National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for gas propane air

  1. U.S. Natural Gas Supplemental Gas - Propane Air (Million Cubic...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Propane Air (Million Cubic Feet) U.S. Natural Gas Supplemental Gas - Propane Air (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

  2. Propane-air peakshaving impact on natural gas vehicles. Topical report, August 1993-January 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richards, M.E.; Shikari, Y.; Blazek, C.F.

    1997-01-01

    Propane-air peakshaving activities can lead to higher-than-normal propane levels in natural gas. Natural gas vehicle (NGV) fueling station operation and NGV performance can be affected by the presence of excess propane in natural gas. To assess the impact on NGV markets due to propane-air peakshaving, a comprehensive survey of gas utilities nationwide was undertaken to compile statistics on current practices. The survey revealed that about half of the responders continue to propane-air peakshave and that nearly two-thirds of these companies serve markets that include NGV fueling stations. Based on the survey results, it is estimated that nearly 13,000 NGVs could be affected by propane-air peakshaving activities by the year 2000.

  3. QER- Comment of National Propane Gas Association

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Ladies and Gentlemen: Please find attached the QER comments of the National Propane Gas Association. Please feel to contact us if we can provide further information. Thank you for your attention to our submission.

  4. Southeast Propane AutoGas Development Program | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon arravt065_ti_denbigh_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Southeast Propane AutoGas Development Program Southeast Propane AutoGas Development Program Texas Propane Vehicle Pilot Project

  5. National propane safety week caps fifth anniversary of GAS Check

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prowler, S.

    1990-09-01

    This paper reports on National Propane Safety Week. The publicity encompassed everything from preventative maintenance to safe winter storage of cylinders. This campaign focused much of its attention on GAS (gas appliance system) Check, the propane industry's most well-known safety program.

  6. Southeast Propane AutoGas Development Program | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon arravt065_ti_jenkins_2011_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Southeast Propane AutoGas Development Program Southeast Propane AutoGas Development Program State of Indiana/Greater IN Clean Cities Alternative Fuels Implementation Plan

  7. Southeast Propane AutoGas Development Program | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon tiarravt065_christopher_2010_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Southeast Propane AutoGas Development Program Southeast Propane AutoGas Development Program Technology Integration Overview

  8. Effects of Propane/Natural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Straub; D. Ferguson; K. Casleton; G. Richards

    2006-03-01

    U.S. natural gas composition is expected to be more variable in the future. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports to the U.S. are expected to grow significantly over the next 10-15 years. Unconventional gas supplies, like coal-bed methane, are also expected to grow. As a result of these anticipated changes, the composition of fuel sources may vary significantly from existing domestic natural gas supplies. To allow the greatest use of gas supplies, end-use equipment should be able to accommodate the widest possible gas composition. For this reason, the effect of gas composition on combustion behavior is of interest. This paper will examine the effects of fuel variability on pollutant emissions for premixed gas turbine conditions. The experimental data presented in this paper have been collected from a pressurized single injector combustion test rig at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The tests are conducted at 7.5 atm with a 589K air preheat. A propane blending facility is used to vary the Wobbe Index of the site natural gas. The results indicate that propane addition of about five (vol.) percent does not lead to a significant change in the observed NOx emissions. These results vary from data reported in the literature for some engine applications and potential reasons for these differences are discussed.

  9. Effects of Propane/Natural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Straub, D.L.; Ferguson, D.H.; Casleton, K.H.; Richards, G.A.

    2007-03-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports to the U.S. are expected to grow significantly over the next 10-15 years. Likewise, it is expected that changes to the domestic gas supply may also introduce changes in natural gas composition. As a result of these anticipated changes, the composition of fuel sources may vary significantly from conventional domestic natural gas supplies. This paper will examine the effects of fuel variability on pollutant emissions for premixed gas turbine conditions. The experimental data presented in this paper have been collected from a pressurized single injector combustion test rig at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The tests are conducted at 7.5 atm with a 588 K air preheat. A propane blending facility is used to vary the Wobbe Index of the site natural gas. The results indicate that propane addition of about five (vol.) percent does not lead to a significant change in the observed NOx or CO emissions. These results are different from data collected on some engine applications and potential reasons for these differences will be described.

  10. Effects of Propane/Natural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Emissions (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Effects of Propane/Natural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant Emissions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effects of Propane/Natural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant Emissions × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize

  11. Gas-phase propane fuel delivery system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clements, J.

    1991-04-30

    This patent describes a gas-phase fuel delivery system for delivering a vapor phase fuel independent of exterior temperatures. It comprises:a storage tank for storing a volume of fuel; a regulator in fluid communication with the tank for receiving fuel from the tank and for outputting the fuel in a vapor phase; a pressure sensor in fluid communication with the tank for monitoring pressure within the tank, the pressure sensor being operative to generate a pump enable signal when the pressure within the tank is less than a predetermined threshold; a pump in fluid communication with the tank.

  12. Clean Cities ozone air quality attainment and maintenance strategies that employ alternative fuel vehicles, with special emphasis on natural gas and propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santini, D.J.; Saricks, C.L.

    1998-08-04

    Air quality administrators across the nation are coming under greater pressure to find new strategies for further reducing automotive generated non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established stringent emission reduction requirements for ozone non-attainment areas that have driven the vehicle industry to engineer vehicles meeting dramatically tightened standards. This paper describes an interim method for including alternative-fueled vehicles (AFVs) in the mix of strategies to achieve local and regional improvements in ozone air quality. This method could be used until EPA can develop the Mobile series of emissions estimation models to include AFVs and until such time that detailed work on AFV emissions totals by air quality planners and emissions inventory builders is warranted. The paper first describes the challenges confronting almost every effort to include AFVs in targeted emissions reduction programs, but points out that within these challenges resides an opportunity. Next, it discusses some basic relationships in the formation of ambient ozone from precursor emissions. It then describes several of the salient provisions of EPA`s new voluntary emissions initiative, which is called the Voluntary Mobile Source Emissions Reduction Program (VMEP). Recent emissions test data comparing gaseous-fuel light-duty AFVs with their gasoline-fueled counterparts is examined to estimate percent emissions reductions achievable with CNG and LPG vehicles. Examples of calculated MOBILE5b emission rates that would be used for summer ozone season planning purposes by an individual Air Quality Control Region (AQCR) are provided. A method is suggested for employing these data to compute appropriate voluntary emission reduction credits where such (lighter) AFVs would be acquired. It also points out, but does not quantify, the substantial reduction credits potentially achievable by substituting gaseous-fueled for gasoline-fueled heavy-duty vehicles. Finally, it raises and expands on the relevance of AFVs and their deployment to some other provisions embedded in EPA`s current guidance for implementing 1-hour NAAQS--standards which currently remain in effect--as tools to provide immediate reductions in ozone, without waiting for promised future clean technologies.

  13. Experimental study on transmission of an overdriven detonation wave from propane/oxygen to propane/air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, J.; Lai, W.H.; Chung, K.; Lu, F.K.

    2008-08-15

    Two sets of experiments were performed to achieve a strong overdriven state in a weaker mixture by propagating an overdriven detonation wave via a deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) process. First, preliminary experiments with a propane/oxygen mixture were used to evaluate the attenuation of the overdriven detonation wave in the DDT process. Next, experiments were performed wherein a propane/oxygen mixture was separated from a propane/air mixture by a thin diaphragm to observe the transmission of an overdriven detonation wave. Based on the characteristic relations, a simple wave intersection model was used to calculate the state of the transmitted detonation wave. The results showed that a rarefaction effect must be included to ensure that there is no overestimate of the post-transmission wave properties when the incident detonation wave is overdriven. The strength of the incident overdriven detonation wave plays an important role in the wave transmission process. The experimental results showed that a transmitted overdriven detonation wave occurs instantaneously with a strong incident overdriven detonation wave. The near-CJ state of the incident wave leads to a transmitted shock wave, and then the transition to the overdriven detonation wave occurs downstream. The attenuation process for the overdriven detonation wave decaying to a near-CJ state occurs in all tests. After the attenuation process, an unstable detonation wave was observed in most tests. This may be attributed to the increase in the cell width in the attenuation process that exceeds the detonability cell width limit. (author)

  14. Texas Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Propane-Air 1981-2005 Refinery Gas 1981-2005 Other 1999-2005

  15. 2013 Propane Market Outlook

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    domestic propane prices will not fully delink from oil prices, and competition against electricity and natural gas in traditional propane markets will remain very challenging....

  16. Comparison between a propane-air combustion front and a helium-air simulated combustion front

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barraclough, S.

    1983-12-01

    Turbulent combustion experiments were performed in a right cylindrical combustion bomb using a premixed propane-air gaseous fuel. The initial conditions inside the combustion chamber were three psig and room temperature. Prior to spark firing, the turbulence intensity inside the combustion chamber was measured and could be varied over a ten fold range. The effect of initial turbulence intensity on turbulent flame propagation was investigated. Two regimes of turbulent combustion were identified, which is in agreement with a previous investigator's results. One of them, a ''transition regime'' occurs when the turbulence intensity is approximately twice the laminar flame speed. Within the transition regime, the turbulent burning speed is linearly proportional to initial turbulence intensity and independent of laminar flame speed and turbulence length scale. A high pressure helium front was injected into the combustion chamber to simulate the combustion front. Since the helium front is isothermal, hot-wire anemometry can be used to quantify the change in turbulence intensity ahead of the propagating front. The helium front was found to have different characteristics than the combustion front.

  17. TIME-VARYING FLAME IONIZATION SENSING APPLIED TO NATURAL GAS AND PROPANE BLENDS IN A PRESSURIZED LEAN PREMIXED (LPM) COMBUSTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. L. Straub; B. T. Chorpening; E. D. Huckaby; J. D. Thornton; W. L. Fincham

    2008-06-13

    In-situ monitoring of combustion phenomena is a critical need for optimal operation and control of advanced gas turbine combustion systems. The concept described in this paper is based on naturally occurring flame ionization processes that accompany the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels. Previous work has shown that flame ionization techniques may be applied to detect flashback, lean blowout, and some aspects of thermo-acoustic combustion instabilities. Previous work has focused on application of DC electric fields. By application of time-varying electric fields, significant improvements to sensor capabilities have been observed. These data have been collected in a lean premixed combustion test rig operating at 0.51-0.76 MPa (5-7.5 atm) with air preheated to 588 K (600F). Five percent of the total fuel flow is injected through the centerbody tip as a diffusion pilot. The fuel composition is varied independently by blending approximately 5% (volume) propane with the pipeline natural gas. The reference velocity through the premixing annulus is kept constant for all conditions at a nominal value of 70 m/s. The fuel-air equivalence ratio is varied independently from 0.46 0.58. Relative to the DC field version, the time-varying combustion control and diagnostic sensor (TV-CCADS) shows a significant improvement in the correlation between the measured flame ionization current and local fuel-air equivalence ratio. In testing with different fuel compositions, the triangle wave data show the most distinct change in flame ionization current in response to an increase in propane content. Continued development of this sensor technology will improve the capability to control advanced gas turbine combustion systems, and help address issues associated with variations in fuel supplies.

  18. Washington Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Propane-Air 1980-1998 Other

  19. Wisconsin Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Synthetic 1980-1998 Propane-Air

  20. Wyoming Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Propane-Air 1980-1998 Other

  1. Experimental and kinetic study of autoignition in methane/ethane/air and methane/propane/air mixtures under engine-relevant conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, J.; Bushe, W.K.

    2006-01-01

    The ignition delay of homogeneous methane/air mixtures enriched with small fractions of ethane/propane was measured using the reflected-shock technique at temperatures from 900 to 1400 K and pressures from 16 to 40 bar. The results show complex effects of ethane/propane on the ignition of methane, but a common trend observed with both hydrocarbons is an increased promotion effect for temperatures below 1100 K. A detailed kinetic mechanism was used to investigate the interaction between ethane/propane and the ignition chemistry of methane under the above conditions. It was found that at relatively low temperatures, the reactions between ethane/propane and methylperoxy (CH{sub 3}O{sub 2}) lead to an enhanced rate of formation of OH radicals in the initiation phase of the ignition. By systematically applying the quasi-steady-state assumptions to the intermediate species involved in the main reaction path identified, we have achieved an analytical description of the ignition process in the transitional temperature regime. The analytical solutions agree reasonably well with the detailed kinetic model and the experimental results for both ignition delay and concentrations of major intermediate species.

  2. Propane Basics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NREL

    2010-03-01

    Propane powers about 190,000 vehicles in the U.S. and more than 14 million worldwide. Propane vehicles are a good choice for many fleet applications including school buses, shuttle buses, taxies and light-duty trucks.

  3. Propane Fuel Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuels » Propane Fuel Basics Propane Fuel Basics July 30, 2013 - 4:31pm Addthis Photo of a man standing next to a propane fuel pump with a tank in the background. Propane, also known as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), or autogas, is a clean-burning, high-energy alternative fuel. It has been used for decades to fuel light-duty and heavy-duty propane vehicles. Propane is a three-carbon alkane gas (C3H8). Stored under pressure inside a tank, propane turns into a colorless, odorless liquid. As

  4. Propane update

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    update March 23,2016 | Washington, DC (Inventory data as of 31816; residential heating ... Source: EIA, Weekly Petroleum Status Report, data through March 18, 2016 *propane...

  5. Delaware Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2 1 0 * * 6 1967-2014 Propane-Air 2 1 0 0 6 1980-2014 Refinery Gas 1980-2005 Other 0 1999-2014

  6. Indiana Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1 5 1 6 69 1967-2014 Propane-Air 1 1 5 1 6 69 1980-2014 Refinery Gas 1980-2005

  7. Ignition of ethane, propane, and butane in counterflow jets of cold fuel versus hot air under variable pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fotache, C.G.; Wang, H.; Law, C.K.

    1999-06-01

    This study investigates experimentally the nonpremixed ignition of ethane, propane, n-butane, and isobutane in a configuration of opposed fuel versus heated air jets. For each of these fuels the authors explore the effects of inert dilution, system pressure, and flow strain rate, for fuel concentrations ranging between 3--100% by volume, pressures between 0.2 and 8 atm, and strain rates of 100--600 s{sup {minus}1}. Qualitatively, these fuels share a number of characteristics. First, flame ignition typically occurs after an interval of mild oxidation, characterized by minimal heat release, fuel conversion, and weak light emission. The temperature extent of this regime decreases with increasing the fuel concentration, the ambient pressure, or the flow residence time. Second, the response to strain rate, pressure, and fuel concentration is similar for all investigated fuels, in that the ignition temperatures monotonically decrease with increasing fuel content, decreasing flow strain, and increasing ambient pressure. The C{sub 4} alkanes, however, exhibit three distinct p-T ignition regimes, similar to the homogeneous explosion limits. Finally, at 1 atm, 100% fuel, and a fixed flow strain rate the ignition temperature increases in the order of ethane < propane < n-butane < i-butane. Numerical simulation was conducted for ethane ignition using detailed reaction kinetics and transport descriptions. The modeling results suggest that ignition for all fuels studied at pressures below 5 atm is initiated by fuel oxidation following the high-temperature mechanism of radical chain branching and with little contribution by low-to-intermediate temperature chemistry.

  8. LIQUID PROPANE GAS (LPG) STORAGE AREA BOILING LIQUID EXPANDING VAPOR EXPLOSION (BLEVE) ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PACE, M.E.

    2004-01-13

    The PHA and the FHAs for the SWOC MDSA (HNF-14741) identified multiple accident scenarios in which vehicles powered by flammable gases (e.g., propane), or combustible or flammable liquids (e.g., gasoline, LPG) are involved in accidents that result in an unconfined vapor cloud explosion (UVCE) or in a boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE), respectively. These accident scenarios are binned in the Bridge document as FIR-9 scenarios. They are postulated to occur in any of the MDSA facilities. The LPG storage area will be in the southeast corner of CWC that is relatively remote from store distaged MAR. The location is approximately 30 feet south of MO-289 and 250 feet east of 2401-W by CWC Gate 10 in a large staging area for unused pallets and equipment.

  9. Case Study - Propane School Bus Fleets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laughlin, M; Burnham, A.

    2014-08-31

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) effort to deploy transportation technologies that reduce U.S. dependence on imported petroleum, this study examines five school districts, one in Virginia and four in Texas, successful use of propane school buses. These school districts used school buses equipped with the newly developed liquid propane injection system that improves vehicle performance. Some of the school districts in this study saved nearly 50% on a cost per mile basis for fuel and maintenance relative to diesel. Using Argonne National Laboratory’s Alternative Fuel Life-Cycle Environmental and Economic Transportation (AFLEET) Tool developed for the DOE’s Clean Cities program to help Clean Cities stakeholders estimate petroleum use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, air pollutant emissions and cost of ownership of light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles, the results showed payback period ranges from 3—8 years, recouping the incremental cost of the vehicles and infrastructure. Overall, fuel economy for these propane vehicles is close to that of displaced diesel vehicles, on an energy-equivalent basis. In addition, the 110 propane buses examined demonstrated petroleum displacement, 212,000 diesel gallon equivalents per year, and GHG benefits of 770 tons per year.

  10. Shale Gas Development Challenges: Air | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Air Shale Gas Development Challenges: Air PDF icon Shale Gas Development Challenges: Air More Documents & Publications Natural Gas from Shale: Questions and Answers Challenges associated with shale gas production How is shale gas produced?

  11. Tennessee Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Synthetic 1980-2003 Propane-Air 1980-2004

  12. Urban leakage of liquefied petroleum gas and its impact on Mexico City air quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blake, D.R.; Rowland, F.S.

    1995-08-18

    Alkane hydrocarbons (propane, isobutane, and n-butane) from liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) are present in major quantities throughout Mexico City air because of leakage of the unburned gas from numerous urban sources. These hydrocarbons, together with olefinic minor LPG components, furnish substantial amounts of hydroxyl radical reactivity, a major precursor to formation of the ozone component of urban smog. The combined processes of unburned leakage and incomplete combustion of LPG play significant role in causing the excessive ozone characteristic of Mexico City. Reductions in ozone levels should be possible through changes in LPG composition and lowered rates of leakage. 23 refs., 3 tabs.

  13. Silane-propane ignitor/burner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, R.W.; Skinner, D.F. Jr.; Thorsness, C.B.

    1983-05-26

    A silane propane burner for an underground coal gasification process which is used to ignite the coal and to controllably retract the injection point by cutting the injection pipe. A narrow tube with a burner tip is positioned in the injection pipe through which an oxidant (oxygen or air) is flowed. A charge of silane followed by a supply of fuel, such as propane, is flowed through the tube. The silane spontaneously ignites on contact with oxygen and burns the propane fuel.

  14. Silane-propane ignitor/burner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, Richard W. (Livermore, CA); Skinner, Dewey F. (Livermore, CA); Thorsness, Charles B. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A silane propane burner for an underground coal gasification process which is used to ignite the coal and to controllably retract the injection point by cutting the injection pipe. A narrow tube with a burner tip is positioned in the injection pipe through which an oxidant (oxygen or air) is flowed. A charge of silane followed by a supply of fuel, such as propane, is flowed through the tube. The silane spontaneously ignites on contact with oxygen and burns the propane fuel.

  15. Liquefied propane carburetor modification system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batchelor, D.R.; Batchelor, W.H.

    1983-01-25

    A system which can be retrofit into an existing conventional gasoline powered vehicle for enabling the vehicle to operate on either gasoline or liquefied propane fuel. The system includes a mixer in the form of an adapter to fit on the top of an existing carburetor. The mixer has a unique spring balanced metering device which controls flow of gaseous propane to the carburetor in proportion to airflow through the carburetor. The mixer is connected to a regulator assembly which receives liquid propane in a first chamber, heats the liquid propane to form a vapor, and feeds the vapor through an idle valve to control idling of the engine. The vapor is also passed to a second chamber of the regulator assembly in response to demand from the metering device which is sensed by a diaphragm actuated gas flow valve. From the second chamber, the gaseous propane is fed to a high speed inlet of the mixer. Engine manifold vacuum is also used to provide additional control for the gas flow valve to increase efficiency of the system. Other features include a special purpose fuel tank and an optional exhaust system oxygen sensor for further regulating gas flow to the engine.

  16. Residential propane prices available

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane prices available The average retail price for propane is $2.30 per gallon, based on the U.S. Energy Information Administration's weekly residential heating fuel survey. Propane prices in the Midwest region, which has the most households that use propane, averaged $1.89 a gallon. This is Marcela Rourk, with EIA, in Washington. The EIA has expanded its propane price survey to include 14 more states located mostly in the South and the West. The survey now looks at propane prices in 38

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Vehicles » Propane Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane on

  18. Propane vehicles : status, challenges, and opportunities.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rood Werpy, M.; Burnham, A.; Bertram, K.; Energy Systems

    2010-06-17

    Propane as an auto fuel has a high octane value and has key properties required for spark-ignited internal combustion engines. To operate a vehicle on propane as either a dedicated fuel or bi-fuel (i.e., switching between gasoline and propane) vehicle, only a few modifications must be made to the engine. Until recently propane vehicles have commonly used a vapor pressure system that was somewhat similar to a carburetion system, wherein the propane would be vaporized and mixed with combustion air in the intake plenum of the engine. This leads to lower efficiency as more air, rather than fuel, is inducted into the cylinder for combustion (Myers 2009). A newer liquid injection system has become available that injects propane directly into the cylinder, resulting in no mixing penalty because air is not diluted with the gaseous fuel in the intake manifold. Use of a direct propane injection system will improve engine efficiency (Gupta 2009). Other systems include the sequential multi-port fuel injection system and a bi-fuel 'hybrid' sequential propane injection system. Carbureted systems remain in use but mostly for non-road applications. In the United States a closed-loop system is used in after-market conversions. This system incorporates an electronic sensor that provides constant feedback to the fuel controller to allow it to measure precisely the proper air/fuel ratio. A complete conversion system includes a fuel controller, pressure regulator valves, fuel injectors, electronics, fuel tank, and software. A slight power loss is expected in conversion to a vapor pressure system, but power can still be optimized with vehicle modifications of such items as the air/fuel mixture and compression ratios. Cold start issues are eliminated for vapor pressure systems since the air/fuel mixture is gaseous. In light-duty propane vehicles, the fuel tank is typically mounted in the trunk; for medium- and heavy-duty vans and trucks, the tank is located under the body of the vehicle. Propane tanks add weight to a vehicle and can slightly increase the consumption of fuel. On a gallon-to-gallon basis, the energy content of propane is 73% that of gasoline, thus requiring more propane fuel to travel an equivalent distance, even in an optimized engine (EERE 2009b).

  19. Residential propane price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is $2.36 per gallon, down 1 cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.92 per gallon, down 8-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 44.4 cents

  20. Residential propane price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $2.29 per gallon, down 3.1 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.80 per gallon, down 2.4 cents from last week

  1. Residential propane price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is $2.32 per gallon, down 2 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.82 per gallon, down 2.4 cents from last week. This is Marcela Rourk,

  2. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $2.01 per gallon, up 1.2 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.47 per gallon, up 9-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 44.8

  3. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $2.02 per gallon, up 4-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.48 per gallon, down 1-tenth of a cent from last week, and down 43

  4. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $2.03 per gallon, up 1 cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.48 per gallon, up 9-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 40.7

  5. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $1.96 per gallon, up 7-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.43 per gallon, up 1.3 cents from last week, and down 51.7

  6. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $1.97 per gallon, up 6-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.44 per gallon, up 7-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 50.

  7. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $1.98 per gallon, up 1.1 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.44 per gallon, up 4-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 49.7

  8. Residential propane prices available

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane prices available The average retail price for propane is $1.94 per gallon, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.40 per gallon. This is Marcela Rourk, with EIA, in Washington.

  9. Residential propane prices available

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8, 2015 Residential propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $1.91 per gallon, up 1.4 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.39 per gallon, up 1 cent from last week, and down 55.3

  10. Pennsylvania Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    205 4 2 2 3 20 1967-2014 Synthetic 0 0 1980-2014 Propane-Air 205 4 2 2 3 20 1980-2014 Refinery Gas 1980-2005

  11. Maryland Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    70 115 89 116 107 809 1967-2014 Synthetic 0 0 1980-2014 Propane-Air 170 115 89 116 107 809 1980-2014 Refinery Gas 1980-2005 Other 0 0 1980

  12. Massachusetts Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    0 * 0 * 3 8 1967-2014 Synthetic 0 1980-2014 Propane-Air 10 0 0 3 8 1980-2014 Refinery Gas 1980-2005 Other 0 2005...

  13. Residential propane prices surges

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Midwest and Northeast propane prices much higher this winter than last year Households that heat with propane will pay for that propane at prices averaging 39 percent higher in the Midwest and 14 percent higher in the Northeast this winter compared with last winter.....as much colder temperatures this winter boosts heating fuel demand. Midwest residential propane is expected to average $2.41 per gallon over the winter, while propane in the Northeast will average $3.43 per gallon, according to

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Street Sweepers Improve Air

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Quality in New York Natural Gas Street Sweepers Improve Air Quality in New York to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Street Sweepers Improve Air Quality in New York on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Street Sweepers Improve Air Quality in New York on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Street Sweepers Improve Air Quality in New York on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Street

  15. Residential propane price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is $2.35 per gallon, down 1.1 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.92 per gallon, down 3-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 47.9 cents

  16. Residential propane price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $2.39 per gallon, up 3.9 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.91 per gallon, down 8-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 63.1 cents

  17. Residential propane price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price decrease The average retail price for propane is $2.37 per gallon, down 1.3 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.93 per gallon, down 3-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 39.6 cents

  18. Residential propane price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is $2.38 per gallon, down 1.1 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.91 per gallon, down 4-tenths of a cent from last week, and down $2.29 cents

  19. Residential propane price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is $2.37 per gallon, down 9-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.89 per gallon, down 1.4 cents from last week, and down $1.93 cents

  20. Residential propane price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is $2.36 per gallon, down 6-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.89 per gallon, down 4-tenths of a cent from last week, and down $1.67 cents from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk, with EIA, in Washington.

  1. Residential propane price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is $2.36 per gallon, down 7-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.89 per gallon, down 1.1 cents from last week, and down $1.43 cents from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk, with EIA, in Washington.

  2. Residential propane price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is $2.35 per gallon, down 3-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.88 per gallon, down 3-tenths of a cent from last week, and down $1.18 from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk, with EIA, in Washington.

  3. Residential propane price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is $2.36 per gallon, down 1.1 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.86 per gallon, down 1.6 cents from last week, and down 72.7 cents from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk,

  4. Residential propane price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8, 2015 Residential propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is $2.34 per gallon, down 1.7 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.85 per gallon, down 1.2 cents from last week, and down 63.2

  5. Residential propane price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    6, 2014 Residential propane price decreases The average retail price for propane fell to $3.48 per gallon, down 15.9 cents from a week ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged 3.06 a gallon, down 24.8 cents from last week, but up $1.28 from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk, with EIA, in Washington.

  6. Residential propane price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    05, 2014 Residential propane price decreases The average retail price for propane fell to $2.40 per gallon, down 1.2 cents from a week ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.95 per gallon, up 8-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 1.9

  7. Residential propane price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is $2.39 per gallon, down 2.2 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.94 per gallon, down 1.3 cents from last week, and down 17.5 cents from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk, with EIA, in Washington.

  8. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $2.00 per gallon, up 7-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.46 per gallon, up 4-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 46.2

  9. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $2.02 per gallon, up 5-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.48 per gallon, up 7-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 43.3

  10. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $2.02 per gallon, up 4-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.47 per gallon, down 2-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 41.9

  11. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Residential propane price virtually unchanged The average retail price for propane is $2.03 per gallon, up 1-tenth of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.48 per gallon, down 1-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 39.8

  12. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Residential propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is $2.03 per gallon, down 6-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.48 per gallon, down 6-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 40 cents

  13. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Residential propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is $2.03 per gallon, down 2-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.47 per gallon, down 6-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 41 cents

  14. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4, 2015 Residential propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $2.36 per gallon, up half of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.88 per gallon, down 1-tenth of a cent from last week, and down 90.5

  15. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Residential propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is $2.02 per gallon, down 5-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.46 per gallon, down 7-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 40 cents

  16. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Residential propane virtually unchanged The average retail price for propane is $2.02 per gallon, up 1-tenth of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.46 per gallon, up 1-tenth of a cent from last week, and down 38.8

  17. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $1.96 per gallon, up 1.8 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.42 per gallon, up 6-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 52.9 cents

  18. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $2.41 per gallon, up 6-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.95 per gallon, up 2-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 12.7 cents from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk, with EIA, in Washington.

  19. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $1.98 per gallon, up 5-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.45 per gallon, up 6-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 48.2

  20. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $1.99 per gallon, up 3-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.45 per gallon, up 2-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 47.6

  1. Residential propane prices available

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Residential propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is $1.91 per gallon, down 6.7 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.40 per gallon, down 1.6 cents from last week, and down 49.5 cents from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk, with EIA, in Washington.

  2. Residential propane prices available

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1, 2015 Residential propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $1.90 per gallon, up 2-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.38 per gallon, up 1.1 cents from last week, and down 53 cents from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk

  3. Residential propane prices available

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4, 2015 Residential propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $1.92 per gallon, up 1.4 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.42 per gallon, up 2.6 cents from last week, and down 53.2

  4. Residential propane prices available

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Residential propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is $1.92 per gallon, down 6-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.40 per gallon, down 1.2 cents from last week, and down 54.8 cents from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk, with EIA, in Washington.

  5. Residential propane prices available

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8, 2015 Residential propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $1.94 per gallon, up 2 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.42 per gallon, up 1 cent from last week, and down 52.8 cents from a year ago.

  6. Residential propane prices decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5, 2014 Residential propane prices decreases The average retail price for propane fell to $3.89 per gallon, that's down 11.9 cents from a week ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged 3.83 a gallon, down 36.8 cents from last week, but up $2.05 from a year ago. This is Amerine Woodyard

  7. Residential propane prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane prices increase The average retail price for propane rose 3.9 cents from a week ago to $2.80 per gallon. That's up 53.7 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged 2.32 a gallon, up 3.8 cents from last week, and up 59

  8. Residential propane prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane prices increase The average retail price for propane rose 2.5 cents from a week ago to $2.83 per gallon. That's up 56 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged 2.36 a gallon, up 3.9 cents from last week, and up 62.3

  9. Residential propane prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane prices increase The average retail price for propane rose to $2.40 per gallon, up 1.1 cents from a week ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.94 a gallon, up 2.9 cents from last week, and up 2.6 cents from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk, with EIA, in Washington.

  10. Residential propane prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane prices increase The average retail price for propane rose 5.5 cents per gallon from last week to $2.62 per gallon; up 37.4 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. The retail price for propane in the Midwest region averaged 2.11 per gallon, up 3.4 cents per gallon from last week, and up 39.6

  11. Residential propane prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane prices increase The average retail price for propane rose 9.1 cents from a week ago to $2.71 per gallon. That's up 46.9 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged 2.22 a gallon, up 11 cents from last week, and up 50.8 cents from a year ago

  12. Residential propane prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane prices increase The average retail price for propane rose 4.8 cents from a week ago to $2.76 per gallon. That's up 51.2 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged 2.28 a gallon, up 6.3 cents from last week, and up 56.4

  13. Residential propane prices stable

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane prices stable The average retail price for propane is $2.37 per gallon. That's down 4-tenths of a penny from a week ago, based on the U.S. Energy Information Administration's weekly residential heating fuel survey. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.89 a gallon. Down 2-tenths of a cent from last week. This is Amerine Woodyard, with EIA, in Washington.

  14. Residential propane prices stable

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is $2.40 per gallon, down 9-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.94 per gallon, down 7-tenths of a cent from . last week, and down 8.7 cents from a year ago This is Marcela Rourk, with EIA, in Washington.

  15. Residential propane prices surges

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5, 2014 Residential propane price decreases The average retail price for propane fell to $3.30 per gallon, down 17.5 cents from a week ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged 2.78 a gallon, down 27.9 cents from last week, but up 99.3

  16. Residential propane prices surges

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2, 2014 Residential propane price decreases The average retail price for propane fell to $3.17 per gallon, down 13.1 cents from a week ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged 2.60 a gallon, down 18.5 cents from last week, but up 88.1

  17. Residential propane prices surges

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    9, 2014 Residential propane price decreases The average retail price for propane fell to $3.08 per gallon, down 8.6 cents from a week ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged 2.48 a gallon, down 10.7 cents from last week, but up 69.7

  18. Liquid Propane Injection Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Liquid propane injection technology meets manufacturing/assembly guidelines, maintenance/repair strategy, and regulations, with same functionality, horsepower, and torque as gasoline counterpart.

  19. Auto propane -- Some technical considerations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-12-31

    This booklet reviews some of the facts about propane as a vehicle fuel. It describes propane fuel properties, propane vehicle fuel systems and their components, propane vehicles and engines obtainable as original equipment from the vehicle manufacturer, after-market propane fuel system installations, propane vehicle operational characteristics, propane-fueled vehicle maintenance, government regulations and safety measures related to propane vehicles, and the environmental benefits of propane and propane-fueled vehicles. The final sections discuss the economics of propane vehicle ownership and the factors to be considered when estimating annual or lifetime savings or payback periods. Appendices include a directory of information sources, a sample worksheet for calculating payback, and examples of success stories relating the positive experiences of vehicle fleets with propane fueling.

  20. Urban leakage of liquefied petroleum gas and its potential impact of Mexico City air quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blake, D.R.; Rowland, F.S.

    1995-12-01

    Seventy eight whole air samples were collected at various park locations throughout Mexico City and later assayed for methane, carbon monoxide, 20 halocarbons and 40 C{sub 2}-C{sub 10} hydrocarbons. Propane had the highest median mixing ratio value of all assayed non-methane hydrocarbon compounds (NMHCs) with a concentration as high as 0.1 ppmv. The concentration of n-butane, i-butane, n-pentane and i-pentane were all notably elevated as well. The only significant identified source of propane in Mexico City is liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), which also has a strong component of C{sub 4} and C{sub 5} alkanes. All of these alkanes were present at concentrations well above those observed in other cities where LPG is not the main domestic fuel. Data strongly suggest that as much as 50% of total Mexico City NMHCs is a result of losses associated with the transfer, storage and delivery of LPG. Additionally, using median concentrations and laboratory determined hydroxyl reaction rate constants, LPG emissions account for about 20% of initial reactivities. This suggests that LPG losses may significantly impact photochemical oxidant levels in Mexico City.

