Sample records for gas processing plants

  1. Natural Gas Processing Plant- Sulfur (New Mexico)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This regulation establishes sulfur emission standards for natural gas processing plants. Standards are stated for both existing and new plants. There are also rules for stack height requirements,...

  2. Alabama Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved Reserves (Billion CubicCubic Feet) Base Gas)1,727Feet)FuelLiquids,

  3. Kansas Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 14 15 0 0ExtensionsYear JanFuelProved

  4. Kentucky Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 14 15Industrial Consumers (NumberProved58,899

  5. Louisiana Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 14343 342 3289 0 0FuelFuel2,208,920 2,175,026

  6. Michigan Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 04 19 15 15 15 3Year Jan Feb2008 2009 2010 2011

  7. Mississippi Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 04 19 15Year Jan Feb (Million2008 2009 2010 2011

  8. Montana Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 04 19343 369 384Fuel Consumption

  9. Colorado Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 633 622 56623 46 (Million Cubic Feet)FuelProved2008

  10. Pennsylvania Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas,095,3628,527 9,029Cubic Feet) YearFuel Consumption2008 2009

  11. California Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 633 622 566 (Million Cubic Feet)Liquids,

  12. Wireless Critical Process Control in oil and gas refinery plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Savazzi, Stefano

    Wireless Critical Process Control in oil and gas refinery plants Stefano Savazzi1, Sergio Guardiano control in in- dustrial plants and oil/gas refineries. In contrast to wireline communication, wireless of an oil refinery is illustrated in Fig. 1: typical locations of wireless devices used for re- mote control

  13. Kansas-Kansas Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 14 15 0Month Previous YearThousand1 3256,268

  14. Kansas-Oklahoma Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 14 15 0Month Previous YearThousand1

  15. Kansas-Texas Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 14 15 0Month Previous YearThousand1142 141 121

  16. Kentucky-Kentucky Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 14 15IndustrialVehicleThousand60,941 67,568

  17. Michigan-Michigan Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 04 19 15 15 15 3YearDecade Year-0per9 2011 2012

  18. Mississippi-Mississippi Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 04 19 15Year JanThousand Cubic0 0 0 2011 2012

  19. Montana-Montana Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 04 19343 369 384FuelYear125 137 1861,185 11,206

  20. Montana-Wyoming Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 04 19343 369 384FuelYear125 137 1861,185785 656

  1. Colorado-Colorado Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 633 622 56623 4623 42 180 208 283,507,467 1,460,433

  2. Colorado-Kansas Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 633 622 56623 4623 42 180 208 283,507,467 1,460,43378

  3. Colorado-Utah Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 633 622 56623 4623 42 180 208 283,507,467

  4. Gulf of Mexico Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 1 0 058.5 57.1CubicVehicle0perLiquids,2008

  5. Pennsylvania-Pennsylvania Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas,095,3628,527 9,029Cubic(Dollars per Thousand Cubic 0 0Cubic2011

  6. Arkansas-Arkansas Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 633 622 566 8021 1 2 22008 2009 2010 2011 2011 2012

  7. Model operating permits for natural gas processing plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arend, C. [Hydro-Search, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Major sources as defined in Title V of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 that are required to submit an operating permit application will need to: Evaluate their compliance status; Determine a strategic method of presenting the general and specific conditions of their Model Operating Permit (MOP); Maintain compliance with air quality regulations. A MOP is prepared to assist permitting agencies and affected facilities in the development of operating permits for a specific source category. This paper includes a brief discussion of example permit conditions that may be applicable to various types of Title V sources. A MOP for a generic natural gas processing plant is provided as an example. The MOP should include a general description of the production process and identify emission sources. The two primary elements that comprise a MOP are: Provisions of all existing state and/or local air permits; Identification of general and specific conditions for the Title V permit. The general provisions will include overall compliance with all Clean Air Act Titles. The specific provisions include monitoring, record keeping, and reporting. Although Title V MOPs are prepared on a case-by-case basis, this paper will provide a general guideline of the requirements for preparation of a MOP. Regulatory agencies have indicated that a MOP included in the Title V application will assist in preparation of the final permit provisions, minimize delays in securing a permit, and provide support during the public notification process.

  8. U.S. Total Imports Natural Gas Plant Processing

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007York"Hawaii" "Sector", (MillionDecadeDecadeDecreases (BillionPlant Processing Area:

  9. Direct chlorination process for geothermal power plant off-gas - hydrogen sulfide abatement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sims, A.V.

    1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Direct Chlorination Process removes hydrogen sulfide from geothermal off-gases by reacting hydrogen sulfide with chlorine in the gas phase. Hydrogen chloride and elemental sulfur are formed by this reaction. The Direct Chlorination Process has been successfully demonstrated by an on-site operation of a pilot plant at the 3 M We HPG-A geothermal power plant in the Puna District on the island of Hawaii. Over 99.5 percent hydrogen sulfide removal was achieved in a single reaction state. Chlorine gas did not escape the pilot plant, even when 90 percent excess chlorine gas was used. A preliminary economic evaluation of the Direct Chlorination Process indicates that it is very competitive with the Stretford Process. Compared to the Stretford Process, the Direct Chlorination Process requires about one-third the initial capital investment and about one-fourth the net daily expenditure.

  10. Fuel gas conditioning process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas, so that it can be used as combustion fuel to run gas-powered equipment, including compressors, in the gas field or the gas processing plant. Compared with prior art processes, the invention creates lesser quantities of low-pressure gas per unit volume of fuel gas produced. Optionally, the process can also produce an NGL product.

  11. Texas Onshore-Kansas Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet)per Thousand Cubic4,630.2perSep-14Base Gas)(Million Cubic2011 2012

  12. Texas Onshore-New Mexico Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet)per Thousand Cubic4,630.2perSep-14Base Gas)(Million Cubic2011 2012

  13. Texas Onshore-Oklahoma Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet)per Thousand Cubic4,630.2perSep-14Base Gas)(Million Cubic2011

  14. Texas Onshore-Texas Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet)per Thousand Cubic4,630.2perSep-14Base Gas)(Million

  15. Kentucky-West Virginia Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 14 15IndustrialVehicleThousand60,941

  16. Louisiana Offshore-Louisiana Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 14343 342 3289886,084 889,570 893,400 2012

  17. Louisiana Onshore-Louisiana Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 14343 342 3289886,084 889,570

  18. Louisiana Onshore-Texas Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 14343 342 3289886,084 889,5705,020 4,583 4,920

  19. Montana-North Dakota Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 04 19343 369 384FuelYear125 137 1861,185

  20. Gulf of Mexico-Alabama Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 1 0 058.5

  1. Gulf of Mexico-Louisiana Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 1 0 058.588,219 719,435 2012-2013 Total

  2. Gulf of Mexico-Mississippi Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 1 0 058.588,219 719,435 2012-2013 Total1,618

  3. Gulf of Mexico-Texas Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 1 0 058.588,219 719,435 2012-2013

  4. Pennsylvania-West Virginia Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas,095,3628,527 9,029Cubic(Dollars per Thousand Cubic 0 0Cubic2011

  5. California Onshore-California Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 633 622 566 (Million0,515,162180,648 169,203 164,401

  6. New Mexico-New Mexico Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet) Year Jan FebFeet) DecadeFeet) Working Natural Gas795,069

  7. Dutch gas plant uses polymer process to treat aromatic-saturated water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas-processing plant in Harlingen, The Netherlands, operated by Elf Petroland has been running a porous-polymer extraction process since 1994 to remove aromatic compounds from water associated with produced natural gas. In the period, the unit has removed dispersed and dissolved aromatic compounds to a concentration of <1 ppm with energy consumption of only 17% that of a steam stripper, according to Paul Brooks, general manager for Akzo Nobel`s Macro Porous Polymer-Extraction (MPPE) systems. The paper describes glycol treatment the MPPE separation process, and the service contract for the system.

  8. MEMBRANE PROCESS TO SEQUESTER CO2 FROM POWER PLANT FLUE GAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tim Merkel; Karl Amo; Richard Baker; Ramin Daniels; Bilgen Friat; Zhenjie He; Haiqing Lin; Adrian Serbanescu

    2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to assess the feasibility of using a membrane process to capture CO2 from coal-fired power plant flue gas. During this program, MTR developed a novel membrane (Polaris™) with a CO2 permeance tenfold higher than commercial CO2-selective membranes used in natural gas treatment. The Polaris™ membrane, combined with a process design that uses a portion of combustion air as a sweep stream to generate driving force for CO2 permeation, meets DOE post-combustion CO2 capture targets. Initial studies indicate a CO2 separation and liquefaction cost of $20 - $30/ton CO2 using about 15% of the plant energy at 90% CO2 capture from a coal-fired power plant. Production of the Polaris™ CO2 capture membrane was scaled up with MTR’s commercial casting and coating equipment. Parametric tests of cross-flow and countercurrent/sweep modules prepared from this membrane confirm their near-ideal performance under expected flue gas operating conditions. Commercial-scale, 8-inch diameter modules also show stable performance in field tests treating raw natural gas. These findings suggest that membranes are a viable option for flue gas CO2 capture. The next step will be to conduct a field demonstration treating a realworld power plant flue gas stream. The first such MTR field test will capture 1 ton CO2/day at Arizona Public Service’s Cholla coal-fired power plant, as part of a new DOE NETL funded program.

  9. Membrane Process to Capture CO{sub 2} from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merkel, Tim; Wei, Xiaotong; Firat, Bilgen; He, Jenny; Amo, Karl; Pande, Saurabh; Baker, Richard; Wijmans, Hans; Bhown, Abhoyjit

    2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This final report describes work conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) on development of an efficient membrane process to capture carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from power plant flue gas (award number DE-NT0005312). The primary goal of this research program was to demonstrate, in a field test, the ability of a membrane process to capture up to 90% of CO{sub 2} in coal-fired flue gas, and to evaluate the potential of a full-scale version of the process to perform this separation with less than a 35% increase in the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE). Membrane Technology and Research (MTR) conducted this project in collaboration with Arizona Public Services (APS), who hosted a membrane field test at their Cholla coal-fired power plant, and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and WorleyParsons (WP), who performed a comparative cost analysis of the proposed membrane CO{sub 2} capture process. The work conducted for this project included membrane and module development, slipstream testing of commercial-sized modules with natural gas and coal-fired flue gas, process design optimization, and a detailed systems and cost analysis of a membrane retrofit to a commercial power plant. The Polaris? membrane developed over a number of years by MTR represents a step-change improvement in CO{sub 2} permeance compared to previous commercial CO{sub 2}-selective membranes. During this project, membrane optimization work resulted in a further doubling of the CO{sub 2} permeance of Polaris membrane while maintaining the CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity. This is an important accomplishment because increased CO{sub 2} permeance directly impacts the membrane skid cost and footprint: a doubling of CO{sub 2} permeance halves the skid cost and footprint. In addition to providing high CO{sub 2} permeance, flue gas CO{sub 2} capture membranes must be stable in the presence of contaminants including SO{sub 2}. Laboratory tests showed no degradation in Polaris membrane performance during two months of continuous operation in a simulated flue gas environment containing up to 1,000 ppm SO{sub 2}. A successful slipstream field test at the APS Cholla power plant was conducted with commercialsize Polaris modules during this project. This field test is the first demonstration of stable performance by commercial-sized membrane modules treating actual coal-fired power plant flue gas. Process design studies show that selective recycle of CO{sub 2} using a countercurrent membrane module with air as a sweep stream can double the concentration of CO{sub 2} in coal flue gas with little energy input. This pre-concentration of CO{sub 2} by the sweep membrane reduces the minimum energy of CO{sub 2} separation in the capture unit by up to 40% for coal flue gas. Variations of this design may be even more promising for CO{sub 2} capture from NGCC flue gas, in which the CO{sub 2} concentration can be increased from 4% to 20% by selective sweep recycle. EPRI and WP conducted a systems and cost analysis of a base case MTR membrane CO{sub 2} capture system retrofitted to the AEP Conesville Unit 5 boiler. Some of the key findings from this study and a sensitivity analysis performed by MTR include: The MTR membrane process can capture 90% of the CO{sub 2} in coal flue gas and produce high-purity CO{sub 2} (>99%) ready for sequestration. CO{sub 2} recycle to the boiler appears feasible with minimal impact on boiler performance; however, further study by a boiler OEM is recommended. For a membrane process built today using a combination of slight feed compression, permeate vacuum, and current compression equipment costs, the membrane capture process can be competitive with the base case MEA process at 90% CO{sub 2} capture from a coal-fired power plant. The incremental LCOE for the base case membrane process is about equal to that of a base case MEA process, within the uncertainty in the analysis. With advanced membranes (5,000 gpu for CO{sub 2} and 50 for CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2}), operating with no feed compression and l

  10. CO{sub 2} Capture Membrane Process for Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lora Toy; Atish Kataria; Raghubir Gupta

    2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Because the fleet of coal-fired power plants is of such importance to the nationâ??s energy production while also being the single largest emitter of CO{sub 2}, the development of retrofit, post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture technologies for existing and new, upcoming coal power plants will allow coal to remain a major component of the U.S. energy mix while mitigating global warming. Post-combustion carbon capture technologies are an attractive option for coal-fired power plants as they do not require modification of major power-plant infrastructures, such as fuel processing, boiler, and steam-turbine subsystems. In this project, the overall objective was to develop an advanced, hollow-fiber, polymeric membrane process that could be cost-effectively retrofitted into current pulverized coal-fired power plants to capture at least 90% of the CO{sub 2} from plant flue gas with 95% captured CO{sub 2} purity. The approach for this project tackled the technology development on three different fronts in parallel: membrane materials R&D, hollow-fiber membrane module development, and process development and engineering. The project team consisted of RTI (prime) and two industrial partners, Arkema, Inc. and Generon IGS, Inc. Two CO{sub 2}-selective membrane polymer platforms were targeted for development in this project. For the near term, a next-generation, high-flux polycarbonate membrane platform was spun into hollow-fiber membranes that were fabricated into both lab-scale and larger prototype (~2,200 ft{sup 2}) membrane modules. For the long term, a new fluoropolymer membrane platform based on poly(vinylidene fluoride) [PVDF] chemistry was developed using a copolymer approach as improved capture membrane materials with superior chemical resistance to flue-gas contaminants (moisture, SO{sub 2}, NOx, etc.). Specific objectives were: ï?· Development of new, highly chemically resistant, fluorinated polymers as membrane materials with minimum selectivity of 30 for CO{sub 2} over N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} permeance greater than 300 gas permeation units (GPU) targeted; ï?· Development of next-generation polycarbonate hollow-fiber membranes and membrane modules with higher CO{sub 2} permeance than current commercial polycarbonate membranes; ï?· Development and fabrication of membrane hollow fibers and modules from candidate polymers; ï?· Development of a CO{sub 2} capture membrane process design and integration strategy suitable for end-of-pipe, retrofit installation; and ï?· Techno-economic evaluation of the "best" integrated CO{sub 2} capture membrane process design package In this report, the results of the project research and development efforts are discussed and include the post-combustion capture properties of the two membrane material platforms and the hollow-fiber membrane modules developed from them and the multi-stage process design and analysis developed for 90% CO{sub 2} capture with 95% captured CO{sub 2} purity.

  11. Sauget Plant Flare Gas Reduction Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ratkowski, D. P.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Empirical analysis of stack gas heating value allowed the Afton Chemical Corporation Sauget Plant to reduce natural gas flow to its process flares by about 50% while maintaining the EPA-required minimum heating value of the gas streams....

  12. U-GAS process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schora, F.C.; Patel, J.G.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) has developed an advanced coal gasification process. The U-GAS process has been extensively tested in a pilot plant to firmly establish process feasibility and provide a large data base for scale-up and design of the first commercial plant. The U-GAS process is considered to be one of the more flexible, efficient, and economical coal gasification technologies developed in the US during the last decade. The U-GAS technology is presently available for licensing from GDC, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of IGT. The U-GAS process accomplishes four important functions in a single-stage, fluidized-bed gasifier: It decakes coal, devolatilizes coal, gasifies coal, and agglomerates and separates ash from char. Simultaneously with coal gasification, the ash is agglomerated into spherical particles and separated from the bed. Part of the fluidizing gas enters the gasifier through a sloping grid. The remaining gas flows upward at a high velocity through the ash agglomerating device and forms a hot zone within the fluidized bed. High-ash-content particles agglomerate under these conditions and grow into larger and heavier particles. Agglomerates grow in size until they can be selectively separated and discharged from the bed into water-filled ash hoppers where they are withdrawn as a slurry. In this manner, the fluidized bed achieves the same low level of carbon losses in the discharge ash generally associated with the ash-slagging type of gasifier. Coal fines elutriated from the fluidized bed are collected in two external cyclones. Fines from the first cyclone are returned to the bed and fines from the second cyclone are returned to the ash agglomerating zone, where they are gasified, and the ash agglomerated with bed ash. The raw product gas is virtually free of tar and oils, thus simplifying ensuing heat recovery and purification steps.

  13. ,"U.S. Total Exports Natural Gas Plant Processing"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: EnergyShale ProvedTexas"BruneiReserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (MillionNatural Gas Plant

  14. Methods of natural gas liquefaction and natural gas liquefaction plants utilizing multiple and varying gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilding, Bruce M; Turner, Terry D

    2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of natural gas liquefaction may include cooling a gaseous NG process stream to form a liquid NG process stream. The method may further include directing the first tail gas stream out of a plant at a first pressure and directing a second tail gas stream out of the plant at a second pressure. An additional method of natural gas liquefaction may include separating CO.sub.2 from a liquid NG process stream and processing the CO.sub.2 to provide a CO.sub.2 product stream. Another method of natural gas liquefaction may include combining a marginal gaseous NG process stream with a secondary substantially pure NG stream to provide an improved gaseous NG process stream. Additionally, a NG liquefaction plant may include a first tail gas outlet, and at least a second tail gas outlet, the at least a second tail gas outlet separate from the first tail gas outlet.

  15. Integrated flue gas processing method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bakke, E.; Willett, H.P.

    1982-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and process for flue gas processing to remove both gaseous contaminants such as sulfur dioxide and particulate matter such as flyash integrates spray scrubbing apparatus and wet electrostatic precipitation apparatus and provides for the advantageous extraction and utilization of heat present in the flue gas which is being processed. The integrated system and process utilizes a spray scrubbing tower into which the flue gas is introduced and into which aqueous alkali slurry is introduced as spray for sulfur dioxide removal therein. The flue gas leaves the tower moisture laden and enters a wet electrostatic precipitator which includes a heat exchanger where flyash and entrained droplets in the flue gas are removed by electrostatic precipitation and heat is removed from the flue gas. The cleaned flue gas exits from the precipitator and discharges into a stack. The heat removed from the flue gas finds use in the system or otherwise in the steam generation plant. The wet electrostatic precipitator of the integrated system and process includes a portion constructed as a cross flow heat exchanger with flue gas saturated with water vapor moving vertically upwards inside tubes arranged in a staggered pattern and ambient air being pulled horizontally across the outside of those tubes to cool the tube walls and thereby remove heat from the flue gas and cause condensation of water vapor on the inside wall surfaces. The condensate washes the electrostatically collected flyash particles down from the inside tube walls. The heat that is extracted from the saturated flue gas in the wet electrostatic precipitator heat exchanger may be utilized in several different ways, including: (1) for flue gas reheat after the wet electrostatic precipitator; (2) for preheating of combustion air to the steam generator boiler; and, (3) for heating of buildings.

  16. Natural Gas Processing Plants in the United States: 2010 Update / Figure 6

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet) Year Jan Feb Marthrough Monthly Download Series8826. Natural Gas

  17. Worldwide refining and gas processing directory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Statistics are presented on the following: US refining; Canada refining; Europe refining; Africa refining; Asia refining; Latin American refining; Middle East refining; catalyst manufacturers; consulting firms; engineering and construction; US gas processing; international gas processing; plant maintenance providers; process control and simulation systems; and trade associations.

  18. IMPLEMENTATION OF MPC ON A DEETHANIZER AT KARST GAS PLANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    predictive control (MPC) is implemented on several distillation columns at the K°arstø gas processing plant and Prediction Tool for Identification and Control Keywords: Model based control, distillation columnsIMPLEMENTATION OF MPC ON A DEETHANIZER AT K°ARST� GAS PLANT Elvira Marie B. Aske , , Stig Strand

  19. Evaluation of gasification and gas cleanup processes for use in molten carbonate fuel cell power plants. Final report. [Contains lists and evaluations of coal gasification and fuel gas desulfurization processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jablonski, G.; Hamm, J.R.; Alvin, M.A.; Wenglarz, R.A.; Patel, P.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report satisfies the requirements for DOE Contract AC21-81MC16220 to: List coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems suitable for supplying fuel to molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) in industrial and utility power plants; extensively characterize those coal gas cleanup systems rejected by DOE's MCFC contractors for their power plant systems by virtue of the resources required for those systems to be commercially developed; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC tolerance for particulates on the anode (fuel gas) side of the MCFC; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC anode side tolerance for chemical species, including sulfides, halogens, and trace heavy metals; choose from the candidate gasifier/cleanup systems those most suitable for MCFC-based power plants; choose a reference wet cleanup system; provide parametric analyses of the coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems when integrated into a power plant incorporating MCFC units with suitable gas expansion turbines, steam turbines, heat exchangers, and heat recovery steam generators, using the Westinghouse proprietary AHEAD computer model; provide efficiency, investment, cost of electricity, operability, and environmental effect rankings of the system; and provide a final report incorporating the results of all of the above tasks. Section 7 of this final report provides general conclusions.

  20. Task 21 - Evaluation of Artificial Freeze Crystallization and Natural Freeze-Thaw Processes for the Treatment of Contaminated Groundwater at the Strachan Gas Plant in Alberta, Canada - Sour Gas Remediation Technology R{ampersand}D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the period from 1993 to 1996, a long-term program was initiated to conduct remediation research at the Strachan Gas Plant in Alberta, Canada. As part of this research program, optimization of the existing pump-and-treat (P{ampersand}T) facility was of interest. The cost-effective treatment of contaminated groundwater produced from the P{ampersand}T system was complicated by several factors, including: (1) increased cost and reduced effectiveness of most water treatment processes because of the cold temperatures and severe winter conditions prevalent in Alberta, (2) interference caused by the mixture of inorganic and organic contaminants found in the groundwater that can reduce the effectiveness of many water treatment processes, and (3) pretreatment to prevent scaling in existing treatment process unit operations caused by the iron, manganese, and hardness of the contaminated groundwater.

  1. Gas separation process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicholas, D.M.; Hopkins, J.A.; Roden, T.M.; Bushinsky, J.P.

    1988-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The method for production of high purity hydrogen and high purity carbon monoxide from a mixed gas stream comprising these components together with carbon dioxide and a zero to a minor amount of one or more other gaseous contaminants is described comprising the steps of: (a) passing the mixed gas stream into and through a first bed of solid adsorbent capable of selectively adsorbing carbon dioxide and water while discharging from the bed a dry CO/sub 2/-freed effluent; (b) introducing the dry CO/sub 2/-freed effluent into a cryogenic environment for cooling the same therein under conditions effective for condensation of at least the major part of the carbon monoxide present in the dry CO/sub 2/-freed effluent; (c) withdrawing from the cryogenic environment carbon monoxide of high purity; (d) separately withdrawing from the cryogenic environment an uncondensed first gas stream product comprised of crude hydrogen and subjecting the first gas stream product to selective adsorption of non-hydrogen components therefrom in a second bed of solid absorbent, while recovering from the second bed the non-sorbed fraction as a product stream of essentially pure hydrogen; (e) purging the second solid adsorbent bed to desorb non-hydrogen components sorbed therein in step (d), and withdrawing from the bed a gas stream comprising the desorbed non-hydrogen components.

  2. An Electrochemically-mediated Gas Separation Process for Carbon Abatement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stern, Michael C.

    This work describes a promising alternative to conventional thermal processes for absorber/desorber processing of for removal of CO[subscript 2] from flue gas streams at fossil fuel fired power plants. Our electrochemica ...

  3. Proceedings: EPRI Manufactured Gas Plants 2003 Forum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The EPRI Manufactured Gas Plants 2003 Forum covered a range of topics related to remediation and management of former manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites, with emphasis on technological advances and current issues associated with site cleanup. In specific, the forum covered MGP coal-tar delineation, soil and groundwater remediation technologies, improvements in air monitoring, and ecological risk characterization/risk management tools.

  4. Rapid gas hydrate formation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Thomas D.; Taylor, Charles E.; Unione, Alfred J.

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure provides a method and apparatus for forming gas hydrates from a two-phase mixture of water and a hydrate forming gas. The two-phase mixture is created in a mixing zone which may be wholly included within the body of a spray nozzle. The two-phase mixture is subsequently sprayed into a reaction zone, where the reaction zone is under pressure and temperature conditions suitable for formation of the gas hydrate. The reaction zone pressure is less than the mixing zone pressure so that expansion of the hydrate-forming gas in the mixture provides a degree of cooling by the Joule-Thompson effect and provides more intimate mixing between the water and the hydrate-forming gas. The result of the process is the formation of gas hydrates continuously and with a greatly reduced induction time. An apparatus for conduct of the method is further provided.

  5. Pilot-Scale Demonstration of hZVI Process for Treating Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater at Plant Wansley, Carrollton, GA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peddi, Phani 1987-

    2011-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    ), Chromium (VI), Cadmium (II), Lead (II) and Copper (II) from ppm level to ppb level in a very short reaction time. The chemical consumption was estimated to be approximately 0.2-0.4 kg of ZVI per 1 m^3 of FGD water treated, which suggested the process...

  6. Gas purification process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randell, D.R.; Phillips, E.

    1981-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Ciba-Geigy claims that anthraquinone sulfonamides have equal or better activity than the anthraquinone disulfonic acids used in the removal of hydrogen sulfide as sulfur from gases by such methods as the Stretford process. Examples of the preferred compounds are N,N'-disulfomethylanthraquinone-2,6-disulfonamide and N,N'-dicarboxymethylanthraquinone-2,7-disulfonamide.

  7. Natural gas dehydration process and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wijmans, Johannes G.; Ng, Alvin; Mairal, Anurag P.

    2004-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and corresponding apparatus for dehydrating gas, especially natural gas. The process includes an absorption step and a membrane pervaporation step to regenerate the liquid sorbent.

  8. Gas plants, new fields spark production rise

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lenzini, D.

    1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas plant construction is welcomed by operators in the Williston Basin, North Dakota. Petroleum and gas production has increased. The Montana portion of the Williston Basin shows new discoveries. Some secondary recovery efforts are in operation. Industrial officials share the same enthusiasm and optimism for rising production as they do for exploration potential in the basin. 5 tables.

  9. Wyoming Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30NaturalThousandExtensions (Billion2008Sep-14 Oct-14Year (Million2008 2009

  10. Alaska Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved Reserves (Billion CubicCubic Feet)Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May

  11. Arkansas Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved Reserves (Billion CubicCubic Feet)YearIndustrial Consumers (NumberProved6,531

  12. Tennessee Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet)per Thousand Cubic4,630.2 10,037.24. (Million CubicLiquids 6,146

  13. Texas Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet)per Thousand Cubic4,630.2perSep-14 (Million Cubic4,431,574

  14. Utah Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet)per Thousand28 198Separation 321 (Million Cubic2008 2009 2010

  15. Ohio Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet) Year JanProduction 4 125 2006 2007Year Jan2008 2009 2010 2011

  16. Oklahoma Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet) Year JanProduction 4 125Feet) Year Jan2008 2009 2010 2011

  17. Cold End Inserts for Process Gas Waste Heat Boilers Air Products, operates hydrogen production plants, which utilize large waste heat boilers (WHB)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    Cold End Inserts for Process Gas Waste Heat Boilers Overview Air Products, operates hydrogen walls. Air Products tasked our team to design an insert to place in the tubes of the WHB to increase flow velocity, thereby reducing fouling of the WHB. Objectives Air Products wishes that our team

  18. A Wood-Fired Gas Turbine Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powell, S. H.; Hamrick, J. T.

    A WOOD-FIRED GAS TURBINE PLANT Sam H. Powell, Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, Tennessee Joseph T. Hamrick, Aerospace Research Corporation, RBS Electric, Roanoke, VA Abstract This paper covers the research and development of a wood...-fired gas turbine unit that is used for generating electricity. The system uses one large cyclonic combustor and a cyclone cleaning system in series to provide hot gases to drive an Allison T-56 aircraft engine (the industrial version is the 50l-k). A...

  19. Method for cleaning sinter plant gas emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herman, S.T.; Jassund, S.A.; Mazer, M.R.

    1981-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for cleaning sinter plant gas emissions using a wet electrostatic precipitator system having separate recirculating wash liquor loops for the high voltage precipitator section and the pre-scrubber section. The system is operated with acidic washing liquor to avoid scaling and deposition of solids within the system.

  20. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Process Efficiency improvements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griebenow, B.

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In response to decreasing funding levels available to support activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) and a desire to be cost competitive, the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company have increased their emphasis on cost-saving measures. The ICPP Effectiveness Improvement Initiative involves many activities to improve cost effectiveness and competitiveness. This report documents the methodology and results of one of those cost cutting measures, the Process Efficiency Improvement Activity. The Process Efficiency Improvement Activity performed a systematic review of major work processes at the ICPP to increase productivity and to identify nonvalue-added requirements. A two-phase approach was selected for the activity to allow for near-term implementation of relatively easy process modifications in the first phase while obtaining long-term continuous improvement in the second phase and beyond. Phase I of the initiative included a concentrated review of processes that had a high potential for cost savings with the intent of realizing savings in Fiscal Year 1996 (FY-96.) Phase II consists of implementing long-term strategies too complex for Phase I implementation and evaluation of processes not targeted for Phase I review. The Phase II effort is targeted for realizing cost savings in FY-97 and beyond.

  1. Natural gas treatment process using PTMSP membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toy, L.G.; Pinnau, I.

    1996-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for separating C{sub 3}+ hydrocarbons, particularly propane and butane, from natural gas. The process uses a poly(trimethylsilylpropyne) membrane. 6 figs.

  2. Natural gas treatment process using PTMSP membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toy, Lora G. (San Francisco, CA); Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for separating C.sub.3 + hydrocarbons, particularly propane and butane, from natural gas. The process uses a poly(trimethylsilylpropyne) membrane.

  3. Water Extraction from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce C. Folkedahl; Greg F. Weber; Michael E. Collings

    2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this program was to develop a liquid disiccant-based flue gas dehydration process technology to reduce water consumption in coal-fired power plants. The specific objective of the program was to generate sufficient subscale test data and conceptual commercial power plant evaluations to assess process feasibility and merits for commercialization. Currently, coal-fired power plants require access to water sources outside the power plant for several aspects of their operation in addition to steam cycle condensation and process cooling needs. At the present time, there is no practiced method of extracting the usually abundant water found in the power plant stack gas. This project demonstrated the feasibility and merits of a liquid desiccant-based process that can efficiently and economically remove water vapor from the flue gas of fossil fuel-fired power plants to be recycled for in-plant use or exported for clean water conservation. After an extensive literature review, a survey of the available physical and chemical property information on desiccants in conjunction with a weighting scheme developed for this application, three desiccants were selected and tested in a bench-scale system at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). System performance at the bench scale aided in determining which desiccant was best suited for further evaluation. The results of the bench-scale tests along with further review of the available property data for each of the desiccants resulted in the selection of calcium chloride as the desiccant for testing at the pilot-scale level. Two weeks of testing utilizing natural gas in Test Series I and coal in Test Series II for production of flue gas was conducted with the liquid desiccant dehumidification system (LDDS) designed and built for this study. In general, it was found that the LDDS operated well and could be placed in an automode in which the process would operate with no operator intervention or adjustment. Water produced from this process should require little processing for use, depending on the end application. Test Series II water quality was not as good as that obtained in Test Series I; however, this was believed to be due to a system upset that contaminated the product water system during Test Series II. The amount of water that can be recovered from flue gas with the LDDS is a function of several variables, including desiccant temperature, L/G in the absorber, flash drum pressure, liquid-gas contact method, and desiccant concentration. Corrosion will be an issue with the use of calcium chloride as expected but can be largely mitigated through proper material selection. Integration of the LDDS with either low-grade waste heat and or ground-source heating and cooling can affect the parasitic power draw the LDDS will have on a power plant. Depending on the amount of water to be removed from the flue gas, the system can be designed with no parasitic power draw on the power plant other than pumping loads. This can be accomplished in one scenario by taking advantage of the heat of absorption and the heat of vaporization to provide the necessary temperature changes in the desiccant with the flue gas and precipitates that may form and how to handle them. These questions must be addressed in subsequent testing before scale-up of the process can be confidently completed.

  4. Active constraint regions for a natural gas liquefaction process Magnus G. Jacobsen a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    processes. 2. Optimal operation of a PRICO liquefaction plant 2.1. Plant description The PRICO processActive constraint regions for a natural gas liquefaction process Magnus G. Jacobsen a , Sigurd Keywords: Self-optimizing control Liquefied natural gas LNG PRICO Disturbances Optimal operation a b s t r

  5. Energy Saving in Ammonia Plant by Using Gas Turbine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uji, S.; Ikeda, M.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ammonia plant, in which the IHI-SULZER Type 57 Gas Turbine is integrated in order to achieve energy saving, has started successful operation. Tile exhaust gas of the gas turbine has thermal energy of relatively high temperature, therefore...

  6. Gas treating process and composition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byers, D.L.

    1989-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a process for the removal of H/sub 2/S from a sour gaseous stream. The process consists of: (a) contacting the sour gaseous stream in a contacting zone with an aqueous reaction solution, at a temperature not greater than about 160{sup 0}C, the reaction solution comprising an effective amount of vanadium V-containing ions to oxidize H/sub 2/S to elemental sulfur and being substantially free of anthraquinone disulfonate, and producing a sweet gas stream and an aqueous solution having a pH of 8-11 and containing sulfur and vanadium IV-containing ions, the reaction solution further comprising an amount of phosphate ions sufficient to provide a molar ratio of phosphate ions to vanadium IV-containing ions produced in solution of at least 0.1; (b) removing sulfur from the aqueous solution, producing an aqueous solution having reduced sulfur content; (c) regenerating aqueous solution having reduced sulfur content in a regenerating zone and producing regenerated reactant in the solution; and (d) returning regenerated solution from step (c) to the contacting zone for use as aqueous reaction solution therein.

  7. ,"New York Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)",1,"Annual",1998 ,"Release...

  8. Exhaust gas clean up process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, R.J.

    1988-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of cleaning an exhaust gas containing particulates, SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ is described. The method involves prescrubbing with water to remove HCl and most of the particulates, scrubbing with an aqueous absorbent containing a metal chelate and dissolved sulfite salt to remove NO/sub x/ and SO/sub 2/, and regenerating the absorbent solution by controlled heating, electrodialysis and carbonate salt addition. The NO/sub x/ is removed as N/sub 2/ gas or nitrogen sulfonate ions and the oxides of sulfur are removed as a valuable sulfate salt. 4 figs.

  9. The Cost of CCS forThe Cost of CCS for Natural GasNatural Gas--Fired Power PlantsFired Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 The Cost of CCS forThe Cost of CCS for Natural GasNatural Gas--Fired Power PlantsFired Power Estimates for Natural GasNatural Gas--Fired Power PlantsFired Power Plants · 2007: Rubin, et al., Energy utilities again looking to natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plants for new or replacement capacity

  10. New generation enrichment monitoring technology for gas centrifuge enrichment plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ianakiev, Kiril D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Alexandrov, Boian S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Boyer, Brian D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hill, Thomas R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Macarthur, Duncan W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Marks, Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Moss, Calvin E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheppard, Gregory A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The continuous enrichment monitor, developed and fielded in the 1990s by the International Atomic Energy Agency, provided a go-no-go capability to distinguish between UF{sub 6} containing low enriched (approximately 4% {sup 235}U) and highly enriched (above 20% {sup 235}U) uranium. This instrument used the 22-keV line from a {sup 109}Cd source as a transmission source to achieve a high sensitivity to the UF{sub 6} gas absorption. The 1.27-yr half-life required that the source be periodically replaced and the instrument recalibrated. The instrument's functionality and accuracy were limited by the fact that measured gas density and gas pressure were treated as confidential facility information. The modern safeguarding of a gas centrifuge enrichment plant producing low-enriched UF{sub 6} product aims toward a more quantitative flow and enrichment monitoring concept that sets new standards for accuracy stability, and confidence. An instrument must be accurate enough to detect the diversion of a significant quantity of material, have virtually zero false alarms, and protect the operator's proprietary process information. We discuss a new concept for advanced gas enrichment assay measurement technology. This design concept eliminates the need for the periodic replacement of a radioactive source as well as the need for maintenance by experts. Some initial experimental results will be presented.

  11. Gas-Adsorption Processes - An Update

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keller, G. E., II

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    points and weak points are delineated. Next, several specific process flow sheets which have been commercialized rather recently and which may be extrapolable to other separations are discussed. Finally, the issue of where gas-adsorption technology...

  12. Exhaust gas clean up process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, Richard J. (McMurray, PA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of cleaning an exhaust gas containing particulates, SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.x includes prescrubbing with water to remove HCl and most of the particulates, scrubbing with an aqueous absorbent containing a metal chelate and dissolved sulfite salt to remove NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, and regenerating the absorbent solution by controlled heating, electrodialysis and carbonate salt addition. The NO.sub.x is removed as N.sub.2 or nitrogen-sulfonate ions and the oxides of sulfur are removed as a vaulable sulfate salt.

  13. WASTEWATER CHARACTERIZATION OF' FISH PROCESSING PLANT EFFLUENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;WASTEWATER CHARACTERIZATION OF' FISH PROCESSING PLANT EFFLUENTS TECHNICAL REPORT SERIES FREMP in Publication Data Main entry under title Wastewater characterization of fish processing plant effluents (Canada)); DOE FRAP 1993-39. TD899.F5W37 1994 363.73'942'0971133 C94-960159-4 #12;WASTEWATER

  14. HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Girish Srinivas; Steven C. Gebhard; David W. DeBerry

    2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This second quarter report of 2002 describes progress on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept represents a low cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove H{sub 2}S in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day. This process is projected to have lower capital and operating costs than the competing technologies, amine/aqueous iron liquid redox and amine/Claus/tail gas treating, and have a smaller plant footprint, making it well suited to both on-shore and offshore applications. CrystaSulf (service mark of CrystaTech, Inc.) is a new nonaqueous sulfur recovery process that removes hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from gas streams and converts it into elemental sulfur. CrystaSulf features high sulfur recovery similar to aqueous-iron liquid redox sulfur recovery processes, but differs from the aqueous processes in that CrystaSulf controls the location where elemental sulfur particles are formed. In the hybrid process, approximately 1/3 of the total H{sub 2}S in the natural gas is first oxidized to SO{sub 2} at low temperatures over a heterogeneous catalyst. Low temperature oxidation is done so that the H{sub 2}S can be oxidized in the presence of methane and other hydrocarbons without oxidation of the hydrocarbons. The project involves the development of a catalyst using laboratory/bench-scale catalyst testing, and then demonstration of the catalyst at CrystaTech's pilot plant in west Texas. Previous reports described development of a catalyst with the required selectivity and efficiency for producing sulfur dioxide from H{sub 2}S. In the laboratory, the catalyst was shown to be robust and stable in the presence of several intentionally added contaminants, including condensate from the pilot plant site. This report describes testing using the laboratory apparatus but operated at the pilot plant using the actual pilot plant gas, which contains far more contaminants than can be simulated in the laboratory. The results are very encouraging, with stable and efficient operation being obtained for a prolonged period of time.

