective allows innovative computational policy analysis. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has taken such a perspective to produce an integrated model of the electric power and natural gas markets. This model focuses on the organizational interdependencies between these markets. These organizational interdependencies are being strained by fundamental market transformations.

  6. Use of GTE-65 gas turbine power units in the thermal configuration of steam-gas systems for the refitting of operating thermal electric power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebedev, A. S.; Kovalevskii, V. P. ['Leningradskii Metallicheskii Zavod', branch of JSC 'Silovye mashiny' (Russian Federation); Getmanov, E. A.; Ermaikina, N. A. ['Institut Teploenergoproekt', branch of JSC 'Inzhenernyi tsentr EES' (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal configurations for condensation, district heating, and discharge steam-gas systems (PGU) based on the GTE-65 gas turbine power unit are described. A comparative multivariant analysis of their thermodynamic efficiency is made. Based on some representative examples, it is shown that steam-gas systems with the GTE-65 and boiler-utilizer units can be effectively used and installed in existing main buildings during technical refitting of operating thermal electric power plants.

  7. Comparative evaluation of the impacts of domestic gas and electric heat pump heating on air pollution in California. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganji, A. [San Francisco State Univ., CA (United States). Div. of Engineering

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Residential space and water heating accounts for approximately 12% of California`s and 15% of the United States, energy consumption. most Of the residential heating is by direct use of natural gas. combustion of natural gas is a contributor to the overall air pollution,, especially CO and NO{sub x} in the urban areas. Another efficient method for domestic water and space heating is use of electric heat pumps, the most popular category of which uses air as its heat source. Electric heat pumps do not emit air pollutants at the point of use, but use electric power, which is a major contributor to air pollution at its point of generation from fossil fuels. It is the specific objective of this report to evaluate and compare the energy efficiency and source air pollutants of natural gas heaters and electric heat pumps used for domestic heating. Effect of replacing natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps on air pollutant emissions due to domestic heating in two urban areas and in California as a whole has also been evaluated. The analysis shows that with the present state of technology, electric heat pumps have higher heating efficiencies than natural gas heaters. Considering the current electricity generation mix in the US, electric heat pumps produce two to four times more NO{sub x}, much less CO, and comparable amount of CO{sub 2} per unit of useful heating energy compared to natural gas heaters. With California mix, electric heat pumps produce comparable NO{sub x} and much less CO and approximately 30% less CO{sub 2} per unit heat output. Replacement of natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps will slightly increase the overall NO{sub x}, and reduce CO and CO{sub 2} emissions in California. The effect of advanced technology power generation and heat pump heating has also been analyzed.

  8. Comparative evaluation of the impacts of domestic gas and electric heat pump heating on air pollution in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganji, A. (San Francisco State Univ., CA (United States). Div. of Engineering)

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Residential space and water heating accounts for approximately 12% of California's and 15% of the United States, energy consumption. most Of the residential heating is by direct use of natural gas. combustion of natural gas is a contributor to the overall air pollution,, especially CO and NO{sub x} in the urban areas. Another efficient method for domestic water and space heating is use of electric heat pumps, the most popular category of which uses air as its heat source. Electric heat pumps do not emit air pollutants at the point of use, but use electric power, which is a major contributor to air pollution at its point of generation from fossil fuels. It is the specific objective of this report to evaluate and compare the energy efficiency and source air pollutants of natural gas heaters and electric heat pumps used for domestic heating. Effect of replacing natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps on air pollutant emissions due to domestic heating in two urban areas and in California as a whole has also been evaluated. The analysis shows that with the present state of technology, electric heat pumps have higher heating efficiencies than natural gas heaters. Considering the current electricity generation mix in the US, electric heat pumps produce two to four times more NO{sub x}, much less CO, and comparable amount of CO{sub 2} per unit of useful heating energy compared to natural gas heaters. With California mix, electric heat pumps produce comparable NO{sub x} and much less CO and approximately 30% less CO{sub 2} per unit heat output. Replacement of natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps will slightly increase the overall NO{sub x}, and reduce CO and CO{sub 2} emissions in California. The effect of advanced technology power generation and heat pump heating has also been analyzed.

  9. Michigan residential heating oil and propane price survey: 1995--1996 heating season. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moriarty, C.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the results of a survey of residential No. 2 distillate fuel (home heating oil) and liquefied petroleum gas (propane) prices over the 1995--1996 heating season in Michigan. The Michigan`s Public Service Commission (MPSC) conducted the survey under a cooperative agreement with the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA). This survey was funded in part by a grant from the DOE. From October 1995 through March 1996, the MPSC surveyed participating distributors by telephone for current residential retail home heating oil and propane prices. The MPSC transmitted the data via a computer modem to the EIA using the Petroleum Electronic Data Reporting Option (PEDRO). Survey results were published in aggregate on the MPSC World Wide Web site at http://ermisweb.state.mi.us/shopp. The page was updated with both residential and wholesale prices immediately following the transmission of the data to the EIA. The EIA constructed the survey using a sample of Michigan home heating oil and propane retailers. The sample accounts for different sales volumes, geographic location, and sources of primary supply.

  10. Recovery Act: Brea California Combined Cycle Electric Generating Plant Fueled by Waste Landfill Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galowitz, Stephen

    2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of the Project was to maximize the productive use of the substantial quantities of waste landfill gas generated and collected at the Olinda Landfill near Brea, California. An extensive analysis was conducted and it was determined that utilization of the waste gas for power generation in a combustion turbine combined cycle facility was the highest and best use. The resulting Project reflected a cost effective balance of the following specific sub-objectives: • Meeting the environmental and regulatory requirements, particularly the compliance obligations imposed on the landfill to collect, process and destroy landfill gas • Utilizing proven and reliable technology and equipment • Maximizing electrical efficiency • Maximizing electric generating capacity, consistent with the anticipated quantities of landfill gas generated and collected at the Olinda Landfill • Maximizing equipment uptime • Minimizing water consumption • Minimizing post-combustion emissions • The Project produced and will produce a myriad of beneficial impacts. o The Project created 360 FTE construction and manufacturing jobs and 15 FTE permanent jobs associated with the operation and maintenance of the plant and equipment. o By combining state-of-the-art gas clean up systems with post combustion emissions control systems, the Project established new national standards for best available control technology (BACT). o The Project will annually produce 280,320 MWh’s of clean energy o By destroying the methane in the landfill gas, the Project will generate CO2 equivalent reductions of 164,938 tons annually. The completed facility produces 27.4 MWnet and operates 24 hours a day, seven days a week.

  11. Enduring use of city gas keeps N. H. utility reminiscent of a simpler age

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article reports on a gas distribution company which produces and pipes a propane/air mixture. The distribution of this mixture is detailed.

  12. Guidelines for Energy Cost Savings Resulting from Tracking and Monitoring Electrical nad Natural Gas Usage, Cost, and Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McClure, J. D.; Estes, M. C.; Estes, J. M.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses how improved energy information in schools and hospitals from tracking and monitoring electrical and natural gas usage, cost, and optional rate structures, can reduce energy costs. Recommendations, methods, and guidelines...

  13. Guidelines for Energy Cost Savings Resulting from Tracking and Monitoring Electrical nad Natural Gas Usage, Cost, and Rates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McClure, J. D.; Estes, M. C.; Estes, J. M.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses how improved energy information in schools and hospitals from tracking and monitoring electrical and natural gas usage, cost, and optional rate structures, can reduce energy costs. Recommendations, ...

  14. The marginal costs and pricing of gas system upgrades to accommodate new electric generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ambrose, B.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In the coming years, competitive forces and restructuring in the electric industry can be expected to increase substantially the demand for gas delivery service to new electric generating units by local distribution companies (LDCs) and pipeline companies across the United States. In meeting this demand, it is important that the prices paid by electric generators for gas delivery service properly reflect the costs of the resources utilized in providing service to them in order that their decisions regarding what to build and where as well as the manner in which their units are dispatched are as efficient as possible from a societal standpoint. This will assure that society`s resources will be neither squandered nor underutilized in providing service to these generators and aid in assuring that, once built, the units are run in an efficient manner. While the most efficient solution to this problem is a secondary market in tradeable pipeline capacity rights, we do not have such a system in place at this time. Further, tradeable rights for LDC capacity may be difficult to establish. An interim solution that will work in the confines of the present system and not create problems for the transition to tradeable rights is required. This purpose of this paper is to set out the important first principals involved in applying marginal costing to the provision of gas delivery service to new electric generating units rather than to present empirical data on the marginal costs of such service. Experience has shown that marginal costs are usually unique to the particular situation being costed.

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    tax, AFVs include those powered exclusively by propane, natural gas, electricity, hydrogen, or a blend of hydrogen with propane or natural gas. (Reference Arizona Revised...

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    fuel. Recognized alternative fuels include propane, natural gas, electricity, hydrogen, and a blend of hydrogen with propane or natural gas. (Reference Arizona Revised...

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    of these requirements, alternative fuels include propane, natural gas, electricity, hydrogen, and a blend of hydrogen with propane or natural gas. (Reference Arizona Revised...

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    of this requirement, alternative fuels include propane, natural gas, electricity, hydrogen, and a blend of hydrogen with propane or natural gas. (Reference Arizona Revised...

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    government. Recognized alternative fuels include propane, natural gas, electricity, hydrogen, and a blend of hydrogen with propane or natural gas. (Reference Arizona Revised...

  20. Can propane school buses save money and provide other benefits...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Can propane school buses save money and provide other benefits? October 1, 2014 Tweet EmailPrint School districts across the country are looking for ways to save money and be more...

  1. VEE-0040- In the Matter of Western Star Propane, Inc.

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On February 18, 1997, Western Star Propane, Inc. (Western) filed an Application for Exception with the Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA) of the Department of Energy (DOE). In its application,...

  2. VEE-0060- In the Matter of Blakeman Propane, Inc.

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On May 11, 1999, Blakeman Propane, Inc. (Blakeman) of Moorcroft, Wyoming, filed an Application for Exception with the Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA) of the Department of Energy (DOE). In its...

  3. Residential home heating oil and propane survey, 1991--1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains pricing and consumption data on heating oils and propane for the Maine residential sector during the heating season 1991--1992. The information was gathered by survey. (VC)

  4. Analysis of Critical Permeabilty, Capillary Pressure and Electrical Properties for Mesaverde Tight Gas Sandstones from Western U.S. Basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan Byrnes; Robert Cluff; John Webb; John Victorine; Ken Stalder; Daniel Osburn; Andrew Knoderer; Owen Metheny; Troy Hommertzheim; Joshua Byrnes; Daniel Krygowski; Stefani Whittaker

    2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Although prediction of future natural gas supply is complicated by uncertainty in such variables as demand, liquefied natural gas supply price and availability, coalbed methane and gas shale development rate, and pipeline availability, all U.S. Energy Information Administration gas supply estimates to date have predicted that Unconventional gas sources will be the dominant source of U.S. natural gas supply for at least the next two decades (Fig. 1.1; the period of estimation). Among the Unconventional gas supply sources, Tight Gas Sandstones (TGS) will represent 50-70% of the Unconventional gas supply in this time period (Fig. 1.2). Rocky Mountain TGS are estimated to be approximately 70% of the total TGS resource base (USEIA, 2005) and the Mesaverde Group (Mesaverde) sandstones represent the principal gas productive sandstone unit in the largest Western U.S. TGS basins including the basins that are the focus of this study (Washakie, Uinta, Piceance, northern Greater Green River, Wind River, Powder River). Industry assessment of the regional gas resource, projection of future gas supply, and exploration programs require an understanding of reservoir properties and accurate tools for formation evaluation. The goal of this study is to provide petrophysical formation evaluation tools related to relative permeability, capillary pressure, electrical properties and algorithms for wireline log analysis. Detailed and accurate moveable gas-in-place resource assessment is most critical in marginal gas plays and there is need for quantitative tools for definition of limits on gas producibility due to technology and rock physics and for defining water saturation. The results of this study address fundamental questions concerning: (1) gas storage; (2) gas flow; (3) capillary pressure; (4) electrical properties; (5) facies and upscaling issues; (6) wireline log interpretation algorithms; and (7) providing a web-accessible database of advanced rock properties. The following text briefly discusses the nature of these questions. Section I.2 briefly discusses the objective of the study with respect to the problems reviewed.

  5. California Energy Commission STAFF REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    electricity, natural gas, biomethane, propane, hydrogen, ethanol, renewable diesel, and biodiesel. State

  6. California Energy Commission STAFF REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    include electricity, natural gas, biomethane, propane, hydrogen, ethanol, renewable diesel, and biodiesel

  7. Resource Limits and Conversion Efficiency with Implications for Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Croft, Gregory Donald

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    propane, biofuels and electricity. Natural gas is the least environmentally damaging transportation fuel, but storage

  8. Abstract--South America has emerged in recent years as one of the most dynamic regions for natural gas and electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    for natural gas and electricity development. The continent boasts natural gas reserves and high- growth energy countries to promote the use of natural gas, especially for power generation. On the other hand, challenges-country natural gas agreements, competition between natural gas and other resources for power generation

  9. Series 50 propane-fueled Nova bus: Engine development, installation, and field trials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, B.

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report describes a project to develop the Detroit Diesel series 50 liquefied propane gas (LPG) heavy-duty engine and to conduct demonstrations of LPG-fuelled buses at selected sites (Halifax Regional Municipality and three sites in the United States). The project included five main elements: Engine development and certification, chassis re-engineering and engine installation, field demonstration, LPG fuel testing, and LPG fuel variability testing. Lessons learned with regard to engine design and other issues are discussed, and recommendations are made for further development and testing.

  10. Comparison of electrical capacitance tomography and gamma densitometer measurement in viscous oil-gas flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Archibong Eso, A.; Zhao, Yabin; Yeung, Hoi [Department of Offshore Process and Energy Systems Engineering, Cranfield University, Cranfield (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Multiphase flow is a common occurrence in industries such as nuclear, process, oil and gas, food and chemical. A prior knowledge of its features and characteristics is essential in the design, control and management of such processes due to its complex nature. Electrical Capacitance Tomography (ECT) and Gamma Densitometer (Gamma) are two promising approaches for multiphase visualization and characterization in process industries. In two phase oil and gas flow, ECT and Gamma are used in multiphase flow monitoring techniques due to their inherent simplicity, robustness, and an ability to withstand wide range of operational temperatures and pressures. High viscous oil (viscosity > 100 cP) is of interest because of its huge reserves, technological advances in its production and unlike conventional oil (oil viscosity < 100 cP) and gas flows where ECT and Gamma have been previously used, high viscous oil and gas flows comes with certain associated concerns which include; increased entrainment of gas bubbles dispersed in oil, shorter and more frequent slugs as well as oil film coatings on the walls of flowing conduits. This study aims to determine the suitability of both devices in the visualization and characterization of high-viscous oil and gas flow. Static tests are performed with both devices and liquid holdup measurements are obtained. Dynamic experiments were also conducted in a 1 and 3 inch facility at Cranfield University with a range of nominal viscosities (1000, 3000 and 7500 cP). Plug, slug and wavy annular flow patterns were identified by means of Probability Mass Function and time series analysis of the data acquired from Gamma and ECT devices with high speed camera used to validate the results. Measured Liquid holdups for both devices were also compared.

  11. Toward a new, integrated interactive electric power and natural gas industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The movement toward a new, integrated interactive electric power and natural gas industry is discussed. This movement envisions more competition and fewer competitors. The key capabilities of the new market are described. It is concluded that what will make an energy business succeed is the ability to aggregate supply and markets, to optimize routing, to improve load factors, and to provide added levels of reliability through diversity. The strong organization that is able to deal in all forms of energy is a necessary part of this new paradigm of the integrated energy market.

  12. Implications of changing natural gas prices in the United States electricity sector for SO2, NOX and life cycle GHG emissions: Supplementary Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaramillo, Paulina

    % Figure S2. Relationship between regional and U.S. average electricity sector delivered natural gas prices1 Implications of changing natural gas prices in the United States electricity sector for SO2, NOX Griffin, H Scott Matthews Table S1. Base case fuel prices and marginal prices of electricity production

  13. Battery-Powered Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Projects to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Resource for Project Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2002-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The transportation sector accounts for a large and growing share of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Worldwide, motor vehicles emit well over 900 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) each year, accounting for more than 15 percent of global fossil fuel-derived CO2 emissions.1 In the industrialized world alone, 20-25 percent of GHG emissions come from the transportation sector. The share of transport-related emissions is growing rapidly due to the continued increase in transportation activity.2 In 1950, there were only 70 million cars, trucks, and buses on the world’s roads. By 1994, there were about nine times that number, or 630 million vehicles. Since the early 1970s, the global fleet has been growing at a rate of 16 million vehicles per year. This expansion has been accompanied by a similar growth in fuel consumption.3 If this kind of linear growth continues, by the year 2025 there will be well over one billion vehicles on the world’s roads.4 In a response to the significant growth in transportation-related GHG emissions, governments and policy makers worldwide are considering methods to reverse this trend. However, due to the particular make-up of the transportation sector, regulating and reducing emissions from this sector poses a significant challenge. Unlike stationary fuel combustion, transportation-related emissions come from dispersed sources. Only a few point-source emitters, such as oil/natural gas wells, refineries, or compressor stations, contribute to emissions from the transportation sector. The majority of transport-related emissions come from the millions of vehicles traveling the world’s roads. As a result, successful GHG mitigation policies must find ways to target all of these small, non-point source emitters, either through regulatory means or through various incentive programs. To increase their effectiveness, policies to control emissions from the transportation sector often utilize indirect means to reduce emissions, such as requiring specific technology improvements or an increase in fuel efficiency. Site-specific project activities can also be undertaken to help decrease GHG emissions, although the use of such measures is less common. Sample activities include switching to less GHG-intensive vehicle options, such as electric vehicles (EVs) or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). As emissions from transportation activities continue to rise, it will be necessary to promote both types of abatement activities in order to reverse the current emissions path. This Resource Guide focuses on site- and project-specific transportation activities. .