  1. Hardware assembly and prototype testing for the development of a dedicated liquefied propane gas ultra low emission vehicle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-07-01

    On February 3, 1994, IMPCO Technologies, Inc. started the development of a dedicated LPG Ultra Low Emissions Vehicle (ULEV) under contract to the Midwest Research Institute National Renewable Energy Laboratory Division (NREL). The objective was to develop a dedicated propane vehicle that would meet or exceed the California ULEV emissions standards. The project is broken into four phases to be performed over a two year period. The four phases of the project include: (Phase 1) system design, (Phase 2) prototype hardware assembly and testing, (Phase 3) full-scale systems testing and integration, (Phase 4) vehicle demonstration. This report describes the approach taken for the development of the vehicle and the work performed through the completion of Phase II dynamometer test results. Work was started on Phase 2 (Hardware Assembly and Prototype Testing) in May 1994 prior to completion of Phase 1 to ensure that long lead items would be available in a timely fashion for the Phase 2 work. In addition, the construction and testing of the interim electronic control module (ECM), which was used to test components, was begun prior to the formal start of Phase 2. This was done so that the shortened revised schedule for the project (24 months) could be met. In this report, a brief summary of the activities of each combined Phase 1 and 2 tasks will be presented, as well as project management activities. A technical review of the system is also given, along with test results and analysis. During the course of Phase 2 activities, IMPCO staff also had the opportunity to conduct cold start performance tests of the injectors. The additional test data was most positive and will be briefly summarized in this report.

  2. Determination of usage patterns and emissions for propane/LPG in California. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, M.

    1992-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine California usage patterns of Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG), and to estimate propane emissions resulting from LPG transfer operations statewide, and by county and air basin. The study is the first attempt to quantify LPG transfer emissions for California. This was accomplished by analyzing data from a telephone survey of California businesses that use LPG, by extracting information from existing databases.

  3. Residential propane prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane prices increase The average retail price for propane rose 3.2 cents from a week ago to $2.86 per gallon. That's up 59.3 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged 2.40 a gallon, up 3.2 cents from last week, and up 65.8 cents from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk, with EIA, in Washington.

  4. Residential propane prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane prices increase The average retail price for propane rose 10.3 cents from a week ago to $2.96 per gallon. That's up 68.1 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. This is the largest single week increase since the heating season started in October. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged 2.55 a gallon, up 14.9 cents from last week, and up 79.1 cents from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk, with EIA, in

  5. Residential propane prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane prices increase The average retail price for propane rose 2.3 cents per gallon from last week to $2.57 per gallon; up 32.2 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. The retail price for propane in the Midwest region averaged 2.08 per gallon, up 2.4 cents per gallon from last week, and up 36.9 cents from a year earlier. This is Marlana Anderson, with EIA, in Washington.

  6. Residential propane prices surges

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane prices surges The average retail price for propane rose to an all-time high of $4.01 a gallon, that's up $1.05 from a week ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. This is the largest weekly increase since the survey began in 1990. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged 4.20 a gallon, up $1.66 from last week, and up $2.43 from a

  7. Coaxial fuel and air premixer for a gas turbine combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    York, William D; Ziminsky, Willy S; Lacy, Benjamin P

    2013-05-21

    An air/fuel premixer comprising a peripheral wall defining a mixing chamber, a nozzle disposed at least partially within the peripheral wall comprising an outer annular wall spaced from the peripheral wall so as to define an outer air passage between the peripheral wall and the outer annular wall, an inner annular wall disposed at least partially within and spaced from the outer annular wall, so as to define an inner air passage, and at least one fuel gas annulus between the outer annular wall and the inner annular wall, the at least one fuel gas annulus defining at least one fuel gas passage, at least one air inlet for introducing air through the inner air passage and the outer air passage to the mixing chamber, and at least one fuel inlet for injecting fuel through the fuel gas passage to the mixing chamber to form an air/fuel mixture.

  8. Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grant Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jack Mallinger

    2004-08-27

    Project Description: Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants The Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants was established to demonstrate the benefits of new propane equipment. The US Department of Energy, the Propane Education & Research Council (PERC) and the Propane Vehicle Council (PVC) partnered in this program. The project impacted ten different states, 179 vehicles, and 15 new propane fueling facilities. Based on estimates provided, this project generated a minimum of 1,441,000 new gallons of propane sold for the vehicle market annually. Additionally, two new off-road engines were brought to the market. Projects originally funded under this project were the City of Portland, Colorado, Kansas City, Impco Technologies, Jasper Engines, Maricopa County, New Jersey State, Port of Houston, Salt Lake City Newspaper, Suburban Propane, Mutual Liquid Propane and Ted Johnson.

  9. Natural gas cost for evaluating energy resource opportunities at Fort Stewart

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stucky, D.J.; Shankle, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    Ft. Stewart, a United States Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) installation located near Hinesville, Georgia, is currently undergoing an evaluation of its energy usage, which is being performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. In order to examine the energy resource opportunities (EROs) at Ft. Stewart, marginal fuel costs must be calculated. The marginal, or avoided, cost of gas service is used in conjunction with the estimated energy savings of an ERO to calculate the dollar value of those savings. In the case of natural gas, the costing becomes more complicated due to the installation of a propane-air mixing station. The propane-air station is being built under a shared energy savings (SES) contract. The building of a propane-air station allows Ft. Stewart to purchase natural gas from their local utility at an interruptible rate, which is lower than the rate for contracting natural gas on a firm basis. The propane-air station will also provide Ft. Stewart with fuel in the event that the natural gas supply is curtailed. While the propane-air station does not affect the actual cost of natural gas, it does affect the cost of services provided by gas. Because the propane-air station and the SES contract affect the cost of gas service, they must be included in the analysis. Our analysis indicates a marginal cost of gas service of 30.0 cents per therm, assuming a total propane usage by the mixing station of 42,278 gallons (38,600 therms) annually. Because the amount of propane that may be required in the event of a curtailment is small relative to the total service requirement, variations in the actual amount should not significantly affect the cost per therm.

  10. Heating Oil and Propane Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Maps of states participating in Winter Fuels Survey Residential propane PADD map Residential heating oil PADD map

  11. Residential propane price decreases slightly

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price decreases slightly The average retail price for propane is $2.38 per gallon, down 3-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.93 per gallon, down one cent from last week, and down 35.5

  12. Rhode Island Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    0 0 0 1967-2014 Propane-Air 1980-1998

  13. South Carolina Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    * * 1 1967-2014 Propane-Air 0 0 1 1980-2014

  14. South Dakota Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Propane-Air 1980-2007 Biomass 1999-2005 Other 1980-2005

  15. New Hampshire Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    0 0 0 0 0 0 1967-2014 Propane-Air 1980-2007

  16. North Carolina Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    0 0 0 0 0 0 1967-2014 Propane-Air 1980-2003

  17. Oregon Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    0 0 0 0 0 0 1967-2014 Propane-Air 1982-200

  18. Florida Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 0 0 0 0 0 1967-2014 Propane-Air 1980-1998

  19. Alabama Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Synthetic 1980-2003 Propane-Air 1980-2003 Biomass 1993-2003

  20. Natural Gas Heat Pump and Air Conditioner | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Natural Gas Heat Pump and Air Conditioner Natural Gas Heat Pump and Air Conditioner Lead Performer: Thermolift - Stony Brook, NY Partners: -- New York State Energy Research & Development Authority - Albany, NY -- Stony Brook University - Stony Brook, NY -- Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Oak Ridge, TN -- National Grid - Washington, DC -- Applied Thermodynamic Apparatus (ATA) - Ann Arbor, MI -- Fala Technologies - Kingston, NY -- LoDolce - Saugerties, NY DOE Funding: $750,000 Cost Share:

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicles

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Propane Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicles on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicles on Digg Find More places to share

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Basics

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Basics to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Basics on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Basics on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Basics on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Basics on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Basics on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Basics on AddThis.com... More in this section... Propane Basics Production &

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Benefits

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Benefits to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Benefits on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Benefits on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Benefits on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Benefits on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Benefits on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Benefits on AddThis.com... More in this section... Propane Basics

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Related Links

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Propane Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Related Links to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Related Links on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Related Links on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Related Links on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Related Links on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Related Links on Digg Find

  5. RECS Propane Usage Form_v1 (Draft).xps

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane usage for this housing unit between September 2008 and April 2010. Delivery Number Enter the Delivery Date for each delivery 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Enter the Total Dollar Amount including taxes [Exclude late fees, merchandise, repairs, and service charges] 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Form EIA 457D OMB No. 1905-0092 Expires 1/31/13 2009 RECS Propane (Bottled Gas or LPG) Usage Form Delivery Address: Account Number: $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / /

  6. Availability of Canadian imports to meet U.S. demand for ethane, propane and butane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hawkins, D.J.

    1996-12-31

    Historically, Canada has had a surplus of ethane, propane and butane. Almost all of the available propane and butane in Canadian natural gas streams is recovered. While there is significant ethane recovery in Canada, ethane that cannot be economically sold is left in the gas streams. All of the surplus Canadian ethane and most of the Canadian surplus propane and butane is exported to the US. Some volumes of Canadian propane and butane have been moved offshore by marine exports to the Asia-Pacific region or South America, or directly to Mexico by rail. Essentially all of the Canadian ethane, 86% of the propane and 74% of the butane are recovered by gas processing. Canadian natural gas production has increased significantly over the last 10 years. Canadian gas resources in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin should permit further expansion of gas exports, and several gas pipeline projects are pending to expand the markets for Canadian gas in the US. The prospective increase in Canadian gas production will yield higher volumes of ethane, propane and butane. While there is a potential to expand domestic markets for ethane, propane and butane, a significant part of the incremental production will move to export markets. This paper provides a forecast of the expected level of ethane, propane and butane exports from Canada and discusses the supply, demand and logistical developments which may affect export availability from Canada.

  7. Residential propane price is unchanged

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    13, 2014 Residential propane price is unchanged The average retail price for propane is $2.40 per gallon, down one-tenth of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.94 per gallon, down 7-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 6

  8. DUS II SOIL GAS SAMPLING AND AIR INJECTION TEST RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noonkester, J.; Jackson, D.; Jones, W.; Hyde, W.; Kohn, J.; Walker, R.

    2012-09-20

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) and air injection well testing was performed at the Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS) site located near the M-Area Settling Basin (referred to as DUS II in this report). The objective of this testing was to determine the effectiveness of continued operation of these systems. Steam injection ended on September 19, 2009 and since this time the extraction operations have utilized residual heat that is present in the subsurface. The well testing campaign began on June 5, 2012 and was completed on June 25, 2012. Thirty-two (32) SVE wells were purged for 24 hours or longer using the active soil vapor extraction (ASVE) system at the DUS II site. During each test five or more soil gas samples were collected from each well and analyzed for target volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The DUS II site is divided into four parcels (see Figure 1) and soil gas sample results show the majority of residual VOC contamination remains in Parcel 1 with lesser amounts in the other three parcels. Several VOCs, including tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE), were detected. PCE was the major VOC with lesser amounts of TCE. Most soil gas concentrations of PCE ranged from 0 to 60 ppmv with one well (VEW-22A) as high as 200 ppmv. Air sparging (AS) generally involves the injection of air into the aquifer through either vertical or horizontal wells. AS is coupled with SVE systems when contaminant recovery is necessary. While traditional air sparging (AS) is not a primary component of the DUS process, following the cessation of steam injection, eight (8) of the sixty-three (63) steam injection wells were used to inject air. These wells were previously used for hydrous pyrolysis oxidation (HPO) as part of the DUS process. Air sparging is different from the HPO operations in that the air was injected at a higher rate (20 to 50 scfm) versus HPO (1 to 2 scfm). . At the DUS II site the air injection wells were tested to determine if air sparging affected VOC soil gas concentrations during ASVE. Five (5) SVE wells that were located closest to the air injection wells were used as monitoring points during the air sparging tests. The air sparging tests lasted 48 hours. Soil gas sample results indicate that sparging did not affect VOC concentrations in four of the five sparging wells, while results from one test did show an increase in soil gas concentrations.

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fueling Stations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations on

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Availability

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Availability to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Availability on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Availability on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Availability on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Availability on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Availability on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Conversions

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Conversions to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Conversions on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Conversions on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Conversions on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Conversions on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Conversions on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Emissions

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Emissions to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Emissions on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Emissions on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Emissions on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Emissions on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Emissions on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Emissions on

  13. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    . Home | Petroleum | Gasoline | Diesel | Propane | Natural Gas | Electricity | Coal | Nuclear Renewables | Alternative Fuels | Prices | States | International | Country Analysis...

  14. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Independence Avenue, SW Washington, DC 20585 . Home | Petroleum | Gasoline | Diesel | Propane | Natural Gas | Electricity | Coal | Nuclear Renewables | Alternative Fuels |...

  15. AIR QUALITY IMPACTS OF LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS IN THE SOUTH COAST AIR BASIN OF CALIFORNIA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carerras-Sospedra, Marc; Brouwer, Jack; Dabdub, Donald; Lunden, Melissa; Singer, Brett

    2011-07-01

    The effects of liquefied natural gas (LNG) on pollutant emission inventories and air quality in the South Coast Air Basin of California were evaluated using recent LNG emission measurements by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Southern California Gas Company (SoCalGas), and with a state-of-the-art air quality model. Pollutant emissions can be affected by LNG owing to differences in composition and physical properties, including the Wobbe index, a measure of energy delivery rate. This analysis uses LNG distribution scenarios developed by modeling Southern California gas flows, including supplies from the LNG receiving terminal in Baja California, Mexico. Based on these scenarios, the projected penetratino of LNG in the South Coast Air Basin is expected to be limited. In addition, the increased Wobbe index of delivered gas (resulting from mixtures of LNG and conventional gas supplies) is expected to cause increases smaller than 0.05 percent in overall (area-wide) emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx). BAsed on the photochemical state of the South Coast Air Basin, any increase in NOx is expected to cause an increase in the highest local ozone concentrations, and this is reflected in model results. However, the magnitude of the increase is well below the generally accepted accuracy of the model and would not be discernible with the existing monitoring network. Modeling of hypothetical scenarios indicates that discernible changes to ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations would occur only at LNG distribution rates that are not achievable with current or planned infrastructure and with Wobbe index vlaues that exceed current gas quality tariffs. Results of these hypothetical scenarios are presented for consideration of any proposed substantial expansion of LNG supply infrastructure in Southern California.

  16. Case Study … Propane School Bus Fleets

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Propane ................................................................................................................................... 4 Financial Benefits ........................................................................................................................................................... 4 Environmental and Energy Benefits ........................................................................................................................... 6 Project-Specific

  17. Measurement of the soot concentration and soot particle sizes in propane oxygen flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bockhorn, H.; Fetting, F.; Meyer, U.; Reck, R.; Wannemacher, G.

    1981-01-01

    Soot concentrations and particle sizes were measured by light scattering and probe measurements in the burnt gas region of atmospheric pressure propane-oxygen flames and propane-oxygen flames to which hydrogen or ammonia were added. The results show that the soot concentrations in propane-oxygen flames, to which hydrogen is added are lower compared to propane-oxygen flames. The decrease of soot concentration is much stronger when ammonia is added. Associated with the reduction of soot concentration is a reduction of mean particle size of the soot particles and a lower breadth of the particle size distributions. Electron micrographs of soot particles from the probe measurements showed that soot particles from flames with high soot concentrations (propane oxygen flames) are aggregates with chain or cluster structure while the structure of the particles from flames with lower soot concentration (propane oxygen flames with hydrogen or ammonia added) is more compact. 24 refs.

  18. Propane Market Assessment for Winter

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1997-01-01

    1997-1998 Final issue of this report. This article reviews the major components of propane supply and demand in the United States and their status entering the 1997-1998 heating season.

  19. Propane Vehicle Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicles » Propane Vehicle Basics Propane Vehicle Basics August 20, 2013 - 9:16am Addthis There are more than 147,000 on-road propane vehicles in the United States. Many are used in fleets, including light- and heavy-duty trucks, buses, taxicabs, police cars, and rental and delivery vehicles. Compared with vehicles fueled with conventional diesel and gasoline, propane vehicles can produce fewer harmful emissions. The availability of new light- and medium-duty propane vehicles has surged in

  20. DUS II SOIL GAS SAMPLING AND AIR INJECTION TEST RESULTS (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DUS II SOIL GAS SAMPLING AND AIR INJECTION TEST RESULTS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: DUS II SOIL GAS SAMPLING AND AIR INJECTION TEST RESULTS Soil vapor extraction ...

  1. New Jersey Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    454 457 392 139 255 530 1967-2014 Synthetic 0 0 0 1980-2014 Propane-Air 0 0 1980-2014 Refinery Gas 1980-2005 Biomass 0 0 1993-2014 Other 454 457 392 139 255 530 1980-2014...

  2. New Jersey Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    454 457 392 139 255 530 1967-2014 Synthetic 0 0 0 1980-2014 Propane-Air 0 0 1980-2014 Refinery Gas 1980-2005 Biomass 0 0 1993-2014 Other 454 457 392 139 255 530 1980-2014

  3. Illinois Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    20 17 1 1 * 63 1967-2014 Synthetic 0 0 1980-2014 Propane-Air 20 17 1 1 0 63 1980-2014 Refinery Gas 1980-2005 Biomass 0 0 1999-2014 Other 0 0 2005

  4. Emissions with butane/propane blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-11-01

    This article reports on various aspects of exhaust emissions from a light-duty car converted to operate on liquefied petroleum gas and equipped with an electrically heated catalyst. Butane and butane/propane blends have recently received attention as potentially useful alternative fuels. Butane has a road octane number of 92, a high blending vapor pressure, and has been used to upgrade octane levels of gasoline blends and improve winter cold starts. Due to reformulated gasoline requirements for fuel vapor pressure, however, industry has had to remove increasing amounts of butane form the gasoline pool. Paradoxically, butane is one of the cleanest burning components of gasoline.

  5. Ethane enrichment and propane depletion in subsurface gases indicate gas hydrate occurrence in marine sediments at southern Hydrate Ridge offshore Oregon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milkov, Alexei V.; Claypool, G E.; Lee, Young-Joo; Torres, Marta E.; Borowski, W S.; Tomaru, H; Sassen, Roger; Long, Philip E.

    2004-07-02

    The recognition of finely disseminated gas hydrate in deep marine sediments heavily depends on various indirect techniques because this mineral quickly decomposes upon recovery from in situ pressure and temperature conditions. Here, we discuss molecular properties of closely spaced gas voids (formed as a result of core recovery) and gas hydrates from an area of relatively low gas flux at the flanks of the southern Hydrate Ridge Offshore Oregon (ODP Sites 1244, 1245 and 1247).

  6. Simulation of hydrogen and hydrogen-assisted propane ignition in Pt catalyzed microchannel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seshadri, Vikram; Kaisare, Niket S.

    2010-11-15

    This paper deals with self-ignition of catalytic microburners from ambient cold-start conditions. First, reaction kinetics for hydrogen combustion is validated with experimental results from the literature, followed by validation of a simplified pseudo-2D microburner model. The model is then used to study the self-ignition behavior of lean hydrogen/air mixtures in a Platinum-catalyzed microburner. Hydrogen combustion on Pt is a very fast reaction. During cold start ignition, hydrogen conversion reaches 100% within the first few seconds and the reactor dynamics are governed by the ''thermal inertia'' of the microburner wall structure. The self-ignition property of hydrogen can be used to provide the energy required for propane ignition. Two different modes of hydrogen-assisted propane ignition are considered: co-feed mode, where the microburner inlet consists of premixed hydrogen/propane/air mixtures; and sequential feed mode, where the inlet feed is switched from hydrogen/air to propane/air mixtures after the microburner reaches propane ignition temperature. We show that hydrogen-assisted ignition is equivalent to selectively preheating the inlet section of the microburner. The time to reach steady state is lower at higher equivalence ratio, lower wall thermal conductivity, and higher inlet velocity for both the ignition modes. The ignition times and propane emissions are compared. Although the sequential feed mode requires slightly higher amount of hydrogen, the propane emissions are at least an order of magnitude lower than the other ignition modes. (author)

  7. Effect of air on energy and rise-time spectra measured by proportional gas counter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawano, T.; Tanaka, M.; Isozumi, S.; Isozumi, Y.; Tosaki, M.; Sugiyama, T.

    2015-03-15

    Air exerts a negative effect on radiation detection using a gas counter because oxygen contained in air has a high electron attachment coefficient and can trap electrons from electron-ion pairs created by ionization from incident radiation in counting gas. This reduces radiation counts. The present study examined the influence of air on energy and rise-time spectra measurements using a proportional gas counter. In addition, a decompression procedure method was proposed to reduce the influence of air and its effectiveness was investigated. For the decompression procedure, the counting gas inside the gas counter was decompressed below atmospheric pressure before radiation detection. For the spectrum measurement, methane as well as various methane and air mixtures were used as the counting gas to determine the effect of air on energy and rise-time spectra. Results showed that the decompression procedure was effective for reducing or eliminating the influence of air on spectra measurement using a proportional gas counter. (authors)

  8. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Sources & Uses Petroleum & Other Liquids Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas...

  9. Heating Oil and Propane Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Data Users Q1: Why are data not collected over the summer? The residential pricing data collected on heating oil and propane prices are for the Winter Heating Fuels Survey. The purpose of this survey is to collect prices for these fuels as they are used for heating purposes. For the purposes of the survey, the winter heating season extends from October through March. However, EIA does publish spot prices for heating oil and propane throughout the year. In addition, some State Energy Offices

  10. Heating Oil and Propane Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    FAQs for Respondents Q1: What is the purpose of this survey? The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Form EIA-877, "Winter Heating Fuels Telephone Survey," is designed to collect data on State-level stocks and residential prices of No. 2 heating oil and propane during the heating season. The data are used to monitor the prices of propane and No. 2 heating oil during the heating season, and to report to the Congress and others when requested. Q2: How does the survey work? The

  11. Propane - A Mid-Heating Season Assessment

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01

    This report will analyze some of the factors leading up to the rapid increase in propane demand and subsequent deterioration in supply that propelled propane prices to record high levels during December and early January.

  12. Costs Associated With Propane Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M.; Gonzales, J.

    2014-08-01

    This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with propane vehicle fueling infrastructure. It provides an overview of the equipment and processes necessary to develop a propane fueling station and offers estimated cost ranges.

  13. Costs Associated With Propane Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M.; Gonzales, J.

    2014-08-05

    This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with propane vehicle fueling infrastructure. It provides an overview of the equipment and processes necessary to develop a propane fueling station and offers estimated cost ranges.

  14. Liquid Propane Injection Technology Conductive to Today's North...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology Conductive to Today's North American Specification Liquid Propane Injection Technology Conductive to Today's North American Specification Liquid propane injection ...

  15. Vermont Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    1 2 3 3 5 1967-2014 Propane-Air 2 1 2 3 3 5 1984

  16. Connecticut Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1 0 0 0 0 0 1967-2014 Synthetic 1980-2005 Propane-Air 1 1980-2009

  17. Use of exhaust gas as sweep flow to enhance air separation membrane performance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dutart, Charles H. (Washington, IL); Choi, Cathy Y. (Morton, IL)

    2003-01-01

    An intake air separation system for an internal combustion engine is provided with purge gas or sweep flow on the permeate side of separation membranes in the air separation device. Exhaust gas from the engine is used as a purge gas flow, to increase oxygen flux in the separation device without increasing the nitrogen flux.

  18. State Heating Oil and Propane Program Expansion of Propane Data Collection

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    State Heating Oil and Propane Program Expansion of Propane Data Collection Marcela Rourk April 14, 2014 | Washington, DC Key Topics Marcela Rourk, Washington, DC April 14, 2014 2 * Overview and history of State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP) * Expansion of propane data collection * What is expected of SEOs that participate? * Benefits of participation What is SHOPP? Marcela Rourk, Washington, DC April 14, 2014 3 * State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP) - cooperative data

  19. Volcanic gas emissions and their effect on ambient air character

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutton, A.J.; Elias, T.

    1994-01-01

    This bibliography was assembled to service an agreement between Department of Energy and the USGS to provide a body of references and useful annotations for understanding background gas emissions from Kilauea volcano. The current East Rift Zone (ERZ) eruption of Kilauea releases as much as 500,000 metric tonnes of SO{sub 2} annually, along with lesser amounts of other chemically and radiatively active species including H{sub 2}S, HCl, and HF. Primary degassing locations on Kilauea are located in the summit caldera and along the middle ERZ. The effects of these emissions on ambient air character are a complex function of chemical reactivity, source geometry and effusivity, and local meteorology. Because of this complexity, we organized the bibliography into three main sections: (1) characterizing gases as they leave the edifice; (2) characterizing gases and chemical reaction products away from degassing sources; and (3) Hawaii Island meteorology.

  20. EERE Success Story-Nationwide: Southeast Propane Autogas Development

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Program Brings 1200 Propane Vehicles to the Road | Department of Energy Southeast Propane Autogas Development Program Brings 1200 Propane Vehicles to the Road EERE Success Story-Nationwide: Southeast Propane Autogas Development Program Brings 1200 Propane Vehicles to the Road February 10, 2014 - 12:00am Addthis The Southeast Propane Autogas Development Program, an $8.6 million Clean Cities Recovery Act project, finished bringing 1,200 propane vehicles and 11 new stations to support them to

  1. Nationwide: Southeast Propane Autogas Development Program Brings 1200

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Propane Vehicles to the Road | Department of Energy Nationwide: Southeast Propane Autogas Development Program Brings 1200 Propane Vehicles to the Road Nationwide: Southeast Propane Autogas Development Program Brings 1200 Propane Vehicles to the Road February 10, 2014 - 12:00am Addthis The Southeast Propane Autogas Development Program, an $8.6 million Clean Cities Recovery Act project, finished bringing 1,200 propane vehicles and 11 new stations to support them to the road in October 2013.

  2. Emissions from In-Use NG, Propane, and Diesel Fueled Heavy Duty Vehicles |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy In-Use NG, Propane, and Diesel Fueled Heavy Duty Vehicles Emissions from In-Use NG, Propane, and Diesel Fueled Heavy Duty Vehicles Emissions tests of in-use heavy-duty vehicles showed that, natural gas- and propane-fueled vehicles have high emissions of NH3 and CO, compared to diesel vehicles, while meeting certification requirements PDF icon deer11_johnson.pdf More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Cummins-ORNL\FEERC Emissions

  3. Co-benefits of mitigating global greenhouse gas emissions for future air

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    quality and human health (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Co-benefits of mitigating global greenhouse gas emissions for future air quality and human health Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Co-benefits of mitigating global greenhouse gas emissions for future air quality and human health Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions also influences air quality. We simulate the co-benefits of global GHG reductions on air quality and human health via two mechanisms: a) reducing co-emitted

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Infrastructure Development

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Infrastructure Development to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Infrastructure Development on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Infrastructure Development on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Infrastructure Development on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Infrastructure Development on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Infrastructure

  5. Residential propane price continues to decrease

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2, 2014 Residential propane price continues to decrease The average retail price for propane fell to $3.76 per gallon, down 13.4 cents from a week ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged 3.54 a gallon, down 28.5 cents from last week, but up $1.76 from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk,

  6. Residential propane price continues to decrease

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0, 2014 Residential propane price decreases The average retail price for propane fell to $3.64 per gallon, down 12.7 cents from a week ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged 3.31 a gallon, down 24.5 cents from last week, but up $1.53 from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk,

  7. Residential propane price decreases slightly decreases slightly

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    7, 2014 Residential propane price decreases slightly The average retail price for propane is $2.38 per gallon, down 3-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.94 per gallon, the same price as last week, and down 28.1 cents from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk

  8. State Heating Oil and Propane Program

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    State Heating Oil and Propane Program Marcela Rourk 2014 SHOPP Workshop October 8, 2014 | Washington, DC Key Topics Marcela Rourk, Washington, DC October 8, 2014 2 * Expansion of propane data collection * EIA resources available to States * Improvements to SHOPP What is SHOPP? Marcela Rourk, Washington, DC October 8, 2014 3 * State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP) - cooperative data collection effort between EIA and State Energy Offices (SEOs) - data used by policymakers, industry

  9. Comparison of Hydrogen and Propane Fuels (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-04-01

    Factsheet comparing the chemical, physical, and thermal properties of hydrogen and propane, designed to facilitate an understanding of the differences and similarites of the two fuels.

  10. Comparison of Hydrogen and Propane Fuels (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-10-01

    Factsheet comparing the chemical, physical, and thermal properties of hydrogen and propane, designed to facilitate an understanding of the differences and similarites of the two fuels

  11. Heating Oil and Propane Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Holiday Release Schedule The Heating Oil and Propane Update is produced during the winter heating season, which extends from October through March of each year. The standard release time and day of the week will be at 1:00 p. m. (Eastern time) on Wednesdays with the following exceptions. All times are Eastern. Data for: Alternate Release Date Release Day Release Time Holiday October 12, 2015 October 15, 2015 Thursday 1:00 p.m. Columbus November 9, 2015 November 12, 2015 Thursday 1:00 p.m.

  12. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    which summarizes the likely demand, supply, and prices for natural gas, heating oil, propane, and electricity during the upcoming winter (October 2004 - March 2005). According to...

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Laws and Incentives

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Propane Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Laws and Incentives to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Laws and Incentives on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Laws and Incentives on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Laws and Incentives on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Laws and Incentives on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center:

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Airport Shuttles Run on Propane

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Airport Shuttles Run on Propane to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Airport Shuttles Run on Propane on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Airport Shuttles Run on Propane on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Airport Shuttles Run on Propane on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Airport Shuttles Run on Propane on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Airport Shuttles Run on Propane on Digg Find More places to share Alternative

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Shuttle Visitors in Maine

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Propane Buses Shuttle Visitors in Maine to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Shuttle Visitors in Maine on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Shuttle Visitors in Maine on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Shuttle Visitors in Maine on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Shuttle Visitors in Maine on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Shuttle Visitors in

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Powers Fleets Across the Nation

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Propane Powers Fleets Across the Nation to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Powers Fleets Across the Nation on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Powers Fleets Across the Nation on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Powers Fleets Across the Nation on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Powers Fleets Across the Nation on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Powers Fleets Across the

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Tank Overfill Safety Advisory

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Propane Tank Overfill Safety Advisory to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Tank Overfill Safety Advisory on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Tank Overfill Safety Advisory on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Tank Overfill Safety Advisory on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Tank Overfill Safety Advisory on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Tank Overfill Safety Advisory on Digg

  18. GEOTHERMAL FLUID PROPENE AND PROPANE: INDICATORS OF FLUID | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    FLUID PROPENE AND PROPANE: INDICATORS OF FLUID Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Proceedings: GEOTHERMAL FLUID PROPENE AND PROPANE:...

  19. Heating Oil and Propane Update - Energy Information Administration

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    all Petroleum Reports Heating Oil and Propane Update Weekly heating oil and propane prices are only collected during the heating season, which extends from October through March. ...

  20. Combustion characteristics of pulverized coal and air/gas premixed flame in a double swirl combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamal, M.M.

    2009-07-01

    An experimental work was performed to investigate the co-firing of pulverized coal and premixed gas/air streams in a double swirl combustor. The results showed that the NOx emissions are affected by the relative rates of thermal NOx formation and destruction via the pyrolysis of the fuel-N species in high temperature fuel-rich zones. Various burner designs were tested in order to vary the temperature history and the residence time across both coal and gas flames inside the furnace. It was found that by injecting the coal with a gas/air mixture as a combined central jet surrounded by a swirled air stream, a double flame envelope develops with high temperature fuel-rich conditions in between the two reaction zones such that the pyrolysis reactions to N{sub 2} are accelerated. A further reduction in the minimum NOx emissions, as well as in the minimum CO concentrations, was reported for the case where the coal particles are fed with the gas/air mixture in the region between the two swirled air streams. On the other hand, allocating the gas/air mixture around the swirled air-coal combustion zone provides an earlier contact with air and retards the NOx reduction mechanism in such a way that the elevated temperatures around the coal particles allow higher overall NOx emissions. The downstream impingement of opposing air jets was found more efficient than the impinging of particle non-laden premixed flames for effective NOx reduction. In both cases, there is an upstream flow from the stagnation region to the coal primary combustion region, but with the case of air impingement, the hot fuel-rich zone develops earlier. The optimum configuration was found by impinging all jets of air and coal-gas/air mixtures that pronounced minimum NOx and CO concentrations of 310 and 480ppm, respectively.

  1. Air/fuel supply system for use in a gas turbine engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, Timothy A; Schilp, Reinhard; Gambacorta, Domenico

    2014-06-17

    A fuel injector for use in a gas turbine engine combustor assembly. The fuel injector includes a main body and a fuel supply structure. The main body has an inlet end and an outlet end and defines a longitudinal axis extending between the outlet and inlet ends. The main body comprises a plurality of air/fuel passages extending therethrough, each air/fuel passage including an inlet that receives air from a source of air and an outlet. The fuel supply structure communicates with and supplies fuel to the air/fuel passages for providing an air/fuel mixture within each air/fuel passage. The air/fuel mixtures exit the main body through respective air/fuel passage outlets.

  2. Gas-Fired Boilers and Furnaces | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    natural gas meter. Gas boilers and furnaces can be fueled by either natural gas or propane with simple modifications accounting for the different characteristics of the fuels....

  3. Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in five-year intervals through the year 2050. GAINS provides estimates on ambient air quality and the subsequent impacts on human health and ecosystems, as well as...

  4. The Natural gas Heat Pump and Air Conditioner

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Distinctive Characteristics: * Single natural gas-driven device * Minimal electricity ... HVAC * 30-50% reduction in energy used * Minimal electricity Grid Independent * No ...

  5. Cooling air recycling for gas turbine transition duct end frame and related method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cromer, Robert Harold (Johnstown, NY); Bechtel, William Theodore (Scotia, NY); Sutcu, Maz (Niskayuna, NY)

    2002-01-01

    A method of cooling a transition duct end frame in a gas turbine includes the steps of a) directing cooling air into the end frame from a region external of the transition duct and the impingement cooling sleeve; and b) redirecting the cooling air from the end frame into the annulus between the transition duct and the impingement cooling sleeve.

  6. QER- Comment of Propane Education & Research Council

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    I plan to attend and ask a question of the Secretary regarding propane supply for the upcoming winter. Please do not hesitate to call or email if you have questions. Tucker Perkins

  7. Knoxville Area Transit: Propane Hybrid Electric Trolleys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-04-01

    A 2-page fact sheet summarizing the evaluation done by the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity on the Knoxville Area Transit's use of propane hybrid electric trolleys.