  15. Plant-wide Control for Better De-oiling of Produced Water in Offshore Oil & Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Zhenyu

    Plant-wide Control for Better De-oiling of Produced Water in Offshore Oil & Gas Production Zhenyu (PWT) in offshore oil & gas production processes. Different from most existing facility- or material offshore and the oil industry expects this share to grow continuously in the future. In last decade, oil

  16. Transport Membrane Condenser for Water and Energy Recovery from Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dexin Wang

    2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The new waste heat and water recovery technology based on a nanoporous ceramic membrane vapor separation mechanism has been developed for power plant flue gas application. The recovered water vapor and its latent heat from the flue gas can increase the power plant boiler efficiency and reduce water consumption. This report describes the development of the Transport Membrane Condenser (TMC) technology in details for power plant flue gas application. The two-stage TMC design can achieve maximum heat and water recovery based on practical power plant flue gas and cooling water stream conditions. And the report includes: Two-stage TMC water and heat recovery system design based on potential host power plant coal fired flue gas conditions; Membrane performance optimization process based on the flue gas conditions, heat sink conditions, and water and heat transport rate requirement; Pilot-Scale Unit design, fabrication and performance validation test results. Laboratory test results showed the TMC system can exact significant amount of vapor and heat from the flue gases. The recovered water has been tested and proved of good quality, and the impact of SO{sub 2} in the flue gas on the membrane has been evaluated. The TMC pilot-scale system has been field tested with a slip stream of flue gas in a power plant to prove its long term real world operation performance. A TMC scale-up design approach has been investigated and an economic analysis of applying the technology has been performed.

  17. Optimal Maintenance Scheduling of a Gas Engine Power Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    to carry out preventive maintenance at regular intervals19 . The maintenance schedule affects many short1 Optimal Maintenance Scheduling of a Gas Engine Power Plant using Generalized Disjunctive with parallel units. Gas engines are shutdown according to a regular maintenance plan that limits the number

  18. POWER-TO-GAS PROCESS WITH HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    POWER-TO-GAS PROCESS WITH HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS AND CO2 METHANATION NOVEMBER 19th 2013 IRES. Energy background 2. Power-to-Substitute Natural Gas process with high temperature steam electrolysis Gas-to-heat Gas-to-mobility Gas-to-power Excess Production = Consumption Distribution and storing

  19. Indiana Natural Gas Processed (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 14 15 0 0 0 0WithdrawalsPlantSep-14

  20. Systems approach used in the Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rooks, W.A. Jr.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A requirement exists for effective and efficient transfer of technical knowledge from the design engineering team to the production work force. Performance-Based Training (PBT) is a systematic approach to the design, development, and implementation of technical training. This approach has been successfully used by the US Armed Forces, industry, and other organizations. The advantages of the PBT approach are: cost-effectiveness (lowest life-cycle training cost), learning effectiveness, reduced implementation time, and ease of administration. The PBT process comprises five distinctive and rigorous phases: Analysis of Job Performance, Design of Instructional Strategy, Development of Training Materials and Instructional Media, Validation of Materials and Media, and Implementation of the Instructional Program. Examples from the Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant (GCEP) are used to illustrate the application of PBT.

  1. Monitoring Energy Efficiency in Sophisticated Process Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenney, W. F.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MONITORING ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN SOPHISTICATED PROCESS PLANTS William F. Kenney Exxon Chemical Company Florham Park, New Jersey The proper operation of existing facilities is needed if design improvements are to be reduced to practice.... ETCI ? HELPS IDENTIFY CORRECTIVE ACTION ? SUITABLE FOR FREQUENT MONITORING BY PLANT OPERATIONS o :::l o o a: Cl. t: z :::l " o W N -l ..... :::l > (D a: w z w ~-OPERATING DATA POINTS INCENTIVE FOR IMPROVED OPERATION...

  2. Process for production desulfurized of synthesis gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfenbarger, James K. (Torrance, CA); Najjar, Mitri S. (Wappingers Falls, NY)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the partial oxidation of a sulfur- and silicate-containing carbonaceous fuel to produce a synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content which comprises partially oxidizing said fuel at a temperature in the range of 1900.degree.-2600.degree. F. in the presence of a temperature moderator, an oxygen-containing gas and a sulfur capture additive which comprises a calcium-containing compound portion, a sodium-containing compound portion, and a fluoride-containing compound portion to produce a synthesis gas comprising H.sub.2 and CO with a reduced sulfur content and a molten slag which comprises (1) a sulfur-containing sodium-calcium-fluoride silicate phase; and (2) a sodium-calcium sulfide phase.

  3. Basic TRUEX process for Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leonard, R.A.; Chamberlain, D.B.; Dow, J.A.; Farley, S.E.; Nunez, L.; Regalbuto, M.C.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Generic TRUEX Model was used to develop a TRUEX process flowsheet for recovering the transuranics (Pu, Am) from a nitrate waste stream at Rocky Flats Plant. The process was designed so that it is relatively insensitive to changes in process feed concentrations and flow rates. Related issues are considered, including solvent losses, feed analysis requirements, safety, and interaction with an evaporator system for nitric acid recycle.

  4. Heat Integrate Heat Engines in Process Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hindmarsh, E.; Boland, D.; Townsend, D. W.

    of forcing a good fit between a heat engine and process T', H profiles extends the ideas of appropriate and inappropriate placement to give bet ter overall integration schemes [7] . The new 'and powerful representations of the thermodynamics of a process... HEAT INTEGRATE HEAT ENGINES IN PROCESS PLANTS E. Hindmarsh, D. Boland and D.W. Townsend TENSA Technology, Houston, Texas Shorter Version Appeared in Chemical Engineering Copyright McGraw Hill, 1985 ABSTRACT This paper presents a novel method...

  5. West Virginia Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30NaturalThousandExtensions (Billion2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 View History

  6. Wyoming-Colorado Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30NaturalThousandExtensions (Billion2008Sep-14ThousandFeet) Working Natural

  7. Wyoming-Wyoming Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30NaturalThousandExtensions (Billion2008Sep-14ThousandFeet) Working

  8. South Dakota Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet)

  9. Tennessee-Tennessee Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet)per Thousand Cubic4,630.2per Thousand Cubic340 340 340 340 340

  10. U.S. Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteamYearTexas--StateWinter 2013-14DeliveriesProvedBarrels)Sales Federal

  11. U.S. Natural Gas Processing Plant

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteamYearTexas--StateWinter 2013-14DeliveriesProvedBarrels)SalesAll Oils

  12. U.S. Natural Gas Processing Plant

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S. NaturalA. Michael SchaalNovember 26,8,Coal Stocks atYearYearYearCubicYear

  13. Utah-Utah Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet)per Thousand28 198Separation 321Working40 235 257

  14. Utah-Wyoming Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet)per Thousand28 198Separation 321Working40 235 25711,554 9,075

  15. New Mexico Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet) Year Jan FebFeet) Decade Year-0 (Million CubicProved

  16. North Dakota Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet) Year JanProduction 4 12 73 9 12Elements)FuelProved2008

  17. Ohio-Ohio Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet) Year JanProduction 4 125 2006Year Jan Feb2012 2013 View

  18. Oklahoma-Kansas Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet) Year JanProduction 4 125Feet)SameFeet) Working8,527

  19. Oklahoma-Oklahoma Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet) Year JanProduction 4 125Feet)SameFeet)

  20. Oklahoma-Texas Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet) Year JanProduction 4 125Feet)SameFeet)6,462 18,595

  1. Springfield Processing Plant (SPP) Facility Information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leach, Janice; Torres, Teresa M.

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Springfield Processing Plant is a hypothetical facility. It has been constructed for use in training workshops. Information is provided about the facility and its surroundings, particularly security-related aspects such as target identification, threat data, entry control, and response force data.

  2. Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion: Small gas turbine induustrial plant study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shenker, J.; Garland, R.; Horazak, D.; Seifert, F.; Wenglarz, R.

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) plants provide a coal-fired, high-efficiency, combined-cycle system for the generation of electricity and steam. The plants use lime-based sorbents in PFB combustors to meet environmental air standards without back-end gas desulfurization equipment. The second-generation system is an improvement over earlier PFBC concepts because it can achieve gas temperatures of 2100[degrees]F and higher for improved cycle efficiency while maintaining the fluidized beds at 1600[degrees]F for enhanced sulfur capture and minimum alkali release. Second-generation PFBC systems are capable of supplying the electric and steam process needs of industrial plants. The basic second-generation system can be applied in different ways to meet a variety of process steam and electrical requirements. To evaluate the potential of these systems in the industrial market, conceptual designs have been developed for six second-generation PFBC plants. These plants cover a range of electrical outputs from 6.3 to 41.5 MWe and steam flows from 46,067 to 442,337 lb/h. Capital and operating costs have been estimated for these six plants and for equivalent (in size) conventional, coal-fired atmospheric fluidized bed combustion cogeneration plants. Economic analyses were conducted to compare the cost of steam for both the second-generation plants and the conventional plants.

  3. Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion: Small gas turbine industrial plant study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shenker, J.; Garland, R.; Horazak, D.; Seifert, F.; Wenglarz, R.

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) plants provide a coal-fired, high-efficiency, combined-cycle system for the generation of electricity and steam. The plants use lime-based sorbents in PFB combustors to meet environmental air standards without back-end gas desulfurization equipment. The second-generation system is an improvement over earlier PFBC concepts because it can achieve gas temperatures of 2100{degrees}F and higher for improved cycle efficiency while maintaining the fluidized beds at 1600{degrees}F for enhanced sulfur capture and minimum alkali release. Second-generation PFBC systems are capable of supplying the electric and steam process needs of industrial plants. The basic second-generation system can be applied in different ways to meet a variety of process steam and electrical requirements. To evaluate the potential of these systems in the industrial market, conceptual designs have been developed for six second-generation PFBC plants. These plants cover a range of electrical outputs from 6.3 to 41.5 MWe and steam flows from 46,067 to 442,337 lb/h. Capital and operating costs have been estimated for these six plants and for equivalent (in size) conventional, coal-fired atmospheric fluidized bed combustion cogeneration plants. Economic analyses were conducted to compare the cost of steam for both the second-generation plants and the conventional plants.

  4. Desulfurization of flue gas by the confined zone dispersion process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Confined Zone Dispersion (CZD) process involves injecting a finely atomized slurry of reactive lime into the ductwork of a coal-fired utility boiler. The principle of the confined zone is to form a wet zone of slurry droplets in the middle of the duct confined in an envelope of hot gas between the wet zone and the duct walls. The lime slurry reacts with part of the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) in the gas, and the reaction products dry to form solid particles. An electrostatic precipitator (ESP) downstream from the point of injection captures the reaction products, along with the fly ash entrained in the flue gas. The purpose of this project was to prove the CZD process concept by testing it on a limited scale, and then demonstrating the process on a large scale. The scope of work included projecting the cost of commercial implementation. The test facility for the proof-of-concept tests was on a scale equivalent to a 7 MWe generating plant. The large-scale demonstration was made on a scale of 70 MWe. This report describes how data from the two test sites were correlated, and presents conceptual designs for two full-scale retrofit installations. The rationale and data supporting the conclusions are also given in Part 4.

  5. Comparative Assessment of Coal-and Natural Gas-fired Power Plants under a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Comparative Assessment of Coal- and Natural Gas-fired Power Plants under a CO2 Emission Performance standard (EPS) for pulverized coal (PC) and natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) power plants; · Evaluate% · Natural Gas-fired Power Plant: Adv. 7F Gas Turbine Capacity Factor 75% · Cost Basis: 2007$, constant 7

  6. Natural Gas Plant Liquids Proved Reserves

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ <Information Administration (EIA) 10 MECS Survey Data 2010 | 2006 | 20024.95 4.96 4.93 5.53Natural Gas

  7. Renewable Energy: Plants in Your Gas Tank

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l L dDepartmentnews-flashes OfficeTexasEnergy DieselRenewablePlants in

  8. Pinellas Plant facts. [Products, processes, laboratory facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This plant was built in 1956 in response to a need for the manufacture of neutron generators, a principal component in nuclear weapons. The neutron generators consist of a miniaturized linear ion accelerator assembled with the pulsed electrical power supplies required for its operation. The ion accelerator, or neutron tube, requires ultra clean, high vacuum technology: hermetic seals between glass, ceramic, glass-ceramic, and metal materials: plus high voltage generation and measurement technology. The existence of these capabilities at the Pinellas Plant has led directly to the assignment of the lightning arrester connector, specialty capacitor, vacuum switch, and crystal resonator. Active and reserve batteries and the radioisotopically-powered thermoelectric generator draw on the materials measurement and controls technologies which are required to ensure neutron generator life. A product development and production capability in alumina ceramics, cermet (electrical) feedthroughs, and glass ceramics has become a specialty of the plant; the laboratories monitor the materials and processes used by the plant's commercial suppliers of ferroelectric ceramics. In addition to the manufacturing facility, a production development capability is maintained at the Pinellas Plant.

  9. TECHNICAL AND OPERATING SUPPORT FOR PILOT DEMONSTRATION OF MORPHYSORB ACID GAS REMOVAL PROCESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagaraju Palla; Dennis Leppin

    2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the past 14 years, the Gas Technology Institute and jointly with Uhde since 1997 developing Morphysorb{reg_sign} a new physical solvent-based acid gas removal process. Based on extensive laboratory, bench, pilot-plant scale experiments and computer simulations, DEGT Gas Transmission Company, Canada (DEGT) has chosen the process for use at its Kwoen processing facility near Chetwynd, British Columbia, Canada as the first commercial application for the Morphysorb process. DOE co-funded the development of the Morphysorb process in various stages of development. DOE funded the production of this report to ensure that the results of the work would be readily available to potential users of the process in the United States. The Kwoen Plant is designed to process 300 MMscfd of raw natural gas at 1,080-psia pressure. The sour natural gas contains 20 to 25 percent H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2}. The plant reduces the acid gas content by about 50% and injects the removed H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2} into an injection well. The Kwoen plant has been operating since August 2002. Morphysorb{reg_sign} is a physical solvent-based process used for the bulk removal of CO{sub 2} and/or H{sub 2}S from natural gas and other gaseous streams. The solvent consists of N-Formyl morpholine and other morpholine derivatives. This process is particularly effective for high-pressure and high acid-gas applications and offers substantial savings in investment and operating cost compared to competitive physical solvent-based processes. GTI and DEGT first entered into an agreement in 2002 to test the Morphysorb process at their Kwoen Gas Treating Plant in northern BC. The process is operating successfully without any solvent related problems and has between DEGTC and GTI. As of December 2003, about 90 Bcf of sour gas was processed. Of this about 8 Bcf of acid gas containing mainly H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2} was injected back into the depleted reservoir and 82 Bcf sent for further processing at DEGTC's Pine River Plant. This report discusses the operational performance at Kwoen plant during the performance test as well as the solvent performance since the plant started up. The Morphysorb performance is assessed by Duke Energy according to five metrics: acid gas pickup, recycle gas flow, total hydrocarbon loss in acid gas stream, Morphysorb solvent losses and foaming related problems. Plant data over a period of one year show that the Morphysorb solvent has performed extremely well in four out of five of these categories. The fifth metric, Morphysorb solvent loss, is being evaluated over a longer-term period in order to accurately assess it. However, the preliminary indications based on makeup solvent used to date are that solvent losses will also be within expectations. The analysis of the solvent samples indicates that the solvent is very stable and did not show any sign of degradation. The operability of the solvent is good and no foaming related problems have been encountered. According to plant operators the Morphysorb unit runs smoothly and requires no special attention.

  10. Analysis and modeling of gas exchange processes in Scaevola aemula Soo-Hyung Kim a,*, Paul R. Fisher b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lieth, J. Heinrich

    Analysis and modeling of gas exchange processes in Scaevola aemula Soo-Hyung Kim a,*, Paul R exchange model previously developed for cut-roses. Utilizing the gas exchange data measured at 25 8C leaf crop cultivated as a bedding plant or for hanging baskets. We characterized gas exchange properties

  11. Critique of Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant off-gas sampling requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goles, R.W.

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Off-gas sampling and monitoring activities needed to support operations safety, process control, waste form qualification, and environmental protection requirements of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) have been evaluated. The locations of necessary sampling sites have been identified on the basis of plant requirements, and the applicability of Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) reference sampling equipment to these HWVP requirements has been assessed for all sampling sites. Equipment deficiencies, if present, have been described and the bases for modifications and/or alternative approaches have been developed.

  12. Dry flue gas desulfurization process for various coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widico, M.J.; Dhargalkar, P.H.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes have been widely used since the early 1970's for control of sulfur dioxide emissions from coal-fired power plants. First generation FGD systems employ ''wet processes'' whereby the flue gas is contacted with a solution or slurry of an alkali reagent. Most of these installations use either lime or limestone. Calcium-based wet systems have, in general, satisfied SO/sub 2/ removal requirements; however, reliability of the early systems was affected by some operational problems. Additionally, sludge dewatering and disposal equipment results in overall system complexity. A dry FGD process which minimizes these problems was developed in late 1970's. It incorporates a spray drying concept for removal of SO/sub 2/ by reaction with lime slurry or soda ash solution. The spray dryer absorber is followed by an electrostatic precipitator or a fabric filter where particulates are collected. The waste product, which is a mixture of FGD reaction products, unreacted reagent and fly ash, is dry thus eliminating the need for dewatering equipment.

  13. CO2 capture processes in power plants - Le captage du CO2 dans les centrales thermiques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakib Bouallou

    2010-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This review is devoted to assess and compare various processes aiming at recover CO2 from power plants fed with natural gas (NGCC) and pulverized coal (PC). These processes are post combustion CO2 capture using chemical solvents, natural gas reforming for pre-combustion capture and oxy-fuel combustion with cryogenic recovery of CO2. These processes were evaluated to give some clues for choosing the best option for each type of power plant. The comparison of these various concepts suggests that, in the short and medium term, chemical absorption is the most interesting process for NGCC power plants. For CP power plants, oxy-combustion can be a very interesting option, as well as post-combustion capture by chemical solvents.

  14. HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis Dalrymple

    2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This final report describes the objectives, technical approach, results and conclusions for a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept is a configuration of CrystaTech, Inc.'s CrystaSulf{reg_sign} process which utilizes a direct oxidation catalyst upstream of the absorber tower to oxidize a portion of the inlet hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) to sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and elemental sulfur. This hybrid configuration of CrystaSulf has been named CrystaSulf-DO and represents a low-cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove H{sub 2}S in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day and more. This hybrid process is projected to have lower capital and operating costs than the competing technologies, amine/aqueous iron liquid redox and amine/Claus/tail gas treating, and have a smaller plant footprint, making it well suited to both onshore and offshore applications. CrystaSulf is a nonaqueous sulfur recovery process that removes H{sub 2}S from gas streams and converts it to elemental sulfur. In CrystaSulf, H{sub 2}S in the inlet gas is reacted with SO{sub 2} to make elemental sulfur according to the liquid phase Claus reaction: 2H{sub 2}S + SO{sub 2} {yields} 2H{sub 2}O + 3S. The SO{sub 2} for the reaction can be supplied from external sources by purchasing liquid SO{sub 2} and injecting it into the CrystaSulf solution, or produced internally by converting a portion of the inlet gas H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} or by burning a portion of the sulfur produced to make SO{sub 2}. CrystaSulf features high sulfur recovery similar to aqueous-iron liquid redox sulfur recovery processes, but differs from the aqueous processes in that CrystaSulf controls the location where elemental sulfur particles are formed. In the hybrid process, the needed SO{sub 2} is produced by placing a bed of direct oxidation catalyst in the inlet gas stream to oxidize a portion of the inlet H{sub 2}S. Oxidation catalysts may also produce some elemental sulfur under these conditions, which can be removed and recovered prior to the CrystaSulf absorber. The CrystaSulf-DO process can utilize direct oxidation catalyst from many sources. Numerous direct oxidation catalysts are available from many suppliers worldwide. They have been used for H{sub 2}S oxidation to sulfur and/or SO{sub 2} for decades. It was believed at the outset of the project that TDA Research, Inc., a subcontractor, could develop a direct oxidation catalyst that would offer advantages over other commercially available catalysts for this CrystaSulf-DO process application. This project involved the development of several of TDA's candidate proprietary direct oxidation catalysts through laboratory bench-scale testing. These catalysts were shown to be effective for conversion of H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} and to elemental sulfur under certain operating conditions. One of these catalysts was subsequently tested on a commercial gas stream in a bench-scale reactor at CrystaTech's pilot plant site in west Texas with good results. However, commercial developments have precluded the use of TDA catalysts in the CrystaSulf-DO process. Nonetheless, this project has advanced direct oxidation catalyst technology for H{sub 2}S control in energy industries and led to several viable paths to commercialization. TDA is commercializing the use of its direct oxidation catalyst technology in conjunction with the SulfaTreat{reg_sign} solid scavenger for natural gas applications and in conjunction with ConocoPhillips and DOE for gasification applications using ConocoPhillips gasification technology. CrystaTech is commercializing its CrystaSulf-DO process in conjunction with Gas Technology Institute for natural gas applications (using direct oxidation catalysts from other commercial sources) and in conjunction with ChevronTexaco and DOE for gasification applications using ChevronTexaco's gasification technology.

  15. Defining the needs for gas centrifuge enrichment plants advanced safeguards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyer, Brian David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Erpenbeck, Heather H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Miller, Karen A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ianakiev, Kiril [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Marlow, Johnna B [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Current safeguards approaches used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) at gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) need enhancement in order to verify declared low-enriched (LEU) production, detect undeclared LEU production and detect highly enriched uranium (HEU) production with adequate detection probability using nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques. At present inspectors use attended systems, systems needing the presence of an inspector for operation, during inspections to verify the mass and {sup 235}U enrichment of declared UF{sub 6} containers used in the process of enrichment at GCEPs. In verifying declared LEU production, the inspectors also take samples for off-site destructive assay (DA) which provide accurate data, with 0.1% to 0.5% measurement uncertainty, on the enrichment of the UF{sub 6} feed, tails, and product. However, taking samples of UF{sub 6} for off-site analysis is a much more labor and resource intensive exercise for the operator and inspector. Furthermore, the operator must ship the samples off-site to the IAEA laboratory which delays the timeliness of results and interruptions to the continuity of knowledge (CofK) of the samples during their storage and transit. This paper contains an analysis of possible improvements in unattended and attended NDA systems such as process monitoring and possible on-site analysis of DA samples that could reduce the uncertainty of the inspector's measurements and provide more effective and efficient IAEA GCEPs safeguards. We also introduce examples advanced safeguards systems that could be assembled for unattended operation.

  16. Treatment of gas from an in situ conversion process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diaz, Zaida (Katy, TX); Del Paggio, Alan Anthony (Spring, TX); Nair, Vijay (Katy, TX); Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria (Houston, TX)

    2011-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing methane is described. The method includes providing formation fluid from a subsurface in situ conversion process. The formation fluid is separated to produce a liquid stream and a first gas stream. The first gas stream includes olefins. At least the olefins in the first gas stream are contacted with a hydrogen source in the presence of one or more catalysts and steam to produce a second gas stream. The second gas stream is contacted with a hydrogen source in the presence of one or more additional catalysts to produce a third gas stream. The third gas stream includes methane.

  17. A Case Study from Norway on Gas-Fired Power Plants, Carbon Sequestration, and Politics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 A Case Study from Norway on Gas-Fired Power Plants, Carbon Sequestration, and Politics Guillaume contended the gas-fired plants would slow Norway's dependence on imported electricity from Denmark, which 81-71 in favor of building Norway's first natural gas-fired power plant.1 As a result Bondevik

  18. Proof-of concept testing of the advanced NOXSO flue gas cleanup process. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The NOXSO Process uses a regenerable sorbent that removes SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} simultaneously from flue gas. The sorbent is a stabilized {gamma}-alumina bed impregnated with sodium carbonate. The process was successfully tested at three different scales, equivalent to 0.017, 0.06 and 0.75 MW of flue gas generated from a coal-fired power plant. The Proof-of-Concept (POC) Test is the last test prior to a full-scale demonstration. A slip stream of flue gas equivalent to a 5 MW coal-fired power plant was used for the POC test. This paper summarizes the NOXSO POC plant and its test results.

  19. The Cost of CCS forThe Cost of CCS for Natural GasNatural Gas--Fired Power PlantsFired Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 The Cost of CCS forThe Cost of CCS for Natural GasNatural Gas--Fired Power PlantsFired Power, Pennsylvania Presentation to the Natural Gas CCS Forum Washington, DC November 4, 2011 E.S. Rubin, Carnegie Mellon MotivationMotivation · Electric utilities again looking to natural gas combined cycle (NGCC

  20. Assessment of gas-side fouling in cement plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marner, W.J.

    1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study is to provide an assessment of gas-side fouling in cement plants with special emphasis on heat recovery applications. Exhaust gases in the cement industry which are suitable for heat recovery range in temperature from about 400 to 1300 K, are generally dusty, may be highly abrasive, and are often heavily laden with alkalies, sulfates, and chlorides. Particulates in the exhaust streams range in size from molecular to about 100 ..mu..m in diameter and come from both the raw feed as well as the ash in the coal which is the primary fuel used in the cement industry. The major types of heat-transfer equipment used in the cement industry include preheaters, gas-to-air heat exchangers, waste heat boilers, and clinker coolers. The most important gas-side fouling mechanisms in the cement industry are those due to particulate, chemical reaction, and corrosion fouling. Particulate transport mechanisms which appear to be of greatest importance include laminar and turbulent mass transfer, thermophoresis, electrophoresis, and inertial impaction. Chemical reaction mechanisms of particular importance include the deposition of alkali sulfates, alkali chlorides, spurrite, calcium carbonate, and calcium sulfate. At sufficiently low temperatures, sulfuric acid and water can condense on heat exchanger surfaces which can cause corrosion and also attract particulates in the flow. The deleterious effects of gas-side fouling in cement plants are due to: (1) increased capital costs; (2) increased maintenance costs; (3) loss of production; and (4) energy losses. A conservative order-of-magnitude analysis shows that the cost of gas-side fouling in US cement plants is $0.24 billion annually.

  1. Cornell's conversion of a coal fired heating plant to natural Gas -BACKGROUND: In December 2009, the Combined Heat and Power Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keinan, Alon

    - BACKGROUND: In December 2009, the Combined Heat and Power Plant at Cornell Cornell's conversion of a coal fired heating plant to natural Gas the power plant #12;

  2. Sales and Use Tax Exemption for Gas Processing Facilities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In North Dakota, materials purchased for building or expending gas processing facilities are exempt from sales and use taxes. Building materials, equipment, and other tangible property are eligible...

  3. Process for selected gas oxide removal by radiofrequency catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cha, C.Y.

    1993-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This process to remove gas oxides from flue gas utilizes adsorption on a char bed subsequently followed by radiofrequency catalysis enhancing such removal through selected reactions. Common gas oxides include SO[sub 2] and NO[sub x]. 1 figure.

  4. Gas Distribution Modeling using Sparse Gaussian Process Mixture Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stachniss, Cyrill

    Gas Distribution Modeling using Sparse Gaussian Process Mixture Models Cyrill Stachniss1 Christian-- In this paper, we consider the problem of learning a two dimensional spatial model of a gas distribution with a mobile robot. Building maps that can be used to accurately predict the gas concentration at query

  5. Thief process for the removal of mercury from flue gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA); Granite, Evan J. (Wexford, PA); Freeman, Mark C. (South Park Township, PA); Hargis, Richard A. (Canonsburg, PA); O'Dowd, William J. (Charleroi, PA)

    2003-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for removing mercury from the flue gas of a coal-fired power plant is described. Mercury removal is by adsorption onto a thermally activated sorbent produced in-situ at the power plant. To obtain the thermally activated sorbent, a lance (thief) is inserted into a location within the combustion zone of the combustion chamber and extracts a mixture of semi-combusted coal and gas. The semi-combusted coal has adsorptive properties suitable for the removal of elemental and oxidized mercury. The mixture of semi-combusted coal and gas is separated into a stream of gas and semi-combusted coal that has been converted to a stream of thermally activated sorbent. The separated stream of gas is recycled to the combustion chamber. The thermally activated sorbent is injected into the duct work of the power plant at a location downstream from the exit port of the combustion chamber. Mercury within the flue gas contacts and adsorbs onto the thermally activated sorbent. The sorbent-mercury combination is removed from the plant by a particulate collection system.

  6. The advanced PFB process: Pilot plant results and design studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, A. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States); Domeracki, W. [Westinghouse Power Generation Business Group, Orlando, FL (United States); Horazak, D. [Gilbert/Commonwealth, Green Hills, PA (United States); Newby, R. [Westinghouse Science and Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Rehmat, A. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago IL (United States)

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The plant being developed is a hybrid of two technologies; it incorporates the partial gasification of coal in a vessel called the carbonizer and the combustion of the resultant char residue in a circulating pressurized fluidized bed combustor (CPFBC). In this plant, coal is fed to a pressurized carbonizer that produces a low-Btu fuel gas and char. After passing through a cyclone and a ceramic barrier filter to remove gas-entrained particulates, the fuel gas is burned in a topping combustor to produce the energy required to drive a gas turbine. The gas turbine drives a generator and a compressor that feeds air to the carbonizer, a CPFBC, and a fluidized bed heat exchanger (FBHE). The carbonizer char is burned in the CPFBC with high excess air. The vitiated air from the CPFBC supports combustion of the fuel gas in the gas turbine topping combustor. Steam generated in a heat-recovery steam generator (HRSG) downstream of the gas turbine and in the FBHE associated with the CPFBC drives the steam turbine generator that furnishes the balance of electric power delivered by the plant. The low-Btu gas is produced in the carbonizer by pyrolysis/mild devolatilization of coal in a fluidized bed reactor. Because this unit operates at temperatures much lower than gasifiers currently under development, it also produces a char residue. Left untreated, the fuel gas will contain hydrogen sulfide and sulfur-containing tar/light oil vapors; therefore, lime-based sorbents are injected into the carbonizer to catalytically enhance tar cracking and to capture sulfur as calcium sulfide. Sulfur is captured in situ, and the raw fuel gas is fired hot. Thus the expensive, complex, fuel gas heat exchangers and the chemical or sulfur-capturing bed cleanup systems that are part of the coal gasification combined-cycle plants now being developed are eliminated.

  7. Louisiana Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 14343 342 3289 0 0FuelFuel ConsumptionPlant

  8. Illinois Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 1 0DecadeWithdrawals (MillionPlant Fuel

  9. Illinois Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 1 0DecadeWithdrawals (MillionPlant Fuel

  10. Indiana Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 14 15 0 0 0 0WithdrawalsPlant Liquids

  11. Biennial Assessment of the Fifth Power Plan Gas Turbine Power Plant Planning Assumptions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    from the heat recovery steam generator powers an additional steam turbine, providing extra electricBiennial Assessment of the Fifth Power Plan Gas Turbine Power Plant Planning Assumptions October 17, 2006 Simple- and combined-cycle gas turbine power plants fuelled by natural gas are among the bulk

  12. Cryogenic fractionator gas as stripping gas of fines slurry in a coking and gasification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeGeorge, Charles W. (Chester, NJ)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In an integrated coking and gasification process wherein a stream of fluidized solids is passed from a fluidized bed coking zone to a second fluidized bed and wherein entrained solid fines are recovered by a scrubbing process and wherein the resulting solids-liquid slurry is stripped with a stripping gas to remove acidic gases, at least a portion of the stripping gas comprises a gas comprising hydrogen, nitrogen and methane separated from the coker products.

  13. Process and system for removing impurities from a gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Henningsen, Gunnar; Knowlton, Teddy Merrill; Findlay, John George; Schlather, Jerry Neal; Turk, Brian S

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A fluidized reactor system for removing impurities from a gas and an associated process are provided. The system includes a fluidized absorber for contacting a feed gas with a sorbent stream to reduce the impurity content of the feed gas; a fluidized solids regenerator for contacting an impurity loaded sorbent stream with a regeneration gas to reduce the impurity content of the sorbent stream; a first non-mechanical gas seal forming solids transfer device adapted to receive an impurity loaded sorbent stream from the absorber and transport the impurity loaded sorbent stream to the regenerator at a controllable flow rate in response to an aeration gas; and a second non-mechanical gas seal forming solids transfer device adapted to receive a sorbent stream of reduced impurity content from the regenerator and transfer the sorbent stream of reduced impurity content to the absorber without changing the flow rate of the sorbent stream.

  14. Ammonia removal process upgrade to the Acme Steel Coke Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, J.L. [Acme Steel Co., Chicago, IL (United States). Chicago Coke Plant

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The need to upgrade the ammonia removal process at the Acme Steel Coke Plant developed with the installation of the benzene NESHAP (National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants) equipment, specifically the replacement of the final cooler. At Acme Steel it was decided to replace the existing open cooling tower type final cooler with a closed loop direct spray tar/water final cooler. This new cooler has greatly reduced the emissions of benzene, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen cyanide to the atmosphere, bringing them into environmental compliance. At the time of its installation it was not fully recognized as to the effect this would have on the coke oven gas composition. In the late seventies the decision had been made at Acme Steel to stop the production of ammonia sulfate salt crystals. The direction chosen was to make a liquid ammonia sulfate solution. This product was used as a pickle liquor at first and then as a liquid fertilizer as more markets were developed. In the fall of 1986 the ammonia still was brought on line. The vapors generated from the operation of the stripping still are directed to the inlet of the ammonia absorber. At that point in time it was decided that an improvement to the cyclical ammonia removal process was needed. The improvements made were minimal yet allowed the circulation of solution through the ammonia absorber on a continuous basis. The paper describes the original batch process and the modifications made which allowed continuous removal.

  15. Process for producing dimethyl ether form synthesis gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pierantozzi, Ronald (Macungie, PA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention pertains to a Fischer Tropsch process for converting synthesis gas to an oxygenated hydrocarbon with particular emphasis on dimethyl ether. Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen are converted to dimethyl ether by carrying out the reaction in the presence of an alkali metal-manganese-iron carbonyl cluster incorporated onto a zirconia-alumina support.

  16. Title: Net Energy Ratio and Greenhouse Gas Analysis of a Biogas Power Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauer, Wolfgang

    of a Biogas Power Plant Author: W. Bauer Author Affiliation: Department and greenhouse gas analysis for a 1.45 MW (0.71 MW electrical) biogas power plant

  17. Second law analysis of a natural gas-fired steam boiler and cogeneration plant.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conklin, Eric D

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??A second law thermodynamic analysis of a natural gas-fired steam boiler and cogeneration plant at Rice University was conducted. The analysis included many components of… (more)

  18. Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Separate Nitrogen from Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaaeid Lokhandwala

    2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During pre-commissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Since that time, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) has signed a marketing and sales partnership with ABB Lummus Global, a large multinational corporation. MTR is working with the company's Randall Gas Technology group, a supplier of equipment and processing technology to the natural gas industry. Randall's engineering group found a new site for the project at a North Texas Exploration (NTE) gas processing plant, which met with limited success. However, a small test system was installed at a Twin Bottoms Energy well in Kentucky. This unit operated successfully for six months, and demonstrated the technology's reliability on a small scale. MTR then located an alternative test site with much larger gas flow rates and signed a contract with Towne Exploration in the third quarter of 2006, for a demonstration plant in Rio Vista, California, to be run through May 2007. The demonstration for Towne has already resulted in the sale of two commercial skids to the company; both units will be delivered by the end of 2007. Total sales of nitrogen/natural gas membrane separation units from the partnership with ABB are now approaching $4.0 million.

  19. Microalgae Production from Power Plant Flue Gas: Environmental Implications on a Life Cycle Basis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kadam, K. L.

    2001-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Power-plant flue gas can serve as a source of CO{sub 2} for microalgae cultivation, and the algae can be cofired with coal. This life cycle assessment (LCA) compared the environmental impacts of electricity production via coal firing versus coal/algae cofiring. The LCA results demonstrated lower net values for the algae cofiring scenario for the following using the direct injection process (in which the flue gas is directly transported to the algae ponds): SOx, NOx, particulates, carbon dioxide, methane, and fossil energy consumption. Carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons emissions were statistically unchanged. Lower values for the algae cofiring scenario, when compared to the burning scenario, were observed for greenhouse potential and air acidification potential. However, impact assessment for depletion of natural resources and eutrophication potential showed much higher values. This LCA gives us an overall picture of impacts across different environmental boundaries, and hence, can help in the decision-making process for implementation of the algae scenario.

  20. DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AS A DIAGNOSTIC TOOL FOR GAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eagar, Thomas W.

    DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AS A DIAGNOSTIC TOOL FOR GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING Carl D. Sorensen is the welding arc itself. The sensory information is obtained through digital signal processing of the arc vol- tage and current. Experiments performed to test the suitability of digital signal processing as an arc

  1. Digital Gas Joins Asian Waste-to-Energy Consortium: To Eliminate Coal as a Power Plant Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Energy's patented technology produces a clean-burning by-product from the widest variety of processed-efficient technology represented by the coal-substitute technology. The same technology will be deployed by DIGGDigital Gas Joins Asian Waste-to-Energy Consortium: To Eliminate Coal as a Power Plant Fuel Digital

  2. Carbon dioxide capture from power or process plant gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bearden, Mark D; Humble, Paul H

    2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention are methods for removing preselected substances from a mixed flue gas stream characterized by cooling said mixed flue gas by direct contact with a quench liquid to condense at least one preselected substance and form a cooled flue gas without substantial ice formation on a heat exchanger. After cooling additional process methods utilizing a cryogenic approach and physical concentration and separation or pressurization and sorbent capture may be utilized to selectively remove these materials from the mixed flue gas resulting in a clean flue gas.

  3. Florida Natural Gas Processed (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 1 0 0 0 1979-2013Fuel2009 2010 2011

  4. Proceedings of the 1st Annual Gas Processing Symposium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foss, Bjarne A.