  14. Southeast Propane AutoGas Development Program | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideo »UsageSecretaryVideos Solid-State LightingSouth CarolinaEnergy2 DOE

  15. Southeast Propane AutoGas Development Program | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideo »UsageSecretaryVideos Solid-State LightingSouth CarolinaEnergy2 DOE1

  16. Southeast Propane AutoGas Development Program | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideo »UsageSecretaryVideos Solid-State LightingSouth CarolinaEnergy2 DOE10

  17. Comparison of propane and methane performance and emissions in a turbocharged direct injection dual fuel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibson, C. M.; Polk, A. C.; Shoemaker, N. T.; Srinivasan, K. K.; Krishnan, S. R.

    2011-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    With increasingly restrictive NO x and particulate matter emissions standards, the recent discovery of new natural gas reserves, and the possibility of producing propane efficiently from biomass sources, dual fueling strategies have become more attractive. This paper presents experimental results from dual fuel operation of a four-cylinder turbocharged direct injection (DI) diesel engine with propane or methane (a natural gas surrogate) as the primary fuel and diesel as the ignition source. Experiments were performed with the stock engine control unit at a constant speed of 1800 rpm, and a wide range of brake mean effective pressures (BMEPs) (2.7-11.6 bars) and percent energy substitutions (PESs) of C 3 H 8 and CH 4. Brake thermal efficiencies (BTEs) and emissions (NO x, smoke, total hydrocarbons (THCs), CO, and CO 2) were measured. Maximum PES levels of about 80-95% with CH 4 and 40-92% with C 3 H 8 were achieved. Maximum PES was limited by poor combustion efficiencies and engine misfire at low loads for both C 3 H 8 and CH 4, and the onset of knock above 9 bar BMEP for C 3 H 8. While dual fuel BTEs were lower than straight diesel BTEs at low loads, they approached diesel BTE values at high loads. For dual fuel operation, NO x and smoke reductions (from diesel values) were as high as 66-68% and 97%, respectively, but CO and THC emissions were significantly higher with increasing PES at all engine loads

  18. Production of olefins by oxidative dehydrogenation of propane and butane over monoliths at short contact times

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huff, M.; Schmidt, L.D. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)] [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The autothermal production of olefins from propane or n-butane by oxidative dehydrogenation and cracking in air or oxygen at atmospheric pressure over noble metal coated ceramic foam monoliths at contact times of {approximately}5 milliseconds has been studied. On Pt, synthesis gas (CO and H{sub 2}) dominates near its stoichiometry, while olefin production dominates at higher fuel-to-oxygen ratios. No carbon buildup is observed, and catalysts exhibit no deactivation over at least several days. On Rh, primarily synthesis gas is produced under these conditions, while on Pd, carbon deposition rapidly deactivates the catalyst. The authors observed up to 65% selectivity to olefins at nearly 100% conversion of propane or n-butane with a catalyst contact time of 5 ms. Ethylene selectivity is maximized by increasing the reaction temperature, either by preheating the reactants or by using oxygen enriched air. Propylene selectivity is maximized by lower temperature and shorter catalyst contact time. Very small amounts alkanes and higher molecular weight species are obtained, suggesting that a homogeneous pyrolysis mechanism is not occurring. A very simple reaction mechanism appears to explain the observed product distribution. Reactions are initiated by oxidative dehydrogenation of the alkane by adsorbed oxygen to form a surface alkyl. On Pt, {beta}-hydrogen and {beta}-alkyl elimination reactions of adsorbed alkyl dominate which lead to olefin production rather than cracking to C{sub s} and H{sub s}. 24 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Electrical probe diagnostics for the laminar flame quenching distance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karrer, Maxime; Makarov, Maxime [Renault Technocentre, 78288 Guyancourt Cedex (France); Bellenoue, Marc; Labuda, Sergei; Sotton, Julien [Laboratoire de Combustion et de Detonique, CNRS, 86961 Futuroscope Chasseneuil (France)

    2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A simplified theory, previously developed for the general case of weakly ionized gas flow, is used to predict electrical probe response when the flame is quenched on the probe surface. This theory is based on the planar model of space charge sheaths around the measuring electrode. For the flame quenching case, by assuming that the sheath thickness is comparable with the thermal boundary layer thickness, probe current can be related to flame quenching distance. The theoretical assumptions made to obtain the analytical formulation of probe current were experimentally proved by using direct visualization and high-frequency PIV. The direct visualization method was also used to validate the results of flame quenching distance values obtained with electrical probe. The electrical probe diagnostics have been verified for both head-on and sidewall flame quenching regimes and for stoichiometric methane/air and propane/air mixtures in a pressure range of 0.05-0.6 MPa. (author)

  20. Technology Adoption and Regulatory Regimes: Gas Turbines Electricity Generators from 1980 to 2001

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ishii, Jun

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Scheibel (1997) “Current Gas Turbine Developments and Futurefor Heavy-Duty Gas Turbines,” October 2000. Available onlineNext Evolution of the F Gas Turbine,” April 2001. Available

  1. Measurements of Laminar Flame Velocity for Components of Natural Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    flame velocity of components of natural gas, methane, ethane, propane, and nbutane as well as of binary% by volume (1). The laminar flame velocities of methane/air, ethane/air, and propane/air mixtures have on a plenum chamber with the radial temperature distribution measurement made by a series of thermocouples

  2. Selective dehydrogenation of propane over novel catalytic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sault, A.G.; Boespflug, E.P.; Martino, A.; Kawola, J.S.

    1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The conversion of small alkanes into alkenes represents an important chemical processing area; ethylene and propylene are the two most important organic chemicals manufactured in the U.S. These chemicals are currently manufactured by steam cracking of ethane and propane, an extremely energy intensive, nonselective process. The development of catalytic technologies (e.g., selective dehydrogenation) that can be used to produce ethylene and propylene from ethane and propane with greater selectivity and lower energy consumption than steam cracking will have a major impact on the chemical processing industry. This report details a study of two novel catalytic materials for the selective dehydrogenation of propane: Cr supported on hydrous titanium oxide ion-exchangers, and Pt nanoparticles encapsulated in silica and alumina aerogel and xerogel matrices.

  3. EIS-0002: Allocation of Petroleum Feedstock, Baltimore Gas & Electric Co., Sollers Point SNG Plant, Sollers Point, Baltimore County, MD

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Economic Regulatory Administration (ERA) developed this EIS to evaluate the social, economic and environmental impacts which may occur within the Baltimore Gas and Electric Company (BG&E) service area as a result of the ERA' s proposed decision to allocate up to 2,186,000 barrels per year of naphtha feedstock to BG&E to operate BG&E's existing synthetic natural gas facility located on Sollers Point in Baltimore County, Maryland.

  4. Experimental studies of steam-propane injection for the Duri intermediate crude oil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hendroyono, Arief

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory experimental studies were carried out to better understand production mechanisms involved in steam-propane injection and to investigate effects of expected field pressure and temperature conditions on steam-propane injection...

  5. Emissions from In-Use NG, Propane, and Diesel Fueled Heavy Duty...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    In-Use NG, Propane, and Diesel Fueled Heavy Duty Vehicles Emissions from In-Use NG, Propane, and Diesel Fueled Heavy Duty Vehicles Emissions tests of in-use heavy-duty vehicles...

  6. Consequences of propene and propane on plasma remediation of NOx Rajesh Doraia)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kushner, Mark

    Consequences of propene and propane on plasma remediation of NOx Rajesh Doraia) Department exhausts with hydrocarbons propane (C3H8) and propene (C3H6) has been investigated. In general

  7. Author's personal copy Unified behaviour of maximum soot yields of methane, ethane and propane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gülder, Ömer L.

    Author's personal copy Unified behaviour of maximum soot yields of methane, ethane and propane the current study and the previous measurements in similar flames with methane, ethane, and propane flames

  8. Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks for Kinetic Separation of Propane and David H. Olson,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jing

    Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks for Kinetic Separation of Propane and Propene Kunhao Li, David H the first examples of MMOFs that are capable of kinetic separation of propane and propene (propylene), which

  9. Experimental studies of steam-propane injection for the Duri intermediate crude oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hendroyono, Arief

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory experimental studies were carried out to better understand production mechanisms involved in steam-propane injection and to investigate effects of expected field pressure and temperature conditions on steam-propane injection...

  10. Quantum cascade laser investigations of CH4 and C2H2 interconversion in hydrocarbon/H2 gas mixtures during microwave plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bristol, University of

    described in Mankelevich et al. J. Appl. Phys. 104, 113304 2008 . The gas temperature distribution within source gases investigated methane, acetylene, ethane, propyne, propane, and butane are converted

  11. Has the Supreme Court pulled the rug from under the FERC's electric and natural gas regulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flax, L.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Supreme Court overruled a prior decision in the Attleboro Gap case, which had identified an area where state regulation would be a burden on interstate commerce and opened the way for federal regulation in Parts II and III of the Federal Power Act and the Natural Gas Act of 1938. In Arkansas Electric Cooperative Corporation (AECC) v. Arkansas Public Service Commission, the Court decided that there is a ''bright line'' between the point where state regulation of wholesale rates will be a burden on interstate commerce and where it will be tolerable. In shifting the emphasis from whether there is to whether there could be an interference with interstate commerce, the decision raises the question of who must make that determination and how it will affect administrative proceedings. There is not likely to be a major impact, but this will depend on state legislatures, commissions, regulated industries, and consumers. 19 references.

  12. Triangle Alternative Transportation Fuels First Responder Training Workshop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    fueling sites. Vehicles deployed include compressed natural gas (CNG), propane (LPG), hybrid electric: Natural Gas and Propane--Rich Cregar, Automotive Technology Expert What is a Gaseous Fuel? Propane (LPG

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Powers Airport Shuttles in New

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternative Fuels CleanReduceNew HampshirePropaneOrleans Propane

  14. Propane Vehicle and Infrastructure Codes and Standards Chart (Revised) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This chart shows the SDOs responsible for leading the support and development of key codes and standards for propane.

  15. Novel Pt/Mg(In)(Al)O catalysts for ethane and propane dehydrogenation Pingping Sun a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    Novel Pt/Mg(In)(Al)O catalysts for ethane and propane dehydrogenation Pingping Sun a , Georges and propane dehydrogenation reactions are strongly dependent on the bulk In/Pt ratio. For both reactants to alkene was nearly 100%. Coke deposition was observed after catalyst use for either ethane or propane

  16. A KINETIC STUDY OF AEROBIC PROPANE UPTAKE AND COMETABOLIC DEGRADATION OF CHLOROFORM,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Semprini, Lewis

    A KINETIC STUDY OF AEROBIC PROPANE UPTAKE AND COMETABOLIC DEGRADATION OF CHLOROFORM, CIS the behavior of different consortiums of aerobic propane-utilizing microorganisms, with respect to both the lag time for growth after exposure to propane, and their ability to transform three chlorinated aliphatic

  17. Isotopic Tracer Studies of Reaction Pathways for Propane Oxidative Dehydrogenation on Molybdenum Oxide Catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    Isotopic Tracer Studies of Reaction Pathways for Propane Oxidative Dehydrogenation on Molybdenum of propane over ZrO2-supported MoOx catalysts. Competitive reactions of C3H6 and CH3 13 CH2CH3 showed combustion of propene, or by direct combustion of propane. A mixture of C3H8 and C3D8 undergoes oxidative

  18. Molecular Properties of the "Ideal" Inhaled Anesthetic: Studies of Fluorinated Methanes, Ethanes, Propanes,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudlicky, Tomas

    , Propanes, and Butanes E. 1Eger, 11, MD*, J. Liu, MD*, D. D. Koblin, PhD, MDt, M. J. Laster, DVM*, S. Taheri unfluorinated, partially fluorinated, and perfluorinated methanes, ethanes, propanes, and butanes to define fluorinated methanes, ethanes, propanes, and butanes, also obtaining limited data on longer- chained alkanes

  19. Functional Characterization of Propane-Enhanced N-Nitrosodimethylamine Degradation by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    ARTICLE Functional Characterization of Propane-Enhanced N-Nitrosodimethylamine Degradation by Two: Propane-induced cometabolic degradation of n-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) by two propanotrophs is characterized through kinetic, gene presence, and expression studies. After growth on propane, resting cells

  20. Ceramic microreactors for on-site hydrogen production from high temperature steam reforming of propane{

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenis, Paul J. A.

    of propane{ Christian, Michael Mitchell and Paul J. A. Kenis* Received 31st May 2006, Accepted 10th August of propane into hydrogen at temperatures between 800 and 1000 uC. We characterized these microreactors. Kinetic analysis using a power law model showed reaction orders of 0.50 and 20.23 with respect to propane

  1. Fourier transform microwave spectrum of the propane-water complex: A prototypical water-hydrophobe system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    Fourier transform microwave spectrum of the propane-water complex: A prototypical water) The Fourier transform microwave spectrum of the propane-water complex (C3H,-H,O) has been observed and analyzed. This spectrum includes transitions assigned to propane complexed with both the ortho and para

  2. Improved Product-Per-Glucose Yields in P450-Dependent Propane Biotransformations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Frances H.

    ARTICLE Improved Product-Per-Glucose Yields in P450-Dependent Propane Biotransformations Using propane monooxygenase prepared by directed evolu- tion [P450PMOR2; Fasan et al. (2007); Angew Chem Int Ed of the energy source (glucose) in the propane biotransformation com- pared to the native E. coli strain. Using

  3. Catalytic Properties of Supported MoO3 Catalysts for Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Propane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    Catalytic Properties of Supported MoO3 Catalysts for Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Propane Kaidong The effects of MoOx structure on propane oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) rates and selectivity were examined with those obtained on MoOx/ZrO2. On MoOx/Al2O3 catalysts, propane turnover rate increased with increasing Mo

  4. High propylene/propane adsorption selectivity in a copper(catecholate)-decorated porous organic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High propylene/propane adsorption selectivity in a copper(catecholate)-decorated porous organic and propane isotherms measured at ambient temperatures and ideal adsorption solution theory (IAST) calculations revealed increasing propylene/propane selectivities with increasing pressures. The eld of highly

  5. Layering and orientational ordering of propane on graphite: An experimental and simulation study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borguet, Eric

    Layering and orientational ordering of propane on graphite: An experimental and simulation study 2002; accepted 30 July 2002 We report the results of an experimental and theoretical study of propane and experiments show that propane adsorbs in a layer-by-layer fashion and exhibits continuous growth beyond

  6. Selective adsorption of ethylene over ethane and propylene over propane in the metalorganic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selective adsorption of ethylene over ethane and propylene over propane in the metal in the energy costs associated with the cryogenic separation of ethylene­ethane and propylene­propane mixtures adsorption data for ethylene, ethane, propylene, and propane at 45, 60, and 80 C for the entire series

  7. Novel Methane, Ethane, and Propane Oxidizing Bacteria at Marine Hydrocarbon Seeps Identified by Stable Isotope Probing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sessions, Alex L.

    Novel Methane, Ethane, and Propane Oxidizing Bacteria at Marine Hydrocarbon Seeps Identified by Stable Isotope Probing Running Title: Novel Methane, Ethane, and Propane Oxidizing Bacteria Section incubating sediment with 13 C-labeled methane, ethane, or propane, we5 confirmed the incorporation of 13 C

  8. Experimental Study of Propane-Fueled Pulsed Detonation Rocket Frank K. Lu,* Jason M. Meyers,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Arlington, University of

    1 Experimental Study of Propane-Fueled Pulsed Detonation Rocket Frank K. Lu,* Jason M. Meyers in comparison to cases without the spiral. Tests through a range of cycle frequencies up to 20 Hz in oxygen-propane spiral in a pulsed detonation engine operating with propane and oxygen. A high-energy igniter is used

  9. Structural and dynamic properties of propane coordinated to TpRh(CNR) from a confrontation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, William D.

    Structural and dynamic properties of propane coordinated to TpRh(CNR) from a confrontation between] in interaction with propane. Two complexes have been found as minima coordinated through either a methyl the methylene complex of propane into a methyl complex of pro- pane. This latter reaction has a much lower

  10. Ionization Spectroscopy of Conformational Isomers of Propanal: The Origin of the Conformational Preference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Sang Kyu

    Ionization Spectroscopy of Conformational Isomers of Propanal: The Origin of the Conformational conformational isomers of propanal, cis and gauche, are investigated by the vacuum-UV mass- analyzed thresholdV and 9.9516 ( 0.0006 eV, respectively. cis-Propanal, which is the more stable conformer in the neutral

  11. PROPANE -C3H8 MSDS (Document # 001045) PAGE 1 OF 8 MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Kyu Yong

    PROPANE - C3H8 MSDS (Document # 001045) PAGE 1 OF 8 MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET Prepared to U in an emergency? 1. PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION CHEMICAL NAME; CLASS: PROPANE - C3H8 Document Number: 001045 PRODUCT IN AIR ACGIH OSHA TLV STEL PEL STEL IDLH OTHER ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm Propane 74-98-6 > 96.0 Simple

  12. Coleman Two Burner Stove The Coleman Matchlight 2-Burner Propane Stove is especially designed for outdoor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Lawrence R.