  8. This Week In Petroleum Propane Section

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Residential propane prices (dollars per gallon) Average Regional U.S. residential propane prices graph Regional residential propane prices graph Residential propane prices (dollars per gallon) more price data › Year ago Most recent 03/16/15 03/14/16 03/07/16 02/29/16 02/22/16 02/15/16 02/08/16 02/01/16 Average 2.342 2.021 2.020 2.026 2.028 2.034 2.032 2.022 East Coast (PADD 1) 3.042 2.763 2.761 2.766 2.760 2.768 2.768 2.750 New England (PADD 1A) 3.094 2.811 2.799 2.793 2.770 2.771 2.760 2.746

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Propane

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Propane Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Propane to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Propane on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Propane on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Propane on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maine Fleets Make Progress with Propane

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Maine Fleets Make Progress with Propane to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maine Fleets Make Progress with Propane on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maine Fleets Make Progress with Propane on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maine Fleets Make Progress with Propane on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maine Fleets Make Progress with Propane on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maine Fleets Make Progress with

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Help Minnesota Schools Carve

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    out Greener Future Propane Buses Help Minnesota Schools Carve out Greener Future to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Help Minnesota Schools Carve out Greener Future on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Help Minnesota Schools Carve out Greener Future on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Help Minnesota Schools Carve out Greener Future on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Save Money for Virginia

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Schools Propane Buses Save Money for Virginia Schools to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Save Money for Virginia Schools on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Save Money for Virginia Schools on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Save Money for Virginia Schools on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Save Money for Virginia Schools on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Station Locations

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Station Locations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Station Locations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Station Locations on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Station Locations on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Station Locations on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Station Locations on Digg Find More places to share Alternative

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Mowers Help National Park Cut

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Emissions Propane Mowers Help National Park Cut Emissions to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Mowers Help National Park Cut Emissions on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Mowers Help National Park Cut Emissions on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Mowers Help National Park Cut Emissions on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Mowers Help National Park Cut Emissions on Delicious Rank Alternative

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Powers Airport Shuttles in New

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Orleans Propane Powers Airport Shuttles in New Orleans to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Powers Airport Shuttles in New Orleans on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Powers Airport Shuttles in New Orleans on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Powers Airport Shuttles in New Orleans on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Powers Airport Shuttles in New Orleans on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Production and Distribution

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Production and Distribution to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Production and Distribution on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Production and Distribution on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Production and Distribution on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Production and Distribution on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Production and Distribution on Digg Find More places to

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane School Buses Launched in Gloucester

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    County Schools Propane School Buses Launched in Gloucester County Schools to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane School Buses Launched in Gloucester County Schools on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane School Buses Launched in Gloucester County Schools on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane School Buses Launched in Gloucester County Schools on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane School Buses Launched

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vans Keep Kansas City Transportation

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Company Rolling Propane Vans Keep Kansas City Transportation Company Rolling to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vans Keep Kansas City Transportation Company Rolling on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vans Keep Kansas City Transportation Company Rolling on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vans Keep Kansas City Transportation Company Rolling on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vans Keep

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renzenberger Inc Saves Money With Propane

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Vans Renzenberger Inc Saves Money With Propane Vans to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renzenberger Inc Saves Money With Propane Vans on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renzenberger Inc Saves Money With Propane Vans on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renzenberger Inc Saves Money With Propane Vans on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renzenberger Inc Saves Money With Propane Vans on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data

  20. Compressor discharge bleed air circuit in gas turbine plants and related method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anand, Ashok Kumar (Niskayuna, NY); Berrahou, Philip Fadhel (Latham, NY); Jandrisevits, Michael (Clifton Park, NY)

    2003-04-08

    A gas turbine system that includes a compressor, a turbine component and a load, wherein fuel and compressor discharge bleed air are supplied to a combustor and gaseous products of combustion are introduced into the turbine component and subsequently exhausted to atmosphere. A compressor discharge bleed air circuit removes bleed air from the compressor and supplies one portion of the bleed air to the combustor and another portion of the compressor discharge bleed air to an exhaust stack of the turbine component in a single cycle system, or to a heat recovery steam generator in a combined cycle system. In both systems, the bleed air diverted from the combustor may be expanded in an air expander to reduce pressure upstream of the exhaust stack or heat recovery steam generator.

  1. Compressor discharge bleed air circuit in gas turbine plants and related method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anand, Ashok Kumar (Niskayuna, NY); Berrahou, Philip Fadhel (Latham, NY); Jandrisevits, Michael (Clifton Park, NY)

    2002-01-01

    A gas turbine system that includes a compressor, a turbine component and a load, wherein fuel and compressor discharge bleed air are supplied to a combustor and gaseous products of combustion are introduced into the turbine component and subsequently exhausted to atmosphere. A compressor discharge bleed air circuit removes bleed air from the compressor and supplies one portion of the bleed air to the combustor and another portion of the compressor discharge bleed air to an exhaust stack of the turbine component in a single cycle system, or to a heat recovery steam generator in a combined cycle system. In both systems, the bleed air diverted from the combustor may be expanded in an air expander to reduce pressure upstream of the exhaust stack or heat recovery steam generator.

  2. Combatting urban air pollution through Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) analysis, testing, and demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-03-01

    Deteriorating urban air quality ranks as a top concern worldwide, since air pollution adversely affects both public health and the environment. The outlook for improving air quality in the world`s megacities need not be bleak, however, The use of natural gas as a transportation fuel can measurably reduce urban pollution levels, mitigating chronic threats to health and the environment. Besides being clean burning, natural gas vehicles (NGVs) are economical to operate and maintain. The current cost of natural gas is lower than that of gasoline. Natural gas also reduces the vehicle`s engine wear and noise level, extends engine life, and decreases engine maintenance. Today, about 700,000 NGVs operate worldwide, the majority of them converted from gasoline or diesel fuel. This article discusses the economic, regulatory and technological issues of concern to the NGV industry.

  3. Development of standardized air-blown coal gasifier/gas turbine concepts for future electric power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadowski, R.S.; Brown, M.J.; Hester, J.C.; Harriz, J.T.; Ritz, G.J.

    1991-02-01

    The objective of this study is to develop standardized air blown fixed bed gasification hot gas cleanup integrated gasifier combined cycle (IGCC) systems.

  4. State Heating Oil & Propane Program. Final report 1997/98 heating season

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunton, G.

    1998-06-01

    The following is a summary report of the New Hampshire Governor`s Office of Energy and Community Services (ECS) participation in the State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP) for the 1997/98 heating season. SHOPP is a cooperative effort, linking energy offices in East Coast and Midwest states, with the Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA) for the purpose of collecting retail price data for heating oil and propane. The program is funded by the participating state with a matching grant from DOE. SHOPP was initiated in response to congressional inquires into supply difficulties and price spikes of heating oil and propane associated with the winter of 1989/90. This is important to New Hampshire because heating oil controls over 55% of the residential heating market statewide. Propane controls 10% of the heating market statewide and is widely used for water heating and cooking in areas of the state where natural gas is not available. Lower installation cost, convenience, lower operating costs compared to electricity, and its perception as a clean heating fuel have all worked to increase the popularity of propane in New Hampshire and should continue to do so in the future. Any disruption in supply of these heating fuels to New Hampshire could cause prices to skyrocket and leave many residents in the cold.

  5. State heating oil and propane program. Final report, 1996--1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunton, G.

    1997-08-01

    The following is a summary report of the New Hampshire Governor`s Office of Energy and Community Services (ECS) participation in the State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP) for the 1996-97 heating season. SHOPP is a cooperative effort, linking energy offices in East Coast and Midwest states, with the Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA) for the purpose of collecting retail price data for heating oil and propane. The program funded by the participating state with a matching grant from DOE. SHOPP was initiated in response to congressional inquires into supply difficulties and price spikes of heating oil and propane associated with the winter of 1989/90. This is important to New Hampshire because heating oil controls over 55% of the residential heating market statewide. Propane controls 10% of the heating market statewide and is widely used in rural areas where Natural GAs is not available. Lower installation cost, convenience, lower operating costs compared to electricity and its perception as a clean heating fuel has increased the popularity of propane in New Hampshire and should continue to do so in the future. Any disruption in supply of these heating fuels to New Hampshire could cause prices to skyrocket and leave many residents in the cold.

  6. Flame holding tolerant fuel and air premixer for a gas turbine combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    York, William David; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Ziminsky, Willy Steve

    2012-11-20

    A fuel nozzle with active cooling is provided. It includes an outer peripheral wall, a nozzle center body concentrically disposed within the outer wall in a fuel and air pre-mixture. The fuel and air pre-mixture includes an air inlet, a fuel inlet and a premixing passage defined between the outer wall in the center body. A gas fuel flow passage is provided. A first cooling passage is included within the center body in a second cooling passage is defined between the center body and the outer wall.

  7. Ambient air cooling arrangement having a pre-swirler for gas turbine engine blade cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Tham, Kok-Mun; Schroeder, Eric; Meeroff, Jamie; Miller, Jr., Samuel R; Marra, John J

    2015-01-06

    A gas turbine engine including: an ambient-air cooling circuit (10) having a cooling channel (26) disposed in a turbine blade (22) and in fluid communication with a source (12) of ambient air: and an pre-swirler (18), the pre-swirler having: an inner shroud (38); an outer shroud (56); and a plurality of guide vanes (42), each spanning from the inner shroud to the outer shroud. Circumferentially adjacent guide vanes (46, 48) define respective nozzles (44) there between. Forces created by a rotation of the turbine blade motivate ambient air through the cooling circuit. The pre-swirler is configured to impart swirl to ambient air drawn through the nozzles and to direct the swirled ambient air toward a base of the turbine blade. The end walls (50, 54) of the pre-swirler may be contoured.

  8. Kentucky Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    8 5 8 1 29 52 1967-2014 Propane-Air 18 5 8 1 29 52 1980-2014

  9. Minnesota Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    47 12 20 9 22 66 1967-2014 Synthetic 0 0 1980-2014 Propane-Air 47 12 20 9 22 66

  10. Missouri Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    10 18 * * * 172 1967-2014 Synthetic 0 0 0 0 0 * 2007-2014 Propane-Air 10 18 0 172

  11. Nebraska Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    18 12 9 4 2 376 1967-2014 Propane-Air 18 12 9 4 2 376 1980-2014 Biomass 0 0 1999

  12. Iowa Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3 2 1 0 0 1 1967-2014 Propane-Air 3 2 1 1 1980-2014 Biomass 0 1993-2014 Other 0 1980

  13. Air separation membranes : an alternative to EGR in large bore natural gas engines.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biruduganti, M.; Gupta, S.; Bihari, B.; McConnell, S.; Sekar, R.; Energy Systems

    2010-08-01

    Air separation membranes (ASMs) could potentially replace exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) technology in engines due to the proven benefits in NOx reduction but without the drawbacks of EGR. Previous investigations of nitrogen-enriched air (NEA) combustion using nitrogen bottles showed up to 70% NOx reduction with modest 2% nitrogen enrichment. The investigation in this paper was performed with an ASM capable of delivering at least 3.5% NEA to a single-cylinder spark-ignited natural gas engine. Low temperature combustion is one of the pathways to meet the mandatory ultra low NOx emissions levels set by regulatory agencies. In this study, a comparative assessment is made between natural gas combustion in standard air and 2% NEA. Enrichment beyond this level degraded engine performance in terms of power density, brake thermal efficiency (BTE), and unburned hydrocarbon emissions for a given equivalence ratio. The ignition timing was optimized to yield maximum brake torque for standard air and NEA. Subsequently, conventional spark ignition was replaced by laser ignition (LI) to extend lean ignition limit. Both ignition systems were studied under a wide operating range from {Psi} :1.0 to the lean misfire limit. It was observed that with 2% NEA, for a similar fuel quantity, the equivalence ratio {Psi} increases by 0.1 relative to standard air conditions. Analysis showed that lean burn operation along with NEA and alternative ignition source, such as LI, could pave the pathway for realizing lower NO{sub x} emissions with a slight penalty in BTE.

  14. Propane Vehicle and Infrastructure Codes and Standards Citations (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-07-01

    This document lists codes and standards typically used for U.S. propane vehicle and infrastructure projects.

  15. Propane-induced biodegradation of vapor phase trichloroethylene (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Propane-induced biodegradation of vapor phase trichloroethylene Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Propane-induced biodegradation of vapor phase trichloroethylene Microbial degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) has been demonstrated under aerobic conditions with propane. The primary objective of this research was to evaluate the feasibility of introducing a vapor phase form of TCE in the presence of propane to batch bioreactors containing a liquid phase

  16. Liquid Propane Injection Technology Conductive to Today's North American

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Specification | Department of Energy Technology Conductive to Today's North American Specification Liquid Propane Injection Technology Conductive to Today's North American Specification Liquid propane injection technology can offer the same power, torque, and environmental vehicle performance while reducing imports of foreign oil PDF icon deer09_arnold.pdf More Documents & Publications Liquid Propane Injection Applications Liquid Propane Injection Applications Transportation Fuels: The

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Delaware Transit Corporation Adds Propane

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Buses to Its Fleet Delaware Transit Corporation Adds Propane Buses to Its Fleet to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Delaware Transit Corporation Adds Propane Buses to Its Fleet on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Delaware Transit Corporation Adds Propane Buses to Its Fleet on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Delaware Transit Corporation Adds Propane Buses to Its Fleet on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Delaware Transit

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan Converts Vehicles to Propane,

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Reducing Emissions Michigan Converts Vehicles to Propane, Reducing Emissions to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan Converts Vehicles to Propane, Reducing Emissions on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan Converts Vehicles to Propane, Reducing Emissions on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan Converts Vehicles to Propane, Reducing Emissions on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan Converts Vehicles to

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tennessee Reduces Pollution With Propane

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Hybrid Trolleys Tennessee Reduces Pollution With Propane Hybrid Trolleys to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tennessee Reduces Pollution With Propane Hybrid Trolleys on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tennessee Reduces Pollution With Propane Hybrid Trolleys on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tennessee Reduces Pollution With Propane Hybrid Trolleys on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tennessee Reduces Pollution With

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Converts Vehicles to Propane in

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Spotsylvania County Virginia Converts Vehicles to Propane in Spotsylvania County to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Converts Vehicles to Propane in Spotsylvania County on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Converts Vehicles to Propane in Spotsylvania County on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Converts Vehicles to Propane in Spotsylvania County on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Converts

  1. Texas Propane Fleet Pilot Program | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fleet Pilot Program Texas Propane Fleet Pilot Program 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon tiarravt058_kelly_2010_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Texas Propane Vehicle Pilot Project Texas Propane Vehicle Pilot Project

  2. Portland Public School Children Move with Propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2004-04-01

    This 2-page Clean Cities fact sheet describes the use of propane as a fuel source for Portland Public Schools' fleet of buses. It includes information on the history of the program, along with contact information for the local Clean Cities Coordinator and Portland Public Schools.

  3. Maintaining low exhaust emissions with turbocharged gas engines using a feedback air-fuel ratio control system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eckard, D.W.; Serve, J.V.

    1987-10-01

    Maintaining low exhaust emissions on a turbocharged, natural gas engine through the speed and load range requires precise control of the air-fuel ratio. Changes in ambient conditions or fuel heating value will cause the air-fuel ratio to change substantially. By combining air-gas pressure with preturbine temperature control, the air-fuel ratio can be maintained regardless of changes in the ambient conditions or the fuel's heating value. Design conditions and operating results are presented for an air-fuel controller for a turbocharged engine.

  4. Natural gas treatment process using PTMSP membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toy, L.G.; Pinnau, I.

    1996-03-26

    A process is described for separating C{sub 3}+ hydrocarbons, particularly propane and butane, from natural gas. The process uses a poly(trimethylsilylpropyne) membrane. 6 figs.

  5. Natural gas treatment process using PTMSP membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toy, Lora G. (San Francisco, CA); Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A process for separating C.sub.3 + hydrocarbons, particularly propane and butane, from natural gas. The process uses a poly(trimethylsilylpropyne) membrane.

  6. Hydronic Heating Coil Versus Propane Furnace, Rehoboth Beach, Delaware (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-01-01

    Insight Homes constructed two houses in Rehoboth Beach, Delaware, with identical floor plans and thermal envelopes but different heating and domestic hot water (DHW) systems. Each house is 1,715-ft2 with a single story, three bedrooms, two bathrooms, and the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and ductwork located in conditioned crawlspaces. The standard house, which the builder offers as its standard production house, uses an air source heat pump (ASHP) with supplemental propane furnace heating. The Building America test house uses the same ASHP unit with supplemental heat provided by the DHW heater (a combined DHW and hydronic heating system, where the hydronic heating element is in the air handler). Both houses were occupied during the test period. Results indicate that efficiency of the two heating systems was not significantly different. Three issues dominate these results; lower system design performance resulting from the indoor refrigerant coil selected for the standard house, an incorrectly functioning defrost cycle in the standard house, and the low resolution of the natural gas monitoring equipment. The thermal comfort of both houses fell outside the ASHRAE Standard 55 heating range but was within the ACCA room-to-room temperature range when compared to the thermostat temperature. The monitored DHW draw schedules were input into EnergyPlus to evaluate the efficiency of the tankless hot water heater model using the two monitored profiles and the Building America House Simulation Protocols. The results indicate that the simulation is not significantly impacted by the draw profiles.

  7. Potential hazards of compressed air energy storage in depleted natural gas reservoirs.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, Paul W.; Grubelich, Mark Charles; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2011-09-01

    This report is a preliminary assessment of the ignition and explosion potential in a depleted hydrocarbon reservoir from air cycling associated with compressed air energy storage (CAES) in geologic media. The study identifies issues associated with this phenomenon as well as possible mitigating measures that should be considered. Compressed air energy storage (CAES) in geologic media has been proposed to help supplement renewable energy sources (e.g., wind and solar) by providing a means to store energy when excess energy is available, and to provide an energy source during non-productive or low productivity renewable energy time periods. Presently, salt caverns represent the only proven underground storage used for CAES. Depleted natural gas reservoirs represent another potential underground storage vessel for CAES because they have demonstrated their container function and may have the requisite porosity and permeability; however reservoirs have yet to be demonstrated as a functional/operational storage media for compressed air. Specifically, air introduced into a depleted natural gas reservoir presents a situation where an ignition and explosion potential may exist. This report presents the results of an initial study identifying issues associated with this phenomena as well as possible mitigating measures that should be considered.

  8. Capture of Carbon Dioxide from Air and Flue Gas in the Alkylamine-Appended

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metal-Organic Framework mmen-Mg2(dobpdc) | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Capture of Carbon Dioxide from Air and Flue Gas in the Alkylamine-Appended Metal-Organic Framework mmen-Mg2(dobpdc) Previous Next List Thomas M. McDonald, Woo Ram Lee, Jarad A. Mason, Brian M. Wiers, Chang Seop Hong, and Jeffrey R. Long, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2012, 134 (16), pp 7056-7065 DOI: 10.1021/ja300034j Abstract Image Abstract: Two new metal-organic frameworks,

  9. Performance and evaluation of gas engine driven rooftop air conditioning equipment at the Willow Grove (PA) Naval Air Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, P.R.; Conover, D.R.

    1993-05-01

    In a field evaluation conducted for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the performance of a new US energy-related technology under the FEMP Test Bed Demonstration Program. The technology was a 15-ton natural gas engine driven roof top air conditioning unit. Two such units were installed on a naval retail building to provide space conditioning to the building. Under the Test Bed Demonstration Program, private and public sector interests are focused to support the installation and evaluation of new US technologies in the federal sector. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with DOE were the American Gas Cooling Center, Philadelphia Electric Company, Thermo King Corporation, and the US Naval Air Station at Willow Grove, Pennsylvania. Equipment operating and service data as well as building interior and exterior conditions were secured for the 1992 cooling season. Based on a computer assessment of the building using standard weather data, a comparison was made with the energy and operating costs associated with the previous space conditioning system. Based on performance during the 1992 cooling season and adjusted to a normal weather year, the technology will save the site $6,000/yr in purchased energy costs. An additional $9,000 in savings due to electricity demand ratchet charge reductions will also be realized. Detailed information on the technology, the installation, and the results of the technology test are provided to illustrate the advantages to the federal sector of using this technology. A history of the CRADA development process is also reported.

  10. An analysis of US propane markets, winter 1996-1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-06-01

    In late summer 1996, in response to relatively low inventory levels and tight world oil markets, prices for crude oil, natural gas, and products derived from both began to increase rapidly ahead of the winter heating season. Various government and private sector forecasts indicated the potential for supply shortfalls and sharp price increases, especially in the event of unusually severe winter weather. Following a rapid runup in gasoline prices in the spring of 1996, public concerns were mounting about a possibly similar situation in heating fuels, with potentially more serious consequences. In response to these concerns, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) participated in numerous briefings and meetings with Executive Branch officials, Congressional committee members and staff, State Energy Offices, and consumers. EIA instituted a coordinated series of actions to closely monitor the situation and inform the public. This study constitutes one of those actions: an examination of propane supply, demand, and price developments and trends.

  11. Optimal integrated design of air separation unit and gas turbine block for IGCC systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamath, R.; Grossman, I.; Biegler, L.; Zitney, S.

    2009-01-01

    The Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems are considered as a promising technology for power generation. However, they are not yet in widespread commercial use and opportunities remain to improve system feasibility and profitability via improved process integration. This work focuses on the integrated design of gasification system, air separation unit (ASU) and the gas turbine (GT) block. The ASU supplies oxygen to the gasification system and it can also supply nitrogen (if required as a diluent) to the gas turbine block with minimal incremental cost. Since both GT and the ASU require a source of compressed air, integrating the air requirement of these units is a logical starting point for facility optimization (Smith et al., 1997). Air extraction from the GT can reduce or avoid the compression cost in the ASU and the nitrogen injection can reduce NOx emissions and promote trouble-free operation of the GT block (Wimer et al., 2006). There are several possible degrees of integration between the ASU and the GT (Smith and Klosek, 2001). In the case of 'total' integration, where all the air required for the ASU is supplied by the GT compressor and the ASU is expected to be an elevated-pressure (EP) type. Alternatively, the ASU can be 'stand alone' without any integration with the GT. In this case, the ASU operates at low pressure (LP), with its own air compressor delivering air to the cryogenic process at the minimum energy cost. Here, nitrogen may or may not be injected because of the energy penalty issue and instead, syngas humidification may be preferred. A design, which is intermediate between these two cases, involves partial supply of air by the gas turbine and the remainder by a separate air compressor. These integration schemes have been utilized in some IGCC projects. Examples include Nuon Power Plant at Buggenum, Netherlands (both air and nitrogen integration), Polk Power Station at Tampa, US (nitrogen-only integration) and LGTI at Plaquemine, US (stand-alone). However, there is very little information on systematic assessment of air extraction, nitrogen injection and configuration and operating conditions of the ASU and it is not clear which scheme is optimal for a given IGCC application. In this work, we address the above mentioned problem systematically using mixed-integer optimization. This approach allows the use of various objectives such as minimizing the investment and operating cost or SOx and NOx emissions, maximizing power output or overall efficiency or a weighted combination of these factors. A superstructure is proposed which incorporates all the integration schemes described above. Simplified models for ASU, gas turbine system and steam cycle are used which provide reasonable estimates for performance and cost (Frey and Zhu, 2006). The optimal structural configuration and operating conditions are presented for several case studies and it is observed that the optimal solution changes significantly depending on the specified objective.

  12. Optimal Integrated Design of Air Separation Unit and Gas Turbine Block for IGCC Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ravindra S. Kamath; Ignacio E. Grossmann; Lorenz T. Biegler; Stephen E. Zitney

    2009-01-01

    The Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems are considered as a promising technology for power generation. However, they are not yet in widespread commercial use and opportunities remain to improve system feasibility and profitability via improved process integration. This work focuses on the integrated design of gasification system, air separation unit (ASU) and the gas turbine (GT) block. The ASU supplies oxygen to the gasification system and it can also supply nitrogen (if required as a diluent) to the gas turbine block with minimal incremental cost. Since both GT and the ASU require a source of compressed air, integrating the air requirement of these units is a logical starting point for facility optimization (Smith et al., 1997). Air extraction from the GT can reduce or avoid the compression cost in the ASU and the nitrogen injection can reduce NOx emissions and promote trouble-free operation of the GT block (Wimer et al., 2006). There are several possible degrees of integration between the ASU and the GT (Smith and Klosek, 2001). In the case of 'total' integration, where all the air required for the ASU is supplied by the GT compressor and the ASU is expected to be an elevated-pressure (EP) type. Alternatively, the ASU can be 'stand alone' without any integration with the GT. In this case, the ASU operates at low pressure (LP), with its own air compressor delivering air to the cryogenic process at the minimum energy cost. Here, nitrogen may or may not be injected because of the energy penalty issue and instead, syngas humidification may be preferred. A design, which is intermediate between these two cases, involves partial supply of air by the gas turbine and the remainder by a separate air compressor. These integration schemes have been utilized in some IGCC projects. Examples include Nuon Power Plant at Buggenum, Netherlands (both air and nitrogen integration), Polk Power Station at Tampa, US (nitrogen-only integration) and LGTI at Plaquemine, US (stand-alone). However, there is very little information on systematic assessment of air extraction, nitrogen injection and configuration and operating conditions of the ASU and it is not clear which scheme is optimal for a given IGCC application. In this work, we address the above mentioned problem systematically using mixed-integer optimization. This approach allows the use of various objectives such as minimizing the investment and operating cost or SOx and NOx emissions, maximizing power output or overall efficiency or a weighted combination of these factors. A superstructure is proposed which incorporates all the integration schemes described above. Simplified models for ASU, gas turbine system and steam cycle are used which provide reasonable estimates for performance and cost (Frey and Zhu, 2006). The optimal structural configuration and operating conditions are presented for several case studies and it is observed that the optimal solution changes significantly depending on the specified objective.

  13. Advantages of air conditioning and supercharging an LM6000 gas turbine inlet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolp, D.A.; Flye, W.M.; Guidotti, H.A.

    1995-07-01

    Of all the external factors affecting a gas turbine, inlet pressure and temperature have the greatest impact on performance. The effect of inlet temperature variations is especially pronounced in the new generation of high-efficiency gas turbines typified by the 40 MW GE LM6000. A reduction of 50 F (28 C) in inlet temperature can result in a 30 percent increase in power and a 4.5 percent improvement in heat rate. An elevation increase to 5,000 ft (1,524 m) above sea level decreases turbine output 17 percent; conversely supercharging can increase output more than 20 percent. This paper addresses various means of heating, cooling and supercharging LM6000 inlet air. An economic model is developed and sample cases are cited to illustrate the optimization of gas turbine inlet systems, taking into account site conditions, incremental equipment cost and subsequent performance enhancement.

  14. Co-benefits of mitigating global greenhouse gas emissions for future air quality and human health

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, Jason; Smith, Steven J.; Silva, Raquel; Naik, Vaishali; Zhang, Yuqiang; Adelman, Zacariah; Fry, Meridith M.; Anenberg, Susan C.; Horowitz, L.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois

    2013-10-01

    Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions also influences air quality. We simulate the co-benefits of global GHG reductions on air quality and human health via two mechanisms: a) reducing co-emitted air pollutants, and b) slowing climate change and its effect on air quality. Relative to a reference scenario, global GHG mitigation in the RCP4.5 scenario avoids 0.50.2, 1.30.6, and 2.21.6 million premature deaths in 2030, 2050, and 2100, from changes in fine particulate matter and ozone. Global average marginal co-benefits of avoided mortality are $40-400 (ton CO2)-1, exceeding marginal abatement costs in 2030 and 2050, and within the low range of costs in 2100. East Asian co-benefits are 10-80 times the marginal cost in 2030. These results indicate that transitioning to a low-carbon future might be justified by air quality and health co-benefits.

  15. Table 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    See footnotes at end of table. 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Residual Fuel Oil by PAD District and State 386 Energy Information...

  16. Table 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Marketing Annual 1998 Table 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Residual Fuel Oil by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) -...

  17. Table 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Marketing Annual 1995 Table 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Residual Fuel Oil by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) -...

  18. Table 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Marketing Annual 1999 Table 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Residual Fuel Oil by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) -...

  19. Metallurgical failure analysis of a propane tank boiling liquid...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Metallurgical failure analysis of a propane tank boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE). Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Metallurgical failure...

  20. The structural design of air and gas ducts for power stations and industrial boiler applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, R.L.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the new American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) book entitled, The Structural Design of Air and Gas Ducts for Power Stations and Industrial Boiler Applications. This 312 page book was published by the ASCE in August of 1995. This ASCE publication was created to assist structural engineers in performing the structural analysis and design of air and flue-gas ducts. The structural behavior of steel ductwork can be difficult to understand for structural engineers inexperienced in ductwork analysis and design. Because of this needed expertise, the ASCE committee that created this document highly recommends that the structural analysis and design of ducts be performed by qualified structural engineers, not be technicians, designers or drafters. There is a history within the power industry of failures and major degradation of flue-gas ductwork. There are many reasons for these failures or degradation, but in many cases, the problems may have been voided by a better initial design. This book attempts to help the structural engineer with this task. This book is not intended to be used to size or configure ductwork for flow and pressure drop considerations. But it does recommend that the ductwork system arrangement consider the structural supports and the structural behavior of the duct system.

  1. Gas-Fired Boilers and Furnaces | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Gas-Fired Boilers and Furnaces Gas-Fired Boilers and Furnaces A residential natural gas meter. A residential natural gas meter. Gas boilers and furnaces can be fueled by either natural gas or propane with simple modifications accounting for the different characteristics of the fuels. Propane is usually more expensive as a fuel, but is available throughout the United States. Natural gas supplies depend on having a natural gas distribution system in your area, and areas at the end of the pipeline

  2. Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    which summarizes the likely demand, supply, and prices for natural gas, heating oil, propane, and electricity during the upcoming winter (October 2004 - March 2005). According to...

  3. Curbing Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Industrial Boilers in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Bo; Price, Lynn K; Lu, Hongyou; Liu, Xu; Tsen, Katherine; Xiangyang, Wei; Yunpeng, Zhang; Jian, Guan; Rui, Hou; Junfeng, Zhang; Yuqun, Zhuo; Shumao, Xia; Yafeng, Han; Manzhi, Liu

    2015-10-28

    China’s industrial boiler systems consume 700 million tons of coal annually, accounting for 18% of the nation’s total coal consumption. Together these boiler systems are one of the major sources of China’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, producing approximately 1.3 gigatons (Gt) of carbon dioxide (CO2) annually. These boiler systems are also responsible for 33% and 27% of total soot and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions in China, respectively, making a substantial contribution to China’s local environmental degradation. The Chinese government - at both the national and local level - is taking actions to mitigate the significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and air pollution related to the country’s extensive use of coal-fired industrial boilers. The United States and China are pursuing a collaborative effort under the U.S.-China Climate Change Working Group to conduct a comprehensive assessment of China’s coal-fired industrial boilers and to develop an implementation roadmap that will improve industrial boiler efficiency and maximize fuel-switching opportunities. Two Chinese cities – Ningbo and Xi’an – have been selected for the assessment. These cities represent coastal areas with access to liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports and inland regions with access to interprovincial natural gas pipelines, respectively.

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Rolls on as Reliable Fleet Fuel

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Propane Rolls on as Reliable Fleet Fuel to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Rolls on as Reliable Fleet Fuel on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Rolls on as Reliable Fleet Fuel on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Rolls on as Reliable Fleet Fuel on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Rolls on as Reliable Fleet Fuel on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Rolls on as Reliable Fleet

  5. Method for the removal of carbonyl sulfide from liquid propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClure, G.

    1980-06-17

    A method for the removal of carbonyl sulfide from liquid propane under liquid-liquid contact conditions by mixing liquid propane containing carbonyl sulfide as an impurity with 2-(2-aminoethoxy) ethanol as the principal agent for the carbonyl sulfide removal. The 2(2-aminoethoxy) ethanol is reclaimed and reused for further carbonyl sulfide removal. 5 claims.

  6. Analysis of ignition behavior in a turbocharged direct injection dual fuel engine using propane and methane as primary fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polk, A. C.; Gibson, C. M.; Shoemaker, N. T.; Srinivasan, K. K.; Krishnan, S. R.

    2011-10-05

    This paper presents experimental analyses of the ignition delay (ID) behavior for diesel-ignited propane and diesel-ignited methane dual fuel combustion. Two sets of experiments were performed at a constant speed (1800 rev/min) using a 4-cylinder direct injection diesel engine with the stock ECU and a wastegated turbocharger. First, the effects of fuel-air equivalence ratios (Ω pilot ∼ 0.2-0.6 and Ω overall ∼ 0.2-0.9) on IDs were quantified. Second, the effects of gaseous fuel percent energy substitution (PES) and brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) (from 2.5 to 10 bar) on IDs were investigated. With constant Ω pilot (> 0.5), increasing Ω overall with propane initially decreased ID but eventually led to premature propane autoignition; however, the corresponding effects with methane were relatively minor. Cyclic variations in the start of combustion (SOC) increased with increasing Ω overall (at constant Ω pilot), more significantly for propane than for methane. With increasing PES at constant BMEP, the ID showed a nonlinear (initially increasing and later decreasing) trend at low BMEPs for propane but a linearly decreasing trend at high BMEPs. For methane, increasing PES only increased IDs at all BMEPs. At low BMEPs, increasing PES led to significantly higher cyclic SOC variations and SOC advancement for both propane and methane. Finally, the engine ignition delay (EID) was also shown to be a useful metric to understand the influence of ID on dual fuel combustion.

  7. Emissions results for dedicated propane Chrysler minivans: the 1996 propane vehicle challenge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buitrago, C.; Sluder, S.; Larsen, R.

    1997-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE), through Argonne National Laboratory, and in cooperation with Natural Resources-Canada and Chrysler Canada, sponsored and organized the 1996 Propane Vehicle Challenge (PVC). For this competition , 13 university teams from North America each received a stock Chrysler minivan to be converted to dedicated propane operation while maintaining maximum production feasibility. The converted vehicles were tested for performance (driveability, cold- and hot-start, acceleration, range, and fuel economy) and exhaust emissions. Of the 13 entries for the 1996 PVC, 10 completed all of the events scheduled, including the emissions test. The schools used a variety of fuel-management, fuel-phase and engine-control strategies, but their strategies can be summarized as three main types: liquid fuel-injection, gaseous fuel-injection, and gaseous carburetor. The converted vehicles performed similarly to the gasoline minivan. The University of Windsor`s minivan had the lowest emissions attaining ULEV levels with a gaseous-injected engine. The Texas A&M vehicle, which had a gaseous-fuel injection system, and the GMI Engineering and Management Institute`s vehicle, which had a liquid-injection system both reached LEV levels. Vehicles with an injection fuel system (liquid or gaseous) performed better in terms of emissions than carbureted systems. Liquid injection appeared to be the best option for fuel metering and control for propane, but more research and calibration are necessary to improve the reliability and performance of this design.