    -Halwagi (Editors) © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 1 Dynamic optimization of the LNG value chain Bjarne A where the upstream part of the system and the LNG process plant are optimized individually. The system at the Snøhvit LNG plant. Use of these quite simple models combined with model-based optimization offers

  5. LCV-Gas utilization in CHP plants with dual-fuel engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohr, H.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The utilization of LCV-gases has been increased during the last years, especially in decentralized CHP plants from local power and heat distributors or industry works. Compared with the standard natural gas delivered by the main grid LCV gases are cheaper, wherefore it is possible to decrease energy costs. LCV gases are coming from local natural gas fields or a wide range of technical origins (e. g. steel production, gasification processes, biological processes). Therefore the composition of LCV gases could differ. The basis of this gases are normally methane or combinations of hydrogen and carbon monoxide together with quite large quantities of inert gases. The utilization of LCV gases in internal combustion engines requires high demands on the engine technique and the engine control system. A lot of items must to be considered when designing engines for every special purpose, especially in comparison to utilization of standard natural gas. The combustion system of dual-fuel engines as developed by B+V Industrietechnik GmbH (formerly Blohm + Voss Industrie GmbH) offers a lot of advantages for the utilization of LCV gases. There are two basic possibilities to supply the gases to the engine, one on low pressure level and the other one on high pressure level. The energy content of the pilot fuel injection is much higher than the corresponding value of a spark ignition system. Thus, gases with very low lower heating values and high contents of inert gases can be inflamed stable without problems. This engine type allows a LCV gas utilization with high electrical and thermal efficiencies. As an example for the utilization of a LCV gas the CHP engine plant for Hoogovens Ijmuiden in Holland, one of the largest European steel production companies, is presented.

  6. Energy Efficiency in Process Plant Utilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aggarwal, S.

    of relative stability, the energy costs have risen substantially. Electricity rates vary by the hour and in some cases are tied to the price of natural gas. In a world of rising energy prices, it becomes important to optimize energy efficiency in design..., the and one for winter is helpful in the analysis. In overall boiler efficiency goes up by some situations, a third case for spring/fall approximately 1% for natural gas fuel. This may also be useful. also reduces fan power usage because the 2. Use low...

  7. Process for making ceramic hot gas filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Connolly, Elizabeth Sokolinski (Wilmington, DE); Forsythe, George Daniel (Landenberg, PA); Domanski, Daniel Matthew (New Castle, DE); Chambers, Jeffrey Allen (Hockessin, DE); Rajendran, Govindasamy Paramasivam (Boothwyn, PA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A ceramic hot-gas candle filter having a porous support of filament-wound oxide ceramic yarn at least partially surrounded by a porous refractory oxide ceramic matrix, and a membrane layer on at least one surface thereof. The membrane layer may be on the outer surface, the inner surface, or both the outer and inner surface of the porous support. The membrane layer may be formed of an ordered arrangement of circularly wound, continuous filament oxide ceramic yarn, a ceramic filler material which is less permeable than the filament-wound support structure, or some combination of continuous filament and filler material. A particularly effective membrane layer features circularly wound filament with gaps intentionally placed between adjacent windings, and a filler material of ceramic particulates uniformly distributed throughout the gap region. The filter can withstand thermal cycling during backpulse cleaning and is resistant to chemical degradation at high temperatures.

  8. Evaluation of a Combined Cyclone and Gas Filtration System for Particulate Removal in the Gasification Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rizzo, Jeffrey J. [Phillips66 Company, West Terre Haute, IN (United States)

    2010-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Wabash gasification facility, owned and operated by sgSolutions LLC, is one of the largest single train solid fuel gasification facilities in the world capable of transforming 2,000 tons per day of petroleum coke or 2,600 tons per day of bituminous coal into synthetic gas for electrical power generation. The Wabash plant utilizes Phillips66 proprietary E-Gas (TM) Gasification Process to convert solid fuels such as petroleum coke or coal into synthetic gas that is fed to a combined cycle combustion turbine power generation facility. During plant startup in 1995, reliability issues were realized in the gas filtration portion of the gasification process. To address these issues, a slipstream test unit was constructed at the Wabash facility to test various filter designs, materials and process conditions for potential reliability improvement. The char filtration slipstream unit provided a way of testing new materials, maintenance procedures, and process changes without the risk of stopping commercial production in the facility. It also greatly reduced maintenance expenditures associated with full scale testing in the commercial plant. This char filtration slipstream unit was installed with assistance from the United States Department of Energy (built under DOE Contract No. DE-FC26-97FT34158) and began initial testing in November of 1997. It has proven to be extremely beneficial in the advancement of the E-Gas (TM) char removal technology by accurately predicting filter behavior and potential failure mechanisms that would occur in the commercial process. After completing four (4) years of testing various filter types and configurations on numerous gasification feed stocks, a decision was made to investigate the economic and reliability effects of using a particulate removal gas cyclone upstream of the current gas filtration unit. A paper study had indicated that there was a real potential to lower both installed capital and operating costs by implementing a char cyclonefiltration hybrid unit in the E-Gas (TM) gasification process. These reductions would help to keep the E-Gas (TM) technology competitive among other coal-fired power generation technologies. The Wabash combined cyclone and gas filtration slipstream test program was developed to provide design information, equipment specification and process control parameters of a hybrid cyclone and candle filter particulate removal system in the E-Gas (TM) gasification process that would provide the optimum performance and reliability for future commercial use. The test program objectives were as follows: 1. Evaluate the use of various cyclone materials of construction; 2. Establish the optimal cyclone efficiency that provides stable long term gas filter operation; 3. Determine the particle size distribution of the char separated by both the cyclone and candle filters. This will provide insight into cyclone efficiency and potential future plant design; 4. Determine the optimum filter media size requirements for the cyclone-filtration hybrid unit; 5. Determine the appropriate char transfer rates for both the cyclone and filtration portions of the hybrid unit; 6. Develop operating procedures for the cyclone-filtration hybrid unit; and, 7. Compare the installed capital cost of a scaled-up commercial cyclone-filtration hybrid unit to the current gas filtration design without a cyclone unit, such as currently exists at the Wabash facility.

  9. Recovery Act: Johnston Rhode Island Combined Cycle Electric Generating Plant Fueled by Waste Landfill Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galowitz, Stephen

    2013-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of the Project was to maximize the productive use of the substantial quantities of waste landfill gas generated and collected at the Central Landfill in Johnston, Rhode Island. An extensive analysis was conducted and it was determined that utilization of the waste gas for power generation in a combustion turbine combined cycle facility was the highest and best use. The resulting project reflected a cost effective balance of the following specific sub-objectives. 1) Meet environmental and regulatory requirements, particularly the compliance obligations imposed on the landfill to collect, process and destroy landfill gas. 2) Utilize proven and reliable technology and equipment. 3) Maximize electrical efficiency. 4) Maximize electric generating capacity, consistent with the anticipated quantities of landfill gas generated and collected at the Central Landfill. 5) Maximize equipment uptime. 6) Minimize water consumption. 7) Minimize post-combustion emissions. To achieve the Project Objective the project consisted of several components. 1) The landfill gas collection system was modified and upgraded. 2) A State-of-the Art gas clean up and compression facility was constructed. 3) A high pressure pipeline was constructed to convey cleaned landfill gas from the clean-up and compression facility to the power plant. 4) A combined cycle electric generating facility was constructed consisting of combustion turbine generator sets, heat recovery steam generators and a steam turbine. 5) The voltage of the electricity produced was increased at a newly constructed transformer/substation and the electricity was delivered to the local transmission system. The Project produced a myriad of beneficial impacts. 1) The Project created 453 FTE construction and manufacturing jobs and 25 FTE permanent jobs associated with the operation and maintenance of the plant and equipment. 2) By combining state-of-the-art gas clean up systems with post combustion emissions control systems, the Project established new national standards for best available control technology (BACT). 3) The Project will annually produce 365,292 MWh?s of clean energy. 4) By destroying the methane in the landfill gas, the Project will generate CO{sub 2} equivalent reductions of 164,938 tons annually. The completed facility produces 28.3 MWnet and operates 24 hours a day, seven days a week.

  10. alloy processing plant: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    pricing. This, in turn, negatively...-product of the olefins cracking process. This off-gas is routinely used as fuel for the olefins furnaces. Supplemental fuel for the...

  11. acid processing plant: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    pricing. This, in turn, negatively...-product of the olefins cracking process. This off-gas is routinely used as fuel for the olefins furnaces. Supplemental fuel for the...

  12. Tennessee Natural Gas Processed (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteamYear Jan FebThousandProcessed (Million Cubic Feet) Tennessee Natural

  13. Texas Natural Gas Processed (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteamYear JanSeparation, Proved ReservesReservesGrossElements)Processed

  14. Alabama Natural Gas Processed (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYear Jan Feb Mar Apr MayProcessed (Million

  15. California Natural Gas Processed (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReservesmDecadeDecadeResidentialProcessed

  16. Nebraska Natural Gas Processed (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet) Year Jan Feb Marthrough Monthly2.FuelFuelProcessed (Million Cubic

  17. The desulfurization of flue gas at the Mae Moh Power Plant Units 12 and 13

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haemapun, C.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    As pollution of air, water and ground increasingly raises worldwide concern, the responsible national and international authorities establish and issue stringent regulations in order to maintain an acceptable air quality in the environment. In Thailand, the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) takes full responsibility in environmental protection matters as well as in generating the electricity needed to supply the country`s very rapid power demand growth. Due to the rapidly increasing electricity demand of the country, EGAT had decided to install two further lignite-fired units of 300 MW each (Units 12 and 13) at the Mae Moh power generation station and they are now under construction. The arrangement and the capacity of all the power plant units are as shown. In 1989, EGAT started the work on the flue gas desulfurization system of Mae Moh power plant units 12 and 13 as planned. A study has been conducted to select the most suitable and most economical process for flue gas desulfurization. The wet scrubbing limestone process was finally selected for the two new units. Local limestone will be utilized in the process, producing a by-product of gypsum. Unfortunately, natural gypsum is found in abundance in Thailand, so the produced gypsum will be treated as landfill by mixing it with ash from the boilers of the power plants and then carrying it to the ash dumping area. The water from the waste ash water lake is utilized in the process as much as possible to minimize the requirement of service water, which is a limited resource. The Mae Moh power generation station is situated in the northern region of Thailand, 600 km north of Bangkok and about 30 km east of the town of Lampang, close to the Mae Moh lignite mine. Three lignite-fired units (Units 1-3) of 75 MW each, four units (Units 4-7) of 150 MW each and four units (Units 8-11) of 300 MW each are in operation.

  18. Using Auxiliary Gas Power for CCS Energy Needs in Retrofitted Coal Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Using Auxiliary Gas Power for CCS Energy Needs in Retrofitted Coal Power Plants by Sarah Bashadi and Policy Program #12;2 #12;3 Using Auxiliary Gas Power for CCS Energy Needs in Retrofitted Coal Power, a significant amount of excess power was produced using both gas turbine configurations. This excess power could

  19. Process and apparatus for ammonia synthesis gas production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuderer, A.

    1986-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved process is described for the production of ammonia synthesis gas which consists of: (a) catalytically reacting a hydrocarbon feed stream with steam in a primary reforming unit to form a primary reformed gas mixture containing hydrogen and carbon monoxide; (b) passing the primary reformed gas mixture to a secondary reforming unit for reaction of unconverted methane present therein with air, the amount of the air introduced to the secondary reforming unit being considerably in excess of that required to furnish the stoichiometric amount of nitrogen required for reaction with hydrogen for the ammonia synthesis; (c) subjecting the secondary reformed gas mixture to water gas shift conversion to convert most of the carbon monoxide present in the reformed gas mixture to hydrogen and carbon dioxide; (d) passing the thus-shifted gas mixture containing hydrogen, carbon dioxide, residual carbon monoxide, methane, argon and the excess nitrogen, without necessary treatment for removal of a major portion of the carbon dioxide content thereof and without methanation to remove carbon oxides to low levels, to a pressure swing adsorption system capable of selectively adsorbing carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane and other impurities from the hydrogen and from a portion of the nitrogen present in the gas passed to the system.

  20. Integrating Process Unit Energy Metrics into Plant Energy Management Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, J. L.; Knight, N.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As energy costs continue to rise across the process industry, many plants have responded by developing improved energy monitoring and reporting programs. At the center of such programs are typically spreadsheet or database applications that pull...

  1. Plutonium Processing Plant Deactivated | National Nuclear Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 - September 2006Photovoltaic TheoryPlant 242-Z Americium Recovery Facility

  2. Recovery Act: Brea California Combined Cycle Electric Generating Plant Fueled by Waste Landfill Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galowitz, Stephen

    2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of the Project was to maximize the productive use of the substantial quantities of waste landfill gas generated and collected at the Olinda Landfill near Brea, California. An extensive analysis was conducted and it was determined that utilization of the waste gas for power generation in a combustion turbine combined cycle facility was the highest and best use. The resulting Project reflected a cost effective balance of the following specific sub-objectives: • Meeting the environmental and regulatory requirements, particularly the compliance obligations imposed on the landfill to collect, process and destroy landfill gas • Utilizing proven and reliable technology and equipment • Maximizing electrical efficiency • Maximizing electric generating capacity, consistent with the anticipated quantities of landfill gas generated and collected at the Olinda Landfill • Maximizing equipment uptime • Minimizing water consumption • Minimizing post-combustion emissions • The Project produced and will produce a myriad of beneficial impacts. o The Project created 360 FTE construction and manufacturing jobs and 15 FTE permanent jobs associated with the operation and maintenance of the plant and equipment. o By combining state-of-the-art gas clean up systems with post combustion emissions control systems, the Project established new national standards for best available control technology (BACT). o The Project will annually produce 280,320 MWh’s of clean energy o By destroying the methane in the landfill gas, the Project will generate CO2 equivalent reductions of 164,938 tons annually. The completed facility produces 27.4 MWnet and operates 24 hours a day, seven days a week.

  3. Process Integration Study of a Poultry Processing Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meffert, W. A.

    . Most significant is the minimum energy design target for a process that has been studied very thoroughly in the past. This target answers the question, how much better could the poultry process be? The author has also found that the Pinch... Methodology can be easily programmed on a spreadsheet. Many energy conservation engineers have shied away from Pinch analyses in the past. However, it is a very useful tool that can be easily applied after the initial inenia of training is overcome...

  4. Proceedings of the 1st Annual Gas Processing Symposium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    energy calculations for directly coupled arrangements. Here we give a brief review of the most importantProceedings of the 1st Annual Gas Processing Symposium H. Alfadala, G.V. Rex Reklaitis and M.M. El-Halwagi (Editors) © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Minimum Energy Operation of Petlyuk Distillation

  5. Hanford Low-Activity Waste Processing: Demonstration of the Off-Gas Recycle Flowsheet - 13443

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsey, William G.; Esparza, Brian P. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, WA 99532 (United States)] [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, WA 99532 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vitrification of Hanford Low-Activity Waste (LAW) is nominally the thermal conversion and incorporation of sodium salts and radionuclides into borosilicate glass. One key radionuclide present in LAW is technetium-99. Technetium-99 is a low energy, long-lived beta emitting radionuclide present in the waste feed in concentrations on the order of 1-10 ppm. The long half-life combined with a high solubility in groundwater results in technetium-99 having considerable impact on performance modeling (as potential release to the environment) of both the waste glass and associated secondary waste products. The current Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process flowsheet calls for the recycle of vitrification process off-gas condensates to maximize the portion of technetium ultimately immobilized in the waste glass. This is required as technetium acts as a semi-volatile specie, i.e. considerable loss of the radionuclide to the process off-gas stream can occur during the vitrification process. To test the process flowsheet assumptions, a prototypic off-gas system with recycle capability was added to a laboratory melter (on the order of 1/200 scale) and testing performed. Key test goals included determination of the process mass balance for technetium, a non-radioactive surrogate (rhenium), and other soluble species (sulfate, halides, etc.) which are concentrated by recycling off-gas condensates. The studies performed are the initial demonstrations of process recycle for this type of liquid-fed melter system. This paper describes the process recycle system, the waste feeds processed, and experimental results. Comparisons between data gathered using process recycle and previous single pass melter testing as well as mathematical modeling simulations are also provided. (authors)

  6. Multivariable Robust Control of a Simulated Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Gas Turbine Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsai A, Banta L, Tucker D

    2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work presents a systematic approach to the multivariable robust control of a hybrid fuel cell gas turbine plant. The hybrid configuration under investigation built by the National Energy Technology Laboratory comprises a physical simulation of a 300kW fuel cell coupled to a 120kW auxiliary power unit single spool gas turbine. The public facility provides for the testing and simulation of different fuel cell models that in turn help identify the key difficulties encountered in the transient operation of such systems. An empirical model of the built facility comprising a simulated fuel cell cathode volume and balance of plant components is derived via frequency response data. Through the modulation of various airflow bypass valves within the hybrid configuration, Bode plots are used to derive key input/output interactions in transfer function format. A multivariate system is then built from individual transfer functions, creating a matrix that serves as the nominal plant in an H{sub {infinity}} robust control algorithm. The controller’s main objective is to track and maintain hybrid operational constraints in the fuel cell’s cathode airflow, and the turbo machinery states of temperature and speed, under transient disturbances. This algorithm is then tested on a Simulink/MatLab platform for various perturbations of load and fuel cell heat effluence. As a complementary tool to the aforementioned empirical plant, a nonlinear analytical model faithful to the existing process and instrumentation arrangement is evaluated and designed in the Simulink environment. This parallel task intends to serve as a building block to scalable hybrid configurations that might require a more detailed nonlinear representation for a wide variety of controller schemes and hardware implementations.

  7. Modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor plant design duty cycle. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chan, T.

    1989-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This document defines the Plant Design Duty Cycle (PCDC) for the Modular High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (MHTGR). The duty cycle is a set of events and their design number of occurrences over the life of the plant for which the MHTGR plant shall be designed to ensure that the plant meets all the top-level requirements. The duty cycle is representative of the types of events to be expected in multiple reactor module-turbine plant configurations of the MHTGR. A synopsis of each PDDC event is presented to provide an overview of the plant response and consequence. 8 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  8. Gas treatment and by-products recovery of Thailand`s first coke plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diemer, P.E.; Seyfferth, W. [Krupp Uhde GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Coke is needed in the blast furnace as the main fuel and chemical reactant and the main product of a coke plant. The second main product of the coke plant is coke oven gas. During treatment of the coke oven gas some coal chemicals like tar, ammonia, sulphur and benzole can be recovered as by-products. Since the market prices for these by-products are rather low and often erratic it does not in most cases justify the investment to recover these products. This is the reason why modern gas treatment plants only remove those impurities from the crude gas which must be removed for technical and environmental reasons. The cleaned gas, however, is a very valuable product as it replaces natural gas in steel work furnaces and can be used by other consumers. The surplus can be combusted in the boiler of a power plant. A good example for an optimal plant layout is the new coke oven facility of Thai Special Steel Industry (TSSI) in Rayong. The paper describes the TSSI`s coke oven gas treatment plant.

  9. Shale Gas Production Theory and Case Analysis We researched the process of oil recovery and shale gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ge, Zigang

    Shale Gas Production Theory and Case Analysis (Siemens) We researched the process of oil recovery and shale gas recovery and compare the difference between conventional and unconventional gas reservoir and recovery technologies. Then we did theoretical analysis on the shale gas production. According

  10. Investigation of Integrated Subsurface Processing of Landfill Gas and Carbon Sequestration, Johnson County, Kansas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. David Newell; Timothy R. Carr

    2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Johnson County Landfill in Shawnee, KS is operated by Deffenbaugh Industries and serves much of metropolitan Kansas City. Refuse, which is dumped in large plastic-underlined trash cells covering several acres, is covered over with shale shortly after burial. The landfill waste, once it fills the cell, is then drilled by Kansas City LFG, so that the gas generated by anaerobic decomposition of the refuse can be harvested. Production of raw landfill gas from the Johnson County landfill comes from 150 wells. Daily production is approximately 2.2 to 2.5 mmcf, of which approximately 50% is methane and 50% is carbon dioxide and NMVOCs (non-methane volatile organic compounds). Heating value is approximately 550 BTU/scf. A upgrading plant, utilizing an amine process, rejects the carbon dioxide and NMVOCs, and upgrades the gas to pipeline quality (i.e., nominally a heating value >950 BTU/scf). The gas is sold to a pipeline adjacent to the landfill. With coal-bearing strata underlying the landfill, and carbon dioxide a major effluent gas derived from the upgrading process, the Johnson County Landfill is potentially an ideal setting to study the feasibility of injecting the effluent gas in the coals for both enhanced coalbed methane recovery and carbon sequestration. To these ends, coals below the landfill were cored and then were analyzed for their thickness and sorbed gas content, which ranged up to 79 scf/ton. Assuming 1 1/2 square miles of land (960 acres) at the Johnson County Landfill can be utilized for coalbed and shale gas recovery, the total amount of in-place gas calculates to 946,200 mcf, or 946.2 mmcf, or 0.95 bcf (i.e., 985.6 mcf/acre X 960 acres). Assuming that carbon dioxide can be imbibed by the coals and shales on a 2:1 ratio compared to the gas that was originally present, then 1682 to 1720 days (4.6 to 4.7 years) of landfill carbon dioxide production can be sequestered by the coals and shales immediately under the landfill. Three coal--the Bevier, Fleming, and Mulberry coals--are the major coals of sufficient thickness (nominally >1-foot) that can imbibe carbon dioxide gas with an enhanced coalbed injection. Comparison of the adsorption gas content of coals to the gas desorbed from the coals shows that the degree of saturation decreases with depth for the coals.

  11. Slag processing system for direct coal-fired gas turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pillsbury, Paul W. (Winter Springs, FL)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Direct coal-fired gas turbine systems and methods for their operation are provided by this invention. The systems include a primary combustion compartment coupled to an impact separator for removing molten slag from hot combustion gases. Quenching means are provided for solidifying the molten slag removed by the impact separator, and processing means are provided forming a slurry from the solidified slag for facilitating removal of the solidified slag from the system. The released hot combustion gases, substantially free of molten slag, are then ducted to a lean combustion compartment and then to an expander section of a gas turbine.

  12. Combined cycle power plant of SVZ Schwarze Pumpe GmbH operating experience gained with low calorific value fuel resulting from gasification processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kotschenreuther, H.; Hauptmann, W.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Supported by experience gained over many years, Schwarze Pumpe GmbH (SVZ), the secondary raw material recycling centre, operates autothermal compression-type gasification plants with oxygen according to the fixed-bed and the entrained flow process, in which apart from lignite as the fuel to be gasified, residues containing C/H of varying consistency are gasified in an environmentally friendly manner. The purified gas acquired after scrubbing, partial conversion and desulfurization is mainly used as a synthesis gas for methanol synthesis and thus provided with a material use. For covering auxiliary requirements in electrical and process power, a combined-cycle power plant is operated, the main fuel of which is a low calorific value dual-process gas, primarily consisting of purified and purge gas. The volumes of purified and purge gases available to the combined-cycle power plant from the SVZ process equipment and their grades cannot be influenced by the combined-cycle power plant. It is shown that from a targeted modification of the dual-process gas temperature the Wobbe Index of dual-process gases with considerably varying parameters (calorific value, density) can be brought into the range required for running the gas turbine. Furthermore what is also shown is the operating strategy and control concept by which the combined-cycle power plant can maintain the pressure in the SVZ purified gas system and thus ultimately the gasification reactor operating pressure.

  13. Process for production of synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Najjar, Mitri S. (Hopewell Junction, NY); Corbeels, Roger J. (Wappingers Falls, NY); Kokturk, Uygur (Wappingers Falls, NY)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the partial oxidation of a sulfur- and silicate-containing carbonaceous fuel to produce a synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content which comprises partially oxidizing said fuel at a temperature in the range of 1800.degree.-2200.degree. F. in the presence of a temperature moderator, an oxygen-containing gas and a sulfur capture additive which comprises an iron-containing compound portion and a sodium-containing compound portion to produce a synthesis gas comprising H.sub.2 and CO with a reduced sulfur content and a molten slag which comprises (i) a sulfur-containing sodium-iron silicate phase and (ii) a sodium-iron sulfide phase. The sulfur capture additive may optionally comprise a copper-containing compound portion.

  14. Gas turbine power plant with supersonic shock compression ramps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lawlor, Shawn P. (Bellevue, WA); Novaresi, Mark A. (San Diego, CA); Cornelius, Charles C. (Kirkland, WA)

    2008-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas turbine engine. The engine is based on the use of a gas turbine driven rotor having a compression ramp traveling at a local supersonic inlet velocity (based on the combination of inlet gas velocity and tangential speed of the ramp) which compresses inlet gas against a stationary sidewall. The supersonic compressor efficiently achieves high compression ratios while utilizing a compact, stabilized gasdynamic flow path. Operated at supersonic speeds, the inlet stabilizes an oblique/normal shock system in the gasdynamic flow path formed between the rim of the rotor, the strakes, and a stationary external housing. Part load efficiency is enhanced by use of a lean pre-mix system, a pre-swirl compressor, and a bypass stream to bleed a portion of the gas after passing through the pre-swirl compressor to the combustion gas outlet. Use of a stationary low NOx combustor provides excellent emissions results.

  15. Method for treating a nuclear process off-gas stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pence, Dallas T. (San Diego, CA); Chou, Chun-Chao (San Diego, CA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a method for selectively removing and recovering the noble gas and other gaseous components typically emitted during nuclear process operations. The method is adaptable and useful for treating dissolver off-gas effluents released during reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels whereby to permit radioactive contaminant recovery prior to releasing the remaining off-gases to the atmosphere. Briefly, the method sequentially comprises treating the off-gas stream to preliminarily remove NO.sub.x, hydrogen and carbon-containing organic compounds, and semivolatile fission product metal oxide components therefrom; adsorbing iodine components on silver-exchanged mordenite; removing water vapor carried by said stream by means of a molecular sieve; selectively removing the carbon dioxide components of said off-gas stream by means of a molecular sieve; selectively removing xenon in gas phase by passing said stream through a molecular sieve comprising silver-exchanged mordenite; selectively separating krypton from oxygen by means of a molecular sieve comprising silver-exchanged mordenite; selectively separating krypton from the bulk nitrogen stream using a molecular sieve comprising silver-exchanged mordenite cooled to about -140.degree. to -160.degree. C.; concentrating the desorbed krypton upon a molecular sieve comprising silver-exchange mordenite cooled to about -140.degree. to -160.degree. C.; and further cryogenically concentrating, and the recovering for storage, the desorbed krypton.

  16. Reversible Acid Gas Capture

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Dave Heldebrant

    2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientist David Heldebrant demonstrates how a new process called reversible acid gas capture works to pull carbon dioxide out of power plant emissions.

  17. Wireless channel characterization and modeling in oil and gas refinery plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Savazzi, Stefano

    Wireless channel characterization and modeling in oil and gas refinery plants Stefano Savazzi1 modeling approach is validated by experimental measurements in two oil refinery sites using industry and gas refinery sites are characterized by harsh environments where radio signals are prone to blockage

  18. EIS-0071: Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division Industrial Fuels Gas Demonstration Plant, Memphis, Shelby County, Tennessee

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy developed this EIS to assesses the potential environmental impacts associated with the construction and operation of a 3,155-ton-per-day capacity facility, which will demonstrate the technical operability, economic viability, and environmental acceptability of the Memphis Division of Light, Gas and Water coal gasification plant at Memphis, Tennessee.

  19. Mercury Speciation in Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas-Experimental Studies and Model Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radisav Vidic; Joseph Flora; Eric Borguet

    2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall goal of the project was to obtain a fundamental understanding of the catalytic reactions that are promoted by solid surfaces present in coal combustion systems and develop a mathematical model that described key phenomena responsible for the fate of mercury in coal-combustion systems. This objective was achieved by carefully combining laboratory studies under realistic process conditions using simulated flue gas with mathematical modeling efforts. Laboratory-scale studies were performed to understand the fundamental aspects of chemical reactions between flue gas constituents and solid surfaces present in the fly ash and their impact on mercury speciation. Process models were developed to account for heterogeneous reactions because of the presence of fly ash as well as the deliberate addition of particles to promote Hg oxidation and adsorption. Quantum modeling was used to obtain estimates of the kinetics of heterogeneous reactions. Based on the initial findings of this study, additional work was performed to ascertain the potential of using inexpensive inorganic sorbents to control mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants without adverse impact on the salability fly ash, which is one of the major drawbacks of current control technologies based on activated carbon.

  20. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTEGRAL SEPARATOR FOR A CENTRIFUGAL GAS PROCESSING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LANCE HAYS

    2007-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A COMPACT GAS PROCESSING DEVICE WAS INVESTIGATED TO INCREASE GAS PRODUCTION FROM REMOTE, PREVIOUSLY UN-ECONOMIC RESOURCES. THE UNIT WAS TESTED ON AIR AND WATER AND WITH NATURAL GAS AND LIQUID. RESULTS ARE REPORTED WITH RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK.

  1. Market Opportunities for Electric Drive Compressors for Gas Transmission, Storage, and Processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parent, L. V.; Ralph, H. D.; Schmeal, W. R.

    There is great interest in the large potential market for electric drives in the gas transmission, gas storage, and gas processing industries. Progressive electric utilities and astute vendors are moving to meet the needs of these industries...

  2. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant and Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant phaseout/deactivation study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patterson, M.W. [Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Thompson, R.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The decision to cease all US Department of Energy (DOE) reprocessing of nuclear fuels was made on April 28, 1992. This study provides insight into and a comparison of the management, technical, compliance, and safety strategies for deactivating the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO) and the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant. The purpose of this study is to ensure that lessons-learned and future plans are coordinated between the two facilities.

  3. EIS-0082: Defense Waste Processing Facility, Savannah River Plant

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Defense Waste and Byproducts Management developed this EIS to provide environmental input into both the selection of an appropriate strategy for the permanent disposal of the high-level radioactive waste currently stored at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) and the subsequent decision to construct and operate a Defense Waste Processing Facility at the SRP site.

  4. Waste Energy Analysis Recovery for a Typical Food Processing Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, P. H.; Mann, L., Jr.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An energy analysis made for the Joan of Arc Food Processing Plant in St. Francisville, Louisiana indicated that a significant quantity of waste heat energy was being released to the atmosphere in the forms of low quality steam and hot flue gases...

  5. Indicator system for a process plant control complex

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scarola, Kenneth (Windsor, CT); Jamison, David S. (Windsor, CT); Manazir, Richard M. (North Canton, CT); Rescorl, Robert L. (Vernon, CT); Harmon, Daryl L. (Enfield, CT)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An advanced control room complex for a nuclear power plant, including a discrete indicator and alarm system (72) which is nuclear qualified for rapid response to changes in plant parameters and a component control system (64) which together provide a discrete monitoring and control capability at a panel (14-22, 26, 28) in the control room (10). A separate data processing system (70), which need not be nuclear qualified, provides integrated and overview information to the control room and to each panel, through CRTs (84) and a large, overhead integrated process status overview board (24). The discrete indicator and alarm system (72) and the data processing system (70) receive inputs from common plant sensors and validate the sensor outputs to arrive at a representative value of the parameter for use by the operator during both normal and accident conditions, thereby avoiding the need for him to assimilate data from each sensor individually. The integrated process status board (24) is at the apex of an information hierarchy that extends through four levels and provides access at each panel to the full display hierarchy. The control room panels are preferably of a modular construction, permitting the definition of inputs and outputs, the man machine interface, and the plant specific algorithms, to proceed in parallel with the fabrication of the panels, the installation of the equipment and the generic testing thereof.

  6. Nuclear material safeguards for enrichments plants: Part 4, Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant: Diversion scenarios and IAEA safeguards activities: Safeguards training course

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication is Part 4 of a safeguards training course in Nuclear Material Safeguards for enrichment plants. This part of the course deals with diversion scenarios and safeguards activities at gas centrifuge enrichment plants.

  7. Renewable Energy Plants in Your Gas Tank: From Photosynthesis...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Subject Bioenergy Summary With ethanol becoming more prevalent in the media and in gas tanks, it is important for students to know where it comes from. This module uses a series...

  8. Greenhouse Gas emissions from California Geothermal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, John

    2014-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The information given in this file represents GHG emissions and corresponding emission rates for California flash and dry steam geothermal power plants. This stage of the life cycle is the fuel use component of the fuel cycle and arises during plant operation. Despite that no fossil fuels are being consumed during operation of these plants, GHG emissions nevertheless arise from GHGs present in the geofluids and dry steam that get released to the atmosphere upon passing through the system. Data for the years of 2008 to 2012 are analyzed.

  9. Greenhouse Gas emissions from California Geothermal Power Plants

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sullivan, John

    The information given in this file represents GHG emissions and corresponding emission rates for California flash and dry steam geothermal power plants. This stage of the life cycle is the fuel use component of the fuel cycle and arises during plant operation. Despite that no fossil fuels are being consumed during operation of these plants, GHG emissions nevertheless arise from GHGs present in the geofluids and dry steam that get released to the atmosphere upon passing through the system. Data for the years of 2008 to 2012 are analyzed.

  10. Power plant including an exhaust gas recirculation system for injecting recirculated exhaust gases in the fuel and compressed air of a gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy; Shaffer, Jason Brian; York, William David

    2014-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A power plant is provided and includes a gas turbine engine having a combustor in which compressed gas and fuel are mixed and combusted, first and second supply lines respectively coupled to the combustor and respectively configured to supply the compressed gas and the fuel to the combustor and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system to re-circulate exhaust gas produced by the gas turbine engine toward the combustor. The EGR system is coupled to the first and second supply lines and configured to combine first and second portions of the re-circulated exhaust gas with the compressed gas and the fuel at the first and second supply lines, respectively.

  11. The chemistry of tributyl phosphate at elevated temperatures in the Plutonium Finishing Plant Process Vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barney, G.S.; Cooper, T.D.

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Potentially violent chemical reactions of the tributyl phosphate solvent used by the Plutonium Finishing Plant at the Hanford Site were investigated. There is a small probability that a significant quantity of this solvent could be accidental transferred to heated process vessels and react there with nitric acid or plutonium nitrate also present in the solvent extraction process. The results of laboratory studies of the reactions show that exothermic oxidation of tributyl phosphate by either nitric acid or actinide nitrates is slow at temperatures expected in the heated vessels. Less than four percent of the tributyl phosphate will be oxidized in these vented vessels at temperatures between 125{degrees}C and 250{degrees}C because the oxidant will be lost from the vessels by vaporization or decomposition before the tributyl phosphate can be extensively oxidized. The net amounts of heat generated by oxidation with concentrated nitric acid and with thorium nitrate (a stand-in for plutonium nitrate) were determined to be about -150 and -220 joules per gram of tributyl phosphate initially present, respectively. This is not enough heat to cause violent reactions in the vessels. Pyrolysis of the tributyl phosphate occurred in these mixtures at temperatures of 110{degrees}C to 270{degrees}C and produced mainly 1-butene gas, water, and pyrophosphoric acid. Butene gas generation is slow at expected process vessel temperatures, but the rate is faster at higher temperatures. At 252{degrees}C the rate of butene gas generated was 0.33 g butene/min/g of tributyl phosphate present. The measured heat absorbed by the pyrolysis reaction was 228 J/g of tributyl phosphate initially present (or 14.5 kcal/mole of tributyl phosphate). Release of flammable butene gas into process areas where it could ignite appears to be the most serious safety consideration for the Plutonium Finishing Plant.

  12. The Carnol process for CO{sub 2} mitigation from power plants and the transportation sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) mitigation process is developed which converts waste CO{sub 2}, primarily from coal-fired power plant stack gases, to methanol for use as a liquid fuel and a coproduct carbon for use as a materials commodity. The Carnol process chemistry consists of methane decomposition to produce hydrogen which is catalytically reacted with the recovered waste CO{sub 2} to produce methanol. The carbon is either stored or sold. A process design is modeled, and mass and energy balances are presented as a function of reactor pressure and temperature conditions. The Carnol process is a viable alternative to sequestering CO{sub 2} in the ocean for purposes of reducing CO{sub 2} emissions from coal burning power plants. Over 90% of the CO{sub 2} from the coal burning plant is used in the process which results in a net CO{sub 2} emission reduction of over 90% compared to that obtained for conventional methanol production by steam reforming of methane. Methanol, as an alternative liquid fuel for automotive engines and for fuel cells, achieves additional CO{sub 2} emission reduction benefits. The economics of the process is greatly enhanced when carbon can be sold as a materials commodity. The process design and economics could possibly be achieved by developing a molten metal (tin) methane decomposition reactor and a liquid phase, slurry catalyst, methanol synthesis reactor directly using the solvent saturated with CO{sub 2} scrubbed from the power plant stack gases. The application of CO{sub 2} mitigation technologies, such as the Carnol process, depends to some extent, on how serious the country and the world takes the global greenhouse gas warming problem.

  13. The Carnol process for CO{sub 2} mitigation from power plants and the transportation sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A CO{sub 2} mitigation process is developed which converts waste CO{sub 2}, primarily recovered from coal-fired power plant stack gases with natural gas, to produce methanol as a liquid fuel and coproduct carbon as a materials commodity. The Carnol process chemistry consists of methane decomposition to produce hydrogen which is catalytically reacted with the recovered waste CO{sub 2} to produce methanol. The carbon is either stored or sold as a materials commodity. A process design is modelled and mass and energy balances are presented as a function of reactor pressure and temperature conditions. The Carnol process is a viable alternative to sequestering CO{sub 2} in the ocean for purposes of reducing CO{sub 2} emissions from coal burning power plants. Over 90% of the CO{sub 2} from the coal burning plant is used in the process which results in a net CO{sub 2} emission reduction of over 90% compared to that obtained for conventional methanol production by steam reforming of methane. Methanol as an alternative liquid fuel for automotive engines and for fuel cells achieves additional CO{sub 2} emission reduction benefits. The economics of the process is greatly enhanced when carbon can be sold as a materials commodity. Improvement in process design and economics should be achieved by developing a molten metal (tin) methane decomposition reactor and a liquid phase, slurry catalyst, methanol synthesis reactor directly using the solvent saturated with CO{sub 2} scrubbed from the power plant stack gases. The benefits of the process warrant its further development.

  14. Stochastic Programming Approaches for the Placement of Gas Detectors in Process Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Legg, Sean W

    2013-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    of these detectors is required in order to have a well-functioning gas detection system. However, the uncertainty in leak locations, gas composition, process and weather conditions, and process geometries must all be considered when attempting to determine...

  15. Coarse-scale Modeling of Flow in Gas-injection Processes for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lambers, James

    Coarse-scale Modeling of Flow in Gas-injection Processes for Enhanced Oil Recovery James V. Lambers of gas-injection processes for enhanced oil recovery may exhibit geometrically complex features

  16. STP-ECRTS - THERMAL AND GAS ANALYSES FOR SLUDGE TRANSPORT AND STORAGE CONTAINER (STSC) STORAGE AT T PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CROWE RD; APTHORPE R; LEE SJ; PLYS MG

    2010-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) is responsible for the disposition of sludge contained in the six engineered containers and Settler tank within the 105-K West (KW) Basin. The STP is retrieving and transferring sludge from the Settler tank into engineered container SCS-CON-230. Then, the STP will retrieve and transfer sludge from the six engineered containers in the KW Basin directly into a Sludge Transport and Storage Containers (STSC) contained in a Sludge Transport System (STS) cask. The STSC/STS cask will be transported to T Plant for interim storage of the STSC. The STS cask will be loaded with an empty STSC and returned to the KW Basin for loading of additional sludge for transportation and interim storage at T Plant. CH2MHILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) contracted with Fauske & Associates, LLC (FAI) to perform thermal and gas generation analyses for interim storage of STP sludge in the Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSCs) at T Plant. The sludge types considered are settler sludge and sludge originating from the floor of the KW Basin and stored in containers 210 and 220, which are bounding compositions. The conditions specified by CHPRC for analysis are provided in Section 5. The FAI report (FAI/10-83, Thermal and Gas Analyses for a Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC) at T Plant) (refer to Attachment 1) documents the analyses. The process considered was passive, interim storage of sludge in various cells at T Plant. The FATE{trademark} code is used for the calculation. The results are shown in terms of the peak sludge temperature and hydrogen concentrations in the STSC and the T Plant cell. In particular, the concerns addressed were the thermal stability of the sludge and the potential for flammable gas mixtures. This work was performed with preliminary design information and a preliminary software configuration.

