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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas phase gip" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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1

Fluid Phase Equilibria 360 (2013) 456465 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Shale gas is an important unconventional energy resource; it has had a game changing effect on natural that in conventional formations. The modeling of phase behavior in shale gas and shale light oil formations provides in the shale gas and shale light oil forma- tions is well productivity and gas-in-place (GIP) estimation [1

Firoozabadi, Abbas

2

Gas-phase chemical dynamics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research in this program is directed towards the spectroscopy of small free radicals and reactive molecules and the state-to-state dynamics of gas phase collision, energy transfer, and photodissociation phenomena. Work on several systems is summarized here.

Weston, R.E. Jr.; Sears, T.J.; Preses, J.M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Gas-Phase Molecular Dynamics  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Gas-Phase Molecular Dynamics Gas-Phase Molecular Dynamics The Gas-Phase Molecular Dynamics Group is dedicated to developing and applying spectroscopic and theoretical tools to challenging problems in chemical physics related to reactivity, structure, dynamics and kinetics of transient species. Recent theoretical work has included advances in exact variational solution of vibrational quantum dynamics, suitable for up to five atoms in systems where large amplitude motion or multiple strongly coupled modes make simpler approximations inadequate. Other theoretical work, illustrated below, applied direct dynamics, quantum force trajectory calculations to investigate a series of reactions of the HOCO radical. The potential energy surface for the OH + CO/ H + CO2 reaction, showing two barriers (TS1 and TS2) and the deep HOCO well along the minimum energy pathway. The inset figure shows the experimental and calculated reactivity of HOCO with selected collision partners. See J.S. Francisco, J.T. Muckerman and H.-G. Yu, "HOCO radical chemistry,"

4

Gas-Phase Spectroscopy of Biomolecular  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gas-Phase Spectroscopy of Biomolecular Building Blocks Mattanjah S. de Vries1 and Pavel Hobza2 1, REMPI, computational chemistry, spectral hole burning, jet cooling Abstract Gas-phase spectroscopy lends. In recent years, we have seen enormous progress in the study of biomolecular building blocks in the gas

de Vries, Mattanjah S.

5

Gas phase thermochemistry of organogermanium compounds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A variety of silyl- and alkyl-germylene precursors have been synthesized and subsequently pyrolyzed in the gas phase. Arrhenius parameters were obtained employing a pulsed-stirred flow reactor for these unimolecular decompositions. These precursors are divided into two major categories by mechanism of germylene extrusion: {alpha}-elimination precursors and germylacetylenes. The extrusion of germylenes from germylacetylene precursors is of primary interest. A mechanism is proposed employing a germacyclopropene intermediate. Evidence supporting this mechanism is presented. In the process of exploring germylacetylenes as germylene precursors, an apparent dyatropic rearrangement between germanium and silicon was observed. This rearrangement was subsequently explored.

Engel, J.P.

1993-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

6

From Solution to the Gas Phase: Factors That Influence Kinetic Trapping of Substance P in the Gas Phase  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

From Solution to the Gas Phase: Factors That Influence Kinetic Trapping of Substance P in the Gas, and David H. Russell*, Department of Chemistry, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843, United of gas-phase, solvent-free biomolecule ions provide a means to investigate conformational preferences

Clemmer, David E.

7

Gas phase 129Xe NMR imaging and spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

5 l l Dynamic NMR microscopy of gas phase Poiseuille flowmetal vapors and noble gases can be used to efficientlypolarize the nuclei ofthe noble-gas atoms. As a result, the

Kaiser, Lana G.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Gas: A Neglected Phase in Remediation of Metals and Radionuclides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The gas phase is generally ignored in remediation of metals and radionuclides because it is assumed that there is no efficient way to exploit it. In the literal sense, all remediations involve the gas phase because this phase is linked to the liquid and solid phases by vapor pressure and thermodynamic relationships. Remediation methods that specifically use the gas phase as a central feature have primarily targeted volatile organic contaminants, not metals and radionuclides. Unlike many organic contaminants, the vapor pressure and Henry's Law constants of metals and radionuclides are not generally conducive to direct air stripping of dissolved contaminants. Nevertheless, the gas phase can play an important role in remediation of inorganic contaminants and provide opportunities for efficient, cost effective remediation. The objective here is to explore ways in which manipulation of the gas phase can be used to facilitate remediation of metals and radionuclides.

Denham, Miles E.; Looney, Brian B

2005-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

9

Gas-Phase Synthesis of Singly and Multiply Charged Polyoxovanadate...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

oxide clusters for subsequent investigations of structure and reactivity. Citation: Al Hasan NM, GE Johnson, and J Laskin.2013."Gas-Phase Synthesis of Singly and Multiply Charged...

10

Substrate-Free Gas-Phase Synthesis of Graphene Sheets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Substrate-Free Gas-Phase Synthesis of Graphene Sheets Albert Dato,*, Velimir Radmilovic, Zonghoon graphene sheets in the gas phase using a substrate-free, atmospheric-pressure microwave plasma reactor. Graphene sheets were synthesized by passing liquid ethanol droplets into an argon plasma. The graphene

Frenklach, Michael

11

Homogeneous gas-phase nucleation in silane pyrolysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Dilute and particle free mixtures of silane in the range of 100 ppm to 10% by volume in different carrier gases were decomposed thermally in a tube reactor. The onset of homogeneous nucleation was determined as a function of temperature and silane concentration for each carrier gas using a CNC with a detection limit of ca 0.01 ?m. The gaseous decomposition by-products, disilane, trisilane and hydrogen were measured simultaneously using gas-phase chromatography. The onset of gas-phase nucleation was found to be inversely proportional to the temperature and influenced by the nature of the carrier gas. In inert gases, no chemical reaction took place between the decomposition products of silane and the carrier gas. In hydrogen, equilibrium displacement with the primary decomposition product (SiH2) lead to a retardation of particle formation. Thus, the temperatures of onset of gas-phase nucleation was higher for mixtures in hydrogen than for mixtures in inert gases.

Frank Slootman; Jean-Claude Parent

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Gas Phase Ion Chemistry of Transition Metal Clusters: Production, Reactivity, and Catalysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This review focuses on the use of mass spectrometry to examine the gas phase ion chemistry of metal clusters. Ways of forming gas phase clusters are briefly overviewed and then the gas phase chemistry of silve...

Richard A. J. O'Hair; George N. Khairallah

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Methylene II. Gas Phase Reactions with Ethyl Chloride  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

27 August 1968 research-article Methylene II. Gas Phase Reactions...free-radical mechanism in which CH abstracts a chlorine or a hydrogen atom from C...in electronic structure rather than energy content. The Royal Society is collaborating...

1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

MOLECULAR SPECTROSCPY AND REACTIONS OF ACTINIDES IN THE GAS PHASE AND CRYOGENIC MATRICES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IN THE GAS PHASE AND CRYOGENIC MATRICES Michael C. Heaven, 1the gas phase or in inert cryogenic matrices. The motivationperturbing conditions (cryogenic matrices). This information

Heaven, Michael C.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Coupling of a two phase gas liquid compositional 3D Darcy flow with a 1D compositional free gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coupling of a two phase gas liquid compositional 3D Darcy flow with a 1D compositional free gas. Masson1 , L. Trenty2 , Y. Zhang1 Coupling of a two phase gas liquid compositional 3D Darcy flow #12 analysis K, Brenner1 , R. Masson1 , L. Trenty2 , Y. Zhang1 Coupling of a two phase gas liquid compositional

Ribot, Magali

16

Gas Phase Electrodeposition: A Programmable Multimaterial Deposition Method for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

plasma induced synthesis,11 and arc discharge12,13 can produce nanoparticles and nanow- ires of various-phase deposition process produces charged tungsten, and platinum and uses externally electrodeposition, arc discharge, atmospheric pressure gas phase deposition, nanoparticle nanostructured electrodes

Jacobs, Heiko O.

17

Coalbed Methane Production Analysis and Filter Simulation for Quantifying Gas Drainage from Coal Seams  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Gas and water production rate analysis of CBM wells help determining dynamic reservoir properties of ... for estimating GIP and its change between particular production periods. Moreover, geostatistics can be use...

C. Özgen Karacan; Ricardo A. Olea

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Crystallization of Ge2Sb2Te5 nanometric phase change material clusters made by gas-phase condensation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Crystallization of Ge2Sb2Te5 nanometric phase change material clusters made by gas- phase=pdfcov Published by the AIP Publishing Articles you may be interested in Nanoscale nuclei in phase change materials phase change material clusters made by gas-phase condensation G. E. Ghezzi,1,2 R. Morel,3 A. Brenac,3 N

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

19

Collaborative Advanced Gas Turbine Program: Phase 1. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Collaborative Advanced Gas Turbine (CAGT) Program is an advanced gas turbine research and development program whose goal is to accelerate the commercial availability, to within the turn of the century, of high efficiency aeroderivative gas turbines for electric power generating applications. In the first project phase, research was conducted to prove or disprove the research hypothesis that advanced aeroderivative gas turbine systems can provide a promising technology alternative, offering high efficiency and good environmental performance characteristics in modular sizes, for utility applications. This $5 million, Phase 1 research effort reflects the collaborative efforts of a broad and international coalition of industries and organizations, both public and private, that have pooled their resources to assist in this research. Included in this coalition are: electric and gas utilities, the Electric Power Research Institute, the Gas Research Institute and the principal aircraft engine manufacturers. Additionally, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the California Energy Commission have interacted with the CAGT on both technical and executive levels as observers and sources of funding. The three aircraft engine manufacturer-led research teams participating in this research include: Rolls-Royce, Inc., and Bechtel; the Turbo Power and Marine Division of United Technologies and Fluor Daniel; and General Electric Power Generation, Stewart and Stevenson, and Bechtel. Each team has investigated advanced electric power generating systems based on their high-thrust (60,000 to 100,000 pounds) aircraft engines. The ultimate goal of the CAGT program is that the community of stakeholders in the growing market for natural-gas-fueled, electric power generation can collectively provide the right combination of market-pull and technology-push to substantially accelerate the commercialization of advanced, high efficiency aeroderivative technologies.

Hollenbacher, R.; Kesser, K.; Beishon, D.

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Products and Mechanism of the Gas Phase Reaction of Ozone with ?-Pinene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Gas phase ozonolysis of ?-pinene was performedin a 570 l static reactor at 730 Torr and 296 K insynthetic air and the products were analysed by acombination of gas phase FTIR spectroscopy, HPLC andIC analyses ...

Richard Winterhalter; Peter Neeb; Dirk Grossmann…

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas phase gip" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Long-Term Changes in Gas- and Particle-Phase Emissions from On...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Changes in Gas- and Particle-Phase Emissions from On-Road Diesel and Gasoline Vehicles Long-Term Changes in Gas- and Particle-Phase Emissions from On-Road Diesel and Gasoline...

22

Gas-Phase Conformation-Specific Photofragmentation of Proline-Containing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gas-Phase Conformation-Specific Photofragmentation of Proline-Containing Peptide Ions Tae-Young Kim and an amide hydrogen. The latter is facilitated by a proline-stabilized gas-phase peptide conformation. (J Am analysis of peptides and proteins in the gas phase provides insight into their intrinsic intramolecular

Clemmer, David E.

23

A Network Model for The Genesis and Migration of Gas Phase  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 A Network Model for The Genesis and Migration of Gas Phase Koukung Alex Chang and W. Brent, of a compositional fluid consisting of water with a dissolved hydrocarbon gas. The model captures both single phase 99% of the (effectively) stored CO2 resides in the liquid phase. Key Words: network model, gas

New York at Stoney Brook, State University of

24

Modeling gas phase nitric oxide release in lung epithelial cells Jingjing Jiang a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modeling gas phase nitric oxide release in lung epithelial cells Jingjing Jiang a , Steven C- dated our model with experimental results of gas phase NO release and intracellular L enzyme on NO production. Our model predicts intracellular L-arginine and gas phase NO release over a wide

George, Steven C.

25

Gas phase contributions to topochemical hydride reduction reactions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Alkali and alkali earth hydrides have been used as solid state reductants recently to yield many interesting new oxygen-deficient transition metal oxides. These reactions have tacitly been assumed to be a solid phase reaction between the reductant and parent oxide. We have conducted a number of experiments with physical separation between the reductant and oxides, and find that in some cases reduction proceeds even when the reagents are physically separated, implying reactions with in-situ generated H{sub 2} and, to a lesser extent, getter mechanisms. Our findings change our understanding of these topochemical reactions, and should enhance the synthesis of additional new oxides and nanostructures. - Graphical abstract: Topochemical reductions with hydrides: Solid state or gas phase reaction? Display Omitted - Highlights: • SrFeO{sub 2} and LaNiO{sub 2} were prepared by topochemical reduction of oxides. • Separating the reducing agent (CaH{sub 2}, Mg metal) from the oxide still results in reduction. • Such topochemical reactions can occur in the gas phase.

Kobayashi, Yoji [Department of Energy and Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Li, Zhaofei [Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Sciences, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Hirai, Kei [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Tassel, Cédric [Department of Energy and Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); The Hakubi Center for Advanced Research, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Ushinomiya-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8302 (Japan); Loyer, François [Department of Energy and Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, UMR 6226 Université de Rennes 1-CNRS, équipe CSM, Bât. 10B, Campus de Beaulieu, 263, Avenue du Général Leclerc, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Ichikawa, Noriya [CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Abe, Naoyuki [Department of Energy and Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Yamamoto, Takafumi [Department of Energy and Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Shimakawa, Yuichi [CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); and others

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

26

Gas-phase thermal degradation behavior of future jet fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a quantitative methodology for the precise determination of the gas-phase thermal stability of two model endothermic fuels (methyl cyclohexane and trans-decalin) and their dehydrogenation products (toluene and naphthalene) under high-controlled experimental conditions. Tetrahydrodicyclopentadiene (JP-10), a naphthenic future jet fuel, has also been tested for comparison purposes. On the basis of the previous studies, these laboratory investigations have been performed in a gas-phase environment with less than 1 ppm oxygen present. Exposure temperature has been selected as the parameter to be varied with the mean residence time held constant. Although recent studies in this laboratory indicate that changes in residence time can also effect a fuels thermal stability, a mean residence time of 0.5 s has been chosen to best simulate the crucial transport time of an on-board fuel. Specific questions to be addressed by this study are: (1) how do the thermal stabilities of the model endothermic fuels compare with their dehydrogenation products; (2) how does the thermal stability of a highly naphthenic future aircraft fuel (JP-10) compare with the model endothermic fuels; (3) can the differences in relative thermal stability be related to fuel structure; (4) and, on the basis of these tests, which endothermic fuels has the highest heat-sink potential

Taylor, P.H.; Rubey, W.A. (Univ. of Dayton Research Institute, OH (USA))

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Theoretical Gas Phase Mass Transfer Coefficients for Endogenous Gases in the Lungs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Theoretical Gas Phase Mass Transfer Coefficients for Endogenous Gases in the Lungs PETER CONDORELLI of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA (Received 18 November 1997; accepted 9 February 1999) Abstract--Gas phase in terms of a lumped variable, Per(L/D)n . (Sh) increases as the solu- bility of the gas in tissue

George, Steven C.

28

Time-Resolved EPR Study of Singlet Oxygen in the Gas Phase Marco Ruzzi,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Time-Resolved EPR Study of Singlet Oxygen in the Gas Phase Marco Ruzzi, Elena Sartori, Alberto States ABSTRACT: X-band EPR spectra of singlet O2(1 g) and triplet O2(3 g - ) were observed in the gas, and perfluoronaphthalene in the gas phase. The EPR spectrum of O2(1 g) was also observed under microwave discharge

Turro, Nicholas J.

29

Liquid Phases Used in Packed Gas Chromatographic Columns. Part II. Use of Liquid Phases Which Are Not Polysiloxanes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......as well as trace water, be removed from the carrier gas by using suitable...in the carrier gas lines. There is...bottles out with nitrogen and seal the filled...liquid phases in gas chromatography...Superoxes show low solubility in the common organic......

Joel A. Yancey

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Phase compensated gas turbine governor for damping oscillatory modes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

With market deregulation, there is constant pressure to utilise existing assets in more effective ways in order to achieve high levels of performance and as governor technologies mature the ability of governors to achieve much more than the standard power–frequency regulation function increases. Thus, this paper has focused on a more active use of governor control for a gas turbine to provide improved system stabilisation and performance via the inclusion of phase compensation in the governor control loop. Due to the decoupled nature of the mechanical power and excitation control loops, performance improvement via governor control does not interfere with generator voltage regulation, which is a drawback of conventional generator damping provision via a power system stabiliser (PSS). In addition, the mechanical power control loop is also less affected by the operating condition of the power system and is hence more robust. It is shown that inclusion of appropriate phase compensation in the governor control loop can improve dynamic and transient stability, either alone or in conjunction with a PSS in the exciter control loop, without adversely interfering with voltage control or changing steady state power–frequency regulation.

S.K. Yee; J.V. Milanovi?; F.M. Hughes

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Gas Phase Chemical Physics | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Gas Phase Chemical Physics Gas Phase Chemical Physics Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, & Biosciences (CSGB) Division CSGB Home About Research Areas Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) DOE Energy Innovation Hubs Scientific Highlights Reports & Activities Principal Investigators' Meetings BES Home Research Areas Gas Phase Chemical Physics Print Text Size: A A A RSS Feeds FeedbackShare Page Gas Phase Chemical Physics (GPCP) research emphasizes studies of the dynamics and rates of chemical reactions at energies characteristic of combustion, and the chemical and physical properties of key combustion intermediates. The overall aim is the development of a fundamental understanding of chemical reactivity enabling validated theories, models and computational tools for predicting rates, products, and dynamics of

32

Detection of gas-phase HCl by the laser-induced sensitized fluorescence of CO2  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A detection system for measuring HCl in the gas phase by monitoring sensitized fluorescence following intracavity excitation by a HCl chemical laser is described. It is possible to...

Fernando, Rohantha P

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Gas-Phase OH Oxidation of Monoterpenes: Gaseous and Particulate Products  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Smog chamber experiments have beenconducted in which cyclic monoterpenes were oxidisedin the gas phase by OH. The evolved secondary organicaerosol (SOA) was analysed by LC-MSn and thegas-phase products were analy...

Bo. R. Larsen; Dario Di Bella; Marianne Glasius…

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Gas-Phase Diffusion in Porous Media: Comparison of Models Stephen W. Webb  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Gas-Phase Diffusion in Porous Media: Comparison of Models Gas-Phase Diffusion in Porous Media: Comparison of Models Stephen W. Webb Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico 87 185 ABSTRACT Two models are commonly used to analyze gas- phase diffusion in porous media in the presence of advection, the Advective-Dispersive Model (ADM) and the Dusty-gas Model (DGM). The ADM, which is used in TOUGH2, is based on a simple linear addition of advection calculated by Darcy's law and ordinary diffusion using Fick's law with a porosity- tortuosity-gas saturation multiplier to account for the porous medium. Another approach for gas-phase transport in porous media is the Dusty-Gas Model. This model applies the kinetic theory of gases to the gaseous components and the porous media (or "dust") to combine transport due to diffusion and

35

Hydration of gas-phase gramicidin S (M + 2H)2+ ions formed by electrospray: The transition from solution to gas-phase structure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The hydration of doubly protonated gas-phase ions of gramicidin S formed by electrospray ionization was investigated. Under “gentle” electrospray conditions, a near Gaussian distribution of (M + 2H + nH2O)2+ ions...

Sandra E. Rodriguez-Cruz; John S. Klassen…

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

OXYGEN GAS-PHASE ABUNDANCE REVISITED M. K. Andre,1,2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OXYGEN GAS-PHASE ABUNDANCE REVISITED M. K. Andre´,1,2 C. M. Oliveira,2 J. C. Howk,2 R. Ferlet,1 J gas-phase oxygen abundance along the sight lines toward 19 early-type Galactic stars at an average mag�1 with a standard deviation of 15% is consistent with previous surveys. The mean oxygen abundance

Howk, Jay Christopher

37

Gas Phase Moleculer Dynamics (GPMD) Group | Chemistry Department |  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Research Program Research Program The research within the Gas Phase Molecular Dynamics program spans spectroscopy, kinetics and dynamics, with input from both experiment and theory. The broad topics of recent and current focus are Development of new spectroscopic methods to probe transient molecules of importance to combustion Application of these methods to collisional dynamics and kinetics Theoretical predictions of vibrational spectra of small molecules and radicals Development and use of computational methods in reaction kinetics and dynamics, optimizing accuracy and efficiency to the size of the problem The group has long experience in the application of transient frequency modulation (FM) spectroscopy methods for probing radicals, and using this method for polarized photofragment Doppler spectroscopy and kinetics. More recently, FM applications in double resonance have been developed for spectral simplification and assignments, and for saturation recovery and transfer kinetics to study collisional energy and polarization transfer. Sub-Doppler saturation methods with FM probing have recently been applied to a variety of nuclear hyperfine structure problems in spectroscopy and dynamics. Frequency comb-stabilized diode lasers in the near infrared have been used for highly precise frequency-domain measurements of pressure broadening and line shape studies of collision effects.

38

Nuclear symmetry energy effects on liquid-gas phase transition in hot asymmetric nuclear matter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The liquid-gas phase transition in hot asymmetric nuclear matter is investigated within relativistic mean-field model using the density dependence of nuclear symmetry energy constrained from the measured neutron skin thickness of finite nuclei. We find symmetry energy has a significant influence on several features of liquid-gas phase transition. The boundary and area of the liquid-gas coexistence region, the maximal isospin asymmetry and the critical values of pressure and isospin asymmetry all of which systematically increase with increasing softness in the density dependence of symmetry energy. The critical temperature below which the liquid-gas mixed phase exists is found higher for a softer symmetry energy.

Bharat K. Sharma; Subrata Pal

2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

39

Automation of Solid-Phase Microextraction-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Extraction of Eucalyptus Volatiles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Eucalyptus metabolism Gas Chromatography-Mass...SPME) coupled with gas chromatography (GC...processes involved in the production, emission, and effects...Solid-Phase Microextraction Gas ChromatographyMass Spectrometry...significant savings in time and cost could be realized. In......

Cláudia A. Zini; III; Heather Lord; Eva Christensen; Teotônio F. de Assis; Elina B. Caramão; Janusz Pawliszyn

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Importance of the gas phase role to the prediction of energetic material behavior: An experimental study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Various thermal (radiative conductive and convective) initiation experiments are performed to demonstrate the importance of the gas phase role in combustionmodeling of energetic materials (EM). A previously published condensed phase model that includes a predicted critical irradiance above which ignition is not possible is compared to experimental laser ignition results for octahydro-1 3 5 7-tetranitro-1 3 5 7-tetrazocine (HMX) and 2 4 6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). Experimental results conflict with the predicted critical irradiance concept. The failure of the model is believed to result from a misconception about the role of the gas phase in the ignition process of energetic materials. The model assumes that ignition occurs at the surface and that evolution of gases inhibits ignition. High speed video of laser ignition oven cook-off and hot wire ignition experiments captures the ignition of HMX and TNT in the gas phase. A laser ignition gap test is performed to further evaluate the effect of gas phase laser absorption and gas phase disruption on the ignition process. Results indicate that gas phase absorption of the laser energy is probably not the primary factor governing the gas phase ignition observations. It is discovered that a critical gap between an HMX pellet and a salt window of 6 mm ± 0.4 mm exists below which ignition by C O 2 laser is not possible at the tested irradiances of 29 W ? cm 2 and 38 W ? cm 2 for HMX ignition. These observations demonstrate that a significant disruption of the gas phase in certain scenarios will inhibit ignition independent of any condensed phase processes. These results underscore the importance of gas phase processes and illustrate that conditions can exist where simple condensed phase models are inadequate to accurately predict the behavior of energetic materials.

A. N. Ali; S. F. Son; B. W. Asay; R. K. Sander

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas phase gip" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Importance of the gas phase role to the prediction of energetic material behavior: An experimental study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Various thermal (radiative, conductive, and convective) initiation experiments are performed to demonstrate the importance of the gas phase role in combustion modeling of energetic materials (EM). A previously published condensed phase model that includes a predicted critical irradiance above which ignition is not possible is compared to experimental laser ignition results for octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). Experimental results conflict with the predicted critical irradiance concept. The failure of the model is believed to result from a misconception about the role of the gas phase in the ignition process of energetic materials. The model assumes that ignition occurs at the surface and that evolution of gases inhibits ignition. High speed video of laser ignition, oven cook-off and hot wire ignition experiments captures the ignition of HMX and TNT in the gas phase. A laser ignition gap test is performed to further evaluate the effect of gas phase laser absorption and gas phase disruption on the ignition process. Results indicate that gas phase absorption of the laser energy is probably not the primary factor governing the gas phase ignition observations. It is discovered that a critical gap between an HMX pellet and a salt window of 6 mm{+-}0.4 mm exists below which ignition by CO{sub 2} laser is not possible at the tested irradiances of 29 W/cm{sup 2} and 38 W/cm{sup 2} for HMX ignition. These observations demonstrate that a significant disruption of the gas phase, in certain scenarios, will inhibit ignition, independent of any condensed phase processes. These results underscore the importance of gas phase processes and illustrate that conditions can exist where simple condensed phase models are inadequate to accurately predict the behavior of energetic materials.

Ali, A.N.; Son, S.F.; Asay, B.W.; Sander, R.K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS C920, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)

2005-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

42

Review of Liquid Phases in Gas Chromatography, Part II: Applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......in the carrier gas; this sharpens...oxygen) and water (20,22,23...in the carrier gas, from leaks in...tochromic (12) and solubility parameter (36...Eon. Expanded solubility param eter treatment...for capillary gas chromatography...capillaries and a nitrogen selective detector......

J.A. Yancey

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

COMBUSTION SOURCES OF UNREGULATED GAS PHASE NITROGENEOUS SPECIES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OXIDES OF NITROGEN Nitrogen Dioxide (N0 2) Nitrous Oxide (NFigure 7. Emissions of nitrogen dioxide from gas turbines (by AiResearch(8)) . Nitrogen dioxide emissions from a

Matthews, Ronald D.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Energetics and Structures of Gas Phase Ions: Macromolecules, Clusters and Ligated Transition Metals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper a number of methods for determining thermochemical data for gas phase ions are described. Of most importance are ion equilibrium measurements where emphasis is placed on ... is devoted to novel appl...

Michael T. Bowers; Paul R. Kemper…

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Identification of structural defects in graphitic materials by gas-phase anisotropic etching  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Identification of structural defects in graphitic materials by gas-phase anisotropic etching Shuang interest but also industrial importance, as the existence of surface and bulk defects inevitably influences

Zhang, Guangyu

46

Gas-phase synthesis of multicomponet magnetic/plasmonic nanoparticles for cancer theranostics.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Multi-component nanoparticles have promise for cancer theranostics. This research developed a gas-phase approach for synthesis of multi-layer magnetic/plasmonic nanoparticles, consisting of a superparamagnetic iron oxide… (more)

Lei, Pingyan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Quantum dynamic calculation for gas-phase nucleophilic substitution (SN2) reactions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

According to experimental data, gas-phase SN2 reactions have low efficiency characterized by the ratio k(T)/kc, where kc is the collision rate constant. The energy profile of the reaction pathway is a double-well...

V. M. Ryaboi

48

Hybrid femtosecond/picosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering for gas-phase temperature measurements.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Hybrid femtosecond/picosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (fs/ps CARS) is employed for quantitative gas-phase temperature measurements in combustion processes and heated flows. In this approach, ultrafast… (more)

Miller, Joseph Daniel

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Gas-phase combustion processes in light of the theory of non-isothermal chain reactions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The presented experimental and theoretical results demonstrate, in contrast to the concept commonly accepted until recently, the key role of the branching-chain reaction mechanism in gas-phase combustion processes

V. V. Azatyan

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Gas-Phase Molecular Dynamics: High Resolution Spectroscopy and Collision Dynamics of Transient Species  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research is carried out as part of the Gas-Phase Molecular Dynamics program in the Chemistry Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Chemical intermediates in the elementary gas-phase reactions involved in combustion chemistry are investigated by high resolution spectroscopic tools. Production, reaction, and energy transfer processes are investigated by transient, double resonance, polarization and saturation spectroscopies, with an emphasis on technique development and connection with theory, as well as specific molecular properties.

Hall, G.E.

2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

51

The determination of compressibility factors of gaseous butane-nitrogen mixtures in the gas phase  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE DETERMINATION OF COMPRESSIBILITY FACTORS OF GASEOUS BUTANE-NITROGEN MIXTURES IN THE GAS PHASE A D issertation By Robert Buckner Evans, III Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Head of^ 'ent Advisor) June 1955... ?-; i'i i ; A R y ? 'A 'Gi- Or- T EX AS THE DETERMINATION OF COMHIESSIBILITI FACTORS OF GASEOUS BUTANE-NITROGEN MIXTURES IN THE GAS PHASE A D issertation By ROBERT BUCKNER EVANS, III Submitted' to the Graduate School of the Agricultural...

Evans, Robert Buckner

1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Methane-to-Methanol Conversion by Gas-Phase Transition Metal Oxide Cations: Experiment and Theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methane-to-Methanol Conversion by Gas-Phase Transition Metal Oxide Cations: Experiment and Theory Ricardo B. Metz Department of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 USA Abstract Gas such as methanol has attracted great experimental and theoretical interest due to its importance as an industrial

Metz, Ricardo B.

53

Non-congruence of liquid-gas phase transition of asymmetric nuclear matter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We first explore the liquid-gas mixed phase in a bulk calculation, where two phases coexist without the geometrical structures. In the case of symmetric nuclear matter, the system behaves congruently, and the Maxwell construction becomes relevant. For asymmetric nuclear matter, on the other hand, the phase equilibrium is no more attained by the Maxwell construction since the liquid and gas phases are non-congruent; the particle fractions become completely different with each other. One of the origins of such non-congruence is attributed to the large symmetry energy. Subsequently we explore the charge-neutral nuclear matter with electrons by fully applying the Gibbs conditions to figure out the geometrical (pasta) structures in the liquid-gas mixed phase. We emphasize the effects of the surface tension and the Coulomb interaction on the pasta structures. We also discuss the thermal effects on the pasta structures.

Maruyama, Toshiki

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Correlation between gas-phase and solution-phase reactivities of hydroxyl radicals toward saturated organic compounds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The gas-phase and aqueous-solution-phase reactivities of hydroxyl radicals with a wide variety of organic compounds are compared. When kinetic data are available for the same reaction occurring in both phases, this comparison provides useful information about the reaction mechanism. Through this comparison the authors can demonstrate a linear correlation between the gas/solution-phase OH reactivities for numerous saturated organic compounds. This empirical relationship can be used together with mechanistic information to estimate the OH reactivity in one phase from the measured rate constant in the other. In order to develop and extend the correlation, they have used the flash photolysis resonance fluorescence technique to measure rate constants for the gas-phase reactions of OH radicals with methanol-d/sub 4/, ethanol-d/sub 6/, 2-chloroethanol, 2,2,2-trichloroethanol, 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol, acetone-d/sub 6/, 1,1,1-trifluoroacetone, and 1,2-butylene oxide at 298 K. These results are reported herein.

Wallington, T.J.; Dagaut, P.; Kurylo, M.J.

1988-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

55

Phenolic oxime copper complexes: a gas phase investigation   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis explores the use of mass spectrometry to define the strengths, and understand solution phase speciation of phenolic oxime-based solvent extractants of the types used in the hydrometallurgical recovery of ...

Roach, Benjamin David

2011-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

56

Gas-phase detonation propagation in mixture composition gradients  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...unconfined gas detonations in hydrocarbon-air mixtures by a sympathetic...Meeting (International) of the Combustion Institute, Bordeaux, France...and A. Linan1995Effects of heat release on triple flamesPhys...model for partially premixed hydrocarbon combustionCombust. Flame...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Ceramic stationary gas turbine development. Final report, Phase 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes work performed by Solar Turbines Inc. and its subcontractors during the period September 25, 1992 through April 30, 1993. The objective of the work is to improve the performance of stationary gas turbines in cogeneration through implementation of selected ceramic components.

NONE

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Steam generators two phase flows numerical simulation with liquid and gas momentum equations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Steam generators two phase flows numerical simulation with liquid and gas momentum equations M Abstract This work takes place in steam generators flow studies and we consider here steady state three words: Steam Generator, Two-phase Flow, Finite element Email address: Marc.Grandotto@cea.fr (M

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

59

In situ measurements of gas/particle-phase transitions for atmospheric semivolatile organic compounds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...abundance, as compared to an ambient run (i.e., gas-phase and particle-phase...carbon number. Because n-alkanes are straight chained, and have very low polarity, they do not enter the particle...Diurnal and seasonal variability of gasoline-related volatile organic compound emissions...

Brent J. Williams; Allen H. Goldstein; Nathan M. Kreisberg; Susanne V. Hering

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Kinetics and Mechanism of Gas-Phase Thermolysis Using Headspace-Gas Chromatographic Analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......headspace-gas chromatographic analysis. | Headspace gas chromatography...vial employed as the reactor is increased by packing...vial employed as the reactor is increased by packing...preferred method for the analysis of volatiles in matrices...is to establish the reliability of this simple analytical......

Lázaro F.R. Cafferata; Carlos J. Manzione

2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas phase gip" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Methodology for Predicting Water Content in Supercritical Gas Vapor and Gas Solubility in Aqueous Phase for Natural Gas Process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The streams in the natural gas process contain light hydrocarbons, mainly methane and ethane, associated with non-hydrocarbon supercritical gases (nitrogen, hydrogen, argon, etc.). ... For system that contains supercritical gases, the gas solubility in water can be related to the Henry's law constant. ...