    Coleman Two Burner Stove The Coleman Matchlight 2-Burner Propane Stove is especially designed-burner propane stove has a high-pressure regulator that ensures a constant flame regardless of weather propane stove has a removable nickel-chrome-plated grate that makes for easy cleaning. The aluminized

  13. Absorption du rayonnement 12 et 8 millimtres par les vapeurs de propane sous pression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Absorption du rayonnement 12 et 8 millimètres par les vapeurs de propane sous pression A. Battaglia des pertes diélectriques (03B5") présentées par le propane gazeux aux fréquences de 24 et 36 GHz, à la Birnbaum. Abstract. 2014 Experimental study of dielectric losses (03B5") presented by gaseous propane

  14. Dehydrogenation of Propane to Propylene over Supported Model NiAu Catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Wayne

    Dehydrogenation of Propane to Propylene over Supported Model Ni­Au Catalysts Zhen Yan · Yunxi Yao 2012 Ó Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012 Abstract Hydrogenolysis and dehydrogenation of propane. For the conversionofpropane in the presence of hydrogen, the dehydrogenation of propane to propylene was observed onthe Ni

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of Gold Clusters Ligated with 1,3-Bis(dicyclohexylphosphino)propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Grant E.; Priest, Thomas A.; Laskin, Julia

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this multidisciplinary study we combine chemical reduction synthesis of novel gold clusters in solution with high-resolution analytical mass spectrometry (MS) to gain insight into the composition of the gold clusters and how their size, ionic charge state and ligand substitution influences their gas-phase fragmentation pathways. Ultra small cationic gold clusters ligated with 1,3-bis(dicyclohexylphosphino)propane (DCPP) were synthesized for the first time and introduced into the gas phase using electrospray ionization (ESI). Mass-selected cluster ions were fragmented employing collision induced dissociation (CID) and the product ions were analysed using MS. The solutions were found to contain the multiply charged cationic gold clusters Au9L43+, Au13L53+, Au6L32+, Au8L32+ and Au10L42+ (L = DCPP). The gas-phase fragmentation pathways of these cluster ions were examined systematically employing CID combined with MS. In addition, CID experiments were performed on related gold clusters of the same size and ionic charge state but capped with 1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane (DPPP) ligands containing phenyl functional groups at the two phosphine centers instead of cyclohexane rings. It is shown that this relatively small change in the molecular substitution of the two phosphine centers in diphosphine ligands (C6H11 versus C6H5) exerts a pronounced influence on the size of the species that are preferentially formed in solution during reduction synthesis as well as the gas-phase fragmentation channels of otherwise identical gold cluster ions. The mass spectrometry results indicate that in addition to the length of the alkyl chain between the two phosphine centers, the substituents at the phosphine centers also play a crucial role in determining the composition, size and stability of diphosphine ligated gold clusters synthesized in solution.

  16. Zeolitic imidazolate frameworks for kinetic separation of propane and propene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Jing; Li, Kunhao; Olson, David H.

    2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks (ZIFs) characterized by organic ligands consisting of imidazole ligands that are either essentially all 2-chloroimidazole ligands or essentially all 2-bromoimidazole ligands are disclosed. Methods for separating propane and propene with the ZIFs of the present invention, as well as other ZIFs, are also disclosed.

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    of these requirements, alternative fuels include propane, natural gas, electricity, hydrogen, qualified diesel fuel substitutes, E85, and a blend of hydrogen with propane or...

  18. Metal spray apparatus with a U-shaped electric inlet gas heater and a one-piece electric heater surrounding a nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glovan, R.J.; Tierney, J.C.; McLean, L.L.; Johnson, L.L.; Verbael, D.J.

    1995-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrically heated metal spray apparatus is provided with a supersonic nozzle. Molten metal is injected into a gas stream flowing through the nozzle under pressure. By varying the pressure of the injected metal, the droplet can be made in various selected sizes with each selected size having a high degree of size uniformity. A unique one piece graphite heater provides easily controlled uniformity of temperature in the nozzle and an attached tundish which holds the pressurized molten metal. A unique U-shaped gas heater provides extremely hot inlet gas temperatures to the nozzle. A particularly useful application of the spray apparatus is coating of threads of a fastener with a shape memory alloy. This permits a fastener to be easily inserted and removed but provides for a secure locking of the fastener in high temperature environments. 12 figs.

  19. Metal spray apparatus with a U-shaped electric inlet gas heater and a one-piece electric heater surrounding a nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glovan, Ronald J. (Butte, MT); Tierney, John C. (Butte, MT); McLean, Leroy L. (Butte, MT); Johnson, Lawrence L. (Butte, MT); Verbael, David J. (Butte, MT)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrically heated metal spray apparatus is provided with a supersonic nozzle. Molten metal is injected into a gas stream flowing through the nozzle under pressure. By varying the pressure of the injected metal, the droplet can be made in various selected sizes with each selected size having a high degree of size uniformity. A unique one piece graphite heater provides easily controlled uniformity of temperature in the nozzle and an attached tundish which holds the pressurized molten metal. A unique U-shaped gas heater provides extremely hot inlet gas temperatures to the nozzle. A particularly useful application of the spray apparatus is coating of threads of a fastener with a shape memory alloy. This permits a fastener to be easily inserted and removed but provides for a secure locking of the fastener in high temperature environments.

  20. The technology path to deep greenhouse gas emissions cuts by 2050: The pivotal role of electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, J.H.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    modeling of California’s electricity sector to 2020: UpdatedFig. 3B). In the electricity sector, three forms of de-options. Residual electricity-sector carbon emis- sions in

  1. Experimental comparison of hot water/propane injection to steam/propane injection for recovery of heavy oil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nesse, Thomas

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    , attempts have been made to inject hot water instead of steam. The results have all been rather poor, the major problem being low sweep efficiency. The hot water just doesn?t enhance oil recovery enough. Adding propane to the steam injected in the reservoir...

  2. Experimental comparison of hot water/propane injection to steam/propane injection for recovery of heavy oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nesse, Thomas

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    , attempts have been made to inject hot water instead of steam. The results have all been rather poor, the major problem being low sweep efficiency. The hot water just doesn?t enhance oil recovery enough. Adding propane to the steam injected in the reservoir...

  3. Isotopic Tracer Studies of Propane Reactions on H-ZSM5 Zeolite Joseph A. Biscardi and Enrique Iglesia*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    Isotopic Tracer Studies of Propane Reactions on H-ZSM5 Zeolite Joseph A. Biscardi and Enrique unlabeled products from mixtures of propene and propane-2-13C reactants. Aromatic products of propane-2-13C-Parmer) that allowed differential reactor operation (propane reactions were

  4. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Coal-Fired Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitaker, M.; Heath, G. A.; O'Donoughue, P.; Vorum, M.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessments (LCAs) of utility-scale coal-fired electricity generation systems focuses on reducing variability and clarifying central tendencies in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Screening 270 references for quality LCA methods, transparency, and completeness yielded 53 that reported 164 estimates of life cycle GHG emissions. These estimates for subcritical pulverized, integrated gasification combined cycle, fluidized bed, and supercritical pulverized coal combustion technologies vary from 675 to 1,689 grams CO{sub 2}-equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh) (interquartile range [IQR]= 890-1,130 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh; median = 1,001) leading to confusion over reasonable estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from coal-fired electricity generation. By adjusting published estimates to common gross system boundaries and consistent values for key operational input parameters (most importantly, combustion carbon dioxide emission factor [CEF]), the meta-analytical process called harmonization clarifies the existing literature in ways useful for decision makers and analysts by significantly reducing the variability of estimates ({approx}53% in IQR magnitude) while maintaining a nearly constant central tendency ({approx}2.2% in median). Life cycle GHG emissions of a specific power plant depend on many factors and can differ from the generic estimates generated by the harmonization approach, but the tightness of distribution of harmonized estimates across several key coal combustion technologies implies, for some purposes, first-order estimates of life cycle GHG emissions could be based on knowledge of the technology type, coal mine emissions, thermal efficiency, and CEF alone without requiring full LCAs. Areas where new research is necessary to ensure accuracy are also discussed.

  5. Evaluation of Public Service Electric & Gas Company`s standard offer program, Volume I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldman, C.A.; Kito, M.S.; Moezzi, M.M.

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In May 1993, Public Service Electric and Gas (PSE&G), the largest investor-owned utility in New Jersey, initiated the Standard Offer program, an innovative approach to acquiring demand-side management (DSM) resources. In this program, PSE&G offers longterm contracts with standard terms and conditions to project sponsors, either customers or third-party energy service companies (ESCOs), on a first-come, first-serve basis to fill a resource block. The design includes posted, time-differentiated prices which are paid for energy savings that will be verified over the contract term (5, 10, or 15 years) based on a statewide measurement and verification (M&V) protocol. The design of the Standard Offer differs significantly from DSM bidding programs in several respects. The eligibility requirements and posted prices allow ESCOs and other energy service providers to market and develop projects among customers with few constraints on acceptable end use efficiency technologies. In contrast, in DSM bidding, ESCOs typically submit bids without final commitments from customers and the utility selects a limited number of winning bidders who often agree to deliver a pre-specified mix of savings from various end uses in targeted markets. The major objectives of the LBNL evaluation were to assess market response and customer satisfaction; analyze program costs and cost-effectiveness; review and evaluate the utility`s administration and delivery of the program; examine the role of PSE&G`s energy services subsidiary (PSCRC) in the program and the effect of its involvement on the development of the energy services industry in New Jersey; and discuss the potential applicability of the Standard Offer concept given current trends in the electricity industry (i.e., increasing competition and the prospect of industry restructuring).

  6. Comparative life-cycle air emissions of coal, domestic natural gas, LNG, and SNG for electricity generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paulina Jaramillo; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Civil and Environmental Engineering Department

    2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that in the coming decades the United States' natural gas (NG) demand for electricity generation will increase. Estimates also suggest that NG supply will increasingly come from imported liquefied natural gas (LNG). Additional supplies of NG could come domestically from the production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) via coal gasification-methanation. The objective of this study is to compare greenhouse gas (GHG), SOx, and NOx life-cycle emissions of electricity generated with NG/LNG/SNG and coal. This life-cycle comparison of air emissions from different fuels can help us better understand the advantages and disadvantages of using coal versus globally sourced NG for electricity generation. Our estimates suggest that with the current fleet of power plants, a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have lower GHG emissions than coal. If advanced technologies with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) are used, however, coal and a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have very similar life-cycle GHG emissions. For SOx and NOx we find there are significant emissions in the upstream stages of the NG/LNG life-cycles, which contribute to a larger range in SOx and NOx emissions for NG/LNG than for coal and SNG. 38 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. ,,,"Electricity","Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District Heat","District Chilled Water","Propane","Othera"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventional Gasoline Sales toReformulated, Average0.9 Relative Standard Errors for Table9

  8. ,,,"Electricity","Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District Heat","District Chilled Water","Propane","Othera"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventional Gasoline Sales toReformulated, Average0.9 Relative Standard Errors for Table98. Energy

  9. Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.; Sperling, Dan

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fuels (eg diesel, compressed natural gas). Electricity (infossil fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied

  10. Gas separation with oligomer-modified inorganic membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Javaid, Asad

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -based separation are presented. Alumina membranes with average pore sizes near 5 nm and 10 run were treated with various n-alkyl trichlorosilanes. Pure gas permeation studies using nitrogen, methane, and propane were performed to investigate the effects...

  11. National Grid (Gas) – Residential EnergyWise Rebate Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    National Grid's EnergyWise programs encourage energy efficiency amongst its residential customers. Interested customers who heat with gas, oil, or propane should schedule a free home energy audit...

  12. Home Energy Score Program Overview for the American Gas Association...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Here we can enter either the efficiency value -- the AFUE in the case of gas or propane or oil. If you don't know that, you can use an installed year. This gives a...

  13. Meeting the challenges of the new energy industry: The driving forces facing electric power generators and the natural gas industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The proceedings of the IGT national conference on meeting the challenges of the New Energy Industry: The driving forces facing Electric Power Generators and the Natural Gas Industry are presented. The conference was held June 19-21, 1995 at the Ambassador West Hotel in Downtown Chicago, Illinois. A separate abstract and indexing for each of the 18 papers presented for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  14. OPTIMIZING TECHNOLOGY TO REDUCE MERCURY AND ACID GAS EMISSIONS FROM ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey C. Quick; David E. Tabet; Sharon Wakefield; Roger L. Bon

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Maps showing potential mercury, sulfur, chlorine, and moisture emissions for U.S. coal by county of origin were made from publicly available data (plates 1, 2, 3, and 4). Published equations that predict mercury capture by emission control technologies used at U.S. coal-fired utilities were applied to average coal quality values for 169 U.S. counties. The results were used to create five maps that show the influence of coal origin on mercury emissions from utility units with: (1) hot-side electrostatic precipitator (hESP), (2) cold-side electrostatic precipitator (cESP), (3) hot-side electrostatic precipitator with wet flue gas desulfurization (hESP/FGD), (4) cold-side electrostatic precipitator with wet flue gas desulfurization (cESP/FGD), and (5) spray-dry adsorption with fabric filter (SDA/FF) emission controls (plates 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9). Net (lower) coal heating values were calculated from measured coal Btu values, and estimated coal moisture and hydrogen values; the net heating values were used to derive mercury emission rates on an electric output basis (plate 10). Results indicate that selection of low-mercury coal is a good mercury control option for plants having hESP, cESP, or hESP/FGD emission controls. Chlorine content is more important for plants having cESP/FGD or SDA/FF controls; optimum mercury capture is indicated where chlorine is between 500 and 1000 ppm. Selection of low-sulfur coal should improve mercury capture where carbon in fly ash is used to reduce mercury emissions. Comparison of in-ground coal quality with the quality of commercially mined coal indicates that existing coal mining and coal washing practice results in a 25% reduction of mercury in U.S. coal before it is delivered to the power plant. Further pre-combustion mercury reductions may be possible, especially for coal from Texas, Ohio, parts of Pennsylvania and much of the western U.S.

  15. STATE OF CALIFORNIA NATURAL RESOURCES AGENCY EDMUND G. BROWN JR., Governor CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -602 Alternative Fuels Infrastructure: Electric, Natural Gas, Propane, E85, and Diesel Substitutes Terminals March Solicitation and Application Package entitled "Alternative Fuels Infrastructure: Electric, Natural Gas, Propane infrastructure to store, distribute, and dispense the following alternative transportation fuels: · Electricity

  16. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Nuclear Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warner, E. S.; Heath, G. A.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of nuclear electricity generation technologies was performed to determine causes of and, where possible, reduce variability in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to clarify the state of knowledge and inform decision making. LCA literature indicates that life cycle GHG emissions from nuclear power are a fraction of traditional fossil sources, but the conditions and assumptions under which nuclear power are deployed can have a significant impact on the magnitude of life cycle GHG emissions relative to renewable technologies. Screening 274 references yielded 27 that reported 99 independent estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from light water reactors (LWRs). The published median, interquartile range (IQR), and range for the pool of LWR life cycle GHG emission estimates were 13, 23, and 220 grams of carbon dioxide equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh), respectively. After harmonizing methods to use consistent gross system boundaries and values for several important system parameters, the same statistics were 12, 17, and 110 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh, respectively. Harmonization (especially of performance characteristics) clarifies the estimation of central tendency and variability. To explain the remaining variability, several additional, highly influential consequential factors were examined using other methods. These factors included the primary source energy mix, uranium ore grade, and the selected LCA method. For example, a scenario analysis of future global nuclear development examined the effects of a decreasing global uranium market-average ore grade on life cycle GHG emissions. Depending on conditions, median life cycle GHG emissions could be 9 to 110 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh by 2050.

  17. Security analysis of the interaction between the UK gas and electricity transmission systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whiteford, James Raymond George

    2012-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural gas has become the UK’s foremost primary energy source, providing some 39% of our energy needs. The National Transmission System (NTS) has developed from its humble beginnings when natural gas was first discovered ...

  18. Interdependency of electricity and natural gas markets in the United States : a dynamic computational model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jenkins, Sandra Elizabeth

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to high storage costs and limited storage availability, natural gas is generally used as a just-in- time resource that needs to be delivered as it is consumed. With the shale gas revolution, coal retirements and ...

  19. Development of an electrical resistivity cone for the detection of gas hydrates in marine sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McClelland, Martha Ann

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural gas hydrates are formed when, under certain pressure and temperature conditions, gas molecules become encaged by hydrogenbonded oxygen atoms, forming a solid, ice-like crystalline substance. They have been found all over the world in both...

  20. Technology Adoption and Regulatory Regimes: Gas Turbines Electricity Generators from 1980 to 2001

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ishii, Jun

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Clean Air Amendments helped lower the cost of natural gas turbines vis-a-vis coal based technologies.

  1. The new economics of the electric power industry and some implication for the natural gas industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, G.R. [Putnam, Hayes & Bartlett, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The current restructuring of the natural gas industry and its regulation have important implications for the natural gas industry. Some of these implications are positive, some negative. As in all situations of change and uncertainty, look before you leap, is good advice to those in the natural gas industry seeking to take advantage of the opportunities created by the startling changes that are occurring.

  2. Experimental study on transmission of an overdriven detonation wave from propane/oxygen to propane/air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, J.; Lai, W.H. [National Cheng Kung University, Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Tainan (China); Chung, K. [National Cheng Kung University, Aerospace Science and Technology Research Center, Tainan (China); Lu, F.K. [University of Texas at Arlington, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, Aerodynamics Research Center, TX 76019 (United States)

    2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Two sets of experiments were performed to achieve a strong overdriven state in a weaker mixture by propagating an overdriven detonation wave via a deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) process. First, preliminary experiments with a propane/oxygen mixture were used to evaluate the attenuation of the overdriven detonation wave in the DDT process. Next, experiments were performed wherein a propane/oxygen mixture was separated from a propane/air mixture by a thin diaphragm to observe the transmission of an overdriven detonation wave. Based on the characteristic relations, a simple wave intersection model was used to calculate the state of the transmitted detonation wave. The results showed that a rarefaction effect must be included to ensure that there is no overestimate of the post-transmission wave properties when the incident detonation wave is overdriven. The strength of the incident overdriven detonation wave plays an important role in the wave transmission process. The experimental results showed that a transmitted overdriven detonation wave occurs instantaneously with a strong incident overdriven detonation wave. The near-CJ state of the incident wave leads to a transmitted shock wave, and then the transition to the overdriven detonation wave occurs downstream. The attenuation process for the overdriven detonation wave decaying to a near-CJ state occurs in all tests. After the attenuation process, an unstable detonation wave was observed in most tests. This may be attributed to the increase in the cell width in the attenuation process that exceeds the detonability cell width limit. (author)

  3. Interdependence of Electricity System Infrastructure and Natural...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Interdependence of Electricity System Infrastructure and Natural Gas Infrastructure - EAC 2011 Interdependence of Electricity System Infrastructure and Natural Gas Infrastructure -...