  17. California - Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 633 622 566 8021 1Reserves (Million Barrels) Gas

  18. Feasibility study for alternate fuels production: unconventional natural gas from wastewater treatment plants. Volume II, Appendix D. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Overly, P.; Tawiah, K.

    1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Data are presented from a study performed to determined the feasibility of recovering methane from sewage at a typical biological secondary wastewater treatment plant. Three tasks are involved: optimization of digester gas; digester gas scrubbing; and application to the East Bay Municipal Utility District water pollution control plant. Results indicate that excess digester gas can be used economically at the wastewater treatment plant and that distribution and scrubbing can be complex and costly. (DMC) 193 references, 93 figures, 26 tables.

  19. Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD) System for Flue-Gas Derived Water From Oxy-Combustion Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sivaram Harendra; Danylo Oryshchyn; Thomas Ochs; Stephen J. Gerdemann; John Clark

    2011-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) located in Albany, Oregon, have patented a process - Integrated Pollutant Removal (IPR) that uses off-the-shelf technology to produce a sequestration ready CO{sub 2} stream from an oxy-combustion power plant. Capturing CO{sub 2} from fossil-fuel combustion generates a significant water product which can be tapped for use in the power plant and its peripherals. Water condensed in the IPR{reg_sign} process may contain fly ash particles, sodium (from pH control), and sulfur species, as well as heavy metals, cations and anions. NETL is developing a treatment approach for zero liquid discharge while maximizing available heat from IPR. Current treatment-process steps being studied are flocculation/coagulation, for removal of cations and fine particles, and reverse osmosis, for anion removal as well as for scavenging the remaining cations. After reverse osmosis process steps, thermal evaporation and crystallization steps will be carried out in order to build the whole zero liquid discharge (ZLD) system for flue-gas condensed wastewater. Gypsum is the major product from crystallization process. Fast, in-line treatment of water for re-use in IPR seems to be one practical step for minimizing water treatment requirements for CO{sub 2} capture. The results obtained from above experiments are being used to build water treatment models.

  20. Optimizing Natural Gas Use: A Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venkatesan, V. V.; Schweikert, P.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optimization of Steam & Energy systems in any continuously operating process plant results in substantial reduction in Natural gas purchases. During periods of natural gas price hikes, this would benefit the plant to control their fuel budget...

  1. West Virginia-West Virginia Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30NaturalThousandExtensions (Billion2008 2009 2010from SameperCubic Feet)

  2. U.S. Total Exports Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteamYearTexas--StateWinterYear Jan Feb2009 2010 2011 MonthlyWarroad, Area:

  3. U.S. Total Imports Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteamYearTexas--StateWinterYear Jan Feb2009 2010 2011 MonthlyWarroad,Noyes,

  4. Alabama Offshore-Alabama Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved Reserves (Billion CubicCubic Feet) BaseSep-14 Oct-14 Nov-14Year792,236 785,005

  5. Alabama Onshore-Alabama Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved Reserves (Billion CubicCubic Feet) BaseSep-14 Oct-14

  6. South Dakota-North Dakota Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet)per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0DecadeThousand3 0.3 2012

  7. ,"U.S. Natural Gas Plant Processing"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: EnergyShale ProvedTexas"Brunei (DollarsLiquids Lease Condensate,Liquids, Expected

  8. Natural Gas Processing Plants in the United States: 2010 Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30 2013 Macroeconomic team:6-2015 Illinois NA NA NA NA60,290 63,679355,590This

  9. "NATURAL GAS PROCESSING PLANT SURVEY"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperative JumpWilliamsonWoodsonCountyAdministrationSurveyNewDCFuelENDING0.5

  10. "NATURAL GAS PROCESSING PLANT SURVEY"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperative JumpWilliamsonWoodsonCountyAdministrationSurveyNewDCFuelENDING0.51.5

  11. New Mexico-Texas Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet) Year Jan FebFeet) DecadeFeet) Working Natural

  12. North Dakota-Illinois Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet) Year JanProduction 4 12 73

  13. North Dakota-North Dakota Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet) Year JanProduction 4 12 7311,925 177,995 231,935 2011-2013

  14. Ohio-West Virginia Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet) Year JanProduction 4 125 2006Year Jan Feb2012 2013 View 2013

  15. Surfactant process for promoting gas hydrate formation and application of the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rogers, Rudy E. (Starkville, MS); Zhong, Yu (Brandon, MS)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a method of storing gas using gas hydrates comprising forming gas hydrates in the presence of a water-surfactant solution that comprises water and surfactant. The addition of minor amounts of surfactant increases the gas hydrate formation rate, increases packing density of the solid hydrate mass and simplifies the formation-storage-decomposition process of gas hydrates. The minor amounts of surfactant also enhance the potential of gas hydrates for industrial storage applications.

  16. Chemical analysis quality assurance at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hand, R.L.; Anselmo, R.W.; Black, D.B.; Jacobson, J.J.; Lewis, L.C.; Marushia, P.C.; Spraktes, F.W.; Zack, N.R.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) is a uranium reprocessing facility operated by Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company for the Department of Energy at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The chemical analysis support required for the plant processes is provided by a chemical analysis staff of 67 chemists, analysts, and support personnel. The documentation and defense of the chemical analysis data at the ICPP has evolved into a complete chemical analysis quality assurance program with training/qualification and requalification, chemical analysis procedures, records management and chemical analysis methods quality control as major elements. The quality assurance procedures are implemented on a central analytical computer system. The individual features provided by the computer system are automatic method selection for process streams, automation of method calculations, automatic assignment of bias and precision estimates at analysis levels to all method results, analyst specific daily requalification or with-method-use requalification, untrained or unqualified analyst method lockout, statistical testing of process stream results for replicate agreement, automatic testing of process results against pre-established operating, safety, or failure limits at varying confidence levels, and automatic transfer and report of analysis data plus the results of all statistical testing to the Production Department.

  17. INNOVATIVE FRESH WATER PRODUCTION PROCESS FOR FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Jessica Knight

    2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An innovative Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) process was recently described where evaporation of mineralized water is driven by diffusion within a packed bed. The energy source to drive the process is derived from low pressure condensing steam within the main condenser of a steam power generating plant. Since waste heat is used to drive the process, the main cost of fresh water production is attributed to the energy cost of pumping air and water through the packed bed. This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system. A combined thermodynamic and dynamic analysis demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production of 1.03 million gallon/day by utilizing waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant based on a condensing steam pressure of only 3'' Hg. Throughout the past year, the main focus of the desalination process has been on the diffusion tower and direct contact condenser. Detailed heat and mass transfer analyses required to size and analyze these heat and mass transfer devices are described. An experimental DDD facility has been fabricated, and temperature and humidity data have been collected over a range of flow and thermal conditions. The analyses agree quite well with the current data and the information available in the literature. Direct contact condensers with and without packing have been investigated. It has been experimentally observed that the fresh water production rate is significantly enhanced when packing is added to the direct contact condensers.

  18. NGNP: High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Key Definitions, Plant Capabilities, and Assumptions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wayne Moe

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides key definitions, plant capabilities, and inputs and assumptions related to the Next Generation Nuclear Plant to be used in ongoing efforts related to the licensing and deployment of a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. These definitions, capabilities, and assumptions were extracted from a number of NGNP Project sources such as licensing related white papers, previously issued requirement documents, and preapplication interactions with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC).

  19. Development of a dynamic simulator for a natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) power plant with post-combustion carbon capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liese, E.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The AVESTAR Center located at the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory and West Virginia University is a world-class research and training environment dedicated to using dynamic process simulation as a tool for advancing the safe, efficient and reliable operation of clean energy plants with CO{sub 2} capture. The AVESTAR Center was launched with a high-fidelity dynamic simulator for an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant with pre-combustion carbon capture. The IGCC dynamic simulator offers full-scope Operator Training Simulator (OTS) Human Machine Interface (HMI) graphics for realistic, real-time control room operation and is integrated with a 3D virtual Immersive Training Simulator (ITS), thus allowing joint control room and field operator training. The IGCC OTS/ITS solution combines a “gasification with CO{sub 2} capture” process simulator with a “combined cycle” power simulator into a single high-performance dynamic simulation framework. This presentation will describe progress on the development of a natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) dynamic simulator based on the syngas-fired combined cycle portion of AVESTAR’s IGCC dynamic simulator. The 574 MW gross NGCC power plant design consisting of two advanced F-class gas turbines, two heat recovery steam generators (HRSGs), and a steam turbine in a multi-shaft 2x2x1 configuration will be reviewed. Plans for integrating a post-combustion carbon capture system will also be discussed.

  20. Air Impacts of Increased Natural Gas Acquisition, Processing, and Use: A Critical Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Robert B.

    Air Impacts of Increased Natural Gas Acquisition, Processing, and Use: A Critical Review to rapid and intensive development of many unconventional natural gas plays (e.g., shale gas, tight sand understanding of local and regional air quality impacts of natural gas extraction, production, and use. Air

  1. Analysis of the effectiveness of gas centrifuge enrichment plants advanced safeguards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyer, Brian David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Erpenbeck, Heather H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Miller, Karen A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinjoe, Martyn T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ianakiev, Kiril D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Marlow, Johnna B [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Current safeguards approaches used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) at gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) need enhancement in order to verify declared low-enriched uranium (LEU) production, detect undeclared LEU production and detect highly enriched uranium (HEU) production with adequate detection probability using non destructive assay (NDA) techniques. At present inspectors use attended systems, systems needing the presence of an inspector for operation, during inspections to verify the mass and 235U enrichment of declared UF6 containers used in the process of enrichment at GCEPs. This paper contains an analysis of possible improvements in unattended and attended NDA systems including process monitoring and possible on-site destructive assay (DA) of samples that could reduce the uncertainty of the inspector's measurements. These improvements could reduce the difference between the operator's and inspector's measurements providing more effective and efficient IAEA GCEPs safeguards. We also explore how a few advanced safeguards systems could be assembled for unattended operation. The analysis will focus on how unannounced inspections (UIs), and the concept of information-driven inspections (IDS) can affect probability of detection of the diversion of nuclear materials when coupled to new GCEPs safeguards regimes augmented with unattended systems.

  2. Gas centrifuge enrichment plants inspection frequency and remote monitoring issues for advanced safeguards implementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyer, Brian David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Erpenbeck, Heather H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Miller, Karen A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ianakiev, Kiril D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reimold, Benjamin A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ward, Steven L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Howell, John [GLASGOW UNIV.

    2010-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Current safeguards approaches used by the IAEA at gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) need enhancement in order to verify declared low enriched uranium (LEU) production, detect undeclared LEU production and detect high enriched uranium (BEU) production with adequate probability using non destructive assay (NDA) techniques. At present inspectors use attended systems, systems needing the presence of an inspector for operation, during inspections to verify the mass and {sup 235}U enrichment of declared cylinders of uranium hexafluoride that are used in the process of enrichment at GCEPs. This paper contains an analysis of how possible improvements in unattended and attended NDA systems including process monitoring and possible on-site destructive analysis (DA) of samples could reduce the uncertainty of the inspector's measurements providing more effective and efficient IAEA GCEPs safeguards. We have also studied a few advanced safeguards systems that could be assembled for unattended operation and the level of performance needed from these systems to provide more effective safeguards. The analysis also considers how short notice random inspections, unannounced inspections (UIs), and the concept of information-driven inspections can affect probability of detection of the diversion of nuclear material when coupled to new GCEPs safeguards regimes augmented with unattended systems. We also explore the effects of system failures and operator tampering on meeting safeguards goals for quantity and timeliness and the measures needed to recover from such failures and anomalies.

  3. Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Recover Heavy Hydrocarbons and to Remove Water from Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Baker; T. Hofmann; K. A. Lokhandwala

    2006-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to design, construct and field demonstrate a membrane system to recover natural gas liquids (NGL) and remove water from raw natural gas. An extended field test to demonstrate system performance under real-world high-pressure conditions is being conducted to convince industry users of the efficiency and reliability of the process. The system was designed and fabricated by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) and installed and operated at BP Amoco's Pascagoula, MS plant. The Gas Research Institute is partially supporting the field demonstration and BP-Amoco helped install the unit and provides onsite operators and utilities. The gas processed by the membrane system meets pipeline specifications for dew point and BTU value and can be delivered without further treatment to the pipeline. Based on data from prior membrane module tests, the process is likely to be significantly less expensive than glycol dehydration followed by propane refrigeration, the principal competitive technology. During the course of this project, MTR has sold 13 commercial units related to the field test technology, and by the end of this demonstration project the process will be ready for broader commercialization. A route to commercialization has been developed during this project and involves collaboration with other companies already servicing the natural gas processing industry.

  4. Advanced combustion technologies for gas turbine power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vandsburger, U. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Roe, L.A. [Arkansas Univ., Fayetteville, AR (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Desu, S.B. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Objectives are to develop actuators for enhancing the mixing between gas streams, increase combustion stability, and develop hgih-temperature materials for actuators and sensors in combustors. Turbulent kinetic energy maps of an excited jet with co-flow in a cavity with a partially closed exhaust end are given with and without a longitudinal or a transverse acoustic field. Dielectric constants and piezoelectric coefficients were determined for Sr{sub 2}(Nb{sub x}Ta{sub 1-x}){sub 2}O{sub 7} ceramics.

  5. Alabama Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved Reserves (Billion CubicCubic Feet) Base Gas)1,727Feet)Fuel Consumption

  6. Alabama Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved Reserves (Billion CubicCubic Feet) Base Gas)1,727Feet)Fuel

  7. Alabama Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved Reserves (Billion CubicCubic Feet) Base Gas)1,727Feet)FuelLiquids, Proved

  8. Texas Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Kansas

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet)per Thousand Cubic4,630.2perSep-14Base Gas)(Million Cubic

  9. Kansas Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 14 15 0 0ExtensionsYear JanFuel Consumption

  10. Kansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 14 15 0 0ExtensionsYear JanFuel

  11. Kansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 14 15 0 0ExtensionsYear JanFuelProved Reserves

  12. Kentucky Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 14 15Industrial Consumers (Number ofFuel

  13. Kentucky Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 14 15Industrial Consumers (Number

  14. Kentucky Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 14 15Industrial Consumers (NumberProved

  15. Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption of Natural Gas (Summary)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 14343 342 328 370 396After898 701200973

  16. Louisiana - North Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 14343 342 328 370JapanLodging

  17. Louisiana - South Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 14343 342 328 370JapanLodging(Million

  18. Louisiana Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 14343 342 3289 0 0FuelFuel Consumption

  19. Louisiana Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 14343 342 3289 0 0FuelFuel

  20. Louisiana Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 14343 342 3289886,084 889,570 893,400

  1. Louisiana Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 14343 342 3289886,084 889,570 893,400Louisiana

  2. Louisiana State Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 14343 342 3289886,084 889,5705,02044

  3. Lower 48 States Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 14343 342 3289886,084Dry18,749Barrels)

  4. Michigan Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 04 19 15 15 15 3Year Jan Feb (MillionFuel

  5. Michigan Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 04 19 15 15 15 3Year Jan Feb (MillionFuelLiquids

  6. Michigan Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 04 19 15 15 15 3Year Jan Feb

  7. Miscellaneous States Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 04 19 15 15Thousand CubicYear46 4722 35

  8. Mississippi Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 04 19 15Year Jan Feb MarFeet)

  9. Mississippi Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 04 19 15Year Jan Feb (Million CubicFuel

  10. Mississippi Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 04 19 15Year Jan Feb (Million CubicFuelLiquids

  11. Mississippi Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 04 19 15Year Jan Feb (Million

  12. Montana Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 04 19343 369 384Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic

  13. Montana Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 04 19343 369 384Fuel Consumption (Million

  14. Montana Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 04 19343 369 384Fuel Consumption (MillionProved

  15. How Gas Turbine Power Plants Work | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of Energy Power.pdf11-161-LNG | Department ofHTS Cable ProjectsHistory History On7,How Gas Turbine Power

  16. Colorado Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 633 622 56623 46 (Million Cubic Feet)Fuel Consumption

  17. Colorado Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 633 622 56623 46 (Million Cubic Feet)Fuel

  18. Colorado Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 633 622 56623 46 (Million Cubic Feet)FuelProved

  19. Federal Offshore California Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 633 6221,2372003of Energy2009 2010NA NA NA

  20. Florida Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 1 0 0 0 1979-2013Fuel Consumption (Million

  1. Florida Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 1 0 0 0 1979-2013Fuel Consumption

  2. Florida Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 1 0 0 0 1979-2013Fuel ConsumptionProved

  3. California Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998 10,643 10,998 10,998 10,643 10,998 10,643Elements) GasFuel

  4. California - Los Angeles Basin Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 633 622 566 8021 1Reserves (Million Barrels)

  5. California - San Joaquin Basin Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 633 622 566 8021 1Reserves (Million

  6. California Federal Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 633 622 566 8021 1Reserves,835Feet)(Million

  7. California Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 633 622 566 (Million Cubic Feet)Liquids, Proved

  8. California State Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 633 622 566

  9. Gas Turbines Increase the Energy Efficiency of Industrial Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banchik, I. N.; Bohannan, W. R.; Stork, K.; McGovern, L. J.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    clean fuel gas for the gas turbine is produced by gasification of coal, are presented. Waste heat from the gasifier and the gas turbine exhaust is converted to high pressure steam for steam turbines. Gas turbines may find application in other industrial...

  10. South Dakota Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet) YearPriceThousandThousand479,7416.18DecadeElements)SouthPlant

  11. Active constraint regions for a natural gas liquefaction process Magnus G. Jacobsena

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Active constraint regions for a natural gas liquefaction process Magnus G. Jacobsena , Sigurd little attention. this paper addresses optimal operation of a simple natural gas liquefaction process at all times. Keywords: Self-optimizing control, liquefied natural gas, LNG, PRICO, disturbances, optimal

  12. Selection of Controlled Variables for a Natural Gas to Liquids Process Mehdi Panahi and Sigurd Skogestad*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Selection of Controlled Variables for a Natural Gas to Liquids Process Mehdi Panahi and Sigurd variables (CVs) for a natural gas to hydrocarbon liquids (GTL) process based on the idea of self of operation are studied. In mode I, where the natural gas flow rate is given, there are three unconstrained

  13. MEMORIAL UNIVERSITY OF NEWFOUNDLAND Three-year Term Appointment in Process (Oil and Gas) Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George, Glyn

    MEMORIAL UNIVERSITY OF NEWFOUNDLAND Three-year Term Appointment in Process (Oil and Gas with oil and gas specialization at the assistant- or associate professor-level, commencing April 12, 2010 in the area of oil and gas, and process engineering, to supervise graduate students, to participate in other

  14. Process for the production of fuel gas from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patel, Jitendra G. (Bolingbrook, IL); Sandstrom, William A. (Chicago, IL); Tarman, Paul B. (Elmhurst, IL)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved apparatus and process for the conversion of hydrocarbonaceous materials, such as coal, to more valuable gaseous products in a fluidized bed gasification reaction and efficient withdrawal of agglomerated ash from the fluidized bed is disclosed. The improvements are obtained by introducing an oxygen containing gas into the bottom of the fluidized bed through a separate conduit positioned within the center of a nozzle adapted to agglomerate and withdraw the ash from the bottom of the fluidized bed. The conduit extends above the constricted center portion of the nozzle and preferably terminates within and does not extend from the nozzle. In addition to improving ash agglomeration and withdrawal, the present invention prevents sintering and clinkering of the ash in the fluidized bed and permits the efficient recycle of fine material recovered from the product gases by contacting the fines in the fluidized bed with the oxygen as it emanates from the conduit positioned within the withdrawal nozzle. Finally, the present method of oxygen introduction permits the efficient recycle of a portion of the product gases to the reaction zone to increase the reducing properties of the hot product gas.

  15. Process performance of Ahlstrom Pyroflow PCFB pilot plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sellakumar, K.M. [R& D Center, Ahlstrom Pyropower, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Isaksson, J.; Tiensuu, J. [Ahlstroem Pyropower, Inc., Karhula (Finland). Hans Ahlstroem Lab.

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ahlstrom Pyropower has designed and built a 10 MW{sub th} (34 MMBtu) pressurized circulating fluidized bed (PCFB) pilot plant in Karhula, Finland. The unit is now operating. Data from this unit supports the design of a nominal 80 MW, Des Moines Energy Center 1 (DMEC-1) PCFB Repowering Project. The pilot plant PCFB combustor is of square cross-section. It is housed in a 3.6 m (11.8 ft) diameter pressure vessel. A high pressure high temperature gas cleaning unit downstream of the PCFB exhaust is installed in a separate 2.6 m (8.5 ft) diameter pressure vessel. The maximum plant operating pressure is 16 bar (232 psia). The fuel is fed in slurry form; sorbent is also fed along with the fuel. The net heat input per unit cross section of the combustor is the highest of any known combustion mode. The heat release can go up to 40 MW/m{sup 2} (12.6 MMBtu/ft{sup 2} hr). Many types of coals including high sulfur, bituminous Illinois No. 6 coal and Western sub bituminous, low sulfur Powder River Basin coal were tested. Combustion efficiencies in the range of 99.5 to 99.9% have been consistently observed. Emissions of various gases such as NO{sub x} SO{sub 2} and CO at different operating pressures and loads were monitored. The gas emissions have been lower than expected based on atmospheric circulating fluidized bed boiler experience. The sulfur retention is over 95 % with a Ca/S molar ratio of 1 to 2 for high sulfur Illinois No.6 coal. A GAVS molar ratio of 2.5 to 3.5 was observed to retain 95 % of sulfur with low sulfur Powder River Basin coal. All gaseous emissions during testing with Illinois No. 6 coal and Powder River Basin coal are well within the projected limits for the DMEC1 project. Emission data from tests with Illinois No. 6 coal and Powder River Basin coal are presented in the paper.

  16. Process performance of Ahlstrom Pyroflow PCFB pilot plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sellakumar, K.M. (R D Center, Ahlstrom Pyropower, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)); Isaksson, J.; Tiensuu, J. (Ahlstroem Pyropower, Inc., Karhula (Finland). Hans Ahlstroem Lab.)

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ahlstrom Pyropower has designed and built a 10 MW[sub th] (34 MMBtu) pressurized circulating fluidized bed (PCFB) pilot plant in Karhula, Finland. The unit is now operating. Data from this unit supports the design of a nominal 80 MW, Des Moines Energy Center 1 (DMEC-1) PCFB Repowering Project. The pilot plant PCFB combustor is of square cross-section. It is housed in a 3.6 m (11.8 ft) diameter pressure vessel. A high pressure high temperature gas cleaning unit downstream of the PCFB exhaust is installed in a separate 2.6 m (8.5 ft) diameter pressure vessel. The maximum plant operating pressure is 16 bar (232 psia). The fuel is fed in slurry form; sorbent is also fed along with the fuel. The net heat input per unit cross section of the combustor is the highest of any known combustion mode. The heat release can go up to 40 MW/m[sup 2] (12.6 MMBtu/ft[sup 2] hr). Many types of coals including high sulfur, bituminous Illinois No. 6 coal and Western sub bituminous, low sulfur Powder River Basin coal were tested. Combustion efficiencies in the range of 99.5 to 99.9% have been consistently observed. Emissions of various gases such as NO[sub x] SO[sub 2] and CO at different operating pressures and loads were monitored. The gas emissions have been lower than expected based on atmospheric circulating fluidized bed boiler experience. The sulfur retention is over 95 % with a Ca/S molar ratio of 1 to 2 for high sulfur Illinois No.6 coal. A GAVS molar ratio of 2.5 to 3.5 was observed to retain 95 % of sulfur with low sulfur Powder River Basin coal. All gaseous emissions during testing with Illinois No. 6 coal and Powder River Basin coal are well within the projected limits for the DMEC1 project. Emission data from tests with Illinois No. 6 coal and Powder River Basin coal are presented in the paper.

  17. Pipeline gas demonstration plant, Phase I. Quarterly technical progress report for September 1980-November 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eby, R.J.

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Work was performed in the following tasks in Phase I of the Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant Program: Site Evaluation and Selection; Demonstration Plant Environmental Analysis; Feedstock Plans, Licenses, Permits and Easements; Demonstration Plant Definitive Design; Construction Planning; Economic Reassessment; Technical Support; Long Lead Procurement List; and Project Management. The Preliminary Construction Schedule was delivered to the Government on October 3, 1980, constituting an early delivery of the construction schedule called for in the scope of work for Task VI. The major work activity continues to be the effort in Task VI, Demonstration Plant Definitive Design, with two 30% Design Review meetings being held with the Government. Work in Task VII, Construction Planning, was initiated. Work has progressed satisfactorily in the other tasks in support of the Demonstration Plant Program. A Cost Change Proposal was submitted because of an increase in the scope of work and an extension of the schedule for Phase I to 47 months.

  18. Universal model for water costs of gas exchange by animals and plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    terrestrial animals and plants exchange O2 and CO2 with the atmosphere and thereby incur costs in the currency Hemphill Brown, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, and approved March 30, 2010 (received for review), the steepness of the gradients for gas and vapor, and the transport mode (convective or diffusive). Model

  19. Methodology and Process for Condition Assessment at Existing Hydropower Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Qin Fen [ORNL] [ORNL; Smith, Brennan T [ORNL] [ORNL; Cones, Marvin [Mesa Associates, Inc.] [Mesa Associates, Inc.; March, Patrick [Hydro Performance Processes, Inc.] [Hydro Performance Processes, Inc.; Dham, Rajesh [U.S. Department of Energy] [U.S. Department of Energy; Spray, Michael [New West Technologies, LLC.] [New West Technologies, LLC.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydropower Advancement Project was initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to develop and implement a systematic process with a standard methodology to identify the opportunities of performance improvement at existing hydropower facilities and to predict and trend the overall condition and improvement opportunity within the U.S. hydropower fleet. The concept of performance for the HAP focuses on water use efficiency how well a plant or individual unit converts potential energy to electrical energy over a long-term averaging period of a year or more. The performance improvement involves not only optimization of plant dispatch and scheduling but also enhancement of efficiency and availability through advanced technology and asset upgrades, and thus requires inspection and condition assessment for equipment, control system, and other generating assets. This paper discusses the standard methodology and process for condition assessment of approximately 50 nationwide facilities, including sampling techniques to ensure valid expansion of the 50 assessment results to the entire hydropower fleet. The application and refining process and the results from three demonstration assessments are also presented in this paper.

  20. Simulated coal gas MCFC power plant system verification. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the main project is to identify the current developmental status of MCFC systems and address those technical issues that need to be resolved to move the technology from its current status to the demonstration stage in the shortest possible time. The specific objectives are separated into five major tasks as follows: Stack research; Power plant development; Test facilities development; Manufacturing facilities development; and Commercialization. This Final Report discusses the M-C power Corporation effort which is part of a general program for the development of commercial MCFC systems. This final report covers the entire subject of the Unocal 250-cell stack. Certain project activities have been funded by organizations other than DOE and are included in this report to provide a comprehensive overview of the work accomplished.

  1. WATER-GAS SHIFT WITH INTEGRATED HYDROGEN SEPARATION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maria Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, PI; Jerry Meldon, Co-PI; Xiaomei Qi

    2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optimization of the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction system for hydrogen production for fuel cells is of particular interest to the energy industry. To this end, it is desirable to couple the WGS reaction to hydrogen separation using a semi-permeable membrane, with both processes carried out at high temperatures to improve reaction kinetics and permeation. Reduced equilibrium conversion of the WGS reaction at high temperatures is overcome by product H{sub 2} removal via the membrane. This project involves fundamental research and development of novel cerium oxide-based catalysts for the water-gas-shift reaction and the integration of these catalysts with Pd-alloy H{sub 2}-separation membranes supplying high purity hydrogen for fuel cell use. Conditions matching the requirements of coal gasifier-exit gas streams will be examined in the project. The first-year screening studies of WGS catalysts identified Cu-ceria as the most promising high-temperature shift catalyst for integration with H{sub 2}-selective membranes. Formulations containing iron oxide were found to deactivate in the presence of CO{sub 2}, and were thus eliminated from further consideration. Cu-containing ceria catalysts, on the other hand, showed high stability in CO{sub 2}-rich gases. This type gas will be present over much of the catalyst, as the membrane removes the hydrogen produced from the shift reaction. Several catalyst formulations were prepared, characterized and tested in the first year of study. Details from the catalyst development and testing work were given in our first annual technical report. Hydrogen permeation through Pd and Pd-alloy foils was investigated in a small membrane reactor constructed during the first year of the project. The effect of temperature on the hydrogen flux through pure Pd, Pd{sub 60}Cu{sub 40} and Pd{sub 75}Ag{sub 25} alloy membranes, each 25 {micro}m thick, was evaluated in the temperature range from 250 C to 500 C at upstream pressure of 4.4 atm and permeate hydrogen pressure of 1 atm. Flux decay was observed for the Pd-Cu membrane above 500 C. From 350-450 C, an average hydrogen flux value of 0.2 mol H{sub 2}/m{sup 2}/s was measured over this Pd-alloy membrane. These results are in good agreement with literature data. In this year's report, we discuss reaction rate measurements, optimization of catalyst kinetics by proper choice of dopant oxide (lanthana) in ceria, long-term stability studies, and H{sub 2} permeation data collected with unsupported flat, 10 {micro}m-thick Pd-Cu membranes over a wide temperature window and in various gas mixtures. The high-temperature shift catalyst composition was further improved, by proper selection of dopant type and amount. The formulation 10 at%Cu-Ce(30 at%La)Ox was the best; this was selected for further kinetic studies. WGS reaction rates were measured in a simulated coal-gas mixture. The stability of catalyst performance was examined in 40-hr long tests. A series of hydrogen permeation tests were conducted in a small flat-membrane reactor using the 10 m{micro}-thick Pd-Cu membranes. Small inhibitory effects of CO and CO{sub 2} were found at temperatures above 350 C, while H{sub 2}O vapor had no effect on hydrogen permeation. No carbon deposition took place during many hours of membrane operation. The reaction extent on the blank (catalyst-free) membrane was also negligible. A larger flat-membrane reactor will be used next year with the catalyst wash coated on screens close coupled with the Pd-Cu membrane.

  2. Demonstration of the potential for energy conservation in two Midwestern pork processing plants. Final report, December 15, 1977-December 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, P.; Okos, M.

    1981-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Two Midwestern pork processing plants were studied to quantify present energy consumption and to determine potential energy savings with modification of existing processing equipment or adoption of alternative equipment. Process energy consumption was measured in each plant at each processing step or at each unit operation and pertinent costs obtained. Energy utilized was categorized by type such as gas, electricity, steam, etc. Process conditions such as temperature, pressure, flow rates, etc., were also measured so that they could be related to energy consumption. Through measurement of operating parameters and the calculation of material and energy balances, patterns of energy loss in the major unit operations were determined. The total yearly steam and gas energy consumed by the processes studied in Plant A amounted to 133.6 billion Btu's and 207.8 billion Btu's in Plant B. Of that total, Plant A uses approximately 15.5% and Plant B uses 7.5% for sanitation and cleaning. The remaining energy is used to operate the various unit operations. The energy used in the major unit operations can be broken down into lost energy and recoverable energy. Lost energy is that energy that will not effect production if eliminated. For the processes studied in Plant A, non-productive energy amounts to 48% of the energy supplied. The nonproductive energy in Plant B amounted to 60.6% of the total process energy. On the other hand, recoverable energy is that energy that was used for some productive purpose but still has value upon completion of the process. For the processes studied in Plant A, a recoverable energy amounts to 40% of the energy supplied. The potentially recoverable energy for Plant B is 35.8% of the process energy supplied.

  3. Computer-Aided Design Reveals Potential of Gas Turbine Cogeneration in Chemical and Petrochemical Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nanny, M. D.; Koeroghlian, M. M.; Baker, W. J.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas turbine cogeneration cycles provide a simple and economical solution to the problems created by rising fuel and electricity costs. These cycles can be designed to accommodate a wide range of electrical, steam, and process heating demands...

  4. Optimal Selection of Sensors & Controller Parameters for Economic Optimization of Process Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Optimal Selection of Sensors & Controller Parameters for Economic Optimization of Process Plants of process plants Introduction Optimal operation Economic performance depends on the structural Madras) PhD VIVA VOCE September 15, 2014 2 / 35 #12;Economic performance of process plants Introduction

  5. Computers and Chemical Engineering 26 (2002) 5979 Energy efficient water utilization systems in process plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Savelski, Mariano J.

    commodities in industrial processes. Refineries and petrochemical plants spend water in big amounts in process plants Miguel Bagajewicz *, Herna´n Rodera, Mariano Savelski 1 School of Chemical Engineering in process plants. The procedure is confined to treat the single pollutant case, and it is based on a linear

  6. Simulation and integration of liquefied natural gas (lng) processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Sobhi, Saad Ali

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    gas (LNG). When there is a considerable distance involved in transporting natural gas, LNG is becoming the preferred method of supply because of technical, economic, and political reasons. Thus, LNG is expected to play a major role in meeting...

  7. Novel Processes for Power Plant with CO2 Capture.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ekre, Kjetil Vinjerui

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ?? The purpose of this thesis was to examine different technologies, which enhances the CO2 partial pressure in the flue gas from the natural gas… (more)

  8. A Robust Infrastructure Design for Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant Unattended Online Enrichment Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Younkin, James R [ORNL; Rowe, Nathan C [ORNL; Garner, James R [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An online enrichment monitor (OLEM) is being developed to continuously measure the relative isotopic composition of UF6 in the unit header pipes of a gas centrifuge enrichment plant (GCEP). From a safeguards perspective, OLEM will provide early detection of a facility being misused for production of highly enriched uranium. OLEM may also reduce the number of samples collected for destructive assay and if coupled with load cell monitoring can provide isotope mass balance verification. The OLEM design includes power and network connections for continuous monitoring of the UF6 enrichment and state of health of the instrument. Monitoring the enrichment on all header pipes at a typical GCEP could require OLEM detectors on each of the product, tails, and feed header pipes. If there are eight process units, up to 24 detectors may be required at a modern GCEP. Distant locations, harsh industrial environments, and safeguards continuity of knowledge requirements all place certain demands on the network robustness and power reliability. This paper describes the infrastructure and architecture of an OLEM system based on OLEM collection nodes on the unit header pipes and power and network support nodes for groupings of the collection nodes. A redundant, self-healing communications network, distributed backup power, and a secure communications methodology. Two candidate technologies being considered for secure communications are the Object Linking and Embedding for Process Control Unified Architecture cross-platform, service-oriented architecture model for process control communications and the emerging IAEA Real-time And INtegrated STream-Oriented Remote Monitoring (RAINSTORM) framework to provide the common secure communication infrastructure for remote, unattended monitoring systems. The proposed infrastructure design offers modular, commercial components, plug-and-play extensibility for GCEP deployments, and is intended to meet the guidelines and requirements for unattended and remotely monitored safeguards systems.

  9. Low Cost Chemical Feedstocks Using an Improved and Energy Efficient Natural Gas Liquid (NGL) Removal Process, Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Howard, S.; Lu, Yingzhong

    2012-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a new low-cost and energy efficient Natural Gas Liquid (NGL) recovery process - through a combination of theoretical, bench-scale and pilot-scale testing - so that it could be offered to the natural gas industry for commercialization. The new process, known as the IROA process, is based on U.S. patent No. 6,553,784, which if commercialized, has the potential of achieving substantial energy savings compared to currently used cryogenic technology. When successfully developed, this technology will benefit the petrochemical industry, which uses NGL as feedstocks, and will also benefit other chemical industries that utilize gas-liquid separation and distillation under similar operating conditions. Specific goals and objectives of the overall program include: (i) collecting relevant physical property and Vapor Liquid Equilibrium (VLE) data for the design and evaluation of the new technology, (ii) solving critical R&D issues including the identification of suitable dehydration and NGL absorbing solvents, inhibiting corrosion, and specifying proper packing structure and materials, (iii) designing, construction and operation of bench and pilot-scale units to verify design performance, (iv) computer simulation of the process using commercial software simulation platforms such as Aspen-Plus and HYSYS, and (v) preparation of a commercialization plan and identification of industrial partners that are interested in utilizing the new technology. NGL is a collective term for C2+ hydrocarbons present in the natural gas. Historically, the commercial value of the separated NGL components has been greater than the thermal value of these liquids in the gas. The revenue derived from extracting NGLs is crucial to ensuring the overall profitability of the domestic natural gas production industry and therefore of ensuring a secure and reliable supply in the 48 contiguous states. However, rising natural gas prices have dramatically reduced the economic incentive to extract NGLs from domestically produced natural gas. Successful gas processors will be those who adopt technologies that are less energy intensive, have lower capital and operating costs and offer the flexibility to tailor the plant performance to maximize product revenue as market conditions change, while maintaining overall system efficiency. Presently, cryogenic turbo-expander technology is the dominant NGL recovery process and it is used throughout the world. This process is known to be highly energy intensive, as substantial energy is required to recompress the processed gas back to pipeline pressure. The purpose of this project is to develop a new NGL separation process that is flexible in terms of ethane rejection and can reduce energy consumption by 20-30% from current levels, particularly for ethane recoveries of less than 70%. The new process integrates the dehydration of the raw natural gas stream and the removal of NGLs in such a way that heat recovery is maximized and pressure losses are minimized so that high-value equipment such as the compressor, turbo-expander, and a separate dehydration unit are not required. GTI completed a techno-economic evaluation of the new process based on an Aspen-HYSYS simulation model. The evaluation incorporated purchased equipment cost estimates obtained from equipment suppliers and two different commercial software packages; namely, Aspen-Icarus and Preliminary Design and Quoting Service (PDQ$). For a 100 MMscfd gas processing plant, the annualized capital cost for the new technology was found to be about 10% lower than that of conventional technology for C2 recovery above 70% and about 40% lower than that of conventional technology for C2 recovery below 50%. It was also found that at around 40-50% C2 recovery (which is economically justifiable at the current natural gas prices), the energy cost to recover NGL using the new technology is about 50% of that of conventional cryogenic technology.