Chorng H. Twu; Suphat Watanasiri; Vince Tassone

2007-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

62

Third-order gas-liquid phase transition and the nature of Andrews critical Tian Ma and Shouhong Wang  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Third-order gas-liquid phase transition and the nature of Andrews critical point Tian Ma-order gas-liquid phase transition and the nature of Andrews critical point Tian Ma1 and Shouhong Wang2 1 is to study the nature of the Andrews critical point in the gas-liquid transition in a physical

Wang, Shouhong

63

Inherent Safety Analysis of a Propane Precooled Gas-Phase Liquified Natural Gas Process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Refrigeration is widely used in chemical and petrochemical industries and in the liquefaction of gases including natural gas (LNG). ... Conventional refrigeration processes such as the single mixed refrigerant process and the cascade refrigerant process operate by evaporation of the refrigerant. ...

Nipen M. Shah; Andrew F. A. Hoadley; G. P. Rangaiah

2009-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

64

Heterogeneity effect on non-wetting phase trapping in strong water drive gas reservoirs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In strong water drive gas reservoirs (WDGR), the presence of entrance water in the gas zone has negative effects on the relative permeability; therefore, gas is trapped behind the water front as a non-wetting phase. Understanding WDGR could be complicated and depends on both the petrophysical and operational parameters, such as, reservoir heterogeneity, permeability, production rate and so on. In order to quantify the uncertainty associated with reservoirs, it is critical to create porous media models that incorporate stratigraphic details. In the present study, experimental models were used to simulate WDGR and describe the heterogeneity effect on residual gas saturation and the recovery factor. In models, distinct gas and water (aquifer portion) zones were designed, wherein the ratio of the permeability of the aquifer to the gas zone was varied over three ranges. All tests were conducted in the presence of connate water, and the main WDGR set-up was constructed for high pressure operational conditions. All porous media were characterized by Dykstra–Parsons coefficient as heterogeneity index. The results demonstrate that the residual gas saturation depends on both heterogeneity index and permeability ratio. Results reveal that heterogeneity is not always detrimental to gas recovery. In addition, when the ratio of the aquifer to gas zone permeability is less than one, the amount of trapped gas reduces as the heterogeneity of the porous media increases and consequently, the recovery factor may be improved.

Mohammad Rezaee; Behzad Rostami; Peyman Pourafshary

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Time-dependent gas phase kinetics in a hydrogen diluted silane plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The gas phase kinetics in a high-pressure hydrogen diluted silane plasma has been studied at time scales of 10{sup -2}-6x10{sup 2} s. The time-resolved gas phase composition shows the following kinetics at different time scales: silane decomposition and polysilane generation in < or approx. 2x10{sup -1} s, nanoparticle formation and plasma density reduction in 10{sup -1}-10{sup 0} s, polysilane accumulation in 10{sup 0}-10{sup 2} s, and silane depletion and electrode heating in > or approx. 10{sup 1} s. Disilane radicals are implied to be the dominant film precursors in addition to silyl radicals.

Nunomura, S.; Kondo, M. [Research Center for Photovoltaics, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Yoshida, I. [Research Center for Photovoltaics, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Advanced Photovoltaics Development Center, Advanced Energy Research Center, Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd., 108 Ohmori, Anpachi-cho, Anpachi-gun, Gifu 503-0195 (Japan)

2009-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

66

MOLECULAR SPECTROSCPY AND REACTIONS OF ACTINIDES IN THE GAS PHASE AND CRYOGENIC MATRICES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this chapter we review the spectroscopic data for actinide molecules and the reaction dynamics for atomic and molecular actinides that have been examined in the gas phase or in inert cryogenic matrices. The motivation for this type of investigation is that physical properties and reactions can be studied in the absence of external perturbations (gas phase) or under minimally perturbing conditions (cryogenic matrices). This information can be compared directly with the results from high-level theoretical models. The interplay between experiment and theory is critically important for advancing our understanding of actinide chemistry. For example, elucidation of the role of the 5f electrons in bonding and reactivity can only be achieved through the application of experimentally verified theoretical models. Theoretical calculations for the actinides are challenging due the large numbers of electrons that must be treated explicitly and the presence of strong relativistic effects. This topic has been reviewed in depth in Chapter 17 of this series. One of the goals of the experimental work described in this chapter has been to provide benchmark data that can be used to evaluate both empirical and ab initio theoretical models. While gas-phase data are the most suitable for comparison with theoretical calculations, there are technical difficulties entailed in generating workable densities of gas-phase actinide molecules that have limited the range of species that have been characterized. Many of the compounds of interest are refractory, and problems associated with the use of high temperature vapors have complicated measurements of spectra, ionization energies, and reactions. One approach that has proved to be especially valuable in overcoming this difficulty has been the use of pulsed laser ablation to generate plumes of vapor from refractory actinide-containing materials. The vapor is entrained in an inert gas, which can be used to cool the actinide species to room temperature or below. For many spectroscopic measurements, low temperatures have been achieved by co-condensing the actinide vapor in rare gas or inert molecule host matrices. Spectra recorded in matrices are usually considered to be minimally perturbed. Trapping the products from gas-phase reactions that occur when trace quantities of reactants are added to the inert host gas has resulted in the discovery of many new actinide species. Selected aspects of the matrix isolation data were discussed in chapter 17. In the present chapter we review the spectroscopic matrix data in terms of its relationship to gas-phase measurements, and update the description of the new reaction products found in matrices to reflect the developments that have occurred during the past two years. Spectra recorded in matrix environments are usually considered to be minimally perturbed, and this expectation is borne out for many closed shell actinide molecules. However, there is growing evidence that significant perturbations can occur for open shell molecules, resulting in geometric distortions and/or electronic state reordering. Studies of actinide reactions in the gas phase provide an opportunity to probe the relationship between electronic structure and reactivity. Much of this work has focused on the reactions of ionic species, as these may be selected and controlled using various forms of mass spectrometry. As an example of the type of insight derived from reaction studies, it has been established that the reaction barriers for An+ ions are determined by the promotion energies required to achieve the 5fn6d7s configuration. Gas-phase reaction studies also provide fundamental thermodynamic properties such as bond dissociation and ionization energies. In recent years, an increased number of gas-phase ion chemistry studies of bare (atomic) and ligated (molecular) actinide ions have appeared, in which relevant contributions to fundamental actinide chemistry have been made. These studies were initiated in the 1970's and carried out in an uninterrupted way over the course of the past three d

Heaven, Michael C.; Gibson, John K.; Marcalo, Joaquim

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Gas-phase reaction study of disilane pyrolysis: Applications to low pressure chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The gas-phase thermal reactions during disilane decomposition at low pressure chemical vapor deposition conditions were studied from 300 to 1,000 K using resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) and multiphoton ionization (MPI). REMPI of gas-phase Si, mass 28, was detected from 640 to 840 K and 1 to 10 Torr, with a maximum signal intensity between 700 to 720 K. During disilane decomposition, no SiH (427.8 nm), SiH[sub 2] (494-515 nm), or SiH[sub 3] (419.0 nm) was detected. MPI of higher silanes, silenes, and silylenes were detected through mass fragments 2, 32, and 60; these species reached a maximum signal intensity 20 degrees prior to the mass-28 maximum. Modeling studies that included a detailed low pressure gas-phase kinetic scheme predict relative gas-phase partial pressures generated during disilane pyrolysis. The model predicted experimental trends in the Si partial pressure and the higher silane, silene, and silylene partial pressures.

Johannes, J.E.; Ekerdt, J.G. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Automatic isochoric apparatus for PVT and phase equilibrium studies of natural gas mixtures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have developed a new automatic apparatus for the measurement of the phase equilibrium and pVT properties of natural gas mixtures in our laboratory. Based on the isochoric method, the apparatus can operate at temperature from 200 K to 500 K...

Zhou, Jingjun

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

69

Electronic Structure and Spectra of Catechol and Alizarin in the Gas Phase and Attached to Titanium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electronic Structure and Spectra of Catechol and Alizarin in the Gas Phase and Attached to Titanium surfaces plays a key role in a number of important applications, including photoca- talysis-to-electron energy conversion yield; low photovoltage, however, remains a limiting factor. Due to electron relaxation

70

Adsorption of VOCs from the Gas Phase to Different Minerals and a Mineral Mixture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Adsorption of VOCs from the Gas Phase to Different Minerals and a Mineral Mixture ... Here adsorption to three well-defined minerals (hematite, corundum, and lime) was studied by a chromatographic method. ... (39)?Suzuki, S.; Green, P. G.; Bumgarner, R. E.; Dasgupta, S.; Goddard, W. A.; Blake, G. A. Science 1992, 257, 942?945. ...

Kai-Uwe Goss; Steven J. Eisenreich

1996-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

71

Computational Strategies for Evaluating Barrier Heights for Gas-Phase Reactions of Lithium Enolates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of an enolate to an aldehyde, a proton transfer from an alcohol to a lithium enolate, and an SN2 reactionComputational Strategies for Evaluating Barrier Heights for Gas-Phase Reactions of Lithium Enolates reactions by using several different ab initio and density functional theory (DFT) methods to determine

Ramachandran, Bala (Ramu)

72

Inner-shell excitation of gas phase carbonates and a,c-dicarbonyl compounds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

correlation of the C 1s ! p� C@O transition energy and the relative oxidation at the carbonyl car- bon and dimethyldicarbonate ­ have been recorded in the gas phase with inner shell electron energy loss spectroscopy in the scattering regime dominated by electric dipole transitions. All spectra are presented on absolute oscillator

Hitchcock, Adam P.

73

Spontaneous Enrichment of Organic Molecules from Aqueous and Gas Phases into a Stable Metallogel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-concentration hazardous organics, for example, chlorobenzene or toluene in water or poly- aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs or gas phases. Using nonpolar solvents to extract organic hazards from water is hardly practical since: bacteria (e.g., alkylotrophs) develop specialized cell walls that "dissolve" and accumulate hydrocarbons

Xing, Bengang

74

Gas-phase CO in protoplanetary disks: a challenge for turbulent mixing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This is the first paper in a series where we study the influence of turbulent diffusion and advective transport on the chemical evolution of protoplanetary disks, using a 2D flared disk model and a 2D mixing gas-grain chemical code with surface reactions. A first interesting result concerns the abundance of gas-phase CO in the outer regions of protoplanetary disks. In this Letter we argue that the gas-phase CO concentration in the disk regions, where the temperature is lower than $\\sim25$ K, can be significantly enhanced due to the combined effect of vertical and radial mixing. This finding has a potential implication for the current observational data on the DM~Tau disk chemistry.

D. Semenov; D. Wiebe; Th. Henning

2006-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

75

The conversion of natural gas to liquid fuels using the Sasol Slurry Phase Distillate Process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The natural gas and energy industries have long sought an economically attractive means of converting remote gas reserves into transportable products, such as fuels or petrochemicals. Applicable gas sources include: undeveloped gas fields in locations so remote that pipeline construction is prohibitively expensive and associated gas from oil wells that is either flared, which is becoming environmentally unacceptable in many parts of the world, or reinjected, which is costly. Projects which have been developed to exploit such feeds typically have converted the gas into one of the following: (1) liquefied natural gas (LNG)--the process plants for LNG production are expensive, need to be very large to be economically viable, have costly dedicated shipping requirements, and suffer from a limited market concentrated in few countries; (2) methanol--the market for petrochemical feedstock methanol is limited, for use as a fuel, further downstream processing is needed, for example in a methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) or methanol to gasoline (MTG) unit. Clearly, there is a need for an alternative that produces high quality fuels or value added products that can be transported to far-off markets, while yielding an attractive return on the developers` investment. The Sasol Slurry Phase Distillate Process will fulfill this need.

Silverman, R.W. [Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Cambridge, MA (United States); Hill, C.R. [Sastech, Johannesburg (South Africa)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

76

Third-Order Gas-Liquid Phase Transition and the Nature of Andrews Critical Point  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The main objective of this article is to study the nature of the Andrews critical point in the gas-liquid transition in a physical-vapor transport (PVT) system. A dynamical model, consistent with the van der Waals equation near the Andrews critical point, is derived. With this model, we deduce two physical parameters, which interact exactly at the Andrews critical point, and which dictate the dynamic transition behavior near the Andrews critical point. In particular, it is shown that 1) the Andrews critical point is a switching point where the phase transition changes from the first order to the third order, 2) the gas-liquid co-existence curve can be extended beyond the Andrews critical point, and 3) the liquid-gas phase transition going beyond Andrews point is of the third order. This clearly explains why it is hard to observe the gas-liquid phase transition beyond the Andrews critical point. Furthermore, the analysis leads naturally the introduction of a general asymmetry principle of fluctuations and the preferred transition mechanism for a thermodynamic system.

Tian Ma; Shouhong Wang

2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

77

DYNAMIC MODELING STRATEGY FOR FLOW REGIME TRANSITION IN GAS-LIQUID TWO-PHASE FLOWS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In modeling gas-liquid two-phase flows, the concept of flow regime has been used to characterize the global interfacial structure of the flows. Nearly all constitutive relations that provide closures to the interfacial transfers in two-phase flow models, such as the two-fluid model, are often flow regime dependent. Currently, the determination of the flow regimes is primarily based on flow regime maps or transition criteria, which are developed for steady-state, fully-developed flows and widely applied in nuclear reactor system safety analysis codes, such as RELAP5. As two-phase flows are observed to be dynamic in nature (fully-developed two-phase flows generally do not exist in real applications), it is of importance to model the flow regime transition dynamically for more accurate predictions of two-phase flows. The present work aims to develop a dynamic modeling strategy for determining flow regimes in gas-liquid two-phase flows through the introduction of interfacial area transport equations (IATEs) within the framework of a two-fluid model. The IATE is a transport equation that models the interfacial area concentration by considering the creation and destruction of the interfacial area, such as the fluid particle (bubble or liquid droplet) disintegration, boiling and evaporation; and fluid particle coalescence and condensation, respectively. For the flow regimes beyond bubbly flows, a two-group IATE has been proposed, in which bubbles are divided into two groups based on their size and shape (which are correlated), namely small bubbles and large bubbles. A preliminary approach to dynamically identifying the flow regimes is provided, in which discriminators are based on the predicted information, such as the void fraction and interfacial area concentration of small bubble and large bubble groups. This method is expected to be applied to computer codes to improve their predictive capabilities of gas-liquid two-phase flows, in particular for the applications in which flow regime transition occurs.

X. Wang; X. Sun; H. Zhao

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Fast transit gas- and condensed-phase chemistry of energetic materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental system is being developed to study the fast transient kinetics governing solid-phase decomposition and subsequent interaction with decomposition products. The first phase of this work addresses the decomposition step. The experimental system integrates a thin-film sample configuration with two chemical diagnostic techniques, time-of-flight mass spectrometry and time-resolved infrared spectral photography, and a pulsed-laser heat source. This system is designed to examine both condensed-phase mechanisms and concurrent gas-phase species evolution from samples at temperatures up to 1000{degree}C with microsecond temporal resolution. Tests are underway to demonstrate and assess the use of thin-film samples with the experimental system. Results of these tests, the diagnostic capabilities of the experimental system, and the advantages, preparation and characterization of thin-film samples are presented. 19 refs., 4 figs.

Skocypec, R.D.; Erickson, K.L.; Renlund, A.M.; Trott, W.M.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Quantum dynamics of elementary reactions in the gas phase and on surfaces  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Quantum Quantum dynamics of elementary reactions in the gas phase and on surfaces Quantum Dynamics of Elementary Reactions in the Gas Phase and on Surfaces Key Challenges: This research addresses several important dynamics issues in elementary chemical reactions. One of the major obstacles in such studies is the quantum nature of the reactions, where the zero-point energy, mode selectivity, dynamical resonances, non-adiabatic transitions, and tunneling play an important role. The calculations are very challenging because of the large number of quantum states involved, and because of the large number of partial waves. The work required development of new methods and new, highly-efficient codes to calculate the total and state-resolved reaction probabilities. Numerically, the calculations are based on sparse

80

Method and apparatus for selective capture of gas phase analytes using metal .beta.-diketonate polymers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process and sensor device are disclosed that employ metal .beta.-diketonate polymers to selectively capture gas-phase explosives and weaponized chemical agents in a sampling area or volume. The metal .beta.-diketonate polymers can be applied to surfaces in various analytical formats for detection of: improvised explosive devices, unexploded ordinance, munitions hidden in cargo holds, explosives, and chemical weapons in public areas.

Harvey, Scott D [Kennewick, WA

2011-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas phase gip" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Structure-property relationships in gas-phase protonated and metalated peptide ions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

STRUCTURE-PROPERTY RELATIONSHIPS IN GAS-PHASE PROTONATED AND METALATED PEPTIDE IONS A Dissertation by JAMES GARRETT SLATON Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... by JAMES GARRETT SLATON Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Approved by: Chair of Committee, David H. Russell Committee...

Slaton, James Garrett

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

82

Disappearance of the Gas-Liquid Phase Transition for Highly Charged Colloids A.-P. Hynninen and A. Z. Panagiotopoulos  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Disappearance of the Gas-Liquid Phase Transition for Highly Charged Colloids A.-P. Hynninen and A swelling of lyotropic liquid lamel- lar phases when monovalent ions are substituted by diva- lent ions [3 08544, USA (Received 23 January 2007; published 7 May 2007) We calculate the full phase diagram

83

A gas-phase reactor powered by solar energy and ethanol for H2 production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In the view of H2 as the future energy vector, we presented here the development of a homemade photo-reactor working in gas phase and easily interfacing with fuel cell devices, for H2 production by ethanol dehydrogenation. The process generates acetaldehyde as the main co-product, which is more economically advantageous with respect to the low valuable CO2 produced in the alternative pathway of ethanol photoreforming. The materials adopted as photocatalysts are based on TiO2 substrates but properly modified with noble (Au) and not-noble (Cu) metals to enhance light harvesting in the visible region. The samples were characterized by BET surface area analysis, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and UV–visible Diffusive Reflectance Spectroscopy, and finally tested in our homemade photo-reactor by simulated solar irradiation. We discussed about the benefits of operating in gas phase with respect to a conventional slurry photo-reactor (minimization of scattering phenomena, no metal leaching, easy product recovery, etc.). Results showed that high H2 productivity can be obtained in gas phase conditions, also irradiating titania photocatalysts doped with not-noble metals.

Claudio Ampelli; Chiara Genovese; Rosalba Passalacqua; Siglinda Perathoner; Gabriele Centi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Investigation of Gas-Phase Reactions and Ignition Delay Occurring at Conditions Typical for Partial Oxidation of Methane to Synthesis Gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Investigation of Gas-Phase Reactions and Ignition Delay Occurring at Conditions Typical for Partial Oxidation of Methane to Synthesis Gas ... A detailed kinetic model based on a free-radical mechanism has been developed, which allows the adequate calculation of the feed conversions and product selectivities. ... The production of synthesis gas from natural gas by partial oxidation has been extensively investigated as an alternative for the steam-reforming process since it results directly in a H2/CO ratio of 2:1 which is required for methanol and Fischer?Tropsch synthesis. ...

R. J. Berger; G. B. Marin

1999-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

85

Gas-phase H2O and CO2 toward massive protostars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a study of gas-phase H2O and CO2 toward a sample of 14 massive protostars with the Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) on board the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). Modeling of the H2O spectra using a homogeneous model with a constant excitation temperature T_ex shows that the H2O abundances increase with temperature, up to a few times 10^-5 with respect to H2 for the hottest sources (T_ex ~500 K). This is still a factor of 10 lower than the H2O ice abundances observed toward cold sources in which evaporation is not significant (Keane et al. 2001). Gas-phase CO2 is not abundant in our sources. The abundances are nearly constant for T_ex>~100 K at a value of a few times 10^-7, much lower than the solid-state abundances of ~1--3 times 10^-6 (Gerakines et al. 1999). For both H2O and CO2 the gas/solid ratio increases with temperature, but the increase is much stronger for H2O than for CO2, suggesting a different type of chemistry. In addition to the homogeneous models, a power law model has been developed for one of our sources, based on the physical structure of this region as determined from submillimeter data by van der Tak et al. (1999). The resulting H2O model spectrum gives a good fit to the data.

A. M. S. Boonman; E. F. van Dishoeck; F. Lahuis; C. M. Wright; S. D. Doty

2001-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

86

Gas-phase ion/ion reactions of transition metal complex cations with multiply charged oligodeoxynucleotide anions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Multiply deprotonated hexadeoxyadenylate anions, (A6?nH)n?, where n...=3–5, have been subjected to reaction with a range of divalent transition-metal complex cations in the gas phase. The cations studied included...

Christopher K. Barlow; Brittany D. M. Hodges…

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Characterization of the reactive and dissociative behavior of transition metal oxide cluster ions in the gas phase  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The reactive and dissociative behavior of molybdenum and tungsten oxide cluster ions has been studied in the gas phase using a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Cluster ions (MO3) n ...

Simin Maleknia; Jennifer Brodbelt…

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

characterization and visualization of two-phase flow properties of gas diffusion layers used in a PEM fuel cell  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Due to the low-temperature operation of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), liquid water can build up in either flow channels or gas diffusion layers (GDL). Better understanding of the effect of two-phase ...

Gao, Yan

2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

89

Demonstrating Online Monitoring of Air Pollutant Photodegradation in a 3D Printed Gas-Phase Photocatalysis Reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present a demonstration of online monitoring of gas-phase photocatalytic reactions. A cotton cloth impregnated with commercial titanium dioxide nanoparticles is used as a photocatalytic filter to clean air contaminated with a model pollutant. A fan ...

Bozhidar I. Stefanov; Delphine Lebrun; Andreas Mattsson; Claes G. Granqvist; Lars Österlund

2014-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

90

The effects of phosphorous ligands on the gas phase ligand exchange reactions of dichromium ionic cluster fragments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE EFFECTS OF PHOSPHORUS LIGANDS ON THE GAS PHASE LIGAND EXCHANGE REACTIONS OF DICHROMIUM IONIC CLUSTER FRAGMENTS A Thesis by HANH DUC NGUYEN Submited to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirments... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1991 Major Subject: Chemistry THE EFFECTS OF PHOSPHORUS LIGANDS ON THE GAS PHASE LIGAND EXCHANGE REACTIONS OF DICHROMIUM IONIC CLUSTER FRAGMENTS A Thesis by HANH DUC NGUYEN Approved as to style and content by...

Nguyen, Hanh Duc

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Phase equilibrium conditions for simulated landfill gas hydrate formation in aqueous solutions of tetrabutylammonium nitrate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Hydrate phase equilibrium conditions for the simulated landfill gas (LFG) of methane and carbon dioxide (50 mol% methane, 50 mol% carbon dioxide) were investigated with the pressure range of (1.90 to 13.83) MPa and temperature range of (280.0 to 288.3) K at (0.050, 0.170, 0.340, and 0.394) mass fraction (w) of tetrabutylammonium nitrate (TBANO3). The phase boundary between liquid–vapor–hydrate (L–V–H) phases and liquid–vapor (L–V) phases was determined by employing an isochoric pressure-search method. The phase equilibrium data measured showed that TBANO3 appeared a remarkable promotion effect at w TBANO 3  = 0.394, corresponding to TBANO3 · 26H2O, but inhibition effect at w TBANO 3  = (0.050, or 0.170) on the semiclathrate hydrate formation. In addition, the application of TBANO3 at 0.340 mass fraction, corresponding to TBANO3 · 32H2O, displayed promotion effect at lower pressures (below 6.38 MPa) and inhibition effect at higher pressures (above 6.38 MPa).

Ling-Li Shi; De-Qing Liang; Dong-Liang Li

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Gas-phase silicon atom densities in the chemical vapor deposition of silicon from silane  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Silicon atom number density profiles have been measured using laser-induced fluorescence during the chemical vapor deposition of silicon from silane. Measurements were obtained in a rotating-disk reactor as a function of silane partial pressure and the amount of hydrogen added to the carrier gas. Absolute number densities were obtained using an atomic absorption technique. Results were compared with calculated density profiles from a model of the coupled fluid flow, gas-phase and surface chemistry for an infinite-radius rotating disk. An analysis of the reaction mechanism showed that the unimolecular decomposition of SiH{sub 2} is not the dominant source of Si atoms. Profile shapes and positions, and all experimental trends are well matched by the calculations. However, the calculated number density is up to 100 times smaller than measured.

Coltrin, M.E.; Breiland, W.G.; Ho, P.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

93

Collective Modes in a Superfluid Neutron Gas within the Quasiparticle Random-Phase Approximation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study collective excitations in a superfluid neutron gas at zero temperature within the quasiparticle random phase approximation. The particle-hole residual interaction is obtained from a Skyrme functional, while a separable interaction is used in the pairing channel which gives a realistic density dependence of the pairing gap. In accordance with the Goldstone theorem, we find an ungapped collective mode (analogous to the Bogoliubov-Anderson mode). At low momentum, its dispersion relation is approximately linear and its slope coincides with the hydrodynamic speed of sound calculated with the Skyrme equation of state. The response functions are compared with those obtained within the Landau approximation. We also compute the contribution of the collective mode to the specific heat of the neutron gas, which is relevant for the thermodynamic properties of the inner crust of neutron stars.

Noël Martin; Michael Urban

2015-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

94

On-Road Measurement of Gas and Particle Phase Pollutant Emission Factors  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

On-Road Measurement of Gas and Particle Phase Pollutant Emission Factors On-Road Measurement of Gas and Particle Phase Pollutant Emission Factors for Individual Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks Title On-Road Measurement of Gas and Particle Phase Pollutant Emission Factors for Individual Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors Dallmann, Timothy R., Steven J. DeMartini, Thomas W. Kirchstetter, Scott C. Herndon, Timothy B. Onasch, Ezra C. Wood, and Robert A. Harley Journal Environmental Science and Technology Volume 46 Issue 15 Pagination 8511-8518 Abstract Pollutant concentrations in the exhaust plumes of individual diesel trucks were measured at high time resolution in a highway tunnel in Oakland, CA, during July 2010. Emission factors for individual trucks were calculated using a carbon balance method, in which pollutants measured in each exhaust plume were normalized to measured concentrations of carbon dioxide. Pollutants considered here include nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, ethene, and black carbon (BC), as well as optical properties of emitted particles. Fleet-average emission factors for oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and BC respectively decreased 30 ± 6 and 37 ± 10% relative to levels measured at the same location in 2006, whereas a 34 ± 18% increase in the average NO2 emission factor was observed. Emissions distributions for all species were skewed with a small fraction of trucks contributing disproportionately to total emissions. For example, the dirtiest 10% of trucks emitted half of total NO2 and BC emissions. Emission rates for NO2 were found to be anticorrelated with all other species considered here, likely due to the use of catalyzed diesel particle filters to help control exhaust emissions. Absorption and scattering cross-section emission factors were used to calculate the aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA, at 532 nm) for individual truck exhaust plumes, which averaged 0.14 ± 0.03.

95

Numerical modeling of two-phase behavior in the PEFC gas diffusion layer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A critical performance limitation in the polymer electrolye fuel cell (PEFC) is attributed to the mass transport loss originating from suboptimal liquid water transport and flooding phenomena. Liquid water can block the porous pathways in the fibrous gas diffusion layer (GDL) and the catalyst layer (CL), thus hindering oxygen transport from the flow field to the electrochemically actives sites in the catalyst layer. In this paper, the study of the two phase behavior and the durability implications due to the wetting characteristics in the carbon paper GDL are presented using a pore-scale modeling framework.

Mukherjee, Partha Pa223876 [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kang, Qinjun [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Borup, Rod L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Electron-transfer-coupled SN2 reaction mechanism in the gas phase  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This calculation introduces a promising way to catalyze gas-phase SN2 reactions at a unimolecular level by using an excess electron (EE) as an “electron solvent”. The EE participation leads to very favorable energetics for the reaction, by neutralizing the created positive charge as the reaction proceeds, and by also positioning the transition state earlier. The reaction occurs via an unusual electron-transfer-coupled SN2 mechanism. EE-transfer from its binding zone to the attacking group is a key step. This work provides additional insights into the unimolecular SN2 mechanism catalyzed by an EE acting as an “electron solvent”.

Xinyu Song

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Rate-transient analysis of 2-phase (gas + water) CBM wells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In recent work, the authors (Clarkson et al., 2008, 2007; Jordan et al., 2006) demonstrated how modern production data analysis (PDA) methods, such as flowing material balance (FMB) and production type-curves, may be adapted to account for the unique reservoir characteristics of coalbed methane (CBM) reservoirs through the appropriate use of material balance and time transforms. Reservoir characteristics related to storage and fluid flow that were addressed included: adsorbed and free-gas storage; single-phase flow of water above desorption pressure (undersaturated coals); 2-phase flow of gas and water below desorption pressure (saturated coals); non-static absolute permeability during depletion; and multi-layer behavior. Example (field) applications of the new PDA methods were limited to vertical wells that were either openhole completed, or slightly stimulated with hydraulic fracturing methods. In this work, new workflows and analytical approaches are provided for analyzing vertical, hydraulically-fractured and horizontal CBM wells. The analysis and methodology for 2-phase flow reservoirs is complex, requiring modifications to account for desorption and changes in effective permeability. The proposed workflow for 2-phase CBM wells includes the transformation of the well production and flowing pressure data into dimensionless type-curve and straight line (ex. flowing material balance) coordinates using certain outputs (krg, pR) from the simulator used in turn to history-match the production data. Transient straight-line (pressure-transient analysis analog) techniques are applied for the first time to 2-phase CBM well production data. The type-curve and straight-line matches to actual production data are then used to retrieve reservoir properties (e.g. absolute permeability) and stimulation conditions (e.g. skin), which in turn are compared to reservoir simulation input as a consistency check. Both simulated and field cases are analyzed to illustrate the new procedures and analytical techniques. The primary contribution of the current work is the application of modern production analysis methods to 2-phase CBM reservoirs. These methods have been modified for CBM reservoir behavior and combined with analytical (or numerical) modeling to extract quantitative reservoir information from CBM reservoirs which exhibit a wide-range in production characteristics, and are completed in a variety of styles. The modifications proposed in this work to enable the use of single-phase flow techniques must be regarded as practical approximations. The methods rely heavily on late-time data because of the poor quality of water production and flowing pressure data that typically exists. The methods are expected to be used as a pre-cursor to or in parallel with field reservoir simulation, to assist with CBM development decisions.

C.R. Clarkson; C.L. Jordan; D. Ilk; T.A. Blasingame

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Two phase partially miscible flow and transport modeling in porous media: application to gas migration in a nuclear waste repository  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We derive a compositional compressible two-phase, liquid and gas, flow model for numerical simulations of hydrogen migration in deep geological repository for radioactive waste. This model includes capillary effects and the gas high diffusivity. Moreover, it is written in variables (total hydrogen mass density and liquid pressure) chosen in order to be consistent with gas appearance or disappearance. We discuss the well possedness of this model and give some computational evidences of its adequacy to simulate gas generation in a water saturated repository.

Alain Bourgeat; Mladen Jurak; Farid Smaï

2008-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

99

Two phase partially miscible flow and transport modeling in porous media: application to gas migration in a nuclear waste repository  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We derive a compositional compressible two-phase, liquid and gas, flow model for numerical simulations of hydrogen migration in deep geological repository for radioactive waste. This model includes capillary effects and the gas high diffusivity. Moreover, it is written in variables (total hydrogen mass density and liquid pressure) chosen in order to be consistent with gas appearance or disappearance. We discuss the well possedness of this model and give some computational evidences of its adequacy to simulate gas generation in a water saturated repository.

Bourgeat, Alain; Smaï, Farid

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Determination of Water Saturation in Relatively Dry Porous Media Using Gas-phase Tracer Tests  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Soil desiccation (drying), involving water evaporation induced by dry air injection and extraction, is a potentially robust remediation process to slow migration of inorganic or radionuclide contaminants through the vadose zone. The application of gas-phase partitioning tracer tests has been proposed as a means to estimate initial water volumes and to monitor the progress of the desiccation process at pilot-test and field sites. In this paper, tracer tests have been conducted in porous medium columns with various water saturations using sulfur hexafluoride as the conservative tracer and tricholorofluoromethane and difluoromethane as the water-partitioning tracers. For porous media with minimal silt and/or organic matter fractions, tracer tests provided reasonable saturation estimates for saturations close to zero. However, for sediments with significant silt and/or organic matter fractions, tracer tests only provided satisfactory results when the water saturation was at least 0.1 - 0.2. For dryer conditions, the apparent tracer retardation increases due to air – soil sorption, which is not included in traditional retardation coefficients derived from advection-dispersion equations accounting only for air – water partitioning and water – soil sorption. Based on these results, gas-phase partitioning tracer tests may be used to determine initial water volumes in sediments, provided the initial water saturations are sufficiently large. However, tracer tests are not suitable for quantifying moisture content in desiccated sediments.

Oostrom, Martinus; Tartakovsky, Guzel D.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Truex, Michael J.; Dane, Jacob H.