  8. TECHNICAL JUSTIFICATION FOR CHOOSING PROPANE AS A CALIBRATION AGENT FOR TOTAL FLAMMABLE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND (VOC) DETERMINATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DOUGLAS, J.G.

    2006-07-06

    This document presents the technical justification for choosing and using propane as a calibration standard for estimating total flammable volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in an air matrix. A propane-in-nitrogen standard was selected based on a number of criteria: (1) has an analytical response similar to the VOCs of interest, (2) can be made with known accuracy and traceability, (3) is available with good purity, (4) has a matrix similar to the sample matrix, (5) is stable during storage and use, (6) is relatively non-hazardous, and (7) is a recognized standard for similar analytical applications. The Waste Retrieval Project (WRP) desires a fast, reliable, and inexpensive method for screening the flammable VOC content in the vapor-phase headspace of waste containers. Table 1 lists the flammable VOCs of interest to the WRP. The current method used to determine the VOC content of a container is to sample the container's headspace and submit the sample for gas chromatography--mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The driver for the VOC measurement requirement is safety: potentially flammable atmospheres in the waste containers must be allowed to diffuse prior to processing the container. The proposed flammable VOC screening method is to inject an aliquot of the headspace sample into an argon-doped pulsed-discharge helium ionization detector (Ar-PDHID) contained within a gas chromatograph. No actual chromatography is performed; the sample is transferred directly from a sample loop to the detector through a short, inert transfer line. The peak area resulting from the injected sample is proportional to the flammable VOC content of the sample. However, because the Ar-PDHID has different response factors for different flammable VOCs, a fundamental assumption must be made that the agent used to calibrate the detector is representative of the flammable VOCs of interest that may be in the headspace samples. At worst, we desire that calibration with the selected calibrating agent overestimate the value of the VOCs in a sample. By overestimating the VOC content of a sample, we want to minimize false negatives. A false negative is defined as incorrectly estimating the VOC content of the sample to be below programmatic action limits when, in fact, the sample,exceeds the action limits. The disadvantage of overestimating the flammable VOC content of a sample is that additional cost may be incurred because additional sampling and GC-MS analysis may be required to confirm results over programmatic action limits. Therefore, choosing an appropriate calibration standard for the Ar-PDHID is critical to avoid false negatives and to minimize additional analytical costs.

  9. Development of standardized air-blown coal gasifier/gas turbine concepts for future electric power systems. Volume 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadowski, R.S.; Brown, M.J.; Hester, J.C.; Harriz, J.T.; Ritz, G.J.

    1991-02-01

    The objective of this study is to develop standardized air blown fixed bed gasification hot gas cleanup integrated gasifier combined cycle (IGCC) systems.

  10. Applicability issues and compliance strategies for the proposed oil and gas industry hazardous air pollutant standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tandon, N.; Winborn, K.A.; Grygar, W.W. II

    1999-07-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) has targeted oil and natural gas transmission and storage facilities located across the United States for regulation under the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) program (proposed in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 63 [40 CFR 63], Subparts HH and HHH). The proposed NESHAP were published in the February 6, 1998 Federal Register and are expected to be promulgated in May 1999. These rules are intended to reduce Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP) emitted from oil and gas facilities. It is expected that these rules will require more than 400 major sources and more than 500 non-major sources (also referred to as area sources) to meet maximum achievable control technology (MACT) standards defined in the NESHAP. The rules would regulate HAP emission from glycol dehydration units, storage vessels and various fugitive leak sources. This technical paper addresses the applicability issues and compliance strategies related to the proposed NESHAP. The applicability criteria for both rules differ from those promulgated for other source categories under 40 CFR 63. For example, individual unit throughput and/or HAP emission thresholds may exempt specific units from the MACT standards in the NESHAP. The proposed Subpart HH would apply not only to major sources, but also to triethylene glycol (TEC) dehydration units at area sources located in urban areas. For both proposed NESHAP all 199 HAP must be considered for the major source determinations, but only 15 specific HAP are targeted for control under the proposed standards. An overview of the HAP control requirements, exemption criteria, as well as initial and continued compliance determination strategies are presented. Several industry examples are included to assist industry develop compliance strategies.

  11. A study of partially premixed unconfined propane flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roekke, N.A.; Hustad, J.E.; Soenju, O.K. )

    1994-04-01

    Unconfined turbulent partially premixed propane/air flames issuing from a straight tube into quiescent air at atmospheric pressure and temperature are investigated. Experiments on lifted flames are performed. Flame height and liftoff are reported together with emission indices for oxides of nitrogen (NO[sub 3]). The degree of partially premixing has been varied between a fuel mass fraction of 1.0 to 0.15. Six different nozzle diameters, d[sub 0], of 3.2, 6, 10, 20.5, 23.3, and 29.5 mm have been used. This resulted in outlet velocities, u[sub 0], varying from 1 to 130 m/s, flame heights up to 2.5 m, Froude numbers, Fr, from 3 to 3 [times] 10[sup 5], and thermal heat releases up to 350 kW. Flame height and liftoff show a strong dependence upon the ratio of the nozzle outlet velocity to the outlet diameter, the Froude number, and the fuel mass fraction Y[sub f]. Both modified, simplified, and newly developed expressions for height, liftoff and NO[sub x] emissions are presented and discussed. All the proposed expressions scale with Y[sub f][sup a]Fr[sup b] or Y[sub r][sup a]f(u[sub 0], d[sub 0]). The emission index for NO[sub x] scales very well with a previously developed expression based on the buoyant flame volume. The agreement between predictions and experimental data is generally good and well within the underlying experimental and theoretical uncertainties. The results from this study contain new data, as very little focus has previously been directed toward lifted partially premixed free flames of this size.

  12. Clean Cities Helps Nonprofit Cut Fuel Costs with Propane | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    saving on fuel costs," he said. "If these law enforcement vehicles were running great on propane autogas in such a demanding environment, then this was the fuel for my fleet."...

  13. VEE-0040- In the Matter of Western Star Propane, Inc.

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On February 18, 1997, Western Star Propane, Inc. (Western) filed an Application for Exception with the Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA) of the Department of Energy (DOE). In its application,...

  14. Revised Propane Stock Levels for 6/7/13

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Revised Propane Stock Levels for 6713 Release Date: June 19, 2013 Following the release of the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) for the week ended June 7, 2013, EIA...

  15. Advisory on the reporting error in the combined propane stocks...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Advisory on the reporting error in the combined propane stocks for PADDs 4 and 5 Release Date: June 12, 2013 The U.S. Energy Information Administration issued the following...

  16. Can propane school buses save money and provide other benefits...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Can propane school buses save money and provide other benefits? October 1, 2014 Tweet EmailPrint School districts across the country are looking for ways to save money and be more...

  17. VEE-0060- In the Matter of Blakeman Propane, Inc.

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On May 11, 1999, Blakeman Propane, Inc. (Blakeman) of Moorcroft, Wyoming, filed an Application for Exception with the Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA) of the Department of Energy (DOE). In its...

  18. Microsoft Word - Joe Rose - Providence remarks.propane.JUR -...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and the greater Northeast. These include: The critical need for additional primary storage in the Northeast New England sells 7% of the nation's propane but has only 1% of the...

  19. Lower oil prices also cutting winter heating oil and propane...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lower oil prices also cutting winter heating oil and propane bills Lower oil prices are not only driving down gasoline costs, but U.S. consumers will also see a bigger savings in ...

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel and Propane Fuel Buses for Dallas

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    County Schools Biodiesel and Propane Fuel Buses for Dallas County Schools to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel and Propane Fuel Buses for Dallas County Schools on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel and Propane Fuel Buses for Dallas County Schools on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel and Propane Fuel Buses for Dallas County Schools on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel and Propane Fuel

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan School Buses Get Rolling on Propane

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Michigan School Buses Get Rolling on Propane to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan School Buses Get Rolling on Propane on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan School Buses Get Rolling on Propane on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan School Buses Get Rolling on Propane on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan School Buses Get Rolling on Propane on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Yellow Cab Converts Taxis to Propane in

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Columbus, Ohio Yellow Cab Converts Taxis to Propane in Columbus, Ohio to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Yellow Cab Converts Taxis to Propane in Columbus, Ohio on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Yellow Cab Converts Taxis to Propane in Columbus, Ohio on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Yellow Cab Converts Taxis to Propane in Columbus, Ohio on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Yellow Cab Converts Taxis to Propane in

  3. Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) storage facility study, Fort Gordon, Georgia. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-09-01

    Fort Gordon currently purchases natural gas from Atlanta Gas Light Company under a rate schedule for Large Commercial Interruptible Service. This offers a very favorable rate for `interruptible` gas service, however, Fort Gordon must maintain a base level of `firm gas`, purchased at a significantly higher cost, to assure adequate natural gas supplies during periods of curtailment to support family housing requirements and other single fuel users. It is desirable to provide a standby fuel source to meet the needs of family housing and other single fuel users and eliminate the extra costs for the firm gas commitment to Atlanta Gas Light Company. Therefore, a propane-air standby fuel system is proposed to be installed at Fort Gordon.

  4. Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) storage facility study Fort Gordon, Georgia. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-09-01

    Fort Gordon currently purchases natural gas from Atlanta Gas Light Company under a rate schedule for Large Commercial Interruptible Service. This offers a very favorable rate for `interruptible` gas service, however, Fort Gordon must maintain a base level of `firm gas`, purchased at a significantly higher cost, to assure adequate natural gas supplies during periods of curtailment to support family housing requirements and other single fuel users. It is desirable to provide a standby fuel source to meet the needs of family housing and other single fuel users and eliminate the extra costs for the firm gas commitment to Atlanta Gas Light Company. Therefore, a propane-air standby fuel system is proposed to be installed at Fort Gordon.

  5. Overview of the effect of Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments on the natural gas industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Child, C.J.

    1995-12-31

    The regulation of hazardous air pollutants by Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 has a potential wide-ranging impact for the natural gas industry. Title III includes a list of 189 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) which are targeted for reduction. Under Title III, HAP emissions from major sources will be reduced by the implementation of maximum achievable control technology (MACT) standards. If the source is defined as a major source, it must also comply with Title V (operating permit) and Title VII (enhanced monitoring) requirements. This presentation will review Title III`s effect on the natural gas industry by discussing the regulatory requirements and schedules associated with MACT as well as the control technology options available for affected sources.

  6. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Hydronic Heating Coil Versus Propane Furnace, Rehoboth Beach, Delaware

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-01-01

    In this project involving two homes, the IBACOS team evaluated the performance of the two space conditioning systems and the modeled efficiency of the two tankless domestic hot water systems relative to actual occupant use. Each house was built by Insight Homes and is 1,715-ft2 with a single story, three bedrooms, two bathrooms, and the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems and ductwork located in conditioned crawlspaces. The standard house, which the builder offers as its standard production house, uses an air source heat pump (ASHP) with supplemental propane furnace heating. The Building America test house uses the same ASHP unit with supplemental heat provided by the DHW heater (a combined DHW and hydronic heating system, where the hydronic heating element is in the air handler).

  7. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE THE OPERATION OF EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE - MANIFOLD DESIGN FOR CONTROLLING ENGINE AIR BALANCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary D. Bourn; Ford A. Phillips; Ralph E. Harris

    2005-12-01

    This document provides results and conclusions for Task 15.0--Detailed Analysis of Air Balance & Conceptual Design of Improved Air Manifolds in the ''Technologies to Enhance the Operation of Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure'' project. SwRI{reg_sign} is conducting this project for DOE in conjunction with Pipeline Research Council International, Gas Machinery Research Council, El Paso Pipeline, Cooper Compression, and Southern Star, under DOE contract number DE-FC26-02NT41646. The objective of Task 15.0 was to investigate the perceived imbalance in airflow between power cylinders in two-stroke integral compressor engines and develop solutions via manifold redesign. The overall project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity.

  8. Series 50 propane-fueled Nova bus: Engine development, installation, and field trials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, B.

    1999-01-01

    The report describes a project to develop the Detroit Diesel series 50 liquefied propane gas (LPG) heavy-duty engine and to conduct demonstrations of LPG-fuelled buses at selected sites (Halifax Regional Municipality and three sites in the United States). The project included five main elements: Engine development and certification, chassis re-engineering and engine installation, field demonstration, LPG fuel testing, and LPG fuel variability testing. Lessons learned with regard to engine design and other issues are discussed, and recommendations are made for further development and testing.

  9. Selective adsorption of ethylene over ethane and propylene over propane in

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the metal-organic frameworks M2(dobdc) (M = Mg, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn) | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome adsorption of ethylene over ethane and propylene over propane in the metal-organic frameworks M2(dobdc) (M = Mg, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn) Previous Next List Stephen J. Geier, Jarad A. Mason, Eric D. Bloch, Wendy L. Queen, Matthew R. Hudson, Craig M. Brown and Jeffrey R. Long, Chem. Sci., 4, 2054-2061 (2013) DOI: 10.1039/c3sc00032j Abstract: A

  10. Virginia Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    47 159 89 48 130 301 1967-2014 Synthetic 0 0 1980-2014 Propane-Air 247 159 89 48 130 301 1980-2014 Other 0 0 0 2005

  11. New York Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    6 2 0 0 0 0 1967-2014 Synthetic 1980-2005 Propane-Air 6 2 1980-2010 Biomass 1993-2005 Other 1980-2005

  12. Ohio Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    522 353 296 366 416 641 1967-2014 Synthetic 0 0 1980-2014 Propane-Air 66 40 27 6 34 263 1980-2014 Biomass 456 313 269 360 383 378 1993-201

  13. Georgia Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    52 732 701 660 642 635 1967-2014 Propane-Air 0 0 1980-2014 Biomass 52 732 701 660 642 608 1993-2014 Other 0 0 26 1980

  14. CO2 Capture from Air Using Porous Polymer Networks | Center for Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Capture from Air Using Porous Polymer Networks

  15. Gas turbine engine adapted for use in combination with an apparatus for separating a portion of oxygen from compressed air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bland, Robert J. (Oviedo, FL); Horazak, Dennis A. (Orlando, FL)

    2012-03-06

    A gas turbine engine is provided comprising an outer shell, a compressor assembly, at least one combustor assembly, a turbine assembly and duct structure. The outer shell includes a compressor section, a combustor section, an intermediate section and a turbine section. The intermediate section includes at least one first opening and at least one second opening. The compressor assembly is located in the compressor section to define with the compressor section a compressor apparatus to compress air. The at least one combustor assembly is coupled to the combustor section to define with the combustor section a combustor apparatus. The turbine assembly is located in the turbine section to define with the turbine section a turbine apparatus. The duct structure is coupled to the intermediate section to receive at least a portion of the compressed air from the compressor apparatus through the at least one first opening in the intermediate section, pass the compressed air to an apparatus for separating a portion of oxygen from the compressed air to produced vitiated compressed air and return the vitiated compressed air to the intermediate section via the at least one second opening in the intermediate section.

  16. Comparison of propane and methane performance and emissions in a turbocharged direct injection dual fuel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibson, C. M.; Polk, A. C.; Shoemaker, N. T.; Srinivasan, K. K.; Krishnan, S. R.

    2011-04-20

    With increasingly restrictive NO x and particulate matter emissions standards, the recent discovery of new natural gas reserves, and the possibility of producing propane efficiently from biomass sources, dual fueling strategies have become more attractive. This paper presents experimental results from dual fuel operation of a four-cylinder turbocharged direct injection (DI) diesel engine with propane or methane (a natural gas surrogate) as the primary fuel and diesel as the ignition source. Experiments were performed with the stock engine control unit at a constant speed of 1800 rpm, and a wide range of brake mean effective pressures (BMEPs) (2.7-11.6 bars) and percent energy substitutions (PESs) of C 3 H 8 and CH 4. Brake thermal efficiencies (BTEs) and emissions (NO x, smoke, total hydrocarbons (THCs), CO, and CO 2) were measured. Maximum PES levels of about 80-95% with CH 4 and 40-92% with C 3 H 8 were achieved. Maximum PES was limited by poor combustion efficiencies and engine misfire at low loads for both C 3 H 8 and CH 4, and the onset of knock above 9 bar BMEP for C 3 H 8. While dual fuel BTEs were lower than straight diesel BTEs at low loads, they approached diesel BTE values at high loads. For dual fuel operation, NO x and smoke reductions (from diesel values) were as high as 66-68% and 97%, respectively, but CO and THC emissions were significantly higher with increasing PES at all engine loads

  17. Selective dehydrogenation of propane over novel catalytic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sault, A.G.; Boespflug, E.P.; Martino, A.; Kawola, J.S.

    1998-02-01

    The conversion of small alkanes into alkenes represents an important chemical processing area; ethylene and propylene are the two most important organic chemicals manufactured in the U.S. These chemicals are currently manufactured by steam cracking of ethane and propane, an extremely energy intensive, nonselective process. The development of catalytic technologies (e.g., selective dehydrogenation) that can be used to produce ethylene and propylene from ethane and propane with greater selectivity and lower energy consumption than steam cracking will have a major impact on the chemical processing industry. This report details a study of two novel catalytic materials for the selective dehydrogenation of propane: Cr supported on hydrous titanium oxide ion-exchangers, and Pt nanoparticles encapsulated in silica and alumina aerogel and xerogel matrices.

  18. Method and apparatus for controlling fuel/air mixture in a lean burn engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kubesh, John Thomas (San Antonio, TX); Dodge, Lee Gene (San Antonio, TX); Podnar, Daniel James (San Antonio, TX)

    1998-04-07

    The system for controlling the fuel/air mixture supplied to a lean burn engine when operating on natural gas, gasoline, hydrogen, alcohol, propane, butane, diesel or any other fuel as desired. As specific humidity of air supplied to the lean burn engine increases, the oxygen concentration of exhaust gas discharged by the engine for a given equivalence ratio will decrease. Closed loop fuel control systems typically attempt to maintain a constant exhaust gas oxygen concentration. Therefore, the decrease in the exhaust gas oxygen concentration resulting from increased specific humidity will often be improperly attributed to an excessive supply of fuel and the control system will incorrectly reduce the amount of fuel supplied to the engine. Also, the minimum fuel/air equivalence ratio for a lean burn engine to avoid misfiring will increase as specific humidity increases. A relative humidity sensor to allow the control system to provide a more enriched fuel/air mixture at high specific humidity levels. The level of specific humidity may be used to compensate an output signal from a universal exhaust gas oxygen sensor for changing oxygen concentrations at a desired equivalence ratio due to variation in specific humidity specific humidity. As a result, the control system will maintain the desired efficiency, low exhaust emissions and power level for the associated lean burn engine regardless of the specific humidity level of intake air supplied to the lean burn engine.

  19. Emissions from In-Use NG, Propane, and Diesel Fueled Heavy Duty...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    In-Use NG, Propane, and Diesel Fueled Heavy Duty Vehicles Emissions from In-Use NG, Propane, and Diesel Fueled Heavy Duty Vehicles Emissions tests of in-use heavy-duty vehicles ...

  20. Experimentally Measured Interfacial Area during Gas Injection into Saturated Porous Media: An Air Sparging Analogy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crandall, Dustin; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Smith, Duane H., Bromhal, Grant

    2010-01-01

    The amount of interfacial area (awn) between air and subsurface liquids during air-sparging can limit the rate of site remediation. Lateral movement within porous media could be encountered during air-sparging operations when air moves along the bottom of a low-permeability lens. This study was conducted to directly measure the amount of awn between air and water flowing within a bench-scale porous flow cell during the lateral movement of air along the upper edge of the cell during air injections into an initially water-saturated flow cell. Four different cell orientations were used to evaluate the effect of air injection rates and porous media geometries on the amount of awn between fluids. Air was injected at flow rates that varied by three orders of magnitude, and for each flow cellover this range of injection rates little change in awn was noted. A wider variation in awn was observed when air moved through different regions for the different flow cell orientations. These results are in good agreement with the experimental findings of Waduge et al. (2007), who performed experiments in a larger sand-pack flow cell, and determined that air-sparging efficiency is nearly independent of flow rate but highly dependent on the porous structure. By directly measuring the awn, and showing that awn does not vary greatly with changes in injection rate, we show that the lack of improvement to remediation rates is because there is a weak dependence of the awn on the air injection rate.

  1. Propane Vehicle and Infrastructure Codes and Standards Chart (Revised) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    This chart shows the SDOs responsible for leading the support and development of key codes and standards for propane.

  2. Preliminary formation analysis for compressed air energy storage in depleted natural gas reservoirs : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardner, William Payton

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an engineering and operational understanding of CAES performance for a depleted natural gas reservoir by evaluation of relative permeability effects of air, water and natural gas in depleted natural gas reservoirs as a reservoir is initially depleted, an air bubble is created, and as air is initially cycled. The composition of produced gases will be evaluated as the three phase flow of methane, nitrogen and brine are modeled. The effects of a methane gas phase on the relative permeability of air in a formation are investigated and the composition of the produced fluid, which consists primarily of the amount of natural gas in the produced air are determined. Simulations of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in depleted natural gas reservoirs were carried out to assess the effect of formation permeability on the design of a simple CAES system. The injection of N2 (as a proxy to air), and the extraction of the resulting gas mixture in a depleted natural gas reservoir were modeled using the TOUGH2 reservoir simulator with the EOS7c equation of state. The optimal borehole spacing was determined as a function of the formation scale intrinsic permeability. Natural gas reservoir results are similar to those for an aquifer. Borehole spacing is dependent upon the intrinsic permeability of the formation. Higher permeability allows increased injection and extraction rates which is equivalent to more power per borehole for a given screen length. The number of boreholes per 100 MW for a given intrinsic permeability in a depleted natural gas reservoir is essentially identical to that determined for a simple aquifer of identical properties. During bubble formation methane is displaced and a sharp N2methane boundary is formed with an almost pure N2 gas phase in the bubble near the borehole. During cycling mixing of methane and air occurs along the boundary as the air bubble boundary moves. The extracted gas mixture changes as a function of time and proximity of the bubble boundary to the well. For all simulations reported here, with a formation radius above 50 m the maximum methane composition in the produced gas phase was less than 0.5%. This report provides an initial investigation of CAES in a depleted natural gas reservoir, and the results will provide useful guidance in CAES system investigation and design in the future.

  3. Application of nonparametric regression and statistical testing to identify the impact of oil and natural gas development on local air quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pekney, Natalie J.; Cheng, Hanqi; Small, Mitchell J.

    2015-11-05

    Abstract: The objective of the current work was to develop a statistical method and associated tool to evaluate the impact of oil and natural gas exploration and production activities on local air quality.

  4. Long-term Operation of an External Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser-based Trace-gas Sensor for Building Air Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, Mark C.; Craig, Ian M.

    2013-11-03

    We analyze the long-term performance and stability of a trace-gas sensor based on an external cavity quantum cascade laser using data collected over a one-year period in a building air monitoring application.

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of Gold Clusters Ligated with 1,3-Bis(dicyclohexylphosphino)propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Grant E.; Priest, Thomas A.; Laskin, Julia

    2013-09-01

    In this multidisciplinary study we combine chemical reduction synthesis of novel gold clusters in solution with high-resolution analytical mass spectrometry (MS) to gain insight into the composition of the gold clusters and how their size, ionic charge state and ligand substitution influences their gas-phase fragmentation pathways. Ultra small cationic gold clusters ligated with 1,3-bis(dicyclohexylphosphino)propane (DCPP) were synthesized for the first time and introduced into the gas phase using electrospray ionization (ESI). Mass-selected cluster ions were fragmented employing collision induced dissociation (CID) and the product ions were analysed using MS. The solutions were found to contain the multiply charged cationic gold clusters Au9L43+, Au13L53+, Au6L32+, Au8L32+ and Au10L42+ (L = DCPP). The gas-phase fragmentation pathways of these cluster ions were examined systematically employing CID combined with MS. In addition, CID experiments were performed on related gold clusters of the same size and ionic charge state but capped with 1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane (DPPP) ligands containing phenyl functional groups at the two phosphine centers instead of cyclohexane rings. It is shown that this relatively small change in the molecular substitution of the two phosphine centers in diphosphine ligands (C6H11 versus C6H5) exerts a pronounced influence on the size of the species that are preferentially formed in solution during reduction synthesis as well as the gas-phase fragmentation channels of otherwise identical gold cluster ions. The mass spectrometry results indicate that in addition to the length of the alkyl chain between the two phosphine centers, the substituents at the phosphine centers also play a crucial role in determining the composition, size and stability of diphosphine ligated gold clusters synthesized in solution.

  6. Chemical kinetic modeling of high pressure propane oxidation and comparison to experimental results. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koert, D.N.; Pitz, W.J.; Bozzelli, J.W.; Cernansky, N.P.

    1996-02-01

    A pressure dependent kinetic mechanism for propane oxidation is developed and compared to experimental data from a high pressure flow reactor. Experimental conditions range from 10--15 atm, 650--800 K, and a residence time of 198 ms for propane-air mixtures at an equivalence ratio of 0.4. The experimental results clearly indicate a negative temperature coefficient (NTC) behavior. The chemistry describing this phenomena is critical in understanding automotive engine knock and cool flame oscillations. Results of the numerical model are compared to a spectrum of stable species profiles sampled from the flow reactor. Rate constants and product channels for the reaction of propyl radicals, hydroperoxy-propyl radicals and important isomers (radicals) with O{sub 2} were estimated using thermodynamic properties, with multifrequency quantum Kassel Theory for k(E) coupled with modified strong collision analysis for fall-off. Results of the chemical kinetic model show an NTC region over nearly the same temperature regime as observed in the experiments. Sensitivity analysis identified the key reaction steps that control the rate of oxidation in the NTC region. The model reasonably simulates the profiles for many of the major and minor species observed in the experiments.

  7. Zeolitic imidazolate frameworks for kinetic separation of propane and propene

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Jing; Li, Kunhao; Olson, David H.

    2014-08-05

    Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks (ZIFs) characterized by organic ligands consisting of imidazole ligands that are either essentially all 2-chloroimidazole ligands or essentially all 2-bromoimidazole ligands are disclosed. Methods for separating propane and propene with the ZIFs of the present invention, as well as other ZIFs, are also disclosed.

  8. Performance and evaluation of gas engine driven rooftop air conditioning equipment at the Willow Grove (PA) Naval Air Station. Interim report, 1992 cooling season

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, P.R.; Conover, D.R.

    1993-05-01

    In a field evaluation conducted for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the performance of a new US energy-related technology under the FEMP Test Bed Demonstration Program. The technology was a 15-ton natural gas engine driven roof top air conditioning unit. Two such units were installed on a naval retail building to provide space conditioning to the building. Under the Test Bed Demonstration Program, private and public sector interests are focused to support the installation and evaluation of new US technologies in the federal sector. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with DOE were the American Gas Cooling Center, Philadelphia Electric Company, Thermo King Corporation, and the US Naval Air Station at Willow Grove, Pennsylvania. Equipment operating and service data as well as building interior and exterior conditions were secured for the 1992 cooling season. Based on a computer assessment of the building using standard weather data, a comparison was made with the energy and operating costs associated with the previous space conditioning system. Based on performance during the 1992 cooling season and adjusted to a normal weather year, the technology will save the site $6,000/yr in purchased energy costs. An additional $9,000 in savings due to electricity demand ratchet charge reductions will also be realized. Detailed information on the technology, the installation, and the results of the technology test are provided to illustrate the advantages to the federal sector of using this technology. A history of the CRADA development process is also reported.

  9. Propane Market Outlook Key Market Trends, Opportunities, and Threats Facing the Consumer

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Propane Market Outlook Key Market Trends, Opportunities, and Threats Facing the Consumer Propane Industry Through 2025 Prepared for the Propane Education & Research Council (PERC) by: ICF International, Inc. 9300 Lee Highway Fairfax, VA 22031 Tel (703) 218-2758 www.icfi.com Principal Author: Mr. Michael Sloan msloan@icfi.com P R E S E N T E D B Y : Propane Market Outlook at a Glance ¡ ICF projects consumer propane sales to grow by about 800 million gallons (9 percent) between 2014 and

  10. Determination of carbonyl sulfide in air by derivatization with 1,3-diaminopropane and capillary gas chromatographic analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leiber, M.A.; Berk, H.C.

    1985-12-01

    A method for monitoring personal exposure to carbonyl sulfide in air has been developed and validated. Carbonyl sulfide is collected on Woelm column chromatography polyamide coated with 1,3-diaminopropane as an in situ derivatizing agent. This is followed by desorption with 0.01 N NaOH solution and analysis by capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. The method was laboratory validated over the range of 1-20 ppm carbonyl sulfide in air with an average recovery of 90.4% and a relative standard deviation range of 0.030-0.080. Humidity, elevated temperature, and storage effects are reported along with a comparison to a previously reported method of analysis involving titration. The results of field tests conducted at an industrial location are reported. 16 references, 2 figures, 5 tables.

  11. Performance and evaluation of gas-engine-driven split-system cooling equipment at the Willow Grove Naval Air Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, P.R.; Schmelzer, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    DOE`s Federal Energy Management Program supports efforts to reduce energy use and associated expenditures within the federal sector; one such effort, the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP)(formerly the Test Bed Demonstration program), seeks to evaluate new energy saving US technologies and secure their more timely adoption by the federal government. This report describes the field evaluation conducted to examine the performance of a 15-ton natural-gas-engine- driven, split-system, air-conditioning unit. The unit was installed at a multiple-use building at Willow Grove Naval Air Station, a regular and reserve training facility north of Philadelphia, and its performance was monitored under the NTDP.

  12. Comparative life-cycle air emissions of coal, domestic natural gas, LNG, and SNG for electricity generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paulina Jaramillo; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews

    2007-09-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that in the coming decades the United States' natural gas (NG) demand for electricity generation will increase. Estimates also suggest that NG supply will increasingly come from imported liquefied natural gas (LNG). Additional supplies of NG could come domestically from the production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) via coal gasification-methanation. The objective of this study is to compare greenhouse gas (GHG), SOx, and NOx life-cycle emissions of electricity generated with NG/LNG/SNG and coal. This life-cycle comparison of air emissions from different fuels can help us better understand the advantages and disadvantages of using coal versus globally sourced NG for electricity generation. Our estimates suggest that with the current fleet of power plants, a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have lower GHG emissions than coal. If advanced technologies with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) are used, however, coal and a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have very similar life-cycle GHG emissions. For SOx and NOx we find there are significant emissions in the upstream stages of the NG/LNG life-cycles, which contribute to a larger range in SOx and NOx emissions for NG/LNG than for coal and SNG. 38 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Natural Gas Vans To Help Clear the Air In Metro Denver

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SuperShuttle purchased the 10 compressed natural gas (CNG) vans to transport passengers ... Five of the 10 new vans are dedicated fuel vehicles, which means they run only on CNG. The ...

  14. Design of a test facility for gas-fired desiccant-based air conditioning systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jalalzadeh-Azar, A.A.; Steele, W.G.; Hodge, B.K.

    1996-12-31

    The design of a facility for testing desiccant-based air conditioning systems is presented. The determination of the performance parameters of desiccant systems is discussed including moisture removal capacity, latent and total cooling capacities, and efficiency indexes. The appropriate procedures and key measurements for determining these parameters are identified using uncertainty analysis.

  15. Measurement of gas species, temperatures, coal burnout, and wall heat fluxes in a 200 MWe lignite-fired boiler with different overfire air damper openings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jianping Jing; Zhengqi Li; Guangkui Liu; Zhichao Chen; Chunlong Liu

    2009-07-15

    Measurements were performed on a 200 MWe, wall-fired, lignite utility boiler. For different overfire air (OFA) damper openings, the gas temperature, gas species concentration, coal burnout, release rates of components (C, H, and N), furnace temperature, and heat flux and boiler efficiency were measured. Cold air experiments for a single burner were conducted in the laboratory. The double-swirl flow pulverized-coal burner has two ring recirculation zones starting in the secondary air region in the burner. As the secondary air flow increases, the axial velocity of air flow increases, the maxima of radial velocity, tangential velocity and turbulence intensity all increase, and the swirl intensity of air flow and the size of recirculation zones increase slightly. In the central region of the burner, as the OFA damper opening widens, the gas temperature and CO concentration increase, while the O{sub 2} concentration, NOx concentration, coal burnout, and release rates of components (C, H, and N) decrease, and coal particles ignite earlier. In the secondary air region of the burner, the O{sub 2} concentration, NOx concentration, coal burnout, and release rates of components (C, H, and N) decrease, and the gas temperature and CO concentration vary slightly. In the sidewall region, the gas temperature, O{sub 2} concentration, and NOx concentration decrease, while the CO concentration increases and the gas temperature varies slightly. The furnace temperature and heat flux in the main burning region decrease appreciably, but increase slightly in the burnout region. The NOx emission decreases from 1203.6 mg/m{sup 3} (6% O{sub 2}) for a damper opening of 0% to 511.7 mg/m{sup 3} (6% O{sub 2}) for a damper opening of 80% and the boiler efficiency decreases from 92.59 to 91.9%. 15 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Primary zone air proportioner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cleary, Edward N. G. (San Diego, CA)

    1982-10-12

    An air proportioner is provided for a liquid hydrocarbon fueled gas turbine of the type which is convertible to oil gas fuel and to coal gas fuel. The turbine includes a shell for enclosing the turbine, an air duct for venting air in said shell to a gasifier, and a fuel injector for injecting gasified fuel into the turbine. The air proportioner comprises a second air duct for venting air from the air duct for mixing with fuel from the gasifier. The air can be directly injected into the gas combustion basket along with the fuel from the injector or premixed with fuel from the gasifier prior to injection by the fuel injector.

  17. Energy Efficiency Tax Credits, Rebates and Financing: What Options...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Advanced main air circulating fan Air-source heat pump Central air conditioning Gas, propane, or oil hot water boiler Natural gas, propane, or oil furnace Insulation Roofs (metal...

  18. Energy savings and economics of advanced control strategies for packaged air conditioners with gas heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Huang, Yunzhi; Brambley, Michael R.