  10. NOVEL COMPOSITE MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN SEPARATION IN GASIFICATION PROCESSES IN VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Schwartz

    2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the work performed, accomplishments and conclusion obtained from the project entitled ''Novel Composite Membranes for Hydrogen Separation in Gasification Processes in Vision 21 Energy Plants'' under the United States Department of Energy Contract DE-FC26-01NT40973. ITN Energy Systems was the prime contractor. Team members included: the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory; Nexant Consulting; Argonne National Laboratory and Praxair. The objective of the program was to develop a novel composite membrane structure for hydrogen separation as a key technology module within the future ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plants. The separation technology module is targeted for use within the gasification module of the ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant. The high performance and low-cost manufacturing of the proposed technology will benefit the deployment of ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant processes by improving the energy efficiency, flexibility and environmental performance of these plants. Of particular importance is that this technology will also produce a stream of pure carbon dioxide. This allows facile sequestration or other use of this greenhouse gas. These features will benefit the U.S. in allowing for the continued use of domestic fossil fuels in a more energy efficient and environmentally acceptable manner. The program developed and evaluated composite membranes and catalysts for hydrogen separation. Components of the monolithic modules were fabricated by plasma spray processing. The engineering and economic characteristics of the proposed Ion Conducting Ceramic Membrane (ICCM) approach, including system integration issues, were also assessed. This resulted in a comprehensive evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of integration schemes of ICCM hydrogen separation technology within Vision 21 fossil fuel plants. Several results and conclusion were obtained during this program. In the area of materials synthesis, novel pyrochlore-based proton conductors were identified, synthesized and characterized. They exhibited conductivity as high as 0.03 S/cm at 900 C. Long-term stability under CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} atmospheres was also demonstrated. In the area of membrane fabrication by plasma spray processing, the initial results showed that the pyrochlore materials could be processed in a spray torch. Although leak-tight membranes were obtained, cracking, most likely due to differences in thermal expansion, remained a problem. More modeling and experimental work can be used to solve this problem. Finally the techno-economic analyses showed that the ITN ICCM approach for separating H{sub 2} is comparable to conventional pressure swing adsorption (PSA) technology in efficiency and economics. Enhanced membrane flux and lower operating temperatures may make the ICCM approach superior to PSA.

  11. EFFECTS ON CHP PLANT EFFICIENCY OF H2 PRODUCTION THROUGH PARTIAL OXYDATION OF NATURAL GAS OVER TWO GROUP VIII METAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    EFFECTS ON CHP PLANT EFFICIENCY OF H2 PRODUCTION THROUGH PARTIAL OXYDATION OF NATURAL GAS OVER TWO with natural gas in spark ignition engines can increase for electric efficiency. In-situ H23 production for spark ignition engines fuelled by natural gas has therefore been investigated recently, and4 reformed

  12. Optimization of a biological wastewater treatment process at a petrochemical plant using process simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, R.M.; Dold, P.L.; Baker, A.J.; Briggs, T.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A research study was conducted on the activated sludge process treating the wastewater from a petrochemical manufacturing facility in Ontario, Canada. The objective of the study was to improve the level of understanding of the process and to evaluate the use of model-based simulation tools as an aid in the optimization of the wastewater treatment facility. Models such as the IAWQ Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1) have previously been developed and applied to assist in designing new systems and to assist in the optimization of existing systems for the treatment of municipal wastewaters, However, due to significant differences between the characteristics of the petrochemical plant wastewater and municipal wastewaters, this study required the development of a mechanistic model specifically to describe the behavior of the activated sludge treatment of the petrochemical wastewater. This paper outlines the development of the mechanistic model and gives examples of how plant performance issues were investigated through process simulation.

  13. Microbial Gas Generation Under Expected Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Repository Conditions: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas generation from the microbial degradation of the organic constituents of transuranic (TRU) waste under conditions expected in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was investigated. The biodegradation of mixed cellulosic materials and electron-beam irradiated plastic and rubber materials (polyethylene, polyvinylchloride, hypalon, leaded hypalon, and neoprene) was examined. We evaluated the effects of environmental variables such as initial atmosphere (air or nitrogen), water content (humid ({approx}70% relative humidity, RH) and brine inundated), and nutrient amendments (nitogen phosphate, yeast extract, and excess nitrate) on microbial gas generation. Total gas production was determined by pressure measurement and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}) were analyzed by gas chromatography; cellulose degradation products in solution were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Microbial populations in the samples were determined by direct microscopy and molecular analysis. The results of this work are summarized.

  14. Texas (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteamYear Jan FebThousandProcessed (Million Cubic(Million

  15. Texas (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteamYear Jan FebThousandProcessed (Million Cubic(MillionProduction (Million

  16. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Emergency Action Level (EAL) Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailiff, E.G.; Bolling, J.D.

    2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report establishes requirements and standard methods for the development and maintenance of the Emergency Action Level (EAL) Process used by all lead and event contractors for emergency planning and preparedness. The EAL process ensures a technically defensible approach to emergency categorization/classification in accordance with DOE Order 151.1. The instructions provided in this document include methods and requirements for the development and approval of the EAL process. EALs are developed to cover events inside and outside the Y-12 Plant and to allow the Emergency Response Organization (ERO) to classify or reclassify events promptly based on specific indicators. This report is divided into the following 11 subsections: (1) EAL Process, (2) Categorization/Classification System for Operational Emergencies, (3) Development of EALs, (4) Barrier Analysis for EALs, (5) Symptom-Based and Event-Based EALs, (6) Other Considerations, (7) Integration of EALs with Normal and Off-Normal Operations, (8) EAL Manual, (9) Testing EALs for Completeness, (10) Training and Implementation of EALs, and (11) Configuration Management.

  17. Innovative Fresh Water Production Process for Fossil Fuel Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Jessica Knight; Venugopal Jogi

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project concerns a diffusion driven desalination (DDD) process where warm water is evaporated into a low humidity air stream, and the vapor is condensed out to produce distilled water. Although the process has a low fresh water to feed water conversion efficiency, it has been demonstrated that this process can potentially produce low cost distilled water when driven by low grade waste heat. This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system. A dynamic analysis of heat and mass transfer demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production of 1.03 million gallon/day by utilizing waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant based on a condensing steam pressure of only 3 Hg. The optimum operating condition for the DDD process with a high temperature of 50 C and sink temperature of 25 C has an air mass flux of 1.5 kg/m{sup 2}-s, air to feed water mass flow ratio of 1 in the diffusion tower, and a fresh water to air mass flow ratio of 2 in the condenser. Operating at these conditions yields a fresh water production efficiency (m{sub fW}/m{sub L}) of 0.031 and electric energy consumption rate of 0.0023 kW-hr/kg{sub fW}. Throughout the past year, the main focus of the desalination process has been on the direct contact condenser. Detailed heat and mass transfer analyses required to size and analyze these heat and mass transfer devices are described. The analyses agree quite well with the current data. Recently, it has been recognized that the fresh water production efficiency can be significantly enhanced with air heating. This type of configuration is well suited for power plants utilizing air-cooled condensers. The experimental DDD facility has been modified with an air heating section, and temperature and humidity data have been collected over a range of flow and thermal conditions. It has been experimentally observed that the fresh water production rate is enhanced when air is heated prior to entering the diffusion tower. Further analytical analysis is required to predict the thermal and mass transport with the air heating configuration.

  18. Carbon dioxide absorber and regeneration assemblies useful for power plant flue gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vimalchand, Pannalal; Liu, Guohai; Peng, Wan Wang

    2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are apparatus and method to treat large amounts of flue gas from a pulverized coal combustion power plant. The flue gas is contacted with solid sorbents to selectively absorb CO.sub.2, which is then released as a nearly pure CO.sub.2 gas stream upon regeneration at higher temperature. The method is capable of handling the necessary sorbent circulation rates of tens of millions of lbs/hr to separate CO.sub.2 from a power plant's flue gas stream. Because pressurizing large amounts of flue gas is cost prohibitive, the method of this invention minimizes the overall pressure drop in the absorption section to less than 25 inches of water column. The internal circulation of sorbent within the absorber assembly in the proposed method not only minimizes temperature increases in the absorber to less than 25.degree. F., but also increases the CO.sub.2 concentration in the sorbent to near saturation levels. Saturating the sorbent with CO.sub.2 in the absorber section minimizes the heat energy needed for sorbent regeneration. The commercial embodiments of the proposed method can be optimized for sorbents with slower or faster absorption kinetics, low or high heat release rates, low or high saturation capacities and slower or faster regeneration kinetics.

  19. Coke oven gas treatment and by-product plant of Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egorov, V.N.; Anikin, G.J. [Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works, (Russian Federation); Gross, M. [Krupp Koppers GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works, Russia, decided to erect a new coke oven gas treatment and by-product plant to replace the existing obsolete units and to improve the environmental conditions of the area. The paper deals with the technological concept and the design requirements. Commissioning is scheduled at the beginning of 1996. The paper describes H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3} removal, sulfur recovery and ammonia destruction, primary gas cooling and electrostatic tar precipitation, and the distributed control system that will be installed.

  20. Plants in constructed wetlands help to treat agricultural processing wastewater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grismer, Mark E; Shepherd, Heather L

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plants in constructed wetlands help to treat agriculturalhas been available to help guide that selection. We

  1. ,"Wyoming Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: EnergyShale ProvedTexas"BruneiReserves inDry Natural GasPlant+ Lease CondensatePlant Liquids,

  2. Use of GTE-65 gas turbine power units in the thermal configuration of steam-gas systems for the refitting of operating thermal electric power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebedev, A. S.; Kovalevskii, V. P. ['Leningradskii Metallicheskii Zavod', branch of JSC 'Silovye mashiny' (Russian Federation); Getmanov, E. A.; Ermaikina, N. A. ['Institut Teploenergoproekt', branch of JSC 'Inzhenernyi tsentr EES' (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal configurations for condensation, district heating, and discharge steam-gas systems (PGU) based on the GTE-65 gas turbine power unit are described. A comparative multivariant analysis of their thermodynamic efficiency is made. Based on some representative examples, it is shown that steam-gas systems with the GTE-65 and boiler-utilizer units can be effectively used and installed in existing main buildings during technical refitting of operating thermal electric power plants.

  3. Processing of Non-PFP Plutonium Oxide in Hanford Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Susan A.; Delegard, Calvin H.

    2011-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Processing of non-irradiated plutonium oxide, PuO2, scrap for recovery of plutonium values occurred routinely at Hanford’s Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) in glovebox line operations. Plutonium oxide is difficult to dissolve, particularly if it has been high-fired; i.e., calcined to temperatures above about 400°C and much of it was. Dissolution of the PuO2 in the scrap typically was performed in PFP’s Miscellaneous Treatment line using nitric acid (HNO3) containing some source of fluoride ion, F-, such as hydrofluoric acid (HF), sodium fluoride (NaF), or calcium fluoride (CaF2). The HNO3 concentration generally was 6 M or higher whereas the fluoride concentration was ~0.5 M or lower. At higher fluoride concentrations, plutonium fluoride (PuF4) would precipitate, thus limiting the plutonium dissolution. Some plutonium-bearing scrap also contained PuF4 and thus required no added fluoride. Once the plutonium scrap was dissolved, the excess fluoride was complexed with aluminum ion, Al3+, added as aluminum nitrate, Al(NO3)3•9H2O, to limit collateral damage to the process equipment by the corrosive fluoride. Aluminum nitrate also was added in low quantities in processing PuF4.

  4. Waste receiving and processing plant control system; system design description

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LANE, M.P.

    1999-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The Plant Control System (PCS) is a heterogeneous computer system composed of numerous sub-systems. The PCS represents every major computer system that is used to support operation of the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility. This document, the System Design Description (PCS SDD), includes several chapters and appendices. Each chapter is devoted to a separate PCS sub-system. Typically, each chapter includes an overview description of the system, a list of associated documents related to operation of that system, and a detailed description of relevant system features. Each appendice provides configuration information for selected PCS sub-systems. The appendices are designed as separate sections to assist in maintaining this document due to frequent changes in system configurations. This document is intended to serve as the primary reference for configuration of PCS computer systems. The use of this document is further described in the WRAP System Configuration Management Plan, WMH-350, Section 4.1.

  5. Mortality among female workers at a thorium-processing plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Zhiyuan; Lee, Tze-San

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The mortality patterns among a cohort of 677 female workers at a thorium-processing plant are reported for the period from 1940 to 1982. Of the 677 women, 165 were reported dead; 459 were still alive; and 53 (7.8%) were lost to follow-up. The standardized mortality ratios from all causes (0.74), all cancers (0.53), and circulatory diseases (0.66) were significantly below those for the general US population. In this cohort, 5 deaths due to lung cancer and 1 death from leukemia were observed, with 4.53 and 1.69 deaths expected, respectively. No deaths from cancer of the liver, pancreas, or bone were observed. Poisson regression analysis was used for an internal comparison within the cohort. The results of the Poisson regression analysis showed no significant effect on mortality rates of all causes and cancers from the study factors, including job classification, duration of employment, and time since first employment.

  6. Effect of Gas Turbine Exhaust Temperature, Stack Temperature and Ambient Temperature on Overall Efficiency of Combine Cycle Power Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    Abstract—The gas turbine exhaust temperature, stack temperature and ambient temperature play a very important role during the predication of the performance of combine cycle power plant. This paper covers parametric analysis of effects of gas turbine exhaust temperature, stack temperature and ambient temperature on the overall efficiency of combine cycle power plant keeping the gas turbine efficiency as well as steam turbine efficiency constant. The results shows that out of three variables i.e. turbine exhaust temperature, stack temperature and ambient temperature, the most dominating factor of increasing the overall efficiency of the combine cycle power plant is the stack temperature.

  7. ,"Kentucky Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesWyoming"CoalbedOhio"Associated-DissolvedSummary"Gas,Plant Liquids,

  8. Process for off-gas particulate removal and apparatus therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carl, D.E.

    1997-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In the event of a breach in the off-gas line of a melter operation requiring closure of the line, a secondary vessel vent line is provided with a particulate collector utilizing atomization for removal of large particulates from the off-gas. The collector receives the gas containing particulates and directs a portion of the gas through outer and inner annular channels. The collector further receives a fluid, such as water, which is directed through the outer channel together with a second portion of the particulate-laden gas. The outer and inner channels have respective ring-like termination apertures concentrically disposed adjacent one another on the outer edge of the downstream side of the particulate collector. Each of the outer and inner channels curves outwardly away from the collector`s centerline in proceeding toward the downstream side of the collector. Gas flow in the outer channel maintains the fluid on the channel`s wall in the form of a ``wavy film,`` while the gas stream from the inner channel shears the fluid film as it exits the outer channel in reducing the fluid to small droplets. Droplets formed by the collector capture particulates in the gas stream by one of three mechanisms: impaction, interception or Brownian diffusion in removing the particulates. The particulate-laden droplets are removed from the fluid stream by a vessel vent condenser or mist eliminator. 4 figs.

  9. Catalyst and process development for synthesis gas conversion to isobutylene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anthony, R.G.; Akgerman, A.

    1992-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this project are to develop a new catalyst, the kinetics for this catalyst, reactor models for trickle bed, slurry and fixed bed, and simulate the performance of fixed bed trickle flow reactors, slurry flow reactors, and fixed bed gas phase reactors for conversion of a hydrogen lean synthesis gas to isobutylene.

  10. Table 17. Estimated natural gas plant liquids and dry natural gas content of total wet natural gas proved reserves, 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ <Information Administration (EIA) 10 MECS Survey Data9c : U.S.Welcome to the1,033Estimated natural gas

  11. Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Refinery and Chemical Plant Process Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benson, Charles; Wilson, Robert

    2014-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This project culminated in the demonstration of a full-scale industrial burner which allows a broad range of “opportunity” gaseous fuels to be cost-effectively and efficiently utilized while generating minimal emissions of criteria air pollutants. The burner is capable of maintaining a stable flame when the fuel composition changes rapidly. This enhanced stability will contribute significantly to improving the safety and reliability of burner operation in manufacturing sites. Process heating in the refining and chemicals sectors is the primary application for this burner. The refining and chemical sectors account for more than 40% of total industrial natural gas use. Prior to the completion of this project, an enabling technology did not exist that would allow these energy-intensive industries to take full advantage of opportunity fuels and thereby reduce their natural gas consumption. Opportunity gaseous fuels include biogas (from animal and agricultural wastes, wastewater plants, and landfills) as well as syngas (from the gasification of biomass, municipal solid wastes, construction wastes, and refinery residuals). The primary challenge to using gaseous opportunity fuels is that their composition and combustion performance differ significantly from those of conventional fuels such as natural gas and refinery fuel gas. An effective fuel-flexible burner must accept fuels that range widely in quality and change in composition over time, often rapidly. In Phase 1 of this project, the team applied computational fluid dynamics analysis to optimize the prototype burner’s aerodynamic, combustion, heat transfer, and emissions performance. In Phase 2, full-scale testing and refinement of two prototype burners were conducted in test furnaces at Zeeco’s offices in Broken Arrow, OK. These tests demonstrated that the full range of conventional and opportunity fuels could be utilized by the project’s burner while achieving robust flame stability and very low levels of air pollutant emissions. In Phase 3, the team retrofitted three fuel-flexible burners into a fired heater at a Shell plant and demonstrated the project’s technology over a 6-month period. The project burners performed well during this period. They remain in commercial service at the Shell plant. Through this work, an improved understanding of flame stabilization mechanisms was gained. Also, methods for accommodating a wide range of fuel compositions were developed. This knowledge facilitated the commercialization of a new generation of burners that are suitable for the fuels of the future.

  12. Tap cogen-plant steam for process, NO[sub x] control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engel, W.J.; Haviland, R.W.; Devine, D.A.

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article describes the Monsanto's Indian Orchard plant gas-fired, combined-cycle cogeneration facility in Springfield, Massachusetts. The topics of the article include project configuration, the thermodynamic cycle, fuel selection, electrical distribution system, plant control, and air pollution control of NO[sub X], SO[sub 2], CO, particulates, non-methane hydrocarbons, opacity and ammonia.

  13. Process for separating carbon dioxide from flue gas using sweep-based membrane separation and absorption steps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wijmans, Johannes G.; Baker, Richard W.; Merkel, Timothy C.

    2012-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas separation process for treating flue gases from combustion processes, and combustion processes including such gas separation. The invention involves routing a first portion of the flue gas stream to be treated to an absorption-based carbon dioxide capture step, while simultaneously flowing a second portion of the flue gas across the feed side of a membrane, flowing a sweep gas stream, usually air, across the permeate side, then passing the permeate/sweep gas to the combustor.

  14. Developing and Integrating Sustainable Chemical Processes into Existing Petro-Chemical Plant Complexes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pike, Ralph W.

    Developing and Integrating Sustainable Chemical Processes into Existing Petro-Chemical Plant Complexes #12;Outline · Introduction to Sustainable Development · Research Vision · Biomass conversion of biotechnology in existing plant complex · Conclusions #12;Sustainability Sustainability refers to integrating

  15. Signal processing and transduction in plant cells: the end of the beginning? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilroy, Simon; Trewavas, Anthony J

    Plants have a very different lifestyle to animals, and one might expect that unique molecules and processes would underpin plant-cell signal transduction. But, with a few notable exceptions, the list is remarkably ...

  16. For Energy Conservation in Existing Plants - Start With a Good Process Survey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krebs, N. R.; Castillo, R. O.; Malaty, W.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As a result of the drastic increase in the cost of process plant utilities, many operating companies are actively pursuing programs to effect energy conservation in their existing plants. Some have taken action to reduce the outright waste of energy...

  17. Simulation, integration, and economic analysis of gas-to-liquid processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bao, Buping

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    specifications. Next, energy and mass integration studies are performed to address the following items: (a) heating and cooling utilities, (b) combined heat and power (process cogeneration), (c) management of process water, (c) optimization of tail-gas allocation...

  18. An analysis of processing methods and a comparison of operational efficiencies in ten Texas broiler processing plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gardner, Frederick Albert

    1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OF CONTENTS INTHODUCTIONe ~ e ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ i ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ oe ~ 1 REVIEW OF LITEHATUHEo ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 2 METHOD OF PHOCEDUHE ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ i ~ ~ e ~ ~ ~ ~ e ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 5 RESULTS... TABLE 19 Number of Workers Used in the Ice Packing Operation in Ten Processing Plants ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 1 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ i ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 40 Broilers Packed per Man Hour in Ten Processing Plants - Ice Pack. . . i...

  19. In the field. Pilot project uses innovative process to capture CO{sub 2} from flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pilot project at We Energies' Pleasant Prairie Power Plant uses chilled ammonia to capture CO{sub 2} from flue gas. 3 photos.

  20. Process for off-gas particulate removal and apparatus therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carl, Daniel E. (Orchard Park, NY)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the event of a breach in the off-gas line of a melter operation requiring closure of the line, a secondary vessel vent line is provided with a particulate collector utilizing atomization for removal of large particulates from the off-gas. The collector receives the gas containing particulates and directs a portion of the gas through outer and inner annular channels. The collector further receives a fluid, such as water, which is directed through the outer channel together with a second portion of the particulate-laden gas. The outer and inner channels have respective ring-like termination apertures concentrically disposed adjacent one another on the outer edge of the downstream side of the particulate collector. Each of the outer and inner channels curves outwardly away from the collector's centerline in proceeding toward the downstream side of the collector. Gasflow in the outer channel maintains the fluid on the channel's wall in the form of a "wavy film," while the gas stream from the inner channel shears the fluid film as it exits the outer channel in reducing the fluid to small droplets. Droplets formed by the collector capture particulates in the gas stream by one of three mechanisms: impaction, interception or Brownian diffusion in removing the particulates. The particulate-laden droplets are removed from the fluid stream by a vessel vent condenser or mist eliminator.

  1. NGNP: High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Key Definitions, Plant Capabilities, and Assumptions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillip Mills

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is intended to provide a Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project tool in which to collect and identify key definitions, plant capabilities, and inputs and assumptions to be used in ongoing efforts related to the licensing and deployment of a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). These definitions, capabilities, and assumptions are extracted from a number of sources, including NGNP Project documents such as licensing related white papers [References 1-11] and previously issued requirement documents [References 13-15]. Also included is information agreed upon by the NGNP Regulatory Affairs group's Licensing Working Group and Configuration Council. The NGNP Project approach to licensing an HTGR plant via a combined license (COL) is defined within the referenced white papers and reference [12], and is not duplicated here.

  2. Helium circulator design considerations for modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, C.F.; Nichols, M.K.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Efforts are in progress to develop a standard modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR) plant that is amenable to design certification and serial production. The MHTGR reference design, based on a steam cycle power conversion system, utilizes a 350 MW(t) annular reactor core with prismatic fuel elements. Flexibility in power rating is afforded by utilizing a multiplicity of the standard module. The circulator, which is an electric motor-driven helium compressor, is a key component in the primary system of the nuclear plant, since it facilitates thermal energy transfer from the reactor core to the steam generator; and, hence, to the external turbo-generator set. This paper highlights the helium circulator design considerations for the reference MHTGR plant and includes a discussion on the major features of the turbomachine concept, operational characteristics, and the technology base that exists in the U.S.

  3. Helium circulator design considerations for modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, C.F.; Nichols, M.K.

    1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Efforts are in progress to develop a standard modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR) plant that is amenable to design certification and serial production. The MHTGR reference design, based on a steam cycle power conversion system, utilizes a 350 MW(t) annular reactor core with prismatic fuel elements. Flexibility in power rating is afforded by utilizing a multiplicity of the standard module. The circulator, which is an electric motor-driven helium compressor, is a key component in the primary system of the nuclear plant, since it facilitates thermal energy transfer from the reactor core to the steam generator; and, hence, to the external turbo-generator set. This paper highlights the helium circulator design considerations for the reference MHTGR plant and includes a discussion on the major features of the turbomachine concept, operational characteristics, and the technology base that exists in the US.

  4. Processing and Gas Barrier Behavior of Multilayer Thin Nanocomposite Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, You-Hao

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    barrier for goods requiring long shelf life. Current gas barrier technologies like plasma-enhanced vapor deposition (PECVD) often create high barrier metal oxide films, which are prone to cracking when flexed. Bulk composites composed of polymer...

  5. Process Design and Integration of Shale Gas to Methanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ehlinger, Victoria M.

    2013-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent breakthroughs in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technology have made huge reservoirs of previously untapped shale gas and shale oil formations available for use. These new resources have already made a significant impact...

  6. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification - Power Plant Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Seltzer; Zhen Fan

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A technical feasibility assessment was performed for retrofitting oxy-fuel technology to an existing power plant burning low sulfur PRB fuel and high sulfur bituminous fuel. The focus of this study was on the boiler/power generation island of a subcritical steam cycle power plant. The power plant performance in air and oxy-firing modes was estimated and modifications required for oxy-firing capabilities were identified. A 460 MWe (gross) reference subcritical PC power plant was modeled. The reference air-fired plant has a boiler efficiency (PRB/Bituminous) of 86.7%/89.3% and a plant net efficiency of 35.8/36.7%. Net efficiency for oxy-fuel firing including ASU/CPU duty is 25.6%/26.6% (PRB/Bituminous). The oxy-fuel flue gas recirculation flow to the boiler is 68%/72% (PRB/bituminous) of the flue gas (average O{sub 2} in feed gas is 27.4%/26.4%v (PRB/bituminous)). Maximum increase in tube wall temperature is less than 10ºF for oxy-fuel firing. For oxy-fuel firing, ammonia injected to the SCR was shut-off and the FGD is applied to remove SOx from the recycled primary gas stream and a portion of the SOx from the secondary stream for the high sulfur bituminous coal. Based on CFD simulations it was determined that at the furnace outlet compared to air-firing, SO{sub 3}/SO{sub 2} mole ratio is about the same, NOx ppmv level is about the same for PRB-firing and 2.5 times for bituminous-firing due to shutting off the OFA, and CO mole fraction is approximately double. A conceptual level cost estimate was performed for the incremental equipment and installation cost of the oxyfuel retrofit in the boiler island and steam system. The cost of the retrofit is estimated to be approximately 81 M$ for PRB low sulfur fuel and 84 M$ for bituminous high sulfur fuel.

  7. Method and apparatus for processing exhaust gas with corona discharge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barlow, S.E.; Orlando, T.M.; Tonkyn, R.G.

    1999-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is placing a catalyst coating upon surfaces surrounding a volume containing corona discharge. In addition, the electrodes are coated with a robust dielectric material. Further, the electrodes are arranged so that at least a surface portion of each electrode extends into a flow path of the exhaust gas to be treated and there is only exhaust gas in the volume between each pair of electrodes. 12 figs.

  8. Microwave off-gas treatment apparatus and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schulz, Rebecca L. (Aiken, SC); Clark, David E. (Gainesville, FL); Wicks, George G. (North Aiken, SC)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention discloses a microwave off-gas system in which microwave energy is used to treat gaseous waste. A treatment chamber is used to remediate off-gases from an emission source by passing the off-gases through a susceptor matrix, the matrix being exposed to microwave radiation. The microwave radiation and elevated temperatures within the combustion chamber provide for significant reductions in the qualitative and quantitative emissions of the gas waste stream.

  9. Models for Optimization of Energy Consumption of Pumps in a Wastewater Processing Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kusiak, Andrew

    Models for Optimization of Energy Consumption of Pumps in a Wastewater Processing Plant Zijun Zhang in the wastewater preliminary treatment process is discussed. Data- mining algorithms are utilized to develop pump performance models based on industrial data collected at a municipal wastewater processing plant

  10. Integrated coal preparation and CWF processing plant: Conceptual design and costing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McHale, E.T.; Paul, A.D.; Bartis, J.T. (Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (United States)); Korkmaz, M. (Roberts and Schaefer Co., Salt Lake City, UT (United States))

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, a study was conducted to provide DOE with a reliable, documented estimate of the cost of producing coal-water fuel (CWF). The approach to the project was to specify a plant capacity and location, identify and analyze a suitable coal, and develop a conceptual design for an integrated coal preparation and CWF processing plant. Using this information, a definitive costing study was then conducted, on the basis of which an economic and sensitivity analysis was performed utilizing a financial evaluation model to determine a price for CWF in 1992. The design output of the integrated plant is 200 tons of coal (dry basis) per hour. Operating at a capacity factor of 83 percent, the baseline design yields approximately 1.5 million tons per year of coal on a dry basis. This is approximately equivalent to the fuel required to continuously generate 500 MW of electric power. The CWF produced by the plant is intended as a replacement for heavy oil or gas in electric utility and large industrial boilers. The particle size distribution, particularly the top size, and the ash content of the coal in the CWF are specified at significantly lower levels than is commonly found in typical pulverized coal grinds. The particle top size is 125 microns (vs typically 300m[mu] for pulverized coal) and the coal ash content is 3.8 percent. The lower top size is intended to promote complete carbon burnout at less derating in boilers that are not designed for coal firing. The reduced mineral matter content will produce ash of very fine particle size during combustion, which leads to less impaction and reduced fouling of tubes in convective passages.

  11. Integrated coal preparation and CWF processing plant: Conceptual design and costing. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McHale, E.T.; Paul, A.D.; Bartis, J.T. [Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (United States); Korkmaz, M. [Roberts and Schaefer Co., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, a study was conducted to provide DOE with a reliable, documented estimate of the cost of producing coal-water fuel (CWF). The approach to the project was to specify a plant capacity and location, identify and analyze a suitable coal, and develop a conceptual design for an integrated coal preparation and CWF processing plant. Using this information, a definitive costing study was then conducted, on the basis of which an economic and sensitivity analysis was performed utilizing a financial evaluation model to determine a price for CWF in 1992. The design output of the integrated plant is 200 tons of coal (dry basis) per hour. Operating at a capacity factor of 83 percent, the baseline design yields approximately 1.5 million tons per year of coal on a dry basis. This is approximately equivalent to the fuel required to continuously generate 500 MW of electric power. The CWF produced by the plant is intended as a replacement for heavy oil or gas in electric utility and large industrial boilers. The particle size distribution, particularly the top size, and the ash content of the coal in the CWF are specified at significantly lower levels than is commonly found in typical pulverized coal grinds. The particle top size is 125 microns (vs typically 300m{mu} for pulverized coal) and the coal ash content is 3.8 percent. The lower top size is intended to promote complete carbon burnout at less derating in boilers that are not designed for coal firing. The reduced mineral matter content will produce ash of very fine particle size during combustion, which leads to less impaction and reduced fouling of tubes in convective passages.

  12. Pipeline gas demonstration plant, Phase I. Quarterly technical progress report, December 1980-February 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eby, R.J.

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Work was performed in the following areas of the Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant Program: site evaluation and selection; demonstration plant environmental analysis; feedstock plans, licenses, permits and easements; demonstration plant definitive design; construction planning; economic reassessment; technical support; long lead procurement list; and project management. Major work activity continued to be the effort on Demonstration Plant Definitive Design. A Construction Readiness Audit was held on January 14 to 16, 1981 by a Government/Procon team to review the project and assess the readiness of the project to proceed into the construction phase. Documents for the 60% Design Review were prepared for ICGG review and submitted to the Contracting Officer's authorized representative prior to transmittal to the Corps of Engineers for review. The Corps of Engineers conducted a design audit. The primary objective of the audit was to prepare an independent estimate of the work remaining to complete Phase I of the project. Work continued on the production of a single bid package for the Demonstration Plant, suitable for release to a single constructor, and organized so it can be easily broken down into subpackages by construction specialty. A formal audit of the ICGG R/QA Plan and implementation thereof was performed February 11-12, 1981 by the Corps of Engineers. The Contract Deliverable Final Feedstock-Product-Waste Disposal Plan was delivered to the Government on February 25, 1981.

  13. Multivariable Robust Control of a Simulated Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Gas Turbine Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsai, Alex; Banta, Larry; Tucker, D.A.; Gemmen, R.S.

    2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a systematic approach to the multivariable robust control of a hybrid fuel cell gas turbine plant. The hybrid configuration under investigation comprises a physical simulation of a 300kW fuel cell coupled to a 120kW auxiliary power unit single spool gas turbine. The facility provides for the testing and simulation of different fuel cell models that in turn help identify the key issues encountered in the transient operation of such systems. An empirical model of the facility consisting of a simulated fuel cell cathode volume and balance of plant components is derived via frequency response data. Through the modulation of various airflow bypass valves within the hybrid configuration, Bode plots are used to derive key input/output interactions in Transfer Function format. A multivariate system is then built from individual transfer functions, creating a matrix that serves as the nominal plant in an H-Infinity robust control algorithm. The controller’s main objective is to track and maintain hybrid operational constraints in the fuel cell’s cathode airflow, and the turbo machinery states of temperature and speed, under transient disturbances. This algorithm is then tested on a Simulink/MatLab platform for various perturbations of load and fuel cell heat effluence.

  14. Report number ex. Ris-R-1234(EN) 1 Local CHP Plants between the Natural Gas and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Report number ex. Risø-R-1234(EN) 1 Local CHP Plants between the Natural Gas and Electricity combined heat and power (CHP) plants in Denmark constitute an important part of the national energy significantly to the electricity production. CHP is, together with the wind power, the almost exclusive

  15. NOVEL COMPOSITE MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN SEPARATION IN GASIFICATION PROCESSES IN VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Schwartz

    2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ITN Energy Systems, along with its team members, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Nexant Consulting, Argonne National Laboratory and Praxair, propose to develop a novel composite membrane structure for hydrogen separation as a key technology module within the future ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plants. The ITN team is taking a novel approach to hydrogen separation membrane technology where fundamental engineering material development is fully integrated into fabrication designs; combining functionally graded materials, monolithic module concept and plasma spray manufacturing techniques. The technology is based on the use of Ion Conducting Ceramic Membranes (ICCM) for the selective transport of hydrogen. The membranes are comprised of composites consisting of a proton conducting ceramic and a second metallic phase to promote electrical conductivity. Functional grading of the membrane components allows the fabrication of individual membrane layers of different materials, microstructures and functions directly into a monolithic module. Plasma spray techniques, common in industrial manufacturing, are well suited for fabricating ICCM hydrogen separation modules inexpensively, yielding compact membrane modules that are amenable to large scale, continuous manufacturing with low costs. This program will develop and evaluate composite membranes and catalysts for hydrogen separation. Components of the monolithic modules will be fabricated by plasma spray processing. The engineering and economic characteristics of the proposed ICCM approach, including system integration issues, will also be assessed. This will result in a complete evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of ICCM hydrogen separation for implementation within the ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant. The ICCM hydrogen separation technology is targeted for use within the gasification module of the ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant. The high performance and low-cost manufacturing of the proposed technology will benefit the deployment of ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant processes by improving the energy efficiency, flexibility and environmental performance of these plants. Of particular importance is that this technology will also produce a stream of pure carbon dioxide. This allows facile sequestration or other use of this greenhouse gas. These features will benefit the U.S. in allowing for the continued use of domestic fossil fuels in a more energy efficient and environmentally acceptable manner.

  16. NOVEL COMPOSITE MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN SEPARATION IN GASIFICATION PROCESSES IN VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Schwartz

    2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ITN Energy Systems, along with its team members, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Nexant Consulting, Argonne National Laboratory and Praxair, propose to develop a novel composite membrane structure for hydrogen separation as a key technology module within the future ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plants. The ITN team is taking a novel approach to hydrogen separation membrane technology where fundamental engineering material development is fully integrated into fabrication designs; combining functionally graded materials, monolithic module concept and plasma spray manufacturing techniques. The technology is based on the use of Ion Conducting Ceramic Membranes (ICCM) for the selective transport of hydrogen. The membranes are comprised of composites consisting of a proton conducting ceramic and a second metallic phase to promote electrical conductivity. Functional grading of the membrane components allows the fabrication of individual membrane layers of different materials, microstructures and functions directly into a monolithic module. Plasma spray techniques, common in industrial manufacturing, are well suited for fabricating ICCM hydrogen separation modules inexpensively, yielding compact membrane modules that are amenable to large scale, continuous manufacturing with low costs. This program will develop and evaluate composite membranes and catalysts for hydrogen separation. Components of the monolithic modules will be fabricated by plasma spray processing. The engineering and economic characteristics of the proposed ICCM approach, including system integration issues, will also be assessed. This will result in a complete evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of ICCM hydrogen separation for implementation within the ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant. The ICCM hydrogen separation technology is targeted for use within the gasification module of the ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant. The high performance and low-cost manufacturing of the proposed technology will benefit the deployment of ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant processes by improving the energy efficiency, flexibility and environmental performance of these plants. Of particular importance is that this technology will also produce a stream of pure carbon dioxide. This allows facile sequestration or other use of this greenhouse gas. These features will benefit the U.S. in allowing for the continued use of domestic fossil fuels in a more energy efficient and environmentally acceptable manner.

  17. NOVEL COMPOSITE MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN SEPARATION IN GASIFICATION PROCESSES IN VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Schwartz

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ITN Energy Systems, along with its team members, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Nexant Consulting, Argonne National Laboratory and Praxair, propose to develop a novel composite membrane structure for hydrogen separation as a key technology module within the future ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plants. The ITN team is taking a novel approach to hydrogen separation membrane technology where fundamental engineering material development is fully integrated into fabrication designs; combining functionally graded materials, monolithic module concept and plasma spray manufacturing techniques. The technology is based on the use of Ion Conducting Ceramic Membranes (ICCM) for the selective transport of hydrogen. The membranes are comprised of composites consisting of a proton conducting ceramic and a second metallic phase to promote electrical conductivity. Functional grading of the membrane components allows the fabrication of individual membrane layers of different materials, microstructures and functions directly into a monolithic module. Plasma spray techniques, common in industrial manufacturing, are well suited for fabricating ICCM hydrogen separation modules inexpensively, yielding compact membrane modules that are amenable to large scale, continuous manufacturing with low costs. This program will develop and evaluate composite membranes and catalysts for hydrogen separation. Components of the monolithic modules will be fabricated by plasma spray processing. The engineering and economic characteristics of the proposed ICCM approach, including system integration issues, will also be assessed. This will result in a complete evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of ICCM hydrogen separation for implementation within the ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant. The ICCM hydrogen separation technology is targeted for use within the gasification module of the ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant. The high performance and low-cost manufacturing of the proposed technology will benefit the deployment of ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant processes by improving the energy efficiency, flexibility and environmental performance of these plants. Of particular importance is that this technology will also produce a stream of pure carbon dioxide. This allows facile sequestration or other use of this greenhouse gas. These features will benefit the U.S. in allowing for the continued use of domestic fossil fuels in a more energy efficient and environmentally acceptable manner.

  18. Multipass optical device and process for gas and analyte determination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernacki, Bruce E. (Kennewick, WA)

    2011-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A torus multipass optical device and method are described that provide for trace level determination of gases and gas-phase analytes. The torus device includes an optical cavity defined by at least one ring mirror. The mirror delivers optical power in at least a radial and axial direction and propagates light in a multipass optical path of a predefined path length.