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

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101

TRANSITION STATE FOR THE GAS-PHASE REACTION OF URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE WITH WATER  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Density Functional Theory and small-core, relativistic pseudopotentials were used to look for symmetric and asymmetric transitions states of the gas-phase hydrolysis reaction of uranium hexafluoride, UF{sub 6}, with water. At the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p)/SDD level, an asymmetric transition state leading to the formation of a uranium hydroxyl fluoride, U(OH)F{sub 5}, and hydrogen fluoride was found with an energy barrier of +77.3 kJ/mol and an enthalpy of reaction of +63.0 kJ/mol (both including zero-point energy corrections). Addition of diffuse functions to all atoms except uranium led to only minor changes in the structure and relative energies of the reacting complex and transition state. However, a significant change in the product complex structure was found, significantly reducing the enthalpy of reaction to +31.9 kJ/mol. Similar structures and values were found for PBE0 and MP2 calculations with this larger basis set, supporting the B3LYP results. No symmetric transition state leading to the direct formation of uranium oxide tetrafluoride, UOF{sub 4}, was found, indicating that the reaction under ambient conditions likely includes several more steps than the mechanisms commonly mentioned. The transition state presented here appears to be the first published transition state for the important gas-phase reaction of UF{sub 6} with water.

Garrison, S; James Becnel, J

2008-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

102

GLASS: gas-phase metallicity and radial gradients in an interacting system at z~2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present spatially resolved gas-phase metallicity for a system of three galaxies at z=1.85 detected in the Grism Lensed-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS). The combination of HST's diffraction limit and strong gravitational lensing by the cluster MACS J0717+3745 results in a spatial resolution of ~200-300 pc, enabling good spatial sampling despite the intrinsically small galaxy sizes. The galaxies in this system are separated by 50-200 kpc in projection and are likely in an early stage of interaction, evidenced by relatively high specific star formation rates. Their gas-phase metallicities are consistent with larger samples at similar redshift, star formation rate, and stellar mass. We obtain a precise measurement of the metallicity gradient for one galaxy and find a shallow slope compared to isolated galaxies at high redshift, consistent with a flattening of the gradient due to gravitational interaction. An alternative explanation for the shallow metallicity gradient and elevated star formation rate is ra...

Jones, Tucker; Schmidt, Kasper; Treu, Tommaso; Brammer, Gabriel; Bradac, Marusa; Dressler, Alan; Henry, Alaina; Malkan, Matthew; Pentericci, Laura; Trenti, Michele

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

New Method for Evaluating Irreversible Adsorption and Stationary Phase Bleed in Gas Chromatographic Capillary Columns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel method for the evaluation of gas chromatographic (GC) column inertness has been developed using a tandem GC approach. Typically column inertness is measured by analyte peak shape evaluation. In general, silica, glass, and metal surfaces are chemically reactive and can cause analyte adsorption, which typically is observed as chromatographic peak tailing. Adsorption processes produce broad, short chromatographic peaks that confound peak area determinations because a significant portion can reside in the noise. In addition, chromatographic surfaces and stationary phases can irreversibly adsorb certain analytes without obvious degradation of peak shape. The inertness measurements described in this work specifically determine the degree of irreversible adsorption behavior of specific target compounds at levels ranging from approximately 50 picograms to 1 nanogram on selected gas chromatographic columns. Chromatographic columns with 5% phenylmethylsiloxane, polyethylene glycol (wax), trifluoropropylsiloxane, and 78% cyanopropylsiloxane stationary phases were evaluated with a variety of phosphorus- and sulfur- containing compounds selected as test compounds due to their ease of adsorption and importance in trace analytical detection. In addition, the method was shown effective for characterizing column bleed.

Wright, Bob W.; Wright, Cherylyn W.

2012-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

104

A UNIFIED REPRESENTATION OF GAS-PHASE ELEMENT DEPLETIONS IN THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study of gas-phase element abundances reported in the literature for 17 different elements sampled over 243 sight lines in the local part of our Galaxy reveals that the depletions into solid form (dust grains) are extremely well characterized by trends that employ only three kinds of parameters. One is an index that describes the overall level of depletion applicable to the gas in any particular sight line, and the other two represent linear coefficients that describe how to derive each element's depletion from this sight-line parameter. The information from this study reveals the relative proportions of different elements that are incorporated into dust at different stages of grain growth. An extremely simple scheme is proposed for deriving the dust contents and metallicities of absorption-line systems that are seen in the spectra of distant quasars or the optical afterglows of gamma-ray bursts. Contrary to presently accepted thinking, the elements sulfur and krypton appear to show measurable changes in their depletions as the general levels of depletions of other elements increase, although more data are needed to ascertain whether or not these findings are truly compelling. Nitrogen appears to show no such increase. The incorporation of oxygen into solid form in the densest gas regions far exceeds the amounts that can take the form of silicates or metallic oxides; this conclusion is based on differential measurements of depletion and thus is unaffected by uncertainties in the solar abundance reference scale.

Jenkins, Edward B. [Princeton University Observatory, Princeton, NJ 08544-1001 (United States)], E-mail: ebj@astro.princeton.edu

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Theoretical and numerical studies on the flow multiplicity phenomenon for gas–solids two-phase flows in CFB risers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The dependence of the fully-developed flow profiles on the inlet flow conditions for gas–solids two-phase flows, i.e. the flow multiplicity phenomenon, in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) risers was proposed and discussed in this article. The flow multiplicity phenomenon for gas–solids two-phase flows was first proved mathematically based on the conservation equations of mass and momentum. Then the CFD model using Eulerian–Eulerian approach with k–? turbulence model for each phase was further adopted to analyze the details of this flow multiplicity phenomenon. It is theoretically and numerically revealed that for gas–solids two-phase flows, the flow profiles in the fully-developed region are always dominated by the flow profiles at the inlet. The solids concentration profile is closely coupled with the velocity profile, and the inlet solids concentration and velocity profiles can largely influence the fully-developed concentration and velocity profiles.

B. Peng; C. Zhang; J. Zhu

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Removing a small quantity of THT from gas storage groundwater through air stripping and gas-phase carbon adsorption  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper deals with the response to a case of contaminated groundwater located in France. The natural gas is stored during summer in porous underground rocks. When energy requirements increase (particularly in winter), gas is drawn off, but water is also pumped during this operation. The water has a strong characteristic odour of the TetraHydroThiophene (THT), which has been used by Gaz de France as an additive in order to detect gas leakages because of its strong odour. Unfortunately, the presence of THT in medium other than natural gas can be responsible for safety problems. Gas stripping combined with adsorption on granular activated carbon was chosen to obtain removal of THT from the groundwater. The gas to water ratio for stripping column is higher than usual and the gas used for stripping was recycled in order to prevent air pollution. Carbon consumption is approximately 3 tons a year. 8 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Girod, J.F.; Leclerc, J.P.; Muhr, H. [CNRS, Nancy (France)] [and others

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

107

Gas Generation Testing of Neptunium Oxide Generated Using the HB-Line Phase IIFlowsheet  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The hydrogen (H{sub 2}) gas generation rate for neptunium dioxide (NpO{sub 2}) samples produced on a laboratory scale using the HB-Line Phase II flowsheet has been measured following exposure to 75% relative humidity (RH). As expected, the observed H{sub 2} generation rates for these samples increase with increasing moisture content. A maximum H{sub 2} generation rate of 1.8 x 10{sup -6} moles per day per kilogram (mol {center_dot} day{sup -1} kg{sup -1}) was observed for NpO{sub 2} samples with approximately one and one-half times (1 1/2 X) the expected specific surface area (SSA) for the HB-Line Phase II product. The SSA of NpO{sub 2} samples calcined at 650 C is similar to plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) calcined at 950 C according to the Department of Energy (DOE) standard for packaging and storage of PuO{sub 2}. This low SSA of the HB-Line Phase II product limits moisture uptake to less than 0.2 weight percent (wt %) even with extended exposure to 75% RH.

Duffey, J

2003-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

108

Discrimination of partial discharge electromagnetic signal in SF{sub 6} gas from external noises using phase gate control method  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors proposed phase gate control method for distinguishing frequency spectrum of electromagnetic wave caused by partial discharge (PD) in SF{sub 6} gas from external noises. They investigated the dependence of the polarity and phase angle of ac voltage on the electromagnetic wave spectrum. They derived the frequency region where PD spectrum caused by SF{sub 6} gas can be detected under noisy conditions. The authors also related quantitatively the gain of electromagnetic wave spectrum to the maximum PD charge simultaneously occurring in both SF{sub 6} gas and air. On the basis of these results, they determined the minimum detectable PD level in SF{sub 6} gas under noisy conditions as a function of measuring frequency.

Hikita, M.; Hoshino, T.; Kato, T.; Hayakawa, N.; Okubo, H. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan); Ueda, T. [Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., Nagoya (Japan)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

109

Is there hydrogen bonding for gas phase SN2 pre-reaction complexes?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract For some gas-phase X? + CH3Y ? XCH3 + Y? SN2 nucleophilic substitution reactions a pre-reaction complex is formed in which the attacking anion binds to a H-atom to form X??HCH2Y. In this work properties of this complex are investigated, for the OH? + CH3I and F? + CH3I reactions, to determine whether the HO??HCH2I and F??HCH2I complexes should be considered hydrogen-bonded complexes. Properties considered for these complexes are their structures, vibrational frequencies, well depths, and partial atomic charges. Also considered is the role of the HO??HCH2I complex in proton transfer for both the proton transfer and SN2 reaction pathways. The results of these analyses indicate that these X??HCH2Y complexes are hydrogen bonding complexes.

Jing Xie; Jiaxu Zhang; William L. Hase

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Vibrational Spectroscopy and Conformational Structure of Protonated Polyalanine Peptides Isolated in the Gas Phase  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Vibrational Spectroscopy and Conformational Structure of Protonated Polyalanine Peptides Isolated in the Gas Phase ... The relationship between the natural intensity of an IR absorption band and its R-IRMPD intensity is unclear, especially in the less-characterized OH/NH stretch region, and the scaled wavenumbers for the hydrogen-bonded NH+ modes (the most “diagnostic” modes), computed through DFT calculations may not be accurate. ... The authors are grateful for the support provided by the Royal Society USA/Canada Research Fellowship (TDV) and University Research Fellowship (LCS); the Leverhulme Trust (Grant F/08788G); Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (Grant SU 244/3-1, SS and BP); Corpus Christi College, Oxford (TSJAB and LCS), Linacre College, Oxford (TDV) and the Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory. ...

Timothy D. Vaden; Tjalling S. J. A. de Boer; John P. Simons; Lavina C. Snoek; Sándor Suhai; Béla Paizs

2008-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

111

Two-phase behavior and compression effects in the PEFC gas diffusion medium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A key performance limitation in the polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC), manifested in terms of mass transport loss, originates from liquid water transport and resulting flooding phenomena in the constituent components. A key contributor to the mass transport loss is the cathode gas diffusion layer (GDL) due to the blockage of available pore space by liquid water thus rendering hindered oxygen transport to the active reaction sites in the electrode. The GDL, therefore, plays an important role in the overall water management in the PEFC. The underlying pore-morphology and the wetting characteristics have significant influence on the flooding dynamics in the GDL. Another important factor is the role of cell compression on the GDL microstructural change and hence the underlying two-phase behavior. In this article, we present the development of a pore-scale modeling formalism coupled With realistic microstructural delineation and reduced order compression model to study the structure-wettability influence and the effect of compression on two-phase behavior in the PEFC GDL.

Mukherjee, Partha P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kang, Qinjun [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schulz, Volker P [APL-LANDAU GMBH; Wang, Chao - Yang [PENN STATE UNIV; Becker, Jurgen [NON LANL; Wiegmann, Andreas [NON LANL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

A method for direct, semi-quantitative analysis of gas phase samples using gas chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new and complete GC–ICP-MS method is described for direct analysis of trace metals in a gas phase process stream. The proposed method is derived from standard analytical procedures developed for ICP-MS, which are regularly exercised in standard ICP-MS laboratories. In order to implement the method, a series of empirical factors were generated to calibrate detector response with respect to a known concentration of an internal standard analyte. Calibrated responses are ultimately used to determine the concentration of metal analytes in a gas stream using a semi-quantitative algorithm. The method was verified using a traditional gas injection from a GC sampling valve and a standard gas mixture containing either a 1 ppm Xe + Kr mix with helium balance or 100 ppm Xe with helium balance. Data collected for Xe and Kr gas analytes revealed that agreement of 6–20% with the actual concentration can be expected for various experimental conditions. To demonstrate the method using a relevant “unknown” gas mixture, experiments were performed for continuous 4 and 7 hour periods using a Hg-containing sample gas that was co-introduced into the GC sample loop with the xenon gas standard. System performance and detector response to the dilute concentration of the internal standard were pre-determined, which allowed semi-quantitative evaluation of the analyte. The calculated analyte concentrations varied during the course of the 4 hour experiment, particularly during the first hour of the analysis where the actual Hg concentration was under predicted by up to 72%. Calculated concentration improved to within 30–60% for data collected after the first hour of the experiment. Similar results were seen during the 7 hour test with the deviation from the actual concentration being 11–81% during the first hour and then decreasing for the remaining period. The method detection limit (MDL) was determined for the mercury by injecting the sample gas into the system following a period of equilibration. The MDL for Hg was calculated as 6.8 ?g · m{sup ? 3}. This work describes the first complete GC–ICP-MS method to directly analyze gas phase samples, and detailed sample calculations and comparisons to conventional ICP-MS methods are provided.

Carter, Kimberly E.; Gerdes, Kirk

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Evaluating the phase equilibria of liquid water + natural gas mixtures using cubic equations of state with asymmetric mixing rules  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Based on a previously developed liquid–liquid mixing rule we present a modified and robust mixing rule for accurate prediction of water content of natural gas mixtures and the natural gas solubility in liquid water phase. The non-density dependent mixing rule (NDD) and the new mixing rule are incorporated into the Peng–Robinson (PR), Soave–Redlich–Kwong (SRK), and Nasrifar–Bolland (NB) equations of state to investigate their accuracies in estimating the water content of the gas phase as well as the gas solubility in the aqueous phase. For each binary system water + hydrocarbon, water + carbon dioxide, water + hydrogen sulfide, and water + nitrogen, three binary interaction parameters are required to describe the gas–liquid water equilibria. In this work, experimental data from literature were used to tune the parameters. The results are in good agreement with experimental data, demonstrating the reliability of the new mixing rule and the thermodynamic approach used in this work.

P. Reshadi; Kh. Nasrifar; M. Moshfeghian

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

ART CCIM PHASE II-A OFF-GAS SYSTEM EVALUATION TEST REPORT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

AREVA Federal Services (AFS) is performing a multi-year, multi-phase Advanced Remediation Technologies (ART) project, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), to evaluate the feasibility and benefits of replacing the existing joule-heated melter (JHM) used to treat high level waste (HLW) in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site with a cold crucible induction melter (CCIM). The AFS ART CCIM project includes several collaborators from AREVA subsidiaries, French companies, and DOE national laboratories. The Savannah River National Laboratory and the Commissariat a l’Energie Atomique (CEA) have performed laboratory-scale studies and testing to determine a suitable, high-waste-loading glass matrix. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and CEA are performing CCIM demonstrations at two different pilot scales to assess CCIM design and operation for treating SRS sludge wastes that are currently being treated in the DWPF. SGN is performing engineering studies to validate the feasibility of retrofitting CCIM technology into the DWPF Melter Cell. The long-term project plan includes more lab-testing, pilot- and large-scale demonstrations, and engineering activities to be performed during subsequent project phases. A simulant of the DWPF SB4 feed was successfully fed and melted in a small pilot-scale CCIM system during two test series. The OGSE tests provide initial results that (a) provide melter operating conditions while feeding a DWPF SB4 simulant feed, (b) determine the fate of feed organic and metal feed constituents and metals partitioning, and (c) characterize the melter off-gas source term to a downstream off-gas system. The INL CCIM test system was operated continuously for about 30 hours during the parametric test series, and for about 58 hours during the OGSE test. As the DWPF simulant feed was continuously fed to the melter, the glass level gradually increased until a portion of the molten glass was drained from the melter. The glass drain was operated periodically on-demand. A cold cap of unmelted feed was controlled by adjusting the feedrate and melter power levels to obtain the target molten glass temperatures with varying cold cap levels. Three test conditions were performed per the test plan, during which the melter was operated with a target melt temperature of either 1,250oC or 1,300oC, and with either a partial or complete cold cap of unmelted feed on top of the molten glass. Samples of all input and output streams including the starting glass, the simulant feed, the off-gas particulate matter, product glass, and deposits removed from the crucible and off-gas pipe after the test were collected for analysis.

Nick Soelberg

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

A Two-Phase Pressure Drop Model Incorporating Local Water Balance and Reactant Consumption in PEM Fuel Cell Gas Channels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

), and directly affects cost and sizing of fuel cell subsystems. Within several regions of PEMFC operating Fuel Cell Gas Channels E. J. See and S. G. Kandlikar Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rochester in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). The ability to model two-phase flow and pressure drop

Kandlikar, Satish

116

Heteronuclear diatomic transition-metal cluster ions in the gas phase: Reactivity and thermochemistry of AgFe+  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The gas-phase chemistry of AgFe+ was studied by using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. AgFe+ is unreactive with alkanes but reacts with cyclic and linear (C4–C8) alkenes. The primary r...

Jocelyn H. Ng; James R. Gord; Ben S. Freiser

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Two-phase pressure transient analysis for multi-stage fractured horizontal well in shale gas reservoirs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Most researches on shale gas production and pressure transient analysis placed more emphasis on single-phase flow, the two-phase flow caused by flowback after hydrofracture in shale gas reservoirs does not attract much attention. This paper presents a two-phase pressure transient analysis model of multi-stage fractured horizontal well with the consideration of wellbore storage, skin effect, two-phase saturation, hydraulic fractures parameters and desorption characteristics of shale gas reservoirs. Accurate solution to this flow model is obtained by the use of source function theory, Laplace transform, three-dimensional eigenvalue method and orthogonal transformation. Pseudo-pressure and pseudo-pressure derivative type curve is plotted by using the Stehfest algorithm. Seven different flow regimes have been identified and the effects of influence factors such as initial saturation, skin factor, absorption index, fracture stages, horizontal well lateral length and wellbore storage coefficient have also been discussed. The presents research could be used to interpret the pressure behavior more accurately and effectively of shale gas reservoirs.

Weiyang Xie; Xiaoping Li; Liehui Zhang; Junchao Wang; Lina Cao; Lin Yuan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Gas-Phase Identity SN2 Reactions of Halide Anions and Methyl Halides with Retention of Configuration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gas-Phase Identity SN2 Reactions of Halide Anions and Methyl Halides with Retention back-side and front-side SN2 reactions are found to involve the same ion-molecule complex (X-,,,H3CX of a front-side SN2 reaction with retention of configuration at saturated carbon. Analysis of our

Schlegel, H. Bernhard

119

Freeze-out temperature and density in heavy-ion collisions at liquid-gas phase transition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The study of properties of hot nuclei and the search for liquid-gas phase transition in nuclei have been the subjects of many investigations in recent decades. We present a short and limited review of the theoretical and experimental status of determining the temperature and density of the disassembling nucleus from ratios of the yields of emitted fragments.

Shlomo, Shalom [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

2010-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

120

DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF GAS-LIQUID CYLINDRICAL CYCLONE COMPACT SEPARATORS FOR THREE-PHASE FLOW  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has awarded a five-year (1997-2002) grant (Mohan and Shoham, DE-FG26-97BC15024, 1997) to The University of Tulsa, to develop compact multiphase separation components for 3-phase flow. The research activities of this project have been conducted through cost sharing by the member companies of the Tulsa University Separation Technology Projects (TUSTP) research consortium and the Oklahoma Center for the Advancement of Science and Technology (OCAST). As part of this project, several individual compact separation components have been developed for onshore and offshore applications. These include gas-liquid cylindrical cyclones (GLCC{copyright}), liquid-liquid cylindrical cyclones (LLCC{copyright}), and the gas-liquid-liquid cylindrical cyclones (GLLCC{copyright}). A detailed study has also been completed for the liquid-liquid hydrocyclones (LLHC). Appropriate control strategies have been developed for proper operation of the GLCC{copyright} and LLCC{copyright}. Testing of GLCC{copyright} at high pressure and real crude conditions for field applications is also completed. Limited studies have been conducted on flow conditioning devices to be used upstream of the compact separators for performance improvement. This report presents a brief overview of the activities and tasks accomplished during the 5-year project period, October 1, 1997-March 31, 2003 (including the no-cost extended period of 6 months). An executive summary is presented initially followed by the tasks of the 5-year budget periods. Then, detailed description of the experimental and modeling investigations are presented. Subsequently, the technical and scientific results of the activities of this project period are presented with some discussions. The findings of this investigation are summarized in the ''Conclusions'' section, followed by relevant references. The publications resulting from this study in the form of MS Theses, Ph.D. Dissertation, Journal Papers and Conference Presentations are provided at the end of this report.

Dr. Ram S. Mohan; Dr. Ovadia Shoham

2003-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

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121

Gas-phase thermal dissociation of uranium hexafluoride: Investigation by the technique of laser-powered homogeneous pyrolysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the gas-phase, uranium hexafluoride decomposes thermally in a quasi-unimolecular reaction to yield uranium pentafluoride and atomic fluorine. We have investigated this reaction using the relatively new technique of laser-powered homogeneous pyrolysis, in which a megawatt infrared laser is used to generate short pulses of high gas temperatures under strictly homogeneous conditions. In our investigation, SiF/sub 4/ is used as the sensitizer to absorb energy from a pulsed CO/sub 2/ laser and to transfer this energy by collisions with the reactant gas. Ethyl chloride is used as an external standard ''thermometer'' gas to permit estimation of the unimolecular reaction rate constants by a relative rate approach. When UF/sub 6/ is the reactant, CF/sub 3/Cl is used as reagent to trap atomic fluorine reaction product, forming CF/sub 4/ as a stable indicator which is easily detected by infrared spectroscopy. Using these techniques, we estimate the UF/sub 6/ unimolecular reaction rate constant near the high-pressure limit. In the Appendix, we describe a computer program, written for the IBM PC, which predicts unimolecular rate constants based on the Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel theory. Parameterization of the theoretical model is discussed, and recommendations are made for ''appropriate'' input parameters for use in predicting the gas-phase unimolecular reaction rate for UF/sub 6/ as a function of temperature and gas composition and total pressure. 85 refs., 17 figs., 14 tabs.

Bostick, W.D.; McCulla, W.H.; Trowbridge, L.D.

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Final report for the ASC gas-powder two-phase flow modeling project AD2006-09.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents activities performed in FY2006 under the ''Gas-Powder Two-Phase Flow Modeling Project'', ASC project AD2006-09. Sandia has a need to understand phenomena related to the transport of powders in systems. This report documents a modeling strategy inspired by powder transport experiments conducted at Sandia in 2002. A baseline gas-powder two-phase flow model, developed under a companion PEM project and implemented into the Sierra code FUEGO, is presented and discussed here. This report also documents a number of computational tests that were conducted to evaluate the accuracy and robustness of the new model. Although considerable progress was made in implementing the complex two-phase flow model, this project has identified two important areas that need further attention. These include the need to compute robust compressible flow solutions for Mach numbers exceeding 0.35 and the need to improve conservation of mass for the powder phase. Recommendations for future work in the area of gas-powder two-phase flow are provided.

Evans, Gregory Herbert; Winters, William S.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Development of a direct-injected natural gas engine system for heavy-duty vehicles: Final report phase 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of Phase 2 of this contract. The authors completed four tasks under this phase of the subcontract. (1) They developed a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of a 3500 direct injected natural gas (DING) engine gas injection/combustion system and used it to identify DING ignition/combustion system improvements. The results were a 20% improvement in efficiency compared to Phase 1 testing. (2) The authors designed and procured the components for a 3126 DING engine (300 hp) and finished assembling it. During preliminary testing, the engine ran successfully at low loads for approximately 2 hours before injector tip and check failures terminated the test. The problems are solvable; however, this phase of the program was terminated. (3) They developed a Decision & Risk Analysis model to compare DING engine technology with various other engine technologies in a number of commercial applications. The model shows the most likely commercial applications for DING technology and can also be used to identify the sensitivity of variables that impact commercial viability. (4) MVE, Inc., completed a preliminary design concept study that examines the major design issues involved in making a reliable and durable 3,000 psi LNG pump. A primary concern is the life of pump seals and piston rings. Plans for the next phase of this program (Phase 3) have been put on indefinite hold. Caterpillar has decided not to fund further DING work at this time due to limited current market potential for the DING engine. However, based on results from this program, the authors believe that DI natural gas technology is viable for allowing a natural gas-fueled engine to achieve diesel power density and thermal efficiency for both the near and long terms.

Cox, G.B.; DelVecchio, K.A.; Hays, W.J.; Hiltner, J.D.; Nagaraj, R.; Emmer, C.

2000-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

124

Gas-phase non-identity SN2 reactions at neutral nitrogen: a hybrid DFT study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The gas-phase non-identity nucleophilic substitution reactions at saturated nitrogen Y?+NH2X?NH2Y+X? (Y, X=F, Cl, Br and I) were evaluated at the level of MPW1K/6-31+G(d, p). The enthalpies of reactions are exothermic only when the nucleophile is the lighter halide. Central barriers (?HYX?) for reactions in the exothermic direction are slightly higher than the corresponding barriers at carbon. The lower overall barriers relative to the reactants (?HYXb) than the corresponding reactions at carbon suggest that SN2 reactions at nitrogen may be more facile than at carbon. Both the central barriers (?HYX?) and the overall barriers (?HYXb) correlate well with reaction exothermicity. Further interesting features of the non-identity reactions at nitrogen are the reasonable correlation between the central barriers (?HYX?) with the composite geometrical looseness (%L?), geometrical asymmetry (%AS?), and charge asymmetry of the transition structures (?q (X?Y)). The data for the central barriers and the overall barriers show good agreement with the prediction of the Marcus equation and its modification, respectively. Kinetic and thermodynamic investigations predict that the nucleophilicity of X? in the SN2 at nitrogen decreases in the order F?Cl>Br>I.

Jing Yang; Yi Ren; Hua-jie Zhu; San-Yan Chu

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Numerical and experimental studies on the flow multiplicity phenomenon for gas–solids two-phase flows in CFB risers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The flow multiplicity phenomenon in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) risers, i.e. under the same superficial gas velocity and solids circulation rate, the CFB risers may sometimes exhibit multiple flow structures, was numerically and experimentally investigated in this study. To investigate the flow multiplicity phenomenon, the experiments of gas–solids two-phase flows in a 2-D CFB riser with different flow profiles at the inlet of the CFB riser were conducted. Specially designed gas inlet distributors with add-ons are used to generate different flow profiles at the inlet of the CFB rise. The CFD model using Eulerian–Eulerian approach with k–? turbulence model for each phase was employed to numerically analyze the flow multiplicity phenomenon. It is experimentally and numerically proved that for gas–solids two-phase flows, the flow profiles in the fully-developed region are dominated by the flow profiles at the inlet. The solids concentration profile is closely coupled with the velocity profile, and the inlet solids concentration and velocity profiles can largely influence the fully-developed solids concentration and velocity profiles.

B. Peng; J. Xu; J. Zhu; C. Zhang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Screening of Pesticides via Solid-Phase Extraction and Gas Chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......concentration is carried out with gas chromatography. Two columns...in the agricultural production of the province of Tucum...Bellefonte, PA). An HP 5890 gas chromatograph equipped...important for safety and cost in this kind of analysis...capil- lary-column gas chromatography/mass......

Atilio Sosa; Argelia Lenardón; Maria Liliana Mattassini

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Fission gas bubble nucleated cavitational swelling of the alpha-uranium phase of irradiated U-Pu-Zr fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cavitational swelling has been identified as a potential swelling mechanism for the alpha uranium phase of irradiated U-Pu-Zr metal fuels for the Integral Fast Reactor being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The trends of U-Pu-Zr swelling data prior to fuel cladding contact can be interpreted in terms of unrestrained cavitational driven swelling. It is theorized that the swelling mechanisms at work in the alpha uranium phase can be modeled by single vacancy and single interstitial kinetics with intergranular gas bubbles providing the void nuclei, avoiding the use of complicated defect interaction terms required for the calculation of void nucleation. The focus of the kinetics of fission gas evolution as it relates to cavitational swelling is prior to the formation of a significant amount of interconnected porosity and is on the development of small intergranular gas bubbles which can act as void nuclei. Calculations for the evolution of intergranular fission gas bubbles show that they provide critical cavity sizes (i.e., the size above which the cavity will grow by bias-driven vacancy flux) consistent with the observed incubation dose for the onset of rapid swelling and gas release.

Rest, J.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Oxyfuel CO2 compression: The gas phase reaction of elemental mercury and \\{NOx\\} at high pressure and absorption into nitric acid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Oxyfuel combustion is a technology which combusts coal in oxygen and recycled flue gas, producing a carbon dioxide rich flue gas for sequestration. Oxyfuel flue gas contains trace amounts of elemental mercury, which may corrode brazed aluminium heat exchangers used in the carbon dioxide purification system. International gas vendors have tested the use of the compression system to remove other flue gas impurities such as NOx; however, the reaction mechanism of mercury and its reaction products with \\{NOx\\} and nitric acid formed with condensed water vapour are unclear. This study used lab scale experiments to study the absorption of gaseous elemental mercury into nitric acid and the gas phase reaction between mercury and nitrogen dioxide formed from oxidised NO at pressures up to 25 bar. It was observed that mercury has limited absorption into nitric acid and may partially desorb out of solution after depressurisation. On the other hand, mercury reacted readily with nitrogen dioxide (formed from nitric oxide oxidation at high pressure) in the gas phase. These gas phase reactions from the oxidation of nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxide to the subsequent oxidation of elemental mercury by nitrogen dioxide were predicted using existing global kinetic equations. The limited absorption of gaseous elemental mercury in nitric acid and significant oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury by nitrogen dioxide suggests that the primary removal step for elemental mercury is through the gas phase reaction. Oxyfuel compression circuits should therefore allow sufficient residence time for this gas phase reaction to occur.

Timothy Ting; Rohan Stanger; Terry Wall

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Project 5 -- Solution gas drive in heavy oil reservoirs: Gas and oil phase mobilities in cold production of heavy oils. Quarterly progress report, October 1--December 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this report, the authors present the results of their first experiment on a heavy crude of about 35,000 cp. A new visual coreholder was designed and built to accommodate the use of unconsolidated sand. From this work, several clear conclusions can be drawn: (1) oil viscosity does not decrease with the evolution of gas, (2) the critical gas saturation is in the range of 4--5%, and (3) the endpoint oil relative permeability is around 0.6. However, the most important parameter, gas phase mobility, is still unresolved. Gas flows intermittently, and therefore the length effect becomes important. Under the conditions that the authors run the experiment, recovery is minimal, about 7.5%. This recovery is still much higher than the recovery of the C{sub 1}/C{sub 10} model system which was 3%. After a duplicate test, they plan to conduct the experiment in the horizontal core. The horizontal core is expected to provide a higher recovery.

Firoozabadi, A.; Pooladi-Darvish, M.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

130

Steric, Quantum, and Electrostatic Effects on SN2 Reaction Barriers in Gas Phase  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biomolecular nucleophilic substitution reactions, S{sub N}2, are fundamental and commonplace in chemistry. It is the well-documented experimental finding in the literature that vicinal substitution with bulkier groups near the reaction center significantly slows the reaction due to steric hindrance, but theoretical understanding in the quantitative manner about factors dictating the S{sub N}2 reaction barrier height is still controversial. In this work, employing the new quantification approach that we recently proposed for the steric effect from the density functional theory framework, we investigate the relative contribution of three independent effects—steric, electrostatic, and quantum—to the S{sub N}2 barrier heights in gas phase for substituted methyl halide systems, R{sub 1}R{sub 2}R{sub 3}CX, reacting with the fluorine anion, where R{sub 1}, R{sub 2}, and R{sub 3} denote substituting groups and X = F or Cl. We found that in accordance with the experimental finding, for these systems, the steric effect dominates the transition state barrier, contributing positively to barrier heights, but this contribution is largely compensated by the negative, stabilizing contribution from the quantum effect due to the exchange-correlation interactions. Moreover, we find that it is the component from the electrostatic effect that is linearly correlated with the S{sub N}2 barrier height for the systems investigated in the present study. In addition, we compared our approach with the conventional method of energy decomposition in density functional theory as well as examined the steric effect from the wave function theory for these systems via natural bond orbital analysis.

Liu, Shubin; Hu, Hao; Pedersen, Lee G.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Eco Logic International gas-phase chemical reduction process: The thermal desorption unit. Applications analysis report. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report details the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation of the Eco Logic International`s gas-phase chemical reduction process, with an emphasis on their thermal desorption unit. The Eco Logic process employs a high temperature reactor filled with hydrogen as a means to destroy chlorinated organic wastes. The process is designed around a reduction reaction, which reduces the organic wastes into a high-BTU gas product. The thermal desorption unit is designed to work in conjunction with the Eco Logic Reactor system. It is intended to process soils and sludges, desorbing the organic contaminants into a hydrogen gas stream for subsequent treatment and destruction within the Reactor System. The demonstration program was conducted at the Middleground Island Landfill in Bay City, Michigan during October to December, 1992. The report provides details of the test program, summaries of analytical tests conducted on a variety of process streams, process economics, and case study information.

Sudell, G.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Source Identification of Underground Fuel Spills by Solid-Phase Microextraction/High-Resolution Gas Chromatography/Genetic Algorithms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Source Identification of Underground Fuel Spills by Solid-Phase Microextraction/High-Resolution Gas Chromatography/Genetic Algorithms ... Groundwater is the last remaining source of potable water for many households and communities in the southeastern United States.1 Its possible contamination by fuels stored in leaking underground tanks and pipelines has become a serious environmental problem, prompting both federal and state regulatory agencies to fund the development of new methods for the identification of fuel materials recovered from subsurface environments. ...