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the potential energy savings from adding advanced control to existing packaged air conditioners. Advanced control options include air-side economizer, multi-speed fan control, demand control ventilation and staged cooling. The energy and cost savings from the different control strategies individually and in combination are estimated using the EnergyPlus detailed energy simulation program for four building types, namely, a small office building, a stand-alone retail building, a strip mall building and a supermarket building. For each of the four building types, the simulation was run for 16 locations covering all 15 climate zones in the U.S. The maximum installed cost of a replacement controller that provides acceptable payback periods to owners is estimated.

  19. Total Supplemental Supply of Natural Gas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Total Supplemental Supply Synthetic Propane-Air Refinery Gas Biomass Other Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Area 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 View History U.S. 64,575 60,088 61,366 54,650 59,528 59,693 1980-2015 Alabama 0 0 0 0 0 1967-2014 Alaska 0 0 0 0 0 2004-2014 Arizona 0 0 0 0 0 1967-2014 Arkansas 0 0 0 0 0 1967-2014 Colorado 5,148 4,268 4,412 4,077 4,120

  20. Chemical kinetic modeling of high pressure propane oxidation and comparison to experimental results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koert, D.N.; Pitz, W.J.; Bozzelli, J.W.; Cernansky, N.P.

    1995-11-08

    A pressure dependent kinetic mechanism for propane oxidation is developed and compared to experimental data from a high pressure flow reactor. The experiment conditions range from 10--15 atm, 650--800 K, and were performed at a residence time of 200 {micro}s for propane-air mixtures at an equivalence ratio of 0.4. The experimental results include data on negative temperature coefficient (NTC) behavior, where the chemistry describing this phenomena is considered critical in understanding automotive engine knock and cool flame oscillations. Results of the numerical model are compared to a spectrum of stable species profiles sampled from the flow reactor. Rate constants and product channels for the reaction of propyl radicals, hydroperoxy-propyl radicals and important isomers with O{sub 2} were estimated using thermodynamic properties, with multifrequency quantum Kassel Theory for k(E) coupled with modified strong collision analysis for fall-off. Results of the chemical kinetic model show an NTC region over nearly the same temperature regime as observed in the experiments. The model simulates properly the production of many of the major and minor species observed in the experiments. Numerical simulations show many of the key reactions involving propylperoxy radicals are in partial equilibrium at 10--15 atm. This indicates that their relative concentrations are controlled by a combination of thermochemistry and rate of minor reaction channels (bleed reactions) rather than primary reaction rates. This suggests that thermodynamic parameters of the oxygenated species, which govern equilibrium concentrations, are important. The modeling results show propyl radical and hydroperoxy-propyl radicals reaction with O{sub 2} proceeds, primarily, through thermalized adducts, not chemically activated channels.

  1. Table A2. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Marketing Annual 1999 421 Table A2. RefinerReseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Kerosene, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) -...

  2. Table 14. U.S. Propane (Consumer Grade) Prices by Sales Type

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and EIA-782B, "Resellers'Retailers' Monthly Petroleum Product Sales Report." 14. U.S. Propane (Consumer Grade) Prices by Sales Type 28 Energy Information Administration ...

  3. Table A2. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Marketing Annual 1995 467 Table A2. RefinerReseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Kerosene, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) -...

  4. Environmental implications of alternative-fueled automobiles: Air quality and greenhouse gas tradeoffs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MaClean, H.L.; Lave, L.B.

    2000-01-15

    The authors analyze alternative fuel-powerstrain options for internal combustion engine automobiles. Fuel/engine efficiency, energy use, pollutant discharges, and greenhouse gas emissions are estimated for spark and compression ignited, direct injected (DI), and indirect injected (II) engines fueled by conventional and reformulated gasoline, reformulated diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), and alcohols. Since comparisons of fuels and technologies in dissimilar vehicles are misleading, the authors hold emissions level, range, vehicle size class, and style constant. At present, CNG vehicles have the best exhaust emissions performance while DI diesels have the worst. Compared to a conventional gasoline fueled II automobile, greenhouse gases could be reduced by 40% by a DI CNG automobile and by 25% by a DI diesel. Gasoline- and diesel-fueled automobiles are able to attain long ranges with little weight or fuel economy penalty. CNG vehicles have the highest penalty for increasing range, due to their heavy fuel storage systems, but are the most attractive for a 160-km range. DI engines, particularly diesels, may not be able to meet strict emissions standards, at least not without lowering efficiency.

  5. Mid-section of a can-annular gas turbine engine with an improved rotation of air flow from the compressor to the turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Little, David A.; Schilp, Reinhard; Ross, Christopher W.

    2016-03-22

    A midframe portion (313) of a gas turbine engine (310) is presented and includes a compressor section with a last stage blade to orient an air flow (311) at a first angle (372). The midframe portion (313) further includes a turbine section with a first stage blade to receive the air flow (311) oriented at a second angle (374). The midframe portion (313) further includes a manifold (314) to directly couple the air flow (311) from the compressor section to a combustor head (318) upstream of the turbine section. The combustor head (318) introduces an offset angle in the air flow (311) from the first angle (372) to the second angle (374) to discharge the air flow (311) from the combustor head (318) at the second angle (374). While introducing the offset angle, the combustor head (318) at least maintains or augments the first angle (372).

  6. Power plant including an exhaust gas recirculation system for injecting recirculated exhaust gases in the fuel and compressed air of a gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy; Shaffer, Jason Brian; York, William David

    2014-05-13

    A power plant is provided and includes a gas turbine engine having a combustor in which compressed gas and fuel are mixed and combusted, first and second supply lines respectively coupled to the combustor and respectively configured to supply the compressed gas and the fuel to the combustor and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system to re-circulate exhaust gas produced by the gas turbine engine toward the combustor. The EGR system is coupled to the first and second supply lines and configured to combine first and second portions of the re-circulated exhaust gas with the compressed gas and the fuel at the first and second supply lines, respectively.

  7. Final report of the Rhode Island State Energy Office on residential no. 2 heating oil and propane prices [SHOPP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClanahan, Janice

    2001-04-01

    Summary report on residential No.2 heating oil and propane prepared under grant. Summarizes the monitoring and analysis of heating oil and propane prices from October 2000 through March 2001.

  8. Performance and Emissions Characteristics of Bio-Diesel (B100)-Ignited Methane and Propane Combustion in a Four Cylinder Turbocharged Compression Ignition Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shoemaker, N. T.; Gibson, C. M.; Polk, A. C.; Krishnan, S. R.; Srinivasan, K. K.

    2011-10-05

    Different combustion strategies and fuel sources are needed to deal with increasing fuel efficiency demands and emission restrictions. One possible strategy is dual fueling using readily available resources. Propane and natural gas are readily available with the current infrastructure and biodiesel is growing in popularity as a renewable fuel. This paper presents experimental results from dual fuel combustion of methane (as a surrogate for natural gas) and propane as primary fuels with biodiesel pilots in a 1.9 liter, turbocharged, 4 cylinder diesel engine at 1800 rev/min. Experiments were performed with different percentage energy substitutions (PES) of propane and methane and at different brake mean effective pressures (BMEP/bmep). Brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and emissions (NOx, HC, CO, CO2, O2 and smoke) were also measured. Maximum PES levels for B100-methane dual fuelling were limited to 70% at 2.5 bar bmep and 48% at 10 bar bmep, and corresponding values for B100-propane dual fuelling were 64% and 43%, respectively. Maximum PES was limited by misfire at 2.5 bar bmep and the onset of engine knock at 10 bar bmep. Dual fuel BTEs approached straight B100 values at 10 bar bmep while they were significantly lower than B100 values at 2.5 bar bmep. In general dual fuelling was beneficial in reducing NOx and smoke emissions by 33% and 50%, respectively from baseline B100 levels; however, both CO and THC emissions were significantly higher than baseline B100 levels at all PES and loads.

  9. Natural Gas Variability In California: Environmental Impacts And Device Performance Combustion Modeling of Pollutant Emissions From a Residential Cooking Range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tonse, S. R.; Singer, B. C.

    2011-07-01

    As part of a larger study of liquefied natural gas impacts on device performance and pollutant emissions for existing equipment in California, this report describes a cmoputer modeling study of a partially premixed flame issueing from a single cooktop burner port. The model consisted of a reactive computational fluid dynamics three-dimensional spatial grid and a 71-species chemical mechanism with propane combustion capability. Simulations were conducted with a simplified fuel mixture containing methane, ethane, and propane in proportions that yield properties similar to fuels distributed throughout much of California now and in recent years (baseline fuel), as well as with two variations of simulated liquefied natural gas blends. A variety of simulations were conducted with baseline fuel to explore the effect of several key parameters on pollutant formation and other flame characteristics. Simulations started with fuel and air issuing through the burner port, igniting, and continuing until the flame was steady with time. Conditions at this point were analyzed to understand fuel, secondary air and reaction product flows, regions of pollutant formation, and exhaust concentrations of carbon monoxide, nitric oxide and formaldehyde. A sensitivity study was conducted, varying the inflow parameters of this baseline gs about real-world operating conditions. Flame properties responded as expected from reactive flow theory. In the simulation, carbon monoxide levels were influenced more by the mixture's inflow velocity than by the gas-to-air ratio in the mixture issuing from the inflow port. Additional simulations were executed at two inflow conditions - high heat release and medium heat release - to examine the impact of replacing the baseline gas with two mixtures representative of liquefied natural gas. Flame properties and pollutant generation rates were very similar among the three fuel mixtures.

  10. Autoignited laminar lifted flames of propane in coflow jets with tribrachial edge and mild combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, B.C.; Kim, K.N.; Chung, S.H.

    2009-02-15

    Characteristics of laminar lifted flames have been investigated experimentally by varying the initial temperature of coflow air over 800 K in the non-premixed jets of propane diluted with nitrogen. The result showed that the lifted flame with the initial temperature below 860 K maintained the typical tribrachial structure at the leading edge, which was stabilized by the balance mechanism between the propagation speed of tribrachial flame and the local flow velocity. For the temperature above 860 K, the flame was autoignited without having any external ignition source. The autoignited lifted flames were categorized in two regimes. In the case with tribrachial edge structure, the liftoff height increased nonlinearly with jet velocity. Especially, for the critical condition near blowout, the lifted flame showed a repetitive behavior of extinction and reignition. In such a case, the autoignition was controlled by the non-adiabatic ignition delay time considering heat loss such that the autoignition height was correlated with the square of the adiabatic ignition delay time. In the case with mild combustion regime at excessively diluted conditions, the liftoff height increased linearly with jet velocity and was correlated well with the square of the adiabatic ignition delay time. (author)

  11. Effect of temperature and pressure on the dynamics of nanoconfined propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gautam, Siddharth Liu, Tingting Welch, Susan; Cole, David; Rother, Gernot; Jalarvo, Niina; Mamontov, Eugene

    2014-04-24

    We report the effect of temperature and pressure on the dynamical properties of propane confined in nanoporous silica aerogel studied using quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS). Our results demonstrate that the effect of a change in the pressure dominates over the effect of temperature variation on the dynamics of propane nano-confined in silica aerogel. At low pressures, most of the propane molecules are strongly bound to the pore walls, only a small fraction is mobile. As the pressure is increased, the fraction of mobile molecules increases. A change in the mechanism of motion, from continuous diffusion at low pressures to jump diffusion at higher pressures has also been observed.

  12. Propane-Diesel Dual Fuel for CO2 and Nox Reduction | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Propane-Diesel Dual Fuel for CO2 and Nox Reduction Propane-Diesel Dual Fuel for CO2 and Nox Reduction Test results show significant CO2 and NOx emission reductions, fuel economy gains, and overall energy savings with propane injection in a diesel engine. PDF icon p-18_servati.pdf More Documents & Publications Active DPF for Off-Road Particulate Matter (PM) Control Power Generating Stationary Engines Nox Control: A Closed Loop Control Technology DPF for a Tractor Auxiliary Power Unit

  13. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids Supply and Demand

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2015-01-01

    The hydrocarbon gas liquids (ethane, propane, butanes, and natural gasoline) module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide forecasts of U.S. production, consumption, refinery inputs, net imports, and inventories.

  14. Updated greenhouse gas and criteria air pollutant emission factors and their probability distribution functions for electricity generating units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, H.; Wang, M.; Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.

    2012-07-06

    Greenhouse gas (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O, hereinafter GHG) and criteria air pollutant (CO, NO{sub x}, VOC, PM{sub 10}, PM{sub 2.5} and SO{sub x}, hereinafter CAP) emission factors for various types of power plants burning various fuels with different technologies are important upstream parameters for estimating life-cycle emissions associated with alternative vehicle/fuel systems in the transportation sector, especially electric vehicles. The emission factors are typically expressed in grams of GHG or CAP per kWh of electricity generated by a specific power generation technology. This document describes our approach for updating and expanding GHG and CAP emission factors in the GREET (Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation) model developed at Argonne National Laboratory (see Wang 1999 and the GREET website at http://greet.es.anl.gov/main) for various power generation technologies. These GHG and CAP emissions are used to estimate the impact of electricity use by stationary and transportation applications on their fuel-cycle emissions. The electricity generation mixes and the fuel shares attributable to various combustion technologies at the national, regional and state levels are also updated in this document. The energy conversion efficiencies of electric generating units (EGUs) by fuel type and combustion technology are calculated on the basis of the lower heating values of each fuel, to be consistent with the basis used in GREET for transportation fuels. On the basis of the updated GHG and CAP emission factors and energy efficiencies of EGUs, the probability distribution functions (PDFs), which are functions that describe the relative likelihood for the emission factors and energy efficiencies as random variables to take on a given value by the integral of their own probability distributions, are updated using best-fit statistical curves to characterize the uncertainties associated with GHG and CAP emissions in life-cycle modeling with GREET.

  15. A rapid compression machine study of the oxidation of propane in the negative temperature coefficient regime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallagher, S.M.; Curran, H.J.; Metcalfe, W.K.; Healy, D.; Simmie, J.M.; Bourque, G.

    2008-04-15

    The oxidation of propane has been studied in the temperature range 680-970 K at compressed gas pressures of 21, 27, and 37 atm and at varying equivalence ratios of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0. These data are consistent with other experiments presented in the literature for alkane fuels in that, when ignition delay times are plotted as a function of temperature, a characteristic negative coefficient behavior is observed. In addition, these data were simulated using a detailed chemical kinetic model. It was found that qualitatively the model correctly simulated the effect of change in equivalence ratio and pressure, predicting that fuel-rich, high-pressure mixtures ignite fastest, while fuel-lean, low-pressure mixtures ignite slowest. Moreover, reactivity as a function of temperature is well captured, with the model predicting negative temperature coefficient behavior similar to the experiments. Quantitatively the model is faster than experiment for all mixtures at the lowest temperatures (650-750 K) and is also faster than experiment throughout the entire temperature range for fuel-lean mixtures. (author)

  16. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Regional Residential Propane Price Model

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    The regional residential propane price module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide residential retail price forecasts for the 4 Census regions: Northeast, South, Midwest, and West.

  17. Table A2. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    - W 73.5 See footnotes at end of table. A2. RefinerReseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Kerosene, by PAD District, 1983-Present Energy Information Administration ...

  18. School Districts Move to the Head of the Class with Propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2016-01-01

    Propane has been a proven fuel for buses for decades. For the first time in 2007, Blue Bird rolled out a propane school bus using direct liquid injection, which was later followed by Thomas Built Buses and Navistar. Because this new technology is much more reliable than previous designs, it is essentially reintroducing propane buses to many school districts. During this same time period, vehicle emissions standards have tightened. To meet them, diesel engine manufacturers have added diesel particulate filters (DPF) and, more recently, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems. As an alternative to diesel buses with these systems, many school districts have looked to other affordable, clean alternatives, and they've found that propane fits the bill.

  19. School Districts Move to the Head of the Class with Propane (Brochure), Clean Cities, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Propane's School Bus History While propane has been used in buses for decades, recent technologi- cal advancements have made it more reliable than ever. Prior to 2007, all propane vehicles used vapor injection technology. In 2007, Blue Bird rolled out a propane school bus using direct liquid injection for the first time, and this was followed by Thomas Built Buses and Navistar. Liquid injection technology makes propane buses a more reliable option. Since 2007, vehicle emissions standards have

  20. Propane Vehicle and Infrastructure Codes and Standards Chart (Revised) (Fact Sheet), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Many standards development organizations (SDOs) are working to develop codes and standards needed for the utilization of alternative fuel vehicle technologies. This chart shows the SDOs responsible for leading the support and development of key codes and standards for propane. Propane Vehicle and Infrastructure Codes and Standards Chart Vehicle Systems Safety: Vehicle Tanks and Piping: Vehicle Components: Vehicle Dispensing Systems: Vehicle Dispensing System Components: Storage Systems: Storage

  1. Propane Vehicle and Infrastructure Codes and Standards Citations (Brochure), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Propane Vehicle and Infrastructure Codes and Standards Citations This document lists codes and standards typically used for U.S. propane vehicle and infrastructure projects. To determine which codes and standards apply to a specific project, identify the codes and standards currently in effect within the jurisdiction where the

  2. Safety issues relating to the liquefied petroleum gas, compressed natural gas and liquefied natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petru, T.D.

    1995-12-31

    The Railroad Commission of Texas, LP-Gas Division, is statutorily responsible for the safety aspects of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) most commonly known as LP-gas or propane, compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG). This presentation will address the safety issues relating to their use as alternative fuels. The paper discusses the safety of pressure vessels used for storage of the fuels at refueling facilities and the containers mounted in vehicles. Other topics include the lack of odorants in LNG, the use of protective clothing when handling cryogenic fluids, and where to obtain a copy of the safety regulations for handling these three fuels.

  3. Eia.gov BETA - Data - U.S. Energy Information Administration...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... All natural gas data reports Analysis & Projections ... natural gas, biomass, refinery gas, propane-air, etc. ... Release Date: March 16, 2016 This report provides ...

  4. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahrens, F.W.; Kartsounes, G.T.

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air presure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  5. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahrens, Frederick W.; Kartsounes, George T.

    1980-01-01

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air pressure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  6. North Dakota Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    53,495 54,813 51,303 52,541 45,736 48,394 1967-2014 Synthetic 53,495 54,813 51,303 52,541 45,736 48,394 1980-2014 Propane-Air 0 0 1980

  7. Hawaii Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    2,447 2,472 2,467 2,510 2,658 2,743 1980-2014 Synthetic 2,438 2,465 2,442 2,491 2,639 2,733 1980-2014 Propane-Air 9 6 25 20 19 10 2004...

  8. Colorado Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    7,527 5,148 4,268 4,412 4,077 4,120 1967-2014 Propane-Air 3 4 21 99 6 10 1980-2014 Other 7,525 5,144 4,247 4,313 4,071 4,110 1980-2014

  9. Hawaii Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2,447 2,472 2,467 2,510 2,658 2,743 1980-2014 Synthetic 2,438 2,465 2,442 2,491 2,639 2,733 1980-2014 Propane-Air 9 6 25 20 19 10 2004

  10. Gas Swimming Pool Heaters | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Gas Swimming Pool Heaters Gas Swimming Pool Heaters Gas Swimming Pool Heaters Gas-fired pool heaters remain the most popular system for heating swimming pools. Today you can find new gas-fired heater models with much higher efficiencies than older models. Still, depending on your climate and pool use, they may not be the most energy-efficient option when compared to heat pump and solar pool heaters. How They Work Gas pool heaters use either natural gas or propane. As the pump circulates the

  11. Assessment of the risk of transporting propane by truck and train

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geffen, C.A.

    1980-03-01

    The risk of shipping propane is discussed and the risk assessment methodology is summarized. The risk assessment model has been constructed as a series of separate analysis steps to allow the risk to be readily reevaluated as additional data becomes available or as postulated system characteristics change. The transportation system and accident environment, the responses of the shipping system to forces in transportation accidents, and release sequences are evaluated to determine both the likelihood and possible consequences of a release. Supportive data and analyses are given in the appendices. The risk assessment results are related to the year 1985 to allow a comparison with other reports in this series. Based on the information presented, accidents involving tank truck shipments of propane will be expected to occur at a rate of 320 every year; accidents involving bobtails would be expected at a rate of 250 every year. Train accidents involving propane shipments would be expected to occur at a rate of about 60 every year. A release of any amount of material from propane trucks, under both normal transportation and transport accident conditions, is to be expected at a rate of about 110 per year. Releases from propane rail tank cars would occur about 40 times a year. However, only those releases that occur during a transportation accident or involve a major tank defect will include sufficient propane to present the potential for danger to the public. These significant releases can be expected at the lower rate of about fourteen events per year for truck transport and about one event every two years for rail tank car transport. The estimated number of public fatalities resulting from these significant releases in 1985 is fifteen. About eleven fatalities per year result from tank truck operation, and approximately half a death per year stems from the movement of propane in rail tank cars.

  12. A warm air poultry brooding system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nulte, W.H.

    1980-12-01

    As the energy crisis escalated during the mid-70's, it became apparent that energy intensive industries must seek alternate fuel sources. Georgia Tech realized that one of these industries was the poultry industry. Consequently, a demonstration project of a wood-fired, warm air poultry brooding system was designed and built. Since its completion in mid-1978, the system has demonstrated considerable cost savings as well as being a very functional and reliable system. The system consists of 3 main components--a wood burning furnace, a supply distribution and return duct, and 20 flexible ducts which simulate the function of the propane brooders by providing warm air close to the ground. A separate structure houses the furnace and wood supply. This house is located at the midpoint of the growout house to allow symmetrical and naturally balanced air distribution. Since the system became operational, 16 flocks of birds have been brooded. During this time, wood usage has averaged approximately 30 cords per year while in a neighboring house, that is used as a control house, the propane usage has averaged 3,800 gallons per year. In the area of Georgia where the demonstration project is located, the cost of fuelwood has remained stable over the last 2 years, whereas the price of propane has continually increased. Thus the grower has the benefit of constantly increasing cost savings while utilizing a renewable resource as fuel.

  13. Dynamics of Propane in Silica Mesopores Formed upon PropyleneHydrogenation over Pt Nanoparticles by Time-Resolved FT-IRSpectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waslylenko, Walter; Frei, Heinz

    2007-01-31

    Propylene hydrogenation over Pt nanoparticles supported onmesoporous silica type SBA-15 was monitored by time-resolved FT-IRspectroscopy at 23 ms resolution using short propylene gas pulses thatjoined a continuous flow of hydrogen in N2 (1 atm total pressure).Experiments were conducted in the temperature range 323-413 K. Propanewas formed within 100 milliseconds or faster. The CH stretching regionrevealed distinct bands for propane molecules emerging inside thenanoscale channels of the silica support. Spectral analysis gave thedistribution of the propane product between support and surrounding gasphase as function of time. Kinetic analysis showed that the escape ofpropane molecules from the channels occurred within hundreds ofmilliseconds (3.1 + 0.4 s-1 at 383 K). A steady state distribution ofpropane between gas phase and mesoporous support is established as theproduct is swept from the catalyst zone by the continuous flow ofhydrogen co-reactant. This is the first direct spectroscopic observationof emerging products of heterogeneous catalysis on nanoporous supportsunder reaction conditions.

  14. Energy Savings and Economics of Advanced Control Strategies for Packaged Air-Conditioning Units with Gas Heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Huang, Yunzhi; Brambley, Michael R.

    2011-12-31

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's Building Technologies Program (BTP) evaluated a number of control strategies that can be implemented in a controller, to improve the operational efficiency of the packaged air conditioning units. The two primary objectives of this research project are: (1) determine the magnitude of energy savings achievable by retrofitting existing packaged air conditioning units with advanced control strategies not ordinarily used for packaged units and (2) estimating what the installed cost of a replacement control with the desired features should be in various regions of the U.S. This document reports results of the study.

  15. Number 2 heating oil/propane program. Final report, 1991/92

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBrien, J.

    1992-06-01

    During the 1991--92 heating season, the Massachusetts Division of Energy Resources (DOER) participated in a joint data collection program between several state energy offices and the federal Department of Energy`s (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA). The purpose of the program was to collect and monitor retail and wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories from October, 1991 through March, 1992. This final report begins with an overview of the unique events which had an impact on the reporting period. Next, the report summarizes the results from the residential heating oil and propane price surveys conducted by DOER over the 1991--1992 heating season. The report also incorporates the wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories collected by the EIA and distributed to the states. Finally, the report outlines DOER`s use of the data and responses to the events which unfolded during the 1991--1992 heating season.

  16. No. 2 heating oil/propane program. Final report, 1992/93

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBrien, J.

    1993-05-01

    During the 1992--93 heating season, the Massachusetts Division Energy Resources (DOER) participated in a joint data collection program between several state energy offices and the federal Department of Energy`s (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA). The purpose of the program was to collect and monitor retail and wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories from October, 1992 through March, 1993. This final report begins with an overview of the unique events which had an impact on the petroleum markets prior to and during the reporting period. Next, the report summarizes the results from residential heating oil and propane price surveys conducted by DOER over the 1992--93 heating season. The report also incorporates the wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories collected by the EIA and distributed to the states. Finally, the report outlines DOER`s use of the data.

  17. Heating oil and propane households bills to be lower this winter despite recent cold spell

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heating oil and propane households bills to be lower this winter despite recent cold spell Despite the recent cold weather, households that use heating oil or propane as their main space heating fuel are still expected to have lower heating bills compared with last winter. In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said the average household that uses heating oil will spend $1,780 this winter that's about $570 less than last winter. Those savings reflect lower crude

  18. Lower oil prices also cutting winter heating oil and propane...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    see even lower natural gas and heating oil bills this winter than previously expected ... said the average household heating with oil will experience a 41% drop in heating oil ...

  19. Alternative descriptions of catalyst deactivation in aromatization of propane and butane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koshelev, Yu.N.; Vorob`ev, B.L.; Khvorova, E.P.

    1995-08-20

    Deactivation of a zeolite-containing catalyst has been studied in aromatization of propane and butane. Various descriptions of the dependence of the alkane conversion on the coke concentration on the catalyst have been considered, and using a statistical method of estimating the model validity, the most preferable form of the deactivation function has been proposed.

  20. Analysis of U.S. Propane Markets Winter 1996-97, An

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1997-01-01

    This study constitutes an examination of propane supply, demand, and price developments and trends. The Energy Information Administration's approach focused on identifying the underlying reasons for the tight supply/demand balance in the fall of 1996, and on examining the potential for a recurrence of these events next year.

  1. Surface Termination of M1 Phase and Rational Design of Propane Ammoxidation Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guliants, Vadim

    2015-02-16

    This final report describes major accomplishments in this research project which has demonstrated that the M1 phase is the only crystalline phase required for propane ammoxidation to acrylonitrile and that a surface monolayer terminating the ab planes of the M1 phase is responsible for their activity and selectivity in this reaction. Fundamental studies of the topmost surface chemistry and mechanism of propane ammoxidation over the Mo-V-(Te,Sb)-(Nb,Ta)-O M1 and M2 phases resulted in the development of quantitative understanding of the surface molecular structure – reactivity relationships for this unique catalytic system. These oxides possess unique catalytic properties among mixed metal oxides, because they selectively catalyze three alkane transformation reactions, namely propane ammoxidation to acrylonitrile, propane oxidation to acrylic acid and ethane oxidative dehydrogenation, all of considerable economic significance. Therefore, the larger goal of this research was to expand this catalysis to other alkanes of commercial interest, and more broadly, demonstrate successful approaches to rational design of improved catalysts that can be applied to other selective (amm)oxidation processes.

  2. Metallurgical failure analysis of a propane tank boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kilgo, Alice C.; Eckelmeyer, Kenneth Hall; Susan, Donald Francis

    2005-01-01

    A severe fire and explosion occurred at a propane storage yard in Truth or Consequences, N.M., when a truck ran into the pumping and plumbing system beneath a large propane tank. The storage tank emptied when the liquid-phase excess flow valve tore out of the tank. The ensuing fire engulfed several propane delivery trucks, causing one of them to explode. A series of elevated-temperature stress-rupture tears developed along the top of a 9800 L (2600 gal) truck-mounted tank as it was heated by the fire. Unstable fracture then occurred suddenly along the length of the tank and around both end caps, along the girth welds connecting the end caps to the center portion of the tank. The remaining contents of the tank were suddenly released, aerosolized, and combusted, creating a powerful boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE). Based on metallography of the tank pieces, the approximate tank temperature at the onset of the BLEVE was determined. Metallurgical analysis of the ruptured tank also permitted several hypotheses regarding BLEVE mechanisms to be evaluated. Suggestions are made for additional work that could provide improved predictive capabilities regarding BLEVEs and for methods to decrease the susceptibility of propane tanks to BLEVEs.

  3. State of Missouri 1991--1992 Energy Information Administration State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the Missouri State Heating Oil and Propane Program was to develop a joint state-level company-specific data collective effort. The State of Missouri provided to the US Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration company specific price and volume information on residential No. 2 heating oil and propane on a semimonthly basis. The energy companies participating under the program were selected at random by the US Department of Energy and provided to the Missouri Department of Natural Resources' Division of Energy prior to the implementation of the program. The specific data collection responsibilities for the Missouri Department of Natural Resources' Division of Energy included: (1) Collection of semimonthly residential heating oil and propane prices, collected on the first and third Monday from August 1991 through August 1992; and, (2) Collection of annual sales volume data for residential propane for the period September 1, 1990 through August 31. 1991. This data was required for the first report only. These data were provided on a company identifiable level to the extent permitted by State law. Information was transmitted to the US Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration through the Petroleum Electronic Data Reporting Option (PEDRO).

  4. Novel Pt/Mg(In)(Al)O catalysts for ethane and propane dehydrogenation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Pingping; Siddiqi, Georges; Vining, William C.; Chi, Miaofang; Bell, Alexis T.

    2011-10-28

    Catalysts for the dehydrogenation of light alkanes were prepared by dispersing Pt on the surface of a calcined hydrotalcite-like support containing indium, Mg(In)(Al)O. Upon reduction in H{sub 2} at temperatures above 673 K, bimetallic particles of PtIn are observed by TEM, which have an average diameter of 1 nm. Analysis of Pt LIII-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) data shows that the In content of the bimetallic particles increases with increasing bulk In/Pt ratio and reduction temperature. Pt LIII-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) indicates that an increasing donation of electronic charge from In to Pt occurs with increasing In content in the PtIn particles. The activity and selectivity of the Pt/Mg(In)(Al)O catalysts for ethane and propane dehydrogenation reactions are strongly dependent on the bulk In/Pt ratio. For both reactants, maximum activity was achieved for a bulk In/Pt ratio of 0.48, and at this In/Pt ratio, the selectivity to alkene was nearly 100%. Coke deposition was observed after catalyst use for either ethane or propane dehydrogenation, and it was observed that the alloying of Pt with In greatly reduced the amount of coke deposited. Characterization of the deposit by Raman spectroscopy indicates that the coke is present as highly disordered graphite particles <30 nm in diameter. While the amount of coke deposited during ethane and propane dehydrogenation are comparable, the effects on activity are dependent on reactant composition. Coke deposition had no effect on ethane dehydrogenation activity, but caused a loss in propane dehydrogenation activity. This difference is attributed to the greater ease with which coke produced on the surface of PtIn nanoparticles migrates to the support during ethane dehydrogenation versus propane dehydrogenation.

  5. Microsoft PowerPoint - Propane_Briefing_140312.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    situation update March 12, 2014 | Washington, DC By Energy Information Administration NOAA forecast shows below normal temperatures across most of the Midwest for March 10 through March 18 U.S. Energy Information Administration 2 Source: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Climate Prediction Center, made March 11 6-10 day outlook 8-14 day outlook Natural gas and electricity are the major heating fuels for most of the United States U.S. Energy Information Administration 3 Source: U.S.

  6. An integrated process for simultaneous desulfurization, dehydration, and recovery of hydrocarbon liquids from natural gas streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sciamanna, S.F. ); ))

    1988-01-01

    Conventional processing schemes for desulfurizing, drying, and separation of natural gas liquids from natural gas streams require treating the gas by a different process for each separation step. In a simpler process, based on the University of California, Berkeley Sulfur Recovery Process (UCBSRP) technology, hydrogen sulfide, propane and heavier hydrocarbons, and water are absorbed simultaneously by a polyglycol ether solvent containing a homogenous liquid phase catalyst. The catalyst promotes the subsequent reaction of hydrogen sulfide with added sulfur dioxide to produce a high quality sulfur product. Hydrocarbons are separated as two product streams with the split between propane and butane. This new process offers an overall reduction in both capital and energy costs.

  7. Vandenberg Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 2, Baseline detail

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halverson, M.A.; Richman, E.E.; Dagle, J.E.; Hickman, B.J.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Sullivan, G.P.

    1993-06-01

    The US Air Force Space Command has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, as the lead laboratory supporting the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program, to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB). This is a model program PNL is designing for federal customers served by the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E). The primary goal of the VAFB project is to identify all electric energy efficiency opportunities, and to negotiate with PG and E to acquire those resources through a customized demand-side management program for its federal clients. That customized program should have three major characteristics: (1) 100% up-front financing; (2) substantial utility cost-sharing; and (3) utility implementation through energy service companies under contract to the utility. A similar arrangement will be pursued with Southern California Gas for non-electric resource opportunities if that is deemed desirable by the site and if the gas utility seems open to such an approach. This report documents the assessment of baseline energy use at VAFB located near Lompoc, California. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 3, Resource Assessment. This analysis examines the characteristics of electric, natural gas, fuel oil, and propane use for fiscal year 1991. It records energy-use intensities for the facilities at VAFB by building type and energy end use. It also breaks down building energy consumption by fuel type, energy end use, and building type. A more complete energy consumption reconciliation is presented that includes the accounting of all energy use among buildings, utilities, and applicable losses.

  8. Knoxville Area Transit: Propane Hybrid ElectricTrolleys; Advanced Technology Vehicles in Service, Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (Fact Sheet)

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    website and in print publications. TESTING ADVANCED VEHICLES KNOXVILLE AREA TRANSIT ◆ PROPANE HYBRID ELECTRIC TROLLEYS Knoxville Area Transit PROPANE HYBRID ELECTRIC TROLLEYS NREL/PIX 13795 KNOXVILLE AREA TRANSIT (KAT) is recognized nationally for its exceptional service to the City of Knoxville, Tennessee. KAT received the American Public Transportation Associa- tion's prestigious Outstanding Achievement Award in 2004. Award-winning accomplishments included KAT's increase in annual ridership

  9. Volumetric and phase behavior of selected Alberta bitumens saturated with supercritical-fluid CO{sub 2} and propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, B.; Chen, G.; Peng, D.Yu.