  19. Life cycle assessment of hydrogen production from S-I thermochemical process coupled to a high temperature gas reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giraldi, M. R.; Francois, J. L.; Castro-Uriegas, D. [Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Paseo Cuauhnahuac No. 8532, Col. Progreso, C.P. 62550, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this paper is to quantify the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated to the hydrogen produced by the sulfur-iodine thermochemical process, coupled to a high temperature nuclear reactor, and to compare the results with other life cycle analysis (LCA) studies on hydrogen production technologies, both conventional and emerging. The LCA tool was used to quantify the impacts associated with climate change. The product system was defined by the following steps: (i) extraction and manufacturing of raw materials (upstream flows), (U) external energy supplied to the system, (iii) nuclear power plant, and (iv) hydrogen production plant. Particular attention was focused to those processes where there was limited information from literature about inventory data, as the TRISO fuel manufacture, and the production of iodine. The results show that the electric power, supplied to the hydrogen plant, is a sensitive parameter for GHG emissions. When the nuclear power plant supplied the electrical power, low GHG emissions were obtained. These results improve those reported by conventional hydrogen production methods, such as steam reforming. (authors)

  20. THE INTEGRATION OF PROCESS HEAT APPLICATIONS TO HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS REACTORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael G. McKellar

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature gas reactor, HTGR, can produce industrial process steam, high-temperature heat-transfer gases, and/or electricity. In conventional industrial processes, these products are generated by the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal and natural gas, resulting in significant emissions of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide. Heat or electricity produced in an HTGR could be used to supply process heat or electricity to conventional processes without generating any greenhouse gases. Process heat from a reactor needs to be transported by a gas to the industrial process. Two such gases were considered in this study: helium and steam. For this analysis, it was assumed that steam was delivered at 17 MPa and 540 C and helium was delivered at 7 MPa and at a variety of temperatures. The temperature of the gas returning from the industrial process and going to the HTGR must be within certain temperature ranges to maintain the correct reactor inlet temperature for a particular reactor outlet temperature. The returning gas may be below the reactor inlet temperature, ROT, but not above. The optimal return temperature produces the maximum process heat gas flow rate. For steam, the delivered pressure sets an optimal reactor outlet temperature based on the condensation temperature of the steam. ROTs greater than 769.7 C produce no additional advantage for the production of steam.

  1. ,"California--State Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesWyoming"Coalbed Methane ProvedDry Natural GasMarketed Production (MMcf)"Plant

  2. ,"Montana Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: EnergyShale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"ShaleCoalbed MethaneGas,Price (DollarsPlant

  3. ,"Oklahoma Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: EnergyShale Proved Reserves (Billion CubicPrice SoldPriceGas, Wet AfterShale ProvedPrice (DollarsPlant

  4. Texas - RRC District 8 Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet)per Thousand Cubic4,630.2per ThousandBarrels) Gas Plant

  5. Colorado Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 633 622 56623 46 47ExtensionsYearWithdrawalsand Plant

  6. Florida Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 1 0 0 0 1979-2013 AdjustmentsYearand Plant

  7. ,"West Virginia Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: EnergyShale ProvedTexas"BruneiReserves inDry Natural GasPlant Liquids, Expected Future Production

  8. Coupled multiphase flow and closure analysis of repository response to waste-generated gas at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeze, G.A.; Larson, K.W. [INTERA Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Davies, P.B. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A long-term assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository performance must consider the impact of gas generation resulting from the corrosion and microbial degradation of the emplaced waste. A multiphase fluid flow code, TOUGH2/EOS8, was adapted to model the processes of gas generation, disposal room creep closure, and multiphase (brine and gas) fluid flow, as well as the coupling between the three processes. System response to gas generation was simulated with a single, isolated disposal room surrounded by homogeneous halite containing two anhydrite interbeds, one above and one below the room. The interbeds were assumed to have flow connections to the room through high-permeability, excavation-induced fractures. System behavior was evaluated by tracking four performance measures: (1) peak room pressure; (2) maximum brine volume in the room; (3) total mass of gas expelled from the room; and (4) the maximum gas migration distance in an interbed. Baseline simulations used current best estimates of system parameters, selected through an evaluation of available data, to predict system response to gas generation under best-estimate conditions. Sensitivity simulations quantified the effects of parameter uncertainty by evaluating the change in the performance measures in response to parameter variations. In the sensitivity simulations, a single parameter value was varied to its minimum and maximum values, representative of the extreme expected values, with all other parameters held at best-estimate values. Sensitivity simulations identified the following parameters as important to gas expulsion and migration away from a disposal room: interbed porosity; interbed permeability; gas-generation potential; halite permeability; and interbed threshold pressure. Simulations also showed that the inclusion of interbed fracturing and a disturbed rock zone had a significant impact on system performance.

  9. Optimum Heat Power Cycles for Process Industrial Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waterland, A. F.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric power cogeneration is compared with direct mechanical drives emphasizing the technical aspects having the greatest impact on energy economics. Both steam and gas turbine applications are discussed and practical methods of developing...

  10. Slag processing system for direct coal-fired gas turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pillsbury, Paul W. (Winter Springs, FL)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Direct coal-fired gas turbine systems and methods for their operation are provided by this invention. The gas turbine system includes a primary zone for burning coal in the presence of compressed air to produce hot combustion gases and debris, such as molten slag. The turbine system further includes a secondary combustion zone for the lean combustion of the hot combustion gases. The operation of the system is improved by the addition of a cyclone separator for removing debris from the hot combustion gases. The cyclone separator is disposed between the primary and secondary combustion zones and is in pressurized communication with these zones. In a novel aspect of the invention, the cyclone separator includes an integrally disposed impact separator for at least separating a portion of the molten slag from the hot combustion gases.

  11. PROCESS PARAMETERS AND ENERGY USE OF GAS AND ELECTRIC OVENS IN INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    PROCESS PARAMETERS AND ENERGY USE OF GAS AND ELECTRIC OVENS IN INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS Dr for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts ABSTRACT The study was conducted to evaluate the energy use of natural gas

  12. Process for removal of hydrogen halides or halogens from incinerator gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huang, H.S.; Sather, N.F.

    1987-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for reducing the amount of halogens and halogen acids in high temperature combustion gas and through their removal, the formation of halogenated organics at lower temperatures, with the reduction being carried out electrochemically by contacting the combustion gas with the negative electrode of an electrochemical cell and with the halogen and/or halogen acid being recovered at the positive electrode.

  13. Design Configurations and Coupling High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor and Hydrogen Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang H. Oh; Eung Soo Kim; Steven Sherman

    2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy is investigating the use of high-temperature nuclear reactors to produce hydrogen using either thermochemical cycles or high-temperature electrolysis. Although the hydrogen production processes are in an early stage of development, coupling either of these processes to the high-temperature reactor requires both efficient heat transfer and adequate separation of the facilities to assure that off-normal events in the production facility do not impact the nuclear power plant. An intermediate heat transport loop will be required to separate the operations and safety functions of the nuclear and hydrogen plants. A next generation high-temperature reactor could be envisioned as a single-purpose facility that produces hydrogen or a dual-purpose facility that produces hydrogen and electricity. Early plants, such as the proposed Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), may be dual-purpose facilities that demonstrate both hydrogen and efficient electrical generation. Later plants could be single-purpose facilities. At this stage of development, both single- and dual-purpose facilities need to be understood.

  14. WATER-GAS SHIFT WITH INTEGRATED HYDROGEN SEPARATION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maria Flytzani-Stephanopoulos; Xiaomei Qi; Scott Kronewitter

    2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project involved fundamental research and development of novel cerium oxide-based catalysts for the water-gas-shift reaction and the integration of these catalysts with Pd-alloy H{sub 2} -separation membranes supplying high purity hydrogen for fuel cell use. Conditions matching the requirements of coal gasifier-exit gas streams were examined in the project. Cu-cerium oxide was identified as the most promising high-temperature water-gas shift catalyst for integration with H{sub 2}-selective membranes. Formulations containing iron oxide were found to deactivate in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Cu-containing ceria catalysts, on the other hand, showed high stability in CO{sub 2}-rich gases. This type gas will be present over much of the catalyst, as the membrane removes the hydrogen produced from the shift reaction. The high-temperature shift catalyst composition was optimized by proper selection of dopant type and amount in ceria. The formulation 10at%Cu-Ce(30at%La)O{sub x} showed the best performance, and was selected for further kinetic studies. WGS reaction rates were measured in a simulated coal-gas mixture. The apparent activation energy, measured over aged catalysts, was equal to 70.2 kJ/mol. Reaction orders in CO, H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} were found to be 0.8, 0.2, -0.3, and -0.3, respectively. This shows that H{sub 2}O has very little effect on the reaction rate, and that both CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} weakly inhibit the reaction. Good stability of catalyst performance was found in 40-hr long tests. A flat (38 cm{sup 2}) Pd-Cu alloy membrane reactor was used with the catalyst washcoated on oxidized aluminum screens close coupled with the membrane. To achieve higher loadings, catalyst granules were layered on the membrane itself to test the combined HTS activity/ H{sub 2} -separation efficiency of the composite. Simulated coal gas mixtures were used and the effect of membrane on the conversion of CO over the catalyst was evidenced at high space velocities. Equilibrium CO conversion at 400 C was measured at a space velocity of 30,000 h{sup -1} with the 10{micro}m- thick Pd{sub 60}Cu{sub 40} membrane operating under a pressure differential of 100 psi. No carbon deposition took place during operation. The performance of the coupled Cu-ceria catalyst/membrane system at 400 C was stable in {approx} 30 h of continuous operation. The overall conclusion from this project is that Cu-doped ceria catalysts are suitable for use in high-temperature water-gas shift membrane reactors. CO{sub 2}-rich operation does not affect the catalyst activity or stability; neither does it affect hydrogen permeation through the Pd-Cu membrane. Operation in the temperature range of 400-430 C is recommended.

  15. Basic Data Report -- Defense Waste Processing Facility Sludge Plant, Savannah River Plant 200-S Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amerine, D.B.

    1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Basic Data Report for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF)--Sludge Plant was prepared to supplement the Technical Data Summary. Jointly, the two reports were intended to form the basis for the design and construction of the DWPF. To the extent that conflicting information may appear, the Basic Data Report takes precedence over the Technical Data Summary. It describes project objectives and design requirements. Pertinent data on the geology, hydrology, and climate of the site are included. Functions and requirements of the major structures are described to provide guidance in the design of the facilities. Revision 9 of the Basic Data Report was prepared to eliminate inconsistencies between the Technical Data Summary, Basic Data Report and Scopes of Work which were used to prepare the September, 1982 updated CAB. Concurrently, pertinent data (material balance, curie balance, etc.) have also been placed in the Basic Data Report. It is intended that these balances be used as a basis for the continuing design of the DWPF even though minor revisions may be made in these balances in future revisions to the Technical Data Summary.

  16. Streamlining the Certification Process for New Power Plants in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Treadway, N.

    resource alternatives and sets up barriers to others. There is general agreement that the financial incentives differ for traditional power plant investments, purchased power, small power production, and demand-side management. The current debate... to construct 1,200 megawatts of base-load capacity to replaced purchased power. Coal and lignite fuel options were proposed in two plant sizes: three 400-megawatt units or two 600-megawatt units. A hearing was set to begin in March 1985. TNP witnesses...

  17. Process Parameters and Energy Use of Gas and Electric Ovens in Industrial Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kosanovic, D.; Ambs, L.

    for industrial applications where electric ovens have predominant use. Tests were performed to obtain the process efficiency and examine cost savings potential in converting electric ovens to natural gas. Preliminary results show that, for the plat studied, cost...

  18. Partial oxidation process for producing a stream of hot purified gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leininger, T.F.; Robin, A.M.; Wolfenbarger, J.K.; Suggitt, R.M.

    1995-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A partial oxidation process is described for the production of a stream of hot clean gas substantially free from particulate matter, ammonia, alkali metal compounds, halides and sulfur-containing gas for use as synthesis gas, reducing gas, or fuel gas. A hydrocarbonaceous fuel comprising a solid carbonaceous fuel with or without liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel or gaseous hydrocarbon fuel, wherein said hydrocarbonaceous fuel contains halides, alkali metal compounds, sulfur, nitrogen and inorganic ash containing components, is reacted in a gasifier by partial oxidation to produce a hot raw gas stream comprising H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, NH{sub 3}, HCl, HF, H{sub 2}S, COS, N{sub 2}, Ar, particulate matter, vapor phase alkali metal compounds, and molten slag. The hot raw gas stream from the gasifier is split into two streams which are separately deslagged, cleaned and recombined. Ammonia in the gas mixture is catalytically disproportionated into N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}. The ammonia-free gas stream is then cooled and halides in the gas stream are reacted with a supplementary alkali metal compound to remove HCl and HF. Alkali metal halides, vaporized alkali metal compounds and residual fine particulate matter are removed from the gas stream by further cooling and filtering. The sulfur-containing gases in the process gas stream are then reacted at high temperature with a regenerable sulfur-reactive mixed metal oxide sulfur sorbent material to produce a sulfided sorbent material which is then separated from the hot clean purified gas stream having a temperature of at least 1000 F. 1 figure.

  19. Partial oxidation process for producing a stream of hot purified gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leininger, Thomas F. (Chino Hills, CA); Robin, Allen M. (Anaheim, CA); Wolfenbarger, James K. (Torrance, CA); Suggitt, Robert M. (Wappingers Falls, NY)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A partial oxidation process for the production of a stream of hot clean gas substantially free from particulate matter, ammonia, alkali metal compounds, halides and sulfur-containing gas for use as synthesis gas, reducing gas, or fuel gas. A hydrocarbonaceous fuel comprising a solid carbonaceous fuel with or without liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel or gaseous hydrocarbon fuel, wherein said hydrocarbonaceous fuel contains halides, alkali metal compounds, sulfur, nitrogen and inorganic ash containing components, is reacted in a gasifier by partial oxidation to produce a hot raw gas stream comprising H.sub.2, CO, CO.sub.2, H.sub.2 O, CH.sub.4, NH.sub.3, HCl, HF, H.sub.2 S, COS, N.sub.2, Ar, particulate matter, vapor phase alkali metal compounds, and molten slag. The hot raw gas stream from the gasifier is split into two streams which are separately deslagged, cleaned and recombined. Ammonia in the gas mixture is catalytically disproportionated into N.sub.2 and H.sub.2. The ammonia-free gas stream is then cooled and halides in the gas stream are reacted with a supplementary alkali metal compound to remove HCl and HF. Alkali metal halides, vaporized alkali metal compounds and residual fine particulate matter are removed from the gas stream by further cooling and filtering. The sulfur-containing gases in the process gas stream are then reacted at high temperature with a regenerable sulfur-reactive mixed metal oxide sulfur sorbent material to produce a sulfided sorbent material which is then separated from the hot clean purified gas stream having a temperature of at least 1000.degree. F.

  20. Novel Composite Membranes for Hydrogen Separation in Gasification Processes in Vision 21 Energy Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, Michael

    2001-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    ITN Energy Systems, Inc. (ITN) and its partners, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, Nexant Consulting, LLC and Praxair, Inc. are developing composite membranes for hydrogen separation as a key technology module within the future ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plants. The ITN team is pursuing a novel approach to hydrogen separation membrane technology where fundamental engineering material development is fully integrated into module fabrication designs; combining functionally-graded materials, monolithic module concept and thermal spray manufacturing techniques. The technology is based on the use of Ion Conducting Ceramic Membranes (ICCM) for the selective transport of hydrogen. The membranes are comprised of composites consisting of a proton conducting ceramic and a second metallic phase to promote electrical conductivity. Functional grading of the membrane components allows for the fabrication of individual membrane layers of different materials, microstructures and functions directly into a monolithic module. Plasma spray techniques, common in industrial manufacturing, are well suited for fabricating ICCM hydrogen separation modules inexpensively, yielding compact membrane modules that are amenable to large scale, continuous manufacturing techniques with low costs. The engineering and economic characteristics of the proposed ICCM approach, including system integration issues, are being assessed. This will result in an evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of the proposed ICCM hydrogen separation approach for implementation within the ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant. The ICCM hydrogen separation technology is targeted for use within the gasification module of the ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant. The high performance and low-cost manufacturing of the proposed technology will benefit the deployment of ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant processes by improving the energy efficiency, flexibility and environmental performance of such plants. Of particular importance is that the proposed technology also results in a stream of pure carbon dioxide. This allows for the facile sequestration or other use of this greenhouse gas. These features will benefit the U.S. in allowing for the continued use of domestic fossil fuels in a more energy efficient and environmentally acceptable manner.

  1. Process Intensification with Integrated Water-Gas-Shift Membrane...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Key Energy Challenges Across U.S. Industry Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key Energy Challenges Across U.S. Industry Gasification Systems 2013 Project Selections...

  2. Thermal Analysis of the Divertor Primary Heat Transfer System Piping During the Gas Baking Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoder Jr, Graydon L [ORNL; Harvey, Karen [ORNL; Ferrada, Juan J [ORNL

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A preliminary analysis has been performed examining the temperature distribution in the Divertor Primary Heat Transfer System (PHTS) piping and the divertor itself during the gas baking process. During gas baking, it is required that the divertor reach a temperature of 350 C. Thermal losses in the piping and from the divertor itself require that the gas supply temperature be maintained above that temperature in order to ensure that all of the divertor components reach the required temperature. The analysis described in this report was conducted in order to estimate the required supply temperature from the gas heater.

  3. LABORATORY OPTIMIZATION TESTS OF TECHNETIUM DECONTAMINATION OF HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT LOW ACTIVITY WASTE OFF-GAS CONDENSATE SIMULANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Nash, C.; McCabe, D.

    2014-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the potential treatment of this stream to remove radionuclides and subsequently disposition the decontaminated stream elsewhere, such as the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), for example. The treatment process envisioned is very similar to that used for the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) that has been operating for years at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and focuses on using mature radionuclide removal technologies that are also compatible with longterm tank storage and immobilization methods. For this new application, testing is needed to demonstrate acceptable treatment sorbents and precipitating agents and measure decontamination factors for additional radionuclides in this unique waste stream. The origin of this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream will be the liquids from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover. The soluble components are expected to be mostly sodium and ammonium salts of nitrate, chloride, and fluoride. This stream has not been generated yet and will not be available until the WTP begins operation, but a simulant has been produced based on models, calculations, and comparison with pilot-scale tests. One of the radionuclides that is volatile and expected to be in greatest abundance in this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream is Technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc). Technetium will not be removed from the aqueous waste in the Hanford WTP, and will primarily end up immobilized in the LAW glass by repeated recycle of the off-gas condensate into the LAW melter. Other radionuclides that are low but are also expected to be in measurable concentration in the LAW Off-Gas Condensate are {sup 129}I, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 241}Pu, and {sup 241}Am. These are present due to their partial volatility and some entrainment in the off-gas system. This report discusses results of optimized {sup 99}Tc decontamination testing of the simulant. Testing examined use of inorganic reducing agents for {sup 99}Tc. Testing focused on minimizing the quantity of sorbents/reactants added, and minimizing mixing time to reach the decontamination targets in this simulant formulation. Stannous chloride and ferrous sulfate were tested as reducing agents to determine the minimum needed to convert soluble pertechnetate to the insoluble technetium dioxide. The reducing agents were tried with and without sorbents.

  4. ANALYSIS OF A HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS-COOLED REACTOR POWERED HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS HYDROGEN PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. G. McKellar; E. A. Harvego; A. M. Gandrik

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An updated reference design for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production has been developed. The HTE plant is powered by a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) whose configuration and operating conditions are based on the latest design parameters planned for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The current HTGR reference design specifies a reactor power of 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 322°C and 750°C, respectively. The reactor heat is used to produce heat and electric power to the HTE plant. A Rankine steam cycle with a power conversion efficiency of 44.4% was used to provide the electric power. The electrolysis unit used to produce hydrogen includes 1.1 million cells with a per-cell active area of 225 cm2. The reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes a steam-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode (oxygen) side of the electrolyzer. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the higher heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 42.8% at a hydrogen production rate of 1.85 kg/s (66 million SCFD) and an oxygen production rate of 14.6 kg/s (33 million SCFD). An economic analysis of this plant was performed with realistic financial and cost estimating The results of the economic analysis demonstrated that the HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear power plant can deliver hydrogen at a competitive cost. A cost of $3.03/kg of hydrogen was calculated assuming an internal rate of return of 10% and a debt to equity ratio of 80%/20% for a reactor cost of $2000/kWt and $2.41/kg of hydrogen for a reactor cost of $1400/kWt.

  5. RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION DEVICES: EFFECTIVENESS IN IMPROVING SAFEGUARDS AT GAS-CENTRIFUGE URANIUM-ENRICHMENT PLANTS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JOE,J.

    2007-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent advances in radio frequency identification devices (RFIDs) have engendered a growing interest among international safeguards experts. Potentially, RFIDs could reduce inspection work, viz. the number of inspections, number of samples, and duration of the visits, and thus improve the efficiency and effectiveness of international safeguards. This study systematically examined the applications of RFIDs for IAEA safeguards at large gas-centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs). These analyses are expected to help identify the requirements and desirable properties for RFIDs, to provide insights into which vulnerabilities matter most, and help formulate the required assurance tests. This work, specifically assesses the application of RFIDs for the ''Option 4'' safeguards approach, proposed by Bruce Moran, U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), for large gas-centrifuge uranium-enrichment plants. The features of ''Option 4'' safeguards include placing RFIDs on all feed, product and tails (F/P/T) cylinders, along with WID readers in all FP/T stations and accountability scales. Other features of Moran's ''Option 4'' are Mailbox declarations, monitoring of load-cell-based weighing systems at the F/P/T stations and accountability scales, and continuous enrichment monitors. Relevant diversion paths were explored to evaluate how RFIDs improve the efficiency and effectiveness of safeguards. Additionally, the analysis addresses the use of RFIDs in conjunction with video monitoring and neutron detectors in a perimeter-monitoring approach to show that RFIDs can help to detect unidentified cylinders.

  6. Realities of verifying the absence of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in gas centrifuge enrichment plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swindle, D.W.

    1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over a two and one-half year period beginning in 1981, representatives of six countries (United States, United Kingdom, Federal Republic of Germany, Australia, The Netherlands, and Japan) and the inspectorate organizations of the International Atomic Energy Agency and EURATOM developed and agreed to a technically sound approach for verifying the absence of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in gas centrifuge enrichment plants. This effort, known as the Hexapartite Safeguards Project (HSP), led to the first international concensus on techniques and requirements for effective verification of the absence of weapons-grade nuclear materials production. Since that agreement, research and development has continued on the radiation detection technology-based technique that technically confirms the HSP goal is achievable. However, the realities of achieving the HSP goal of effective technical verification have not yet been fully attained. Issues such as design and operating conditions unique to each gas centrifuge plant, concern about the potential for sensitive technology disclosures, and on-site support requirements have hindered full implementation and operator support of the HSP agreement. In future arms control treaties that may limit or monitor fissile material production, the negotiators must recognize and account for the realities and practicalities in verifying the absence of HEU production. This paper will describe the experiences and realities of trying to achieve the goal of developing and implementing an effective approach for verifying the absence of HEU production. 3 figs.

  7. Wyoming Natural Gas Processed in Wyoming (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)Wyoming (Million Cubic Feet) Wyoming Natural Gas

  8. Gas separation process using membranes with permeate sweep to remove CO.sub.2 from gaseous fuel combustion exhaust

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wijmans Johannes G. (Menlo Park, CA); Merkel, Timothy C. (Menlo Park, CA); Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas separation process for treating exhaust gases from the combustion of gaseous fuels, and gaseous fuel combustion processes including such gas separation. The invention involves routing a first portion of the exhaust stream to a carbon dioxide capture step, while simultaneously flowing a second portion of the exhaust gas stream across the feed side of a membrane, flowing a sweep gas stream, usually air, across the permeate side, then passing the permeate/sweep gas back to the combustor.

  9. Gasoline from natural gas by sulfur processing. Final technical report, June 1993--July 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erekson, E.J.

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this research project was to develop a catalytic process to convert natural gas to liquid transportation fuels. The process, called the HSM (Hydrogen Sulfide-Methane) Process, consists of two steps that each use catalysts and sulfur-containing intermediates: (1) to convert natural gas to CS{sub 2} and (2) to convert CS{sub 2} to gasoline-range liquids. Experimental data generated in this project were for use in evaluating the commercial potential of the process.

  10. Thermal Hydraulic Analyses for Coupling High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor to Hydrogen Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.H. Oh; R. Barner; C. B. Davis; S. Sherman; P. Pickard

    2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy is investigating the use of high-temperature nuclear reactors to produce hydrogen using either thermochemical cycles or high-temperature electrolysis. Although the hydrogen production processes are in an early stage of development, coupling either of these processes to the high-temperature reactor requires both efficient heat transfer and adequate separation of the facilities to assure that off-normal events in the production facility do not impact the nuclear power plant. An intermediate heat transport loop will be required to separate the operations and safety functions of the nuclear and hydrogen plants. A next generation high-temperature reactor could be envisioned as a single-purpose facility that produces hydrogen or a dual-purpose facility that produces hydrogen and electricity. Early plants, such as the proposed Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), may be dual-purpose facilities that demonstrate both hydrogen and efficient electrical generation. Later plants could be single-purpose facilities. At this stage of development, both single- and dual-purpose facilities need to be understood. A number of possible configurations for a system that transfers heat between the nuclear reactor and the hydrogen and/or electrical generation plants were identified. These configurations included both direct and indirect cycles for the production of electricity. Both helium and liquid salts were considered as the working fluid in the intermediate heat transport loop. Methods were developed to perform thermal-hydraulic and cycle-efficiency evaluations of the different configurations and coolants. The thermal-hydraulic evaluations estimated the sizes of various components in the intermediate heat transport loop for the different configurations. The relative sizes of components provide a relative indication of the capital cost associated with the various configurations. Estimates of the overall cycle efficiency of the various configurations were also determined. The evaluations determined which configurations and coolants are the most promising from thermalhydraulic and efficiency points of view.

  11. System study of an MHD/gas turbine combined-cycle baseload power plant. HTGL report No. 134

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Annen, K.D.

    1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The MHD/gas turbine combined-cycle system has been designed specifically for applications where the availability of cooling water is very limited. The base case systems which were studied consisted of an MHD plant with a gas turbine bottoming plant, and required no cooling water. The gas turbine plant uses only air as its working fluid and receives its energy input from the MHD exhaust gases by means of metal tube heat exchangers. In addition to the base case systems, vapor cycle variation systems were considered which included the addition of a vapor cycle bottoming plant to improve the thermal efficiency. These systems required a small amount of cooling water. The MHD/gas turbine systems were modeled with sufficient detail, using realistic component specifications and costs, so that the thermal and economic performance of the system could be accurately determined. Three cases of MHD/gas turbine systems were studied, with Case I being similar to an MHD/steam system so that a direct comparison of the performances could be made, with Case II being representative of a second generation MHD system, and with Case III considering oxygen enrichment for early commercial applications. The systems are nominally 800 MW/sub e/ to 1000 MW/sub e/ in size. The results show that the MHD/gas turbine system has very good thermal and economic performances while requiring either little or no cooling water. Compared to the MHD/steam system which has a cooling tower heat load of 720 MW, the Base Case I MHD/gas turbine system has a heat rate which is 13% higher and a cost of electricity which is only 7% higher while requiring no cooling water. Case II results show that an improved performance can be expected from second generation MHD/gas turbine systems. Case III results show that an oxygen enriched MHD/gas turbine system may be attractive for early commercial applications in dry regions of the country.

  12. Reduce Natural Gas Use in Your Industrial Process Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This DOE Industrial Program fact sheet describes ten effective ways to save energy and money in industrial process heating systems by making some changes in equipment, operations, and maintenance.

  13. UBC vehicles to run on natural gas by fallEighteen UBC vehicles operated by the Department of Physical Plant will

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Anthony P.

    of Physical Plant will be running on compressed natural gas instead of gasoline by theend of September to bum compressed natural gas instead of gasoline is a fairly simpleoneand willbe carried out by a B

  14. Economics of Milk Products Processing Plants in Texas.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stelly, Randall

    1957-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    - ceiving bulk milk 1 to 4 years and 4 plants started receiving in bulk less than a year ago. Handling Grade "A" milk in bulk on Texas dairy farms began during 1953, when bulk tanks were first installed by Grade "A" farmers. Un- graded milk has been... the high-temperature- short-time method of pasteurizing the milk, 3 em- ploy the flask method and 1 each makes use of the vat method, vat and holding system, batch and plate method. Twelve plants are equipped to cool the milk by the regeneration system...

  15. Experience survey of chloride resistant alloys in process plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakai, J. [Kokan Keisoku, Kawasaki (Japan); Matsumoto, Keiichi [Toyo Engineering Corp., Narashino, Chiba (Japan)

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Society of Chemical Engineers, Japan (SCEJ), and The Japan Petroleum Institute (JPI) have jointly surveyed the experience of so called Chloride-SCC resistant stainless steels in petrochemical plants and refinery plants. The survey covered more than one hundred cases of applications of duplex stainless steels, 400 series stainless steels, high nickel alloys and austenitic stainless steels. The survey included the following: (1) countermeasures taken in advance of or after the occurrence of the damage; (2) environmental conditions of the equipment considered; and (3) performance of the adopted countermeasure materials. As a conclusion, detailed analysis has clarified safe limits of SCC resistant alloys, some unexpected weak points, and remarkable performances.

  16. Membrane loop process for separating carbon dioxide for use in gaseous form from flue gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wijmans, Johannes G; Baker, Richard W; Merkel, Timothy C

    2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a process involving membrane-based gas separation for separating and recovering carbon dioxide emissions from combustion processes in partially concentrated form, and then transporting the carbon dioxide and using or storing it in a confined manner without concentrating it to high purity. The process of the invention involves building up the concentration of carbon dioxide in a gas flow loop between the combustion step and a membrane separation step. A portion of the carbon dioxide-enriched gas can then be withdrawn from this loop and transported, without the need to liquefy the gas or otherwise create a high-purity stream, to a destination where it is used or confined, preferably in an environmentally benign manner.

  17. Control of SOx emission in tail gas of the Claus Plant at Kwangyang Steel Works

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, H.S.; Park, J.W.; Hyun, H.D. [POSCO, Cheonnam (Korea, Republic of). Kwangyang Works; Lee, D.S. [RIST, Pohang (Korea, Republic of). Div. of Environmental Catalysis; Paik, S.C. [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Chung, J.S. [RIST, Pohang (Korea, Republic of). Div. of Environmental Catalysis; [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pilot and/or laboratory studies were conducted in order to find methods for reducing the SOx emission in the Claus tail gas of the cokes unit. The TGT process which is based on the complete hydrogenation of the sulfur-containing compounds (SO{sub 2}, S) into H{sub 2}S and returning to the COG main line can reduce the SOx emission to zero. In case the return to the COG main is impossible, the SPOR process (Sulfur removal based on Partial Oxidation and Reduction) can be successfully applied to reduce the SOx emission.

  18. Waste immobilization process development at the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charlesworth, D L

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Processes to immobilize various wasteforms, including waste salt solution, transuranic waste, and low-level incinerator ash, are being developed. Wasteform characteristics, process and equipment details, and results from field/pilot tests and mathematical modeling studies are discussed.

  19. Process and apparatus for separation of components of a gas stream

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryan, Charles R.; Torczynski, John R.; Brady, Patrick V.; Gallis, Michail; Brooks, Carlton F.

    2014-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and apparatus for separating a gas mixture comprising providing a slot in a gas separation channel (conceptualized as a laterally elongated Clusius-Dickel column), having a length through which a net cross-flow of the gas mixture may be established; applying a higher temperature to one side of the channel and a lower temperature on an opposite side of the channel thereby causing thermal-diffusion and buoyant-convection flow to occur in the slot; and establishing a net cross-flow of a gas mixture comprising at least one higher density gas component and at least one lower density gas component along the length of the slot, wherein the cross-flow causes, in combination with the convection flow, a spiraling flow in the slot; and wherein the spiral flow causes an increasing amount of separation of the higher density gas from the lower density gas along the length of the channel. The process may use one or more slots and/or channels.

  20. Process and apparatus for separation of components of a gas stream

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryan, Charles R; Torczynski, John R; Brady, Patrick V; Gallis, Michail; Brooks, Carlton F

    2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and apparatus for separating a gas mixture comprising providing a slot in a gas separation channel (conceptualized as a laterally elongated Clusius-Dickel column), having a length through which a net cross-flow of the gas mixture may be established; applying a higher temperature to one side of the channel and a lower temperature on an opposite side of the channel thereby causing thermal-diffusion and buoyant-convection flow to occur in the slot; and establishing a net cross-flow of a gas mixture comprising at least one higher density gas component and at least one lower density gas component along the length of the slot, wherein the cross-flow causes, in combination with the convection flow, a spiraling flow in the slot; and wherein the spiral flow causes an increasing amount of separation of the higher density gas from the lower density gas along the length of the channel. The process may use one or more slots and/or channels.

  1. Process and apparatus for separation of components of a gas stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bryan, Charles R; Torczynski, John R; Brady, Patrick V; Gallis, Michail; Brooks, Carlton F

    2013-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and apparatus for separating a gas mixture comprising providing a slot in a gas separation channel (conceptualized as a laterally elongated Clusius-Dickel column), having a length through which a net cross-flow of the gas mixture may be established; applying a higher temperature to one side of the channel and a lower temperature on an opposite side of the channel thereby causing thermal-diffusion and buoyant-convection flow to occur in the slot; and establishing a net cross-flow of a gas mixture comprising at least one higher density gas component and at least one lower density gas component along the length of the slot, wherein the cross-flow causes, in combination with the convection flow, a spiraling flow in the slot; and wherein the spiral flow causes an increasing amount of separation of the higher density gas from the lower density gas along the length of the channel. The process may use one or more slots and/or channels.

  2. 1.0 GAS TRANSFER An important process used in water and wastewater treatment. Also very important when

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stenstrom, Michael K.

    1.0 GAS TRANSFER An important process used in water and wastewater treatment. Also very important = CL (CL + HcVG) (6) where CL = liquid phase concentration, VL = liquid volume, CG = gas phase concentration, VG = gas volume, Hc = dimensionless Henry's law coefficient and M = mass of gas. Now use two

  3. Processes for producing polyhydroxybutyrate and related polyhydroxyalkanoates in the plastids of higher plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Somerville, C.R.; Nawrath, C.; Poirier, Y.

    1997-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a process for producing poly-D-(-)-3-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) and related polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) in the plastids of plants. The production of PHB is accomplished by genetically transforming plants with modified genes from microorganisms. The genes encode the enzymes required to synthesize PHB from acetyl-CoA or related metabolites and are fused with additional plant sequences for targeting the enzymes to the plastid. 37 figs.

  4. Processes for producing polyhydroxybutyrate and related polyhydroxyalkanoates in the plastids of higher plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Somerville, Christopher R. (Portola Valley, CA); Nawrath, Christiane (Palo Alto, CA); Poirier, Yves (Palo Alto, CA)

    1997-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a process for producing poly-D-(-)-3-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) and related polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) in the plastids of plants. The production of PHB is accomplished by genetically transforming plants with modified genes from microorganisms. The genes encode the enzymes required to synthesize PHB from acetyl-CoA or related metabolites and are fused with additional plant sequences for targeting the enzymes to the plastid.

  5. Integration of High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors into Industrial Process Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee Nelson

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is a summary of analyses performed by the NGNP project to determine whether it is technically and economically feasible to integrate high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) technology into industrial processes. To avoid an overly optimistic environmental and economic baseline for comparing nuclear integrated and conventional processes, a conservative approach was used for the assumptions and calculations.

  6. Process Intensification with Integrated Water-Gas-Shift Membrane Reactor

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l L d FNEPA/309Department of EnergyProcess

  7. VolumeExplorer: Roaming Large Volumes to Couple Visualization and Data Processing for Oil and Gas Exploration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    VolumeExplorer: Roaming Large Volumes to Couple Visualization and Data Processing for Oil and Gas dedicated to oil and gas exploration. Our system combines probe- based volume rendering with data processing Seismic interpretation is an important task in the oil and gas exploration-production (EP) workflow [9, 26

  8. Plants in constructed wetlands help to treat agricultural processing wastewater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grismer, Mark E; Shepherd, Heather L

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    constructed wetlands help to treat agricultural processingacross the western to treat winery process wastewater Uniteddocumented relative to treat- discharged downstream. ment

  9. Plants in constructed wetlands help to treat agricultural processing wastewater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grismer, Mark E; Shepherd, Heather L

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Evaluation of constructed wetland treatment performance forof a con- structed wetland for treatment of winery effluent.constructed wetlands for process wastewater treatment at two

  10. Adsorption process to recover hydrogen from feed gas mixtures having low hydrogen concentration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Golden, Timothy Christopher; Weist Jr., Edward Landis; Hufton, Jeffrey Raymond; Novosat, Paul Anthony

    2010-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for selectively separating hydrogen from at least one more strongly adsorbable component in a plurality of adsorption beds to produce a hydrogen-rich product gas from a low hydrogen concentration feed with a high recovery rate. Each of the plurality of adsorption beds subjected to a repetitive cycle. The process comprises an adsorption step for producing the hydrogen-rich product from a feed gas mixture comprising 5% to 50% hydrogen, at least two pressure equalization by void space gas withdrawal steps, a provide purge step resulting in a first pressure decrease, a blowdown step resulting in a second pressure decrease, a purge step, at least two pressure equalization by void space gas introduction steps, and a repressurization step. The second pressure decrease is at least 2 times greater than the first pressure decrease.

  11. New Mexico Natural Gas Processed (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996) in KansasYearDecade Year-0IndustrialThousandProcessed

  12. Tennessee Natural Gas Processed in Tennessee (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteamYear Jan FebThousandProcessed (Million Cubic Feet) Tennessee Naturalin

  13. Ohio Natural Gas Processed in Ohio (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30 2013 Macroeconomicper Thousand CubicProcessed (Million Cubic Feet) OhioOhio

  14. Ohio Natural Gas Processed in West Virginia (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30 2013 Macroeconomicper Thousand CubicProcessed (Million Cubic Feet)

  15. Pennsylvania Natural Gas Processed in Pennsylvania (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30 2013 Macroeconomicper8,170 8,310 8,304 8,368Processed (Million Cubic

  16. Pennsylvania Natural Gas Processed in West Virginia (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30 2013 Macroeconomicper8,170 8,310 8,304 8,368Processed (Million CubicWest

  17. Gulf Of Mexico Natural Gas Processed (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96NebraskaWellsFoot) YearfromProcessed (Million Cubic

  18. Louisiana Offshore Natural Gas Processed in Louisiana (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam CoalReserves (MillionYear(Billion CubicDecadeYear JanProcessed in

  19. Louisiana Onshore Natural Gas Processed in Louisiana (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam CoalReserves (MillionYear(Billion CubicDecadeYear JanProcessed

  20. Louisiana Onshore Natural Gas Processed in Texas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam CoalReserves (MillionYear(Billion CubicDecadeYear JanProcessedTexas

  1. NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent at Processing Plants (Summary)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 04 19343 369 384FuelYear125 137 Monthly

  2. Surfactant based imbibition and induced solution gas drive process: investigation by nuclear magnetic resonance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cox, James Calvin

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    drive mechanism. This imbibition and induced solution gas drive study employed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy techniques to monitor and characterize the progress of oil recovery inside the rock sample core. A specially designed core...SURFACTANT BASED IMBIBITION AND INDUCED SOLUTION GAS DRIVE PROCESS: INVESTIGATION BY NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE A Thesis by JAMES CALVIN COX Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

  3. Efficient gas-separation process to upgrade dilute methane stream for use as fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wijmans, Johannes G. (Menlo Park, CA); Merkel, Timothy C. (Menlo Park, CA); Lin, Haiqing (Mountain View, CA); Thompson, Scott (Brecksville, OH); Daniels, Ramin (San Jose, CA)

    2012-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A membrane-based gas separation process for treating gas streams that contain methane in low concentrations. The invention involves flowing the stream to be treated across the feed side of a membrane and flowing a sweep gas stream, usually air, across the permeate side. Carbon dioxide permeates the membrane preferentially and is picked up in the sweep air stream on the permeate side; oxygen permeates in the other direction and is picked up in the methane-containing stream. The resulting residue stream is enriched in methane as well as oxygen and has an EMC value enabling it to be either flared or combusted by mixing with ordinary air.