B. K. Lavine; J. Ritter; A. J. Moores; M. Wilson; A. Faruque; H. T. Mayfield

1999-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

133

FINEST: a high performance branch-line for VUV photon energy range gas phase studies at MAX-lab  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a dedicated beamline branch for high flux and ultra-high resolution (R>100000) gas and vapor phase studies in the vacuum-ultra-violet (VUV) region of light on the undulator beamline I3, located on the 700 MeV MAX-III storage ring. The mechanical and optical design of the branch-line, the differential pumping setup as well as performance characteristics are presented.

Urpelainen, S. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 3000, 90014 University of Oulu (Finland); MAX-laboratory, Lunds University (Sweden); Huttula, M.; Kovala, P.; Aksela, S.; Aksela, H. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 3000, 90014 University of Oulu (Finland); Balasubramanian, T.; Sankari, R.; Nyholm, R. [MAX-laboratory, Lunds University (Sweden); Kukk, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku (Finland); Nommiste, E. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Tartu (Estonia)

2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

134

New Gas-Phase Cascade Reactions of Stabilized Phosphorus Ylides Leading to Ring-Fused Indoles and to Quinolines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

New Gas-Phase Cascade Reactions of Stabilized Phosphorus Ylides Leading to Ring-Fused Indoles and to Quinolines† ... These latter products are representatives of rather uncommon fused ring systems, but the furo[2,3-c]carbazole system is present in the natural product eustifoline D isolated from Murraya euchrestifolia Hayata, a shrub found in Taiwan,(15) and a synthesis of this natural product using the present approach is currently in progress. ...

R. Alan Aitken; Lorna Murray

2008-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

135

E-Print Network 3.0 - analysis-hydride generation-gas phase Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

on the high-pressure phase diagram of molecular CO2... of a new molecular phase of carbon dioxide at high-pressure and high- temperature. Using x-ray diffraction... , we...

136

Resolving the ?-effect in gas phase SN2 reactions: A Marcus theory approach  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recently we reported experimental validation of the ?-effect in the gas phase. However, an earlier study by our group showed a lack of enhanced reactivity in a series of SN2 reactions of ?-nucleophiles with methyl chloride conflicting with computational predictions. In an attempt to resolve these discrepancies, we investigate the SN2 reactions for methyl chloride of low exothermicity where the smaller thermodynamic component of the activation barrier may expose ?-nucleophilicity. The efficiencies for the reactions of several normal nucleophiles [C6H5O?, HC(O)O?, CH3C(O)O?] and alpha-nucleophiles [HC(O)OO?, CH3C(O)OO?] with \\{CH3Cl\\} are added to our previous Brønsted plot of normal and ?-nucleophile reactions with methyl chloride. While the presence of an ?-effect is suggested in some of the reactions with methyl chloride at lower basicities, the homologous properties of the “normal” ions in this region deviate from straight-chain alkoxides making the definition of “normal” reactivity more difficult. Application of Marcus theory provides insight into the intrinsic nature of the ?-effect and how easily intrinsic differences can be masked. Computational barriers were utilized to estimate an “average” Marcus intrinsic barrier for several reactions at two different levels of theory. The “average” intrinsic barrier for the identity reaction of HOO? lies roughly 15 kJ mol?1 below those of the “normal” nucleophiles, but this intrinsic difference is a maximum that can be significantly masked by leaving group barrier contributions to the overall Marcus activation barrier and thermodynamic driving forces. Variations in the intrinsic Marcus barriers of the anion(s) defining “normal” reactivity will play a key role in the magnitude of the ?-effect. Significantly lower electron affinities (?0.6 eV) are associated with the formation of the ?-oxyanions compared to the normal oxyanions (X + e? ? X?) suggesting that the ease of charge transfer between the nucleophile and transition state is responsible for the lower barriers of the ?-nucleophiles.

John M. Garver; Zhibo Yang; Charles M. Nichols; Benjamin B. Worker; Scott Gronert; Veronica M. Bierbaum

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Hybrid DFT study on the gas-phase SN2 reactions at neutral oxygen  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The hybrid DFT method MPW1K, in conjunction with 6-31+G(d,p) basis sets, has been examined for the gas-phase reactions, Y?+HOX (Y, X=F, Cl, Br, I). Comparison of the results with the high-level G2(+) theory indicates that MPW1K/6-31+G(d,p) approach performs well in describing the potential energy surface for the identity SN2 reactions X?+HOX?HOX+X? (X=Cl, Br, I). The corresponding non-identity reactions (Y?X, Y, X=Cl, Br, I), are exothermic if the nucleophile is the heavier halide, in contrast to the corresponding reactions at carbon. The fluorine behaves different from the other halogens. The reactions Y?+HOF (Y=F, Cl, Br, I) are predicted to form the energetically favorable products YO?+HF with a large driving force(?H=?48.6, ?47.2, ?56.5, ?69.0 kJ/mol for Y=F, Cl, Br, I, respectively) and lower reaction enthalpies than the corresponding SN2 reactions by about 60 kJ/mol. Central barrier heights (?HYX?) for SN2 reactions in the exothermic directions vary from 52.5 kJ/mol for Y=I, X=Br up to 76.6 kJ/mol for Y=Br, X=Cl. Overall barriers (?HYXb) for reactions in the exothermic direction are all negative (varying from ?13.8 kJ/mol for Y=I, X=Br to ?5.2 kJ/mol for Y=Br, X=Cl). Complexation energies (?Hcomp) of the ion–molecule complexes Y??HOX vary from 66.3 kJ/mol for Y=I, X=Br to 95.5 kJ/mol for Y=Cl, X=Br. The central barrier heights ?HYX? and ?HXY? correlate well with the degree of the O?X and O?Y bond elongation in the transition structures. Both central and overall barriers can be interpreted with the aid of Marcus equation.

Yi Ren; Joel L. Wolk; Shmaryahu Hoz

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Local heat and mass transfer for gas-solid two phase flow in CFB  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An experimental investigation on the flow characteristics and the local heat and mass transfer between coarse wet particles and hot gas in the circulating fluidized bed (CFB) has been performed. A two-thermocoupl...

Feng Lu; Ming-Heng Shi

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Modeling Gas-Phase Transport in Polymer-Electrolyte Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy, Office of Hydrogen, Fuel Cell, and InfrastructureIN POLYMER-ELECTROLYTE FUEL CELLS A. Z. Weber and J. Newmandiffusion of gases in a fuel-cell gas-diffusion layer are

Weber, A.Z.; Newman, J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Radiosensitization of Hypoxic Tumor Cells by Dodecafluoropentane: A Gas-Phase Perfluorochemical Emulsion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...counter-intuitive that a gas could sequester other gases. However, the solubility of nonpolar gases in DDFP is so high that the bubbles absorb nitrogen and oxygen. Mathematical...maintained on a 37C warm water circulating heating pad...

Cameron J. Koch; Patricia R. Oprysko; A. Lee Shuman; W. Timothy Jenkins; Gordon Brandt; and Sydney M. Evans

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas phase gip" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Modeling the final phase of landfill gas generation from long-term observations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For waste management, methane emissions from landfills and their effect on climate change are of serious concern. Current models for biogas generation that focus on the economic use of the landfill gas are usuall...

Johannes Tintner; Manfred Kühleitner; Erwin Binner; Norbert Brunner…

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Formation and fragmentation of gas-phase ion-molecule complexes of transition-metal ions with organic molecules containing two functional groups  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A mass spectrometer fast atom bombardment source has been used to synthesize, in the gas phase, the ion-molecule complexes of transition-metal ions (Ni+, CO+, Fe+, and Mn+) with ?- or ?-unsaturated alkenenitriles...

Lin-Zhi Chen; Jack M. Miller

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Development of Ion Mobility-mass Spectrometry Instrumentation to Probe the Conformations and Capture the Solution to Gas Phase Transition of Electrosprayed Biomolecules  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(i.e., peptides and proteins) produced upon ESI and provide new insight into their solution to gas phase evolution. First, fundamental principles of periodic focusing ion mobility spectrometry are comprehensively discussed. Radial ion confinement...

Silveira, Joshua A

2013-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

144

Ion-molecule reaction of alkanenitriles and transition-metal ions in the gas phase: A study on fragmentation mechanism of the adducts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Gas-phase ion-molecule reactions between transition-metal ions (Mn +, Fe+, Co+, ... +) and propionitri1e and acetonitrile were investigated. Ion-molecule adducts were prepared in a modified...

Lin-Zhi Chen; Jack M. Miller

1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Hydrogenation of Hexene-1 by Gas Phase Spillover Hydrogen. Influence of Substances Added in the Reaction Chamber, Without Contact to the Catalyst  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The activation and reaction zone in a gas phase hydrogen spillover experiment were separated by a frit as in [1]. In the activation zone hydrogen was activated by a Pt/Al2O3 catalyst, the activated hydrogen react...

E. Baumgarten; R. Krupp

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Influence of Atmospheric Pressure and Water Table Fluctuations on Gas Phase Flow and Transport of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Unsaturated Zones  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in previous studies. This dissertation systematically investigates their influence on the gas phase flow and transport of VOCs in soil and ground water remediation processes using analytically and numerically mathematical modeling. New semi...

You, Kehua

2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

147

Water and gas coning: two and three phase system correlations for the critical oil production rate and optimum location of the completion interval  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

WATER AND GAS COMING: TWO AND THREE PHASE SYSTEM CORRELATIONS FOR THE CRITICAL OIL PRODUCTION RATE AND OPTIMUM LOCATION OF THE COMPLETION INTERVAL A Thesis by FRANCISCO MANUEL GONZALEZ, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A...&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1987 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering WATER AND GAS CONING: TWO AND THREE PHASE SYSTEM CORRELATIONS FOR THE CRITICAL OIL PRODUCTION RATE AND OPTIMUM...

Gonzalez, Francisco Manuel

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

148

Deposition of Nitric Acid and Reactive Nitrogen at Harvard Forest The hourly gas-phase HNO3 concentration was measured at the Harvard Forest  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reactive nitrogen trace gas species play an important role in tropospheric photochemistry by stimulating gas-phase HNO3 concentration was measured at the Harvard Forest Environmental Measurement Site during radicals may be regenerated. Thus conversion of NOx radicals to HNO3 and subsequent deposition

149

Flash photolysis resonance fluorescence investigation of the gas-phase reactions of hydroxyl radicals with cyclic ethers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Absolute rate constants were measured for the gas-phase reactions of hydroxyl radicals with a series of dioxanes and other cyclic ethers by using the flash photolysis resonance fluorescence technique. Kinetic data for 1,3-dioxane and 1,4-dioxane, reactions 1 and 2, over the temperature range 240-440 K were used to derive the Arrhenius expressions. These results are compared to our earlier measurements for aliphatic ethers and are discussed in terms of reaction mechanisms and the prediction of reaction rates for such compounds from group reactivity values.

Dagaut, P.; Liu, R.; Wallington, T.J.; Kurylo, M.J. (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (USA))

1990-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

150

Evaluation of gas-phase technetium decontamination and safety related experiments during FY 1994. A report of work in progress  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laboratory activities for FY94 included: evaluation of decontamination of Tc by gas-phase techniques, evaluation of diluted ClF{sub 3} for removing U deposits, evaluation of potential hazard of wet air inlekage into a vessel containing ClF{sub 3}, planning and preparation for experiments to assess hazard of rapid reaction of ClF{sub 3} and hydrated UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} or powdered Al, and preliminary evaluation of compatibility of Tenic valve seat material.

Simmons, D.W.; Munday, E.B.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Aging of biogenic secondary organic aerosol via gas-phase OH radical reactions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...common model that reproduces the general features of all...throughout the aerosol life cycle in the atmosphere. Aging can significantly...gas-particle interactions—part 1: General equations, parameters, and terminology . Atmos Chem...steranes) in motor oil and diesel primary organic aerosols with...

Neil M. Donahue; Kaytlin M. Henry; Thomas F. Mentel; Astrid Kiendler-Scharr; Christian Spindler; Birger Bohn; Theo Brauers; Hans P. Dorn; Hendrik Fuchs; Ralf Tillmann; Andreas Wahner; Harald Saathoff; Karl-Heinz Naumann; Ottmar Möhler; Thomas Leisner; Lars Müller; Marc-Christopher Reinnig; Thorsten Hoffmann; Kent Salo; Mattias Hallquist; Mia Frosch; Merete Bilde; Torsten Tritscher; Peter Barmet; Arnaud P. Praplan; Peter F. DeCarlo; Josef Dommen; Andre S.H. Prévôt; Urs Baltensperger

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

TRIF Water Sustainability Program Fellowship Report Destruction of Gas-Phase VOCs by a Coupled  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are also widely employed for the remediation of sediment for recovered gas treatment was installed at the site as an interim remediation scheme while the Remedial-test this innovative technology perhaps leading to considerable cost savings without sacrificing the broad

Fay, Noah

153

Gas Phase Diagnosis of Disilane/Hydrogen RF Glow Discharge Plasma and Its Application to High Rate Growth of High Quality Amorphous Silicon  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Gas phase diagnosis of disilane/hydrogen plasma was carried out using mass spectrometry. At high growth rate (20 Å/s) conditions using pure disilane as a source gas, the partial pressure of disilane molecules measured by mass spectrometry was more than one order of magnitude higher than in the case when mono-silane was used as a source gas. The stability of amorphous silicon films prepared from disilane was improved by the hydrogen dilution technique, although the disilane partial pressure in this condition was much higher than in the case when mono-silane was used as a source gas for device quality films. The relation between the gas phase species and the stability of the resulting films is studied. It was found that increase in disilane related signal intensity do not decrease film stability directly.

Wataru Futako; Tomoko Takagi; Tomonori Nishimoto; Michio Kondo; Isamu Shimizu; Akihisa Matsuda

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Significant Increase in Hydrogen Photoproduction Rates and Yields by Wild-Type Algae is Detected at High Photobioreactor Gas Phase Volume (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This NREL Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Highlight describes how hydrogen photoproduction activity in algal cultures can be improved dramatically by increasing the gas-phase to liquid-phase volume ratio of the photobioreactor. NREL, in partnership with subcontractors from the Institute of Basic Biological Problems in Pushchino, Russia, demonstrated that the hydrogen photoproduction rate in algal cultures always decreases exponentially with increasing hydrogen partial pressure above the culture. The inhibitory effect of high hydrogen concentrations in the photobioreactor gas phase on hydrogen photoproduction by algae is significant and comparable to the effect observed with some anaerobic bacteria.

Not Available

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

The effect of a micro bubble dispersed gas phase on hydrogen isotope transport in liquid metals under nuclear irradiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The present work intend to be a first step towards the understanding and quantification of the hydrogen isotope complex phenomena in liquid metals for nuclear technology. Liquid metals under nuclear irradiation in,e.g., breeding blankets of a nuclear fusion reactor would generate tritium which is to be extracted and recirculated as fuel. At the same time that tritium is bred, helium is also generated and may precipitate in the form of nano bubbles. Other liquid metal systems of a nuclear reactor involve hydrogen isotope absorption processes, e.g., tritium extraction system. Hence, hydrogen isotope absorption into gas bubbles modelling and control may have a capital importance regarding design, operation and safety. Here general models for hydrogen isotopes transport in liquid metal and absorption into gas phase, that do not depend on the mass transfer limiting regime, are exposed and implemented in OpenFOAMR CFD tool for 0D to 3D simulations. Results for a 0D case show the impact of a He dispersed phase of na...

Fradera, Jorge

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Spin states of para-water and ortho-water molecule in gas and liquid phases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spin degrees of freedom of water molecule in gas and liquid state were investigated in order to provide a reasonable answer about the unsolved problem of a long-term behavior of water spin isomers. The approach used involves an assumption that molecules change their spin state from a pure state to a mixed one when they interact with some sorts of adsorbent surface. Some models and conceptions of the quantum information processing were used.

V. K. Konyukhov

2009-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

157

Gas-Phase Synthesis of Singly and Multiply Charged Polyoxovanadate Anions Employing Electrospray Ionization and Collision Induced Dissociation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) combined with in-source fragmentation and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) experiments were used to generate a wide range of multiply charged vanadium oxide cluster anions including VxOyn- and VxOyCln- ions (x = 1 ? 14, y= 2 ? 36, n = 1 ? 3), protonated clusters, and ligand-bound VxOyn- species. These cluster anions were produced by electrospraying a solution of tetradecavanadate, V14O36Cl(L)5 (L= Et4N+, tetraethylammonium), in acetonitrile. Under mild source conditions, ESI-MS generates a distribution of doubly and triply charged VxOyCln- and VxOyCl(L)(n-1)- clusters predominantly containing 14 vanadium atoms. Accurate mass measurement using high-resolution mass spectrometry (m/?m = 60,000 at m/z 410) enabled unambiguous assignment of the elemental composition of the majority of peaks in the ESI-MS spectrum. In addition, high-sensitivity mass spectrometry allowed the charge state of the cluster ions to be assigned based on the separation of the major from the minor isotope of vanadium. In-source fragmentation resulted in facile formation of smaller VxOyCl(1-2)- and VxOy(1-2)- anions. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments enabled systematic study of the gas-phase fragmentation pathways of the cluster anions generated from solution. Surprisingly simple fragmentation patterns were obtained for all singly and doubly charged VxOyCl and VxOy species generated through multiple MS/MS experiments. In contrast, cluster ions originating directly from solution produced comparatively complex CID spectra. These results indicate that low-energy CID results in formation of stable cage-like structures of VxOyCl and VxOy anions. Furthermore, solution-phase synthesis of one precursor cluster combined with gas-phase CID is an efficient approach for the top-down synthesis of a wide range of multiply charged gas-phase metal oxide clusters for subsequent investigations of structure and reactivity.

Al Hasan, Naila M.; Johnson, Grant E.; Laskin, Julia

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Gasliquid two-phase flow patterns in a miniature square channel with a gas permeable sidewall  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

methanol fuel cells. Flow patterns in both vertical upward and horizontal flows were identified using in vertical downward flows; and Kosterin [5] and Brigham et al. [6] discussed flow patterns in inclined-phase flow of air�water mixtures in horizontal pipes, the flow patterns and flow regime maps for five glass

Zhao, Tianshou

159

Unification of BKT and BEC Phase Transitions in a Trapped Two-Dimensional Bose Gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the critical point for the emergence of coherence in a harmonically trapped two-dimensional (2d) Bose gas with tuneable interactions. Over a wide range of interaction strengths we find excellent agreement with predictions based on the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) theory of 2d superfluidity. This allows us to quantitatively show, without any free parameters, that the interaction-driven BKT transition smoothly converges onto the purely statistical Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) transition in the limit of vanishing interactions.

Fletcher, Richard J; Man, Jay; Navon, Nir; Smith, Robert P; Viebahn, Konrad; Hadzibabic, Zoran

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Gas-Phase Advanced Oxidation for Effective, Efficient in Situ Control of Pollution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The process uses ozone and UV-C light to produce in situ radicals to oxidize pollution, generating particles that are removed by a filter; ozone is removed using a MnO2 honeycomb catalyst. ... (22, 23) Catalytic and thermal oxidizers can be used effectively for treating high VOC levels (>1 g/m3) but require additional fuel when pollution is below the threshold needed to maintain operating temperature; these methods have relatively high costs for installation, operation, and maintenance. ... (24) Regenerative adsorption and cryotrapping remove VOCs but consume energy and are not suitable for wet gas streams. ...

Matthew S. Johnson; Elna J. K. Nilsson; Erik A. Svensson; Sarka Langer

2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas phase gip" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7 whiskers grown from the gas phase  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} whiskers were grown by the {ital in} {ital situ} technique using radio frequency magnetron sputtering in Ar--O{sub 2} atmosphere at a substrate temperature of 720 {degree}C on (100) single crystal MgO substrate. High sputtering gas pressures were found to promote the formation of whiskers. Whiskers were found to start their growth from certain platelet crystals. The growth conditions for these whiskers are described and their structure is examined by analytical transmission electron microscope. These results seem to exclude the vapor--liquid--solid growth and propose direct condensation from the vapor.

Jaervinen, R.J.O.; Podkletnov, E.E.; Maentylae, T.A. (Tampere University of Technology, Insitute of Materials Science, P. O. Box 527, SF-33101 Tampere (Finland)); Laurilla, J.T.; Lepistoe, T.K. (Tampere University of Technology, Center for Electron Microscopy, P. O. Box 527, SF-33101 Tampere (Finland))

1991-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

162

DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF GAS-LIQUID CYLINDRICAL CYCLONE COMPACT SEPARATORS FOR THREE-PHASE FLOW  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents a brief overview of the activities and tasks accomplished during the second half year (April 1, 2001-September 30, 2001) of the fourth project year budget period (October 1, 2000-September 30, 2001). An executive summary is presented initially followed by the tasks of the current budget period. Then, detailed description of the experimental and modeling investigations are presented. Subsequently, the technical and scientific results of the activities of this project period are presented with some discussions. The findings of this investigation are summarized in the ''Conclusions'' section followed by relevant references. The fourth project year activities are divided into three main parts, which are carried out in parallel. The first part is continuation of the experimental program that includes a study of the oil/water two-phase behavior at high pressures and control system development for the three-phase GLCC{copyright}. This investigation will be eventually extended for three-phase flow. The second part consists of the development of a simplified mechanistic model incorporating the experimental results and behavior of dispersion of oil in water and water in oil. This will provide an insight into the hydrodynamic flow behavior and serve as the design tool for the industry. Although useful for sizing GLCC{copyright} for proven applications, the mechanistic model will not provide detailed hydrodynamic flow behavior information needed to screen new geometric variations or to study the effect of fluid property variations. Therefore, in the third part, the more rigorous approach of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) will be utilized. Multidimensional multiphase flow simulation at high pressures and for real crude conditions will provide much greater depth into the understanding of the physical phenomena and the mathematical analysis of three-phase GLCC{copyright} design and performance.

Dr. Ram S. Mohan; Dr. Ovadia Shoham

2001-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

163

DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF GAS-LIQUID CYLINDRICAL CYCLONE COMPACT SEPARATORS FOR THREE-PHASE FLOW  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents a brief overview of the activities and tasks accomplished during the first half year (October 1, 2000-March 31, 2001) of the fourth project year budget period (October 1, 2000-September 30, 2001). An executive summary is presented initially followed by the tasks of the current budget period. Then, detailed description of the experimental and modeling investigations are presented. Subsequently, the technical and scientific results of the activities of this project period are presented with some discussions. The findings of this investigation are summarized in the ''Conclusions'' section followed by relevant references. The fourth project year activities are divided into three main parts, which are carried out in parallel. The first part is continuation of the experimental program that includes a study of the oil/water two-phase behavior at high pressures and control system development for the three-phase GLCC{copyright}. This investigation will be eventually extended for three-phase flow. The second part consists of the development of a simplified mechanistic model incorporating the experimental results and behavior of dispersion of oil in water and water in oil. This will provide an insight into the hydrodynamic flow behavior and serve as the design tool for the industry. Although useful for sizing GLCC{copyright} for proven applications, the mechanistic model will not provide detailed hydrodynamic flow behavior information needed to screen new geometric variations or to study the effect of fluid property variations. Therefore, in the third part, the more rigorous approach of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) will be utilized. Multidimensional multiphase flow simulation at high pressures and for real crude conditions will provide much greater depth into the understanding of the physical phenomena and the mathematical analysis of three-phase GLCC{copyright} design and performance.

Dr. Ram S. Mohan; Dr. Ovadia Shoham

2001-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

164

Effects of a dilute gas of fermions on the superfluid-insulator phase diagram of the Bose-Hubbard model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Building on the work of Fisher et al. (Phys. Rev. B 40, 546 (1989)), we develop a framework for perturbation theory in the Bose-Hubbard model and apply it to calculate the effects of a degenerate gas of spin-polarized fermions interacting by contact interactions with the constituent bosons. For the single-band Bose-Hubbard model, the only non-trivial effect of the fermions is to induce an effective space- and time-dependent density-density interaction among the bosons. Using a path integral formulation, we develop the appropriate theory describing the perturbative effects of this fermion-mediated interaction (fermionic screening) on the generic superfluid-insulator phase diagram. For the single-band Bose-Hubbard model, we find that the net effect of the fermions is to inherently suppress the Mott-insulating lobes and enhance the area occupied by the superfluid phase in the phase diagram. For the more general multi-band Bose-Hubbard model, we find that, in addition to the fermion screening of the boson interactions, the virtual excitations of the bosons to the higher Bloch bands coupled with the contact interactions with the fermions result in an effective increase of the boson on-site repulsion. If this renormalization of the boson on-site potential is dominant over the fermion screening of the boson interactions, the area of the Mott insulating lobes of the Bose-Hubbard phase diagram will be enhanced for either sign of the boson-fermion interactions, as seen in recent experiments.

Sumanta Tewari; Roman M. Lutchyn; S. Das Sarma

2009-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

165

Slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Cobalt plus a water-gas shift catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report details experiments performed on three different copper-based catalysts: Cu/Cr[sub 2]O[sub 3], Cu/MnO/Cr[sub 2]O[sub 3] and Cu/ZnO/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]. Of these three catalysts, the Cu/ZnO/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] exhibits the greatest stability when slurried in octacosane. More than 1000 hours-on-stream indicate that the catalyst activity is not detrimentally affected by high pressure, high H[sub 2]/CO ratio, or the presence of alkenes. All of these are necessary stability characteristics for the water-gas shift catalyst, if it is to be used in combination with a cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalyst. A review of documented reduction procedures for cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts is presented.

Yates, I.C.; Satterfield, C.N.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Heterogeneous Gas-Phase Synthesis and Molecular Dynamics Modeling of Janus and Core–Satellite Si–Ag Nanoparticles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Heterogeneous gas-phase condensation is a promising method of producing hybrid multifunctional nanoparticles with tailored composition and microstructure but also intrinsically introduces greater complexity to the nucleation process and growth kinetics. ... With the Si target sputtering power held fixed at 90 W, the tuning of the particle composition, size, and shapes was achieved by varying the sputtering power supplied to the Ag target, from a minimum of 30 W to a maximum of 60 W. For AFM and TEM/STEM measurements, monodispersed nanoparticles were directly deposited on diced silicon substrates and TEM grids, at room temperature. ... We are also grateful to the Finnish IT Centre for Science CSC and the Finnish Grid Infrastructure (FGI) for grants of computer time. ...

Vidyadhar Singh; Cathal Cassidy; Panagiotis Grammatikopoulos; Flyura Djurabekova; Kai Nordlund; Mukhles Sowwan

2014-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

167

Two-beam ultrabroadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy for high resolution gas-phase multiplex imaging  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We propose and develop a method for wideband coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) in the gas phase and demonstrate the single-shot measurement of N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and CH{sub 4}. Pure-rotational and vibrational O-, Q-, and S- branch spectra are collected simultaneously, with high spectral and spatial resolution, and within a single-laser-shot. The relative intensity of the rotational and vibrational signals can be tuned arbitrarily using polarization techniques. The ultrashort 7 fs pump and Stokes pulses are automatically overlapped temporally and spatially using a two-beam CARS technique, and the crossed probe beam allows for excellent spatial sectioning of the probed location.

Bohlin, Alexis; Kliewer, Christopher J., E-mail: cjkliew@sandia.gov [Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

2014-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

168

Gas-fueled cogeneration for supermarkets. Phase 1 final report, March-December 1984  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Supermarkets offer a unique application for a packaged cogeneration system because of the large and continuous need for shaft power to drive refrigeration compressors. Waste heat from the engine can be used efficiently to drive an absorption chiller for additional refrigeration capacity, and to provide space and water heating. In Phase I of this project, such a system was designed and analyzed. The analysis first considered several alternate configurations. Based on these results, the optimized system was then considered for five different geographic locations. In general it was found that a payback of three years or less could be achieved.

Walker, D.H.; Krepchin, I.P.; Poulin, E.C.; Demler, R.L.; Hynek, S.J.

1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

The influence of strange quarks on QCD phase diagram and chemical freeze-out: Results from the hadron resonance gas model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We confront the lattice results on QCD phase diagram for two and three flavors with the hadron resonance gas model. Taking into account the truncations in the Taylor-expansion of energy density $\\epsilon$ done on the lattice at finite chemical potential $\\mu$, we find that the hadron resonance gas model under the condition of constant $\\epsilon$ describes very well the lattice phase diagram. We also calculate the chemical freeze-out curve according to the entropy density $s$. The $s$-values are taken from lattice QCD simulations with two and three flavors. We find that this condition is excellent in reproducing the experimentally estimated parameters of the chemical freeze-out.

A. Tawfik

2004-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

170

Efficiency of Gas-Phase Ion Formation in Matrix-Assisted Laser Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 2013, Vol. 34, No. 3 907 http://dx.doi.org/10.5012/bkcs.2013.34.3.907  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Efficiency of Gas-Phase Ion Formation in Matrix-Assisted Laser Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 2013, Vol. 34, No. 3 907 http://dx.doi.org/10.5012/bkcs.2013.34.3.907 Efficiency of Gas-Phase Ion Formation-1 for peptides and 10-5 -10-3 for matrices speculated by Hillenkamp and Karas. Number of gas-phase ions generated

Kim, Myung Soo

171

Gas-phase chemical reactions of transition metal clusters with simple molecules  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chemical reactions of isolated transition metal clusters are studied in a laser-vaporization cluster source coupled to a continuous-flow reactor. Detection of reaction products is via laser ionization and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Experimental probes that have been developed include: (1) kinetics measurements, in which the disappearance of bare cluster signal with increasing reagent gas flow is used to determine absolute reaction rate constants for the addition of the first adsorbate molecule; (2) product composition measurements, in which inferences as to cluster structure and the nature of surface binding sites are derived by determining the total number of adsorbates the clusters can accommodate; (3) laser-induced desorption experiments, from which adsorbate binding energies can be derived; and (4) the observation of actual chemical reactions on cluster surfaces, such as hydrogen/deuterium exchange or adsorbate photochemistry. In addition, a new experimental procedure has been developed that, in a single series of measurements, provides measures of the first three parameters listed above. A review is given of earlier studies of the reaction of iron clusters with hydrogen. More recent results on the reaction of iron clusters with ammonia, and the reaction of ammoniated iron clusters with hydrogen, are also presented.

Riley, S.J.; Parks, E.K.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Production-data analysis of single-phase (gas) coalbed-methane wells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The current work illustrates how single-well production-data-analysis (PDA) techniques, such as type curve, flowing material balance (FMB), and pressure-transient (PT) analysis, may be altered to analyze single-phase CBM wells. Examples of how reservoir inputs to the PDA techniques and subsequent calculations are modified to account for CBM-reservoir behavior are given. This paper demonstrates, by simulated and field examples, that reasonable reservoir and stimulation estimates can be obtained from PDA of CBM reservoirs only if appropriate reservoir inputs (i.e., desorption compressibility, fracture porosity) are used in the analysis. As the field examples demonstrate, type-curve, FMB, and PT analysis methods for PDA are not used in isolation for reservoir-property estimation, but rather as a starting point for single-well and multiwell reservoir simulation, which is then used to history match and forecast CBM-well production (e.g., for reserves assignment). To study the effects of permeability anisotropy upon production, a 2D, single-phase, numerical CBM-reservoir simulator was constructed to simulate single-well production assuming various permeability-anisotropy ratios. Only large permeability ratios ({lt} 16:1) appear to have a significant effect upon single-well production characteristics. Multilayer reservoir characteristics may also be observed with CBM reservoirs because of vertical heterogeneity, or in cases where the coals are commingled with conventional (sandstone) reservoirs. In these cases, the type-curve, FMB, and PT analysis techniques are difficult to apply with confidence. Methods and tools for analyzing multilayer CBM (plus sand) reservoirs are presented. Using simulated and field examples, it is demonstrated that unique reservoir properties may be assigned to individual layers from commingled (multilayer) production in the simple two-layer case.

Clarkson, C.R.; Bustin, R.M.; Seidle, J.P. [ConocoPhillips Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

173

Evaluation of absorption/stripping for second phase expansion of KG gas cracker  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report addresses technology evaluation for a second phase expansion of BP Chemical Ltd.`s (BPCL) KG cracker. Its primary objective was to determine if the absorption/stripping technology being developed by BPCL is competitive with cryogenic demethanization technology. The expansion basis for this evaluation is a 150,000 MTA ethylene increment. This increment represents an increase in KG`s capacity from 450,000 MTA after the current expansion to an ultimate capacity of 600,000 MTA. Two recovery systems for a 150,000 MTA expansion are compared: (1) Case A - Absorption/Stripping Expansion; and (2) Case B - ARS Expansion. Another objective of this report was to confirm the magnitude of the economic advantages of the absorption/stripping technology for grass roots applications. For that evaluation, absorption/stripping was compared with the original 350,000 MTA KG recovery system. The two additional 350,000 MTA grass roots cases evaluated are: (1) Case C - Absorption/Stripping - Grass Roots Design; (2) Case D - Conventional Cryogenic Recovery (Original KG 350,000 MTA design).

NONE

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Assigning Structures to Gas-Phase Peptide Cations and Cation-Radicals. An Infrared Multiphoton Dissociation, Ion Mobility, Electron Transfer, and Computational Study of a Histidine Peptide Ion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy, using a free-electron laser, and ion mobility measurements, using both drift-cell and traveling-wave instruments, were used to investigate the structure of gas-phase peptide (AAHAL + 2H)2+ ions ...