    1995-12-31

    Supercritical solvents play an important role in separation processes. In enhanced oil recovery and in the upgrading of heavy oils, CO{sub 2} and propane are two frequently used solvents. The application of supercritical-fluid CO{sub 2} and supercritical-fluid propane in in situ recovery of heavy oils and bitumens necessitates information on the volumetric properties and phase behavior of mixtures of these petroleum fluids and supercritical-fluid solvents. To develop this information, we have conducted phase equilibrium studies for selected Alberta bitumens. The systems studied are Athabasca bitumen + CO{sub 2}, Peace River + CO{sub 2}, and Athabasca bitumen + propane. For the CO{sub 2}-containing systems, the experiments were carried out at 35, 45, 55, and 65{degrees}C, and at pressures up to 14 MPa. For the Athabasca bitumen + propane system, the measurements were taken at 108.6, 113.6, and 124.9{degrees}C, and at pressures up to 8.2 MPa. The experimental data show that the solubilities of propane in Athabasca bitumen under isothermal conditions are not monotonic functions of pressure. The data also indicate that under conditions of the same reduced temperatures the supercritical-fluid propane can extract substantially more bitumen components than can supercritical-fluid CO{sub 2}.

  10. Hydrate decomposition conditions in the system hydrogen sulfide-methane, and propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroeter, J.P.; Kobayashi, R.; Hildebrand, H.A.

    1982-12-01

    Experimental hydrate decomposition conditions are presented for 3 different H/sub 2/S-containing mixtures in the temperature region 0 C to 30 C. The 3 mixtures investigated were 4% H/sub 2/S, 7% propane, 89% methane; 12% H/sub 2/S, 7% propane, 81% methane; and 30% H/sub 2/S, 7% propane, 63% methane. Hydrate decomposition pressures and temperatures were obtained for each of these mixtures by observation of the pressure-temperature hysteresis curves associated with formation and decomposition of the hydrate crystals. A repeatable decomposition point was observed in every case, and this was identified as the hydrate point. The results for the 4% H/sub 2/S mixture were used to adjust parameters in a computer model based on the Parrish and Prausnitz statistical thermodynamics method, coupled with the BWRS equation of state. After the parameter adjustment, the computer model predicted the behavior of the 12% H/sub 2/S and the 30% H/sub 2/S mixtures to within 2 C. Experimental data for the 3 mixtures are given.

  11. air_water.cdr

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    12/2011 Air Monitoring Groundwater Monitoring Surface Water Monitoring A continuously operating air monitoring network was in place from 1986 through 2000 for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) to measure levels of gamma radiation, radioactive dust particles, radon gas, and asbestos. With remediation of contaminated materials essentially complete and measurements indistinguishable from background, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) ceased perimeter and offsite air

  12. Breathable gas distribution apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garcia, Elmer D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1985-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus for safely supplying breathable gas or air through individual respirators to personnel working in a contaminated area.

  13. The Office of Fossil Energy Natural Gas Regulatory Activities

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    area. * Completed columns in propane refrigeration, Dehydration Mercury removal and ... compressors area, HRU unit, propane refrigeration, inlet facilities, utilities waste ...

  14. Compressed Air

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lighting Compressed Air ESUE Motors Federal Agriculture Compressed Air Compressed Air Roadmap The Bonneville Power Administration created the roadmap to help utilities find energy...

  15. Utilization of coal mine ventilation exhaust as combustion air in gas-fired turbines for electric and/or mechanical power generation. Semi-annual topical report, June 1995--August 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-01

    Methane emitted during underground coal mining operations is a hazard that is dealt with by diluting the methane with fresh air and exhausting the contaminated air to the atmosphere. Unfortunately this waste stream may contain more than 60% of the methane resource from the coal, and in the atmosphere the methane acts as a greenhouse gas with an effect about 24.5 times greater than CO{sub 2}. Though the waste stream is too dilute for normal recovery processes, it can be used as combustion air for a turbine-generator, thereby reducing the turbine fuel requirements while reducing emissions. Preliminary analysis indicates that such a system, built using standard equipment, is economically and environmentally attractive, and has potential for worldwide application.

  16. Microsoft PowerPoint - Joe Rose.Providence.Propane Supply Infrastructure.pptx

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Propane Supply & Infrastructure Prepared for Quadrennial Energy Review Home Heating Panel April 21, 2014 Crop Drying DemandGallon * Record Corn Crop - 13.9 billion bushels * Cooler than normal weather in July and August delayed the harvest. * Above-average rainfall in October * Grain drying season started late and finished late Colder than Normal Weather October to March Heating Degree Days The 2013/2014 winter was: - 7.5 percent colder than 30- year normal weather - 10.5 percent colder

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    does not apply to qualified natural gas, hydrogen, and propane storage and handling equipment at dispensing facilities. (Reference Michigan Air Pollution Control Rule 336.1284...

  18. Transportation Technologies | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    natural gas, and propane-can help reduce reliance on imported oil while also reducing air pollution and improving the environment. DOE Resources: Alternative Fuels Data Center...

  19. Production of biodiesel using expanded gas solvents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ginosar, Daniel M; Fox, Robert V; Petkovic, Lucia M

    2009-04-07

    A method of producing an alkyl ester. The method comprises providing an alcohol and a triglyceride or fatty acid. An expanding gas is dissolved into the alcohol to form a gas expanded solvent. The alcohol is reacted with the triglyceride or fatty acid in a single phase to produce the alkyl ester. The expanding gas may be a nonpolar expanding gas, such as carbon dioxide, methane, ethane, propane, butane, pentane, ethylene, propylene, butylene, pentene, isomers thereof, and mixtures thereof, which is dissolved into the alcohol. The gas expanded solvent may be maintained at a temperature below, at, or above a critical temperature of the expanding gas and at a pressure below, at, or above a critical pressure of the expanding gas.

  20. Natural Gas Plant Field Production: Natural Gas Liquids

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Product: Natural Gas Liquids Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane Propane Normal Butane Isobutane Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Area Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 View History U.S. 101,809 102,880 100,283 106,269 103,071 104,629 1981-2015 PADD 1

  1. Natural Gas Plant Stocks of Natural Gas Liquids

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Product: Natural Gas Liquids Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane Propane Normal Butane Isobutane Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Area Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 View History U.S. 6,491 6,324 6,877 6,774 5,691 4,837 1993-2015 PADD 1 260 192 186 222 215 218 1993-2015 East Coast 4 4 7 7 1993-2015 Appalachian No. 1 260 192 182 218 208 211 1993-2015

  2. Knowledge Partnership for Measuring Air Pollution and Greenhouse...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Knowledge Partnership for Measuring Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Asia Jump to: navigation, search Name Knowledge Partnership for Measuring Air Pollution and...

  3. Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and stored in a reservoir, then when electricity is needed, air is heated with natural gas and expanded through a turbine. Adiabatic Adiabatic compressed air energy storage...

  4. Shock tube and theoretical studies on the thermal decomposition of propane : evidence for a roaming radical channel.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sivaramakrishnan, R.; Su, M.-C.; Michael, J. V.; Klippenstein, S. J.; Harding, L. B.; Ruscic, B.

    2011-04-21

    The thermal decomposition of propane has been studied using both shock tube experiments and ab initio transition state theory-based master equation calculations. Dissociation rate constants for propane have been measured at high temperatures behind reflected shock waves using high-sensitivity H-ARAS detection and CH{sub 3} optical absorption. The two major dissociation channels at high temperature are C{sub 3}H{sub 8} {yields} CH{sub 3} + C{sub 2}H{sub 5} (eq 1a) and C{sub 3}H{sub 8} {yields} CH{sub 4} + C{sub 2}H{sub 4} (eq 1b). Ultra high-sensitivity ARAS detection of H-atoms produced from the decomposition of the product, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}, in (1a), allowed measurements of both the total decomposition rate constants, k{sub total}, and the branching to radical products, k{sub 1a}/k{sub total}. Theoretical analyses indicate that the molecular products are formed exclusively through the roaming radical mechanism and that radical products are formed exclusively through channel 1a. The experiments were performed over the temperature range 1417-1819 K and gave a minor contribution of (10 {+-} 8%) due to roaming. A multipass CH{sub 3} absorption diagnostic using a Zn resonance lamp was also developed and characterized in this work using the thermal decomposition of CH{sub 3}I as a reference reaction. The measured rate constants for CH{sub 3}I decomposition agreed with earlier determinations from this laboratory that were based on I-atom ARAS measurements. This CH{sub 3} diagnostic was then used to detect radicals from channel 1a allowing lower temperature (1202-1543 K) measurements of k1a to be determined. Variable reaction coordinate-transition state theory was used to predict the high pressure limits for channel (1a) and other bond fission reactions in C{sub 3}H{sub 8}. Conventional transition state theory calculations were also used to estimate rate constants for other tight transition state processes. These calculations predict a negligible contribution (<1%) from all other bond fission and tight transition state processes, indicating that the bond fission channel (1a) and the roaming channel (1b) are indeed the only active channels at the temperature and pressure ranges of the present experiments. The predicted reaction exo- and endothermicities are in excellent agreement with the current version of the Active Thermochemical Tables. Master equation calculations incorporating these transition state theory results yield predictions for the temperature and pressure dependence of the dissociation rate constants for channel 1a. The final theoretical results reliably reproduce the measured dissociation rate constants that are reported here and in the literature. The experimental data are well reproduced over the 500-2500 K and 1 x 10{sup -4} to 100 bar range (errors of {approx}15% or less) by the following Troe parameters for Ar as the bath gas: k{sub {infinity}} = 1.55 x 10{sup 24}T{sup -2.034} exp(-45490/T) s{sup -1}, k{sub 0} = 7.92 x 10{sup 53}T{sup -16.67} exp(-50380/T) cm{sup 3} s{sup -1}, and F{sub c} = 0.190 exp(-T/3091) + 0.810 exp(-T/128) + exp(-8829/T).

  5. Gas only nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bechtel, William Theodore (15 Olde Coach Rd., Scotia, NY 12302); Fitts, David Orus (286 Sweetman Rd., Ballston Spa, NY 12020); DeLeonardo, Guy Wayne (60 St. Stephens La., Glenville, NY 12302)

    2002-01-01

    A diffusion flame nozzle gas tip is provided to convert a dual fuel nozzle to a gas only nozzle. The nozzle tip diverts compressor discharge air from the passage feeding the diffusion nozzle air swirl vanes to a region vacated by removal of the dual fuel components, so that the diverted compressor discharge air can flow to and through effusion holes in the end cap plate of the nozzle tip. In a preferred embodiment, the nozzle gas tip defines a cavity for receiving the compressor discharge air from a peripheral passage of the nozzle for flow through the effusion openings defined in the end cap plate.

  6. Shale Gas Development Challenges: Water | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Shale Gas Development Challenges: Water PDF icon Shale Gas Development Challenges: Water More Documents & Publications Natural Gas from Shale: Questions and Answers Shale Gas Development Challenges: Fracture Fluids Shale Gas Development Challenges: Air

  7. Clean air program: Design guidelines for bus transit systems using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as an alternative fuel. Final report, July 1995-April 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raj, P.K.; Hathaway, W.T.; Kangas, R.

    1996-09-01

    The Federal Transit Administration (FTA) has initiated the development of `Design Guidelines for Bus Transit Systems Using Alternative Fuels.` This report provides design guidelines for the safe uses of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). It forms a part of the series of individual monographs being published by the FTA on (the guidelines for the safe use of) Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) and alcohol fuels (Methanol and Ethanol). Each report in this series describes for the subject fuel the important fuel properties, guidelines for the design and operation of bus fueling, storage and maintenance facilities, issues on personnel training and emergency preparedness.

  8. Air Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Air Quality Air Quality To preserve our existing wilderness-area air quality, LANL implements a conscientious program of air monitoring. March 17, 2015 Real-time data monitoring for particulate matter An air monitoring field team member tests one of LANL's tapered element oscillating microbalance samplers, which collects real-time particulate matter data. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email LANL monitors air

  9. Air Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Air Quality Air Quality Tour The Laboratory calculates the dose to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) to determine effects of Laboratory operations on the public.

  10. Air Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Air Quality Air Quality Tour The Laboratory calculates the dose to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) to determine effects of Laboratory operations on the public. Open full...

  11. A theoretical study of the reaction paths for cobalt cation + propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fedorov, D.G.; Gordon, M.S.

    2000-03-23

    The triplet potential energy surface for the reaction of cobalt cation with propane has been studied along the two main reaction pathways leading to the formation of (1) hydrogen and propene and (2) methane and ethene. Effective core potentials for all elements have been used for all calculations. The geometries have been optimized at the complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) level of theory, and the final energetics have been refined at the multireference second-order perturbation theory (MRMP2) level with polarization function augmented basis sets. Reasonable agreement with the experimental energetics has been obtained, and the predicted mechanism is consistent with the experimentally determined mechanism of Haynes, Fisher, and Armentrout (J.Phys.Chem. 1996, 100, 18300).

  12. Cross sections for electron scattering by propane in the low- and intermediate-energy ranges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Souza, G. L. C. de; Lee, M.-T.; Sanches, I. P.; Rawat, P.; Iga, I.; Santos, A. S. dos; Machado, L. E.; Sugohara, R. T.; Brescansin, L. M.; Homem, M. G. P.; Lucchese, R. R.

    2010-07-15

    We present a joint theoretical-experimental study on electron scattering by propane (C{sub 3}H{sub 8}) in the low- and intermediate-energy ranges. Calculated elastic differential, integral, and momentum transfer as well as total (elastic + inelastic) and total absorption cross sections are reported for impact energies ranging from 2 to 500 eV. Also, experimental absolute elastic cross sections are reported in the 40- to 500-eV energy range. A complex optical potential is used to represent the electron-molecule interaction dynamics. A theoretical method based on the single-center-expansion close-coupling framework and corrected by the Pade approximant is used to solve the scattering equations. The experimental angular distributions of the scattered electrons are converted to absolute cross sections using the relative flow technique. The comparison of our calculated with our measured results, as well as with other experimental and theoretical data available in the literature, is encouraging.

  13. A comparison of advanced distillation control techniques for a propylene/propane splitter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gokhale, V.; Hurowitz, S.; Riggs, J.B.

    1995-12-01

    A detailed dynamic simulator of a propylene/propane (C{sub 3}) splitter, which was bench-marked against industrial data, has been used to compare dual composition control performance for a diagonal PI controller and several advanced controllers. The advanced controllers considered are DMC, nonlinear process model based control, and artificial neural networks. Each controller was tuned based upon setpoint changes in the overhead production composition using 50% changes in the impurity levels. Overall, there was not a great deal of difference in controller performance based upon the setpoint and disturbance tests. Periodic step changes in feed composition were also used to compare controller performance. In this case, oscillatory variations of the product composition were observed and the variabilities of the DMC and nonlinear process model based controllers were substantially smaller than that of the PI controller. The sensitivity of each controller to the frequency of the periodic step changes in feed composition was also investigated.

  14. Oxydehydrogenation of propane over vanadyl ion-containing VAPO-5 and CoAPO-5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okamoto, M.; Luo, L.; Labinger, J.A.; Davis, M.E.

    2000-05-15

    Vanadyl ion-containing VAPO-5 and CoAPO-5 are prepared by contact with a vanadyl sulfate solution or by impregnation with aqueous vanadyl oxalate and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, electron spin resonance spectroscopy, and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR). Treatment of VAPO-5 with vanadyl ion results in incorporation of up to 1.0 wt% total vanadium into the AFI framework by filling lattice vacancies. At vanadium contents above ca. 1 wt%, extraframework vanadium is also obtained. TPR results show that framework vanadium can be reduced by hydrogen at a lower temperature than extraframework vanadium and vanadium in bulk V{sub 2}O{sub 5}. Oxydehydrogenation of propane over VAPO-5 samples reveals that framework vanadium is the most active and selective species for propylene formation (at 400 C and 5% conversion, the selectivity is 72%); extraframework vanadium species are less active and selective.

  15. Gas turbine premixing systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Varatharajan, Balachandar; Evulet, Andrei Tristan; Yilmaz, Ertan; Lacy, Benjamin Paul

    2013-12-31

    Methods and systems are provided for premixing combustion fuel and air within gas turbines. In one embodiment, a combustor includes an upstream mixing panel configured to direct compressed air and combustion fuel through premixing zone to form a fuel-air mixture. The combustor includes a downstream mixing panel configured to mix additional combustion fuel with the fule-air mixture to form a combustion mixture.

  16. EA-1751: Smart Grid, New York State Gas & Electric, Compressed Air Energy Storage Demonstration Plant, Near Watkins Glen, Schuyler County, New York

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE will prepare an EA to evaluate the potential environmental impacts of providing a financial assistance grant under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 for the construction of a compressed air energy storage demonstration plant in Schuyler County, New York.

  17. EA-1752: Pacific Gas & Electric Company (PG&E), Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Compression Testing Phase Project, San Joaquin County, California

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE is preparing this EA to evaluate the potential environmental impacts of providing a financial assistance grant under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 for the construction of an advanced compressed air energy storage plant in San Francisco, California.

  18. Serial cooling of a combustor for a gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abreu, Mario E. (Poway, CA); Kielczyk, Janusz J. (Escondido, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A combustor for a gas turbine engine uses compressed air to cool a combustor liner and uses at least a portion of the same compressed air for combustion air. A flow diverting mechanism regulates compressed air flow entering a combustion air plenum feeding combustion air to a plurality of fuel nozzles. The flow diverting mechanism adjusts combustion air according to engine loading.

  19. Gas/solvent-induced transformation and expansion of a nonporous solid to 1:1 host guest form

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thallapally, Praveen K.; McGrail, B. Peter; Dalgarno, Scott J.; Atwood, Jerry L.

    2008-07-01

    Herein we report the gas (CO2, N2O and propane) and solvent (CS2 and acetone) induced transformation and expansion of guest free thermodynamic form of a p-tert-butylcalix [4]arene to 1:1 host guest form.

  20. Gas venting system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khan, Amjad; Dreier, Ken Wayne; Moulthrop, Lawrence Clinton; White, Erik James

    2010-06-29

    A system to vent a moist gas stream is disclosed. The system includes an enclosure and an electrochemical cell disposed within the enclosure, the electrochemical cell productive of the moist gas stream. A first vent is in fluid communication with the electrochemical cell for venting the moist gas stream to an exterior of the enclosure, and a second vent is in fluid communication with an interior of the enclosure and in thermal communication with the first vent for discharging heated air to the exterior of the enclosure. At least a portion of the discharging heated air is for preventing freezing of the moist gas stream within the first vent.

  1. CSP Tower Air Brayton Combustor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet describes a concentrating solar power tower air Brayton combustor project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot CSP R&D award program. The team, led by the Southwest Research Institute, is working to develop an external combustor that allows for the mixing of CSP-heated air with natural gas in hybridized power plants. This project aims to increase the temperature capabilities of the CSP tower air receiver and gas turbine to 1,000C and achieve energy conversion efficiencies greater than 50%.

  2. Adsorption of propane, isopropyl, and hydrogen on cluster models of the M1 phase of Mo-V-Te-Nb-O mixed metal oxide catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Govindasamy, Agalya; Muthukumar, Kaliappan; Yu, Junjun; Xu, Ye; Guliants, Vadim V.

    2010-01-01

    The Mo-V-Te-Nb-O mixed metal oxide catalyst possessing the M1 phase structure is uniquely capable of directly converting propane into acrylonitrile. However, the mechanism of this complex eight-electron transformation, which includes a series of oxidative H-abstraction and N-insertion steps, remains poorly understood. We have conducted a density functional theory study of cluster models of the proposed active and selective site for propane ammoxidation, including the adsorption of propane, isopropyl (CH{sub 3}CHCH{sub 3}), and H which are involved in the first step of this transformation, that is, the methylene C-H bond scission in propane, on these active site models. Among the surface oxygen species, the telluryl oxo (Te=O) is found to be the most nucleophilic. Whereas the adsorption of propane is weak regardless of the MO{sub x} species involved, isopropyl and H adsorption exhibits strong preference in the order of Te=O > V=O > bridging oxygens > empty Mo apical site, suggesting the importance of TeO{sub x} species for H abstraction. The adsorption energies of isopropyl and H and consequently the reaction energy of the initial dehydrogenation of propane are strongly dependent on the number of ab planes included in the cluster, which points to the need to employ multilayer cluster models to correctly capture the energetics of surface chemistry on this mixed metal oxide catalyst.

  3. Super critical fluid extraction of a crude oil bitumen-derived liquid and bitumen by carbon dioxide and propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deo, M.D.; Hwang, J.; Hanson, F.V.

    1991-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction of complex hydrocarbon mixtures is important in separation processes, petroleum upgrading and enhanced oil recovery. In this study, a paraffinic crude oil, a bitumen- derived liquid and bitumen were extracted at several temperatures and pressures with carbon dioxide and propane to assess the effect of the size and type of compounds that makeup the feedstock on the extraction process. It was observed that the pure solvent density at the extraction conditions was not the sole variable governing extraction, and that the proximity of the extraction conditions to the pure solvent critical point affected the extraction yields and the compositions of the extracts. Heavier compounds reported to the extract phase as the extraction time increased at constant temperature and pressure and as the extraction pressure increased at constant temperature and extraction time for both the paraffin crude-propane and the bitumen-propane systems. This preferential extraction was not observed for the bitumen-derived liquid. The non-discriminatory extraction behavior of the bitumen-derived liquid was attributed to its thermal history and to the presence of the olefins and aromatics in the liquid. Phase behavior calculations using the Peng-Robinson equation of state and component lumping procedures provided reasonable agreement between calculated and experimental results for the crude oil and bitumen extractions, but failed in the prediction of the phase compositions for the bitumen-derived liquid extractions.

  4. Super critical fluid extraction of a crude oil bitumen-derived liquid and bitumen by carbon dioxide and propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deo, M.D.; Hwang, J.; Hanson, F.V.

    1991-12-31

    Supercritical fluid extraction of complex hydrocarbon mixtures is important in separation processes, petroleum upgrading and enhanced oil recovery. In this study, a paraffinic crude oil, a bitumen- derived liquid and bitumen were extracted at several temperatures and pressures with carbon dioxide and propane to assess the effect of the size and type of compounds that makeup the feedstock on the extraction process. It was observed that the pure solvent density at the extraction conditions was not the sole variable governing extraction, and that the proximity of the extraction conditions to the pure solvent critical point affected the extraction yields and the compositions of the extracts. Heavier compounds reported to the extract phase as the extraction time increased at constant temperature and pressure and as the extraction pressure increased at constant temperature and extraction time for both the paraffin crude-propane and the bitumen-propane systems. This preferential extraction was not observed for the bitumen-derived liquid. The non-discriminatory extraction behavior of the bitumen-derived liquid was attributed to its thermal history and to the presence of the olefins and aromatics in the liquid. Phase behavior calculations using the Peng-Robinson equation of state and component lumping procedures provided reasonable agreement between calculated and experimental results for the crude oil and bitumen extractions, but failed in the prediction of the phase compositions for the bitumen-derived liquid extractions.

  5. Michigan residential No. 2 fuel oil and propane price survey for the 1990/91 heating season. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This report summarizes the results of a survey of home heating oil and propane prices over the 1990/1991 heating season in Michigan. The survey was conducted under a cooperative agreement between the State of Michigan, Michigan Public Service Commission and the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA), and was funded by a grant from EIA. From October 1990 through May 1991, participating dealers/distributions were called and asked for their current residential retail prices of No. 2 home heating oil and propane. This information was then transmitted to the EIA, bi-monthly using an electronic reporting system called Petroleum Data Reporting Option (PEDRO). The survey was conducted using a sample provided by EIA of home heating oil and propane retailers which supply Michigan households. These retailers were contacted the first and third Mondays of each month. The sample was designed to account for distributors with different sales volumes, geographic distributions and sources of primary supply. It should be noted that this simple is different from the sample used in prior year surveys.

  6. Michigan residential No. 2 fuel oil and propane price survey for the 1990/91 heating season

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This report summarizes the results of a survey of home heating oil and propane prices over the 1990/1991 heating season in Michigan. The survey was conducted under a cooperative agreement between the State of Michigan, Michigan Public Service Commission and the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA), and was funded by a grant from EIA. From October 1990 through May 1991, participating dealers/distributions were called and asked for their current residential retail prices of No. 2 home heating oil and propane. This information was then transmitted to the EIA, bi-monthly using an electronic reporting system called Petroleum Data Reporting Option (PEDRO). The survey was conducted using a sample provided by EIA of home heating oil and propane retailers which supply Michigan households. These retailers were contacted the first and third Mondays of each month. The sample was designed to account for distributors with different sales volumes, geographic distributions and sources of primary supply. It should be noted that this simple is different from the sample used in prior year surveys.

  7. Catalytic propane dehydrogenation over In?O?Ga?O? mixed oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, Shuai; Gil, Laura Briones; Subramanian, Nachal; Sholl, David S.; Nair, Sankar; Jones, Christopher W.; Moore, Jason S.; Liu, Yujun; Dixit, Ravindra S.; Pendergast, John G.

    2015-08-26

    We have investigated the catalytic performance of novel In?O?Ga?O? mixed oxides synthesized by the alcoholic-coprecipitation method for propane dehydrogenation (PDH). Reactivity measurements reveal that the activities of In?O?Ga?O? catalysts are 13-fold (on an active metal basis) and 1228-fold (on a surface area basis) higher than an In?O?Al?O? catalyst in terms of C?H? conversion. The structure, composition, and surface properties of the In?O?Ga?O? catalysts are thoroughly characterized. NH?-TPD shows that the binary oxide system generates more acid sites than the corresponding single-component catalysts. Raman spectroscopy suggests that catalysts that produce coke of a more graphitic nature suppress cracking reactions, leading to higher C?H? selectivity. Lower reaction temperature also leads to higher C?H? selectivity by slowing down the rate of side reactions. XRD, XPS, and XANES measurements, strongly suggest that metallic indium and In?O? clusters are formed on the catalyst surface during the reaction. The agglomeration of In?O? domains and formation of a metallic indium phase are found to be irreversible under O? or H? treatment conditions used here, and may be responsible for loss of activity with increasing time on stream.

  8. Operation of a Four-Cylinder 1.9L Propane Fueled HCCI Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flowers, D; Aceves, S M; Martinez-Frias, J; Smith, J R; Au, M; Girard, J; Dibble, R

    2001-03-15

    A four-cylinder 1.9 Volkswagen TDI Engine has been converted to run in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) mode. The stock configuration is a turbocharged direct injection Diesel engine. The combustion chamber has been modified by discarding the in-cylinder Diesel fuel injectors and replacing them with blank inserts (which contain pressure transducers). The stock pistons contain a reentrant bowl and have been retained for the tests reported here. The intake and exhaust manifolds have also been retained, but the turbocharger has been removed. A heater has been installed upstream of the intake manifold and fuel is added just downstream of this heater. The performance of this engine in naturally aspirated HCCI operation, subject to variable intake temperature and fuel flow rate, has been studied. The engine has been run with propane fuel at a constant speed of 1800 rpm. This work is intended to characterize the HCCI operation of the engine in this configuration that has been minimally modified from the base Diesel engine. The performance (BMEP, IMEP, efficiency, etc) and emissions (THC, CO, NOx) of the engine are presented, as are combustion process results based on heat release analysis of the pressure traces from each cylinder.

  9. Subnanometer platinum clusters highly active and selective catalysts for the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vajda, S; Pellin, M. J.; Greeley, J. P.; Marshall, C. L.; Curtiss, L. A.; Ballentine, G. A.; Elam, J. W.; Catillon-Mucherie, S.; Redfern, P. C.; Mehmood, F.; Zapol, P.; Yale Univ.

    2009-03-01

    Small clusters are known to possess reactivity not observed in their bulk analogues, which can make them attractive for catalysis. Their distinct catalytic properties are often hypothesized to result from the large fraction of under-coordinated surface atoms. Here, we show that size-preselected Pt{sub 8-10} clusters stabilized on high-surface-area supports are 40-100 times more active for the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane than previously studied platinum and vanadia catalysts, while at the same time maintaining high selectivity towards formation of propylene over by-products. Quantum chemical calculations indicate that under-coordination of the Pt atoms in the clusters is responsible for the surprisingly high reactivity compared with extended surfaces. We anticipate that these results will form the basis for development of a new class of catalysts by providing a route to bond-specific chemistry, ranging from energy-efficient and environmentally friendly synthesis strategies to the replacement of petrochemical feedstocks by abundant small alkanes.

  10. Air filter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, R.E.; Sparks, J.E.

    1981-03-03

    An air filter is described that has a counter rotating drum, i.e., the rotation of the drum is opposite the tangential intake of air. The intake air has about 1 lb of rock wool fibers per 107 cu. ft. of air sometimes at about 100% relative humidity. The fibers are doffed from the drum by suction nozzle which are adjacent to the drum at the bottom of the filter housing. The drum screen is cleaned by periodically jetting hot dry air at 120 psig through the screen into the suction nozzles.

  11. New insights into low-temperature oxidation of propane from synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry and multi-scale informatics modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Welz, Oliver; Burke, Michael P.; Antonov, Ivan O.; Goldsmith, C. Franklin; Savee, John David; Osborn, David L.; Taatjes, Craig A.; Klippenstein, Stephen J.; Sheps, Leonid

    2015-04-10

    We studied low-temperature propane oxidation at P = 4 Torr and T = 530, 600, and 670 K by time-resolved multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometry (MPIMS), which probes the reactants, intermediates, and products with isomeric selectivity using tunable synchrotron vacuum UV ionizing radiation. The oxidation is initiated by pulsed laser photolysis of oxalyl chloride, (COCl)2, at 248 nm, which rapidly generates a ~1:1 mixture of 1-propyl (n-propyl) and 2-propyl (i-propyl) radicals via the fast Cl + propane reaction. At all three temperatures, the major stable product species is propene, formed in the propyl + O2 reactions by direct HO2 elimination from both n- and i-propyl peroxy radicals. The experimentally derived propene yields relative to the initial concentration of Cl atoms are (20 4)% at 530 K, (55 11)% at 600 K, and (86 17)% at 670 K at a reaction time of 20 ms. The lower yield of propene at low temperature reflects substantial formation of propyl peroxy radicals, which do not completely decompose on the experimental time scale. In addition, C3H6O isomers methyloxirane, oxetane, acetone, and propanal are detected as minor products. Our measured yields of oxetane and methyloxirane, which are coproducts of OH radicals, suggest a revision of the OH formation pathways in models of low-temperature propane oxidation. The experimental results are modeled and interpreted using a multiscale informatics approach, presented in detail in a separate publication (Burke, M. P.; Goldsmith, C. F.; Klippenstein, S. J.; Welz, O.; Huang H.; Antonov I. O.; Savee J. D.; Osborn D. L.; Zdor, J.; Taatjes, C. A.; Sheps, L. Multiscale Informatics for Low-Temperature Propane Oxidation: Further Complexities in Studies of Complex Reactions. J. Phys. Chem A. 2015, DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpca.5b01003). Additionally, we found that the model predicts the time profiles and yields of the experimentally observed primary products well, and shows satisfactory agreement for products formed mostly via secondary radicalradical reactions.

  12. New Insights into Low-Temperature Oxidation of Propane from Synchrotron Photoionization Mass Spectrometry and Multi-Scale Informatics Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Welz, Oliver; Burke, Michael P.; Antonov, Ivan O.; Goldsmith, C. Franklin; Savee, John David; Osborn, David L.; Taatjes, Craig A.; Klippenstein, Stephen J.; Sheps, Leonid

    2015-04-10

    We studied low-temperature propane oxidation at P = 4 Torr and T = 530, 600, and 670 K by time-resolved multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometry (MPIMS), which probes the reactants, intermediates, and products with isomeric selectivity using tunable synchrotron vacuum UV ionizing radiation. The oxidation is initiated by pulsed laser photolysis of oxalyl chloride, (COCl)2, at 248 nm, which rapidly generates a ~1:1 mixture of 1-propyl (n-propyl) and 2-propyl (i-propyl) radicals via the fast Cl + propane reaction. At all three temperatures, the major stable product species is propene, formed in the propyl + O2 reactions by direct HO2 elimination from both n- and i-propyl peroxy radicals. The experimentally derived propene yields relative to the initial concentration of Cl atoms are (20 4)% at 530 K, (55 11)% at 600 K, and (86 17)% at 670 K at a reaction time of 20 ms. The lower yield of propene at low temperature reflects substantial formation of propyl peroxy radicals, which do not completely decompose on the experimental time scale. In addition, C3H6O isomers methyloxirane, oxetane, acetone, and propanal are detected as minor products. Our measured yields of oxetane and methyloxirane, which are coproducts of OH radicals, suggest a revision of the OH formation pathways in models of low-temperature propane oxidation. The experimental results are modeled and interpreted using a multiscale informatics approach, presented in detail in a separate publication (Burke, M. P.; Goldsmith, C. F.; Klippenstein, S. J.; Welz, O.; Huang H.; Antonov I. O.; Savee J. D.; Osborn D. L.; Zdor, J.; Taatjes, C. A.; Sheps, L. Multiscale Informatics for Low-Temperature Propane Oxidation: Further Complexities in Studies of Complex Reactions. J. Phys. Chem A. 2015, DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpca.5b01003). Additionally, we found that the model predicts the time profiles and yields of the experimentally observed primary products well, and shows satisfactory agreement for products formed mostly via secondary radicalradical reactions.