  4. Optimal control system design of an acid gas removal unit for an IGCC power plants with CO2 capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, D.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Future IGCC plants with CO{sub 2} capture should be operated optimally in the face of disturbances without violating operational and environmental constraints. To achieve this goal, a systematic approach is taken in this work to design the control system of a selective, dual-stage Selexol-based acid gas removal (AGR) unit for a commercial-scale integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant with pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture. The control system design is performed in two stages with the objective of minimizing the auxiliary power while satisfying operational and environmental constraints in the presence of measured and unmeasured disturbances. In the first stage of the control system design, a top-down analysis is used to analyze degrees of freedom, define an operational objective, identify important disturbances and operational/environmental constraints, and select the control variables. With the degrees of freedom, the process is optimized with relation to the operational objective at nominal operation as well as under the disturbances identified. Operational and environmental constraints active at all operations are chosen as control variables. From the results of the optimization studies, self-optimizing control variables are identified for further examination. Several methods are explored in this work for the selection of these self-optimizing control variables. Modifications made to the existing methods will be discussed in this presentation. Due to the very large number of candidate sets available for control variables and due to the complexity of the underlying optimization problem, solution of this problem is computationally expensive. For reducing the computation time, parallel computing is performed using the Distributed Computing Server (DCS®) and the Parallel Computing® toolbox from Mathworks®. The second stage is a bottom-up design of the control layers used for the operation of the process. First, the regulatory control layer is designed followed by the supervisory control layer. Finally, an optimization layer is designed. In this paper, the proposed two-stage control system design approach is applied to the AGR unit for an IGCC power plant with CO{sub 2} capture. Aspen Plus Dynamics® is used to develop the dynamic AGR process model while MATLAB is used to perform the control system design and for implementation of model predictive control (MPC).

  5. The effect of stratigraphic dip on brine inflow and gas migration at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, S.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Larson, K.W. [INTERA, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [INTERA, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The natural dip of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), although regionally only about 111, has the potential to affect brine inflow and gas-migration distances due to buoyancy forces. Current models, including those in WIPP Performance Assessment calculations, assume a perfectly horizontal repository and stratigraphy. With the addition of buoyancy forces due to the dip, brine and gas flow patterns can be affected. Brine inflow may increase due to countercurrent flow, and gas may preferentially migrate up dip. This scoping study has used analytical and numerical modeling to evaluate the impact of the dip on brine inflow and gas-migration distances at the WIPP in one, two, and three dimensions. Sensitivities to interbed permeabilities, two-phase curves, gas-generation rates, and interbed fracturing were studied.

  6. OPTIMIZING TECHNOLOGY TO REDUCE MERCURY AND ACID GAS EMISSIONS FROM ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey C. Quick; David E. Tabet; Sharon Wakefield; Roger L. Bon

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Maps showing potential mercury, sulfur, chlorine, and moisture emissions for U.S. coal by county of origin were made from publicly available data (plates 1, 2, 3, and 4). Published equations that predict mercury capture by emission control technologies used at U.S. coal-fired utilities were applied to average coal quality values for 169 U.S. counties. The results were used to create five maps that show the influence of coal origin on mercury emissions from utility units with: (1) hot-side electrostatic precipitator (hESP), (2) cold-side electrostatic precipitator (cESP), (3) hot-side electrostatic precipitator with wet flue gas desulfurization (hESP/FGD), (4) cold-side electrostatic precipitator with wet flue gas desulfurization (cESP/FGD), and (5) spray-dry adsorption with fabric filter (SDA/FF) emission controls (plates 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9). Net (lower) coal heating values were calculated from measured coal Btu values, and estimated coal moisture and hydrogen values; the net heating values were used to derive mercury emission rates on an electric output basis (plate 10). Results indicate that selection of low-mercury coal is a good mercury control option for plants having hESP, cESP, or hESP/FGD emission controls. Chlorine content is more important for plants having cESP/FGD or SDA/FF controls; optimum mercury capture is indicated where chlorine is between 500 and 1000 ppm. Selection of low-sulfur coal should improve mercury capture where carbon in fly ash is used to reduce mercury emissions. Comparison of in-ground coal quality with the quality of commercially mined coal indicates that existing coal mining and coal washing practice results in a 25% reduction of mercury in U.S. coal before it is delivered to the power plant. Further pre-combustion mercury reductions may be possible, especially for coal from Texas, Ohio, parts of Pennsylvania and much of the western U.S.

  7. Selfoptimizing control of a largescale plant: The Tennessee Eastman process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    (minimum), reactor pressure (maximum), compressor recy­ cle valve (closed), stripper steam valve (closed A. The process has five major units; a reactor, a product condenser, a vapor­liquid separator

  8. Development and Optimization of Gas-Assisted Gravity Drainage (GAGD) Process for Improved Light Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dandina N. Rao; Subhash C. Ayirala; Madhav M. Kulkarni; Wagirin Ruiz Paidin; Thaer N. N. Mahmoud; Daryl S. Sequeira; Amit P. Sharma

    2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final report describing the evolution of the project ''Development and Optimization of Gas-Assisted Gravity Drainage (GAGD) Process for Improved Light Oil Recovery'' from its conceptual stage in 2002 to the field implementation of the developed technology in 2006. This comprehensive report includes all the experimental research, models developments, analyses of results, salient conclusions and the technology transfer efforts. As planned in the original proposal, the project has been conducted in three separate and concurrent tasks: Task 1 involved a physical model study of the new GAGD process, Task 2 was aimed at further developing the vanishing interfacial tension (VIT) technique for gas-oil miscibility determination, and Task 3 was directed at determining multiphase gas-oil drainage and displacement characteristics in reservoir rocks at realistic pressures and temperatures. The project started with the task of recruiting well-qualified graduate research assistants. After collecting and reviewing the literature on different aspects of the project such gas injection EOR, gravity drainage, miscibility characterization, and gas-oil displacement characteristics in porous media, research plans were developed for the experimental work to be conducted under each of the three tasks. Based on the literature review and dimensional analysis, preliminary criteria were developed for the design of the partially-scaled physical model. Additionally, the need for a separate transparent model for visual observation and verification of the displacement and drainage behavior under gas-assisted gravity drainage was identified. Various materials and methods (ceramic porous material, Stucco, Portland cement, sintered glass beads) were attempted in order to fabricate a satisfactory visual model. In addition to proving the effectiveness of the GAGD process (through measured oil recoveries in the range of 65 to 87% IOIP), the visual models demonstrated three possible multiphase mechanisms at work, namely, Darcy-type displacement until gas breakthrough, gravity drainage after breakthrough and film-drainage in gas-invaded zones throughout the duration of the process. The partially-scaled physical model was used in a series of experiments to study the effects of wettability, gas-oil miscibility, secondary versus tertiary mode gas injection, and the presence of fractures on GAGD oil recovery. In addition to yielding recoveries of up to 80% IOIP, even in the immiscible gas injection mode, the partially-scaled physical model confirmed the positive influence of fractures and oil-wet characteristics in enhancing oil recoveries over those measured in the homogeneous (unfractured) water-wet models. An interesting observation was that a single logarithmic relationship between the oil recovery and the gravity number was obeyed by the physical model, the high-pressure corefloods and the field data.

  9. HIGH RESOLUTION PREDICTION OF GAS INJECTION PROCESS PERFORMANCE FOR HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franklin M. Orr, Jr.

    2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This final technical report describes and summarizes results of a research effort to investigate physical mechanisms that control the performance of gas injection processes in heterogeneous reservoirs and to represent those physical effects in an efficient way in simulations of gas injection processes. The research effort included four main lines of research: (1) Efficient compositional streamline methods for 3D flow; (2) Analytical methods for one-dimensional displacements; (3) Physics of multiphase flow; and (4) Limitations of streamline methods. In the first area, results are reported that show how the streamline simulation approach can be applied to simulation of gas injection processes that include significant effects of transfer of components between phases. In the second area, the one-dimensional theory of multicomponent gas injection processes is extended to include the effects of volume change as components change phase. In addition an automatic algorithm for solving such problems is described. In the third area, results on an extensive experimental investigation of three-phase flow are reported. The experimental results demonstrate the impact on displacement performance of the low interfacial tensions between the gas and oil phases that can arise in multicontact miscible or near-miscible displacement processes. In the fourth area, the limitations of the streamline approach were explored. Results of an experimental investigation of the scaling of the interplay of viscous, capillary, and gravity forces are described. In addition results of a computational investigation of the limitations of the streamline approach are reported. The results presented in this report establish that it is possible to use the compositional streamline approach in many reservoir settings to predict performance of gas injection processes. When that approach can be used, it requires substantially less (often orders of magnitude) computation time than conventional finite difference compositional simulation.

  10. 409g Implementation of Coordinator Mpc on a Large-Scale Gas Plant Elvira M. B Aske, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Norwegian Univ of Sci & Tech (NTNU),

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    constraints. Most of the distillation columns at the Kårstø gas plant have already MPC installed with two409g Implementation of Coordinator Mpc on a Large-Scale Gas Plant Elvira M. B Aske, Dept is not necessary. The key issue is to identify the active "bottleneck" constraint and a coordinator MPC based

  11. Gas-chromatographic identification of volatile products from thermal processing of Bitumen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zenkevich, I.G.; Ventura, K. [Advanced Chemical Engineering Institute, Pardubice (Czechoslovakia)

    1992-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The variety of bitumen industrial brands is evident in the significant variation of composition and ratio of volatile thermal processing products, which makes their detailed characterization difficult. For that reason, in the authors` opinion a simple and easily reproducible method for gas chromatographic analysis and identification of these substances should be of greater interest than gathering more such results. In this report the authors discuss the selection of an optimal combination of group and individual gas chromatographic methods for identification of volatile thermal processing products in the presence of air, using the example of AP bitumen, the main brand used in Czechoslavakia for production of asphalt. 15 refs., 1 tab.

  12. Avoiding Carbon Bed Hot Spots in Thermal Process Off-Gas Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nick Soelberg; Joe Enneking

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mercury has had various uses in nuclear fuel reprocessing and other nuclear processes, and so is often present in radioactive and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes. Test programs performed in recent years have shown that mercury in off-gas streams from processes that treat radioactive wastes can be controlled using fixed beds of activated sulfur-impregnated carbon, to levels low enough to comply with air emission regulations such as the Hazardous Waste Combustor (HWC) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards. Carbon bed hot spots or fires have occurred several times during these tests, and also during a remediation of tanks that contained mixed waste. Hot spots occur when localized areas in a carbon bed become heated to temperatures where oxidation occurs. This heating typically occurs due to heat of absoption of gas species onto the carbon, but it can also be caused through external means such as external heaters used to heat the carbon bed vessel. Hot spots, if not promptly mitigated, can grow into bed fires. Carbon bed hot spots and fires must be avoided in processes that treat radioactive and mixed waste. Hot spots are detected by (a) monitoring in-bed and bed outlet gas temperatures, and (b) more important, monitoring of bed outlet gas CO concentrations. Hot spots are mitigated by (a) designing for appropriate in-bed gas velocity, for avoiding gas flow maldistribution, and for sufficient but not excessive bed depth, (b) appropriate monitoring and control of gas and bed temperatures and compositions, and (c) prompt implementation of corrective actions if bed hot spots are detected. Corrective actions must be implemented quickly if bed hot spots are detected, using a graded approach and sequence starting with corrective actions that are simple, quick, cause the least impact to the process, and are easiest to recover from.

  13. U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1997 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, John H.; Grape, Steven G.; Green, Rhonda S.

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1997, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1997. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1997 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  14. Roles of Rhizospheric Processes and Plant Physiology in Applied Phytoremediation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajakaruna, Nishanta

    such as chelators in enhancing the uptake of toxic metals, focusing on their roles in phytoremediation · Rhizospheric processes 12.1 Introduction Heavy metal contamination of soil and water is a major threat to human). The persistent nature of heavy metal contaminants in the environ- ment has meant that the most commonly used

  15. Natural Gas Processing: The Crucial Link Between Natural Gas Production and Its Transportation to Market

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing ReservoirsYear-Month Week 1 Week 2 Week 3Processing: The Crucial

  16. 6/10/12 UK team advances measurement of gas bubbles in pipelines. | Technology news | Process Engineer... 1/2processengineering.theengineer.co.uk/.../1012631.article

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sóbester, András

    process in the manufacturing, power, oil & gas and petrochemical industries. For instance, the sharp

  17. Gas-assisted gravity drainage (GAGD) process for improved oil recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rao, Dandina N. (Baton Rouge, LA)

    2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A rapid and inexpensive process for increasing the amount of hydrocarbons (e.g., oil) produced and the rate of production from subterranean hydrocarbon-bearing reservoirs by displacing oil downwards within the oil reservoir and into an oil recovery apparatus is disclosed. The process is referred to as "gas-assisted gravity drainage" and comprises the steps of placing one or more horizontal producer wells near the bottom of a payzone (i.e., rock in which oil and gas are found in exploitable quantities) of a subterranean hydrocarbon-bearing reservoir and injecting a fluid displacer (e.g., CO.sub.2) through one or more vertical wells or horizontal wells. Pre-existing vertical wells may be used to inject the fluid displacer into the reservoir. As the fluid displacer is injected into the top portion of the reservoir, it forms a gas zone, which displaces oil and water downward towards the horizontal producer well(s).

  18. Heat Generation by Heat Pump for LNG Plants.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Bjørn Kristian

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ?? Abstract The LNG production plant processing natural gas from the Snøhvit field outside Hammerfest in northern Norway utilizes heat and power produced locally with… (more)

  19. Microemulsion impregnated catalyst composite and use thereof in a synthesis gas conversion process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abrevaya, Hayim (Chicago, IL); Targos, William M. (Palatine, IL)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalyst composition for synthesis gas conversion comprising a ruthenium metal component deposited on a support carrier wherein the average metal particle size is less than about 100 A. The method of manufacture of the composition via a reverse micelle impregnation technique and the use of the composition in a Fischer-Tropsch conversion process is also disclosed.

  20. Microemulsion impregnated catalyst composite and use thereof in a synthesis gas conversion process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abrevaya, H.; Targos, W.M.

    1987-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalyst composition is described for synthesis gas conversion comprising a ruthenium metal component deposited on a support carrier wherein the average metal particle size is less than about 100 A. The method of manufacture of the composition via a reverse micelle impregnation technique and the use of the composition in a Fischer-Tropsch conversion process is also disclosed.

  1. An Evaluation of Low-BTU Gas from Coal as an Alternate Fuel for Process Heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebeker, C. J.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of these factors, the difference between coal and natural gas prices and the project life are difficult to predict. The resulting uncertainty has caused Monsanto to pursue coal gasification for process heaters with cautious optimism, on a site by site basis....

  2. Flow analysis and nozzle-shape optimization for the cold-gas dynamic-spray process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grujicic, Mica

    Flow analysis and nozzle-shape optimization for the cold-gas dynamic-spray process M Grujicic1*, W, maximizes the acceleration of the particles. Furthermore, it is found that if the cold-spray nozzle, a significant increase in the average velocity of the particles at the nozzle exit can be obtained

  3. Development of Fly Ash Derived Sorbents to Capture CO2 from Flue Gas of Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; John M. Andresen; Yinzhi Zhang; Zhe Lu

    2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This research program focused on the development of fly ash derived sorbents to capture CO{sub 2} from power plant flue gas emissions. The fly ash derived sorbents developed represent an affordable alternative to existing methods using specialized activated carbons and molecular sieves, that tend to be very expensive and hinder the viability of the CO{sub 2} sorption process due to economic constraints. Under Task 1 'Procurement and characterization of a suite of fly ashes', 10 fly ash samples, named FAS-1 to -10, were collected from different combustors with different feedstocks, including bituminous coal, PRB coal and biomass. These samples presented a wide range of LOI value from 0.66-84.0%, and different burn-off profiles. The samples also spanned a wide range of total specific surface area and pore volume. These variations reflect the difference in the feedstock, types of combustors, collection hopper, and the beneficiation technologies the different fly ashes underwent. Under Task 2 'Preparation of fly ash derived sorbents', the fly ash samples were activated by steam. Nitrogen adsorption isotherms were used to characterize the resultant activated samples. The cost-saving one-step activation process applied was successfully used to increase the surface area and pore volume of all the fly ash samples. The activated samples present very different surface areas and pore volumes due to the range in physical and chemical properties of their precursors. Furthermore, one activated fly ash sample, FAS-4, was loaded with amine-containing chemicals (MEA, DEA, AMP, and MDEA). The impregnation significantly decreased the surface area and pore volume of the parent activated fly ash sample. Under Task 3 'Capture of CO{sub 2} by fly ash derived sorbents', sample FAS-10 and its deashed counterpart before and after impregnation of chemical PEI were used for the CO{sub 2} adsorption at different temperatures. The sample FAS-10 exhibited a CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity of 17.5mg/g at 30 C, and decreases to 10.25mg/g at 75 C, while those for de-ashed counterpart are 43.5mg/g and 22.0 mg/g at 30 C and 75 C, respectively. After loading PEI, the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increased to 93.6 mg/g at 75 C for de-ashed sample and 62.1 mg/g at 75 C for raw fly ash sample. The activated fly ash, FAS-4, and its chemical loaded counterparts were tested for CO{sub 2} capture capacity. The activated carbon exhibited a CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity of 40.3mg/g at 30 C that decreased to 18.5mg/g at 70 C and 7.7mg/g at 120 C. The CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity profiles changed significantly after impregnation. For the MEA loaded sample the capacity increased to 68.6mg/g at 30 C. The loading of MDEA and DEA initially decreased the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity at 30 C compared to the parent sample but increased to 40.6 and 37.1mg/g, respectively, when the temperature increased to 70 C. The loading of AMP decrease the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity compared to the parent sample under all the studied temperatures. Under Task 4 'Comparison of the CO{sub 2} capture by fly ash derived sorbents with commercial sorbents', the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities of selected activated fly ash carbons were compared to commercial activated carbons. The CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity of fly ash derived activated carbon, FAS-4, and its chemical loaded counterpart presented CO{sub 2} capture capacities close to 7 wt%, which are comparable to, and even better than, the published values of 3-4%.

  4. Laboratory Evaporation Testing Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adamson, Duane J.; Nash, Charles A.; McCabe, Daniel J.; Crawford, Charles L.; Wilmarth, William R.

    2014-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream, LAW Off-Gas Condensate, from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of canistered glass waste forms. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to be within acceptable concentration ranges in the LAW glass. Diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and investigates auxiliary evaporation to enable another disposition path. Unless an auxiliary evaporator is used, returning the stream to the tank farms would require evaporation in the 242-A evaporator. This stream is expected to be unusual because it will be very high in corrosive species that are volatile in the melter (chloride, fluoride, sulfur), will have high ammonia, and will contain carryover particulates of glass-former chemicals. These species have potential to cause corrosion of tanks and equipment, precipitation of solids, release of ammonia gas vapors, and scale in the tank farm evaporator. Routing this stream to the tank farms does not permanently divert it from recycling into the WTP, only temporarily stores it prior to reprocessing. Testing is normally performed to demonstrate acceptable conditions and limits for these compounds in wastes sent to the tank farms. The primary parameter of this phase of the test program was measuring the formation of solids during evaporation in order to assess the compatibility of the stream with the evaporator and transfer and storage equipment. The origin of this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream will be the liquids from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW facility melter offgas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover. The soluble components are expected to be mostly sodium and ammonium salts of nitrate, chloride, and fluoride. This stream has not been generated yet, and, thus, the composition will not be available until the WTP begins operation, but a simulant has been produced based on models, calculations, and comparison with pilot-scale tests. This report discusses results of evaporation testing of the simulant. Two conditions were tested, one with the simulant at near neutral pH, and a second at alkaline pH. The neutral pH test is comparable to the conditions in the Hanford Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) evaporator, although that evaporator operates at near atmospheric pressure and tests were done under vacuum. For the alkaline test, the target pH was based on the tank farm corrosion control program requirements, and the test protocol and equipment was comparable to that used for routine evaluation of feed compatibility studies for the 242-A evaporator. One of the

  5. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant/Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Irradiation Experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Blaine Grover

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States Department of Energy’s Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Program will be irradiating eight separate low enriched uranium (LEU) tri-isotopic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The ATR has a long history of irradiation testing in support of reactor development and the INL has been designated as the new United States Department of Energy’s lead laboratory for nuclear energy development. The ATR is one of the world’s premiere test reactors for performing long term, high flux, and/or large volume irradiation test programs. These irradiations and fuel development are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States, and will be irradiated over the next ten years to demonstrate and qualify new particle fuel for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, to qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, to support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and to provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing. The experiments, which will each consist of at least six separate capsules, will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line temperature monitoring and control of each capsule. The sweep gas will also have on-line fission product monitoring on its effluent to track performance of the fuel in each individual capsule during irradiation. The first experiment (designated AGR-1) started irradiation in December 2006, and the second experiment (AGR-2) is currently in the design phase. The design of test trains, as well as the support systems and fission product monitoring system that will monitor and control the experiment during irradiation will be discussed. In addition, the purpose and differences between the two experiments will be compared and the irradiation results to date on the first experiment will be presented.

  6. Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report. Volume 2. Appendices G, H, and I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.

    1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final report, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluation, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as Appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

  7. Investigation of physico-chemical processes in hypervelocity MHD-gas acceleration wind tunnels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alfyorov, V.I.; Dmitriev, L.M.; Yegorov, B.V.; Markachev, Yu.E. [Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI), Zhukovsky (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The calculation results for nonequilibrium physicochemical processes in the circuit of the hypersonic MHD-gas acceleration wind tunnel are presented. The flow in the primary nozzle is shown to be in thermodynamic equilibrium at To=3400 K, Po=(2{approximately}3)x10{sup 5} Pa, M=2 used in the plenum chamber. Variations in the static pressure due to oxidation reaction of Na, K are pointed out. The channels of energy transfer from the electric field to different degrees of freedom of an accelerated gas with Na, K seeds are considered. The calculation procedure for gas dynamic and kinetic processes in the MHD-channel using measured parameters is suggested. The calculated results are compared with the data obtained in a thermodynamic gas equilibrium assumption. The flow in the secondary nozzle is calculated under the same assumptions and the gas parameters at its exit are evaluated. Particular attention is given to the influence of seeds on flows over bodies. It is shown that the seeds exert a very small influence on the flow behind a normal shock wave. The seeds behind an oblique shock wave accelerate deactivation of vibrations of N{sub 2}, but this effect is insignificant.

  8. Ames expedited site characterization demonstration at the former manufactured gas plant site, Marshalltown, Iowa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bevolo, A.J.; Kjartanson, B.H.; Wonder, J.D.

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of the Ames Expedited Site Characterization (ESC) project is to evaluate and promote both innovative technologies (IT) and state-of-the-practice technologies (SOPT) for site characterization and monitoring. In April and May 1994, the ESC project conducted site characterization, technology comparison, and stakeholder demonstration activities at a former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) owned by Iowa Electric Services (IES) Utilities, Inc., in Marshalltown, Iowa. Three areas of technology were fielded at the Marshalltown FMGP site: geophysical, analytical and data integration. The geophysical technologies are designed to assess the subsurface geological conditions so that the location, fate and transport of the target contaminants may be assessed and forecasted. The analytical technologies/methods are designed to detect and quantify the target contaminants. The data integration technology area consists of hardware and software systems designed to integrate all the site information compiled and collected into a conceptual site model on a daily basis at the site; this conceptual model then becomes the decision-support tool. Simultaneous fielding of different methods within each of the three areas of technology provided data for direct comparison of the technologies fielded, both SOPT and IT. This document reports the results of the site characterization, technology comparison, and ESC demonstration activities associated with the Marshalltown FMGP site. 124 figs., 27 tabs.

  9. Balance of Plant System Analysis and Component Design of Turbo-Machinery for High Temperature Gas Reactor Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald G. Ballinger Chunyun Wang Andrew Kadak Neil Todreas

    2004-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Modular Pebble Bed Reactor system (MPBR) requires a gas turbine cycle (Brayton cycle) as the power conversion system for it to achieve economic competitiveness as a Generation IV nuclear system. The availability of controllable helium turbomachinery and compact heat exchangers are thus the critical enabling technology for the gas turbine cycle. The development of an initial reference design for an indirect helium cycle has been accomplished with the overriding constraint that this design could be built with existing technology and complies with all current codes and standards. Using the initial reference design, limiting features were identified. Finally, an optimized reference design was developed by identifying key advances in the technology that could reasonably be expected to be achieved with limited R&D. This final reference design is an indirect, intercooled and recuperated cycle consisting of a three-shaft arrangement for the turbomachinery system. A critical part of the design process involved the interaction between individual component design and overall plant performance. The helium cycle overall efficiency is significantly influenced by performance of individual components. Changes in the design of one component, a turbine for example, often required changes in other components. To allow for the optimization of the overall design with these interdependencies, a detailed steady state and transient control model was developed. The use of the steady state and transient models as a part of an iterative design process represents a key contribution of this work. A dynamic model, MPBRSim, has been developed. The model integrates the reactor core and the power conversion system simultaneously. Physical parameters such as the heat exchangers; weights and practical performance maps such as the turbine characteristics and compressor characteristics are incorporated into the model. The individual component models as well as the fully integrated model of the power conversion system have been verified with an industry-standard general thermal-fluid code Flownet. With respect to the dynamic model, bypass valve control and inventory control have been used as the primary control methods for the power conversion system. By performing simulation using the dynamic model with the designed control scheme, the combination of bypass and inventory control was optimized to assure system stability within design temperature and pressure limits. Bypass control allows for rapid control system response while inventory control allows for ultimate steady state operation at part power very near the optimum operating point for the system. Load transients simulations show that the indirect, three-shaft arrangement gas turbine power conversion system is stable and controllable. For the indirect cycle the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) is the interface between the reactor and the turbomachinery systems. As a part of the design effort the IHX was identified as the key component in the system. Two technologies, printed circuit and compact plate-fin, were investigated that have the promise of meeting the design requirements for the system. The reference design incorporates the possibility of using either technology although the compact plate-fin design was chosen for subsequent analysis. The thermal design and parametric analysis with an IHX and recuperator using the plate-fin configuration have been performed. As a three-shaft arrangement, the turbo-shaft sets consist of a pair of turbine/compressor sets (high pressure and low pressure turbines with same-shaft compressor) and a power turbine coupled with a synchronous generator. The turbines and compressors are all axial type and the shaft configuration is horizontal. The core outlet/inlet temperatures are 900/520 C, and the optimum pressure ratio in the power conversion cycle is 2.9. The design achieves a plant net efficiency of approximately 48%.

  10. Effect of flue gas impurities on the process of injection and storage of carbon dioxide in depleted gas reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nogueira de Mago, Marjorie Carolina

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , corefloods were conducted at 1,500 psig and 70??C, in which flue gas was injected into an Austin chalk core containing initially methane. Two types of flue gases were injected: dehydrated flue gas with 13.574 mole% CO2 (Gas A), and treated flue gas (N2, O2...

  11. Laboratory Scoping Tests Of Decontamination Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.; Nash, Charles A.; Crawford, Charles L.; McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.

    2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the potential treatment of this stream to remove radionuclides and subsequently disposition the decontaminated stream elsewhere, such as the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), for example. The treatment process envisioned is very similar to that used for the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) that has been operating for years at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and focuses on using mature radionuclide removal technologies that are also compatible with longterm tank storage and immobilization methods. For this new application, testing is needed to demonstrate acceptable treatment sorbents and precipitating agents and measure decontamination factors for additional radionuclides in this unique waste stream. The origin of this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream will be the liquids from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover. The soluble components are expected to be mostly sodium and ammonium salts of nitrate, chloride, and fluoride. This stream has not been generated yet and will not be available until the WTP begins operation, but a simulant has been produced based on models, calculations, and comparison with pilot-scale tests. One of the radionuclides that is volatile and expected to be in high concentration in this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream is Technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc). Technetium will not be removed from the aqueous waste in the Hanford WTP, and will primarily end up immobilized in the LAW glass by repeated recycle of the off-gas condensate into the LAW melter. Other radionuclides that are also expected to be in appreciable concentration in the LAW Off-Gas Condensate are {sup 129}I, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 241}Am. This report discusses results of preliminary radionuclide decontamination testing of the simulant. Testing examined use of Monosodium Titanate (MST) to remove {sup 90}Sr and actinides, inorganic reducing agents for {sup 99}Tc, and zeolites for {sup 137}Cs. Test results indicate that excellent removal of {sup 99}Tc was achieved using Sn(II)Cl{sub 2} as a reductant, coupled with sorption onto hydroxyapatite, even in the presence of air and at room temperature. This process was very effective at neutral pH, with a Decontamination Factor (DF) >577 in two hours. It was less effective at alkaline pH. Conversely, removal of the cesium was more effective at alka

  12. Purge gas protected transportable pressurized fuel cell modules and their operation in a power plant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zafred, P.R.; Dederer, J.T.; Gillett, J.E.; Basel, R.A.; Antenucci, A.B.

    1996-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell generator apparatus and method of its operation involves: passing pressurized oxidant gas and pressurized fuel gas into modules containing fuel cells, where the modules are each enclosed by a module housing surrounded by an axially elongated pressure vessel, and where there is a purge gas volume between the module housing and pressure vessel; passing pressurized purge gas through the purge gas volume to dilute any unreacted fuel gas from the modules; and passing exhaust gas and circulated purge gas and any unreacted fuel gas out of the pressure vessel; where the fuel cell generator apparatus is transportable when the pressure vessel is horizontally disposed, providing a low center of gravity. 11 figs.

  13. Purge gas protected transportable pressurized fuel cell modules and their operation in a power plant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zafred, Paolo R. (Pittsburgh, PA); Dederer, Jeffrey T. (Valencia, PA); Gillett, James E. (Greensburg, PA); Basel, Richard A. (Plub Borough, PA); Antenucci, Annette B. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell generator apparatus and method of its operation involves: passing pressurized oxidant gas, (O) and pressurized fuel gas, (F), into fuel cell modules, (10 and 12), containing fuel cells, where the modules are each enclosed by a module housing (18), surrounded by an axially elongated pressure vessel (64), where there is a purge gas volume, (62), between the module housing and pressure vessel; passing pressurized purge gas, (P), through the purge gas volume, (62), to dilute any unreacted fuel gas from the modules; and passing exhaust gas, (82), and circulated purge gas and any unreacted fuel gas out of the pressure vessel; where the fuel cell generator apparatus is transpatable when the pressure vessel (64) is horizontally disposed, providing a low center of gravity.

  14. Partitioning of mercury, arsenic, selenium, boron, and chloride in a full-scale coal combustion process equipped with selective catalytic reduction, electrostatic precipitation, and flue gas desulfurization systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chin-Min Cheng; Pauline Hack; Paul Chu; Yung-Nan Chang; Ting-Yu Lin; Chih-Sheng Ko; Po-Han Chiang; Cheng-Chun He; Yuan-Min Lai; Wei-Ping Pan [Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY (United States). Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology

    2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A full-scale field study was carried out at a 795 MWe coal-fired power plant equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR), an electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems to investigate the distribution of selected trace elements (i.e., mercury, arsenic, selenium, boron, and chloride) from coal, FGD reagent slurry, makeup water to flue gas, solid byproduct, and wastewater streams. Flue gases were collected from the SCR outlet, ESP inlet, FGD inlet, and stack. Concurrent with flue gas sampling, coal, bottom ash, economizer ash, and samples from the FGD process were also collected for elemental analysis. By combining plant operation parameters, the overall material balances of selected elements were established. The removal efficiencies of As, Se, Hg, and B by the ESP unit were 88, 56, 17, and 8%, respectively. Only about 2.5% of Cl was condensed and removed from flue gas by fly ash. The FGD process removed over 90% of Cl, 77% of B, 76% of Hg, 30% of Se, and 5% of As. About 90% and 99% of the FGD-removed Hg and Se were associated with gypsum. For B and Cl, over 99% were discharged from the coal combustion process with the wastewater. Mineral trona (trisodium hydrogendicarbonate dehydrate, Na{sub 3}H(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O) was injected before the ESP unit to control the emission of sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}). By comparing the trace elements compositions in the fly ash samples collected from the locations before and after the trona injection, the injection of trona did not show an observable effect on the partitioning behaviors of selenium and arsenic, but it significantly increased the adsorption of mercury onto fly ash. The stack emissions of mercury, boron, selenium, and chloride were for the most part in the gas phase. 47 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

  15. Method of and apparatus for preheating pressurized fluidized bed combustor and clean-up subsystem of a gas turbine power plant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cole, Rossa W. (E. Rutherford, NJ); Zoll, August H. (Cedar Grove, NJ)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a gas turbine power plant having a pressurized fluidized bed combustor, gas turbine-air compressor subsystem and a gas clean-up subsystem interconnected for fluid flow therethrough, a pipe communicating the outlet of the compressor of the gas turbine-air compressor subsystem with the interior of the pressurized fluidized bed combustor and the gas clean-up subsystem to provide for flow of compressed air, heated by the heat of compression, therethrough. The pressurized fluidized bed combustor and gas clean-up subsystem are vented to atmosphere so that the heated compressed air flows therethrough and loses heat to the interior of those components before passing to the atmosphere.

  16. Thermionic combustor application to combined gas and steam turbine power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miskolczy, G.; Wang, C.C.; Lieb, D.P.; Margulies, A.E.; Fusegni, L.J.; Lovell, B.J.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The engineering and economic feasibility of a thermionic converter topped combustor for a gas turbine is evaluated in this paper. A combined gas and steam turbine system was chosen for this study with nominal outputs of the gas and steam turbines of 70 MW and 30 MW, respectively. 7 refs.

  17. Carbon dioxide hydrogenation to form methanol via a reverse-water-gas-shift reaction (the CAMERE process)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joo, O.S.; Jung, K.D.; Han, S.H.; Uhm, S.J. [Korea Inst. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Catalysis Lab.] [Korea Inst. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Catalysis Lab.; Moon, I. [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Rozovskii, A.Y.; Lin, G.I. [A.V. Topchiev Inst. of Petrochemical Synthesis, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [A.V. Topchiev Inst. of Petrochemical Synthesis, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The CAMERE process (carbon dioxide hydrogenation to form methanol via a reverse-water-gas-shift reaction) was developed and evaluated. The reverse-water-gas-shift reactor and the methanol synthesis reactor were serially aligned to form methanol from CO{sub 2} hydrogenation. Carbon dioxide was converted to CO and water by the reverse-water-gas-shift reaction (RWReaction) to remove water before methanol was synthesized. With the elimination of water by RWReaction, the purge gas volume was minimized as the recycle gas volume decreased. Because of the minimum purge gas loss by the pretreatment of RWReactor, the overall methanol yield increased up to 89% from 69%. An active and stable catalyst with the composition of Cu/ZnO/ZrO{sub 2}/Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} (5:3:1:1) was developed. The system was optimized and compared with the commercial methanol synthesis processes from natural gas and coal.

  18. Iodine Pathways and Off-Gas Stream Characteristics for Aqueous Reprocessing Plants – A Literature Survey and Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. T. Jubin; D. M. Strachan; N. R. Soelberg

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Used nuclear fuel is currently being reprocessed in only a few countries, notably France, England, Japan, and Russia. The need to control emissions of the gaseous radionuclides to the air during nuclear fuel reprocessing has already been reported for the entire plant. But since the gaseous radionuclides can partition to various different reprocessing off-gas streams, for example, from the head end, dissolver, vessel, cell, and melter, an understanding of each of these streams is critical. These off-gas streams have different flow rates and compositions and could have different gaseous radionuclide control requirements, depending on how the gaseous radionuclides partition. This report reviews the available literature to summarize specific engineering data on the flow rates, forms of the volatile radionuclides in off-gas streams, distributions of these radionuclides in these streams, and temperatures of these streams. This document contains an extensive bibliography of the information contained in the open literature.

  19. Development And Initial Testing Of Off-Gas Recycle Liquid From The WTP Low Activity Waste Vitrification Process - 14333

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.; Nash, Charles A.; Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.; Adamson, Duane J.; Crawford, Charles L.; Morse, Megan M.

    2014-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process flow was designed to pre-treat feed from the Hanford tank farms, separate it into a High Level Waste (HLW) and Low Activity Waste (LAW) fraction and vitrify each fraction in separate facilities. Vitrification of the waste generates an aqueous condensate stream from the off-gas processes. This stream originates from two off-gas treatment unit operations, the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrospray Precipitator (WESP). Currently, the baseline plan for disposition of the stream from the LAW melter is to recycle it to the Pretreatment facility where it gets evaporated and processed into the LAW melter again. If the Pretreatment facility is not available, the baseline disposition pathway is not viable. Additionally, some components in the stream are volatile at melter temperatures, thereby accumulating to high concentrations in the scrubbed stream. It would be highly beneficial to divert this stream to an alternate disposition path to alleviate the close-coupled operation of the LAW vitrification and Pretreatment facilities, and to improve long-term throughput and efficiency of the WTP system. In order to determine an alternate disposition path for the LAW SBS/WESP Recycle stream, a range of options are being studied. A simulant of the LAW Off-Gas Condensate was developed, based on the projected composition of this stream, and comparison with pilot-scale testing. The primary radionuclide that vaporizes and accumulates in the stream is Tc-99, but small amounts of several other radionuclides are also projected to be present in this stream. The processes being investigated for managing this stream includes evaporation and radionuclide removal via precipitation and adsorption. During evaporation, it is of interest to investigate the formation of insoluble solids to avoid scaling and plugging of equipment. Key parameters for radionuclide removal include identifying effective precipitation or ion adsorption chemicals, solid-liquid separation methods, and achievable decontamination factors. Results of the radionuclide removal testing indicate that the radionuclides, including Tc-99, can be removed with inorganic sorbents and precipitating agents. Evaporation test results indicate that the simulant can be evaporated to fairly high concentration prior to formation of appreciable solids, but corrosion has not yet been examined.

  20. Land O'Lakes Shaves Gas Usage through Steam System In-Plant Training

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Twelve participants from 6 different facilities learned and practiced energy efficiency assessment skills during the recent in-plant training at a Land O'Lakes dairy plant in Carlisle, Pennsylvania...

  1. Using auxiliary gas power for CCS energy needs in retrofitted coal power plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bashadi, Sarah (Sarah Omer)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Post-combustion capture retrofits are expected to a near-term option for mitigating CO 2 emissions from existing coal-fired power plants. Much of the literature proposes using power from the existing coal plant and thermal ...