Christopher L. Moss; Julia Chamot-Rooke; Edith Nicol; Jeffery Brown; Iain Campuzano; Keith Richardson; Jonathan P. Williams; Matthew F. Bush; Benjamin Bythell; Bela Paizs; Frantisek Turecek

2012-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

175

Gas-Phase Oxidation of Cm+ and Cm2+ -- Thermodynamics of neutral and ionized CmO  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry was employed to study the products and kinetics of gas-phase reactions of Cm+ and Cm2+; parallel studies were carried out with La+/2+, Gd+/2+ and Lu+/2+. Reactions with oxygen-donor molecules provided estimates for the bond dissociation energies, D[M+-O](M = Cm, Gd, Lu). The first ionization energy, IE[CmO], was obtained from the reactivity of CmO+ with dienes, and the second ionization energies, IE[MO+](M = Cm, La, Gd, Lu), from the rates of electron-transfer reactions from neutrals to the MO2+ ions. The following thermodynamic quantities for curium oxide molecules were obtained: IE[CmO]= 6.4+-0.2 eV; IE[CmO+]= 15.8+-0.4 eV; D[Cm-O]= 710+-45 kJ mol-1; D[Cm+-O]= 670+-40 kJ mol-1; and D[Cm2+-O]= 342+-55 kJ mol-1. Estimates for the M2+-O bond energies for M = Cm, La, Gd and Lu are all intermediate between D[N2-O]and D[OC-O]--i.e., 167 kJ mol-1< D[M2+-O]< 532 kJ mol-1 -- such that the four MO2+ ions fulfill the thermodynamic requirement for catalytic O-atom transport from N2O to CO. It was demonstrated that the kinetics are also favorable and that the CmO2+, LaO2+, GdO2+ and LuO2+ dipositive ions each catalyze the gas-phase oxidation of CO to CO2 by N2O. The CmO2+ ion appeared during the reaction of Cm+ with O2 when the intermediate, CmO+, was not collisionally cooled -- although its formation is kinetically and/or thermodynamically unfavorable, CmO2+ is a stable species.

Gibson, John K; Haire, Richard G.; Santos, Marta; Pires de Matos, Antonio; Marcalo, Joaquim

2008-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

176

Influence of Heteroanion and Ammonium Cation Size on the Composition and Gas-Phase Fragmentation of Polyoxovanadates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the results of a systematic experimental investigation of the influence of different size cationic ammonium ligands and heteroanions on the composition, ionic charge state and gas-phase fragmentation pathways of anionic polyoxovanadates synthesized in solution. Four separate solutions of olyoxometalates (POMs) were prepared using all possible combinations of the tetraethylammonium [(C2H5)4N+] ligand, chloride (Cl-) heteroanion, tetrabutylammonium [(C4H9)4N+] ligand and acetate (CH3CO2-) heteroanion. Employing electrospray ionization combined with high-resolution mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) we demonstrate that POM solutions synthesized using the small [(C2H5)4N+] ligand and Cl-heteroanion are composed predominately of large doubly and triply charged chlorine containing clusters with a size distribution centered at fourteen vanadium atoms. POM solutions prepared using the Cl- anion and [(C4H9)4N+] ligand are shown to contain slightly larger clusters with fifteen and sixteen vanadium atoms, thereby indicating that the size of the cationic ammonium ligand exerts only a weak influence on the polymerization of polyoxovanadates. POM solutions prepared using (C2H5)4NCl and (C4H9)4NCl also produced peaks consistent with the attachment of one and two ammonium cations to the larger clusters. Solutions prepared using the large CH3CO2 - heteroanion, in contrast, are demonstrated to contain much smaller singly and doubly *Manuscript Click here to view linked References 2 charged clusters with a size distribution centered at six vanadium atoms. In addition, while incorporation of one and two ammonium ligands into the smaller clusters was observed, no POMs containing the CH3CO2 - heteroanion were identified. The gas-phase fragmentation pathways of representative POMs containing one and two ammonium ligands were examined using collision induced dissociation (CID) and mass spectrometry. Similar primary fragmentation pathways involving partial loss of a ligand -[(CxHy)3N+ x = 2,4; y = 5,9] were observed for clusters containing both one and two ligands largely independent of the size, composition and charge state of the precursor ion. The [(C4H9)4N+] ligand was found to exhibit stronger interactions with the core of the POMs resulting in higher abundances of fragment ions containing (C4H9) units compared to (C2H5) units from [(C2H5)4N+]. These results provide fundamental insight into the interactions between anionic metal oxide clusters, heteroanions and cationic ammonium ligands that are responsible for the size and composition controlled synthesis of POMs in solution.

Johnson, Grant E.; Al Hasan, Naila M.; Laskin, Julia

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

177

A VUV photoionization measurement and ab-initio calculation of the ionization energy of gas phase SiO2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work we report on the detection and vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization of gas phase SiO2 generated in situ via laser ablation of silicon in a CO2 molecular beam. The resulting species are investigated by single photon ionization with tunable VUV synchrotron radiation and mass analyzed using reflectron mass spectrometry. Photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves are recorded for SiO and SiO2 and ionization energy estimates are revealed from such measurements. A state-to-state ionizationenergy of 12.60 (+-0.05) eV is recorded by fitting two prominent peaks in the PIE curve for the following process: 1SUM O-Si-O --> 2PRODg [O-Si-O]+. Electronic structure calculations aid in the interpretation of the photoionization process and allow for identification of the symmetric stretch of 2PRODg [O-Si-O]+ which is observed in the PIE spectrum to be 0.11 eV (890 cm-1) above the ground state of the cation and agrees with the 892 cm-1 symmetric stretch frequency calculated at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ level.

Kostko, Oleg; Ahmed, Musahid; Metz, Ricardo B.

2008-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

178

Kinetic measurements of the gas-phase reactions of OH radicals with hydroxy ethers, hydroxy ketones, and keto ethers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Absolute rate constants were determined for the gas-phase reactions of hydroxyl radicals with a series of hydroxy ethers as well as the simplest hydroxy ketone and keto ether with use of the flash photolysis resonance fluorescence technique. At 298 K, the measured rate constants were as follows (in units of 10{sup {minus}12} cm{sup 3} molecule{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}): 2-methoxyethanol, 12.5 {plus minus} 0.7; 2-ethoxyethanol, 18.7 {plus minus} 2.0; 2-butoxyethanol, 23.1 {plus minus} 0.9; 3-ethoxy-1-propanol, 22.0 {plus minus} 1.3; 3-methoxy-l-butanol, 23.6 {plus minus} 1.6; acetol, 3.0 {plus minus} 0.3; and methoxyacetone, 6.8 {plus minus} 0.6. The kinetic data for 2-methoxyethanol obtained between 240 and 440 K were used to derive the following Arrhenius expression: k{sub 1} = (4.5 {plus minus} 1.4) {times} 10{sup {minus}12} exp((325 {plus minus} 100)/T) (cm{sup 3} molecule{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}). The results for all seven reactants are discussed in terms of the prediction of OH rate constants for oxygenated organic compounds.

Dagaut, P.; Liu, R.; Wallington, T.J.; Kurylo, M.J. (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (USA))

1989-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

179

Gas Phase Photoacoustic Sensor at 8.41 mu m Using Quartz Tuning Forks and Amplitude Modulated Quantum Cascade Lasers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We demonstrate the performance of a novel long-wave infrared photoacoustic laser absorbance spectrometer for gas-phase species using an amplitude modulated (AM) quantum cascade (QC) laser and a quartz tuning fork microphone. Photoacoustic signal was generated by focusing the output of a Fabry-Perot QC laser operating at 8.41 ?m between the legs of a quartz tuning fork which served as a transducer for the transient acoustic pressure wave. The QC laser was modulated at the resonant frequency of the tuning fork (32.8 kHz) and delivered a modest 5.3 mW at the tuning fork. This spectrometer was calibrated using the infrared absorber Freon-134a by performing a simultaneous absorption measurement using a 35 cm absorption cell. The NEAS of this instrument was determined to be 2 x 10{sup -8} W cm-1 Hz{sup -1/2}. A corresponding theoretical analysis of the instrument sensitivity is presented and is capable of quantitatively reproducing the experimental NEAS, indicating that the fundamental sensitivity of this technique is limited by the noise floor of the tuning fork itself.

Wojcik, Michael D.; Phillips, Mark C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Taubman, Matthew S.

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Gas Phase Photoacoustic Spectroscopy in the long-wave IR using Quartz Tuning Forks and Amplitude Modulated Quantum Cascade Lasers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A paper to accompany a 20 minute talk about the progress of a DARPA funded project called LPAS. ABSTRACT: We demonstrate the performance of a novel long-wave infrared photoacoustic laser absorbance spectrometer for gas-phase species using an amplitude modulated (AM) quantum cascade (QC) laser and a quartz tuning fork microphone. Photoacoustic signal was generated by focusing the output of a Fabry-Perot QC laser operating at 8.41 micron between the legs of a quartz tuning fork which served as a transducer for the transient acoustic pressure wave. The QC laser was modulated at the resonant frequency of the tuning fork (32.8 kHz). This sensor was calibrated using the infrared absorber Freon-134a by performing a simultanious absorption measurement using a 35 cm absorption cell. The NEAS of this instrument was determined to be 2 x 10^-8 W cm^-1 /Hz^1/2 and the fundamental sensitivity of this technique is limited by the noise floor of the tuning fork itself.

Wojcik, Michael D.; Phillips, Mark C.; Cannon, Bret D.

2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas phase gip" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Modeling of the Phase behavior of light (C2 & C3) olefins in liquid phase epoxidation systems and experimental determination of gas/liquid mass transfer coefficients  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). HYSYS® software was used to study the phase behavior and generate quantitative data on the solubility of gaseous olefins in the liquid phase which aided in the optimization of the reaction conditions. A detailed stirred tank reactor model was developed...

Ghanta, Madhav

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Phase distribution and intrapore salt exchange during drilling mud invasion of an oil- and gas-bearing formation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

As a result of drilling mud filtrate invasion of a formation saturated with oil, gas and natural water, the distribution...

N. K. Korsakova; V. I. Pen’kovskii

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Solute-Solvent Interactions From Gas Chromatographic Activity Coefficients and the Solvation Parameter Model for Nitrogen-Containing Stationary Phases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......analyte injected into a gas chromatographic...Interactions From Gas Chromatographic Activity...Parameter Model for Nitrogen-Containing Stationary...mol), R is the gas con- stant (taken...pressure of saturated water vapor at ambient...the Ost- wald solubility coefficient (or......

José M. Santiuste

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUID BED BOILERS (Phase II--Evaluation of the Oxyfuel CFB Concept)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall project goal is to determine if carbon dioxide can be captured and sequestered at a cost of about $10/ton of carbon avoided, using a newly constructed Circulating Fluidized Bed combustor while burning coal with a mixture of oxygen and recycled flue gas, instead of air. This project is structured in two Phases. Phase I was performed between September 28, 2001 and May 15, 2002. Results from Phase I were documented in a Topical Report issued on May 15, 2003 (Nsakala, et al., 2003), with the recommendation to evaluate, during Phase II, the Oxyfuel-fired CFB concept. DOE NETL accepted this recommendation, and, hence approved the project continuation into Phase II. Phase 2. The second phase of the project--which includes pilot-scale tests of an oxygen-fired circulating fluidized bed test facility with performance and economic analyses--is currently underway at ALSTOM's Power Plant Laboratories, located in Windsor, CT (US). The objective of the pilot-scale testing is to generate detailed technical data needed to establish advanced CFB design requirements and performance when firing coals and delayed petroleum coke in oxygen/carbon dioxide mixtures. Results will be used in the design of oxygen-fired CFB boilers--both retrofit and new Greenfield--as well as to provide a generic performance database for other researchers. At the conclusion of Phase 2, revised costs and performance will be estimated for both retrofit and new Greenfield design concepts with CO2 capture, purification, compression, and liquefaction.

John L. Marion; Nsakala ya Nsakala

2003-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

185

A study of the gas-phase ozonolysis of terpenes: the impact of radicals formed during the reaction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The gas-phase ozonolysis of ?-pinene, ?3-carene and limonene was investigated at ppb levels and the impact of the ozone, relative air humidity (RH), and time was studied using experimental design. The amounts of terpene reacted varied in the different settings and were as high as 8.1% for ?-pinene, 10.9% for ?3-carene and 23.4% for limonene. The designs were able to describe almost all the variation in the experimental data and were also successful in predicting omitted values. The results described the effects of time and ozone and also showed that RH did not have a statistically significant effect on the ozonolysis. The results also showed that all three terpenes were affected by an additional oxidation of OH radicals and/or other reactive species. The results from the designs states that this additional oxidation was responsible for 40% of the total amount of ?-pinene reacted, 33% of the total amount of ?3-carene reacted and 41% of the total amount of limonene reacted at the settings 20 ppb terpene, 75 ppb ozone, 20% RH and a reaction time of 213 s. Additional experiments with 2-butanol as OH radical scavenger showed that the reaction with OH radicals was responsible for 37% of the total ?-pinene reacted and 39% of the total ?3-carene reacted at the same settings. The scavenger experiments also showed that there were no significant amounts of OH radicals formed during the ozonolysis of limonene. The results from the designs were also compared to a mathematical model in order to evaluate further the data.

Jerker Fick; Linda Pommer; Barbro Andersson; Calle Nilsson

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Ab initio molecular orbital study on the gas phase SN2 reaction F? + \\{CH3Cl\\} ? CH3F + Cl?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ab-initio molecular orbital (MO) and direct ab initio dynamics calculations have been applied to the gas phase SN2 reaction F? + \\{CH3Cl\\} ? CH3F + Cl?. Several basis sets were examined in order to select the most convenient and best fitted basis set to that of high-quality calculations. The Hartree–Fock (HF) 3?21+G(d) calculation reasonably represents a potential energy surface calculated at the MP2/6?311++G(2df,2pd) level. A direct ab initio dynamics calculation at the HF/3?21+G(d) level was carried out for the SN2 reaction. A full dimensional ab initio potential energy surface including all degrees of freedom was used in the dynamics calculation. Total energies and gradients were calculated at each time step. Two initial configurations at time zero were examined in the direct dynamics calculations: one is a near collinear collision, and the other is a side-attack collision. It was found that in the near collinear collision almost all total available energy is partitioned into two modes: the relative translational mode between the products (?40%) and the C ? F stretching mode (?60%). The other internal modes of CH3F were still in the ground state. The lifetimes of the early- and late-complexes F? … \\{CH3Cl\\} and FCH3 … Cl? are significantly short enough to dissociate directly to the products. On the other hand, in the side-attack collision, the relative translation energy was about 20% of total available energy.

Manabu Igarashi; Hiroto Tachikawa

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Two-dimensional simulation of an oxy-acetylene torch diamond reactor with a detailed gas-phase and surface mechanism  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A two-dimensional model is presented for the hydrodynamics and chemistry of an oxy-acetylene torch reactor for chemical vapor deposition of diamond and it is validated against spectroscopy and growth rate data from the literature. The model combines the laminar equations for flow heat and mass transfer with combustion and deposition chemistries and includes multicomponent diffusion and thermodiffusion. A two-step solution approach is used. In the first step a lumped chemistry model is used to calculate the flame shape temperatures and hydrodynamics. In the second step a detailed 27 species / 119 elementary reactions gas phase chemistry model and a 41 species / 67 elementary reactions surface chemistry model are used to calculate radicals and intermediates concentrations in the gas phase and at the surface as well as growth rates. Important experimental trends are predicted correctly but there are some discrepancies. The main problem lies in the use of the Miller–Melius hydrocarbon combustion mechanism for rich oxy-acetylene flames. [J. A. Miller and C. F. Melius Combustion and Flame91 21 (1992)]. Despite this problem some aspects of the diamond growth process are clarified. It is demonstrated that gas-phase diffusion limitations play a minor role in the diamond growth process which is determined by surface kinetics. Except for atomic hydrogen gas phase diffusion is also of minor importance for the transport of species in and behind the flame front. Finally it is shown that penetration of nitrogen from the ambient air into the flame cannot explain the observed changes at the center of the diamond films as reported in the literature.

M. Okkerse; C. R. Kleijn; H. E. A. van den Akker; M. H. J. M. de Croon; G. B. Marin

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

DISCOVERY OF THE METHOXY RADICAL, CH{sub 3}O, TOWARD B1: DUST GRAIN AND GAS-PHASE CHEMISTRY IN COLD DARK CLOUDS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on the discovery of the methoxy radical (CH{sub 3}O) toward the cold and dense core B1-b based on the observation, with the IRAM 30 m radio telescope, of several lines at 3 and 2 mm wavelengths. Besides this new molecular species we also report on the detection of many lines arising from methyl mercaptan (CH{sub 3}SH), formic acid (HCOOH), propynal (HCCCHO), acetaldehyde (CH{sub 3}CHO), dimethyl ether (CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3}), methyl formate (CH{sub 3}OCOH), and the formyl radical (HCO). The column density of all these species is {approx_equal}10{sup 12} cm{sup -2}, corresponding to abundances of {approx_equal}10{sup -11}. The similarity in abundances for all these species strongly suggest that they are formed on the surface of dust grains and ejected to the gas phase through non-thermal desorption processes, most likely cosmic rays or secondary photons. Nevertheless, laboratory experiments indicate that the CH{sub 3}O isomer released to the gas phase is CH{sub 2}OH rather than the methoxy one. Possible gas-phase formation routes to CH{sub 3}O from OH and methanol are discussed.

Cernicharo, J.; Jimenez-Escobar, A.; Munoz Caro, G. M. [Department of Astrophysics, CAB, INTA-CSIC, Crta Torrejon, E-28850 Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Marcelino, N. [NRAO, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22902 (United States); Roueff, E. [Luth, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS UMR8102, Place J. Janssen F-92190 Meudon (France); Gerin, M., E-mail: jcernicharo@cab.inta-csic.es [LERMA, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS UMR8112 and Ecole Normale Superieure, 61 avenue de l'observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France)

2012-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

189

Boron doping: B/H/C/O gas-phase chemistry; H atom density dependences on pressure and wire temperature; puzzles regarding the gas-surface mechanism  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Dane W. Comerford b , Jie Ma b , James C. Richley b a Skobel'tsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow 119991, Russia b School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1TS hydrocarbon/H2 (e.g. CH4/H2) gas mixtures is an established low-cost route for diamond chemical vapour

Bristol, University of

190

Cliffs Minerals, Inc. Eastern Gas Shales Project, Ohio No. 5 well - Lorain County. Phase II report. Preliminary laboratory results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy is funding a research and development program entitled the Eastern Gas Shales Project designed to increase commercial production of natural gas in the eastern United States from Middle and Upper Devonian Shales. The program's objectives are as follows: (1) to evaluate recoverable reserves of gas contained in the shales; (2) to enhanced recovery technology for production from shale gas reservoirs; and (3) to stimulate interest among commercial gas suppliers in the concept of producing large quantities of gas from low-yield, shallow Devonian Shale wells. The EGSP-Ohio No. 5 well was cored under a cooperative cost-sharing agreement between the Department of Energy (METC) and Columbia Gas Transmission Corporation. Detailed characterization of the core was performed at the Eastern Gas Shale Project's Core Laboratory. At the well site, suites of wet and dry hole geophysical logs were run. Characterization work performed at the Laboratory included photographic logs, lithologic logs, fracture logs, measurements of core color variation, and stratigraphic interpretation of the cored intervals. In addition samples were tested for physical properties by Michigan Technological University. Physical properties data obtained were for: directional ultrasonic velocity; directional tensile strength; strength in point load; and trends of microfractures.

none,

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Analysis of Unknown Organic Pollutants in Sewage by Solid-Phase Extraction Combined with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......used. The carrier gas was nitrogen with a flow rate...of ultrapurified water solutions containing...gentle stream of nitrogen to 50 L for GCMS...Helium was the carrier gas at a flow rate of...that it has a better solubility for a wider range......

Hong Gao; Ting Zhao; Qin Kong; Xingguo Chen; Zhide Hu

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Evaluation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Asphalt Binder Using Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion and Gas Chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......emissions generated during the production and application of asphalt binders...pre-concentration, and gas chro- matography (GC). Mechanical...hydrogen was used as the carrier gas at a flow rate of 1.0 mL...alumina. However, owing to the cost, silica gel was selected as......

Paulo R.N. Fernandes; Sandra de A. Soares; Ronaldo F. Nascimento; Jorge B. Soares; Rivelino M. Cavalcante

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

LANDFILL GAS CONVERSION TO LNG AND LCO{sub 2}. PHASE 1, FINAL REPORT FOR THE PERIOD MARCH 1998-FEBRUARY 1999  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Process designs and economics were developed to produce LNG and liquid carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from landfill gas (LFG) using the Acrion CO{sub 2} wash process. The patented Acrion CO{sub 2} wash process uses liquid CO{sub 2} to absorb contaminants from the LFG. The process steps are compression, drying, CO{sub 2} wash contaminant removal and CO{sub 2} recovery, residual CO{sub 2} removal and methane liquefaction. Three flowsheets were developed using different residual CO{sub 2} removal schemes. These included physical solvent absorption (methanol), membranes and molecular sieves. The capital and operating costs of the flowsheets were very similar. The LNG production cost was around ten cents per gallon. In parallel with process flowsheet development, the business aspects of an eventual commercial project have been explored. The process was found to have significant potential commercial application. The business plan effort investigated the economics of LNG transportation, fueling, vehicle conversion, and markets. The commercial value of liquid CO{sub 2} was also investigated. This Phase 1 work, March 1998 through February 1999, was funded under Brookhaven National laboratory contract 725089 under the research program entitled ``Liquefied Natural Gas as a Heavy Vehicle Fuel.'' The Phase 2 effort will develop flowsheets for the following: (1) CO{sub 2} and pipeline gas production, with the pipeline methane being liquefied at a peak shaving site, (2) sewage digester gas as an alternate feedstock to LFG and (3) the use of mixed refrigerants for process cooling. Phase 2 will also study the modification of Acrion's process demonstration unit for the production of LNG and a market site for LNG production.

COOK,W.J.; NEYMAN,M.; SIWAJEK,L.A.; BROWN,W.R.; VAN HAUWAERT,P.M.; CURREN,E.D.

1998-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

194

Method and apparatus for maintaining multi-component sample gas constituents in vapor phase during sample extraction and cooling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for diluting and cooling that is extracted from high temperature and/or high pressure industrial processes. Through a feedback process, a specialized, CFD-modeled dilution cooler is employed along with real-time estimations of the point at which condensation will occur within the dilution cooler to define a level of dilution and diluted gas temperature that results in a gas that can be conveyed to standard gas analyzers that contains no condensed hydrocarbon compounds or condensed moisture.

Farthing, William Earl (Pinson, AL) [Pinson, AL; Felix, Larry Gordon (Pelham, AL) [Pelham, AL; Snyder, Todd Robert (Birmingham, AL) [Birmingham, AL

2008-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

195

Method and apparatus maintaining multi-component sample gas constituents in vapor phase during sample extraction and cooling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for diluting and cooling that is extracted from high temperature and/or high pressure industrial processes. Through a feedback process, a specialized, CFD-modeled dilution cooler is employed along with real-time estimations of the point at which condensation will occur within the dilution cooler to define a level of dilution and diluted gas temperature that results in a gas that can be conveyed to standard gas analyzers that contains no condensed hydrocarbon compounds or condensed moisture.

Farthing, William Earl (Pinson, AL); Felix, Larry Gordon (Pelham, AL); Snyder, Todd Robert (Birmingham, AL)

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

196

Condensation of N bosons. II. Nonequilibrium analysis of an ideal Bose gas and the laser phase-transition analogy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A nonequilibrium approach to the dynamics and statistics of the condensate of an ideal N-atom Bose gas cooling via interaction with a thermal reservoir using the canonical ensemble is developed. We derive simple analytical expressions...

Kocharovsky, VV; Scully, Marlan O.; Zhu, S. Y.; Zubairy, M. Suhail

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Occurrence of Multiple Fluid Phases Across a Basin, in the Same Shale Gas Formation – Eagle Ford Shale Example  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Shale gas and oil are playing a significant role in US energy independence by reversing declining production trends. Successful exploration and development of the Eagle Ford Shale Play requires reservoir characterization, recognition of fluid...

Tian, Yao

2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

198

A Significant Increase in Hydrogen Photoproduction Rates and Yields by Wild-Type Algae is Detected at High Photobioreactor Gas Phase Volume (Fact Sheet), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

503 * July 2012 503 * July 2012 Hydrogen photoproduction by 500 mL of sulfur/phosphorus- deprived (-S -P) algal cultures placed in PhBRs with different headspace volumes (165-925 mL). The final percentages of H 2 gas in the gas phase of the PhBRs are indicated in the figure inset; the Y-axis reports actual amounts of H 2 produced. The yield of H 2 gas in the PhBR with a historically small gas phase volume is shown as a dotted line. A Significant Increase in Hydrogen Photoproduction Rates and Yields by Wild-Type Algae is Detected at High Photobioreactor Gas Phase Volume Project: Biological Systems for Hydrogen Photoproduction Team: Maria L. Ghirardi and Michael Seibert, NREL; Sergey N. Kosourov, Khorcheska A. Batyrova, Ekaterina P. Petushkova, and Anatoly A. Tsygankov, IBBP, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia

199

Development and implementation of a FT-ICR mass spectrometer for the investigation of ion conformations of peptide sequence isomers containing basic amino acid residues by gas-phase hydrogen/deuterium exchange  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The gas-phase hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange of protonated di- and tripeptides containing a basic amino acid residue has been studied with a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer. Bimolecular reactions...

Marini, Joseph Thomas

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

200

Investigation of the effect of intra-molecular interactions on the gas-phase conformation of peptides as probed by ion mobility-mass spectrometry, gas-phase hydrogen/deuterium exchange, and molecular mechanics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-phase H/D ion molecule reactions that alkali adducted species exchange slower and to a lesser extent than protonated species in the tyrosine- and arginine-containing peptides. Experimental and computational results are discussed in terms of peptide ion...

Sawyer, Holly Ann

2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas phase gip" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Multiphysics modeling of carbon gasification processes in a well-stirred reactor with detailed gas-phase chemistry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Multiphysics modeling of carbon gasification processes in a well-stirred reactor with detailed gas: Coal gasification Carbon gasification Detailed chemistry Heterogeneous surface reactions Radiation Multi-physics numerical modeling a b s t r a c t Fuel synthesis through coal and biomass gasification

Qiao, Li

202

Quantum phase transition in the Frenkel-Kontorova chain: From pinned instanton glass to sliding phonon gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

glass is transformed into the sliding phonon gas with gapless phonon excitations. This transition materials 5­7 , and, more re- cently, to charge-density waves 8 and dry friction 9,10 . Despite the fact Aubry discovered 6 a new type of ground state that has fractal properties known as ``devil's staircase

Shepelyansky, Dima

203

The importance of use and end-of-life phases to the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of concrete – A review  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Global climate change is one of the most significant environmental impacts at the moment. One central issue for the building and construction industry to address global climate change is the development of credible carbon labelling schemes for building materials. Various carbon labelling schemes have been developed for concrete due to its high contribution to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, as most carbon labelling schemes adopt cradle-to-gate as system boundary, the credibility of the eco-label information may not be satisfactory because recent studies show that the use and end-of-life phases can have a significant impact on the life cycle GHG emissions of concrete in terms of carbonation, maintenance and rehabilitation, other indirect emissions, and recycling activities. A comprehensive review on the life cycle assessment of concrete is presented to holistically examine the importance of use and end-of-life phases to the life cycle GHG quantification of concrete. The recent published ISO 14067: Carbon footprint of products – requirements and guidelines for quantification and communication also mandates the use of cradle-to-grave to provide publicly available eco-label information when the use and end-of-life phases of concrete can be appropriately simulated. With the support of Building Information Modelling (BIM) and other simulation technologies, the contribution of use and end-of-life phases to the life cycle GHG emissions of concrete should not be overlooked in future studies.

Peng Wu; Bo Xia; Xianbo Zhao

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

A thermodynamic model for calculating nitrogen solubility, gas phase composition and density of the N2–H2O–NaCl system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A thermodynamic model is presented to calculate N2 solubility in pure water (273–590 K and 1–600 bar) and aqueous NaCl solutions (273–400 K, 1–600 bar and 0–6 mol kg?1) with or close to experimental accuracy. This model is based on a semi-empirical equation used to calculate gas phase composition of the H2O–N2 system and a specific particle interaction theory for liquid phase. With the parameters evaluated from N2–H2O–NaCl system and using a simple approach, the model is extended to predict the N2 solubility in seawater accurately. Liquid phase density of N2–H2O–NaCl system at phase equilibrium and the homogenization pressure of fluid inclusions containing N2–H2O–NaCl can be calculated from this model. A computer code is developed for this model and can be downloaded from the website: www.geochem-model.org/programs.htm.

Shide Mao; Zhenhao Duan

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

HPLC separation of amines with a zirconia-based column coupled to a gas- phase chemiluminescence nitrogen specific detector (CLND)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

deprotonated. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary amines were separated using a pH=13.7 mobile phase that contained only TMSOH, methanol and water. Good peak shapes were observed for all, except n-alkylamines and samples that contained both amino groups...

Salinas, Silvia Adriana

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

206

Characterization of Volatile Components in Dry Chrysanthemum Flowers Using Headspace—Liquid-Phase Microextraction—Gas Chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......components to organic phase increases, the convection process intensifies...of the extraction efficiency increase was indistinctive. Therefore...7-methanoazulene * Retention time. Quality of the PBM search. Semiquantitative...of oak wood used for aging wines by headspace SPME-GCMS......

Guoqing Wang; Chunhong Dong; Yu-an Sun; Kui Xie; Haiyu Zheng

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Sulforaphane induces phase II detoxication enzymes in mouse skin and prevents mutagenesis induced by a mustard gas analog  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mustard gas, used in chemical warfare since 1917, is a mutagenic and carcinogenic agent that produces severe dermal lesions for which there are no effective therapeutics; it is currently seen as a potential terrorist threat to civilian populations. Sulforaphane, found in cruciferous vegetables, is known to induce enzymes that detoxify compounds such as the sulfur mustards that react through electrophilic intermediates. Here, we observe that a single topical treatment with sulforaphane induces mouse epidermal levels of the regulatory subunit of glutamate-cysteine ligase, the rate-limiting enzyme in glutathione biosynthesis, and also increases epidermal levels of reduced glutathione. Furthermore, a glutathione S-transferase, GSTA4, is also induced in mouse skin by sulforaphane. In an in vivo model in which mice are given a single mutagenic application of the sulfur mustard analog 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide (CEES), we now show that therapeutic treatment with sulforaphane abolishes the CEES-induced increase in mutation frequency in the skin, measured four days after exposure. Sulforaphane, a natural product currently in clinical trials, shows promise as an effective therapeutic against mustard gas. -- Highlights: ? Sulforaphane induces increased levels of glutathione in mouse skin. ? Sulforaphane induces increased levels of GSTA4 in mouse skin. ? Sulforaphane, applied after CEES-treatment, completely abolishes CEES-mutagenesis. ? The therapeutic effect may suggest a long biological half-life for CEES in vivo.

Abel, E.L. [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States)] [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States); Boulware, S. [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States)] [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States); Fields, T.; McIvor, E.; Powell, K.L. [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States)] [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States); DiGiovanni, J.; Vasquez, K.M. [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States)] [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States); MacLeod, M.C., E-mail: mcmacleod@mdanderson.org [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States)

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Advanced turbine design for coal-fueled engines. Phase 1, Erosion of turbine hot gas path blading: Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The investigators conclude that: (1) Turbine erosion resistance was shown to be improved by a factor of 5 by varying the turbine design. Increasing the number of stages and increasing the mean radius reduces the peak predicted erosion rates for 2-D flows on the blade airfoil from values which are 6 times those of the vane to values of erosion which are comparable to those of the vane airfoils. (2) Turbine erosion was a strong function of airfoil shape depending on particle diameter. Different airfoil shapes for the same turbine operating condition resulted in a factor of 7 change in airfoil erosion for the smallest particles studied (5 micron). (3) Predicted erosion for the various turbines analyzed was a strong function of particle diameter and weaker function of particle density. (4) Three dimensional secondary flows were shown to cause increases in peak and average erosion on the vane and blade airfoils. Additionally, the interblade secondary flows and stationary outer case caused unique erosion patterns which were not obtainable with 2-D analyses. (5) Analysis of the results indicate that hot gas cleanup systems are necessary to achieve acceptable turbine life in direct-fired, coal-fueled systems. In addition, serious consequences arise when hot gas filter systems fail for even short time periods. For a complete failure of the filter system, a 0.030 in. thick corrosion-resistant protective coating on a turbine blade would be eroded at some locations within eight minutes.