  4. Comparing the risk profiles of renewable and natural gas electricity contracts: A summary of the California Department of Water Resources contracts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bachrach, Devra; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Golove, William

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of natural gas prices, renewable resources in general have aSince the use of renewable resources decreases fuel priceof its electricity from renewable resources under long-term

  5. ELECTRIC

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    you nay give us will be greatly uppreckted. VPry truly your23, 9. IX. Sin0j3, Mtinager lclectronics and Nuclear Physics Dept. omh , WESTINGHOUSE-THE NAT KING IN ELECTRICITY...

  6. Table A2. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Marketing Annual 1999 421 Table A2. RefinerReseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Kerosene, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) -...

  7. Table A2. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Marketing Annual 1995 467 Table A2. RefinerReseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Kerosene, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) -...

  8. Table 14. U.S. Propane (Consumer Grade) Prices by Sales Type

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and EIA-782B, "Resellers'Retailers' Monthly Petroleum Product Sales Report." 14. U.S. Propane (Consumer Grade) Prices by Sales Type 28 Energy Information Administration ...

  9. Microsoft PowerPoint - Joe Rose.Providence.Propane Supply Infrastruct...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    from the Gulf Coast. * Growth in Canadian demand for diluent (Pentanes+) demand for the oil sands industry. American Shale Production In 2013, U.S. Propane Production Increased...

  10. Well-to-wheels analysis of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.; Poch, L.; Wang, M.; Vyas, A.; Mahalik, M.; Rousseau, A.

    2010-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are being developed for mass production by the automotive industry. PHEVs have been touted for their potential to reduce the US transportation sector's dependence on petroleum and cut greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by (1) using off-peak excess electric generation capacity and (2) increasing vehicles energy efficiency. A well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis - which examines energy use and emissions from primary energy source through vehicle operation - can help researchers better understand the impact of the upstream mix of electricity generation technologies for PHEV recharging, as well as the powertrain technology and fuel sources for PHEVs. For the WTW analysis, Argonne National Laboratory researchers used the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model developed by Argonne to compare the WTW energy use and GHG emissions associated with various transportation technologies to those associated with PHEVs. Argonne researchers estimated the fuel economy and electricity use of PHEVs and alternative fuel/vehicle systems by using the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) model. They examined two PHEV designs: the power-split configuration and the series configuration. The first is a parallel hybrid configuration in which the engine and the electric motor are connected to a single mechanical transmission that incorporates a power-split device that allows for parallel power paths - mechanical and electrical - from the engine to the wheels, allowing the engine and the electric motor to share the power during acceleration. In the second configuration, the engine powers a generator, which charges a battery that is used by the electric motor to propel the vehicle; thus, the engine never directly powers the vehicle's transmission. The power-split configuration was adopted for PHEVs with a 10- and 20-mile electric range because they require frequent use of the engine for acceleration and to provide energy when the battery is depleted, while the series configuration was adopted for PHEVs with a 30- and 40-mile electric range because they rely mostly on electrical power for propulsion. Argonne researchers calculated the equivalent on-road (real-world) fuel economy on the basis of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency miles per gallon (mpg)-based formulas. The reduction in fuel economy attributable to the on-road adjustment formula was capped at 30% for advanced vehicle systems (e.g., PHEVs, fuel cell vehicles [FCVs], hybrid electric vehicles [HEVs], and battery-powered electric vehicles [BEVs]). Simulations for calendar year 2020 with model year 2015 mid-size vehicles were chosen for this analysis to address the implications of PHEVs within a reasonable timeframe after their likely introduction over the next few years. For the WTW analysis, Argonne assumed a PHEV market penetration of 10% by 2020 in order to examine the impact of significant PHEV loading on the utility power sector. Technological improvement with medium uncertainty for each vehicle was also assumed for the analysis. Argonne employed detailed dispatch models to simulate the electric power systems in four major regions of the US: the New England Independent System Operator, the New York Independent System Operator, the State of Illinois, and the Western Electric Coordinating Council. Argonne also evaluated the US average generation mix and renewable generation of electricity for PHEV and BEV recharging scenarios to show the effects of these generation mixes on PHEV WTW results. Argonne's GREET model was designed to examine the WTW energy use and GHG emissions for PHEVs and BEVs, as well as FCVs, regular HEVs, and conventional gasoline internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). WTW results are reported for charge-depleting (CD) operation of PHEVs under different recharging scenarios. The combined WTW results of CD and charge-sustaining (CS) PHEV operations (using the utility factor method) were also examined and reported. According to the utility factor method, the share of vehicle miles trav

  11. Propane cold neutron source: creation and operation experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zemlyanov, M. G.

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In most cold neutron sources, utilized until recently, liquid hydrogen, liquid deuterium and their mixtures were used as a moderating medium. The sources with the liquid hydrogen moderator offer the most specific effectiveness of cold neutron generation. But they are complicated in design, require special safety measures in the course of operation and are very expensive. In this connection, it is of undoubted interest to create a source which, although it yields the specific generation of cold neutrons comparable to the liquid hydrogen one, is safer in operation and simple in design. We assume such a source may be one which uses as a moderator liquid propane cooled to liquid nitrogen temperature.

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan Converts Vehicles to Propane,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternative Fuels CleanReduce OperatingPropane in OhioReducing

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Shuttle Visitors in Maine

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternative Fuels CleanReduceNew HampshirePropane Buses Shuttle

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Infrastructure Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternative Fuels CleanReduceNew HampshirePropane Buses

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Station Locations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternative Fuels CleanReduceNew HampshirePropane BusesStation

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Mowers Help National Park Cut

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternative Fuels CleanReduceNew HampshirePropane

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Powers Fleets Across the Nation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternative Fuels CleanReduceNew HampshirePropaneOrleans

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane School Buses Launched in Gloucester

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternative Fuels CleanReduceNewPropane Printable Version Share

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Tank Overfill Safety Advisory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternative Fuels CleanReduceNewPropane Printable Version

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vans Keep Kansas City Transportation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternative Fuels CleanReduceNewPropane Printable VersionCompany

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renzenberger Inc Saves Money With Propane

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternative Fuels CleanReduceNewPropane PrintableTools

  2. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Jean Bustard; Kenneth E. Baldrey; Richard Schlager

    2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions has begun a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the flyash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. Preliminary testing has identified a class of common deliquescent salts that effectively control flyash resistivity on a variety of coals. A method to evaluate cohesive properties of flyash in the laboratory has been selected and construction of an electrostatic tensiometer test fixture is underway. Preliminary selection of a variety of chemicals that will be screened for effect on flyash cohesion has been completed.

  3. Dynamics of the electric current in an ideal electron gas: a sound mode inside the quasi-particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sašo Grozdanov; Janos Polonyi

    2015-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the equation of motion for the Noether current in an electron gas within the framework of the Schwinger-Keldysh Closed-Time-Path formalism. The equation is shown to be highly non-linear and irreversible even for a non-interacting, ideal gas of electrons at non-zero density. We truncate the linearised equation of motion, written as the Laurent series in Fourier space, so that the resulting expressions are local in time, both at zero and at small finite temperatures. Furthermore, we show that the one-loop Coulomb interactions only alter the physical picture quantitatively, while preserving the characteristics of the dynamics that the electric current exhibits in the absence of interactions. As a result of the composite nature of the Noether current, composite sound waves are found to be the dominant IR collective excitations at length scales between the inverse Fermi momentum and the mean free path that would exist in an interacting electron gas. We also discuss the difference and the transition between the hydrodynamical regime of an ideal gas, defined in this work, and the hydrodynamical regime in phenomenological hydrodynamics, which is normally used for the description of interacting gases.

  4. Final report of the Rhode Island State Energy Office on residential no. 2 heating oil and propane prices [SHOPP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClanahan, Janice

    2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Summary report on residential No.2 heating oil and propane prepared under grant. Summarizes the monitoring and analysis of heating oil and propane prices from October 2000 through March 2001.

  5. Further experimental studies of steam-propane injection to enhance recovery of Morichal oil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferguson,Mark Anthony

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1998-1999, experimental research was conducted by Goite at Texas A&M University into steam-propane injection to enhance oil recovery from the Morichal field, Venezuela. Goite's results showed that, compared with steam injection alone, steam-propane...

  6. Experimental studies of steam-propane injection to enhance recovery of an intermediate crude oil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tinss, Judicael Christopher

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the past few years, research has been conducted at Texas A&M University on steam-propane injection to enhance oil recovery from the Morichal field, Venezuela, which contains 13.5 ?API gravity oil. Experimental results show that a 5:100 propane...

  7. Experimental studies of steam-propane injection to enhance recovery of an intermediate crude oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tinss, Judicael Christopher

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the past few years, research has been conducted at Texas A&M University on steam-propane injection to enhance oil recovery from the Morichal field, Venezuela, which contains 13.5 ?API gravity oil. Experimental results show that a 5:100 propane...

  8. Further experimental studies of steam-propane injection to enhance recovery of Morichal oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferguson,Mark Anthony

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1998-1999, experimental research was conducted by Goite at Texas A&M University into steam-propane injection to enhance oil recovery from the Morichal field, Venezuela. Goite's results showed that, compared with steam injection alone, steam-propane...

  9. 9118 J. Am. Chem. SOC.1992, 114, 9118-9122 Propane Buwe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlegel, H. Bernhard

    9118 J. Am. Chem. SOC.1992, 114, 9118-9122 Scheme 111 Propane Buwe X =CHI and Y = H lossofH2 Z = H-82-8; ethane, 74- 84-0; propane, 74-98-6;butane, 106-97-8. (28) The heats of formation for C3H2are the scaled

  10. State heating oil and propane program, 1994--1995 heating season. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Propane prices and No. 2 fuel prices during the 1994-1995 heating season are tabulated for the state of Ohio. Nineteen companies were included in the telephone survey of propane prices, and twenty two companies for the fuel oil prices. A bar graph is also presented for average residential prices of No. 2 heating oil.

  11. VEE-0044- In the Matter of Public Service Electric and Gas Company (New Jersey)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On July 14, 1997, the Office of Hearings and Appeals received from the Energy Information Administration (EIA) a “letter of appeal” that had been filed with the EIA by the Public Service Electric...

  12. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSION CONTROL OPTIONS: ASSESSING TRANSPORTATION AND ELECTRICITY GENERATION TECHNOLOGIES AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kockelman, Kara M.

    power generation, energy policy, fuel economy ABSTRACT Prioritizing the numerous technology and policy Publications for book titled "Energy Consumption: Impacts of Human Activity, Current and Future Challenges, Environmental and Ecological Effects," August 2013. KEY WORDS: Greenhouse gases, transportation energy, electric

  13. Performance and Emissions Characteristics of Bio-Diesel (B100)-Ignited Methane and Propane Combustion in a Four Cylinder Turbocharged Compression Ignition Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shoemaker, N. T.; Gibson, C. M.; Polk, A. C.; Krishnan, S. R.; Srinivasan, K. K.

    2011-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Different combustion strategies and fuel sources are needed to deal with increasing fuel efficiency demands and emission restrictions. One possible strategy is dual fueling using readily available resources. Propane and natural gas are readily available with the current infrastructure and biodiesel is growing in popularity as a renewable fuel. This paper presents experimental results from dual fuel combustion of methane (as a surrogate for natural gas) and propane as primary fuels with biodiesel pilots in a 1.9 liter, turbocharged, 4 cylinder diesel engine at 1800 rev/min. Experiments were performed with different percentage energy substitutions (PES) of propane and methane and at different brake mean effective pressures (BMEP/bmep). Brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and emissions (NOx, HC, CO, CO2, O2 and smoke) were also measured. Maximum PES levels for B100-methane dual fuelling were limited to 70% at 2.5 bar bmep and 48% at 10 bar bmep, and corresponding values for B100-propane dual fuelling were 64% and 43%, respectively. Maximum PES was limited by misfire at 2.5 bar bmep and the onset of engine knock at 10 bar bmep. Dual fuel BTEs approached straight B100 values at 10 bar bmep while they were significantly lower than B100 values at 2.5 bar bmep. In general dual fuelling was beneficial in reducing NOx and smoke emissions by 33% and 50%, respectively from baseline B100 levels; however, both CO and THC emissions were significantly higher than baseline B100 levels at all PES and loads.

  14. Memphis Light, Gas and Water (Electric)- Commercial Efficiency Advice and Incentives Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Memphis Light, Gas and Water (MLGW), in partnership with the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), offers a variety of energy efficient incentives to non-residential customers. The program provides...

  15. Electrical hazards

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and certification by ANL prior to use. The Control of Hazardous Energy Sources - LockoutTagout (LOTO) Types of Energy Sources 1. Electricity 2. Gas, steam & pressurized...

  16. CALIFORNIA ALTERNATIVE FUELS MARKET ASSESSMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Contract Manager Ray Tuvell, Manager EMERGING FUELS & TECHNOLOGY OFFICE Rosella Shapiro, Deputy Director gas, propane, ethanol, electricity, alternative diesel fuels such as biodiesel and Fischer Tropsch, natural gas vehicles, propane vehicles, electric vehicles, ethanol fuel, E-85, biodiesel, Fischer

  17. STAFF REPORT LOCALIZED HEALTH IMPACTS REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solicitation PON11602 Alternative Fuels Infrastructure: Electric, Natural Gas, Propane, E85, and Diesel electricity, natural gas, biomethane, propane, hydrogen, ethanol, renewable diesel, and biodiesel. State and Transportation Division Robert P. Oglesby Executive Director DISCLAIMER Staff members

  18. Far-infrared laser vibration-rotation-tunneling spectroscopy of the propane-water compkx: Torsional dynamics of the hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    Far-infrared laser vibration-rotation-tunneling spectroscopy of the propane-water compkx: Torsional 1993) The far-infrared laservibration-rotation-tunneling (FIR-VRT) spectrumof the propane-water complex calculations. In the present paper and in its counterpart,13we present our results for the water-propane

  19. Non-oxidative reactions of propane on Zn/Na-ZSM5 Joseph A. Biscardi and Enrique Iglesia*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    Non-oxidative reactions of propane on Zn/Na-ZSM5 Joseph A. Biscardi and Enrique Iglesia* Department rates during propane conversion at 773 K on Zn/Na-ZSM5 are about ten times higher than on Zn/H-ZSM5 catalysts with similar Zn content. The total rate of propane conversion is also higher on Zn/Na-ZSM5

  20. J. Am. Chem. SOC.1988, 110, 8305-8319 8305 Hydrogenolysis of Ethane, Propane, n-Butane, and Neopentane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Wayne

    J. Am. Chem. SOC.1988, 110, 8305-8319 8305 Hydrogenolysis of Ethane, Propane, n, Pasadena, California 91125. Received February I, 1988 Abstract: The hydrogenolysisof ethane, propane, n for ethane, propane, and neopentane involvesthe cleavage of a single carbon-carbon bond, resulting

  1. Modeling of the formation of short-chain acids in propane flames F. Battin-Leclerc , 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Modeling of the formation of short-chain acids in propane flames F. Battin-Leclerc , 1 , A. Simulations of lean (equivalence ratios from 0.9 to 0.48) laminar premixed flames of propane stabilized in a combustion apparatus which can easily be modeled, a laminar premixed flame of propane at atmospheric pressure

  2. Kinetics and Reaction Pathways for Propane Dehydrogenation and Aromatization on Co/H-ZSM5 and H-ZSM5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    Kinetics and Reaction Pathways for Propane Dehydrogenation and Aromatization on Co/H-ZSM5 and H Co/H-ZSM5 catalyzes propane dehydrogenation and aromatization reactions. Initial product selectivities, product site-yields, and the 13C content and distribution in the products of 2-13C-propane show

  3. Updated greenhouse gas and criteria air pollutant emission factors and their probability distribution functions for electricity generating units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, H.; Wang, M.; Elgowainy, A.; Han, J. (Energy Systems)

    2012-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Greenhouse gas (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O, hereinafter GHG) and criteria air pollutant (CO, NO{sub x}, VOC, PM{sub 10}, PM{sub 2.5} and SO{sub x}, hereinafter CAP) emission factors for various types of power plants burning various fuels with different technologies are important upstream parameters for estimating life-cycle emissions associated with alternative vehicle/fuel systems in the transportation sector, especially electric vehicles. The emission factors are typically expressed in grams of GHG or CAP per kWh of electricity generated by a specific power generation technology. This document describes our approach for updating and expanding GHG and CAP emission factors in the GREET (Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation) model developed at Argonne National Laboratory (see Wang 1999 and the GREET website at http://greet.es.anl.gov/main) for various power generation technologies. These GHG and CAP emissions are used to estimate the impact of electricity use by stationary and transportation applications on their fuel-cycle emissions. The electricity generation mixes and the fuel shares attributable to various combustion technologies at the national, regional and state levels are also updated in this document. The energy conversion efficiencies of electric generating units (EGUs) by fuel type and combustion technology are calculated on the basis of the lower heating values of each fuel, to be consistent with the basis used in GREET for transportation fuels. On the basis of the updated GHG and CAP emission factors and energy efficiencies of EGUs, the probability distribution functions (PDFs), which are functions that describe the relative likelihood for the emission factors and energy efficiencies as random variables to take on a given value by the integral of their own probability distributions, are updated using best-fit statistical curves to characterize the uncertainties associated with GHG and CAP emissions in life-cycle modeling with GREET.