  13. New insights into low-temperature oxidation of propane from synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry and multi-scale informatics modeling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Welz, Oliver; Burke, Michael P.; Antonov, Ivan O.; Goldsmith, C. Franklin; Savee, John David; Osborn, David L.; Taatjes, Craig A.; Klippenstein, Stephen J.; Sheps, Leonid

    2015-04-10

    We studied low-temperature propane oxidation at P = 4 Torr and T = 530, 600, and 670 K by time-resolved multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometry (MPIMS), which probes the reactants, intermediates, and products with isomeric selectivity using tunable synchrotron vacuum UV ionizing radiation. The oxidation is initiated by pulsed laser photolysis of oxalyl chloride, (COCl)2, at 248 nm, which rapidly generates a ~1:1 mixture of 1-propyl (n-propyl) and 2-propyl (i-propyl) radicals via the fast Cl + propane reaction. At all three temperatures, the major stable product species is propene, formed in the propyl + O2 reactions by direct HO2 elimination frommore » both n- and i-propyl peroxy radicals. The experimentally derived propene yields relative to the initial concentration of Cl atoms are (20 ± 4)% at 530 K, (55 ± 11)% at 600 K, and (86 ± 17)% at 670 K at a reaction time of 20 ms. The lower yield of propene at low temperature reflects substantial formation of propyl peroxy radicals, which do not completely decompose on the experimental time scale. In addition, C3H6O isomers methyloxirane, oxetane, acetone, and propanal are detected as minor products. Our measured yields of oxetane and methyloxirane, which are coproducts of OH radicals, suggest a revision of the OH formation pathways in models of low-temperature propane oxidation. The experimental results are modeled and interpreted using a multiscale informatics approach, presented in detail in a separate publication (Burke, M. P.; Goldsmith, C. F.; Klippenstein, S. J.; Welz, O.; Huang H.; Antonov I. O.; Savee J. D.; Osborn D. L.; Zádor, J.; Taatjes, C. A.; Sheps, L. Multiscale Informatics for Low-Temperature Propane Oxidation: Further Complexities in Studies of Complex Reactions. J. Phys. Chem A. 2015, DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpca.5b01003). Additionally, we found that the model predicts the time profiles and yields of the experimentally observed primary products well, and shows satisfactory agreement for products formed mostly via secondary radical–radical reactions.« less

  14. Regenerative air heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hasselquist, P.B.; Baldner, R.

    1980-11-26

    A gas-cooled steel skirt is used to support a refractory cored brick matrix and dome structure in a high temperature regenerative air heater useful in magnetohydrodynamic power generation. The steel skirt thermally expands to accommodate the thermal expansion of the dome structure despite substantial temperature differential thereby reducing relative movement between the dome bricks. Gas cooling of the steel skirt allows the structure to operate above its normal temperature during clean-out cycles and also allows for the control of the thermal expansion of the steel skirt.

  15. Regenerative air heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hasselquist, Paul B.; Baldner, Richard

    1982-01-01

    A gas-cooled steel skirt is used to support a refractory cored brick matrix and dome structure in a high temperature regenerative air heater useful in magnetohydrodynamic power generation. The steel skirt thermally expands to accommodate the thermal expansion of the dome structure despite substantial temperature differential thereby reducing relative movement between the dome bricks. Gas cooling of the steel skirt allows the structure to operate above its normal temperature during clean-out cycles and also allows for the control of the thermal expansion of the steel skirt.

  16. Gas only nozzle fuel tip

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bechtel, William Theodore (Scotia, NY); Fitts, David Orus (Ballston Spa, NY); DeLeonardo, Guy Wayne (Glenville, NY)

    2002-01-01

    A diffusion flame nozzle gas tip is provided to convert a dual fuel nozzle to a gas only nozzle. The nozzle tip diverts compressor discharge air from the passage feeding the diffusion nozzle air swirl vanes to a region vacated by removal of the dual fuel components, so that the diverted compressor discharge air can flow to and through effusion holes in the end cap plate of the nozzle tip. In a preferred embodiment, the nozzle gas tip defines a cavity for receiving the compressor discharge air from a peripheral passage of the nozzle for flow through the effusion openings defined in the end cap plate.

  17. Air-to-air turbocharged air cooling versus air-to-water turbocharged air cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moranne, J.-P.; Lukas, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    In Europe, turbocharged air in diesel engines used in on-road vehicles is cooled only by air. It is expected that by 1990, ten to twelve percent of European heavy trucks with diesel engines will cool turbocharged air by water. Air-to-air turbocharges air cooling is reviewed and the evolution of air-to-water turbocharged air cooling presented before the two systems are compared.

  18. hickam air force base

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    hickam air force base - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  19. air force

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    en NNSA, Air Force Complete Successful B61-12 Life Extension Program Development Flight Test at Tonopah Test Range http:nnsa.energy.govmediaroompressreleases...

  20. Gas turbine combustor transition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coslow, B.J.; Whidden, G.L.

    1999-05-25

    A method is described for converting a steam cooled transition to an air cooled transition in a gas turbine having a compressor in fluid communication with a combustor, a turbine section in fluid communication with the combustor, the transition disposed in a combustor shell and having a cooling circuit connecting a steam outlet and a steam inlet and wherein hot gas flows from the combustor through the transition and to the turbine section, includes forming an air outlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit and providing for an air inlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit. 7 figs.

  1. Gas turbine combustor transition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coslow, Billy Joe (Winter Park, FL); Whidden, Graydon Lane (Great Blue, CT)

    1999-01-01

    A method of converting a steam cooled transition to an air cooled transition in a gas turbine having a compressor in fluid communication with a combustor, a turbine section in fluid communication with the combustor, the transition disposed in a combustor shell and having a cooling circuit connecting a steam outlet and a steam inlet and wherein hot gas flows from the combustor through the transition and to the turbine section, includes forming an air outlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit and providing for an air inlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit.

  2. New and existing gas wells promise bountiful LPG output in Michigan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Michigan remains the leading LP-gas producer in the Northeast quadrant of the U.S. This paper reports that boosted by a number of new natural gas wells and a couple of new gas processing plants, the state is firmly anchored in the butane/propane production business. Since 1981, more than 100 deep gas wells, most in excess of 8000 feet in depth, have been completed as indicated producers in the state. Many of these are yielding LPG-grade stock. So, combined with LPG-grade production from shallower geologic formations, the supply picture in this area looks promising for the rest of the country.

  3. Reduction of air in-leakage and flue gas by-passing in the penthouse of Duke Power-Marshall Unit No. 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, R.; Rush, T.

    1995-12-31

    After a year of operation, the penthouse was inspected and found to be {open_quotes}lightly dusted{close_quotes} with barely sufficient accumulation to show footprints. This is contrasted with previous five foot deep ash dunes. The savings in maintenance repairs are estimated at $65,000 for vacuuming that was not required, and $80,000 in maintenance personnel weld repairs. The history of repairs was such that vacuuming and weld repair costs were predictable, and before the IOSMEMBRANE{reg_sign} installation, always expected as recurring maintenance costs. The heat rate improvement of reducing air in-leakage is well known, and significant. The principal quantified savings are in reduced maintenance costs, more expedient repairs (reduced cool down time for repairs in the penthouse), and safety. The heat rate improvements, though not quantified yet, are expected to be significant. The success of the ISOMEMBRANE{reg_sign} on Unit No. 4 has resulted in similar plans for Unit No. 3 and other units in the Duke Power system.

  4. ED-XAS Data Reveal In-situ Time-Resolved Adsorbate Coverage on Supported Molybdenum Oxide Catalysts during Propane Dehydrogenation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramaker, David; Gatewood, Daniel; Beale, Andrew M.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2007-02-02

    Energy-Dispersive X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (ED-XAS) data combined with UV/Vis, Raman, and mass spectrometry data on alumina- and silica-supported molybdenum oxide catalysts under propane dehydrogenation conditions have been previously reported. A novel {delta}{mu} adsorbate isolation technique was applied here to the time-resolved (0.1 min) Mo K-edge ED-XAS data by taking the difference of absorption, {mu}, at t>1 against the initial time, t=0. Further, full multiple scattering calculations using the FEFF 8.0 code are performed to interpret the {delta}{mu} signatures. The resulting difference spectra and interpretation provide real time propane coverage and O depletion at the MoOn surface. The propane coverage is seen to correlate with the propene and/or coke production, with the maximum coke formation occurring when the propane coverage is the largest. Combined, these data give unprecedented insight into the complicated dynamics for propane dehydrogenation.

  5. Application of microturbines to control emissions from associated gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Darren D.

    2013-04-16

    A system for controlling the emission of associated gas produced from a reservoir. In an embodiment, the system comprises a gas compressor including a gas inlet in fluid communication with an associated gas source and a gas outlet. The gas compressor adjusts the pressure of the associated gas to produce a pressure-regulated associated gas. In addition, the system comprises a gas cleaner including a gas inlet in fluid communication with the outlet of the gas compressor, a fuel gas outlet, and a waste product outlet. The gas cleaner separates at least a portion of the sulfur and the water from the associated gas to produce a fuel gas. Further, the system comprises a gas turbine including a fuel gas inlet in fluid communication with the fuel gas outlet of the gas cleaner and an air inlet. Still further, the system comprises a choke in fluid communication with the air inlet.

  6. Low-temperature superacid catalysis: Reactions of n - butane and propane catalyzed by iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsz-Keung, Cheung; d`Itri, J.L.; Lange, F.C.; Gates, B.C.

    1995-12-31

    The primary goal of this project is to evaluate the potential value of solid superacid catalysts of the sulfated zirconia type for light hydrocarbon conversion. The key experiments catalytic testing of the performance of such catalysts in a flow reactor fed with streams containing, for example, n-butane or propane. Fe- and Mn-promoted sulfated zirconia was used to catalyze the conversion of n-butane at atmospheric pressure, 225-450{degrees}C, and n-butane partial pressures in the range of 0.0025-0.01 atm. At temperatures <225{degrees}C, these reactions were accompanied by cracking; at temperatures >350{degrees}C, cracking and isomerization occurred. Catalyst deactivation, resulting at least in part from coke formation, was rapid. The primary cracking products were methane, ethane, ethylene, and propylene. The observation of these products along with an ethane/ethylene molar ratio of nearly 1 at 450{degrees}C is consistent with cracking occurring, at least in part, by the Haag-Dessau mechanism, whereby the strongly acidic catalyst protonates n-butane to give carbonium ions. The rate of methane formation from n-butane cracking catalyzed by Fe- and Mn-promoted sulfated zirconia at 450{degrees}C was about 3 x 10{sup -8} mol/(g of catalyst {center_dot}s). The observation of butanes, pentanes, and methane as products is consistent with Olah superacid chemistry, whereby propane is first protonated by a very strong acid to form a carbonium ion. The carbonium ion then decomposes into methane and an ethyl cation which undergoes oligocondensation reactions with propane to form higher molecular weight alkanes. The results are consistent with the identification of iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia as a superacid.

  7. Characterization of suspended flue gas particle systems with...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    IMPACTORS; PERFORMANCE TESTING; FLUE GAS; PARTICLE SIZE; FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION; AIR FILTERS; DISTRIBUTION; MEASURING INSTRUMENTS; SORTING; CHEMICAL REACTIONS; COMBUSTION;...

  8. Ventilation of liquefied petroleum gas components from the Valley of Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, S.; Blake, D.R.; Sherwood Rowland, F.; Lu, R.; Brown, M.J.; Williams, M.D.; Russell, A.G.; Bossert, J.E.; Streit, G.E.; Santoyo, M.R.; Guzman, F.; Porch, W.M.; McNair, L.A.; Keyantash, J.; Kao, C.J.; Turco, R.P.; Eichinger, W.E.

    1997-09-01

    The saturated hydrocarbons propane and the butane isomers are both indirect greenhouse gases and key species in liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Leakage of LPG and its component alkanes/alkenes is now thought to explain a significant fraction of the volatile organic burden and oxidative potential in the basin which confines Mexico City. Propane and the butanes, however, are stable enough to escape from the basin. The gas chromatographic measurements which have drawn attention to their sources within the urban area are used here to estimate rates of ventilation into the free troposphere. The calculations are centered on several well studied February/March pollution episodes. Carbon monoxide observations and emissions data are first exploited to provide a rough time constant for the removal of typical inert pollutant species from the valley. The timescale obtained is validated through an examination of meteorological simulations of three-dimensional flow. Heuristic arguments and transport modeling establish that propane and the butanes are distributed through the basin in a manner analogous to CO despite differing emissions functions. Ventilation rates and mass loadings yield outbound fluxes in a box model type computation. Estimated in this fashion, escape from the Valley of Mexico constitutes of the order of half of 1{percent} of the northern hemispheric inputs for both propane and n-butane. Uncertainties in the calculations are detailed and include factors such as flow into the basin via surface winds and the size of the polluted regime. General quantification of the global propane and butane emissions from large cities will entail studies of this type in a variety of locales.{copyright} 1997 American Geophysical Union

  9. Greenhouse gas and air pollutant emission reduction potentials of renewable energy - case studies on photovoltaic and wind power introduction considering interactions among technologies in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu-Ming Kuo; Yasuhiro Fukushima

    2009-03-15

    To achieve higher energy security and lower emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and pollutants, the development of renewable energy has attracted much attention in Taiwan. In addition to its contribution to the enhancement of reliable indigenous resources, the introduction of renewable energy such as photovoltaic (PV) and wind power systems reduces the emission of GHGs and air pollutants by substituting a part of the carbon- and pollutant-intensive power with power generated by methods that are cleaner and less carbon-intensive. To evaluate the reduction potentials, consequential changes in the operation of different types of existing power plants have to be taken into account. In this study, a linear mathematical programming model is constructed to simulate a power mix for a given power demand in a power market sharing a cost-minimization objective. By applying the model, the emission reduction potentials of capacity extension case studies, including the enhancement of PV and wind power introduction at different scales, were assessed. In particular, the consequences of power mix changes in carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, and particulates were discussed. Seasonally varying power demand levels, solar irradiation, and wind strength were taken into account. In this study, we have found that the synergetic reduction of carbon dioxide emission induced by PV and wind power introduction occurs under a certain level of additional installed capacity. Investigation of a greater variety of case studies on scenario development with emerging power sources becomes possible by applying the model developed in this study. 15 refs., 8 figs., 11 tabs.

  10. High-Pressure Micellar Solutions of Polystyrene-block-Polybutadiene and Polystyrene-block-Polyisoprene Solutions in Propane Exhibit Cloud-Pressure Reduction and Distinct Micellization End Points

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winoto, Winoto; Radosz, Maciej; Tan, Sugata; Hong, Kunlun; Mays, Jimmy

    2009-01-01

    Micellar solutions of polystyrene-block-polybutadiene and polystyrene-block-polyisoprene in propane are found to exhibit significantly lower cloud pressures than the corresponding hypothetical non-micellar solutions. Such a cloud-pressure reduction indicates the extent to which micelle formation enhances the apparent diblock solubility in near-critical and hence compressible propane. Pressure-temperature points beyond which no micelles can be formed, referred to as the micellization end points, are found to depend on the block type, size and ratio, and on the polymer concentration. For a given pressure, the micellization end-point temperature corresponds to the "critical micelle temperature." The cloud-pressure reduction and the micellization end point measured for styrene-diene diblocks in propane should be characteristic of all amphiphilic diblock copolymer solutions that form micelles in compressible solvents.

  11. NREL and California Air Agency to Test Clean Diesel Fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) to determine if using the fuel can help reduce air pollution. Fischer-Tropsch fuels can be produced from natural gas, biomass or coal. ...

  12. Lithium bromide absorption chiller passes gas conditioning field test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lane, M.J.; Huey, M.A.

    1995-07-31

    A lithium bromide absorption chiller has been successfully used to provide refrigeration for field conditioning of natural gas. The intent of the study was to identify a process that could provide a moderate level of refrigeration necessary to meet the quality restrictions required by natural-gas transmission companies, minimize the initial investment risk, and reduce operating expenses. The technology in the test proved comparatively less expensive to operate than a propane refrigeration plant. Volatile product prices and changes in natural-gas transmission requirements have created the need for an alternative to conventional methods of natural-gas processing. The paper describes the problems with the accumulation of condensed liquids in pipelines, gas conditioning, the lithium bromide absorption cycle, economics, performance, and operating and maintenance costs.

  13. Synergistic effect of mixing dimethyl ether with methane, ethane, propane, and ethylene fuels on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and soot formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, S.S.; Anh, D.H.; Chung, S.H.

    2008-08-15

    Characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and soot formation in counterflow diffusion flames of methane, ethane, propane, and ethylene fuels mixed with dimethyl ether (DME) have been investigated. Planar laser-induced incandescence and fluorescence techniques were employed to measure relative soot volume fractions and PAH concentrations, respectively. Results showed that even though DME is known to be a clean fuel in terms of soot formation, DME mixture with ethylene fuel increases PAH and soot formation significantly as compared to the pure ethylene case, while the mixture of DME with methane, ethane, and propane decreases PAH and soot formation. Numerical calculations adopting a detailed kinetics showed that DME can be decomposed to produce a relatively large number of methyl radicals in the low-temperature region where PAH forms and grows; thus the mixture of DME with ethylene increases CH{sub 3} radicals significantly in the PAH formation region. Considering that the increase in the concentration of O radicals is minimal in the PAH formation region with DME mixture, the enhancement of PAH and soot formation in the mixture flames of DME and ethylene can be explained based on the role of methyl radicals in PAH and soot formation. Methyl radicals can increase the concentration of propargyls, which could enhance incipient benzene ring formation through the propargyl recombination reaction and subsequent PAH growth. Thus, the result substantiates the importance of methyl radicals in PAH and soot formation, especially in the PAH formation region of diffusion flames. (author)

  14. ,"U.S. Sales for Resale Refiner Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene, Propane, No.1 and No. 2 Distillates"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene, Propane, No.1 and No. 2 Distillates" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Sales for Resale Refiner Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene, Propane, No.1 and No. 2 Distillates",11,"Monthly","12/2015","1/15/1983" ,"Release

  15. ,"U.S. Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene, Propane, No.1 and No. 2 Distillates"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene, Propane, No.1 and No. 2 Distillates" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene, Propane, No.1 and No. 2 Distillates",11,"Monthly","12/2015","1/15/1983" ,"Release

  16. PFT Air Infiltration Measurement Technique | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PFT Air Infiltration Measurement Technique PFT Air Infiltration Measurement Technique The Brookhaven National Laboratory developed the PFT (PerFluorocarbon tracer gas) technique to measure changes over time when determining a building's air-infiltration rate. The Brookhaven National Laboratory developed the PFT (PerFluorocarbon tracer gas) technique to measure changes over time when determining a building's air-infiltration rate. The airtightness of a building can be determined by using several

  17. Mitigation of thermoacoustic instability utilizing steady air injection near the flame anchoring zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murat Altay, H.; Hudgins, Duane E.; Speth, Raymond L.; Annaswamy, Anuradha M.; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2010-04-15

    The objective of this work is to investigate the effectiveness of steady air injection near the flame anchoring zone in suppressing thermoacoustic instabilities driven by flame-vortex interaction mechanism. We perform a systematic experimental study which involves using two different configurations of air injection in an atmospheric pressure backward-facing step combustor. The first configuration utilizes a row of micro-diameter holes allowing for air injection in the cross-stream direction just upstream of the step. The second configuration utilizes an array of micro-diameter holes located on the face of the step, allowing for air injection in the streamwise direction. The effects of each of these configurations are analyzed to determine which one is more effective in suppressing thermoacoustic instabilities at different operating conditions. The tests are conducted while varying the equivalence ratio and the inlet temperature. The secondary air temperature is always the same as the inlet temperature. We used pure propane or propane/hydrogen mixtures as fuels. Combustion dynamics are explored through simultaneous pressure and heat release-rate measurements, and high-speed video images. When the equivalence ratio of the reactant mixture is high, it causes the flame to flashback towards the inlet channel. When air is injected in the cross-stream direction, the flame anchors slightly upstream of the step, which suppresses the instability. When air is injected in the streamwise direction near the edge of step, thermoacoustic instability could be eliminated at an optimum secondary air flow rate, which depends on the operating conditions. When effective, the streamwise air injection prevents the shedding of an unsteady vortex, thus eliminating the flame-vortex interaction mechanism and resulting in a compact, stable flame to form near the step. (author)

  18. PFT Air Infiltration Measurement Technique | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infiltration Measurement Technique PFT Air Infiltration Measurement Technique The Brookhaven National Laboratory developed the PFT (PerFluorocarbon tracer gas) technique to...

  19. Gas turbine topping combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, Janos (Winchester, MA); Dowdy, Thomas E. (Orlando, FL); Bachovchin, Dennis M. (Delmont, PA)

    1997-01-01

    A combustor for burning a mixture of fuel and air in a rich combustion zone, in which the fuel bound nitrogen in converted to molecular nitrogen. The fuel rich combustion is followed by lean combustion. The products of combustion from the lean combustion are rapidly quenched so as to convert the fuel bound nitrogen to molecular nitrogen without forming NOx. The combustor has an air radial swirler that directs the air radially inward while swirling it in the circumferential direction and a radial fuel swirler that directs the fuel radially outward while swirling it in the same circumferential direction, thereby promoting vigorous mixing of the fuel and air. The air inlet has a variable flow area that is responsive to variations in the heating value of the fuel, which may be a coal-derived fuel gas. A diverging passage in the combustor in front of a bluff body causes the fuel/air mixture to recirculate with the rich combustion zone.

  20. Challenges associated with shale gas production | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Challenges associated with shale gas production Challenges associated with shale gas production PDF icon What challenges are associated with shale gas production? More Documents & Publications Natural Gas from Shale: Questions and Answers Shale Gas Development Challenges: Air Shale Gas Development Challenges: Fracture Fluids

  1. Polyport atmospheric gas sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guggenheim, S. Frederic (Teaneck, NJ)

    1995-01-01

    An atmospheric gas sampler with a multi-port valve which allows for multi, sequential sampling of air through a plurality of gas sampling tubes mounted in corresponding gas inlet ports. The gas sampler comprises a flow-through housing which defines a sampling chamber and includes a gas outlet port to accommodate a flow of gases through the housing. An apertured sample support plate defining the inlet ports extends across and encloses the sampling chamber and supports gas sampling tubes which depend into the sampling chamber and are secured across each of the inlet ports of the sample support plate in a flow-through relation to the flow of gases through the housing during sampling operations. A normally closed stopper means mounted on the sample support plate and operatively associated with each of the inlet ports blocks the flow of gases through the respective gas sampling tubes. A camming mechanism mounted on the sample support plate is adapted to rotate under and selectively lift open the stopper spring to accommodate a predetermined flow of gas through the respective gas sampling tubes when air is drawn from the housing through the outlet port.

  2. High gas flow alpha detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bolton, R.D.; Bounds, J.A.; Rawool-Sullivan, M.W.

    1996-05-07

    An alpha detector for application in areas of high velocity gas flows, such as smokestacks and air vents. A plurality of spaced apart signal collectors are placed inside an enclosure, which would include smokestacks and air vents, in sufficient numbers to substantially span said enclosure so that gas ions generated within the gas flow are electrostatically captured by the signal collector means. Electrometer means and a voltage source are connected to the signal collectors to generate an electrical field between adjacent signal collectors, and to indicate a current produced through collection of the gas ions by the signal collectors. 4 figs.

  3. High gas flow alpha detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bolton, Richard D. (Los Alamos, NM); Bounds, John A. (Los Alamos, NM); Rawool-Sullivan, Mohini W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1996-01-01

    An alpha detector for application in areas of high velocity gas flows, such as smokestacks and air vents. A plurality of spaced apart signal collectors are placed inside an enclosure, which would include smokestacks and air vents, in sufficient numbers to substantially span said enclosure so that gas ions generated within the gas flow are electrostatically captured by the signal collector means. Electrometer means and a voltage source are connected to the signal collectors to generate an electrical field between adjacent signal collectors, and to indicate a current produced through collection of the gas ions by the signal collectors.

  4. An In-Situ XAS Study of the Structural Changes in a CuO-CeO2/Al2O3 Catalyst during Total Oxidation of Propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silversmith, Geert; Poelman, Hilde; Poelman, Dirk; Gryse, Roger de; Olea, Maria; Balcaen, Veerle; Heynderickx, Philippe; Marin, Guy B.

    2007-02-02

    A CuOx-CeOx/Al2O3 catalyst was studied with in-situ transmission Cu K XAS for the total oxidation of propane as model reaction for the catalytic elimination of volatile organic compounds. The local Cu structure was determined for the catalyst as such, after pre-oxidation and after reduction with propane. The catalyst as such has a local CuO structure. No structural effect was observed upon heating in He up to 600 deg. C or after pre-oxidation at 150 deg. C. A full reduction of the Cu2+ towards metallic Cu0 occurred, when propane was fed to the catalyst. The change in local Cu structure during propane reduction was followed with a time resolution of 1 min. The {chi}(k) scans appeared as linear combinations of start and end spectra, CuO and Cu structure, respectively. However, careful examination of the XANES edge spectra indicates the presence of a small amount of additional Cu1+ species.

  5. State of Missouri 1991--1992 Energy Information Administration State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP). Final report, August 9, 1991--August 8, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    The objective of the Missouri State Heating Oil and Propane Program was to develop a joint state-level company-specific data collective effort. The State of Missouri provided to the US Department of Energy`s Energy Information Administration company specific price and volume information on residential No. 2 heating oil and propane on a semimonthly basis. The energy companies participating under the program were selected at random by the US Department of Energy and provided to the Missouri Department of Natural Resources` Division of Energy prior to the implementation of the program. The specific data collection responsibilities for the Missouri Department of Natural Resources` Division of Energy included: (1) Collection of semimonthly residential heating oil and propane prices, collected on the first and third Monday from August 1991 through August 1992; and, (2) Collection of annual sales volume data for residential propane for the period September 1, 1990 through August 31. 1991. This data was required for the first report only. These data were provided on a company identifiable level to the extent permitted by State law. Information was transmitted to the US Department of Energy`s Energy Information Administration through the Petroleum Electronic Data Reporting Option (PEDRO).

  6. Steady State Dense Gas Dispersion

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1995-03-01

    SLAB-LLNL is a steady-state one-dimensional program which calculates the atmospheric dispersion of a heavier than air gas that is continuously released at ground level. The model is based on the steady-state crosswind-averaged conservation equations of species, mass, energy, and momentum. It uses the air entrainment concept to account for the turbulent mixing of the gas cloud with the surrounding atmosphere and similarity profiles to determine the crosswind dependence.

  7. Compressible Solution Properties of Amorphous Polystyrene-block-Polybutadiene, Crystalline Polystyrene-block-Poly(Hydrogenated Polybutadiene) and Their Corresponding Homopolymers: Fluid-Fluid, Fluid-Solid and Fluid-Micelle Phase Transitions in Propane and Propylene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Kunlun; Mays, Jimmy; Winoto, Winoto; Radosz, Maciej

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Polystyrene, polybutadiene, hydrogenated polybutadiene, and styrene diblock copolymers of these homopolymers can form homogenous solutions in compressible solvents, such as propane and propylene, which separate into two bulk phases upon reducing pressure. The cloud and micellization pressures for homopolymer and diblock copolymers are generally found to be higher in propane than in propylene, except for hydrogenated polybutadiene and polystyrene-block-(hydrogenated polybutadiene). Hydrogenated polybutadiene homopolymers and copolymers exhibit relatively pressure-independent crystallization and melting observed in both propane and propylene solutions.

  8. Cracking of simulated oil refinery off-gas over a coal char, petroleum coke, and quartz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan Zhang; Jin-hu Wu; Dong-ke Zhang

    2008-03-15

    The cracking of oil refinery off-gas, simulated with a gas mixture containing methane (51%), ethylene (21.4%), ethane (21.1%), and propane (6.5%), over a coal char, petroleum coke, and quartz, respectively, has been studied in a fixed bed reactor. The experiments were performed at temperatures between 850 and 1000{sup o}C and at atmospheric pressure. The results show that the conversions of all species considered increased with increasing temperature. Ethane and propane completely decomposed over all three bed materials in the temperature range investigated. However, the higher initial conversion rates of methane and ethylene cracking at all temperatures were observed only over the coal char and not on the petroleum coke and quartz, indicating a significant catalytic effect of the coal char on methane and ethylene cracking. Methane and ethylene conversions decreased with reaction time due to deactivation of the coal char by carbon deposition on the char surface and, in the later stage of a cracking experiment, became negative, suggesting that methane and ethylene had been formed during the cracking of ethane and propane. 16 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Propane Vehicle Rebates - Western Propane Gas Association (WPGA) Rebates of $500 are available to public and private fleets to purchase or convert a qualified propane vehicle. Recipients must provide monthly product performance information. All conversion systems for vehicles must be certified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or the California Air Resources Board. All vehicles must be registered and operated in California. Incentives are available on a first-come, first-served basis

  10. Compressed gas fuel storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wozniak, John J. (Columbia, MD); Tiller, Dale B. (Lincoln, NE); Wienhold, Paul D. (Baltimore, MD); Hildebrand, Richard J. (Edgemere, MD)

    2001-01-01

    A compressed gas vehicle fuel storage system comprised of a plurality of compressed gas pressure cells supported by shock-absorbing foam positioned within a shape-conforming container. The container is dimensioned relative to the compressed gas pressure cells whereby a radial air gap surrounds each compressed gas pressure cell. The radial air gap allows pressure-induced expansion of the pressure cells without resulting in the application of pressure to adjacent pressure cells or physical pressure to the container. The pressure cells are interconnected by a gas control assembly including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and means for connecting the fuel storage system to a vehicle power source and a refueling adapter. The gas control assembly is enclosed by a protective cover attached to the container. The system is attached to the vehicle with straps to enable the chassis to deform as intended in a high-speed collision.

  11. Hybrid and Advanced Air Cooling | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hybrid and Advanced Air Cooling presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado. PDF icon hybrid_advanced_air_cooling_peer2013.pdf More Documents & Publications Hybrid and Advanced Air Cooling 300ºC DDS + 300ºC MWD Chena Hot Springs Resort - Electric Power Generation Using Geothermal Fluid Coproduced from Oil and/or Gas Wells

  12. Turbocharged engine exhaust gas recirculation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stachowicz, R.W.

    1984-01-24

    Improved exhaust gas recirculation systems for turbocharged gas engines that include an exhaust pipe, a turbocharger connected thereto, and a carburetor connected with a source of gas for the engine. The recirculation system includes an air conduit extending from the turbocharger compressor discharge to a venturi, an exhaust gas conduit that extends from a connection with the exhaust pipe between the engine and the turbocharger to the venturi, a second air conduit that extends from the exhaust pipe to a connection with the first air conduit, and control valves located in the exhaust gas conduit and in the second air conduit. The valves are closed when the engine is being started or idling at no load and open when a load is imposed or when engine rpm's are increased. No pumps, blowers, etc. are needed because the system operates on a differential in pressure created within the system to cause the exhaust gas recirculation.

  13. Impact of Fuel Interchangeability on dynamic Instabilities in Gas Turbine Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferguson, D.H.; Straub, D.L.; Richards, G.A.; Robey, E.H.

    2007-03-01

    Modern, low NOx emitting gas turbines typically utilize lean pre-mixed (LPM) combustion as a means of achieving target emissions goals. As stable combustion in LPM systems is somewhat intolerant to changes in operating conditions, precise engine tuning on a prescribed range of fuel properties is commonly performed to avoid dynamic instabilities. This has raised concerns regarding the use of imported liquefied natural gas (LNG) and natural gas liquids (NGL’s) to offset a reduction in the domestic natural gas supply, which when introduced into the pipeline could alter the fuel BTU content and subsequently exacerbate problems such as combustion instabilities. The intent of this study is to investigate the sensitivity of dynamically unstable test rigs to changes in fuel composition and heat content. Fuel Wobbe number was controlled by blending methane and natural gas with various amounts of ethane, propane and nitrogen. Changes in combustion instabilities were observed, in both atmospheric and pressurized test rigs, for fuels containing high concentrations of propane (> 62% by vol). However, pressure oscillations measured while operating on typical “LNG like” fuels did not appear to deviate significantly from natural gas and methane flame responses. Mechanisms thought to produce changes in the dynamic response are discussed.

  14. Vanadium oxide based nanostructured materials for catalytic oxidative dehydrogenation of propane : effect of heterometallic centers on the catalyst performance.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, M. I.; Deb, S.; Aydemir, K.; Alwarthan, A. A.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Miller, J. T.; Marshall, C. L.

    2010-01-01

    Catalytic properties of a series of new class of catalysts materials-[Co{sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 12}V{sub 18}O{sub 42} (XO{sub 4})].24H{sub 2}O (VNM-Co), [Fe{sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 12}V{sub 18}O{sub 42}(XO{sub 4})].24H{sub 2}O (VNM-Fe) (X = V, S) and [H{sub 6}Mn{sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 12}V{sub 18}O{sub 42}(VO{sub 4})].30H{sub 2}O for the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane is studied. The open-framework nanostructures in these novel materials consist of three-dimensional arrays of {l_brace}V{sub 18}O{sub 42}(XO{sub 4}){r_brace} (X = V, S) clusters interconnected by {l_brace}-O-M-O-{r_brace} (M = Mn, Fe, Co) linkers. The effect of change in the heterometallic center M (M = Mn, Co, Fe) of the linkers on the catalyst performance was studied. The catalyst material with Co in the linker showed the best performance in terms of propane conversion and selectivity at 350 C. The material containing Fe was most active but least selective and Mn containing catalyst was least active. The catalysts were characterized by Temperature Programmed Reduction (TPR), BET surface area measurement, Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy, and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy. TPR results show that all three catalysts are easily reducible and therefore are active at relatively low temperature. In situ X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) studies revealed that the oxidation state of Co(II) remained unchanged up to 425 C (even after pretreatment). The reduction of Co(II) into metallic form starts at 425 C and this process is completed at 600 C.

  15. Nanostructure of Solid Precipitates Obtained by Expansion of Polystyrene-block-Polybutadiene Solutions in Near Critical Propane: Block Ratio and Micellar Solution Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, Jade; Tyrrell, Zachary; Radosz, Maciej; Hong, Kunlun; Mays, Jimmy

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to incompressible liquid solutions, compressible near-critical solutions of block copolymers allow for controlling rapid structure transformations with pressure alone. For example, when dissolved in near-critical propane, polystyrene-block-polybutadiene can form a random molecular solution at high pressures, a micellar solution at moderate pressures, and a solvent-free precipitate at low pressures. In contrast to the unstructured virgin copolymer, such a propane-treated precipitate rapidly self-assembles toward structures characteristic of equilibrated block copolymers, such as lamellae, spheres, or cylinders, which depend on the block ratio rather than on the decompression rate or temperature, at least within the rate and temperature ranges investigated in this work. At lower temperatures, however, say below 40 C, glass transition of the styrene-butadiene diblocks can inhibit independent structure formation, while crystallization of their hydrogenated-butadiene analogues can preserve the micellar-solution structure.

  16. Direct growth of few-layer graphene on 6H-SiC and 3C-SiC/Si via propane chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michon, A.; Vezian, S.; Portail, M.; Ouerghi, A.; Zielinski, M.; Chassagne, T.