Wagner, J.H.; Johnson, B.V.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

In-line continuous sizing of biomass particles in gas-solid two-phase flow at a biomass-fired power plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Gas-solid two-phase flows are widely seen in many industrial processes. A good exampleis the pneumatically conveyed pulverised fuel flow in the power generation industry. As a significant renewable fuel source biomass has been widely adopted in electrical power generation. The particle size distribution of pneumatically conveyed biomass correlates closely with combustion efficiency and pollutant emissions and should therefore be monitored on anin-line continuous basis. In this paper an integrated instrumentation system using both a piezoelectric sensorand anelectrostatic sensor arrayis proposed to measure the size distribution and flow velocity of biomass particles. A prototype system was tested on a 250mm bore pipe at a biomass-fired power plantand its performance has been evaluated under industrial conditions.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Effect of resistivity profile on current decay time of initial phase of current quench in neon-gas-puff inducing disruptions of JT-60U  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

According to an early work [Y. Shibata et al., Nucl. Fusion 50, 025015 (2010)] on the behavior of the plasma current decay in the JT-60U disruptive discharges caused by the radiative collapse with a massive neon-gas-puff, the increase of the internal inductance mainly determined the current decay time of plasma current during the initial phase of current quench. To investigate what determines the increase of the internal inductance, we focus attention on the relationship between the electron temperature (or the resistivity) profile and the time evolution of the current density profile and carry out numerical calculations. As a result, we find the reason of the increase of the internal inductance: The current density profile at the start of the current quench is broader than an expected current density profile in the steady state, which is determined by the temperature (or resistivity) profile. The current density profile evolves into peaked one and the internal inductance is increasing.

Kawakami, S.; Ohno, N. [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)] [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Shibata, Y.; Isayama, A.; Kawano, Y. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka 311-0193 (Japan)] [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka 311-0193 (Japan); Watanabe, K. Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan) [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Takizuka, T. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita 565-0871 (Japan)] [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Okamoto, M. [Ishikawa National College of Technology, Ishikawa 929-0392 (Japan)] [Ishikawa National College of Technology, Ishikawa 929-0392 (Japan)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

211

Microminiature gas chromatograph  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A microminiature gas chromatograph (.mu.GC) comprising a least one silicon wafer, a gas injector, a column, and a detector. The gas injector has a normally closed valve for introducing a mobile phase including a sample gas in a carrier gas. The valve is fully disposed in the silicon wafer(s). The column is a microcapillary in silicon crystal with a stationary phase and is mechanically connected to receive the mobile phase from the gas injector for the molecular separation of compounds in the sample gas. The detector is mechanically connected to the column for the analysis of the separated compounds of sample gas with electronic means, e.g., ion cell, field emitter and PIN diode.

Yu, Conrad M. (Antioch, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

ENHANCED GROWTH RATE AND SILANE UTILIZATION IN AMORPHOUS SILICON AND NANOCRYSTALLINE-SILICON SOLAR CELL DEPOSITION VIA GAS PHASE ADDITIVES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Air Products set out to investigate the impact of additives on the deposition rate of both ���µCSi and ���±Si-H films. One criterion for additives was that they could be used in conventional PECVD processing, which would require sufficient vapor pressure to deliver material to the process chamber at the required flow rates. The flow rate required would depend on the size of the substrate onto which silicon films were being deposited, potentially ranging from 200 mm diameter wafers to the 5.7 m2 glass substrates used in GEN 8.5 flat-panel display tools. In choosing higher-order silanes, both disilane and trisilane had sufficient vapor pressure to withdraw gas at the required flow rates of up to 120 sccm. This report presents results obtained from testing at Air Products�¢���� electronic technology laboratories, located in Allentown, PA, which focused on developing processes on a commercial IC reactor using silane and mixtures of silane plus additives. These processes were deployed to compare deposition rates and film properties with and without additives, with a goal of maximizing the deposition rate while maintaining or improving film properties.

Ridgeway, R.G.; Hegedus, S.S.; Podraza, N.J.

2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

213

An XMM-Newton Observation of NGC 1399 Reveals Two Phases of Hot Gas and Super-Solar Abundances in the Central Regions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present an initial analysis of a new XMM observation of NGC 1399, the central elliptical galaxy of the Fornax group. Spectral fitting of the spatially resolved spectral data of the EPIC MOS and pn CCDs reveals that a two-temperature model (2T) of the hot gas is favored over single-phase and cooling flow models within the central ~20 kpc. The preference for the 2T model applies whether or not the data are deprojected. The cooler component has a temperature (~0.9 keV) similar to the kinetic temperature of the stars while the hotter component has a temperature (~1.5 keV) characteristic of the virial temperature of a ~10^{13} M_sun halo. The two-phase model (and other multitemperature models) removes the ``Fe Bias'' within r < ~20 kpc and gives Z_Fe/Z_sun 1.5-2. At larger radii the iron abundance decreases until Z_Fe/Z_sun \\~0.5 for r ~50 kpc. The Si abundance is super-solar (1.2-1.7 solar) within the central regions while Z_Si/Z_Fe ~0.8 over the entire region studied. These Fe and Si abundances imply that ~80% of the Fe mass within r ~50 kpc originates from Type Ia supernovae (SNIa). This SNIa fraction is similar to that inferred for the Sun and therefore suggests a stellar initial mass function similar to the Milky Way.

David A. Buote

2002-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

214

Effective phase control of silicon films during high-rate deposition in atmospheric-pressure very high-frequency plasma: Impacts of gas residence time on the performance of bottom-gate thin film transistors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si) and microcrystalline silicon (?c-Si) films were grown in atmospheric-pressure (AP) He/H2/SiH4 plasma excited by a 150-MHz very high-frequency (VHF) power at a temperature of 220 °C. The variations in thickness and crystallinity of the deposited Si films along the gas flow direction were studied as functions of gas residence time in the plasma, VHF power density and H2 flow rate. Furthermore, the electrical characteristics of bottom-gate thin film transistors (TFTs) were investigated to evaluate the film quality. The results revealed that the chemical reactions both in gas phase and on the growing film surface were significantly enhanced in AP-VHF plasma, promoting phase transition from amorphous to microcrystalline in a time of the order of 0.1 ms. The performance of the \\{TFTs\\} showed that a-Si layers formed in the upstream portion of the plasma zone had reasonably good electrical property (field-effect mobility of approximately 2 cm2/V s) despite very high deposition rates around 20 nm/s. While ?c-Si layers deposited in the downstream portion were very defective, which might come from the insufficient passivation of grain boundaries with a-Si tissues due to a too long gas residence time in the plasma. The precise control of gas residence time by adjusting the length of plasma will be effective for the phase control of Si films with desired quality.

H. Kakiuchi; H. Ohmi; T. Yamada; A. Hirano; T. Tsushima; W. Lin; K. Yasutake

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Determination of N,N-dimethyltryptamine in beverages consumed in religious practices by headspace solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography ion trap mass spectrometry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A novel analytical approach combining solid-phase microextraction (SPME)/gas chromatography ion trap mass spectrometry (GC-IT-MS) was developed for the detection and quantification N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), a powerful psychoactive indole alkaloid present in a variety of South American indigenous beverages, such as ayahuasca and vinho da jurema. These particular plant products, often used within a religious context, are increasingly consumed throughout the world following an expansion of religious groups and the availability of plant material over the Internet and high street shops. The method described in the present study included the use of SPME in headspace mode combined GC-IT-MS and included the optimization of the SPME procedure using multivariate techniques. The method was performed with a polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) fiber in headspace mode (70 min at 60 °C) which resulted in good precision (RSD9975) was also observed. In addition, the proposed method showed good robustness and allowed for the minimization of sample manipulation. Five jurema beverage samples were prepared in the laboratory in order to study the impact of temperature, pH and ethanol on the ability to extract DMT into solution. The developed method was then applied to the analysis of twelve real ayahuasca and vinho da jurema samples, obtained from Brazilian religious groups, which revealed DMT concentration levels between 0.10 and 1.81 g L?1.

Alain Gaujac; Nicola Dempster; Sandro Navickiene; Simon D. Brandt; Jailson Bittencourt de Andrade

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Gas chromatographic determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water and smoked rice samples after solid-phase microextraction using multiwalled carbon nanotube loaded hollow fiber  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A novel solid-phase microextraction fiber was prepared based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) loaded on hollow fiber membrane pores. Stainless steel wire was used as unbreakable support. The major advantages of the proposed fiber are its (a) high reproducibility due to the uniform structure of the hollow fiber membranes, (b) high extraction capacity related to the porous structure of the hollow fiber and outstanding adsorptive characteristics of MWCNTs. The proposed fiber was applied for the microextraction of five representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from aqueous media (river and hubble–bubble water) and smoked rice samples followed by gas chromatographic determination. Analytical merits of the method, including high correlation coefficients [(0.9963–0.9992) and (0.9982–0.9999)] and low detection limits [(9.0–13.0 ng L?1) and (40.0–150.0 ng kg?1)] for water and rice samples, respectively, made the proposed method suitable for the ultra-trace determination of PAHs.

Amir Abbas Matin; Pourya Biparva; Mohammad Gheshlaghi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Flash photolysis resonance fluorescence investigation of the gas-phase reactions of OH radicals with a series of aliphatic ketones over the temperature range 240-440 K  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Absolute rate constants have been determined for the gas-phase reactions of OH radicals with a series of aliphatic ketones by the flash photolysis resonance fluorescence measurement technique. Experiments were performed over the temperature range 240-440 K at total pressures (using Ar diluent gas) between 25 and 50 Torr. The rate constant data for acetone (k/sub 1/), 2-butanone (k/sub 2/), and 3-pentanone (k/sub 3/) were used to derive the Arrhenius expressions k/sub 1/ = (1.7 +/- 0.4) x 10/sup -12/ exp(-(600 +/- 75)/T) cm/sup 3/ molecule/sup -1/ s/sup -1/, k/sub 2/ = (2.3 +/- 1.1) x 10/sup -12/ exp(-170 +/- 120)/T) cm/sup 3/ molecule/sup -1/ s/sup -1/, and k/sub 3/ = (2.8 +/- 0.3) x 10/sup -12/ exp(10 +/- 35)/T) cm/sup 3/ molecule/sup -1/ s/sup -1/. At 296 K, the measured rate constants (in units of 10/sup -13/ cm/sup 3/ molecule/sup -1/ s/sup -1/) were k/sub 1/ = 2.16 +/- 0.16, k/sub 2/ = 11.5 +/- 1.0, and k/sub 3/ = 27.4 +/- 1.3. Room temperature rate constants for the reaction of OH radicals with a number of other 2-ketones were also determined. These were (in the above units) 3,3-dimethyl-2-butanone (12.1 +/- 0.5), 2-pentanone (40.0 +/- 2.9), 2-hexanone (66.4 +/- 5.6), 2-heptanone (86.7 +/- 8.4reverse arrow, 2-octanone (110 +/- 9), 2-nonanone (122 +/- 13), and 2-decanone (132 +/- 12). The error limits represent 2 standard deviations (from the least-squares analysis); the authors estimate that an additional 5% uncertainty should be added to account for possible systematic error in the measurements. These results are discussed in terms of reactivity trends for C-H bonds located in the ..cap alpha.., ..beta.., and ..gamma.. positions with respect to the carbonyl group.

Wallington, T.J.; Kurylo, M.J.

1987-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

218

Gas-phase activation of silane, disilane and germane by actinide ions; and collision induced dissociation of metal oxide ions in TOF-MS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Gas-phase reactions of selected actinide metal ions, An+, with silane, disilane and germane under minimally hyperthermal conditions were studied using a reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer (RTOF-MS). Both U+ and Np+ reacted with silane while Pu+ was comparatively inert. The primary reactions with silane yielded the silylenes, AnSiH2+; secondary reactions gave AnSi2H4+ and AnSi2H2+ (An=U, Np). With disilane, single- and double-dehydrogenation by An+ produced AnSi2H4+ and AnSi2H2+ for An=U and Np, while Pu+ and Am+ were inert. Oxo-ligation rendered plutonium reactive towards silane: UO+, NpO+ and PuO+ each dehydrogenated disilane to give AnOSi2H4+. With germane, selected lanthanide ions, M+?Ln+, were studied along with M+?An+. Germylenes, MGeH2+, were formed for M=Th, U, Np, Pu, Ce and Tb, while Am+ and Tm+ were inert. Secondary products were MGe2+ (M=Th, U, Np, Ce and Tb), ThGe3+ and ThGe4+. The results are assessed in the context of the electronic structures and energetics of the actinide (and lanthanide) ions. For comparison and to confirm consistency with previous studies, a few reactions of CH4 and C2H6 with actinide ions were examined. The nature of anomalous peaks at ion flight times corresponding to “tetrahydride” ions, “AnH4,” upon introduction of both reactive and inert gases into the reaction region was examined in detail. It was concluded that these aberrant peaks were due to high-energy collision induced dissociation of actinide oxide ions, AnO+, in the first field-free region of the RTOF-MS. The identification of this dissociation phenomenon nullifies a previous report of actinide hydride ions produced by reactions of An+ with ethylene oxide.

John K. Gibson

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

The gas-phase bis-uranyl nitrate complex [(UO2)2(NO3)5]-: infrared spectrum and structure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The infrared spectrum of the bis-uranyl nitrate complex [(UO2)2(NO3)5]- was measured in the gas phase using multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD). Intense absorptions corresponding to the nitrate symmetric and asymmetric vibrations, and the uranyl asymmetric vibration were observed. The nitrate v3 vibrations indicate the presence of nitrate in a bridging configuration bound to both uranyl cations, and probably two distinct pendant nitrates in the complex. The coordination environment of the nitrate ligands and the uranyl cations were compared to those in the mono-uranyl complex. Overall, the uranyl cation is more loosely coordinated in the bis-uranyl complex [(UO2)2(NO3)5]- compared to the mono-complex [UO2(NO3)3]-, as indicated by a higher O-U-O asymmetric stretching (v3) frequency. However, the pendant nitrate ligands are more strongly bound in the bis-complex than they are in the mono-uranyl complex, as indicated by the v3 frequencies of the pendant nitrate, which are split into nitrosyl and O-N-O vibrations as a result of bidentate coordination. These phenomena are consistent with lower electron density donation per uranyl by the nitrate bridging two uranyl centers compared to that of a pendant nitrate in the mono-uranyl complex. The lowest energy structure predicted by density functional theory (B3LYP functional) calculations was one in which the two uranyl molecules bridged by a single nitrate coordinated in a bis-bidentate fashion. Each uranyl molecule was coordinated by two pendant nitrate ligands. The corresponding vibrational spectrum was in excellent agreement with the IRMPD measurement, confirming the structural assignment.

Groenewold, G. S.; van Stipdonk, Michael J.; Oomens, Jos; De Jong, Wibe A.; McIIwain, Michael E.

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

The gas-phase bis-uranyl nitrate complex [(UO2)(2)(NO3)(5)](-): infrared spectrum and structure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The infrared spectrum of the bis-uranyl nitrate complex [(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 5}]{sup -} was measured in the gas phase using multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD). Intense absorptions corresponding to the nitrate symmetric and asymmetric vibrations, and the uranyl asymmetric vibration were observed. The nitrate nu3 vibrations indicate the presence of nitrate in a bridging configuration bound to both uranyl cations, and probably two distinct pendant nitrates in the complex. The coordination environment of the nitrate ligands and the uranyl cations were compared to those in the mono-uranyl complex. Overall, the uranyl cation is more loosely coordinated in the bis-uranyl complex [(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 5}]{sup -} compared to the mono-complex [UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}]{sup -}, as indicated by a higher O-U-O asymmetric stretching (nu3) frequency. However, the pendant nitrate ligands are more strongly bound in the bis-complex than they are in the mono-uranyl complex, as indicated by the {nu}{sub 3} frequencies of the pendant nitrate, which are split into nitrosyl and O-N-O vibrations as a result of bidentate coordination. These phenomena are consistent with lower electron density donation per uranyl by the nitrate bridging two uranyl centers compared to that of a pendant nitrate in the mono-uranyl complex. The structure was calculated using density functional theory (B3LYP functional), which produced a structure in which the two uranyl molecules bridged by a single nitrate coordinated in a bis-bidentate fashion. Each uranyl molecule was coordinated by two pendant nitrate ligands. The corresponding vibrational spectrum was in excellent agreement with the IRMPD measurement, confirming the structural assignment.

Gary S. Groenewold; Michael J. van Stipdonk; Jos Oomens; Wibe de Jong; Michael E. McIlwain

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas phase gip" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Gas condensate damage in hydraulically fractured wells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a 2D 1-phase simulator in order to help us to better understand the results of gas condensate simulation. Then during the research, gas condensate models with various gas compositions were simulated using a commercial simulator (CMG). The results...

Reza, Rostami Ravari

2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

222

GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS: PHASE II--PILOT SCALE TESTING AND UPDATED PERFORMANCE AND ECONOMICS FOR OXYGEN FIRED CFB WITH CO2 CAPTURE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Because fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this Phase II study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated one promising near-term coal fired power plant configuration designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}, along with some moisture, nitrogen, oxygen, and trace gases like SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB plants results in significant Boiler Island cost savings resulting from reduced component The overall objective of the Phase II workscope, which is the subject of this report, is to generate a refined technical and economic evaluation of the Oxygen fired CFB case (Case-2 from Phase I) utilizing the information learned from pilot-scale testing of this concept. The objective of the pilot-scale testing was to generate detailed technical data needed to establish advanced CFB design requirements and performance when firing coals and delayed petroleum coke in O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} mixtures. Firing rates in the pilot test facility ranged from 2.2 to 7.9 MM-Btu/hr. Pilot-scale testing was performed at ALSTOM's Multi-use Test Facility (MTF), located in Windsor, Connecticut.

Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; David G. Turek

2004-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

223

Quantification of Fuel Oxygenate Ethers in Human Blood using Solid-Phase Microextraction Coupled with Gas Chromatography-High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Because ofwater solubility, fuel oxygenate...toluene. When water supplies are contaminated...followed by gas chromatography-high-resolution...helium-sparged distilled water (26) to produce...blanks,and water standardsfor daily...column carrier gas for all analyses...using liquid nitrogen from Air Liq......

Lalith K. Silva; Clayton R. Wilburn; Michael A. Bonin; Mitchell M. Smith; Katherine A. Reese; David L. Ashley; Benjamin C. Blount

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

3-D agricultural air quality modeling: Impacts of NH3/H2S gas–phase reactions and bi-directional exchange of NH3  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Accurately simulating the transport and fate of reduced nitrogen (NHx = ammonia (NH3) + ammonium (NH4+))- and sulfur-containing compounds emitted from agricultural activities represents a major challenge in agricultural air quality modeling. In this study, the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system is further developed and improved by implementing 22 ammonia (NH3)/hydrogen sulfide (H2S) related gas-phase reactions and adjusting a few key parameters (e.g., emission potential) for bi-directional exchange of NH3 fluxes. Several simulations are conducted over the eastern U.S. domain at a 12-km horizontal resolution for January and July 2002 to examine the impacts of those improved treatments on air quality. The 5th generation mesoscale model (MM5) and CMAQ predict an overall satisfactory and consistent performance with previous modeling studies, especially for 2-m temperature, 2-m relative humidity, ozone (O3), and fine particulate matter (PM2.5). High model biases exist for precipitation in July and also dry/wet depositions. The updated model treatments contribute to O3, NHx, and PM2.5 by up to 0.4 ppb, 1.0 ?g m?3, and 1.0 ?g m?3 in January, respectively, and reduce O3 by up to 0.8 ppb and contribute to \\{NHx\\} and PM2.5 by up to 1.2 and 1.1 ?g m?3 in July, respectively. The spatial distributions of O3 in both months and sulfur dioxide (SO2) in January are mainly affected by inline dry deposition velocity calculation. The spatial distributions of SO2 and sulfate (SO42?) in July are affected by both inline dry deposition velocity and NH3/H2S reactions. The variation trends of NH3, NHx, ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3), PM2.5 and total nitrogen (TN) are predominated by bi-directional exchange of NH3 fluxes. Uncertainties of NH3 emission potentials and empirical constants used in the bi-directional exchange scheme may significantly affect the concentrations of \\{NHx\\} and PM2.5, indicating that a more accurate and explicit treatment for those parameters should be considered in the future work.

Kai Wang; Yang Zhang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Thermodynamics of Chaplygin gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We clarify thermodynamics of the Chaplygin gas by introducing the integrability condition. All thermal quantities are derived as functions of either volume or temperature. Importantly, we find a new general equation of state, describing the Chaplygin gas completely. We confirm that the Chaplygin gas could show a unified picture of dark matter and energy which cools down through the universe expansion without any critical point (phase transition).

Yun Soo Myung

2011-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

226

Gas Chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

He received his B.S. degree in 1970 from Rhodes College in Memphis, TN, his M.S. degree in 1973 from the University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, and his Ph.D. degree in 1975 from Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. ... A review (with 145 references) on the role of carrier gases on the separation process (A4) demonstrates that carrier gas interactions are integral to the chromatographic process. ... In another report, activity coefficients for refrigerants were evaluated with a polyol ester oil stationary phase (C22). ...

Gary A. Eiceman; Herbert H. Hill, Jr.; Jorge Gardea-Torresdey

2000-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

227

Application of Modern Online Instrumentation for Chemical Analysis of Gas and Particulate Phases of Exhaust at the European Commission Heavy-Duty Vehicle Emission Laboratory  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The total freight volume increased in the European Union (EU) by 35% between 1996 and 2006 (excluding Cyprus and Malta), with road and air freight volumes rising faster than other sectors. ... It is equipped with safety sensors for gaseous fuels and an air circulation system that provides sufficient air exchange to run tests on hydrogen (H2), liquefied H2, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), and compressed natural gas (CNG) besides diesel and gasoline. ... Compounds where no calibration gases are available were semiquantified by multiplying the measured signal by the ratio of the photoionization cross-section of the target compound and one of the calibrated species. ...

T. W. Adam; R. Chirico; M. Clairotte; M. Elsasser; U. Manfredi; G. Martini; M. Sklorz; T. Streibel; M. F. Heringa; P. F. DeCarlo; U. Baltensperger; G. De Santi; A. Krasenbrink; R. Zimmermann; A. S. H. Prevot; C. Astorga

2010-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

228

Investigation of the Effect of Non-Darcy Flow and Multi-Phase Flow on the Productivity of Hydraulically Fractured Gas Wells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydraulic fracturing has recently been the completion of choice for most tight gas bearing formations. It has proven successful to produce these formations in a commercial manner. However, some considerations have to be taken into account to design...

Alarbi, Nasraldin Abdulslam A.

2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

229

Landfill Gas Conversion to LNG and LCO{sub 2}. Phase II Final Report for January 25, 1999 - April 30, 2000  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes work on the development of a process to produce LNG (liquefied methane) for heavy vehicle use from landfill gas (LFG) using Acrion's CO{sub 2} wash process for contaminant removal and CO{sub 2} recovery.

Brown, W. R.; Cook, W. J.; Siwajek, L. A.

2000-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

230

Photo-induced isomerization of ethylene-bridged azobenzene explored by ab initio based non-adiabatic dynamics simulation: A comparative investigation of the isomerization in the gas and solution phases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Azobenzene is one of the most widely used photoactive units and recently an ethylene-bridged azobenzene (BAB) was reported to have greatly enhanced conversion efficiency, quantum yield, and other favorable properties. As the first step towards exploring its photo-switchable character in real systems, we report here a systematic study on the photoisomerization dynamics between trans (E) and cis (Z) isomers in the gas phase and the CH{sub 3}OH solution, using ab initio based surface hopping and molecular dynamics, which is the first report of dynamics simulation to reveal the environmental effects on BAB photoreactions. Results show that while the relatively faster S{sub 1} relaxation of the photo-induced E{yields}Z process is only mildly affected by the solvent effect, the relatively slower S{sub 1} relaxation of the reverse reaction becomes even slower in the solution compared to the gas phase. The subsequent S{sub 0} dynamics from the conical intersection between S{sub 1} and S{sub 0} (CI{sub E}) to Z is accelerated in solution compared to the gas phase because of avoided re-crossing to the S{sub 1} state, while the S{sub 0} dynamics from the conical intersection between S{sub 1} and S{sub 0} (CI{sub Z}) to E are basically the same in both phases. Overall, the solvent effect was found to enhance the back-and-forth photo-switch efficiency between the Z and E isomers compared to the gas phase, while the quantum yields are reduced. But the solution yields of both the forward and backward photoreactions are still around 0.4. Therefore, BAB may have good photo-responsive properties if used as a photoactive unit in real systems. These results will facilitate future experimental and theoretical studies in this area to help design new azobenzene derivatives as photoactive units in biological processes, nanoscale devices, and photo-responsive materials.

Cao Jun; Liu Lihong; Fang Weihai [Key Laboratory of Theoretical and Computational Photochemistry, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Xie Zhizhong [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Zhang Yong [Department of Chemistry, Chemical Biology, and Biomedical Engineering, Stevens Institute of Technology, Castle Point on Hudson, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030 (United States)

2013-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

231

Gas-Phase Stability and Structure of the Cluster Ions CF3+(CO)n, CF3+(N2)n, CF3+(CF4)n, and CF4H+(CF4)n  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The gas-phase reactions of CF+, CF2+, and CF3+ with the halocarbons CF3Cl, CF3Br, CF3I, CF4, and C2F6 have been studied using a variable-temp.-selected ... Curvature was obsd. in the pseudo-first-order kinetics plots for the reactions of CF+ with CF4 and C2F6. ... The reactions of CF2+ with CF4 and C2F6 produce CF3+ and C2F5+, resp. ...

Kenzo Hiraoka; Masayuki Nasu; Susumu Fujimaki; Edgar W. Ignacio; Shinichi Yamabe

1996-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

232

Study of Heat Transfer in Non-boiling Two-phase Gas-liquid Flow in Pipes for Horizontal, Slightly Inclined, and Vertical Orientations.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The main objective of this research is to establish a fundamental understanding of heat transfer in non-boiling two-phase pipe flow. The key processes that govern… (more)

Tang, Clement Chih-Wei

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Dispersive micro-solid phase extraction combined with gas chromatography–chemical ionization mass spectrometry for the determination of N-nitrosamines in swimming pool water samples  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A simple sample pretreatment technique, dispersive micro-solid phase extraction, was applied for the extraction of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and other four N-nitrosamines (NAs) from samples of swimming pool w...

Ssu-Chieh Fu; Shin-Hwa Tzing; Hsin-Chang Chen…

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Quantification of Fuel Oxygenate Ethers in Human Blood using Solid-Phase Microextraction Coupled with Gas Chromatography-High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......which performsautomatedsample heating, SPME extraction, and GC injection...fibers were preconditioned by heating at 250~ for 2 h. Fuel oxy...accurate, the high purchase price of the HRMSand the high cost...Information Administration, Office of Oil and Gas. Petroleum Supply Monthly......

Lalith K. Silva; Clayton R. Wilburn; Michael A. Bonin; Mitchell M. Smith; Katherine A. Reese; David L. Ashley; Benjamin C. Blount

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

The Selection of Gas Chromatographic Stationary Phases and Operating Conditions for the Separation and Quantitation of Heroin and Structurally Related Compounds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......ApH OV-613 OV-173 0V-25a QF-1 OV-210 OV-2253 HI-EFF-8BP SP-2300 SP-2310 SP-2330a "Indicates phase also usec Composition Apiezon hydrocarbon grease Methyl silicone Apiezon hydrocarbon grease Dimethyl-, phenyl silicone (2:1) Methylphenyl......

T.A. Gough; P.B. Baker

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Three phase downhole separator process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Three Phase Downhole Separator Process (TPDSP) is a process which results in the separation of all three phases, (1) oil, (2) gas, and (3) water, at the downhole location in the well bore, water disposal injection downhole, and oil and gas production uphole.

Cognata, Louis John (Baytown, TX)

2008-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

237

Natural Gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

30 May 1974 research-article Natural Gas C. P. Coppack This paper reviews the world's existing natural gas reserves and future expectations, together with natural gas consumption in 1972, by main geographic...

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Direct Experimental Evidence for a Negative Heat Capacity in the Liquid-to-Gas Phase Transition in Hydrogen Cluster Ions: Backbending of the Caloric Curve  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

By selecting specific decay reactions in high-energy collisions (60??keV/amu) of hydrogen cluster ions with a helium target (utilizing event-by-event data of a recently developed multicoincidence experiment) and by deriving corresponding temperatures for these microcanonical cluster ensembles (analyzing respective fragment distributions), we are able to construct caloric curves for H3+(H2)m cluster ions (6?m?14). All individual curves and the mean of these curves show a backbending in the plateau region, thus constituting direct evidence for a negative microcanonical heat capacity in the liquid-to-gas transition of these finite systems.

F. Gobet; B. Farizon; M. Farizon; M. J. Gaillard; J. P. Buchet; M. Carré; P. Scheier; T. D. Märk

2002-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

239

GAS STORAGE TECHNOLOGY CONSORTIUM  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. To accomplish this objective, the project is divided into three phases that are managed and directed by the GSTC Coordinator. Base funding for the consortium is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In addition, funding is anticipated from the Gas Technology Institute (GTI). The first phase, Phase 1A, was initiated on September 30, 2003, and was completed on March 31, 2004. Phase 1A of the project included the creation of the GSTC structure, development and refinement of a technical approach (work plan) for deliverability enhancement and reservoir management. This report deals with Phase 1B and encompasses the period April 1, 2004, through June 30, 2004. During this 3-month period, a Request for Proposals (RFP) was made. A total of 17 proposals were submitted to the GSTC. A proposal selection meeting was held June 9-10, 2004 in Morgantown, West Virginia. Of the 17 proposals, 6 were selected for funding.

Robert W. Watson

2004-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

240

Slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Cobalt plus a water-gas shift catalyst. [Quarterly] report, June 30, 1988--September 30, 1988  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report details experiments performed on three different copper-based catalysts: Cu/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Cu/MnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Of these three catalysts, the Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} exhibits the greatest stability when slurried in octacosane. More than 1000 hours-on-stream indicate that the catalyst activity is not detrimentally affected by high pressure, high H{sub 2}/CO ratio, or the presence of alkenes. All of these are necessary stability characteristics for the water-gas shift catalyst, if it is to be used in combination with a cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalyst. A review of documented reduction procedures for cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts is presented.

Yates, I.C.; Satterfield, C.N.

1988-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas phase gip" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Comment on flash photolysis resonance fluorescence investigation of the gas-phase reactions of OH radicals with a series of aliphatic ketones over the temperature range 240-440 K  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The recent flash photolysis-resonance fluorescence study of Wallington and Kurylo dealing with the kinetics of the gas-phase reactions of the OH radical with ketones has greatly expanded the literature data base concerning this class of organic compounds. For 2- and 3-pentanone and 2-hexanone the absolute room temperature rate constants determined by Wallington and Kurylo can be compared to rate constants obtained by using a relative rate technique, and significant discrepancies, outside of the combined stated experimental error limits, are evident. The relative rate constant measurements were carried out in a 60-L Teflon chamber, and problems ascribed to first-order wall losses of the ketones during the irradiations were observed.

Atkinson, R.; Aschmann, S.M.

1988-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

242

Collection and conversion of silicon furnace waste gas into higher value products: Phase 3, 6 MW pilot plant dc closed furnace technology. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The construction and operation of a 6 MW, closed dc furnace for smelting silicon was the primary focus of Phase 3. A 6 MW, dc closed furnace pilot plant was built in East Selkirk, Manitoba, Canada. The furnace is equipped with world`s most modern automatic control system used to control and monitor the process variables and operational data. This control system is suitable for commercial applications and could be used with either closed or open dc furnaces for smelting silicon or ferrosilicon. The construction was started in September 1990, and the facility was operational within 18 months. Following successful commissioning of the pilot plant in June 1992, twelve smelting test campaigns were conducted through November 1994.

Dosaj, V.D.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

A versatile elevated-pressure reactor combined with an ultrahigh vacuum surface setup for efficient testing of model and powder catalysts under clean gas-phase conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A small-volume reaction cell for catalytic or photocatalytic testing of solid materials at pressures up to 1000 Torr has been coupled to a surface-science setup used for standard sample preparation and characterization under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV). The reactor and sample holder designs allow easy sample transfer from/to the UHV chamber, and investigation of both planar and small amounts of powder catalysts under the same conditions. The sample is heated with an infrared laser beam and its temperature is measured with a compact pyrometer. Combined in a regulation loop, this system ensures fast and accurate temperature control as well as clean heating. The reaction products are automatically sampled and analyzed by mass spectrometry and/or gas chromatography (GC). Unlike previous systems, our GC apparatus does not use a recirculation loop and allows working in clean conditions at pressures as low as 1 Torr while detecting partial pressures smaller than 10{sup ?4} Torr. The efficiency and versatility of the reactor are demonstrated in the study of two catalytic systems: butadiene hydrogenation on Pd(100) and CO oxidation over an AuRh/TiO{sub 2} powder catalyst.

Morfin, Franck; Piccolo, Laurent [Institut de recherches sur la catalyse et l'environnement de Lyon (IRCELYON), UMR 5256 CNRS and Université Lyon 1, 2 avenue Albert Einstein, F-69626 Villeurbanne (France)] [Institut de recherches sur la catalyse et l'environnement de Lyon (IRCELYON), UMR 5256 CNRS and Université Lyon 1, 2 avenue Albert Einstein, F-69626 Villeurbanne (France)

2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

244

GAS STORAGE TECHNOLOGY CONSORTIUM  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. To accomplish this objective, the project is divided into three phases that are managed and directed by the GSTC Coordinator. Base funding for the consortium is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In addition, funding is anticipated from the Gas Technology Institute (GTI). The first phase, Phase 1A, was initiated on September 30, 2003, and is scheduled for completion on March 31, 2004. Phase 1A of the project includes the creation of the GSTC structure, development of constitution (by-laws) for the consortium, and development and refinement of a technical approach (work plan) for deliverability enhancement and reservoir management. This report deals with the second 3-months of the project and encompasses the period December 31, 2003, through March 31, 2003. During this 3-month, the dialogue of individuals representing the storage industry, universities and the Department of energy was continued and resulted in a constitution for the operation of the consortium and a draft of the initial Request for Proposals (RFP).