  4. Natural gas cost for evaluating energy resource opportunities at Fort Stewart

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stucky, D.J.; Shankle, S.A.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ft. Stewart, a United States Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) installation located near Hinesville, Georgia, is currently undergoing an evaluation of its energy usage, which is being performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. In order to examine the energy resource opportunities (EROs) at Ft. Stewart, marginal fuel costs must be calculated. The marginal, or avoided, cost of gas service is used in conjunction with the estimated energy savings of an ERO to calculate the dollar value of those savings. In the case of natural gas, the costing becomes more complicated due to the installation of a propane-air mixing station. The propane-air station is being built under a shared energy savings (SES) contract. The building of a propane-air station allows Ft. Stewart to purchase natural gas from their local utility at an interruptible rate, which is lower than the rate for contracting natural gas on a firm basis. The propane-air station will also provide Ft. Stewart with fuel in the event that the natural gas supply is curtailed. While the propane-air station does not affect the actual cost of natural gas, it does affect the cost of services provided by gas. Because the propane-air station and the SES contract affect the cost of gas service, they must be included in the analysis. Our analysis indicates a marginal cost of gas service of 30.0 cents per therm, assuming a total propane usage by the mixing station of 42,278 gallons (38,600 therms) annually. Because the amount of propane that may be required in the event of a curtailment is small relative to the total service requirement, variations in the actual amount should not significantly affect the cost per therm.

  5. Gas Content of Gladys McCall Reservoir Brine A Topical Report

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    gas t o brine ratio. This w i l l result i n cubic feet of methane, ethane, propane, etc. per barrel of brine, Then, the contributions from sample points are added until...

  6. High voltage capability electrical coils insulated with materials containing SF.sub.6 gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lanoue, Thomas J. (Muncie, IN); Zeise, Clarence L. (Penn Township, Allegheny County, PA); Wagenaar, Loren (Muncie, IN); Westervelt, Dean C. (Acme, PA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A coil is made having a plurality of layers of adjacent metal conductor windings subject to voltage stress, where the windings have insulation therebetween containing a small number of minute disposed throughout its cross-section, where the voids are voids filled with SF.sub.6 gas to substitute for air or other gaseous materials in from about 60% to about 95% of the cross-sectional void volume in the insulation, thus incorporating an amount of SF.sub.6 gas in the cross-section of the insulation effective to substantially increase corona inception voltages.

  7. Dynamics of the electric current in an ideal electron gas: a sound mode inside the quasi-particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grozdanov, Sašo

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the equation of motion for the Noether current in an electron gas within the framework of the Schwinger-Keldysh Closed-Time-Path formalism. The equation is shown to be highly non-linear and irreversible even for a non-interacting, ideal gas of electrons at non-zero density. We truncate the linearised equation of motion, written as the Laurent series in Fourier space, so that the resulting expressions are local in time, both at zero and at small finite temperatures. Furthermore, we show that the one-loop Coulomb interactions only alter the physical picture quantitatively, while preserving the characteristics of the dynamics that the electric current exhibits in the absence of interactions. As a result of the composite nature of the Noether current, composite sound waves are found to be the dominant IR collective excitations at length scales between the inverse Fermi momentum and the mean free path that would exist in an interacting electron gas. We also discuss the difference and the transition betwee...

  8. Investigation of the statistical nature and structure of the electrical breakdown time delay in gas diodes filled with neon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maluckov, Cedomir A. [Technical Faculty in Bor, University of Belgrade, Vojske Jugoslavije 24, 19210 Bor (Serbia and Montenegro); Karamarkovic, Jugoslav P. [Faculty of Civil Eng. and Architecture, University of Nis, Beogradska 14, 18000 Nis (Serbia); Radovic, Miodrag K. [Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, University of Nis, P.O.B.224, 18001 Nis (Serbia)

    2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The electrical breakdown time delay in gas diodes filled by neon at the low pressures is investigated experimentally and theoretically. Experimental results are obtained measuring the characteristics of gas diodes filled by spectroscopically pure neon. In order to discard any systematic trend during the measurement procedure, checking of the measured values randomness preceded the statistical analysis of the experimental results. Novel theoretical model is established for interpretation of obtained experimental results on the breakdown time delay. The model is based on the assumptions of the exponential distribution of the statistical time delay and Gaussian distribution of the formative discharge time. Therefore, the density distribution of the breakdown time delay is assumed to be convolution of the statistical and formative time delay distributions. Parameters of the statistical and formative time delay, as stochastic variables, are modeled by the numerical Monte Carlo method. Numerical distributions are tested to the corresponding experimental distributions of the breakdown time delay by varying the distribution parameters. In addition, the asymmetry coefficient and skewness coefficient of the breakdown time delay distribution, and coefficients of the statistical and formative time delay distributions are analyzed. Numerically calculated time delay distributions fit well to the corresponding experimental distributions in gas diodes filled with neon at low pressures.

  9. Quantifying the fuel use and greenhouse gas reduction potential of electric and hybrid vehicles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, M.; Wang, M.; Hazard, N.; Lewis, G.; Energy Systems; Northeast Sustainable Energy Association; Univ. of Michigan

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since 1989, the Northeast Sustainable Energy Association (NESEA) has organized the American Tour de Sol in which a wide variety of participants operate electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) for several hundred miles under various roadway conditions (e.g., city center and highway). The event offers a unique opportunity to collect on-the-road energy efficiency data for these EVs and HEVs as well as comparable gasoline-fueled conventional vehicles (CVs) that are driven under the same conditions. NESEA and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) collaborated on collecting and analyzing vehicle efficiency data during the 1998 and 1999 NESEA American Tour de Sols. Using a transportation fuel-cycle model developed at ANL with data collected on vehicle fuel economy from the two events as well as electric generation mix data from the utilities that provided the electricity to charge the EVs on the two Tours, we estimated full fuel-cycle energy use and GHG emissions of EVs and CVs. This paper presents the data, methodology, and results of this study, including the full fuel-cycle energy use and GHG emission reduction potential of the EVs operating on the Tour.

  10. Winery waste makes fuel Electricity, bacteria break organics in wastewater into hydrogen gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    from agricultural wastes." Napa Wine Company's wastewater comes from grape disposal, wine makingMSNBC.com Winery waste makes fuel Electricity, bacteria break organics in wastewater into hydrogen method for generating hydrogen fuel from wastewater is now operating at a California winery

  11. NATURAL GAS FOR TRANSPORTATION OR ELECTRICITY? CLIMATE CHANGE IMPLICATIONS Date: 27-Oct-11

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGaughey, Alan

    , W. Michael Griffin, H. Scott Matthews Projections of increased domestic supply, low prices, reduced gases (GHGs) when it displaces gasoline and diesel. However, in reality, the amount of GHG emissions failure: The use of compressed natural gas (CNG) instead of gasoline in cars and instead of diesel

  12. Electrical Power Generation Using Geothermal Fluid Co-produced from Oil & Gas

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objectives: To validate and realize the potential for the production of low temperature resource geothermal production on oil & gas sites. Test and document the reliability of this new technology.; Gain a better understanding of operational costs associated with this equipment.

  13. Simulation of hydrogen and hydrogen-assisted propane ignition in Pt catalyzed microchannel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seshadri, Vikram; Kaisare, Niket S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology - Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India)

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper deals with self-ignition of catalytic microburners from ambient cold-start conditions. First, reaction kinetics for hydrogen combustion is validated with experimental results from the literature, followed by validation of a simplified pseudo-2D microburner model. The model is then used to study the self-ignition behavior of lean hydrogen/air mixtures in a Platinum-catalyzed microburner. Hydrogen combustion on Pt is a very fast reaction. During cold start ignition, hydrogen conversion reaches 100% within the first few seconds and the reactor dynamics are governed by the ''thermal inertia'' of the microburner wall structure. The self-ignition property of hydrogen can be used to provide the energy required for propane ignition. Two different modes of hydrogen-assisted propane ignition are considered: co-feed mode, where the microburner inlet consists of premixed hydrogen/propane/air mixtures; and sequential feed mode, where the inlet feed is switched from hydrogen/air to propane/air mixtures after the microburner reaches propane ignition temperature. We show that hydrogen-assisted ignition is equivalent to selectively preheating the inlet section of the microburner. The time to reach steady state is lower at higher equivalence ratio, lower wall thermal conductivity, and higher inlet velocity for both the ignition modes. The ignition times and propane emissions are compared. Although the sequential feed mode requires slightly higher amount of hydrogen, the propane emissions are at least an order of magnitude lower than the other ignition modes. (author)

  14. Well-to-wheels energy use and greenhouse gas emissions analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elgowainy, A.; Burnham, A.; Wang, M.; Molburg, J.; Rousseau, A.; Energy Systems

    2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Researchers at Argonne National Laboratory expanded the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model and incorporated the fuel economy and electricity use of alternative fuel/vehicle systems simulated by the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) to conduct a well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis of energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The WTW results were separately calculated for the blended charge-depleting (CD) and charge-sustaining (CS) modes of PHEV operation and then combined by using a weighting factor that represented the CD vehicle-miles-traveled (VMT) share. As indicated by PSAT simulations of the CD operation, grid electricity accounted for a share of the vehicle's total energy use, ranging from 6% for a PHEV 10 to 24% for a PHEV 40, based on CD VMT shares of 23% and 63%, respectively. In addition to the PHEV's fuel economy and type of on-board fuel, the marginal electricity generation mix used to charge the vehicle impacted the WTW results, especially GHG emissions. Three North American Electric Reliability Corporation regions (4, 6, and 13) were selected for this analysis, because they encompassed large metropolitan areas (Illinois, New York, and California, respectively) and provided a significant variation of marginal generation mixes. The WTW results were also reported for the U.S. generation mix and renewable electricity to examine cases of average and clean mixes, respectively. For an all-electric range (AER) between 10 mi and 40 mi, PHEVs that employed petroleum fuels (gasoline and diesel), a blend of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline (E85), and hydrogen were shown to offer a 40-60%, 70-90%, and more than 90% reduction in petroleum energy use and a 30-60%, 40-80%, and 10-100% reduction in GHG emissions, respectively, relative to an internal combustion engine vehicle that used gasoline. The spread of WTW GHG emissions among the different fuel production technologies and grid generation mixes was wider than the spread of petroleum energy use, mainly due to the diverse fuel production technologies and feedstock sources for the fuels considered in this analysis. The PHEVs offered reductions in petroleum energy use as compared with regular hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). More petroleum energy savings were realized as the AER increased, except when the marginal grid mix was dominated by oil-fired power generation. Similarly, more GHG emissions reductions were realized at higher AERs, except when the marginal grid generation mix was dominated by oil or coal. Electricity from renewable sources realized the largest reductions in petroleum energy use and GHG emissions for all PHEVs as the AER increased. The PHEVs that employ biomass-based fuels (e.g., biomass-E85 and -hydrogen) may not realize GHG emissions benefits over regular HEVs if the marginal generation mix is dominated by fossil sources. Uncertainties are associated with the adopted PHEV fuel consumption and marginal generation mix simulation results, which impact the WTW results and require further research. More disaggregate marginal generation data within control areas (where the actual dispatching occurs) and an improved dispatch modeling are needed to accurately assess the impact of PHEV electrification. The market penetration of the PHEVs, their total electric load, and their role as complements rather than replacements of regular HEVs are also uncertain. The effects of the number of daily charges, the time of charging, and the charging capacity have not been evaluated in this study. A more robust analysis of the VMT share of the CD operation is also needed.

  15. BC's Electricity Options: Multi-Attribute Trade-Off and Risk Analysis of the Natural Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    losses) Cogeneration 628 1,255 1,883 Woodwaste 628 1,255 1,883 Small-Medium Hydro 628 1,255 1,883 Total 1 Jaccard and Murphy ii 05/01/02 Executive Summary BC Hydro's Integrated Electricity Plan (IEP) for 2000 overlooked in BC Hydro's latest planning process. By making this report available to the public, we hope

  16. Effect of temperature and pressure on the dynamics of nanoconfined propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gautam, Siddharth, E-mail: gautam.25@osu.edu; Liu, Tingting, E-mail: gautam.25@osu.edu; Welch, Susan; Cole, David [School of Earth Sciences, The Ohio State University, 275 Mendenhall Laboratory, 125 S Oval Mall, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Rother, Gernot [Geochemistry and Interfacial Science Group, Chemical Science Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Jalarvo, Niina [Jülich Center for Neutron Sciences (JCNS-1), Forschungszentrum Jülich Outstation at Spallation Neutron Source(SNS), Chemical and Engineering Materials Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Mamontov, Eugene [Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the effect of temperature and pressure on the dynamical properties of propane confined in nanoporous silica aerogel studied using quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS). Our results demonstrate that the effect of a change in the pressure dominates over the effect of temperature variation on the dynamics of propane nano-confined in silica aerogel. At low pressures, most of the propane molecules are strongly bound to the pore walls, only a small fraction is mobile. As the pressure is increased, the fraction of mobile molecules increases. A change in the mechanism of motion, from continuous diffusion at low pressures to jump diffusion at higher pressures has also been observed.

  17. Electrical Resistivity Investigation of Gas Hydrate Distribution in Mississippi Canyon Block 118, Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunbar, John

    2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrical methods offer a geophysical approach for determining the sub-bottom distribution of hydrate in deep marine environments. Methane hydrate is essentially non-conductive. Hence, sediments containing hydrate are more resistive than sediments without hydrates. To date, the controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) method has been used in marine hydrates studies. This project evaluated an alternative electrical method, direct current resistivity (DCR), for detecting marine hydrates. DCR involves the injection of direct current between two source electrodes and the simultaneous measurement of the electric potential (voltage) between multiple receiver electrodes. The DCR method provides subsurface information comparable to that produced by the CSEM method, but with less sophisticated instrumentation. Because the receivers are simple electrodes, large numbers can be deployed to achieve higher spatial resolution. In this project a prototype seafloor DCR system was developed and used to conduct a reconnaissance survey at a site of known hydrate occurrence in Mississippi Canyon Block 118. The resulting images of sub-bottom resistivities indicate that high-concentration hydrates at the site occur only in the upper 50 m, where deep-seated faults intersect the seafloor. Overall, there was evidence for much less hydrate at the site than previously thought based on available seismic and CSEM data alone.

  18. Limited Electricity Generation Supply and Limited Natural Gas Supply Cases (released in AEO2008)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Development of U.S. energy resources and the permitting and construction of large energy facilities have become increasingly difficult over the past 20 years, and they could become even more difficult in the future. Growing public concern about global warming and CO2 emissions also casts doubt on future consumption of fossil fuels -- particularly coal, which releases the largest amount of CO2 per unit of energy produced. Even without regulations to limit greenhouse gas emissions in the United States, the investment community may already be limiting the future use of some energy options. In addition, there is considerable uncertainty about the future availability of, and access to, both domestic and foreign natural gas resources.

  19. ,"Rhode Island Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids,+ Lease Condensate ProvedGas,Canada (Dollars

  20. ,"South Carolina Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids,+ Lease Condensate ProvedGas,CanadaLNGDeliveries to

  1. ,"New Mexico Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids, Expected Future7,Dry Natural GasCoalbed

  2. Well-To-Wheels Energy and Greenhouse Gas Analysis of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageStationGreenhouse GasCaliforniaNew England MEDIA CONTACT:

  3. A rapid compression machine study of the oxidation of propane in the negative temperature coefficient regime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallagher, S.M.; Curran, H.J.; Metcalfe, W.K.; Healy, D.; Simmie, J.M. [Combustion Chemistry Centre, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); Bourque, G. [Rolls-Royce Canada, Montreal (Canada)

    2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The oxidation of propane has been studied in the temperature range 680-970 K at compressed gas pressures of 21, 27, and 37 atm and at varying equivalence ratios of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0. These data are consistent with other experiments presented in the literature for alkane fuels in that, when ignition delay times are plotted as a function of temperature, a characteristic negative coefficient behavior is observed. In addition, these data were simulated using a detailed chemical kinetic model. It was found that qualitatively the model correctly simulated the effect of change in equivalence ratio and pressure, predicting that fuel-rich, high-pressure mixtures ignite fastest, while fuel-lean, low-pressure mixtures ignite slowest. Moreover, reactivity as a function of temperature is well captured, with the model predicting negative temperature coefficient behavior similar to the experiments. Quantitatively the model is faster than experiment for all mixtures at the lowest temperatures (650-750 K) and is also faster than experiment throughout the entire temperature range for fuel-lean mixtures. (author)

  4. Backward Raman amplification in a partially ionized gas A. A. Balakin,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    was accessed 10,11 . The experimental success was achieved using a gas jet of propane, subse- quently ionized that would be most desired. Using the pro- pane gas jet, as opposed to pure hydrogen, eased conditions on the gas jet nozzle, since a lower gas pressure could pro- duce a higher density target. However, the use

  5. Industrial Potential for Substitution of Electricity for Oil and Natural Gas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reynolds, S. D.; Gardner, J. R.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Over the past decade high power lasers have found a place in many manufac turing processes, including the welding of automobile parts, electronic devices and medical instruments; the heat-treating of automobile and airplane parts to improve... in terms of converting electricity into working power. However, they more than make up for that in many ways. First, because the heat energy is maintained and applied only in the region where the work has to be done, less energy is often used to weld a...

  6. Industrial Potential for Substitution of Electricity for Oil and Natural Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reynolds, S. D.; Gardner, J. R.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    been higher electric power costs. Unanticipated regulatory requirements and construction delays, caused in part by magnified concern over safety, along with runaway inflation, were also instrumental in increasing coal and nuclear plant construction... is then cast and formed into the desired shape and size. This process leading up to molten steel uses about 23.5 million Btu per net ton of product, or about two-thirds of the total 35 million Btu of energy required per ton of final product. By comparison...