  2. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves, 1992 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1992, as well as production volumes for the United States, and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1992. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production data presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1992 is provided.

  3. Processing constraints on high-level nuclear waste glasses for Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, P. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The work presented in this paper is a part of a major technology program supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in preparation for the planned operation of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). Because composition of Hanford waste varies greatly, processability is a major concern for successful vitrification. This paper briefly surveys general aspects of waste glass processability and then discusses their ramifications for specific examples of Hanford waste streams.

  4. Display device for indicating the value of a parameter in a process plant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scarola, Kenneth (Windsor, CT); Jamison, David S. (Windsor, CT); Manazir, Richard M. (North Canton, CT); Rescorl, Robert L. (Vernon, CT); Harmon, Daryl L. (Enfield, CT)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An advanced control room complex for a nuclear power plant, including a discrete indicator and alarm system (72) which is nuclear qualified for rapid response to changes in plant parameters and a component control system (64) which together provide a discrete monitoring and control capability at a panel (14-22, 26, 28) in the control room (10). A separate data processing system (70), which need not be nuclear qualified, provides integrated and overview information to the control room and to each panel, through CRTs (84) and a large, overhead integrated process status overview board (24). The discrete indicator and alarm system (72) and the data processing system (70) receive inputs from common plant sensors and validate the sensor outputs to arrive at a representative value of the parameter for use by the operator during both normal and accident conditions, thereby avoiding the need for him to assimilate data from each sensor individually. The integrated process status board (24) is at the apex of an information hierarchy that extends through four levels and provides access at each panel to the full display hierarchy. The control room panels are preferably of a modular construction, permitting the definition of inputs and outputs, the man machine interface, and the plant specific algorithms, to proceed in parallel with the fabrication of the panels, the installation of the equipment and the generic testing thereof.

  5. Optimum Reactor Outlet Temperatures for High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors Integrated with Industrial Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee O. Nelson

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the results of a temperature sensitivity study conducted to identify the optimum reactor operating temperatures for producing the heat and hydrogen required for industrial processes associated with the proposed new high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This study assumed that primary steam outputs of the reactor were delivered at 17 MPa and 540°C and the helium coolant was delivered at 7 MPa at 625–925°C. The secondary outputs of were electricity and hydrogen. For the power generation analysis, it was assumed that the power cycle efficiency was 66% of the maximum theoretical efficiency of the Carnot thermodynamic cycle. Hydrogen was generated via the hightemperature steam electrolysis or the steam methane reforming process. The study indicates that optimum or a range of reactor outlet temperatures could be identified to further refine the process evaluations that were developed for high temperature gas-cooled reactor-integrated production of synthetic transportation fuels, ammonia, and ammonia derivatives, oil from unconventional sources, and substitute natural gas from coal.

  6. Process for the manufacture of an attrition resistant sorbent used for gas desulfurization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Venkataramani, Venkat S.; Ayala, Raul E.

    2003-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This process produces a sorbent for use in desulfurization of coal gas. A zinc titanate compound and a metal oxide are mixed by milling the compounds in an aqueous medium, the resulting mixture is dried and then calcined, crushed, sleved and formed into pellets for use in a moving-bed reactor. Metal oxides suitable for use as an additive in this process include: magnesium oxide, magnesium oxide plus molybdenum oxide, calcium oxide, yttrium oxide, hafnium oxide, zirconium oxide, cupric oxide, and tin oxide. The resulting sorbent has a percentage of the original zinc or titanium ions substituted for the oxide metal of the chosen additive.

  7. Simulated coal-gas fueled carbonate fuel cell power plant system verification. Final report, September 1990--June 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes work performed under U.S. Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE/METC) Contract DE-AC-90MC27168 for September 1990 through March 1995. Energy Research Corporation (ERC), with support from DOE, EPRI, and utilities, has been developing a carbonate fuel cell technology. ERC`s design is a unique direct fuel cell (DFC) which does not need an external fuel reformer. An alliance was formed with a representative group of utilities and, with their input, a commercial entry product was chosen. The first 2 MW demonstration unit was planned and construction begun at Santa Clara, CA. A conceptual design of a 10OMW-Class dual fuel power plant was developed; economics of natural gas versus coal gas use were analyzed. A facility was set up to manufacture 2 MW/yr of carbonate fuel cell stacks. A 100kW-Class subscale power plant was built and several stacks were tested. This power plant has achieved an efficiency of {approximately}50% (LHV) from pipeline natural gas to direct current electricity conversion. Over 6,000 hours of operation including 5,000 cumulative hours of stack operation were demonstrated. One stack was operated on natural gas at 130 kW, which is the highest carbonate fuel cell power produced to date, at 74% fuel utilization, with excellent performance distribution across the stack. In parallel, carbonate fuel cell performance has been improved, component materials have been proven stable with lifetimes projected to 40,000 hours. Matrix strength, electrolyte distribution, and cell decay rate have been improved. Major progress has been achieved in lowering stack cost.

  8. Design and simulation of a plant control system for a GCFR demonstration plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Estrine, E.A.; Greiner, H.G.

    1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A plant control system is being designed for a 300 MW(e) Gas Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor (GCFR) demonstration plant. Control analysis is being performed as an integral part of the plant design process to ensure that control requirements are satisfied as the plant design evolves. Plant models and simulations are being developed to generate information necessary to further define control system requirements for subsequent plant design iterations.

  9. Energy recovery during expansion of compressed gas using power plant low-quality heat sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ochs, Thomas L. (Albany, OR); O'Connor, William K. (Lebanon, OR)

    2006-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of recovering energy from a cool compressed gas, compressed liquid, vapor, or supercritical fluid is disclosed which includes incrementally expanding the compressed gas, compressed liquid, vapor, or supercritical fluid through a plurality of expansion engines and heating the gas, vapor, compressed liquid, or supercritical fluid entering at least one of the expansion engines with a low quality heat source. Expansion engines such as turbines and multiple expansions with heating are disclosed.

  10. Fracture Dissolution of Carbonate Rock: An Innovative Process for Gas Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James W. Castle; Ronald W. Falta; David Bruce; Larry Murdoch; Scott E. Brame; Donald Brooks

    2006-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of the project is to develop and assess the feasibility and economic viability of an innovative concept that may lead to commercialization of new gas-storage capacity near major markets. The investigation involves a new approach to developing underground gas storage in carbonate rock, which is present near major markets in many areas of the United States. Because of the lack of conventional gas storage and the projected growth in demand for storage capacity, many of these areas are likely to experience shortfalls in gas deliverability. Since depleted gas reservoirs and salt formations are nearly non-existent in many areas, alternatives to conventional methods of gas storage are required. The need for improved methods of gas storage, particularly for ways to meet peak demand, is increasing. Gas-market conditions are driving the need for higher deliverability and more flexibility in injection/withdrawal cycling. In order to meet these needs, the project involves an innovative approach to developing underground storage capacity by creating caverns in carbonate rock formations by acid dissolution. The basic concept of the acid-dissolution method is to drill to depth, fracture the carbonate rock layer as needed, and then create a cavern using an aqueous acid to dissolve the carbonate rock. Assessing feasibility of the acid-dissolution method included a regional geologic investigation. Data were compiled and analyzed from carbonate formations in six states: Indiana, Ohio, Kentucky, West Virginia, Pennsylvania, and New York. To analyze the requirements for creating storage volume, the following aspects of the dissolution process were examined: weight and volume of rock to be dissolved; gas storage pressure, temperature, and volume at depth; rock solubility; and acid costs. Hydrochloric acid was determined to be the best acid to use because of low cost, high acid solubility, fast reaction rates with carbonate rock, and highly soluble products (calcium chloride) that allow for the easy removal of calcium waste from the well. Physical and chemical analysis of core samples taken from prospective geologic formations for the acid dissolution process confirmed that many of the limestone samples readily dissolved in concentrated hydrochloric acid. Further, some samples contained oily residues that may help to seal the walls of the final cavern structure. These results suggest that there exist carbonate rock formations well suited for the dissolution technology and that the presence of inert impurities had no noticeable effect on the dissolution rate for the carbonate rock. A sensitivity analysis was performed for characteristics of hydraulic fractures induced in carbonate formations to enhance the dissolution process. Multiple fracture simulations were conducted using modeling software that has a fully 3-D fracture geometry package. The simulations, which predict the distribution of fracture geometry and fracture conductivity, show that the stress difference between adjacent beds is the physical property of the formations that has the greatest influence on fracture characteristics by restricting vertical growth. The results indicate that by modifying the fracturing fluid, proppant type, or pumping rate, a fracture can be created with characteristics within a predictable range, which contributes to predicting the geometry of storage caverns created by acid dissolution of carbonate formations. A series of three-dimensional simulations of cavern formation were used to investigate three different configurations of the acid-dissolution process: (a) injection into an open borehole with production from that same borehole and no fracture; (b) injection into an open borehole with production from that same borehole, with an open fracture; and (c) injection into an open borehole connected by a fracture to an adjacent borehole from which the fluids are produced. The two-well configuration maximizes the overall mass transfer from the rock to the fluid, but it results in a complex cavern shape. Numerical simulations were performed to evalua

  11. Development of a Hydrogasification Process for Co-Production of Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) and Electric Power from Western Coals-Phase I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raymond Hobbs

    2007-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Advanced Hydrogasification Process (AHP)--conversion of coal to methane--is being developed through NETL with a DOE Grant and has successfully completed its first phase of development. The results so far are encouraging and have led to commitment by DOE/NETL to begin a second phase--bench scale reactor vessel testing, expanded engineering analysis and economic perspective review. During the next decade new means of generating electricity, and other forms of energy, will be introduced. The members of the AHP Team envision a need for expanded sources of natural gas or substitutes for natural gas, to fuel power generating plants. The initial work the team has completed on a process to use hydrogen to convert coal to methane (pipeline ready gas) shows promising potential. The Team has intentionally slanted its efforts toward the needs of US electric utilities, particularly on fuels that can be used near urban centers where the greatest need for new electric generation is found. The process, as it has evolved, would produce methane from coal by adding hydrogen. The process appears to be efficient using western coals for conversion to a highly sought after fuel with significantly reduced CO{sub 2} emissions. Utilities have a natural interest in the preservation of their industry, which will require a dramatic reduction in stack emissions and an increase in sustainable technologies. Utilities tend to rank long-term stable supplies of fuel higher than most industries and are willing to trade some ratio of cost for stability. The need for sustainability, stability and environmentally compatible production are key drivers in the formation and progression of the AHP development. In Phase II, the team will add a focus on water conservation to determine how the basic gasification process can be best integrated with all the plant components to minimize water consumption during SNG production. The process allows for several CO{sub 2} reduction options including consumption of the CO{sub 2} in the original process as converted to methane. The process could under another option avoid emissions following the conversion to SNG through an adjunct algae conversion process. The algae would then be converted to fuels or other products. An additional application of the algae process at the end use natural gas fired plant could further reduce emissions. The APS team fully recognizes the competition facing the process from natural gas and imported liquid natural gas. While we expect those resources to set the price for methane in the near-term, the team's work to date indicates that the AHP process can be commercially competitive, with the added benefit of assuring long-term energy supplies from North American resources. Conversion of coal to a more readily transportable fuel that can be employed near load centers with an overall reduction of greenhouses gases is edging closer to reality.

  12. Proteolytic processing and mutagenesis of a plant potyvirus helper component-proteinase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oh, Chan-Seok

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -proteinase (MAY 1990) Chan-Seok Oh, B. S. ;M. S. , Korea University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. James C. Carrington All proteins encoded by the plant potyvirus tobacco etch virus (TEV) arise by proteolytic processing of a single polyprotein. Two virus... to separate these proteins occurred poorly, if at all, after in vitro synthesis of a 97-kDa polyprotein. Synthesis of the same polyprotein in transgenic tobacco plants, however, resulted in complete and accurate proteolysis at both termini of HC-Pro. A...

  13. Solar production of intermediate temperature process heat. Phase I design. Final report. [For sugarcane processing plant in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is the final effort in the Phase I design of a solar industrial process heat system for the Hilo Coast Processing Company (HCPC) in Pepeekeo, Hawaii. The facility is used to wash, grind and extract sugar from the locally grown sugarcane and it operates 24 hours a day, 305 days per year. The major steam requirements in the industrial process are for the prime movers (mill turbines) in the milling process and heat for evaporating water from the extracted juices. Bagasse (the fibrous residue of milled sugarcane) supplied 84% of the fuel requirement for steam generation in 1979, while 65,000 barrels of No. 6 industrial fuel oil made up the remaining 16%. These fuels are burned in the power plant complex which produces 825/sup 0/F, 1,250 psi superheated steam to power a turbogenerator set which, in addition to serving the factory, generates from 7 to 16 megawatts of electricity that is exported to the local utility company. Extracted steam from the turbo-generator set supplies the plant's process steam needs. The system consists of 42,420 ft./sup 2/ of parabolic trough, single axis tracking, concentrating solar collectors. The collectors will be oriented in a North-South configuration and will track East-West. A heat transfer fluid (Gulf Synfluid 4cs) will be circulated in a closed loop fashion through the solar collectors and a series of heat exchangers. The inlet and outlet fluid temperatures for the collectors are 370/sup 0/F and 450/sup 0/F respectively. It is estimated that the net useable energy delivered to the industrial process will be 7.2 x 10/sup 9/ Btu's per year. With an HCPC boiler efficiency of 78% and 6.2 x 10/sup 6/ Btu's per barrel of oil, the solar energy system will displace 1489 barrels of oil per year. (WHK)

  14. Integration of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor Technology with Oil Sands Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L.E. Demick

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper summarizes an evaluation of siting an HTGR plant in a remote area supplying steam, electricity and high temperature gas for recovery and upgrading of unconventional crude oil from oil sands. The area selected for this evaluation is the Alberta Canada oil sands. This is a very fertile and active area for bitumen recovery and upgrading with significant quantities piped to refineries in Canada and the U.S Additionally data on the energy consumption and other factors that are required to complete the evaluation of HTGR application is readily available in the public domain. There is also interest by the Alberta oil sands producers (OSP) in identifying alternative energy sources for their operations. It should be noted, however, that the results of this evaluation could be applied to any similar oil sands area.

  15. Regeneration of an aqueous solution from an acid gas absorption process by matrix stripping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T. (Austin, TX); Oyenekan, Babatunde A. (Katy, TX)

    2011-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon dioxide and other acid gases are removed from gaseous streams using aqueous absorption and stripping processes. By replacing the conventional stripper used to regenerate the aqueous solvent and capture the acid gas with a matrix stripping configuration, less energy is consumed. The matrix stripping configuration uses two or more reboiled strippers at different pressures. The rich feed from the absorption equipment is split among the strippers, and partially regenerated solvent from the highest pressure stripper flows to the middle of sequentially lower pressure strippers in a "matrix" pattern. By selecting certain parameters of the matrix stripping configuration such that the total energy required by the strippers to achieve a desired percentage of acid gas removal from the gaseous stream is minimized, further energy savings can be realized.

  16. Project C-018H, 242-A Evaporator/PUREX Plant Process Condensate Treatment Facility, functional design criteria. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, N.

    1995-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides the Functional Design Criteria (FDC) for Project C-018H, the 242-A Evaporator and Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant Condensate Treatment Facility (Also referred to as the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility [ETF]). The project will provide the facilities to treat and dispose of the 242-A Evaporator process condensate (PC), the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant process condensate (PDD), and the PUREX Plant ammonia scrubber distillate (ASD).

  17. Development of a Hydrogasification Process for Co-Production of Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) and Electric Power from Western Coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xiaolei; Rink, Nancy

    2011-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of the research and development conducted on an Advanced Hydrogasification Process (AHP) conceived and developed by Arizona Public Service Company (APS) under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contract: DE-FC26-06NT42759 for Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) production from western coal. A double-wall (i.e., a hydrogasification contained within a pressure shell) down-flow hydrogasification reactor was designed, engineered, constructed, commissioned and operated by APS, Phoenix, AZ. The reactor is ASME-certified under Section VIII with a rating of 1150 pounds per square inch gage (psig) maximum allowable working pressure at 1950 degrees Fahrenheit ({degrees}F). The reaction zone had a 1.75 inch inner diameter and 13 feet length. The initial testing of a sub-bituminous coal demonstrated ~ 50% carbon conversion and ~10% methane yield in the product gas under 1625{degrees}F, 1000 psig pressure, with a 11 seconds (s) residence time, and 0.4 hydrogen-to-coal mass ratio. Liquid by-products mainly contained Benzene, Toluene, Xylene (BTX) and tar. Char collected from the bottom of the reactor had 9000-British thermal units per pound (Btu/lb) heating value. A three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamic model simulation of the hydrodynamics around the reactor head was utilized to design the nozzles for injecting the hydrogen into the gasifier to optimize gas-solid mixing to achieve improved carbon conversion. The report also presents the evaluation of using algae for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) management and biofuel production. Nannochloropsis, Selenastrum and Scenedesmus were determined to be the best algae strains for the project purpose and were studied in an outdoor system which included a 6-meter (6M) radius cultivator with a total surface area of 113 square meters (m{sup 2}) and a total culture volume between 10,000 to 15,000 liters (L); a CO{sub 2} on-demand feeding system; an on-line data collection system for temperature, pH, Photosynthetically Activate Radiation (PAR) and dissolved oxygen (DO); and a ~2 gallons per minute (gpm) algae culture dewatering system. Among the three algae strains, Scenedesmus showed the most tolerance to temperature and irradiance conditions in Phoenix and the best self-settling characteristics. Experimental findings and operational strategies determined through these tests guided the operation of the algae cultivation system for the scale-up study. Effect of power plant flue gas, especially heavy metals, on algae growth and biomass adsorption were evaluated as well.

  18. Historic American Engineering Record, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susan Stacy; Julie Braun

    2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Just as automobiles need fuel to operate, so do nuclear reactors. When fossil fuels such as gasoline are burned to power an automobile, they are consumed immediately and nearly completely in the process. When the fuel is gone, energy production stops. Nuclear reactors are incapable of achieving this near complete burn-up because as the fuel (uranium) that powers them is burned through the process of nuclear fission, a variety of other elements are also created and become intimately associated with the uranium. Because they absorb neutrons, which energize the fission process, these accumulating fission products eventually poison the fuel by stopping the production of energy from it. The fission products may also damage the structural integrity of the fuel elements. Even though the uranium fuel is still present, sometimes in significant quantities, it is unburnable and will not power a reactor unless it is separated from the neutron-absorbing fission products by a method called fuel reprocessing. Construction of the Fuel Reprocessing Complex at the Chem Plant started in 1950 with the Bechtel Corporation serving as construction contractor and American Cyanamid Company as operating contractor. Although the Foster Wheeler Corporation assumed responsibility for the detailed working design of the overall plant, scientists at Oak Ridge designed all of the equipment that would be employed in the uranium separations process. After three years of construction activity and extensive testing, the plant was ready to handle its first load of irradiated fuel.

  19. Steady-State and Dynamic Modeling of Gas-Phase Polypropylene Processes Using Stirred-Bed Reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Y. A.

    Steady-State and Dynamic Modeling of Gas-Phase Polypropylene Processes Using Stirred-Bed Reactors for the continuous gas-phase synthesis of polypropylene using stirred-bed reactors. The model considers the important- terization, and reactor residence time, in addition to the traditional Ziegler-Natta polymerization kinetics

  20. 6th International Conference on CFD in Oil & Gas, Metallurgical and Process Industries SINTEF/NTNU, Trondheim NORWAY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bothe, Dieter

    INTRODUCTION The efficiency of gas-liquid rectors like bubble columns, air-lift or agitated stirred reactors. Especially in case of fast reactions the effi- ciency of chemical reactors significantly depends on the mass6th International Conference on CFD in Oil & Gas, Metallurgical and Process Industries SINTEF

  1. Integrated Process Model Development and Systems Analyses for the LIFE Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meier, W R; Anklam, T; Abbott, R; Erlandson, A; Halsey, W; Miles, R; Simon, A J

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed an integrated process model (IPM) for a Laser Inertial Fusion-Fission Energy (LIFE) power plant. The model includes cost and performance algorithms for the major subsystems of the plant, including the laser, fusion target fabrication and injection, fusion-fission chamber (including the tritium and fission fuel blankets), heat transfer and power conversion systems, and other balance of plant systems. The model has been developed in Visual Basic with an Excel spreadsheet user interface in order to allow experts in various aspects of the design to easily integrate their individual modules and provide a convenient, widely accessible platform for conducting the system studies. Subsystem modules vary in level of complexity; some are based on top-down scaling from fission power plant costs (for example, electric plant equipment), while others are bottom-up models based on conceptual designs being developed by LLNL (for example, the fusion-fission chamber and laser systems). The IPM is being used to evaluate design trade-offs, do design optimization, and conduct sensitivity analyses to identify high-leverage areas for R&D. We describe key aspects of the IPM and report on the results of our systems analyses. Designs are compared and evaluated as a function of key design variables such as fusion target yield and pulse repetition rate.

  2. ,"Mississippi (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: EnergyShale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"ShaleCoalbed Methane ProvedShale GasPlant

  3. ,"New Mexico--East Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: EnergyShale Proved Reserves (Billion CubicPrice Sold toResidential ConsumptionNetGas, WetCrudePlant

  4. ,"Texas--RRC District 1 Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: EnergyShale ProvedTexas"Brunei (Dollars per ThousandPriceDry Natural GasCrudeCrudePlant Liquids,

  5. Process safety management (OSHA) and process risk management (CAA) application. Application to a coke plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graeser, W.C.; Mentzer, W.P.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Risk Management Programs for Chemical Accidental Release Prevention is the name of the proposed rule for the RMP Risk Management Program. The RMP was written in response to several catastrophic releases of hazardous substances. The rule is applicable to facilities that store, process or use greater than threshold quantities of 62 listed flammable chemicals and another 100 listed toxic substances. Additionally, a Risk Management Plan is registered with the EPA, Chemical Safety and Hazardous Investigation Board, state governments and the local emergency planning commission. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (specifically Section 112r) required the EPA to develop a three phase Risk Management Plan for industry: prevention program; hazard assessment; and emergency response program. The Prevention Program closely follows the OSHA`s Process Safety Management Standard. The Hazard Assessment section requires facilities to develop plans for a worst case scenario. The Emergency Response section defines the steps the facility and each employee will take if a release occurs. This section also needs to be coordinated with the Local Emergency Planning Commission. These regulations are described using Clairton Works as an example of compliance.

  6. A study of decision making in the power plant permitting process in Appalachia. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of prior work and prevalent opinion in both private and public sectors suggested that an improved permitting process that assures better communications among decision-making bodies, utility companies and regulating agencies, and which removes inefficiencies could shorten this time lag. Four recently-permitted Appalachian power stations were selected for detailed analysis: Pleasants Power Station, Pleasants County, West Virginia; Miller Steam Plant, Jefferson County, Alabama; Cherokee Power Station, Cherokee County, South Carolina; Homer City Power Station, Indiana County, Pennsylvania.

  7. 1M. Panahi, S. Skogestad ' Controlled Variables Selection for a Natural Gas to Liquids (GTL) process' Controlled Variables Selection for a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    1M. Panahi, S. Skogestad ' Controlled Variables Selection for a Natural Gas to Liquids (GTL) process' Controlled Variables Selection for a Natural Gas to Liquids (GTL) process Mehdi Panahi Sigurd for a Natural Gas to Liquids (GTL) process' Skogestad plantwide control procedure* I Top Down · Step 1: Identify

  8. Flue gas desulfurization : cost and functional analysis of large-scale and proven plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tilly, Jean

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flue Gas Desulfurization is a method of controlling the emission of sulfurs, which causes the acid rain. The following study is based on 26 utilities which burn coal, have a generating capacity of at least 50 Megawatts ...

  9. A RAM (Reliability Availability Maintainability) analysis of Consolidated Edison's Gowanus and Narrows gas turbine power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, B.W.; Whitehead, T.J.; Derenthal, P.J. (Science Applications International Corp., Los Altos, CA (USA))

    1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A methodology is presented which accurately assesses the ability of gas turbine generating stations to perform their intended function (reliability) while operating in a peaking duty mode. The developed methodology alloys the RAM modeler to calculate the probability that a peaking unit will produce the energy demanded and in turn calculate the total energy lost during a given time period due to unavailability of individual components. The methodology was applied to Consolidated Edison's Narrows site which has 16 barge-mounted General Electric Frame 5 gas turbines operating under a peaking duty mode. The resulting RAM model was quantified using the Narrows site power demand and failure rate data. The model was also quantified using generic failure data from the Operational Reliability Analysis Program (ORAP) for General Electric Frame 5 peaking gas turbines. A problem description list and counter measures are offered for components contributing more than one percent to gas turbine energy loss. 3 refs., 18 figs., 12 tabs.

  10. Process for producing ethanol from plant biomass using the fungus paecilomyces sp.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Jung Fu (Lakewood, CO)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing ethanol from plant biomass is disclosed. The process in cludes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the fungus Paecilomyces, which has the ability to ferment both cellobiose and xylose to ethanol, is then selected and isolated. The substrate is inoculated with this fungus, and the inoculated substrate is then fermented under conditions favorable for cell viability and conversion of hydrolysates to ethanol. Finally, ethanol is recovered from the fermented substrate.

  11. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant full-scale feed preparation testing with water and process simulant slurries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaskill, J.R.; Larson, D.E.; Abrigo, G.P. [and others] [and others

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant was intended to convert selected, pretreated defense high-level waste and transuranic waste from the Hanford Site into a borosilicate glass. A full-scale testing program was conducted with nonradioactive waste simulants to develop information for process and equipment design of the feed-preparation system. The equipment systems tested included the Slurry Receipt and Adjustment Tank, Slurry Mix Evaporator, and Melter-Feed Tank. The areas of data generation included heat transfer (boiling, heating, and cooling), slurry mixing, slurry pumping and transport, slurry sampling, and process chemistry. 13 refs., 129 figs., 68 tabs.

  12. Process for producing ethanol from plant biomass using the fungus Paecilomyces sp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, J.F.

    1985-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing ethanol from plant biomass is disclosed. The process includes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the fungus Paecilomyces which has the ability to ferment both cellobiose and xylose to ethanol is then selected and isolated. The substrate is inoculated with this fungus, and the inoculated substrate is then fermented under conditions favorable for cell viability and conversion of hydrolysates to ethanol. Finally, ethanol is recovered from the fermented substrate. 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Final Report - "Foaming and Antifoaming and Gas Entrainment in Radioactive Waste Pretreatment and Immobilization Processes"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wasan, Darsh T.

    2007-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) and Hanford site are in the process of stabilizing millions of gallons of radioactive waste slurries remaining from production of nuclear materials for the Department of Energy (DOE). The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at SRS is currently vitrifying the waste in borosilicate glass, while the facilities at the Hanford site are in the construction phase. Both processes utilize slurry-fed joule-heated melters to vitrify the waste slurries. The DWPF has experienced difficulty during operations. The cause of the operational problems has been attributed to foaming, gas entrainment and the rheological properties of the process slurries. The rheological properties of the waste slurries limit the total solids content that can be processed by the remote equipment during the pretreatment and meter feed processes. Highly viscous material can lead to air entrainment during agitation and difficulties with pump operations. Excessive foaming in waste evaporators can cause carryover of radionuclides and non-radioactive waste to the condensate system. Experimental and theoretical investigations of the surface phenomena, suspension rheology and bubble generation of interactions that lead to foaming and air entrainment problems in the DOE High Level and Low Activity Radioactive Waste separation and immobilization processes were pursued under this project. The first major task accomplished in the grant proposal involved development of a theoretical model of the phenomenon of foaming in a three-phase gas-liquid-solid slurry system. This work was presented in a recently completed Ph.D. thesis (9). The second major task involved the investigation of the inter-particle interaction and microstructure formation in a model slurry by the batch sedimentation method. Both experiments and modeling studies were carried out. The results were presented in a recently completed Ph.D. thesis. The third task involved the use of laser confocal microscopy to study the effectiveness of three slurry rheology modifiers. An effective modifier was identified which resulted in lowering the yield stress of the waste simulant. Therefore, the results of this research have led to the basic understanding of the foaming/antifoaming mechanism in waste slurries as well as identification of a rheology modifier, which enhances the processing throughput, and accelerates the DOE mission. The objectives of this research effort were to develop a fundamental understanding of the physico-chemical mechanisms that produced foaming and air entrainment in the DOE High Level (HLW) and Low Activity (LAW) radioactive waste separation and immobilization processes, and to develop and test advanced antifoam/defoaming/rheology modifier agents. Antifoams/rheology modifiers developed from this research ere tested using non-radioactive simulants of the radioactive wastes obtained from Hanford and the Savannah River Site (SRS).

  14. Human-centered HMI design to support cognitive process of operators in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S. J.; Seong, P. H. [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, 373-1, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, an operation advisory system to aid cognitive process of operators is proposed for advanced main control rooms (MCRs) in future nuclear power plants (NPPs). As MCRs are fully digitalized and designed based on computer technologies, MCRs have much evolved by improving human-machine interface (HMI) design and by adapting automation or support systems for helping operator's convenient operation and maintenance. Various kinds of support systems for operators are developed or developing for advanced MCRs. The proposed system is suggesting a design basis about 'What kinds of support systems are most efficient and necessary for MCR operators ' and 'how to use them together.' In this paper, the operator's operation processes are analyzed based on a human cognitive process model and appropriate support systems that support each activity of the human cognitive process are suggested. Also, the proposed support system is evaluated using Bayesian belief network model and human error probabilities in order to estimate its effect. (authors)

  15. Design and construction of the defense waste processing facility project at the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, R G

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Du Pont Company is building for the Department of Energy a facility to vitrify high-level radioactive waste at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) near Aiken, South Carolina. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will solidify existing and future radioactive wastes by immobilizing the waste in Processing Facility (DWPF) will solidify existing and future radioactives wastes by immobilizing the waste in borosilicate glass contained in stainless steel canisters. The canisters will be sealed, decontaminated and stored, prior to emplacement in a federal repository. At the present time, engineering and design is 90% complete, construction is 25% complete, and radioactive processing in the $870 million facility is expected to begin by late 1989. This paper describes the SRP waste characteristics, the DWPF processing, building and equipment features, and construction progress of the facility.

  16. Using auxiliary gas power for CCS energy needs in retrofitted coal power plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bashadi, Sarah O.

    Adding post-combustion capture technology to existing coal-fired power plants is being considered as a near-term option for mitigating CO[subscript 2] emissions. To supply the thermal energy needed for CO[subscript 2] ...

  17. Recycling of cleach plant filtrates by electrodialysis removal of inorganic non-process elements.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsai, S. P.; Pfromm, P.; Henry, M. P.; Fracaro, A. T.; Swanstrom, C. P.; Moon, P.; Energy Systems; Inst. of Paper Science and Tech.

    2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water use in the pulp and paper industry is very significant, and the U.S. pulp and paper industries as well as other processing industries are actively pursuing water conservation and pollution prevention by in-process recycling of water. Bleach plant effluent is a large portion of the water discharged from a typical bleached kraft pulp mill. The recycling of bleach plant effluents to the kraft recovery cycle is widely regarded as an approach to low effluent bleached kraft pulp production. The focus of this work has been on developing an electrodialysis process for recycling the acidic bleach plant effluent of bleached Kraft pulp mills. Electrodialysis is uniquely suited as a selective kidney to remove non-process elements (NPEs) from bleach plant effluent before they reach the chemical recovery cycle. Using electrodialysis for selective NPE removal can prevent the problems caused by accumulation of inorganic NPEs in the pulping cycle and recovery boiler. In this work, acidic bleach plant filtrates from three mills using different bleaching sequences based on chlorine dioxide were characterized. The analyses showed no fundamental differences in the inorganic NPE composition or other characteristics among these filtrates. The majority of total dissolved solids in the effluents were found to be inorganic NPEs. Chloride and nitrate were present at significant levels in all effluent samples. Sodium was the predominant metal ion, while calcium and magnesium were also present at considerable levels. The feasibility of using electrodialysis to selectively remove inorganic NPEs from the acidic bleach effluent was successfully demonstrated in laboratory experiments with effluents from all these three mills. Although there were some variations in these effluents, chloride and potentially harmful cations, such as potassium, calcium, and magnesium, were removed efficiently from the bleach effluents into a small-volume, concentrated purge stream. This effective removal of inorganic NPEs can enable the mills to recycle bleach effluents to reduce water consumption. The electrodialysis process also effectively retained up to 98% of the organics and can reduce the organic discharge in the mill wastewater. By using suitable commercially available electrodialysis membranes, there were no indications of rapid or irreversible membrane fouling or scale formation, even in extended laboratory scale operations up to 100 hours. Results of laboratory experiments also showed that commercially available membranes properly selected for this process would have good stability to withstand the potentially oxidative conditions of the filtrate. A pilot-scale field demonstration was also conducted at a southern mill, using the D0 filtrate from the bleach plant. During the field demonstration we found serious membrane 2 stack clogging problems, which apparently were caused by fine fibers that escaped through the 5-micron pre-filters, although such a pre-filtration method had been satisfactory in the laboratory tests. Additional R&D is recommended to address this pre-filtration or clogging issue with systems approaches integrating pre-filtration, other separation methods, and stack design. After the pre-filtration/clogging issue is overcome, laboratory development and pilot demonstration are recommended to optimize the process parameters and to evaluate the long-term process parameters. The key technical issues here include membrane lives, control and mitigation of fouling and scaling, and cleaning-in-place protocols. From the data collected in this work, a preliminary process design and economic evaluations were performed for a model mill with 1,000-ton/day pulp production that uses a bleaching sequence based on chlorine dioxide. Assuming 3 m{sup 3} acidic effluents to be treated per ton of pulp produced, the electrodialysis process would require a membrane area of about 361 m{sup 2} for this model mill. The energy consumption of the electrodialytic stack for separation is estimated to be about $160/day, and the estimated capital cost of the electrodia

  18. Process for simultaneous removal of SO[sub 2] and NO[sub x] from gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rosenberg, H.S.

    1987-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for simultaneous removal of SO[sub 2] and NO[sub x] from a gas stream that includes flowing the gas stream to a spray dryer and absorbing a portion of the SO[sub 2] content of the gas stream and a portion of the NO[sub x] content of the gas stream with ZnO by contacting the gas stream with a spray of an aqueous ZnO slurry; controlling the gas outlet temperature of the spray dryer to within the range of about a 0 to 125 F approach to the adiabatic saturation temperature; flowing the gas, unreacted ZnO and absorbed SO[sub 2] and NO[sub x] from the spray dryer to a fabric filter and collecting any solids therein and absorbing a portion of the SO[sub 2] remaining in the gas stream and a portion of the NO[sub x] remaining in the gas stream with ZnO; and controlling the ZnO content of the aqueous slurry so that sufficient unreacted ZnO is present in the solids collected in the fabric filter to react with SO[sub 2] and NO[sub x] as the gas passes through the fabric filter whereby the overall feed ratio of ZnO to SO[sub 2] plus NO[sub x] is about 1.0 to 4.0 moles of ZnO per of SO[sub 2] and about 0.5 to 2.0 moles of ZnO per mole of NO[sub x]. Particulates may be removed from the gas stream prior to treatment in the spray dryer. The process further allows regeneration of ZnO that has reacted to absorb SO[sub 2] and NO[sub x] from the gas stream and acid recovery. 4 figs.

  19. DEVELOPMENT AND OPTIMIZATION OF GAS-ASSISTED GRAVITY DRAINAGE (GAGD) PROCESS FOR IMPROVED LIGHT OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dandina N. Rao; Subhash C. Ayirala; Madhav M. Kulkarni; Amit P. Sharma

    2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the progress of the project ''Development and Optimization of Gas-Assisted Gravity Drainage (GAGD) Process for Improved Light Oil Recovery'' for the duration of the second project year (October 1, 2003--September 30, 2004). There are three main tasks in this research project. Task 1 is scaled physical model study of GAGD process. Task 2 is further development of vanishing interfacial tension (VIT) technique for miscibility determination. Task 3 is determination of multiphase displacement characteristics in reservoir rocks. In Section I, preliminary design of the scaled physical model using the dimensional similarity approach has been presented. Scaled experiments on the current physical model have been designed to investigate the effect of Bond and capillary numbers on GAGD oil recovery. Experimental plan to study the effect of spreading coefficient and reservoir heterogeneity has been presented. Results from the GAGD experiments to study the effect of operating mode, Bond number and capillary number on GAGD oil recovery have been reported. These experiments suggest that the type of the gas does not affect the performance of GAGD in immiscible mode. The cumulative oil recovery has been observed to vary exponentially with Bond and capillary numbers, for the experiments presented in this report. A predictive model using the bundle of capillary tube approach has been developed to predict the performance of free gravity drainage process. In Section II, a mechanistic Parachor model has been proposed for improved prediction of IFT as well as to characterize the mass transfer effects for miscibility development in reservoir crude oil-solvent systems. Sensitivity studies on model results indicate that provision of a single IFT measurement in the proposed model is sufficient for reasonable IFT predictions. An attempt has been made to correlate the exponent (n) in the mechanistic model with normalized solute compositions present in both fluid phases. IFT measurements were carried out in a standard ternary liquid system of benzene, ethanol and water using drop shape analysis and capillary rise techniques. The experimental results indicate strong correlation among the three thermodynamic properties solubility, miscibility and IFT. The miscibility determined from IFT measurements for this ternary liquid system is in good agreement with phase diagram and solubility data, which clearly indicates the sound conceptual basis of VIT technique to determine fluid-fluid miscibility. Model fluid systems have been identified for VIT experimentation at elevated pressures and temperatures. Section III comprises of the experimental study aimed at evaluating the multiphase displacement characteristics of the various gas injection EOR process performances using Berea sandstone cores. During this reporting period, extensive literature review was completed to: (1) study the gravity drainage concepts, (2) identify the various factors influencing gravity stable gas injection processes, (3) identify various multiphase mechanisms and fluid dynamics operative during the GAGD process, and (4) identify important dimensionless groups governing the GAGD process performance. Furthermore, the dimensional analysis of the GAGD process, using Buckingham-Pi theorem to isolate the various dimensionless groups, as well as experimental design based on these dimensionless quantities have been completed in this reporting period. On the experimental front, recommendations from previous WAG and CGI have been used to modify the experimental protocol. This report also includes results from scaled preliminary GAGD displacements as well as the details of the planned GAGD corefloods for the next quarter. The technology transfer activities have mainly consisted of preparing technical papers, progress reports and discussions with industry personnel for possible GAGD field tests.

  20. Researching power plant water recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A range of projects supported by NETl under the Innovations for Existing Plant Program are investigating modifications to power plant cooling systems for reducing water loss, and recovering water from the flue gas and the cooling tower. This paper discusses two technologies showing particular promise condense water that is typically lost to evaporation, SPX technologies' Air2Air{sup trademark} condenses water from a cooling tower, while Lehigh University's process condenses water and acid in flue gas. 3 figs.