Robert W. Watson

2004-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

245

Two phase flow in capillary tubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The flow of two phases, gas and liquid, has been studied in horizontal tubes of capillary diameter. The flow has been primarily studied in the regime where the gas flows as long bubbles separated from the wall of the tube ...

Suo, Mikio

1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Neutron Gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We assume that the neutron-neutron potential is well-behaved and velocity-dependent. We can then apply perturbation theory to find the energy per particle of a neutron gas, in the range of Fermi wave numbers 0.5phase shifts. In the range of densities 0.5

J. S. Levinger and L. M. Simmons

1961-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Gas Turbines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

When the gas turbine generator was introduced to the power generation ... fossil-fueled power plant. Twenty years later, gas turbines were established as an important means of ... on utility systems. By the early...

Jeffrey M. Smith

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Gas Turbines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... the time to separate out the essentials and the irrelevancies in a text-book. The gas ...gasturbine ...

H. CONSTANT

1950-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

249

Colorado Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Colorado Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

250

California Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) California Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

251

Louisiana Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Louisiana Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

252

Michigan Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Michigan Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

253

Oklahoma Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Oklahoma Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

254

Virginia Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Virginia Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

255

Tennessee Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Tennessee Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

256

Pennsylvania Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Pennsylvania Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

257

Arkansas Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Arkansas Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

258

Maryland Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Maryland Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

259

Illinois Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Illinois Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

260

Missouri Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Missouri Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas phase gip" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Mississippi Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Mississippi Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

262

Nebraska Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Nebraska Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

263

Chapter 1 - Natural Gas Fundamentals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Natural gas is the most energy-efficient fossil fuel; it offers important energy-saving benefits when it is used instead of oil or coal. Although the primary use of natural gas is as a fuel, it is also a source of hydrocarbons for petrochemical feedstocks and a major source of elemental sulfur, an important industrial chemical. Its popularity as an energy source is expected to grow substantially in the future because natural gas can help achieve two important energy goals for the twenty-first century: providing the sustainable energy supplies and services needed for social and economic development and reducing adverse impacts on global climate and the environment in general. Natural gas consumption and trade have been growing steadily over the past two decades, and natural gas has strengthened its position in the world energy mix. Although natural gas demand declined in 2009, as a result of the economic slowdown, it is expected to resume growth in both emerging and traditional markets in the coming decades. Such increase in the near future will be driven because of additional demand in current uses, primarily power generation. There is yet little overlap between the use of natural gas and oil in all large markets. However, there are certain moves in the horizon, including the electrifying of transportation, that will push natural gas use to ever higher levels. This book gives the reader an introduction to natural gas by describing the origin and composition of natural gas, gas sources, phase behavior and properties, and transportation methods. Keywords: Absolute Open Flow, bulk modulus of elasticity, coal-bed methane, cricondenbar, cricondentherm, Expected Ultimate Recovery, gas deviation factor, higher heating value, Inflow Performance Relationship, kerogen, laminar flow, liquefied natural gas, primary thermogenic gas, pyrobitumen, secondary thermogenic gas, super-compressibility factor, thiol, Tubing Performance Curve, turbulent flow, unconventional gas resources, Wobbe Index, Wobbe Number.

Saeid Mokhatab; William A. Poe

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

The Intense Radiation Gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a new dispersion relation for photons that are nonlinearly interacting with a radiation gas of arbitrary intensity due to photon-photon scattering. It is found that the photon phase velocity decreases with increasing radiation intensity, it and attains a minimum value in the limit of super-intense fields. By using Hamilton's ray equations, a self-consistent kinetic theory for interacting photons is formulated. The interaction between an electromagnetic pulse and the radiation gas is shown to produce pulse self-compression and nonlinear saturation. Implications of our new results are discussed.

M. Marklund; P. K. Shukla; B. Eliasson

2005-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

265

Extensive regularization of the coupled cluster methods based on the generating functional formalism: application to gas-phase benchmarks and to the S(N)2 reaction of CHCl3 and OH- in water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The recently introduced energy expansion based on the use of generating functional (GF) [K. Kowalski, P.D. Fan, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 084112 (2009)] provides a way of constructing size-consistent non-iterative coupled-cluster (CC) corrections in terms of moments of the CC equations. To take advantage of this expansion in a strongly interacting regime, the regularization of the cluster amplitudes is required in order to counteract the effect of excessive growth of the norm of the CC wavefunction. Although proven to be effcient, the previously discussed form of the regularization does not lead to rigorously size-consistent corrections. In this paper we address the issue of size-consistent regularization of the GF expansion by redefning the equations for the cluster amplitudes. The performance and basic features of proposed methodology is illustrated on several gas-phase benchmark systems. Moreover, the regularized GF approaches are combined with QM/MM module and applied to describe the SN2 reaction of CHCl3 and OH- in aqueous solution.

Kowalski, Karol; Valiev, Marat

2009-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

266

Outlook dims for decontrol of natural gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Outlook dims for decontrol of natural gas ... A lot of people in the chemical industry are watching the nation's capital to see if, by some miracle, they will get some action on decontrol of natural gas prices. ... And there was a time when it appeared as if they would get their wish—to get out from under the shackles of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 (NGPA) and switch to total, phased decontrol of natural gas prices. ...

EARL V. ANDERSON

1982-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

267

Rapid Gas Hydrate Formation Process Opportunity  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Gas Hydrate Formation Process Gas Hydrate Formation Process Opportunity The Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is seeking collaborative research and licensing partners interested in implementing United States Non-provisional Patent Application entitled "Rapid Gas Hydrate Formation Process." Disclosed in this application is a method and device for producing gas hydrates from a two-phase mixture of water and a hydrate forming gas such as methane (CH 4 ) or carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). The two-phase mixture is created in a mixing zone, which may be contained within the body of the spray nozzle. The two-phase mixture is subsequently sprayed into a reaction vessel, under pressure and temperature conditions suitable for gas hydrate formation. The reaction

268

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

,366 ,366 95,493 1.08 0 0.00 1 0.03 29,406 0.56 1,206 0.04 20,328 0.64 146,434 0.73 - Natural Gas 1996 Million Percent of Million Percent of Cu. Feet National Total Cu. Feet National Total Net Interstate Movements: Industrial: Marketed Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Electric Residential: Utilities: Commercial: Total: South Carolina South Carolina 88. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas South Carolina, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ...........................................

269

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0,216 0,216 50,022 0.56 135 0.00 49 1.67 85,533 1.63 8,455 0.31 45,842 1.45 189,901 0.95 - Natural Gas 1996 Million Percent of Million Percent of Cu. Feet National Total Cu. Feet National Total Net Interstate Movements: Industrial: Marketed Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Electric Residential: Utilities: Commercial: Total: M a r y l a n d Maryland 68. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Maryland, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... NA NA NA NA NA Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 9 7 7 7 8 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 33 28 26 22 135 From Oil Wells ...........................................

270

Transition Metal Ions in the Gas Phase  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For several years we have been studying the chemistry of atomic transition metal ions with simple organic molecules. This research was ... examining the consequences of oxidation and reduction of transition metal...

Douglas P. Ridge

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Absolute rate constants for the gas-phase reaction is of the NO/sub 3/ radical with CH/sub 3/SCH/sub 3/, NO/sub 2/, CO, and a series of alkanes at 298 +/- 2 K  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A flash photolysis-visible absorption apparatus has been constructed and employed in a study of the kinetics of the gas-phase reactions of the NO/sub 3/ radical with CH/sub 3/SCH/sub 3/, NO/sub 2/, CO, CH/sub 4/, C/sub 2/H/sub 6/, and n-C/sub 4/H/sub 10/. The measured absolute rate constants at 298 +/- 2 K are as follows (in units of 10/sup -13/ cm/sup 3/ molecule/sup -1/ s/sup -1/): CH/sub 3/SCH/sub 3/, 7.5 +/- 0.5 independent of pressure over the range 50-400 Torr; NO/sub 2/, 5.6 +/- 0.4 and 8.0 +/- 1.1 at 120 and 400 Torr total pressure of helium, respectively; CO, less than or equal to 0.00003; CH/sub 4/, less than or equal to 0.0002; C/sub 2/H/sub 6/, less than or equal to 0.00004; n-C/sub 4/H/sub 10/, less than or equal to 0.0002. The error limits represent two standard deviations. (Systematic errors could contribute an additional approx. 10% range.) These results are discussed with respect to the previous literature data and the atmospheric lifetimes of these compounds. The rate constant for the reaction of NO/sub 3/ radicals with CH/sub 3/SCH/sub 3/ measured in the present work is consistent with both another recent absolute determination and previous relative rate measurements, confirming the relative rate technique previously used to determine NO/sub 3/ radical reaction rate constants.

Wallington, T.J.; Atkinson, R.; Winer, A.M.; Pitts, J.N. Jr.

1986-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

272

Ultraviolet absorption spectra and kinetics of the self-reaction of CH sub 2 Br and CH sub 2 BrO sub 2 radicals in the gas phase at 298 K. [Accelerated electrons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ultraviolet absorption spectra of CH{sub 2}Br and CH{sub 2}BrO{sub 2} radicals and the kinetics of their self-reactions have been studied in the gas phase at 298 K by using the pulse radiolysis technique. Absorption cross sections were quantified over the wavelength range 220-350 nm. Measured cross sections near the absorption maxima were {sigma}{sub CH{sub 2}Br}(280 nm) = (6.26 {plus minus} 1.15) {times} 10{sup {minus}18} cm{sup 2} molecule{sup {minus} 1}. Errors represent statistical errors (2{sigma}) together with the authors' estimate of potential systematic errors (10%). The absorption cross-sectional data were then used to derive the observed self-reaction rate constants for reactions 1 and 2, defined as {minus}d(R)/dt = 2k{sub obs}(R){sup 2} (R = CH{sub 2}Br or CH{sub 2}BrO{sub 2}) of CH{sub 2}Br + CH{sub 2}BR {yields} products (1), and CH{sub 2}BrO{sub 2} + CH{sub 2}BrO{sub 2} {yields} products (2) k{sub 1} = (2.93 {plus minus} 0.60) {times} 10{sup {minus}11} cm{sup 3} molecule{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1} and k{sub 2obs} = (3.26 {plus minus} 0.31) {times} 10{sup {minus}11} cm{sup 3} molecule{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1} (quoted errors represent 2{sigma}). These results are discussed with respect to previous studies of the absorption spectra and kinetics of peroxy radicals.

Nielsen, O.J.; Munk, J.; Locke, G. (Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)); Wallington, T.J. (Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States))

1991-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

273

Flash photolysis kinetic absorption spectroscopy study of the gas-phase reaction HO/sub 2/ + C/sub 2/H/sub 5/O/sub 2/ over the temperature range 228-380 K  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Flash photolysis kinetic absorption spectroscopy was used to investigate the gas-phase reaction between hydroperoxy and ethylperoxy radicals between 228 and 380 K in the pressure range 25-400 Torr: HO/sub 2/ + C/sub 2/H/sub 5/O/sub 2/ ..-->.. products (1). Due to the large difference between the self-reactivities of the two radicals, first- or second-order kinetic conditions could not be maintained for either species. Thus, the rate constant for reaction 1 was determined from computer-modeled fits of the radical absorption decay curves recorded at wavelengths between 230 and 280 nm. This procedure yielded a value for k/sub 1/ at 298 K of (5.3 +/- 1.0) x 10/sup -12/ cm/sup 3/ molecule/sup -1/ s/sup -1/ independent of total pressure (using N/sub 2/) between 25 and 400 Torr. The Arrhenius expression derived from the present study over the temperature range 248-380 K is k/sub 1/ = (5.6 +/- 2.4) x 10/sup -13/ exp((650 +/- 125)/T) cm/sup 3/ molecule/sup -1/ s/sup -1/, where the quoted errors are 2 sigma from linear least-squares analyses. A reanalysis of the authors earlier measurements of the C/sub 2/H/sub 5/O/sub 2/ self-reaction, C/sub 2/H/sub 5/O/sub 2/ + C/sub 2/H/sub 5/O/sub 2/ ..-->.. products (2), using this expression for k/sub 1/ results in the revised Arrhenius equation: k/sub 2/ = (8.5 +/- 1.1) x 10/sup -14/ exp(-(110 +/- 40)/T) cm/sup 3/ molecule/sup -1/ s/sup -1/.

Dagaut, P.; Wallington, T.J.; Kurylo, M.J.

1988-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

274

,"Missouri Natural Gas Summary"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas Wells (MMcf)","Missouri Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Oil Wells (MMcf)","Missouri Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)","Missouri Natural...

275

Hot Gas Filtration of Fine and Ultra fine Particles with Liquid...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Hot Gas Filtration of Fine and Ultra fine Particles with Liquid Phase Sintered SiC Ceramic DPF Hot Gas Filtration of Fine and Ultra fine Particles with Liquid Phase Sintered SiC...

276

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

68,747 68,747 34,577 0.39 0 0.00 34 1.16 14,941 0.29 0 0.00 11,506 0.36 61,058 0.31 I d a h o Idaho 60. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Idaho, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation.......................... 0 0 0 0 0 Vented

277

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0 0 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 540 0.01 0 0.00 2,132 0.07 2,672 0.01 H a w a i i Hawaii 59. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Hawaii, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation.......................... 0 0 0 0 0 Vented and Flared

278

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

483,052 483,052 136,722 1.54 6,006 0.03 88 3.00 16,293 0.31 283,557 10.38 41,810 1.32 478,471 2.39 F l o r i d a Florida 57. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Florida, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 47 50 98 92 96 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 7,584 8,011 8,468 7,133 6,706 Total.............................................................. 7,584 8,011 8,468 7,133 6,706 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ...............

279

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

291,898 291,898 113,995 1.29 0 0.00 4 0.14 88,078 1.68 3,491 0.13 54,571 1.73 260,140 1.30 I o w a Iowa 63. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Iowa, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation.......................... 0 0 0

280

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Vehicle Fuel: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Electric Residential: Utilities: Commercial: Total: New England New England 36. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas New England, 1992-1996 Table 691,089 167,354 1.89 0 0.00 40 1.36 187,469 3.58 80,592 2.95 160,761 5.09 596,215 2.98 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................

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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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281

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

29,693 29,693 0 0.00 0 0.00 6 0.20 17,290 0.33 0 0.00 16,347 0.52 33,644 0.17 District of Columbia District of Columbia 56. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas District of Columbia, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation..........................

282

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

42,980 42,980 14,164 0.16 0 0.00 1 0.03 9,791 0.19 23,370 0.86 6,694 0.21 54,020 0.27 D e l a w a r e Delaware 55. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Delaware, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation..........................

283

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

-49,536 -49,536 7,911 0.09 49,674 0.25 15 0.51 12,591 0.24 3 0.00 12,150 0.38 32,670 0.16 North Dakota North Dakota 82. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas North Dakota, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 496 525 507 463 462 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 104 101 104 99 108 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 12,461 18,892 19,592 16,914 16,810 From Oil Wells ........................................... 47,518 46,059 43,640 39,760 38,906 Total.............................................................. 59,979 64,951 63,232 56,674 55,716 Repressuring ................................................

284

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

21,547 21,547 4,916 0.06 0 0.00 0 0.00 7,012 0.13 3 0.00 7,099 0.22 19,031 0.10 N e w H a m p s h i r e New Hampshire 77. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas New Hampshire, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation..........................

285

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

139,881 139,881 26,979 0.30 463 0.00 115 3.92 27,709 0.53 19,248 0.70 28,987 0.92 103,037 0.52 A r i z o n a Arizona 50. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Arizona, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... NA NA NA NA NA Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 6 6 6 7 7 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 721 508 711 470 417 From Oil Wells ........................................... 72 110 48 88 47 Total.............................................................. 794 618 759 558 464 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease

286

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Middle Middle Atlantic Middle Atlantic 37. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Middle Atlantic, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 1,857 1,981 2,042 1,679 1,928 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 36,906 36,857 26,180 37,159 38,000 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 161,372 152,717 140,444 128,677 152,494 From Oil Wells ........................................... 824 610 539 723 641 Total.............................................................. 162,196 153,327 140,982 129,400 153,134 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed

287

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

386,690 386,690 102,471 1.16 0 0.00 43 1.47 142,319 2.72 5,301 0.19 98,537 3.12 348,671 1.74 M i n n e s o t a Minnesota 71. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Minnesota, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation..........................

288

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1,108,583 1,108,583 322,275 3.63 298 0.00 32 1.09 538,749 10.28 25,863 0.95 218,054 6.90 1,104,972 5.52 I l l i n o i s Illinois 61. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Illinois, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... NA NA NA NA NA Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 382 385 390 372 370 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 337 330 323 325 289 From Oil Wells ........................................... 10 10 10 10 9 Total.............................................................. 347 340 333 335 298 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ...............

289

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

286,485 286,485 71,533 0.81 25 0.00 31 1.06 137,225 2.62 5,223 0.19 72,802 2.31 286,814 1.43 M i s s o u r i Missouri 73. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Missouri, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... NA NA NA NA NA Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 5 8 12 15 24 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 27 14 8 16 25 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 27 14 8 16 25 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation..........................

290

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

411,951 411,951 100,015 1.13 0 0.00 5 0.17 114,365 2.18 45,037 1.65 96,187 3.05 355,609 1.78 Massachusetts Massachusetts 69. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Massachusetts, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation..........................

291

Gas vesicles.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...in the suspending water, of concentration...MPa and balances the atmospheric pressure. Note that...versely, liquid water could not form by condensation inside the gas vesicle...presumably surrounded by water on all sides. At...

A E Walsby

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

226,798 226,798 104,124 1.17 0 0.00 0 0.00 58,812 1.12 2,381 0.09 40,467 1.28 205,783 1.03 North Carolina North Carolina 81. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas North Carolina, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation..........................

293

The RealGas and RealGasH2O options of the TOUGH+ code for the simulation of coupled fluid and heat flow in tight/shale gas systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We developed two new EOS additions to the TOUGH+ family of codes, the RealGasH2O and RealGas. The RealGasH2O EOS option describes the non-isothermal two-phase flow of water and a real gas mixture in gas reservoirs, with a particular focus in ultra-tight ... Keywords: Coupled flow and heat flow, Fractured media, Multicomponent flow, Numerical simulation, Real gas mixture, Shale gas

George J. Moridis, Craig M. Freeman

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Phase five  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Phase five Phase five 1663 Los Alamos science and technology magazine Latest Issue:November 2013 All Issues » submit Phase five Los Alamos physicists have conclusively demonstrated the existence of a new phase of matter. November 25, 2013 Phase five Scientists still have more to learn about the exotic physics of specialty materials. What makes the cuprates special? How about a new phase of matter. Ceramic metals known as cuprates have mystified physicists for decades. They exhibit a variety of distinct phases of matter, each with its own specific properties, including a phase bearing an exotic type of magnetism, a high-temperature superconducting phase, an ordinary metal phase, a poorly understood and weird metallic phase simply called a strange metal, and an equally poorly understood metallic phase known as the pseudogap. The

295

Structure and function of gas vacuoles.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...overlying gas phase to atmospheric pressure. Volume...film of surrounding water. From the results...to force liquid water in- side the structure...would also prevent water from accumulating inside by condensation (105). FORMATION...

A E Walsby

1972-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Business and Project Management of Natural Gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The process and associated technology of natural gas can be found elsewhere in the preceding ... end of this phase, large amount of capital has been used and there is no ... or companies, from within their own fu...

G. G. Nasr; N. E. Connor

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Ground Gas Handbook  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...pathways of least resistance to gas transport, and applications are discussed, such as migrating landfill gas emissions, also from leaking landfill gas collection systems, as well as natural gas and oil-field gas leakage from abandoned production...

Allen W Hatheway

298

Gas Delivered  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

. Average . Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential Consumers, 1980-1996 Figure 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 40 80 120 160 200 240 280 320 Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet Dollars per Thousand Cubic Meters Nominal Dollars Constant Dollars Sources: Nominal dollars: Energy Information Administration (EIA), Form EIA-176, "Annual Report of Natural and Supplemental Gas Supply and Disposition." Constant dollars: Prices were converted to 1995 dollars using the chain-type price indexes for Gross Domestic Product (1992 = 1.0) as published by the U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis. Residential: Prices in this publication for the residential sector cover nearly all of the volumes of gas delivered. Commercial and Industrial: Prices for the commercial and industrial sectors are often associated with

299

Heat conductivity of a pion gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We evaluate the heat conductivity of a dilute pion gas employing the Uehling-Uehlenbeck equation and experimental phase-shifts parameterized by means of the SU(2) Inverse Amplitude Method. Our results are consistent with previous evaluations. For comparison we also give results for an (unphysical) hard sphere gas.

Antonio Dobado Gonzalez; Felipe J. Llanes-Estrada; Juan M. Torres Rincon

2007-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

300

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

73,669 73,669 141,300 1.59 221,822 1.12 3 0.10 46,289 0.88 33,988 1.24 31,006 0.98 252,585 1.26 A r k a n s a s Arkansas 51. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Arkansas, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 1,750 1,552 1,607 1,563 1,470 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 3,500 3,500 3,500 3,988 4,020 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 171,543 166,273 161,967 161,390 182,895 From Oil Wells ........................................... 39,364 38,279 33,446 33,979 41,551 Total.............................................................. 210,906 204,552 195,413 195,369 224,446 Repressuring ................................................

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas phase gip" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

-1,080,240 -1,080,240 201,024 2.27 1,734,887 8.78 133 4.54 76,629 1.46 136,436 4.99 46,152 1.46 460,373 2.30 O k l a h o m a Oklahoma 84. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Oklahoma, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 13,926 13,289 13,487 13,438 13,074 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 28,902 29,118 29,121 29,733 29,733 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 1,674,405 1,732,997 1,626,858 1,521,857 1,467,695 From Oil Wells ........................................... 342,950 316,945 308,006 289,877 267,192 Total.............................................................. 2,017,356 2,049,942 1,934,864

302

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7,038,115 7,038,115 3,528,911 39.78 13,646,477 69.09 183 6.24 408,861 7.80 1,461,718 53.49 281,452 8.91 5,681,125 28.40 West South Central West South Central 42. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas West South Central, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 87,198 84,777 88,034 88,734 62,357 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 92,212 95,288 94,233 102,525 102,864 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 11,599,913 11,749,649 11,959,444 11,824,788 12,116,665 From Oil Wells ........................................... 2,313,831 2,368,395 2,308,634 2,217,752 2,151,247 Total..............................................................

303

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

77,379 77,379 94,481 1.07 81,435 0.41 8 0.27 70,232 1.34 1,836 0.07 40,972 1.30 207,529 1.04 K e n t u c k y Kentucky 65. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Kentucky, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 1,084 1,003 969 1,044 983 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 12,483 12,836 13,036 13,311 13,501 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 79,690 86,966 73,081 74,754 81,435 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 79,690 86,966 73,081 74,754 81,435 Repressuring ................................................

304

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

-67,648 -67,648 75,616 0.85 480,828 2.43 0 0.00 16,720 0.32 31,767 1.16 29,447 0.93 153,549 0.77 Pacific Noncontiguous Pacific Noncontiguous 45. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Pacific Noncontiguous, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 9,638 9,907 9,733 9,497 9,294 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 112 113 104 100 102 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 198,603 190,139 180,639 179,470 183,747 From Oil Wells ........................................... 2,427,110 2,588,202 2,905,261 3,190,433 3,189,837 Total.............................................................. 2,625,713 2,778,341

305

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

-310,913 -310,913 110,294 1.24 712,796 3.61 2 0.07 85,376 1.63 22,607 0.83 57,229 1.81 275,508 1.38 K a n s a s Kansas 64. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Kansas, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 9,681 9,348 9,156 8,571 7,694 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 18,400 19,472 19,365 22,020 21,388 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 580,572 605,578 628,900 636,582 629,755 From Oil Wells ........................................... 79,169 82,579 85,759 86,807 85,876 Total.............................................................. 659,741 688,157 714,659 723,389 715,631 Repressuring ................................................

306

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

819,046 819,046 347,043 3.91 245,740 1.24 40 1.36 399,522 7.62 32,559 1.19 201,390 6.38 980,555 4.90 M i c h i g a n Michigan 70. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Michigan, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 1,223 1,160 1,323 1,294 2,061 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 3,257 5,500 6,000 5,258 5,826 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 120,287 126,179 136,989 146,320 201,123 From Oil Wells ........................................... 80,192 84,119 91,332 97,547 50,281 Total.............................................................. 200,479 210,299 228,321 243,867 251,404 Repressuring ................................................

307

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

W W y o m i n g -775,410 50,253 0.57 666,036 3.37 14 0.48 13,534 0.26 87 0.00 9,721 0.31 73,609 0.37 Wyoming 98. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Wyoming, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 10,826 10,933 10,879 12,166 12,320 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 3,111 3,615 3,942 4,196 4,510 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 751,693 880,596 949,343 988,671 981,115 From Oil Wells ........................................... 285,125 142,006 121,519 111,442 109,434 Total.............................................................. 1,036,817 1,022,602 1,070,862 1,100,113 1,090,549 Repressuring

308

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

-67,648 -67,648 75,616 0.85 480,828 2.43 0 0.00 16,179 0.31 31,767 1.16 27,315 0.86 150,877 0.75 A l a s k a Alaska 49. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Alaska, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 9,638 9,907 9,733 9,497 9,294 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 112 113 104 100 102 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 198,603 190,139 180,639 179,470 183,747 From Oil Wells ........................................... 2,427,110 2,588,202 2,905,261 3,190,433 3,189,837 Total.............................................................. 2,625,713 2,778,341 3,085,900 3,369,904 3,373,584 Repressuring

309

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

628,189 628,189 449,511 5.07 765,699 3.88 100 3.41 528,662 10.09 39,700 1.45 347,721 11.01 1,365,694 6.83 West North Central West North Central 39. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas West North Central, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 10,177 9,873 9,663 9,034 8,156 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 18,569 19,687 19,623 22,277 21,669 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 594,551 626,728 651,594 655,917 648,822 From Oil Wells ........................................... 133,335 135,565 136,468 134,776 133,390 Total.............................................................. 727,886 762,293

310

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1,048,760 1,048,760 322,661 3.64 18,131 0.09 54 1.84 403,264 7.69 142,688 5.22 253,075 8.01 1,121,742 5.61 N e w Y o r k New York 80. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas New York, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 329 264 242 197 232 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 5,906 5,757 5,884 6,134 6,208 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 22,697 20,587 19,937 17,677 17,494 From Oil Wells ........................................... 824 610 539 723 641 Total.............................................................. 23,521 21,197 20,476 18,400 18,134 Repressuring ................................................

311

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1,554,530 1,554,530 311,229 3.51 3,094,431 15.67 442 15.08 299,923 5.72 105,479 3.86 210,381 6.66 927,454 4.64 Mountain Mountain 43. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Mountain, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 38,711 38,987 37,366 39,275 38,944 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 30,965 34,975 38,539 38,775 41,236 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 2,352,729 2,723,393 3,046,159 3,131,205 3,166,689 From Oil Wells ........................................... 677,771 535,884 472,397 503,986 505,903 Total.............................................................. 3,030,499 3,259,277 3,518,556

312

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1,592,465 1,592,465 716,648 8.08 239,415 1.21 182 6.21 457,792 8.73 334,123 12.23 320,153 10.14 1,828,898 9.14 South Atlantic South Atlantic 40. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas South Atlantic, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 3,307 3,811 4,496 4,427 4,729 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 39,412 35,149 41,307 37,822 36,827 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 206,766 208,892 234,058 236,072 233,409 From Oil Wells ........................................... 7,584 8,011 8,468 7,133 6,706 Total.............................................................. 214,349 216,903 242,526 243,204 240,115

313

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1,999,161 1,999,161 895,529 10.10 287,933 1.46 1,402 47.82 569,235 10.86 338,640 12.39 308,804 9.78 2,113,610 10.57 Pacific Contiguous Pacific Contiguous 44. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Pacific Contiguous, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 3,896 3,781 3,572 3,508 2,082 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 1,142 1,110 1,280 1,014 996 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 156,635 124,207 117,725 96,329 88,173 From Oil Wells ........................................... 294,800 285,162 282,227 289,430 313,581 Total.............................................................. 451,435 409,370

314

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

-122,394 -122,394 49,997 0.56 178,984 0.91 5 0.17 37,390 0.71 205 0.01 28,025 0.89 115,622 0.58 West Virginia West Virginia 96. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas West Virginia, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 2,356 2,439 2,565 2,499 2,703 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 38,250 33,716 39,830 36,144 35,148 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... E 182,000 171,024 183,773 186,231 178,984 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. E 182,000 171,024 183,773 186,231 178,984 Repressuring ................................................

315

Gas vesicles.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the gas vesicles simply reduce their sinking rates and...remaining suspended in the water column. A microorganism...phenomena as stratification, water- bloom formation, and...the many proteins that make up the phycobilisome (73...flagellate bacteria in natural waters. The natural selection...

A E Walsby

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Gas vesicles.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...these costs can be compared is in units of energy expenditure per time (joules per second...requires 7.24 x 10-18 kg of Gvp. The energy cost of making this protein, Eg, is...Eg = 2.84 x 101- o J. The rate of energy expenditure in gas vesicle synthesis then...

A E Walsby

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Gas sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas sensor is described which incorporates a sensor stack comprising a first film layer of a ferromagnetic material, a spacer layer, and a second film layer of the ferromagnetic material. The first film layer is fabricated so that it exhibits a dependence of its magnetic anisotropy direction on the presence of a gas, That is, the orientation of the easy axis of magnetization will flip from out-of-plane to in-plane when the gas to be detected is present in sufficient concentration. By monitoring the change in resistance of the sensor stack when the orientation of the first layer's magnetization changes, and correlating that change with temperature one can determine both the identity and relative concentration of the detected gas. In one embodiment the stack sensor comprises a top ferromagnetic layer two mono layers thick of cobalt deposited upon a spacer layer of ruthenium, which in turn has a second layer of cobalt disposed on its other side, this second cobalt layer in contact with a programmable heater chip.

Schmid, Andreas K.; Mascaraque, Arantzazu; Santos, Benito; de la Figuera, Juan

2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

318

Liquid Natural Gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Liquid Natural Gas ... IN A new technique for storing natural gas at the East Ohio Gas Co. plant, Cleveland, Ohio, the gas is liquefied before passing to the gas holders. ... Natural gas contains moisture and carbon dioxide, both of which liquefy before the natural gas and are somewhat of a nuisance because upon solidification they clog the pipes. ...

W. F. SCHAPHORST

1941-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

319

Production of biodiesel using expanded gas solvents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method of producing an alkyl ester. The method comprises providing an alcohol and a triglyceride or fatty acid. An expanding gas is dissolved into the alcohol to form a gas expanded solvent. The alcohol is reacted with the triglyceride or fatty acid in a single phase to produce the alkyl ester. The expanding gas may be a nonpolar expanding gas, such as carbon dioxide, methane, ethane, propane, butane, pentane, ethylene, propylene, butylene, pentene, isomers thereof, and mixtures thereof, which is dissolved into the alcohol. The gas expanded solvent may be maintained at a temperature below, at, or above a critical temperature of the expanding gas and at a pressure below, at, or above a critical pressure of the expanding gas.

Ginosar, Daniel M [Idaho Falls, ID; Fox, Robert V [Idaho Falls, ID; Petkovic, Lucia M [Idaho Falls, ID

2009-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

320

NATURAL GAS MARKET ASSESSMENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION NATURAL GAS MARKET ASSESSMENT PRELIMINARY RESULTS In Support.................................................................................... 6 Chapter 2: Natural Gas Demand.................................................................................................. 10 Chapter 3: Natural Gas Supply

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas phase gip" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

,"Missouri Natural Gas Summary"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas Sold to Commercial Consumers (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Missouri Natural Gas Industrial Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Missouri Natural Gas Price Sold to...

322

Natural Gas Weekly Update  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

natural gas production output. Rigs Natural Gas Transportation Update Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company yesterday (August 4) said it is mobilizing equipment and manpower for...

323

Phase II Smart Grid Data Access Funding Opportunity Winner Announced  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Energy Department announced on December 19 that San Diego Gas & Electric has won the second phase of the Smart Grid Data Access funding opportunity.

324

National Labs Commission Phase I Public Schedule | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

National Labs Commission Phase I Public Schedule More Documents & Publications Hydrogen Generator Appliance Natural Gas and Hydrogen Infrastructure Opportunities Workshop Agenda...

325

phase coherence  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The state in which two signals, such as electronic or optical signals, maintain (a) a fixed phase relationship with each other or (b) a fixed phase relationship with a third signal that can serve as a referenc...

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Shale gas is natural gas trapped inside  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Shale gas is natural gas trapped inside formations of shale - fine grained sedimentary rocks that can be rich sources of petroleum and natural gas. Just a few years ago, much of...

327

Gas Chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Researchers from the University of Missouri and ICx Nomadics have reported on the use of a optofluidic ring resonator (OFRR) sensor for on-column detection ?. ... Although substantial differences were noted between fresh and aged (or oxidized) oils, many of the compounds in the oxidized oil went unidentified due to lack of library mass spectral data. ... A high resolution MEMS based gas chromatography column for the analysis of benzene and toluene gaseous mixtures ...