  7. Electric Power Generation from Coproduced Fluids from Oil and Gas Wells |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube|6721 Federal Register / Vol.6:Energy Eighth AnnualELECTRIC MOTORS

  8. Florida Natural Gas Price Sold to Electric Power Consumers (Dollars per

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688Electricity UseFoot) Year Jan Feb MarYearThousand

  9. Georgia Natural Gas Price Sold to Electric Power Consumers (Dollars per

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688Electricity UseFoot) YearNet WithdrawalsThousand Cubic

  10. Hawaii Natural Gas Price Sold to Electric Power Consumers (Dollars per

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688ElectricityLess than 200Decade Year-0Year Jan FebThousand

  11. Idaho Natural Gas Price Sold to Electric Power Consumers (Dollars per

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688ElectricityLess than 200DecadeCubic1.IV.%Thousand Cubic

  12. Illinois Natural Gas Price Sold to Electric Power Consumers (Dollars per

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688ElectricityLess thanThousand CubicElements)

  13. Indiana Natural Gas Price Sold to Electric Power Consumers (Dollars per

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688ElectricityLessApril 2015Year Jan Feb Mar AprThousand

  14. Iowa Natural Gas Price Sold to Electric Power Consumers (Dollars per

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688ElectricityLessApril 2015Year

  15. Kansas Natural Gas Price Sold to Electric Power Consumers (Dollars per

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688ElectricityLessAprilResidential ConsumersThousand Cubic

  16. Electric Power Generation from Coproduced Fluids from Oil and Gas Wells

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:RevisedAdvisory BoardNucleate Boiling Efficient CoolingInc.Electric Power

  17. Electric Power Generation from Coproduced Fluids from Oil and Gas Wells |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:RevisedAdvisory BoardNucleate Boiling Efficient CoolingInc.Electric PowerDepartment

  18. ,"New York Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids, Expected Future7,DryPlantCoalbedDeliveries to Electric

  19. Table 6. Electric power delivered fuel prices and quality for coal, petroleum, natural gas, 1990 - 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14Total DeliveredPrincipal shale gas: Total

  20. Table 6. Electric power delivered fuel prices and quality for coal, petroleum, natural gas, 1990 - 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14Total DeliveredPrincipal shale gas: TotalArkansas"

  1. Table 7a. Natural Gas Price, Electric Power Sector, Actual vs. Projected

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14Total DeliveredPrincipal shale gas:1 Table 7: Crude

  2. Table 7b. Natural Gas Price, Electric Power Sector, Actual vs. Projected

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14Total DeliveredPrincipal shale gas:1 Table 7: Crudeb.

  3. Natural Gas Infrastructure Implications of Increased Demand from the Electric Power Sector

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO2:Introduction toManagement ofConverDyn NOPRNancyNationalNatural GasImports by

  4. Florida Natural Gas Price Sold to Electric Power Consumers (Dollars per

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803 Table A1.GasYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May

  5. Georgia Natural Gas Price Sold to Electric Power Consumers (Dollars per

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803 Table A1.GasYear JanPriceIndustrial Consumers

  6. Hawaii Natural Gas Price Sold to Electric Power Consumers (Dollars per

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803 Table A1.GasYearperHOW TO OBTAINCommercialPipeline

  7. Idaho Natural Gas Price Sold to Electric Power Consumers (Dollars per

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803 Table A1.GasYearperHOWYear-MonthExportsLeaseThousand

  8. Washington Natural Gas Price Sold to Electric Power Consumers (Dollars per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content4,367,470 4,364,790 4,363,909 4,363,143 4,363,967 4,363,549 1973-2015 Alaska 14,197 14,197Cubic Feet) Gas, WetCubicYear

  9. New Mexico Natural Gas Price Sold to Electric Power Consumers (Dollars per

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) New Mexico Natural GasCubic2008 2009

  10. Electric Power Generation from Co-Produced Fluids from Oil and Gas Wells

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model,DOEHazel Crest, Illinois:EdinburghEldorado IvanpahGas Wells | Open

  11. ,"North Carolina Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids, ExpectedLNG Storage NetPrice Sold toNetGas, WetDeliveries

  12. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, further laboratory-screening tests of additive formulations were completed. For these tests, the electrostatic tensiometer method was used for determination of fly ash cohesivity. Resistivity was measured for each screening test with a multi-cell laboratory fly ash resistivity furnace constructed for this project. Also during this quarter chemical formulation testing was undertaken to identify stable and compatible resistivity/cohesivity liquid products.

  13. State heating oil and propane program: Final report. Survey of No.2 heating oil and propane prices at the retail level, October 1997 through March 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Efficiency Division of the Vermont Department of Public Service (DPS) monitored the price and inventory of residential heating oil and propane during the 1997--98 heating season under a grant from the US Department of Energy`s Energy Information Administration (EIA). DPS staff collected data biweekly between October 5, 1997 and March 16, 1998 on the retail price of {number_sign}2 home heating oil and propane by telephone survey. Propane price quoted was based on the rate for a residential home heating customer using 1,000+ per year. The survey included a sample of fuel dealers selected by the EIA, plus additional dealers and fuels selected by the DPS. The EIA weighted, analyzed, and reported the data collected from their sample.

  14. Experimental and analytical studies of hydrocarbon yields under dry-, steam-, and steam-with-propane distillation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaiswal, Namit

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Simulation study has shown oil production is accelerated when propane is used as an additive during steam injection. To better understand this phenomenon, distillation experiments were performed using San Ardo crude oil (12oAPI). For comparison...

  15. Experimental study of Morichal heavy oil recovery using combined steam and propane injection 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goite Marcano, Jose Gregorio

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with steam (for the purpose of increasing steam recovery efficiency) are being evaluated. An experimental study has been performed to investigate the effect of combined steam and propane injection on recovery of heavy oil from the Morichal field, Venezuela...

  16. Experimental and analytical studies of hydrocarbon yields under dry-, steam-, and steam with propane-distillation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramirez Garnica, Marco Antonio

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent experimental and simulation studies -conducted at the Department of Petroleum Engineering at Texas A&M University - confirm oil production is accelerated when propane is used as an additive during steam injection. To better understand...

  17. Experimental study of Morichal heavy oil recovery using combined steam and propane injection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goite Marcano, Jose Gregorio

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with steam (for the purpose of increasing steam recovery efficiency) are being evaluated. An experimental study has been performed to investigate the effect of combined steam and propane injection on recovery of heavy oil from the Morichal field, Venezuela...

  18. Table A2. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    - W 73.5 See footnotes at end of table. A2. RefinerReseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Kerosene, by PAD District, 1983-Present Energy Information Administration ...

  19. Analysis of tank deformation from fire induced ruptures and BLEVEs of 400 l propane tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kielec, D.J.; Birk, A.M. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of fire tests were conducted to study the thermal rupture of propane tanks. The tests involved 400 liter ASME automotive propane tanks filled to 80% capacity with commercial propane. The tanks were brought to failure using torches and pool fires. the resulting thermal ruptures varied in severity from minor fissures, measuring a few centimeters in length, to catastrophic failures where the tank was flattened on the ground. The catastrophic failures would typically be called Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapour Explosions (BLEVE). The objective of this work was to develop a correlation between the failure severity and the tank condition at failure. The deformed propane tanks were measured in detail and the extent of deformation was quantified. The tank failure severity was found to be a complex function of a number of tank and lading properties at failure. this paper presents the measured data from the tanks and a step by step description of how the correlation was determined.

  20. Analysis of fire-induced ruptures of 400-L propane tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kielec, D.J.; Birk, A.M. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of fire tests were conducted to study the thermal rupture of propane tanks. The tests involved 400-L ASME automotive propane tanks filled to 80% capacity with commercial propane. The tanks were brought to failure using torches and pool fires. The resulting thermal ruptures varied in severity from minor fissures, measuring a few centimeters in length, to catastrophic failures where the tank was flattened on the ground. The catastrophic failures would typically be called boiling liquid expanding vapor explosions (BLEVEs). The objective of this work was to develop a correlation between the failure severity and the tank condition at failure. The deformed propane tanks were measured in detail and the extent of deformation was quantified. The tank failure severity was found to be a complex function of a number of tank and lading properties at failure. This paper presents the measured data from the tanks and a step-by-step description of how the correlation was determined.

  1. Emissions from In-Use NG, Propane, and Diesel Fueled Heavy Duty...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Emissions from In-Use NG, Propane, and Diesel Fueled Heavy Duty Vehicles 2011 Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) October 3-6, 2011 Presented By: Kent...

  2. Experimental and analytical studies of hydrocarbon yields under dry-, steam-, and steam-with-propane distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaiswal, Namit

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    EXPERIMENTAL AND ANALYTICAL STUDIES OF HYDROCARBON YIELDS UNDER DRY-, STEAM-, AND STEAM-WITH- PROPANE DISTILLATION A Dissertation by NAMIT JAISWAL Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University...-WITH- PROPANE-DISTILLATION A Dissertation by NAMIT JAISWAL Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Approved...

  3. The equivalent electrical permittivity of gas-solid mixtures at intermediate solid volume fractions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torczynski, John Robert; Ceccio, Steven Louis; Tortora, Paul Richard

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several mixture models are evaluated for their suitability in predicting the equivalent permittivity of dielectric particles in a dielectric medium for intermediate solid volume fractions (0.4 to 0.6). Predictions of the Maxwell, Rayleigh, Bottcher and Bruggeman models are compared to computational simulations of several arrangements of solid particles in a gas and to the experimentally determined permittivity of a static particle bed. The experiment uses spherical glass beads in air, so air and glass permittivity values (1 and 7, respectively) are used with all of the models and simulations. The experimental system used to measure the permittivity of the static particle bed and its calibration are described. The Rayleigh model is found to be suitable for predicting permittivity over the entire range of solid volume fractions (0-0.6).

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas (propane), hydrogen, and electricity. The infrastructure must be new and must not have been previously...

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    powered by compressed or liquefied natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas (propane), hydrogen, a combination of compressed natural gas and hydrogen, or electricity. Qualified HEVs...

  6. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 2: Policy Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    hydrogen and natural gas used for transportation purposesinterested in natural gas and electric transportation for anatural gas and propane are commonly used in specialized transportation

  7. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 2: Policy Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    hydrogen and natural gas used for transportation purposesinterested in natural gas and electric transportation for anatural gas and propane are commonly used in specialized transportation

  8. Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    all fuels including electricity and syngas will be used forGas Electricity Biomass Syngas Space Heating Coal Oil Gas

  9. Heat transfer coefficients for propane (R-290), isobutane (R-600a), and 50/50 mixture of propane and isobutane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathur, G.D. [Zexel USA Corp., Decatur, IL (United States)

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Tube-side heat transfer coefficients for single-phase flow, evaporation, and condensation are presented for propane (R-290), isobutane (R-600a), and a 50/50 mixture (by weight) of propane and isobutane. Heat transfer coefficients have been presented for smooth tubes based on the standard correlations available in the literature for pure refrigerants. The correlations for evaporation and condensation have previously been verified for R-12 and other refrigerants. The correlations for evaporation and condensation have previously been verified for R-12 and other refrigerants. The mass flux of the refrigerant is varied over a wide range that is typically encountered in residential, commercial, and automotive applications. Evaporation temperatures of {minus}6.7 C (20 F) and 4.4 C (40 F) and condensation temperatures of 37.8 C (100 F) and 48.9 C (120 F) have been used for this investigation. The heat transfer coefficients for hydrocarbons (R-290, R-600a, R-290/R-600a) have been compared with R-12 and R-134a. The REFPROP computer program developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has been used to determine the thermodynamic properties for R-290, R-600a, and R-290/R-600a. This study shows that the heat transfer coefficients for hydrocarbons are significantly higher than those for both R-12 and R-134a. For the range of refrigerant temperatures and mass flux studied, single-phase vapor heat transfer coefficients for hydrocarbons are greater by 234% to 259% in comparison to R-12 and are greater by 167% to 181% in comparison to R-134a. The single-phase liquid heat transfer coefficients for hydrocarbons are greater by 193% to 245% in comparison to R-12; and are greater by 155% to 198% in comparison to R-134a. Average evaporative heat transfer coefficients for hydrocarbons are greater by 194% to 238% in comparison to R-12 and are greater by 157% to 192% in comparison to R-134a. Finally, average condensing coefficients are greater by 220% to 233% in comparison to R-12 and are greater by 177% to 187% in comparison to R-134a. Tables 3 through 6 show a summary of the heat transfer coefficient enhancement of the hydrocarbons in comparison to both R-12 and R-134a.

  10. Influence of hydrogen patterning gas on electric and magnetic properties of perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeong, J. H., E-mail: juno@fris.tohoku.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Semiconductor R and D Center, Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd., Hwasung (Korea, Republic of); Endoh, T. [Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Center for Innovative Integrated Electronic Systems, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Kim, Y.; Kim, W. K.; Park, S. O. [Semiconductor R and D Center, Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd., Hwasung (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    To identify the degradation mechanism in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) using hydrogen, the properties of the MTJs were measured by applying an additional hydrogen etch process and a hydrogen plasma process to the patterned MTJs. In these studies, an additional 50?s hydrogen etch process caused the magnetoresistance (MR) to decrease from 103% to 14.7% and the resistance (R) to increase from 6.5?k? to 39?k?. Moreover, an additional 500?s hydrogen plasma process decreased the MR from 103% to 74% and increased R from 6.5?k? to 13.9?k?. These results show that MTJs can be damaged by the hydrogen plasma process as well as by the hydrogen etch process, as the atomic bonds in MgO may break and react with the exposed hydrogen gas. Compounds such as MgO hydrate very easily. We also calculated the damaged layer width (DLW) of the patterned MTJs after the hydrogen etching and plasma processes, to evaluate the downscaling limitations of spin-transfer-torque magnetic random-access memory (STT-MRAM) devices. With these calculations, the maximum DLWs at each side of the MTJ, generated by the etching and plasma processes, were 23.8?nm and 12.8?nm, respectively. This result validates that the hydrogen-based MTJ patterning processes cannot be used exclusively in STT-MRAMs beyond 20?nm.

  11. Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.; Sperling, Dan

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas have continued to make small contributions to transportation,transportation actions include electric power sector actions, eg coal to natural gas

  12. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Trough and Tower Concentrating Solar Power Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burkhardt, J. J.; Heath, G.; Cohen, E.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In reviewing life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of utility-scale concentrating solar power (CSP) systems, this analysis focuses on reducing variability and clarifying the central tendency of published estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through a meta-analytical process called harmonization. From 125 references reviewed, 10 produced 36 independent GHG emissions estimates passing screens for quality and relevance: 19 for parabolic trough (trough) technology and 17 for power tower (tower) technology. The interquartile range (IQR) of published estimates for troughs and towers were 83 and 20 grams of carbon dioxide equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO2-eq/kWh),1 respectively; median estimates were 26 and 38 g CO2-eq/kWh for trough and tower, respectively. Two levels of harmonization were applied. Light harmonization reduced variability in published estimates by using consistent values for key parameters pertaining to plant design and performance. The IQR and median were reduced by 87% and 17%, respectively, for troughs. For towers, the IQR and median decreased by 33% and 38%, respectively. Next, five trough LCAs reporting detailed life cycle inventories were identified. The variability and central tendency of their estimates are reduced by 91% and 81%, respectively, after light harmonization. By harmonizing these five estimates to consistent values for global warming intensities of materials and expanding system boundaries to consistently include electricity and auxiliary natural gas combustion, variability is reduced by an additional 32% while central tendency increases by 8%. These harmonized values provide useful starting points for policy makers in evaluating life cycle GHG emissions from CSP projects without the requirement to conduct a full LCA for each new project.

  13. Assessment of the risk of transporting propane by truck and train

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geffen, C.A.

    1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The risk of shipping propane is discussed and the risk assessment methodology is summarized. The risk assessment model has been constructed as a series of separate analysis steps to allow the risk to be readily reevaluated as additional data becomes available or as postulated system characteristics change. The transportation system and accident environment, the responses of the shipping system to forces in transportation accidents, and release sequences are evaluated to determine both the likelihood and possible consequences of a release. Supportive data and analyses are given in the appendices. The risk assessment results are related to the year 1985 to allow a comparison with other reports in this series. Based on the information presented, accidents involving tank truck shipments of propane will be expected to occur at a rate of 320 every year; accidents involving bobtails would be expected at a rate of 250 every year. Train accidents involving propane shipments would be expected to occur at a rate of about 60 every year. A release of any amount of material from propane trucks, under both normal transportation and transport accident conditions, is to be expected at a rate of about 110 per year. Releases from propane rail tank cars would occur about 40 times a year. However, only those releases that occur during a transportation accident or involve a major tank defect will include sufficient propane to present the potential for danger to the public. These significant releases can be expected at the lower rate of about fourteen events per year for truck transport and about one event every two years for rail tank car transport. The estimated number of public fatalities resulting from these significant releases in 1985 is fifteen. About eleven fatalities per year result from tank truck operation, and approximately half a death per year stems from the movement of propane in rail tank cars.

  14. Kinetic simulation of neutral/ionized gas and electrically charged dust in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tenishev, Valeriy; Rubin, Martin; Combi, Michael R. [University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2011-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The cometary coma is a unique phenomenon in the solar system being a planetary atmosphere influenced by little or no gravity. As a comet approaches the sun, the water vapor with some fraction of other gases sublimate, generating a cloud of gas, ice and other refractory materials (rocky and organic dust) ejected from the surface of the nucleus. Sublimating gas molecules undergo frequent collisions and photochemical processes in the near-nucleus region. Owing to its negligible gravity, comets produce a large and highly variable extensive dusty coma with a size much larger than the characteristic size of the cometary nucleus.The Rosetta spacecraft is en route to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko for a rendezvous, landing, and extensive orbital phase beginning in 2014. Both, interpretation of measurements and safety consideration of the spacecraft require modeling of the comet's dusty gas environment.In this work we present results of a numerical study of multispecies gaseous and electrically charged dust environment of comet Chyuryumov-Gerasimenko. Both, gas and dust phases of the coma are simulated kinetically. Photolytic reactions are taken into account. Parameters of the ambient plasma as well as the distribution of electric/magnetic fields are obtained from an MHD simulation of the coma connected to the solar wind. Trajectories of ions and electrically charged dust grains are simulated by accounting for the Lorentz force and the nucleus gravity.

  15. Natural Gas Monthly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas Exploration and reserves, storage, imports and exports, production, prices, sales. Electricity Sales, revenue...