    2010-10-25

    We propose to grow graphene on SiC by a direct carbon feeding through propane flow in a chemical vapor deposition reactor. X-ray photoemission and low energy electron diffraction show that propane allows to grow few-layer graphene (FLG) on 6H-SiC(0001). Surprisingly, FLG grown on (0001) face presents a rotational disorder similar to that observed for FLG obtained by annealing on (000-1) face. Thanks to a reduced growth temperature with respect to the classical SiC annealing method, we have also grown FLG/3C-SiC/Si(111) in a single growth sequence. This opens the way for large-scale production of graphene-based devices on silicon substrate.

  17. Deuteration Can Impact Micellization Pressure and Cloud Pressure of Polystyrene-block-polybutadiene and Polystyrene-block-polyisoprene in Compressible Propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winoto, Winoto; Shen, Youqin; Radosz, Maciej; Hong, Kunlun; Mays, Jimmy

    2009-01-01

    The deuterated homopolymers and their corresponding polystyrene-block-polybutadiene and polystyrene-block-polyisoprene copolymers require lower cloud pressures than their hydrogenous analogues to dissolve in a compressible alkane solvent, such as propane. For symmetric diblocks, deuteration reduces the micellization pressure. By contrast, for asymmetric diblocks with a long diene block relative to the styrene block, deuteration can increase the micellization pressure. All in all, however, the deuteration effects, while measurable, do not qualitatively change the principal diblock properties in compressible propane solutions, such as pressure-induced micelle decomposition, micelle formation and micelle size, and their temperature dependence. Therefore, isotope labeling should be a useful approach to neutron-scattering characterization for styrene-diene block copolymers in compressible alkane systems.

  18. Hydronic Heating Coil Versus Propane Furnace, Rehoboth Beach, Delaware (Fact Sheet), Building America Case Study: Whole-House Solutions for New Homes, Building Technologies Office (BTO)

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Hydronic Heating Coil Versus Propane Furnace Rehoboth Beach, Delaware PROJECT INFORMATION Construction: New Home Type: Single-family, affordable IBACOS, www.ibacos.com Builder: Insight Homes, Rehoboth Beach, DE www.itsjustabetterhouse.com Size: 1,715 ft 2 Price Range: About $230,000 Date Completed: 2012 Climate Zone: Mixed-humid PERFORMANCE DATA Builder standard practice = 56 Case study house = 1,715 ft 2 With renewables = Not applicable Without renewables = 56 Projected annual energy cost

  19. Clean Cities Now, Vol. 18, No. 2, Winter 2014/2015: Past, Present, Future: Propane Proves Dependable Over the Long Term (Newsletter), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    2 Winter 2014/2015 Inside: 2013: One Year-One Billion and Beyond Northern Colorado Cements Success With Partnerships Braun's Express Celebrates Petroleum Reduction Past, Present, Future: Propane proves dependable over the long term Carl Lisek, left, South Shore Clean Cities Coor- dinator, and Lorrie Lisek, Wisconsin Clean Cities Coordinator, were selected by the Society of Innovators of Northwest Indiana as the September 2014 innovators of the month. In This Issue Events Spur EV Adoption in

  20. Effects of pressure, temperature, and hydrogen during graphene growth on SiC(0001) using propane-hydrogen chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michon, A.; Vezian, S.; Roudon, E.; Lefebvre, D.; Portail, M.; Zielinski, M.; Chassagne, T.

    2013-05-28

    Graphene growth from a propane flow in a hydrogen environment (propane-hydrogen chemical vapor deposition (CVD)) on SiC differentiates from other growth methods in that it offers the possibility to obtain various graphene structures on the Si-face depending on growth conditions. The different structures include the (6{radical}3 Multiplication-Sign 6{radical}3)-R30 Degree-Sign reconstruction of the graphene/SiC interface, which is commonly observed on the Si-face, but also the rotational disorder which is generally observed on the C-face. In this work, growth mechanisms leading to the formation of the different structures are studied and discussed. For that purpose, we have grown graphene on SiC(0001) (Si-face) using propane-hydrogen CVD at various pressure and temperature and studied these samples extensively by means of low energy electron diffraction and atomic force microscopy. Pressure and temperature conditions leading to the formation of the different structures are identified and plotted in a pressure-temperature diagram. This diagram, together with other characterizations (X-ray photoemission and scanning tunneling microscopy), is the basis of further discussions on the carbon supply mechanisms and on the kinetics effects. The entire work underlines the important role of hydrogen during growth and its effects on the final graphene structure.

  1. ISOTHERMAL AIR INGRESS VALIDATION EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang H Oh; Eung S Kim

    2011-09-01

    Idaho National Laboratory carried out air ingress experiments as part of validating computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations. An isothermal test loop was designed and set to understand the stratified-flow phenomenon, which is important as the initial air flow into the lower plenum of the very high temperature gas cooled reactor (VHTR) when a large break loss-of-coolant accident occurs. The unique flow characteristics were focused on the VHTR air-ingress accident, in particular, the flow visualization of the stratified flow in the inlet pipe to the vessel lower plenum of the General Atomics Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR). Brine and sucrose were used as heavy fluids, and water was used to represent a light fluid, which mimics a counter current flow due to the density difference between the stimulant fluids. The density ratios were changed between 0.87 and 0.98. This experiment clearly showed that a stratified flow between simulant fluids was established even for very small density differences. The CFD calculations were compared with experimental data. A grid sensitivity study on CFD models was also performed using the Richardson extrapolation and the grid convergence index method for the numerical accuracy of CFD calculations . As a result, the calculated current speed showed very good agreement with the experimental data, indicating that the current CFD methods are suitable for predicting density gradient stratified flow phenomena in the air-ingress accident.

  2. Novel Application of Air Separation Membranes Reduces Engine NOx Emissions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - Energy Innovation Portal Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Find More Like This Return to Search Novel Application of Air Separation Membranes Reduces Engine NOx Emissions Alternative to Exhaust Gas Recirculation that involves the nitrogen enrichment of intake air. Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About This Technology <p> Schematic representation of the air separation process through a membrane module</p> Schematic representation of the air separation process through

  3. Closed-loop air cooling system for a turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    North, William Edward (Winter Springs, FL)

    2000-01-01

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for providing a closed-loop air cooling system for a turbine engine. The method and apparatus provide for bleeding pressurized air from a gas turbine engine compressor for use in cooling the turbine components. The compressed air is cascaded through the various stages of the turbine. At each stage a portion of the compressed air is returned to the compressor where useful work is recovered.

  4. Synthesis of Pt?Pd Core?Shell Nanostructures by Atomic Layer Deposition: Application in Propane Oxidative Dehydrogenation to Propylene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lei, Y.; Liu, Bin; Lu, Junling; Lobo-Lapidus, Rodrigo J.; Wu, Tianpin; Feng, Hao; Xia, Xiaoxing; Mane, Anil U.; Libera, Joseph A.; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Elam, J. W.

    2012-08-20

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) was employed to synthesize supported Pt?Pd bimetallic particles in the 1 to 2 nm range. The metal loading and composition of the supported Pt?Pd nanoparticles were controlled by varying the deposition temperature and by applying ALD metal oxide coatings to modify the support surface chemistry. Highresolution scanning transmission electron microscopy images showed monodispersed Pt?Pd nanoparticles on ALD Al2O3 - and TiO2 -modi?ed SiO2 gel. X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed that the bimetallic nanoparticles have a stable Pt-core, Pd-shell nanostructure. Density functional theory calculations revealed that the most stable surface con?guration for the Pt? Pd alloys in an H2 environment has a Pt-core, Pd-shell nanostructure. In comparison to their monometallic counterparts, the small Pt?Pd bimetallic core?shell nanoparticles exhibited higher activity in propane oxidative dehydrogenation as compared to their physical mixture.

  5. US Mnt(N) CO Site Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    typically use central air conditioners. 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% US Mnt(N) CO OtherNone Propane Electricity Natural Gas MAIN HEATING FUEL USED COOLING EQUIPMENT USED DIVISION:...

  6. US WSC TX Site Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    over 80% using central air conditioners. 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% US WSC TX OtherNone Propane Electricity Natural Gas MAIN HEATING FUEL USED COOLING EQUIPMENT USED DIVISION:...

  7. US ENC WI Site Consumption

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    on central air conditioning for cooling. 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% US ENC WI OtherNone Propane Electricity Natural Gas MAIN HEATING FUEL USED COOLING EQUIPMENT USED DIVISION:...

  8. US ENC IL Site Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    on central air conditioning for cooling. 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% US ENC IL OtherNone Propane Electricity Natural Gas MAIN HEATING FUEL USED COOLING EQUIPMENT USED DIVISION:...

  9. US ENC MI Site Consumption

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on central air conditioning for cooling. 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% US ENC MI OtherNone Propane Electricity Natural Gas MAIN HEATING FUEL USED COOLING EQUIPMENT USED DIVISION:...

  10. Propane ammoxidation over the Mo-V-Te-Nb-O M1 phase: Reactivity of surface cations in hydrogen abstraction steps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muthukumar, Kaliappan; Yu, Junjun; Xu, Ye; Guliants, Vadim V.

    2011-01-01

    Density functional theory calculations (GGA-PBE) have been performed to investigate the adsorption of C3 (propane, isopropyl, propene, and allyl) and H species on the proposed active center present in the surface ab planes of the bulk Mo-V-Te-Nb-O M1 phase in order to better understand the roles of the different surface cations in propane ammoxidation. Modified cluster models were employed to isolate the closely spaced V=O and Te=O from each other and to vary the oxidation state of the V cation. While propane and propene adsorb with nearly zero adsorption energy, the isopropyl and allyl radicals bind strongly to V=O and Te=O with adsorption energies, {Delta}E, being {le} -1.75 eV, but appreciably more weakly on other sites, such as Mo=O, bridging oxygen (Mo-O-V and Mo-O-Mo), and empty metal apical sites ({Delta}E > -1 eV). Atomic H binds more strongly to Te = O ({Delta}E {le} -3 eV) than to all the other sites, including V = O ({Delta}E = -2.59 eV). The reduction of surface oxo groups by dissociated H and their removal as water are thermodynamically favorable except when both H atoms are bonded to the same Te=O. Consistent with the strong binding of H, Te=O is markedly more active at abstracting the methylene H from propane (E{sub a} {le} 1.01 eV) than V = O (E{sub a} = 1.70 eV on V{sup 5+} = O and 2.13 eV on V{sup 4+} = O). The higher-than-observed activity and the loose binding of Te = O moieties to the mixed metal oxide lattice of M1 raise the question of whether active Te = O groups are in fact present in the surface ab planes of the M1 phase under propane ammoxidation conditions.

  11. Field testing the Raman gas composition sensor for gas turbine operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buric, M.; Chorpening, B.; Mullem, J.; Ranalli, J.; Woodruff, S.

    2012-01-01

    A gas composition sensor based on Raman spectroscopy using reflective metal lined capillary waveguides is tested under field conditions for feed-forward applications in gas turbine control. The capillary waveguide enables effective use of low powered lasers and rapid composition determination, for computation of required parameters to pre-adjust burner control based on incoming fuel. Tests on high pressure fuel streams show sub-second time response and better than one percent accuracy on natural gas fuel mixtures. Fuel composition and Wobbe constant values are provided at one second intervals or faster. The sensor, designed and constructed at NETL, is packaged for Class I Division 2 operations typical of gas turbine environments, and samples gas at up to 800 psig. Simultaneous determination of the hydrocarbons methane, ethane, and propane plus CO, CO2, H2O, H2, N2, and O2 are realized. The capillary waveguide permits use of miniature spectrometers and laser power of less than 100 mW. The capillary dimensions of 1 m length and 300 μm ID also enable a full sample exchange in 0.4 s or less at 5 psig pressure differential, which allows a fast response to changes in sample composition. Sensor operation under field operation conditions will be reported.

  12. Louisville Gas & Electric- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Louisville Gas & Electric's Home Energy Rebate program provides incentives for residential customers to upgrade to energy efficiency home appliances and heat and air conditioning equipment. ...

  13. NATURAL GAS FROM SHALE: Questions and Answers Shale Gas Development Challenges -

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Air Key Points: * Air quality risks from shale oil and gas development are generally the result of: (1) dust and engine exhaust from increased truck traffic; (2) emissions from diesel-powered pumps used to power equipment; (3) intentional flaring or venting of gas for operational reasons; and, (4) unintentional emissions of pollutants from faulty equipment or impoundments. 1 * Natural gas is efficient and clean compared to other fossil fuels, emitting less nitrogen oxide and sulfur dioxide than

  14. DOE Announces Webinars on Compressed Natural Gas Infrastructure...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    estimate the cost to install fueling infrastructure for vehicles that run on propane. Curtis Donaldson from CleanFUEL USA discusses key components of a propane station, how a...

  15. Gas bubble disease: introduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fickeisen, D.H.; Schneider, M.J.; Wedemeyer, G.A.

    1980-11-01

    In 1970, gas bubble disease was identified as a serious problem affecting salmonids in the Columbia and Snake river systems. The source of supersaturation was entrainment of air into water spilling over hydroelectric dams. Regional research projects focusing on tolerance bioassays were immediately implemented. Since then, the scope of gas bubble disease research has broadened to include problems in other aquatic systems, with other species. Emphasis has shifted from defining tolerance limits in bioassay systems to exploring behavioral and physiological aspects. Various methods of degasifying supersaturated water have been developed.

  16. Demonstration of a Low-NOx Heavy-Duty Natural Gas Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2004-02-01

    Results of a Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle engine research project: A Caterpillar C-12 natural gas engine with Clean Air Power Dual-Fuel technology and exhaust gas recirculation demonstrated low NOx and PM emissions.

  17. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTEGRAL SEPARATOR FOR A CENTRIFUGAL GAS PROCESSING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LANCE HAYS

    2007-02-27

    A COMPACT GAS PROCESSING DEVICE WAS INVESTIGATED TO INCREASE GAS PRODUCTION FROM REMOTE, PREVIOUSLY UN-ECONOMIC RESOURCES. THE UNIT WAS TESTED ON AIR AND WATER AND WITH NATURAL GAS AND LIQUID. RESULTS ARE REPORTED WITH RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK.

  18. Gas turbine topping combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, J.; Dowdy, T.E.; Bachovchin, D.M.

    1997-06-10

    A combustor is described for burning a mixture of fuel and air in a rich combustion zone, in which the fuel bound nitrogen in converted to molecular nitrogen. The fuel rich combustion is followed by lean combustion. The products of combustion from the lean combustion are rapidly quenched so as to convert the fuel bound nitrogen to molecular nitrogen without forming NOx. The combustor has an air radial swirler that directs the air radially inward while swirling it in the circumferential direction and a radial fuel swirler that directs the fuel radially outward while swirling it in the same circumferential direction, thereby promoting vigorous mixing of the fuel and air. The air inlet has a variable flow area that is responsive to variations in the heating value of the fuel, which may be a coal-derived fuel gas. A diverging passage in the combustor in front of a bluff body causes the fuel/air mixture to recirculate with the rich combustion zone. 14 figs.

  19. In-Transit Natural Gas Form | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    In-Transit Natural Gas Form In-Transit Natural Gas Form File Excel Version of In-Transit Natural Gas Form.xlsx PDF icon PDF Version of In-Transit Natural Gas Form More Documents & Publications Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning Efficiency Natural Gas Imports by Pipeline into the U.S. Form Natural Gas Exports by Pipeline out of the U.S. Form

  20. A practical grinding-assisted dry synthesis of nanocrystalline NiMoO{sub 4} polymorphs for oxidative dehydrogenation of propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Miao; Wu Jialing; Liu Yongmei; Cao Yong; Guo Li; He Heyong; Fan Kangnian

    2011-12-15

    A practical two-stage reactive grinding-assisted pathway waste-free and cost-effective for the synthesis of NiMoO{sub 4} has been successfully developed. It was demonstrated that proper design in synthetic strategy for grinding plays a crucial role in determining the ultimate polymorph of NiMoO{sub 4}. Specifically, direct grinding (DG) of MoO{sub 3} and NiO rendered {alpha}-NiMoO{sub 4} after annealing, whereas sequential grinding (SG) of the two independently pre-ground oxides followed by annealing generated {beta}-NiMoO{sub 4} solid solution. Characterizations in terms of Raman and X-ray diffraction suggest the creation of {beta}-NiMoO{sub 4} precursor in the latter alternative is the key aspect for the formation of {beta}-NiMoO{sub 4}. The DG-derived {alpha}-NiMoO{sub 4} tested by oxidative dehydrogenation of propane exhibited superior activity in contrast to its analog synthesized via conventional coprecipitation. It is suggested that the favorable chemical composition facilely obtained via grinding in contrast to that by coprecipitation was essential for achieving a more selective production of propylene. - Graphical Abstract: Grinding-assisted synthesis of NiMoO{sub 4} offers higher and more reproducible activities in contrast to coprecipitation for oxidative dehydrogenation of propane, and both {alpha}- and {beta}-NiMoO{sub 4} can be synthesized. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiMoO{sub 4} was prepared through grinding-assisted pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Direct/sequential grinding rendered {alpha}-, {beta}-NiMoO{sub 4}, respectively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Grinding-derived {alpha}-NiMoO{sub 4} showed high and reproducible activity for oxidative dehydrogenation of propane.

  1. Stirling Air Conditioner for Compact Cooling (Program Document...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The Stirling cycle system is a type of air conditioning system that uses a motor with a piston to remove heat to the outside atmosphere using a gas refrigerant. To...

  2. Pressurized solid oxide fuel cell integral air accumular containment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gillett, James E.; Zafred, Paolo R.; Basel, Richard A.

    2004-02-10

    A fuel cell generator apparatus contains at least one fuel cell subassembly module in a module housing, where the housing is surrounded by a pressure vessel such that there is an air accumulator space, where the apparatus is associated with an air compressor of a turbine/generator/air compressor system, where pressurized air from the compressor passes into the space and occupies the space and then flows to the fuel cells in the subassembly module, where the air accumulation space provides an accumulator to control any unreacted fuel gas that might flow from the module.

  3. BEETIT: Building Cooling and Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-09-01

    BEETIT Project: The 14 projects that comprise ARPA-Es BEETIT Project, short for Building Energy Efficiency Through Innovative Thermodevices, are developing new approaches and technologies for building cooling equipment and air conditioners. These projects aim to drastically improve building energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions such as carbon dioxide (CO2) at a cost comparable to current technologies.

  4. In-line real time air monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wise, Marcus B. (Kingston, TN); Thompson, Cyril V. (Knoxville, TN)

    1998-01-01

    An in-line gas monitor capable of accurate gas composition analysis in a continuous real time manner even under strong applied vacuum conditions operates by mixing an air sample with helium forming a sample gas in two complementary sample loops embedded in a manifold which includes two pairs of 3-way solenoid valves. The sample gas is then analyzed in an ion trap mass spectrometer on a continuous basis. Two valve drivers actuate the two pairs of 3-way valves in a reciprocating fashion, so that there is always flow through the in-line gas monitor via one or the other of the sample loops. The duty cycle for the two pairs of 3-way valves is varied by tuning the two valve drivers to a duty cycle typically between 0.2 to 0.7 seconds.

  5. In-line real time air monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wise, M.B.; Thompson, C.V.

    1998-07-14

    An in-line gas monitor capable of accurate gas composition analysis in a continuous real time manner even under strong applied vacuum conditions operates by mixing an air sample with helium forming a sample gas in two complementary sample loops embedded in a manifold which includes two pairs of 3-way solenoid valves. The sample gas is then analyzed in an ion trap mass spectrometer on a continuous basis. Two valve drivers actuate the two pairs of 3-way valves in a reciprocating fashion, so that there is always flow through the in-line gas monitor via one or the other of the sample loops. The duty cycle for the two pairs of 3-way valves is varied by tuning the two valve drivers to a duty cycle typically between 0.2 to 0.7 seconds. 3 figs.

  6. Determining the Right Air Quality for Your Compressed Air System |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Determining the Right Air Quality for Your Compressed Air System Determining the Right Air Quality for Your Compressed Air System This tip sheet outlines the main factors for determining the right air quality for compressed air systems. COMPRESSED AIR TIP SHEET #5 PDF icon Determining the Right Air Quality for Your Compressed Air System (August 2004) More Documents & Publications Effect of Intake on Compressor Performance Improving Compressed Air System Performance:

  7. 17th DOE nuclear air cleaning conference: proceedings. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    First, M.W.

    1983-02-01

    Volume 2 contains papers presented at the following sessions: adsorption; noble gas treatment; personnel education and training; filtration and filter testing; measurement and instrumentation; air cleaning equipment response to accident related stress; containment venting air cleaning; and an open end session. Twenty-eight papers were indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. Ten papers had been entered earlier.

  8. Linear air-fuel sensor development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garzon, F.; Miller, C.

    1996-12-14

    The electrochemical zirconia solid electrolyte oxygen sensor, is extensively used for monitoring oxygen concentrations in various fields. They are currently utilized in automobiles to monitor the exhaust gas composition and control the air-to-fuel ratio, thus reducing harmful emission components and improving fuel economy. Zirconia oxygen sensors, are divided into two classes of devices: (1) potentiometric or logarithmic air/fuel sensors; and (2) amperometric or linear air/fuel sensors. The potentiometric sensors are ideally suited to monitor the air-to-fuel ratio close to the complete combustion stoichiometry; a value of about 14.8 to 1 parts by volume. This occurs because the oxygen concentration changes by many orders of magnitude as the air/fuel ratio is varied through the stoichiometric value. However, the potentiometric sensor is not very sensitive to changes in oxygen partial pressure away from the stoichiometric point due to the logarithmic dependence of the output voltage signal on the oxygen partial pressure. It is often advantageous to operate gasoline power piston engines with excess combustion air; this improves fuel economy and reduces hydrocarbon emissions. To maintain stable combustion away from stoichiometry, and enable engines to operate in the excess oxygen (lean burn) region several limiting-current amperometric sensors have been reported. These sensors are based on the electrochemical oxygen ion pumping of a zirconia electrolyte. They typically show reproducible limiting current plateaus with an applied voltage caused by the gas diffusion overpotential at the cathode.

  9. Fuel-Free Compressed-Air Energy Storage: Fuel-Free, Ubiquitous Compressed-Air Energy Storage and Power Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-13

    GRIDS Project: General Compression has developed a transformative, near-isothermal compressed air energy storage system (GCAES) that prevents air from heating up during compression and cooling down during expansion. When integrated with renewable generation, such as a wind farm, intermittent energy can be stored in compressed air in salt caverns or pressurized tanks. When electricity is needed, the process is reversed and the compressed air is expanded to produce electricity. Unlike conventional compressed air energy storage (CAES) projects, no gas is burned to convert the stored high-pressure air back into electricity. The result of this breakthrough is an ultra-efficient, fully shapeable, 100% renewable and carbon-free power product. The GCAES system can provide high quality electricity and ancillary services by effectively integrating renewables onto the grid at a cost that is competitive with gas, coal and nuclear generation.

  10. Carbon fiber composite molecular sieve electrically regenerable air filter media

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, K.A.; Burchell, T.D.; Judkins, R.R.

    1998-10-27

    An electrically regenerable gas filter system includes a carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS) filter medium. After a separate medium-efficiency pre-filter removes particulate from the supply air stream, the CFCMS filter sorbs gaseous air pollutants before the air is recirculated to the space. When saturated, the CFCMS media is regenerated utilizing a low-voltage current that is caused to pass through the filter medium. 3 figs.

  11. Fact Sheet: Isothermal Compressed Air Energy Storage (August 2013) |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Isothermal Compressed Air Energy Storage (August 2013) Fact Sheet: Isothermal Compressed Air Energy Storage (August 2013) SustainX will demonstrate an isothermal compressed air energy storage (ICAES) system. The system captures the heat from compression in water and stores the captured heat until it is needed again for expansion. Storing the captured heat eliminates the need for a gas combustion turbine and improves efficiency. For more information about how OE performs

  12. Propane/Propylene Exports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    541 624 597 739 622 676 1973-2015 East Coast (PADD 1) 55 50 40 59 34 36 1981-2015 Midwest (PADD 2) 6 4 3 3 3 3 1981-2015 Gulf Coast (PADD 3) 459 546 531 661 552 609 1981-2015 Rocky...

  13. Liquid Propane Injection Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010.

  14. Structures, Mechanisms, and Kinetics of Ammoxidation and Selective Oxidation of Propane Over the M2 Phase of MoVNbTeO Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goddard, William A.; Liu, Lianchi; Mueller, Jonathan E.; Pudar, Sanja; Nielsen, Robert J.

    2011-05-04

    We report here first-principles-based predictions of the structures, mechanisms, and activation barriers for propane activation by the M2 phase of the MoVNbTeO multi-metal oxide catalysts capable of the direct conversion of propane to acrylonitrile. Our approach is to combine extensive quantum mechanical (QM) calculations to establish the mechanisms for idealized representations of the surfaces for these catalytic systems and then to modify the parameters in the ReaxFF reactive force field for molecular dynamics (MD) calculations to describe accurately the activation barriers and reaction mechanisms of the chemical reactions over complex mixed metal oxides. The parameters for ReaxFF are derived entirely from QM without the use of empirical data so that it can be applied to novel systems on which there is little or no data. To understand the catalysis in these systems it is essential to determine the surface structures that control the surface chemistry. High quality three-dimensional (3D) Rietveld structures are now available for the M1 and M2 phases of the MoVNbTeO catalysts.

  15. Low Temperature Propane Oxidation over Co3O4 based Nano-array Catalysts: Ni Dopant Effect, Reaction Mechanism and Structural Stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ren, Zheng; Wu, Zili; Gao, Puxian

    2016-01-01

    Low temperature propane oxidation has been achieved by Co3O4-based nano-array catalysts featuring low catalytic materials loading. The Ni doping into the Co3O4 lattice has led to enhanced reaction kinetics at low temperature by promoting the surface lattice oxygen activity. In situ DRIFTS investigation in tandem with isotopic oxygen exchange reveals that the propane oxidation proceeds via Mars-van Krevelen mechanism where surface lattice oxygen acts as the active site whereas O2 in the reaction feed does not directly participate in CO2 formation. The Ni doping promotes the formation of less stable carbonates on the surface to facilitate the CO2 desorption. The thermal stability of Ni doped Co3O4 decreases with increased Ni concentration while catalytic activity increases. A balance between enhanced activity and compromised thermal stability shall be considered in the Ni doped Co3O4 nano-array catalysts for low temperature hydrocarbon oxidation. This study provides useful and timely guidance for rational catalyst design toward low temperature catalytic oxidation.

  16. Low Temperature Propane Oxidation over Co3O4 based Nano-array Catalysts. Ni Dopant Effect, Reaction Mechanism and Structural Stability

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ren, Zheng; Wu, Zili; Gao, Puxian; Song, Wenqiao; Xiao, Wen; Guo, Yanbing; Ding, Jun; Suib, Steven L.; Gao, Pu-Xian

    2015-06-09

    Low temperature propane oxidation has been achieved by Co3O4-based nano-array catalysts featuring low catalytic materials loading. The Ni doping into the Co3O4 lattice has led to enhanced reaction kinetics at low temperature by promoting the surface lattice oxygen activity. In situ DRIFTS investigation in tandem with isotopic oxygen exchange reveals that the propane oxidation proceeds via Mars-van Krevelen mechanism where surface lattice oxygen acts as the active site whereas O2 in the reaction feed does not directly participate in CO2 formation. The Ni doping promotes the formation of less stable carbonates on the surface to facilitate the CO2 desorption. Themore » thermal stability of Ni doped Co3O4 decreases with increased Ni concentration while catalytic activity increases. A balance between enhanced activity and compromised thermal stability shall be considered in the Ni doped Co3O4 nano-array catalysts for low temperature hydrocarbon oxidation. This study provides useful and timely guidance for rational catalyst design toward low temperature catalytic oxidation.« less

  17. High potential recovery -- Gas repressurization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madden, M.P.

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate that small independent oil producers can use existing gas injection technologies, scaled to their operations, to repressurize petroleum reservoirs and increase their economic oil production. This report gives background information for gas repressurization technologies, the results of workshops held to inform small independent producers about gas repressurization, and the results of four gas repressurization field demonstration projects. Much of the material in this report is based on annual reports (BDM-Oklahoma 1995, BDM-Oklahoma 1996, BDM-Oklahoma 1997), a report describing the results of the workshops (Olsen 1995), and the four final reports for the field demonstration projects which are reproduced in the Appendix. This project was designed to demonstrate that repressurization of reservoirs with gas (natural gas, enriched gas, nitrogen, flue gas, or air) can be used by small independent operators in selected reservoirs to increase production and/or decrease premature abandonment of the resource. The project excluded carbon dioxide because of other DOE-sponsored projects that address carbon dioxide processes directly. Two of the demonstration projects, one using flue gas and the other involving natural gas from a deeper coal zone, were both technical and economic successes. The two major lessons learned from the projects are the importance of (1) adequate infrastructure (piping, wells, compressors, etc.) and (2) adequate planning including testing compatibility between injected gases and fluids, and reservoir gases, fluids, and rocks.

  18. Combustion-gas recirculation system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean (Lacon, IL)

    2007-10-09

    A combustion-gas recirculation system has a mixing chamber with a mixing-chamber inlet and a mixing-chamber outlet. The combustion-gas recirculation system may further include a duct connected to the mixing-chamber inlet. Additionally, the combustion-gas recirculation system may include an open inlet channel with a solid outer wall. The open inlet channel may extend into the mixing chamber such that an end of the open inlet channel is disposed between the mixing-chamber inlet and the mixing-chamber outlet. Furthermore, air within the open inlet channel may be at a pressure near or below atmospheric pressure.

  19. Method of cooling gas only nozzle fuel tip

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bechtel, William Theodore (Scotia, NY); Fitts, David Orus (Ballston Spa, NY); DeLeonardo, Guy Wayne (Glenville, NY)

    2002-01-01

    A diffusion flame nozzle gas tip is provided to convert a dual fuel nozzle to a gas only nozzle. The nozle tip diverts compressor discharge air from the passage feeding the diffusion nozzle air swirl vanes to a region vacated by removal of the dual fuel components, so that the diverted compressor discharge air can flow to and through effusion holes in the end cap plate of the nozzle tip. In a preferred embodiment, the nozzle gas tip defines a cavity for receiving the compressor discharge air from a peripheral passage of the nozzle for flow through the effusion openings defined in the end cap plate.

  20. SOLAR HEATING OF TANK BOTTOMS Application of Solar Heating to Asphaltic and Parrafinic Oils Reducing Fuel Costs and Greenhouse Gases Due to Use of Natural Gas and Propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eugene A. Fritzler

    2005-09-01

    The sale of crude oil requires that the crude meet product specifications for BS&W, temperature, pour point and API gravity. The physical characteristics of the crude such as pour point and viscosity effect the efficient loading, transport, and unloading of the crude oil. In many cases, the crude oil has either a very high paraffin content or asphalt content which will require either hot oiling or the addition of diluents to the crude oil to reduce the viscosity and the pour point of the oil allowing the crude oil to be readily loaded on to the transport. Marginal wells are significantly impacted by the cost of preheating the oil to an appropriate temperature to allow for ease of transport. Highly paraffinic and asphaltic oils exist throughout the D-J basin and generally require pretreatment during cold months prior to sales. The current study addresses the use of solar energy to heat tank bottoms and improves the overall efficiency and operational reliability of stripper wells.

  1. Gas separating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gollan, Arye Z. [Newton, MA

    1990-12-25

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing.

  2. Gas separating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gollan, Arye (Newton, MA)

    1988-01-01

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing.

  3. A thermodynamic tank model for studying the effect of higher hydrocarbons on natural gas storage in metal-organic frameworks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, HD; Deria, P; Farha, OK; Hupp, JT; Snurr, RQ

    2015-01-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are promising materials for storing natural gas in vehicular applications. Evaluation of these materials has focused on adsorption of pure methane, although commercial natural gas also contains small amounts of higher hydrocarbons such as ethane and propane, which adsorb more strongly than methane. There is, thus, a possibility that these higher hydrocarbons will accumulate in the MOF after multiple operating (adsorption/desorption) cycles, and reduce the storage capacity. To study the net effect of ethane and propane on the performance of an adsorbed natural gas (ANG) tank, we developed a mathematical model based on thermodynamics and mass balance equations that describes the state of the tank at any instant. The required inputs are the pure-component isotherms, and mixture adsorption data are calculated using the Ideal Adsorbed Solution Theory (IAST). We focused on how the "deliverable energy'' provided by the ANG tank to the engine changed over 200 operating cycles for a sample of 120 MOF structures. We found that, with any MOF, the ANG tank performance monotonically declines during early operating cycles until a "cyclic steady state'' is reached. We determined that the best materials when the fuel is 100% methane are not necessarily the best when the fuel includes ethane and propane. Among the materials tested, some top MOFs are MOF-143 > NU-800 > IRMOF-14 > IRMOF-20 > MIL-100 > NU-125 > IRMOF-1 > NU-111. MOF-143 is predicted to deliver 5.43 MJ L-1 of tank to the engine once the cyclic steady state is reached. The model also provided insights that can assist in future work to discover more promising adsorbent materials for natural gas storage.

  4. Virginia Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Virginia Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  5. Colorado Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Colorado Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  6. Nebraska Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Nebraska Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  7. Missouri Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Missouri Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  8. Michigan Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Michigan Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  9. Kentucky Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Kentucky Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  10. Tennessee Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Tennessee Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  11. Pennsylvania Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Pennsylvania Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

  12. Mississippi Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Mississippi Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

  13. Oklahoma Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Oklahoma Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  14. Illinois Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Illinois Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  15. Arkansas Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Arkansas Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  16. Maryland Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Maryland Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  17. Louisiana Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Louisiana Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  18. Compact air scrubber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bentley, Bill F.; Jett, James H.; Martin, John C.; Saunders, George C.

    1992-01-01

    Method and apparatus for removing material from a gas. A mist created by a piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer is contacted with the gas and both gas and mist are passed through baffled separators. Liquid effluent from the separators contains solid material removed from the gas and gaseous material which reacted with the liquid or was absorbed by the liquid. The invention is useful for collecting a sample of material in a gas, such as a vapor in the atmosphere, and in cleaning a gas. A relatively concentrated solution of a material present in a gas in a very small concentration can be obtained.

  19. Simple Interactive Models for better air quality (SIM-air) |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Interactive Models for better air quality (SIM-air) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Simple Interactive Models (SIM-air) AgencyCompany Organization:...

  20. Minimize Compressed Air Leaks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This tip sheet outlines a strategy for compressed air leak detection and provides a formula for cost savings calculations.