  16. Griffiss AFB integrated resource assessment. Volume 2, Electric baseline detail

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, D.R.; Armstrong, P.R.; Keller, J.M.

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Air Force Air Combat Command has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as the lead laboratory supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program`s (FEMP) mission to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Griffiss Air Force Base (AFB). This is a model program PNL is designing for federal customers served by the Niagara Mohawk Power Company (Niagara Mohawk). It will (1) identify and evaluate all electric cost-effective energy projects; (2) develop a schedule at each installation for project acquisition considering project type, size, timing, and capital requirements, as well as energy and dollar savings; and (3) secure 100% of the financing required to implement electric energy efficiency projects from Niagara Mohawk and have Niagara Mohawk procure the necessary contractors to perform detailed audits and install the technologies. This report documents the assessment of baseline energy use at one of Niagara Mohawk`s primary federal facilities, Griffiss AFB, an Air Combat Command facility located near Rome, New York. It is a companion report to Volume 1, the Executive Summary, and Volume 3, the Electric Resource Assessment. The analysis examines the characteristics of electric, gas, oil, propane, coal, and purchased thermal capacity use for fiscal year (FY) 1990. The results include energy-use intensities for the facilities at Griffiss AFB by building type and electric energy end use. A complete electric energy consumption reconciliation is presented that accounts for the distribution of all major electric energy uses and losses among buildings, utilities, and central systems.

  17. Lean and ultralean stretched propane-air counterflow flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Zhongxian; Pitz, Robert W. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Vanderbilt University, Box 1592, Station B, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Wehrmeyer, Joseph A. [Aerospace Testing Alliance, Building 1099, Avenue C, Arnold Air Force Base, TN 37389 (United States)

    2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Stretched laminar flame structures for a wide range of C{sub 3}H{sub 8}-air mixtures vs hot products are investigated by laser-based diagnostics and numerical simulation. The hot products are produced by a lean H{sub 2}-air premixed flame. The effect of stretch rate and equivalence ratio on four groups of C{sub 3}H{sub 8}-air flame structures is studied in detail by Raman scattering measurements and by numerical calculations of the major species concentration and temperature profiles. The equivalence ratio, f, is varied from a near-stoichiometric condition (f=0.86) to the sublean limit (f=0.44) and the stretch rate varies from 90 s{sup -1} to near extinction. For most of these C{sub 3}H{sub 8}-air lean mixtures, hot products are needed to maintain the flame. The significant feature of these flames is the relatively low flame temperatures (1200-1800 K). For this temperature range, the predicted C{sub 3}H{sub 8}-air flame structure is sensitive to the specific chemical kinetic mechanism. Two types of flame structures (a lean self-propagating flame and a lean diffusion-controlled flame) are obtained based on the combined effect of stretch and equivalence ratio. Three different mechanisms, the M5 mechanism, the Optimized mechanism, and the San Diego mechanism, are chosen for the numerical simulations. None of the propane chemical mechanisms give good agreement with the data over the entire range of flame conditions. (author)

  18. Hydronic Heating Coil Versus Propane Furnace, Rehoboth Beach, Delaware (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Insight Homes constructed two houses in Rehoboth Beach, Delaware, with identical floor plans and thermal envelopes but different heating and domestic hot water (DHW) systems. Each house is 1,715-ft2 with a single story, three bedrooms, two bathrooms, and the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and ductwork located in conditioned crawlspaces. The standard house, which the builder offers as its standard production house, uses an air source heat pump (ASHP) with supplemental propane furnace heating. The Building America test house uses the same ASHP unit with supplemental heat provided by the DHW heater (a combined DHW and hydronic heating system, where the hydronic heating element is in the air handler). Both houses were occupied during the test period. Results indicate that efficiency of the two heating systems was not significantly different. Three issues dominate these results; lower system design performance resulting from the indoor refrigerant coil selected for the standard house, an incorrectly functioning defrost cycle in the standard house, and the low resolution of the natural gas monitoring equipment. The thermal comfort of both houses fell outside the ASHRAE Standard 55 heating range but was within the ACCA room-to-room temperature range when compared to the thermostat temperature. The monitored DHW draw schedules were input into EnergyPlus to evaluate the efficiency of the tankless hot water heater model using the two monitored profiles and the Building America House Simulation Protocols. The results indicate that the simulation is not significantly impacted by the draw profiles.

  19. Dissolved gas supersaturation associated with the thermal effluent of an electric generating station and some effects on fishes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ciesluk, Alexander Frank

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) of bluegill sunfish, Iargemouth bass, and red shiners exposed to various levels of dissolved gas supersaturation. . 71 15 Occurrence, by location, of external symptoms of gas-bubble disease in bluegill sunfish, la rgemouth bass, and red shiners during...-27 February cage bioassay. 58 15 Mortality and incidence of gas-bubble disease in bluegill sunfish, Iargemouth bass, and red shiners subjected to various levels of dissolved gas supersaturation for 72 hours 70 16-A Gas bubbles within the left eye of a...

  20. Dynamics of Propane in Silica Mesopores Formed upon PropyleneHydrogenation over Pt Nanoparticles by Time-Resolved FT-IRSpectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waslylenko, Walter; Frei, Heinz

    2007-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Propylene hydrogenation over Pt nanoparticles supported onmesoporous silica type SBA-15 was monitored by time-resolved FT-IRspectroscopy at 23 ms resolution using short propylene gas pulses thatjoined a continuous flow of hydrogen in N2 (1 atm total pressure).Experiments were conducted in the temperature range 323-413 K. Propanewas formed within 100 milliseconds or faster. The CH stretching regionrevealed distinct bands for propane molecules emerging inside thenanoscale channels of the silica support. Spectral analysis gave thedistribution of the propane product between support and surrounding gasphase as function of time. Kinetic analysis showed that the escape ofpropane molecules from the channels occurred within hundreds ofmilliseconds (3.1 + 0.4 s-1 at 383 K). A steady state distribution ofpropane between gas phase and mesoporous support is established as theproduct is swept from the catalyst zone by the continuous flow ofhydrogen co-reactant. This is the first direct spectroscopic observationof emerging products of heterogeneous catalysis on nanoporous supportsunder reaction conditions.

  1. No. 2 heating oil/propane program 1994--1995. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBrien, J.

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the 1994--95 heating season, the Massachusetts Division of Energy Resources (DOER) participated in a joint data collection program between several state energy offices and the federal Department of Energy`s (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA). The purpose of the program was to collect and monitor retail and wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories from October 1994 through March 1995. This program augmented the existing Massachusetts data collection system and served several important functions. The information helped the federal and state governments respond to consumer, congressional and media inquiries regarding No. 2 oil and propane. The information also provided policy decision-makers with timely, accurate and consistent data to monitor current heating oil and propane markets and develop appropriate state responses when necessary. In addition, the communication network between states and the DOE was strengthened through this program. This final report begins with an overview of the unique events that had an impact on the petroleum markets prior to and during the reporting period. Next, the report summarizes the results from residential heating oil and propane price surveys conducted by DOER over the 1994--95 heating season. The report also incorporates the wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories collected by EIA and distributed to the states. Finally, the report outlines DOER`s use of the data.

  2. Energy payback and CO{sub 2} gas emissions from fusion and solar photovoltaic electric power plants. Final report to Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulcinski, G.L.

    2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cradle-to-grave net energy and greenhouse gas emissions analysis of a modern photovoltaic facility that produces electricity has been performed and compared to a similar analysis on fusion. A summary of the work has been included in a Ph.D. thesis titled ''Life-cycle assessment of electricity generation systems and applications for climate change policy analysis'' by Paul J. Meier, and a synopsis of the work was presented at the 15th Topical meeting on Fusion Energy held in Washington, DC in November 2002. In addition, a technical note on the effect of the introduction of fusion energy on the greenhouse gas emissions in the United States was submitted to the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES).

  3. No. 2 heating oil/propane program. Final report, 1992/93

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBrien, J.

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the 1992--93 heating season, the Massachusetts Division Energy Resources (DOER) participated in a joint data collection program between several state energy offices and the federal Department of Energy`s (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA). The purpose of the program was to collect and monitor retail and wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories from October, 1992 through March, 1993. This final report begins with an overview of the unique events which had an impact on the petroleum markets prior to and during the reporting period. Next, the report summarizes the results from residential heating oil and propane price surveys conducted by DOER over the 1992--93 heating season. The report also incorporates the wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories collected by the EIA and distributed to the states. Finally, the report outlines DOER`s use of the data.

  4. Well-to-Wheels Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    vehicles (EVs) Fuel options: Petroleum Gasoline Diesel E85 with ethanol from Corn Switchgrass Electricity: Marginal generation mixes in four regions Average generation mixes of the U.S., CA of operation On-road adjusted electric range (AER) In-house simulations of electricity generation mixes

  5. Performance analysis of a series of hermetic reciprocating compressors working with R290 (propane) and R407C

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernández de Córdoba, Pedro

    Performance analysis of a series of hermetic reciprocating compressors working with R290 (propane Abstract In this paper, a series of compressors with different capacities and geometries working with propane as refrigerant are analyzed in terms of the compressor model developed by [E. Navarro, E. Granryd

  6. The determination of compressibility factors of gaseous propane-nitrogen mixtures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickson, Cecil Herman

    1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LIBRARY A A N O'iLLEOE OF 1EXAS THE DETERMINATION OF COMPRESSIBILITY FACTORS OF GASEOUS PROPANE-NITROGEIN MIXTURES A Thesis Cecil Herman Dickson Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of' Texas in partial... f'ulf'illment of the requirements for the de~ree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Ma]or GubjectI Chemistry May I&55 THE DETERMINATION OF COMPRESSIBILITY FACTORS OF GASEOUS PROPANE-NITROGEN MIXTURES A Thesis Cecil Herman Dickson Approved as to style...

  7. The determination of compressibility factors of gaseous propane-nitrogen mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickson, Cecil Herman

    1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LIBRARY A A N O'iLLEOE OF 1EXAS THE DETERMINATION OF COMPRESSIBILITY FACTORS OF GASEOUS PROPANE-NITROGEIN MIXTURES A Thesis Cecil Herman Dickson Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of' Texas in partial... f'ulf'illment of the requirements for the de~ree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Ma]or GubjectI Chemistry May I&55 THE DETERMINATION OF COMPRESSIBILITY FACTORS OF GASEOUS PROPANE-NITROGEN MIXTURES A Thesis Cecil Herman Dickson Approved as to style...

  8. Optimal Bidding Strategy in Electricity Markets Under Uncertain Energy and Reserve Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    including natural gas, electricity, telecommunications, transportation, and postal services. Fernando

  9. Nevada Deploys Grid-Connected Electricity from Enhanced Geothermal...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Nationwide: Southeast Propane Autogas Development Program Brings 1200 Propane Vehicles to the Road Mississippi's Community Counseling Services converted 29 vans to run on propane,...

  10. Water Heaters (Tankless Electric) | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Tankless Electric) Water Heaters (Tankless Electric) Water Heater, Tankless Electric - v1.0.xlsx More Documents & Publications Tankless Gas Water Heaters Water Heaters (Storage...

  11. Proposal for the Award of a Contract for the Supply and Installation of a gas Turbine for Combined Generation of Electricity and Heat in the Heating Plant on the Meyrin Site

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposal for the Award of a Contract for the Supply and Installation of a gas Turbine for Combined Generation of Electricity and Heat in the Heating Plant on the Meyrin Site

  12. SUR LA POSSIBILIT D'UTILISATION D'UNE CHAMBRE A BULLES A PROPANE POUR L'TUDE DES RACTIONS NUCLAIRES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    175 A. SUR LA POSSIBILITÉ D'UTILISATION D'UNE CHAMBRE A BULLES A PROPANE POUR L'ÉTUDE DES RÉACTIONS. - Mise au point et étude des caractéristiques du fonctionnement d'une chambre à bulles à propane de 6 135 MeV. Abstract. 2014 Adjustment and studies of some characteristics of a 6 litre propane bubble

  13. Single-Site Vanadyl Activation, Functionalization, and Reoxidation Reaction Mechanism for Propane Oxidative Dehydrogenation on the Cubic V4O10 Cluster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    Single-Site Vanadyl Activation, Functionalization, and Reoxidation Reaction Mechanism for Propane of density functional theory) to examine the detailed mechanism for propane reacting with a V4O10 cluster to model the catalytic oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) of propane on the V2O5(001) surface. We here report

  14. Structure and critical function of Fe and acid sites in Fe-ZSM-5 in propane oxidative dehydrogenation with N2O and N2O decomposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sklenak, Stepan

    Structure and critical function of Fe and acid sites in Fe-ZSM-5 in propane oxidative species Steamed Fe-zeolites Mössbauer spectroscopy UV­Vis FTIR H2-TPR N2O decomposition Propane oxidative of propane to propene with N2O. The evacuated non-steamed FeH-ZSM-5 contained high concentration of Brønsted

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    fuel. Eligible alternative fuels include electricity, propane, natural gas, or hydrogen fuel. Medium-duty hybrid electric vehicles also qualify. Eligible medium-duty AFVs...

  16. Future of Natural Gas

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of Natural Gas Bill Eisele, CEM SC Electric & Gas Co Hosted by: FEDERAL UTILITY PARTNERSHIP WORKING GROUP SEMINAR November 5-6, 2014 Cape Canaveral. Florida Agenda * Gas Facts *...

  17. Contaminant trap for gas-insulated apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adcock, J.L.; Pace, M.O.; Christophorou, L.G.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A resinous body is placed in gas-insulated electrical apparatus to remove particulate material from the insulating gas.

  18. 20,000 and Counting: Alternative Fueling and Charging Stations...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    gas, electricity, E85 (up to 85% ethanol), hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, and propane. The Station Locator offers drivers several ways to search for and sort information:...

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative fuels include natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas (propane), ethanol, methanol, biodiesel, electricity, and hydrogen. (Reference Oklahoma Statutes 74-130.2 and 74-78...

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    specifically vehicles that operate using natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas or propane, hydrogen, or electricity, including low-speed vehicles. (Reference Virginia Code 58.1-350...

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    fuels are compressed and liquefied natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas (propane), hydrogen, electricity, and fuels containing at least 85% ethanol, methanol, ether, or another...

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Decal and High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption Vehicles operating on propane, compressed natural gas, liquefied natural gas, or electricity are permitted to use HOV lanes,...

  3. ELECTRICITY DEMAND FORECAST COMPARISON REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION ELECTRICITY DEMAND FORECAST COMPARISON REPORT STAFFREPORT June 2005.................................................................................................................................3 PACIFIC GAS & ELECTRIC PLANNING AREA ........................................................................................9 Commercial Sector

  4. TECHNICAL JUSTIFICATION FOR CHOOSING PROPANE AS A CALIBRATION AGENT FOR TOTAL FLAMMABLE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND (VOC) DETERMINATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DOUGLAS, J.G.

    2006-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This document presents the technical justification for choosing and using propane as a calibration standard for estimating total flammable volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in an air matrix. A propane-in-nitrogen standard was selected based on a number of criteria: (1) has an analytical response similar to the VOCs of interest, (2) can be made with known accuracy and traceability, (3) is available with good purity, (4) has a matrix similar to the sample matrix, (5) is stable during storage and use, (6) is relatively non-hazardous, and (7) is a recognized standard for similar analytical applications. The Waste Retrieval Project (WRP) desires a fast, reliable, and inexpensive method for screening the flammable VOC content in the vapor-phase headspace of waste containers. Table 1 lists the flammable VOCs of interest to the WRP. The current method used to determine the VOC content of a container is to sample the container's headspace and submit the sample for gas chromatography--mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The driver for the VOC measurement requirement is safety: potentially flammable atmospheres in the waste containers must be allowed to diffuse prior to processing the container. The proposed flammable VOC screening method is to inject an aliquot of the headspace sample into an argon-doped pulsed-discharge helium ionization detector (Ar-PDHID) contained within a gas chromatograph. No actual chromatography is performed; the sample is transferred directly from a sample loop to the detector through a short, inert transfer line. The peak area resulting from the injected sample is proportional to the flammable VOC content of the sample. However, because the Ar-PDHID has different response factors for different flammable VOCs, a fundamental assumption must be made that the agent used to calibrate the detector is representative of the flammable VOCs of interest that may be in the headspace samples. At worst, we desire that calibration with the selected calibrating agent overestimate the value of the VOCs in a sample. By overestimating the VOC content of a sample, we want to minimize false negatives. A false negative is defined as incorrectly estimating the VOC content of the sample to be below programmatic action limits when, in fact, the sample,exceeds the action limits. The disadvantage of overestimating the flammable VOC content of a sample is that additional cost may be incurred because additional sampling and GC-MS analysis may be required to confirm results over programmatic action limits. Therefore, choosing an appropriate calibration standard for the Ar-PDHID is critical to avoid false negatives and to minimize additional analytical costs.

  5. Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This report examines energy use and emissions from primary energy source through vehicle operation to help researchers understand the impact of the upstream mix of electricity generation technologies

  6. Simulation studies of steam-propane injection for the Hamaca heavy oil field 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venturini, Gilberto Jose

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Simulation studies were performed to evaluate a novel technology, steam-propane injection, for the heavy Hamaca crude oil. The oil has a gravity of 9.3?API and a viscosity of 25,000 cp at 50?C. Two types of simulation studies were performed: a...

  7. Metallurgical failure analysis of a propane tank boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kilgo, Alice C.; Eckelmeyer, Kenneth Hall; Susan, Donald Francis

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A severe fire and explosion occurred at a propane storage yard in Truth or Consequences, N.M., when a truck ran into the pumping and plumbing system beneath a large propane tank. The storage tank emptied when the liquid-phase excess flow valve tore out of the tank. The ensuing fire engulfed several propane delivery trucks, causing one of them to explode. A series of elevated-temperature stress-rupture tears developed along the top of a 9800 L (2600 gal) truck-mounted tank as it was heated by the fire. Unstable fracture then occurred suddenly along the length of the tank and around both end caps, along the girth welds connecting the end caps to the center portion of the tank. The remaining contents of the tank were suddenly released, aerosolized, and combusted, creating a powerful boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE). Based on metallography of the tank pieces, the approximate tank temperature at the onset of the BLEVE was determined. Metallurgical analysis of the ruptured tank also permitted several hypotheses regarding BLEVE mechanisms to be evaluated. Suggestions are made for additional work that could provide improved predictive capabilities regarding BLEVEs and for methods to decrease the susceptibility of propane tanks to BLEVEs.

  8. Simulation studies of steam-propane injection for the Hamaca heavy oil field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venturini, Gilberto Jose

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Simulation studies were performed to evaluate a novel technology, steam-propane injection, for the heavy Hamaca crude oil. The oil has a gravity of 9.3?API and a viscosity of 25,000 cp at 50?C. Two types of simulation studies were performed: a...

  9. Development of standardized air-blown coal gasifier/gas turbine concepts for future electric power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadowski, R.S.; Brown, M.J.; Hester, J.C.; Harriz, J.T.; Ritz, G.J.

    1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study is to develop standardized air blown fixed bed gasification hot gas cleanup integrated gasifier combined cycle (IGCC) systems.

  10. Novel Pt/Mg(In)(Al)O catalysts for ethane and propane dehydrogenation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Pingping; Siddiqi, Georges; Vining, William C.; Chi, Miaofang; Bell, Alexis T. (UCB); (ORNL)

    2011-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Catalysts for the dehydrogenation of light alkanes were prepared by dispersing Pt on the surface of a calcined hydrotalcite-like support containing indium, Mg(In)(Al)O. Upon reduction in H{sub 2} at temperatures above 673 K, bimetallic particles of PtIn are observed by TEM, which have an average diameter of 1 nm. Analysis of Pt LIII-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) data shows that the In content of the bimetallic particles increases with increasing bulk In/Pt ratio and reduction temperature. Pt LIII-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) indicates that an increasing donation of electronic charge from In to Pt occurs with increasing In content in the PtIn particles. The activity and selectivity of the Pt/Mg(In)(Al)O catalysts for ethane and propane dehydrogenation reactions are strongly dependent on the bulk In/Pt ratio. For both reactants, maximum activity was achieved for a bulk In/Pt ratio of 0.48, and at this In/Pt ratio, the selectivity to alkene was nearly 100%. Coke deposition was observed after catalyst use for either ethane or propane dehydrogenation, and it was observed that the alloying of Pt with In greatly reduced the amount of coke deposited. Characterization of the deposit by Raman spectroscopy indicates that the coke is present as highly disordered graphite particles <30 nm in diameter. While the amount of coke deposited during ethane and propane dehydrogenation are comparable, the effects on activity are dependent on reactant composition. Coke deposition had no effect on ethane dehydrogenation activity, but caused a loss in propane dehydrogenation activity. This difference is attributed to the greater ease with which coke produced on the surface of PtIn nanoparticles migrates to the support during ethane dehydrogenation versus propane dehydrogenation.

  11. Design and Operation of the Synthesis Gas Generator System for Reformed Propane and Glycerin Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pickett, Derek

    2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    110.6 million barrels per day by 2030 [1]. One possible source of alternative fuel, biodiesel, can be derived from biomass feedstocks (e.g., soybean). This bio-based diesel can augment or replace petroleum based diesel with little to no modifications...

  12. Electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. This paper discusses these concepts.

  13. Regulations For Gas Companies (Tennessee)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Regulations for Gas Companies, implemented by the Tennessee Regulatory Authority (Authority) outline the standards for metering, distribution and electricity generation for utilities using gas....

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maine Fleets Make Progress with Propane

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternative Fuels CleanReduce Operating CostsElectricMaine Fleets

  15. Commercializing light-duty plug-in/plug-out hydrogen-fuel-cell vehicles: “Mobile Electricity” technologies and opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Brett D; Kurani, Kenneth S

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Market potential of electric and natural gas vehicles: draft reportMarket potential of electric and natural gas vehicles” report

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Airport Shuttles Run on Propane

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProducts (VAP)MassachusettsExperimental VehicleNatural GasVehicleTexasAirport

  17. Thermophysical property predictions of propane, propylene and their mixtures by Benedict-Webb-Rubin type equations of state 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bengani, Pramod Kumar

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTY PREDICTIONS OF PROPANE, PROPYLENE AND THEIR MIXTURES BY BENEDICT-WEBB-RUBIN TYPE EQUATIONS OF STATE A Thesis by PRAMOD KUMAR BENGANI Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A & M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1990 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTY PREDICTIONS OF PROPANE, PROPYLENE AND THEIR MIXTURES BY BENEDICT-WEBB-RUBIN TYPE EQUATIONS OF STATE A Thesis...

  18. How Green Will Electricity beHow Green Will Electricity be When Electric Vehicles Arrive?When Electric Vehicles Arrive?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Transportation (a) End-Use Energy Sectors PercentofU.S.CO2Emissions Coal Petroleum Natural Gas Electricity 20, Carnegie Mellon 800Natural Gas (turbines) 0Wind 0Hydro 0Nuclear 400Natural Gas (comb. cycle) 800Coal (new · How "green" is U.S. electricity today in terms of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions? · What has been

  19. Final Technical Report: Residential Fuel Cell Demonstration by the Delaware County Electric Cooperative, Inc.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Hilson Schneider

    2007-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This demonstration project contributes to the knowledge base in the area of fuel cells in stationary applications, propane fuel cells, edge-of-grid applications for fuel cells, and energy storage in combination with fuel cells. The project demonstrated that it is technically feasible to meet the whole-house electrical energy needs of a typical upstate New York residence with a 5-kW fuel cell in combination with in-home energy storage without any major modifications to the residence or modifications to the consumption patterns of the residents of the home. The use of a fuel cell at constant output power through a 120-Volt inverter leads to system performance issues including: • relatively poor power quality as quantified by the IEEE-defined short term flicker parameter • relatively low overall system efficiency Each of these issues is discussed in detail in the text of this report. The fuel cell performed well over the 1-year demonstration period in terms of availability and efficiency of conversion from chemical energy (propane) to electrical energy at the fuel cell output terminals. Another strength of fuel cell performance in the demonstration was the low requirements for maintenance and repair on the fuel cell. The project uncovered a new and important installation consideration for propane fuel cells. Alcohol added to new propane storage tanks is preferentially absorbed on the surface of some fuel cell reformer desulfurization filters. The experience on this project indicates that special attention must be paid to the volume and composition of propane tank additives. Size, composition, and replacement schedules for the de-sulfurization filter bed should be adjusted to account for propane tank additives to avoid sulfur poisoning of fuel cell stacks. Despite good overall technical performance of the fuel cell and the whole energy system, the demonstration showed that such a system is not economically feasible as compared to other commercially available technologies such as propane reciprocating engine generators.

  20. Experimental and analytical studies of hydrocarbon yields under dry-, steam-, and steam with propane-distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramirez Garnica, Marco Antonio

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    from Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo (IMP), Dr. Fernando Rodriguez de la Garza, and Dr. Jose Luis Sanchez Bujanos from Petróleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), and Lawyer Rolando Rueda de Leon from Diario de Mexico, for their help and valuable advice. I would...-, and Steam with Propane-Distillation. (May 2004) Marco Antonio Ramírez-Garnica, B.S., Instituto Politécnico Nacional; M.S., Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Daulat D. Mamora Recent experimental and simulation...

  1. A Reversible Planar Solid Oxide Fuel-Fed Electrolysis Cell and Solid Oxide Fuel Cell for Hydrogen and Electricity Production Operating on Natural Gas/Biomass Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Greg, G.

    2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel-assisted electrolysis technique was developed to co-generate hydrogen and electricity directly from a fuel at a reduced cost of electricity. Solid oxide fuel-assisted electrolysis cells (SOFECs), which were comprised of 8YSZ electrolytes sandwiched between thick anode supports and thin cathodes, were constructed and experimentally evaluated at various operation conditions on lab-level button cells with 2 cm2 per-cell active areas as well as on bench-scale stacks with 30 cm2 and 100 cm2 per-cell active areas. To reduce the concentration overpotentials, pore former systems were developed and engineered to optimize the microstructure and morphology of the Ni+8YSZ-based anodes. Chemically stable cathode materials, which possess good electronic and ionic conductivity and exhibit good electrocatalytic properties in both oxidizing and reducing gas atmospheres, were developed and materials properties were investigated. In order to increase the specific hydrogen production rate and thereby reduce the system volume and capital cost for commercial applications, a hybrid system that integrates the technologies of the SOFEC and the solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC), was developed and successfully demonstrated at a 1kW scale, co-generating hydrogen and electricity directly from chemical fuels.

  2. Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Turbocompound...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Utilizing Electric Trubocompound Technology Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Turbocompound Technology Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines (ARES) -...

  3. The Techno-economic Impacts of Using Wind Power and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles for Greenhouse Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    and wind power in three Canadian jurisdictions, namely British Columbia, Ontario and Alberta. An Optimal baseload mixtures. The large premium paid for displacing hydro or nuclear power with wind power does littleThe Techno-economic Impacts of Using Wind Power and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles for Greenhouse

  4. Development of standardized air-blown coal gasifier/gas turbine concepts for future electric power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CRS Sirrine (CRSS) is evaluating a novel IGCC process in which gases exiting the gasifier are burned in a gas turbine combustion system. The turbine exhaust gas is used to generate additional power in a conventional steam generator. This results in a significant increase in efficiency. However, the IGCC process requires development of novel approaches to control SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions and alkali vapors which can damage downstream turbine components. Ammonia is produced from the reaction of coal-bound nitrogen with steam in the reducing zone of any fixed bed coal gasifier. This ammonia can be partially oxidized to NO{sub x} when the product gas is oxidized in a gas turbine combustor. Alkali metals vaporize in the high-temperature combustion zone of the gasifier and laser condense on the surface of small char or ash particles or on cooled metal surfaces. It these alkali-coated materials reach the gas turbine combustor, the alkali will revaporize condense on turbine blades and cause rapid high temperature corrosion. Efficiency reduction will result. PSI Technology Company (PSIT) was contracted by CRSS to evaluate and recommend solutions for NO{sub x} emissions and for alkali metals deposition. Various methods for NO{sub x} emission control and the potential process and economic impacts were evaluated. This included estimates of process performance, heat and mass balances around the combustion and heat transfer units and a preliminary economic evaluation. The potential for alkali metal vaporization and condensation at various points in the system was also estimated. Several control processes and evaluated, including an order of magnitude cost for the control process.

  5. Development of a Hydrogasification Process for Co-Production of Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) and Electric Power from Western Coals-Phase I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raymond Hobbs

    2007-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Advanced Hydrogasification Process (AHP)--conversion of coal to methane--is being developed through NETL with a DOE Grant and has successfully completed its first phase of development. The results so far are encouraging and have led to commitment by DOE/NETL to begin a second phase--bench scale reactor vessel testing, expanded engineering analysis and economic perspective review. During the next decade new means of generating electricity, and other forms of energy, will be introduced. The members of the AHP Team envision a need for expanded sources of natural gas or substitutes for natural gas, to fuel power generating plants. The initial work the team has completed on a process to use hydrogen to convert coal to methane (pipeline ready gas) shows promising potential. The Team has intentionally slanted its efforts toward the needs of US electric utilities, particularly on fuels that can be used near urban centers where the greatest need for new electric generation is found. The process, as it has evolved, would produce methane from coal by adding hydrogen. The process appears to be efficient using western coals for conversion to a highly sought after fuel with significantly reduced CO{sub 2} emissions. Utilities have a natural interest in the preservation of their industry, which will require a dramatic reduction in stack emissions and an increase in sustainable technologies. Utilities tend to rank long-term stable supplies of fuel higher than most industries and are willing to trade some ratio of cost for stability. The need for sustainability, stability and environmentally compatible production are key drivers in the formation and progression of the AHP development. In Phase II, the team will add a focus on water conservation to determine how the basic gasification process can be best integrated with all the plant components to minimize water consumption during SNG production. The process allows for several CO{sub 2} reduction options including consumption of the CO{sub 2} in the original process as converted to methane. The process could under another option avoid emissions following the conversion to SNG through an adjunct algae conversion process. The algae would then be converted to fuels or other products. An additional application of the algae process at the end use natural gas fired plant could further reduce emissions. The APS team fully recognizes the competition facing the process from natural gas and imported liquid natural gas. While we expect those resources to set the price for methane in the near-term, the team's work to date indicates that the AHP process can be commercially competitive, with the added benefit of assuring long-term energy supplies from North American resources. Conversion of coal to a more readily transportable fuel that can be employed near load centers with an overall reduction of greenhouses gases is edging closer to reality.

  6. ,"Utah Natural Gas Price Sold to Electric Power Consumers (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural GasU.S.Plant Liquids, Expected

  7. ,"Virginia Natural Gas Price Sold to Electric Power Consumers (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural GasU.S.PlantandCoalbed

  8. Automotive Fuel Efficiency Improvement via Exhaust Gas Waste...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Efficiency Improvement via Exhaust Gas Waste Heat Conversion to Electricity Automotive Fuel Efficiency Improvement via Exhaust Gas Waste Heat Conversion to Electricity Working...

  9. Thermoelectric Conversion of Exhaust Gas Waste Heat into Usable...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Exhaust Gas Waste Heat into Usable Electricity Thermoelectric Conversion of Exhaust Gas Waste Heat into Usable Electricity Presents successful incorporation of one of the most...

  10. Electricity Merger Policy in the Shadow of Regulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, Richard J; Newberry, David M

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For The Dutch Electricity Sector, NMa, June (available atanalysing horizontal electricity sector mergers, that is notfuel, gas into the electricity sector (exemplified by both

  11. Hydrogen and electricity: Parallels, interactions,and convergence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Christopher

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    impacts of marginal electricity demand for CA hydrogenUS DOE, 2007. EIA. Electricity data. [cited 2007 March 2,F. Decarbonized hydrogen and electricity from natural gas.

  12. ,"South Dakota Natural Gas Price Sold to Electric Power Consumers (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids,+ LeasePrice Sold to Electric Power Consumers (Dollars per

  13. ,"Tennessee Natural Gas Price Sold to Electric Power Consumers (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids,+ LeasePrice Sold to ElectricLNG Storage Net

  14. ,"New Jersey Natural Gas Price Sold to Electric Power Consumers (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids, Expected Future7, 2008"PricePrice Sold to Electric

  15. ,"New York Natural Gas Price Sold to Electric Power Consumers (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids, ExpectedLNG Storage NetPrice Sold to Electric Power

  16. Commercializing Light-Duty Plug-In/Plug-Out Hydrogen-Fuel-Cell Vehicles:“Mobile Electricity” Technologies, Early California Household Markets, and Innovation Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Brett D

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Market potential of electric and natural gas vehicles: draft reportMarket potential of electric and natural gas vehicles” report

  17. Commercializing Light-Duty Plug-In/Plug-Out Hydrogen-Fuel-Cell Vehicles: "Mobile Electricity" Technologies, Early California Household Markets, and Innovation Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Brett D

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Market potential of electric and natural gas vehicles: draft reportMarket potential of electric and natural gas vehicles” report

  18. Landfill Gas Fueled HCCI Demonstration System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blizman, Brandon J.; Makel, Darby B.; Mack, John Hunter; Dibble, Robert W.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    chemical- kinetic model of propane HCCI combustion,” SAEof a four-cylinder 1.9 l propane- fueled homogeneous chargethe fuel line can use propane from a tank and NG from the

  19. Development of a Hydrogasification Process for Co-Production of Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) and Electric Power from Western Coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xiaolei; Rink, Nancy

    2011-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of the research and development conducted on an Advanced Hydrogasification Process (AHP) conceived and developed by Arizona Public Service Company (APS) under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contract: DE-FC26-06NT42759 for Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) production from western coal. A double-wall (i.e., a hydrogasification contained within a pressure shell) down-flow hydrogasification reactor was designed, engineered, constructed, commissioned and operated by APS, Phoenix, AZ. The reactor is ASME-certified under Section VIII with a rating of 1150 pounds per square inch gage (psig) maximum allowable working pressure at 1950 degrees Fahrenheit ({degrees}F). The reaction zone had a 1.75 inch inner diameter and 13 feet length. The initial testing of a sub-bituminous coal demonstrated ~ 50% carbon conversion and ~10% methane yield in the product gas under 1625{degrees}F, 1000 psig pressure, with a 11 seconds (s) residence time, and 0.4 hydrogen-to-coal mass ratio. Liquid by-products mainly contained Benzene, Toluene, Xylene (BTX) and tar. Char collected from the bottom of the reactor had 9000-British thermal units per pound (Btu/lb) heating value. A three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamic model simulation of the hydrodynamics around the reactor head was utilized to design the nozzles for injecting the hydrogen into the gasifier to optimize gas-solid mixing to achieve improved carbon conversion. The report also presents the evaluation of using algae for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) management and biofuel production. Nannochloropsis, Selenastrum and Scenedesmus were determined to be the best algae strains for the project purpose and were studied in an outdoor system which included a 6-meter (6M) radius cultivator with a total surface area of 113 square meters (m{sup 2}) and a total culture volume between 10,000 to 15,000 liters (L); a CO{sub 2} on-demand feeding system; an on-line data collection system for temperature, pH, Photosynthetically Activate Radiation (PAR) and dissolved oxygen (DO); and a ~2 gallons per minute (gpm) algae culture dewatering system. Among the three algae strains, Scenedesmus showed the most tolerance to temperature and irradiance conditions in Phoenix and the best self-settling characteristics. Experimental findings and operational strategies determined through these tests guided the operation of the algae cultivation system for the scale-up study. Effect of power plant flue gas, especially heavy metals, on algae growth and biomass adsorption were evaluated as well.

  20. ,"Oklahoma Natural Gas Price Sold to Electric Power Consumers (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids, ExpectedLNGCoalbed Methane ProvedNetGas,LiquidsPrice Sold