Frank L. Dorman; Joshua J. Whiting; Jack W. Cochran; Jorge Gardea-Torresdey

2010-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

328

Underground natural gas storage reservoir management  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this study is to research technologies and methodologies that will reduce the costs associated with the operation and maintenance of underground natural gas storage. This effort will include a survey of public information to determine the amount of natural gas lost from underground storage fields, determine the causes of this lost gas, and develop strategies and remedial designs to reduce or stop the gas loss from selected fields. Phase I includes a detailed survey of US natural gas storage reservoirs to determine the actual amount of natural gas annually lost from underground storage fields. These reservoirs will be ranked, the resultant will include the amount of gas and revenue annually lost. The results will be analyzed in conjunction with the type (geologic) of storage reservoirs to determine the significance and impact of the gas loss. A report of the work accomplished will be prepared. The report will include: (1) a summary list by geologic type of US gas storage reservoirs and their annual underground gas storage losses in ft{sup 3}; (2) a rank by geologic classifications as to the amount of gas lost and the resultant lost revenue; and (3) show the level of significance and impact of the losses by geologic type. Concurrently, the amount of storage activity has increased in conjunction with the net increase of natural gas imports as shown on Figure No. 3. Storage is playing an ever increasing importance in supplying the domestic energy requirements.

Ortiz, I.; Anthony, R.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Chapter 6 - Dehydration of Natural Gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Publisher Summary This chapter reviews several methods used for dehydrating natural gas. Dehydration is the process by which water is removed from natural gas. This is a common method used for preventing hydrate formation. There are other reasons for dehydrating natural gas. Removing water vapor reduces the risk of corrosion in transmission lines. Furthermore, dehydration improves the efficiency of pipelines by reducing the amount of liquid accumulating in the lines—or even eliminates it completely. There are several methods of dehydrating natural gas. The most common of these are: glycol dehydration (liquid desiccant), molecular sieves (solid adsorbent), and refrigeration. The most common method for dehydration in the natural gas industry is the use of a liquid desiccant contactor-regeneration process. In this process, the wet gas is contacted with a lean solvent. The lean solvent, producing a rich solvent stream and a dry gas, absorbs the water in the gas. Unlike glycol dehydration, which is an absorption process, dehydration with molecular sieves is an adsorption process. Water in the gas adheres to the solid phase (the solid being the mole sieve), and thus is removed from the natural gas. Molecular sieves are usually used when very dry gas is required. The usual purpose of a refrigeration plant is to remove heavy hydrocarbons from a natural gas stream—to make hydrocarbon dewpoint specification—but this process also removes water.

John J. Carroll

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Simulating Microstructural Evolution and Electrical Transport in Ceramic Gas Sensors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. In this paper, using the example of the thermal processing of ceramic gas sensors, an integrated compu- tationalSimulating Microstructural Evolution and Electrical Transport in Ceramic Gas Sensors Yunzhi Wang in ceramic gas sensors has been proposed. First, the particle-flow model and the continuum-phase-field method

Ciobanu, Cristian

331

Gas Sampling Considerations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Gas sampling is carried out to measure the quality of a gas. Gas samples are sometimes acquired by in situ observation within the main gas body by using remote or visual observation for specific properties. A mor...

Alvin Lieberman

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Georgia Tech Dangerous Gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Georgia Tech Dangerous Gas Safety Program March 2011 #12;Georgia Tech Dangerous Gas Safety.......................................................................................................... 5 6. DANGEROUS GAS USAGE REQUIREMENTS................................................. 7 6.1. RESTRICTED PURCHASE/ACQUISITION RULES: ................................................ 7 7. FLAMMABLE GAS

Sherrill, David

333

Market Digest: Natural Gas  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The Energy Information Administration's Natural Gas Market Digest provides information and analyses on all aspects of natural gas markets.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

The growth rate of gas hydrate from refrigerant R12  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental and theoretical investigations were presented dealing with three phase direct-contact heat transfer by evaporation of refrigerant drops in an immiscible liquid. Refrigerant R12 was used as the dispersed phase, while water and brine were the immiscible continuous phase. A numerical solution is presented to predict the formation rate of gas hydrates in test column. The solution provided an acceptable agreement when compared with experimental results. The gas hydrate growth rate increased with time. It increased with increasing dispersed phase flow rate. The presence of surface-active sodium chloride in water had a strong inhibiting effect on the gas hydrate formation rate. (author)

Kendoush, Abdullah Abbas; Jassim, Najim Abid [Centre of Engineering Physics, Ministry of Sciences and Technology, P.O. Box 765, Baghdad (Iraq); Joudi, Khalid A. [Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad (Iraq)

2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

335

The molecular structure of PrI3 and GdI3 as determined by synchronous gas-phase electron diffraction and mass spectrometric experiment assisted by quantum chemical calculations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A gas electron diffraction study of PrI3 and GdI3 has been carried out in combination with mass spectrometric vapour monitoring at 1110(10) K and 1100(10) K, respectively. Up to 3 mol.% of dimeric species was obs...

Nina I. Giricheva; Sergey A. Shlykov; Elena A. Lapykina…

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Annual Real Natural Gas Prices by Sector  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 Notes: Major regulatory reforms at the Federal level began at the end of the 1970s with the passage of the Natural Gas Policy Act, and have affected most phases of the industry and markets Over time the movement to a more competitive model led to lower prices starting around 1983, which was accentuated by the drop in world oil prices in 1986 Gas consumers in all sectors seem to have benefited, on average, from a more competitive marketplace However, several factors have come together recently that have pushed spot gas prices up sharply and which are expected to reverse the downward trend in in real gas prices for the next year or so: U.S. gas production has been relatively flat. Expected demand is high under normal weather assumptions. Gas storage levels are below normal.

337

Investigation of two-fluid methods for Large Eddy Simulation of spray combustion in Gas Turbines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Investigation of two-fluid methods for Large Eddy Simulation of spray combustion in Gas Turbines the EL method well suited for gas turbine computations, but RANS with the EE approach may also be found and coupled with the LES solver of the gas phase. The equations used for each phase and the coupling terms

338

DESCRIPTION OF THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL TWO-PHASE SIMULATOR SHAFT78 FOR USE IN GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIR STUDIES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

f o r estimating gas o r steam reserves from a straight-linestandard gas reservoi technique of predicting reserves fromreserves f r o m pressure decline curves i n (one-phase) gas

Pruess, K.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Fuel gas conditioning process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas, so that it can be used as combustion fuel to run gas-powered equipment, including compressors, in the gas field or the gas processing plant. Compared with prior art processes, the invention creates lesser quantities of low-pressure gas per unit volume of fuel gas produced. Optionally, the process can also produce an NGL product.

Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

A Characterization of a Dual Chambered, Two Phase Separator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A new two phase separator for use in space applications has been invented. It is a vortex separator designed to accommodate gas driven two phase flows of gas and liquid. The work presented here is a first of a kind study of this newly invented...

Klein, Casey

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas phase gip" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Chapter six - Dehydration of natural gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Publisher Summary This chapter describes the dehydration process of natural gas. Dehydration is the process by which water is removed from natural gas. This is a common method used for preventing hydrate formation. If there is no water present, it is impossible for a hydrate to form. If there is only a small amount of water present, the formation of hydrate is less likely. There are other reasons for dehydrating natural gas. The removal of water vapor reduces the risk of corrosion in transmission lines. Furthermore, dehydration improves the efficiency of pipelines by reducing the amount of liquid accumulating in the lines—or even eliminates it completely. There are several methods of dehydrating natural gas. The most common are: glycol dehydration (liquid desiccant), molecular sieves (solid adsorbent), and refrigeration. In glycol dehydration process, the wet gas is contacted with a lean solvent (containing only a small amount of water). The water in the gas is absorbed by the lean solvent, producing a rich solvent stream (one containing more water) and a dry gas. In mole sieves, water in the gas adheres to the solid phase, the solid being the mole sieve, and thus is removed from the natural gas. The usual purpose of a refrigeration plant is to remove heavy hydrocarbons from a natural gas stream—to make hydrocarbon dew point specification. However, this process also removes water.

John J. Carroll

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

CONDENSATION AND EVAPORATION FOR THERMALLY UNEQUILIBRATED PHASES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CONDENSATION AND EVAPORATION FOR THERMALLY UNEQUILIBRATED PHASES R. A. Marcus1 , A. V. Fedkin2-K) equation for the rate of condensation of a gas or evaporation of a solid or liquid is used for systems, Tg, differs from that of the condensed phase, Ts . Here, we modify the H-K equation for this case

Grossman, Lawrence

343

NETL: Methane Hydrates - Barrow Gas Fields - North Slope Borough, Alaska  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Phase 2- Drilling and Production Testing the Methane Hydrate Resource Potential associated with the Barrow Gas Fields Last Reviewed 04/06/2010 Phase 2- Drilling and Production Testing the Methane Hydrate Resource Potential associated with the Barrow Gas Fields Last Reviewed 04/06/2010 DE-FC26-06NT42962 Goal The goal of this project is to evaluate, design, drill, log, core and production test methane hydrate resources in the Barrow Gas Fields near Barrow, Alaska to determine its impact on future free gas production and its viability as an energy source. Photo of Barrow welcome sign Performers North Slope Borough, Barrow, Alaska 99723 Petrotechnical Resources Alaska (PRA), Fairbanks, AK 99775 University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 Background Phase 1 of the Barrow Gas Fields Hydrate Study provided very strong evidence for the existence of hydrates updip of the East Barrow and Walakpa Gas Fields. Full-field history matched reservoir modeling supported the

344

Solute Band Broadening Effects in Gas-Adsorption Elution Chromatography in Packed Columns  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......column. Gas pressures at the inlet and outlet were measured on mercury-in- glass manometers. Measurements of the carrier gas velocity...cient in gas phase at one at- mosphere, cm2 sec-' atm. Dla - apparent gas diffusion coeffi- cient of a solute in the pores......

P. C. van Berge; V. Pretorius

1964-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Solubility trapping in formation water as dominant CO2 sink in natural gas fields  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LETTERS Solubility trapping in formation water as dominant CO2 sink in natural gas fields Stuart M removal in nine natural gas fields in North America, China and Europe, using noble gas and carbon isotope tracers. The natural gas fields investigated in our study are dominated by a CO2 phase and provide

Haszeldine, Stuart

346

Structure and anomalous solubility for hard spheres in an associating lattice gas model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Structure and anomalous solubility for hard spheres in an associating lattice gas model Marcia M spheres in an associating lattice gas model Marcia M. Szortyka,1,a) Mauricio Girardi,2,b) Vera B-sphere gas in a solvent modeled as an associating lattice gas. The solution phase diagram for solute at 5

Barbosa, Marcia C. B.

347

Alternative Fuels and Chemicals From Synthesis Gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

none

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Alternative fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

Unknown

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

Unknown

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

Unknown

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

Unknown

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Stationary phase deposition based on onium salts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Onium salt chemistry can be used to deposit very uniform thickness stationary phases on the wall of a gas chromatography column. In particular, the stationary phase can be bonded to non-silicon based columns, especially microfabricated metal columns. Non-silicon microfabricated columns may be manufactured and processed at a fraction of the cost of silicon-based columns. In addition, the method can be used to phase-coat conventional capillary columns or silicon-based microfabricated columns.

Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Lewis, Patrick R. (Albuquerque, NM); Dirk, Shawn M. (Albuquerque, NM); Trudell, Daniel E. (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Nitrogen removal from natural gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

According to a 1991 Energy Information Administration estimate, U.S. reserves of natural gas are about 165 trillion cubic feet (TCF). To meet the long-term demand for natural gas, new gas fields from these reserves will have to be developed. Gas Research Institute studies reveal that 14% (or about 19 TCF) of known reserves in the United States are subquality due to high nitrogen content. Nitrogen-contaminated natural gas has a low Btu value and must be upgraded by removing the nitrogen. In response to the problem, the Department of Energy is seeking innovative, efficient nitrogen-removal methods. Membrane processes have been considered for natural gas denitrogenation. The challenge, not yet overcome, is to develop membranes with the required nitrogen/methane separation characteristics. Our calculations show that a methane-permeable membrane with a methane/nitrogen selectivity of 4 to 6 would make denitrogenation by a membrane process viable. The objective of Phase I of this project was to show that membranes with this target selectivity can be developed, and that the economics of the process based on these membranes would be competitive. Gas permeation measurements with membranes prepared from two rubbery polymers and a superglassy polymer showed that two of these materials had the target selectivity of 4 to 6 when operated at temperatures below - 20{degrees}C. An economic analysis showed that a process based on these membranes is competitive with other technologies for small streams containing less than 10% nitrogen. Hybrid designs combining membranes with other technologies are suitable for high-flow, higher-nitrogen-content streams.

NONE

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Natural Gas Hydrates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Natural Gas Hydrates ... Formation Characteristics of Synthesized Natural Gas Hydrates in Meso- and Macroporous Silica Gels ... Formation Characteristics of Synthesized Natural Gas Hydrates in Meso- and Macroporous Silica Gels ...

Willard I. Wilcox; D. B. Carson; D. L. Katz

1941-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Gas Kick Mechanistic Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gas kicks occur during drilling when the formation pressure is greater than the wellbore pressure causing influx of gas into the wellbore. Uncontrolled gas kicks could result in blowout of the rig causing major financial loss and possible injury...

Zubairy, Raheel

2014-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

356

Effect of Natural Gas Fuel Addition on the Oxidation of Fuel Cell Anode Gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The anode exhaust gas from a fuel cell commonly has a fuel energy density between 15 and 25% that of the fuel supply, due to the incomplete oxidation of the input fuel. This exhaust gas is subsequently oxidized (catalytically or non-catalytically), and the resultant thermal energy is often used elsewhere in the fuel cell process. Alternatively, additional fuel can be added to this stream to enhance the oxidation of the stream, for improved thermal control of the power plant, or to adjust the temperature of the exhaust gas as may be required in other specialty co-generation applications. Regardless of the application, the cost of a fuel cell system can be reduced if the exhaust gas oxidation can be accomplished through direct gas phase oxidation, rather than the usual catalytic oxidation approach. Before gas phase oxidation can be relied upon however, combustor design requirements need to be understood. The work reported here examines the issue of fuel addition, primarily as related to molten-carbonate fuel cell technology. It is shown experimentally that without proper combustor design, the addition of natural gas can readily quench the anode gas oxidation. The Chemkin software routines were used to resolve the mechanisms controlling the chemical quenching. It is found that addition of natural gas to the anode exhaust increases the amount of CH3 radicals, which reduces the concentration of H and O radicals and results in decreased rates of overall fuel oxidation.

Randall S. Gemmen; Edward H. Robey, Jr.

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Integrated Gas Analyzer for Complete Monitoring of Turbine Engine Test Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is proving to be reliable and economical for the quantification of many gas-phase species during testing and development of gas...

Markham, James R; Bush, Patrick M; Bonzani, Peter J; Scire, James J; Zaccardi, Vincent A; Jalbert, Paul A; Bryant, M Denise; Gardner, Donald G

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Emission and Chemistry of Organic Carbon in the Gas and Aerosol...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Chemistry of Organic Carbon in the Gas and Aerosol Phase at a Sub-Urban Site Near Mexico City in March 2006 During Emission and Chemistry of Organic Carbon in the Gas and...

359

Historical Natural Gas Annual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

360

Historical Natural Gas Annual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas phase gip" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Historical Natural Gas Annual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

362

Future of Natural Gas  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

technology is improving - Producers are drilling in liquids rich gas and crude oil shale plays due to lower returns on dry gas production - Improved well completion time...

363

Natural Gas Industrial Price  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Power Price Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Coalbed Wells...

364

Alternative fuels for industrial gas turbines (AFTUR)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Environmentally friendly, gas turbine driven co-generation plants can be located close to energy consumption sites, which can produce their own fuel such as waste process gas or biomass derived fuels. Since gas turbines are available in a large power range, they are well suited for this application. Current gas turbine systems that are capable of burning such fuels are normally developed for a single specific fuel (such as natural gas or domestic fuel oil) and use conventional diffusion flame technology with relatively high levels of \\{NOx\\} and partially unburned species emissions. Recently, great progress has been made in the clean combustion of natural gas and other fossil fuels through the use of dry low emission technologies based on lean premixed combustion, particularly with respect of \\{NOx\\} emissions. The objective of the AFTUR project is to extend this capability to a wider range of potentially commercial fuel types, including those of lower calorific value produced by gasification of biomass (LHV gas in line with the European Union targets) and hydrogen enriched fuels. The paper reports preliminary progress in the selection and characterisation of potential, liquid and gas, alternative fuels for industrial gas turbines. The combustion and emission characteristics of the selected fuels will be assessed, in the later phases of the project, both in laboratory and industrial combustion chambers.

Iskender Gökalp; Etienne Lebas

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Low emissions combustor development for an industrial gas turbine to utilize LCV fuel gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Advanced coal-based power generation systems such as the British Coal Topping Cycle offer the potential for high-efficiency electricity generation with minimum environmental impact. An important component of the Topping cycle program is the gas turbine, for which development of a combustion system to burn low calorific value coal derived fuel gas, at a turbine inlet temperature of 1,260 C (2,300 F), with minimum pollutant emissions, is a key R and D issue. A phased combustor development program is underway burning low calorific value fuel gas (3.6--4.1 MJ/m[sup 3]) with low emissions, particularly NO[sub x] derived from fuel-bound nitrogen. The first phase of the combustor development program has now been completed using a generic tubo-annular, prototype combustor design. Tests were carried out at combustor loading and Mach numbers considerably greater than the initial design values. Combustor performance at these conditions was encouraging. The second phase of the program is currently in progress. This will assess, initially, an improved variant of the prototype combustor operating at conditions selected to represent a particular medium sized industrial gas turbine. This combustor will also be capable of operating using natural gas as an auxiliary fuel, to suite the start-up procedure for the Topping Cycle. The paper presents the Phase 1 test program results for the prototype combustor. Design of the modified combustor for Phase 2 of the development program is discussed, together with preliminary combustor performance results.

Kelsall, G.J.; Smith, M.A. (British Coal Corp., Glos (United Kingdom). Coal Research Establishment); Cannon, M.F. (European Gas Turbines Ltd., Lincoln (United Kingdom). Aero and Technology Products)

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Pion condensation in a dense neutrino gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We argue that using an equilibrated gas of neutrinos it is possible to probe the phase diagram of QCD for finite isospin and small baryon chemical potentials. We discuss this region of the phase diagram in detail and demonstrate that for large enough neutrino densities a Bose-Einstein condensate of positively charged pions arises. Moreover, we show that for nonzero neutrino density the degeneracy in the lifetimes and masses of the charged pions is lifted.

Hiroaki Abuki; Tomas Brauner; Harmen J. Warringa

2009-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

367

Thailand gas project now operational  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Now operational, Phase 1 of Thailand's first major natural gas system comprises one of the world's longest (264 miles) offshore gas lines. Built for the Petroleum Authority of Thailand (PTT), this system delivers gas from the Erawan field in the Gulf of Thailand to two electrical power plants near Bangkok, operated by the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT). The project required laying about 360 miles of pipeline, 34-in., 0.625 in.-thick API-5LX-60 pipe offshore and 28-in., 0.406 in.-thick API-5LX-60 onshore. The offshore pipe received a coal-tar coating, a 3.5-5.0 in. concrete coating, and zinc sacrificial-anode bracelets. The onshore line was coated with the same coal-tar enamel and, where necessary, with concrete up to 4.5 in. thick. Because EGAT's two power plants are the system's only customers, no more pipeline will be constructed until deliveries, currently averaging about 100 million CF/day, reach the 250 million CF/day level. The project's second phase will include additional pipelines as well as an onshore distribution network to industrial customers.

Horner, C.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Gas-Crossover and Membrane-Pinhole Effects in Polymer-Electrolyte Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Newman, in Advances in Fuel Cells, Vol. 1 , T. S. Zhao, K. -and tortuosity gas phase fuel-cell inlet conditions liquidw water References Hydrogen, fuel cells & infrastructure

Weber, Adam

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Stationary  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Stationary The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Stationary Combustion Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Stationary Combustion Agency/Company /Organization: World Resources Institute, World Business Council for Sustainable Development Sector: Energy, Climate Focus Area: Buildings, Greenhouse Gas Phase: Determine Baseline, Evaluate Effectiveness and Revise as Needed Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Spreadsheet Website: www.ghgprotocol.org/calculation-tools/all-tools Cost: Free References: Stationary Combustion Guidance[1] The Greenhouse Gas Protocol tool for stationary combustion is a free Excel spreadsheet calculator designed to calculate GHG emissions specifically

370

Raman gas analyzer for determining the composition of natural gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We describe a prototype of a Raman gas analyzer designed for measuring the composition of natural gas. Operation of the gas analyzer was tested on a real natural gas. We show that our Raman gas analyzer prototype...

M. A. Buldakov; B. V. Korolev; I. I. Matrosov…

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Noble gas magnetic resonator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Precise measurements of a precessional rate of noble gas in a magnetic field is obtained by constraining the time averaged direction of the spins of a stimulating alkali gas to lie in a plane transverse to the magnetic field. In this way, the magnetic field of the alkali gas does not provide a net contribution to the precessional rate of the noble gas.

Walker, Thad Gilbert; Lancor, Brian Robert; Wyllie, Robert

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

372

OIL & GAS INSTITUTE Introduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OIL & GAS INSTITUTE CONTENTS Introduction Asset Integrity Underpinning Capabilities 2 4 4 6 8 9 10 COMPETITIVENESS UNIVERSITY of STRATHCLYDE OIL & GAS INSTITUTE OIL & GAS EXPERTISE AND PARTNERSHIPS #12;1 The launch of the Strathclyde Oil & Gas Institute represents an important step forward for the University

Mottram, Nigel

373

Natural Gas: Dry Wells Yield Gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... THE Gas Council and Home Oil of Canada have announced plans for developing two ... Council and Home Oil of Canada have announced plans for developing two natural ...

1969-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

374

Franklin County Sanitary Landfill - Landfill Gas (LFG) to Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) - Project  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

FRANKLIN COUNTY SANITARY FRANKLIN COUNTY SANITARY LANDFILL - LANDFILL GAS (LFG) TO LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG) - PROJECT January/February 2005 Prepared for: National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401 Table of Contents Page BACKGROUND AND INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................1 SUMMARY OF EFFORT PERFORMED ......................................................................................2 Task 2B.1 - Literature Search and Contacts Made...................................................................2 Task 2B.2 - LFG Resource/Resource Collection System - Project Phase One.......................3 Conclusion.................................................................................................................................5

375

Galaxy Ecosystems: gas contents, inflows and outflows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We use a set of observational data for galaxy cold gas mass fraction and gas phase metallicity to constrain the content, inflow and outflow of gas in central galaxies hosted by halos with masses between $10^{11} M_{\\odot}$ to $10^{12} M_{\\odot}$. The gas contents in high redshift galaxies are obtained by combining the empirical star formation histories of Lu et al. (2014) and star formation models that relate star formation rate with the cold gas mass in galaxies. We find that the total baryon mass in low-mass galaxies is always much less than the universal baryon mass fraction since $z = 2$, regardless of star formation model adopted. The data for the evolution of the gas phase metallicity require net metal outflow at $z\\lesssim 2$, and the metal loading factor is constrained to be about $0.01$, or about $60\\%$ of the metal yield. Based on the assumption that galactic outflow is more enriched in metal than both the interstellar medium and the material ejected at earlier epochs, we are able to put stringent c...

Lu, Zhankui; Lu, Yu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Process for production desulfurized of synthesis gas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for the partial oxidation of a sulfur- and silicate-containing carbonaceous fuel to produce a synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content which comprises partially oxidizing said fuel at a temperature in the range of 1900.degree.-2600.degree. F. in the presence of a temperature moderator, an oxygen-containing gas and a sulfur capture additive which comprises a calcium-containing compound portion, a sodium-containing compound portion, and a fluoride-containing compound portion to produce a synthesis gas comprising H.sub.2 and CO with a reduced sulfur content and a molten slag which comprises (1) a sulfur-containing sodium-calcium-fluoride silicate phase; and (2) a sodium-calcium sulfide phase.

Wolfenbarger, James K. (Torrance, CA); Najjar, Mitri S. (Wappingers Falls, NY)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Alabama Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Alabama Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

378

South Dakota Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) South Dakota Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

379

Oregon Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Oregon Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

380

Montana Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Montana Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas phase gip" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Arizona Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Arizona Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

382

Texas Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Texas Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

383

New York Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) New York Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

384

West Virginia Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) West Virginia Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

385

North Dakota Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) North Dakota Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

386

Wyoming Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Wyoming Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

387

U.S. Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) U.S. Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

388

Utah Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Utah Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

389

Alaska Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Alaska Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

390

Nevada Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Nevada Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

391

Indiana Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Indiana Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

392

Kansas Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Kansas Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

393

Ohio Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Ohio Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

394

Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium--Validation Phase  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Geological Sequestration Geological Sequestration Consortium-Validation Phase Background The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has selected seven partnerships, through its Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (RCSP) initiative, to determine the best approaches for capturing and permanently storing carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), a greenhouse gas (GHG) which can contribute to global climate change. The RCSPs are made up of state and local agencies, coal companies, oil and gas companies, electric utilities,

395

Chapter Nine - Gas Sweetening  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This chapter begins by reviewing the processing of natural gas to meet gas sales contract specifications. It then describes acid gas limitations for pipelines and gas plants, before detailing the most common acid gas removal processes, such as solid-bed, chemical solvent processes, physical solvent processes, direct conversion processes, distillation process, and gas permeation processes. The chapter discusses the selection of the appropriate removal process for a given situation, and it provides a detailed design procedure for a solid-bed and chemical solvent process. The chapter ends by supplying a sample design for a solid-bed and chemical solvent process.

Maurice I. Stewart Jr.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

The Mixed Phase of Charged AdS Black holes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the mixed phase of charged AdS black hole and radiation when the total energy is fixed below the threshold to produce a stable charged black hole branch. The phase diagram of the mixed phase is demonstrated for both fixed potential and charge ensemble. In the dual gauge picture, they correspond to the mixed phase of quark-gluon plasma~(QGP) and hadron gas in the fixed chemical potential and density ensemble respectively. In the nuclei and heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies, the mixed phase of exotic QGP and hadron gas could be produced. The mixed phase will condensate and evaporate into the hadron gas as the fireball expands.

Piyabut Burikham; Chatchai Promsiri

2014-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

397

EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Natural Gas Pipeline Compressor...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Compressor Stations Illustration About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 20072008 with selected updates U.S. Natural Gas Pipeline...

398

Enhanced membrane gas separations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An improved membrane gas separation process is described comprising: (a) passing a feed gas stream to the non-permeate side of a membrane system adapted for the passage of purge gas on the permeate side thereof, and for the passage of the feed gas stream in a counter current flow pattern relative to the flow of purge gas on the permeate side thereof, said membrane system being capable of selectively permeating a fast permeating component from said feed gas, at a feed gas pressure at or above atmospheric pressure; (b) passing purge gas to the permeate side of the membrane system in counter current flow to the flow of said feed gas stream in order to facilitate carrying away of said fast permeating component from the surface of the membrane and maintaining the driving force for removal of the fast permeating component through the membrane from the feed gas stream, said permeate side of the membrane being maintained at a subatmospheric pressure within the range of from about 0.1 to about 5 psia by vacuum pump means; (c) recovering a product gas stream from the non-permeate side of the membrane; and (d) discharging purge gas and the fast permeating component that has permeated the membrane from the permeate side of the membrane, whereby the vacuum conditions maintained on the permeate side of the membrane by said vacuum pump means enhance the efficiency of the gas separation operation, thereby reducing the overall energy requirements thereof.

Prasad, R.

1993-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

399

Cummins Power Generation SECA Phase 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The following report documents the progress of the Cummins Power Generation (CPG) SECA Phase 1 SOFC development and final testing under the U.S. Department of Energy Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) contract DE-FC26-01NT41244. This report overviews and summarizes CPG and partner research development leading to successful demonstration of the SECA Phase 1 objectives and significant progress towards SOFC commercialization. Significant Phase 1 Milestones: (1) Demonstrated: (a) Operation meeting Phase 1 requirements on commercial natural gas. (b) LPG and Natural Gas CPOX fuel reformers. (c) SOFC systems on dry CPOX reformate. (c) Steam reformed Natural Gas operation. (d) Successful start-up and shut-down of SOFC system without inert gas purge. (e) Utility of stack simulators as a tool for developing balance of plant systems. (2) Developed: (a) Low cost balance of plant concepts and compatible systems designs. (b) Identified low cost, high volume components for balance of plant systems. (c) Demonstrated high efficiency SOFC output power conditioning. (d) Demonstrated SOFC control strategies and tuning methods. The Phase 1 performance test was carried out at the Cummins Power Generation facility in Minneapolis, Minnesota starting on October 2, 2006. Performance testing was successfully completed on January 4, 2007 including the necessary steady-state, transient, efficiency, and peak power operation tests.

Charles Vesely

2007-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

400

Natural Gas Annual, 2001  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1 1 EIA Home > Natural Gas > Natural Gas Data Publications Natural Gas Annual, 2001 The Natural Gas Annual, 2001 provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas in the United States. Production, transmission, storage, deliveries, and price data are published by State for 2001. Summary data are presented for each State for 1997 to 2001. The data that appear in the tables of the Natural Gas Annual, 2001 are available as self-extracting executable files in ASCII TXT or CSV file format. This volume emphasizes information for 2001, although some tables show a five-year history. Please read the file entitled README.V1 for a description and documentation of information included in this file. Also available are files containing the following data: Summary Statistics - Natural Gas in the United States, 1997-2001 (Table 1) ASCII TXT, and Natural Gas Supply and Disposition by State, 2001 (Table 2) ASCII TXT.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas phase gip" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Oil and Gas Exploration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Metals Industrial Minerals Oil and Gas Geothermal Exploration Development Mining Processing Nevada, oil and gas, and geothermal activities and accomplishments in Nevada: production statistics, exploration and development including drilling for petroleum and geothermal resources, discoveries of ore

Tingley, Joseph V.

402

,"Mississippi Natural Gas Summary"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

"N3050MS3","N3010MS3","N3020MS3","N3035MS3","NA1570SMS3","N3045MS3" "Date","Mississippi Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Mississippi Natural Gas...

403

Natural Gas Monthly  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Highlights activities, events, and analyses associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer related activities and underground storage data are also reported.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Natural gas annual 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience. The 1996 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas from it`s production to it`s end use.

NONE

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Gas Turbine Plants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In a cycle process of a gas turbine, the compressor load, as well as ... from the expansion of the hot pressurized flue gas. Either turbine, compressor and driven assembly are joined by ... shaft is thus divided,...

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Gas-Turbine Cycles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This book focuses on the design of regenerators for high-performance regenerative gas turbines. The ways in which gas-turbine regenerators can be designed for high system performance can be understood by studying...

Douglas Stephen Beck; David Gordon Wilson

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Natural Gas Weekly Update  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

of 1 Tcf from the 1994 estimate of 51 Tcf. Ultimate potential for natural gas is a science-based estimate of the total amount of conventional gas in the province and is an...

408

,"Connecticut Natural Gas Summary"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3","N3010CT3","N3020CT3","N3035CT3","N3045CT3" "Date","Natural Gas Citygate Price in Connecticut (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Connecticut Price of Natural Gas Delivered to...

409

Natural Gas in Britain  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... AT a recent meeting of the Institution of Gas Engineers, Sir Harold Smith, chairman ofthe ... Engineers, Sir Harold Smith, chairman ofthe Gas Council, stated that an intensive, large-scale search for ...

1953-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

410

Natural Gas Weekly Update  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Natural Gas Rotary Rig Count Rises to Highest Level since February 2009. The natural gas rotary rig count was 992 as of Friday, August 13, according to data released by Baker...

411

Recirculating rotary gas compressor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A positive displacement, recirculating Roots-type rotary gas compressor is described which operates on the basis of flow work compression. The compressor includes a pair of large diameter recirculation conduits which return compressed discharge gas to the compressor housing, where it is mixed with low pressure inlet gas, thereby minimizing adiabatic heating of the gas. The compressor includes a pair of involutely lobed impellers and an associated port configuration which together result in uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas. The large diameter recirculation conduits equalize gas flow velocities within the compressor and minimize gas flow losses. The compressor is particularly suited to applications requiring sustained operation at higher gas compression ratios than have previously been feasible with rotary pumps, and is particularly applicable to refrigeration or other applications requiring condensation of a vapor. 12 figs.

Weinbrecht, J.F.

1992-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

412

Recirculating rotary gas compressor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A positive displacement, recirculating Roots-type rotary gas compressor which operates on the basis of flow work compression. The compressor includes a pair of large diameter recirculation conduits (24 and 26) which return compressed discharge gas to the compressor housing (14), where it is mixed with low pressure inlet gas, thereby minimizing adiabatic heating of the gas. The compressor includes a pair of involutely lobed impellers (10 and 12) and an associated port configuration which together result in uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas. The large diameter recirculation conduits equalize gas flow velocities within the compressor and minimize gas flow losses. The compressor is particularly suited to applications requiring sustained operation at higher gas compression ratios than have previously been feasible with rotary pumps, and is particularly applicable to refrigeration or other applications requiring condensation of a vapor.

Weinbrecht, John F. (601 Oakwood Loop, NE., Albuquerque, NM 87123)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: Sector Specific Tools | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Gas Protocol Initiative: Sector Specific Tools Gas Protocol Initiative: Sector Specific Tools Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: Sector Specific Tools Agency/Company /Organization: World Resources Institute, World Business Council for Sustainable Development Sector: Energy, Climate Focus Area: Industry, Greenhouse Gas Phase: Determine Baseline, Evaluate Effectiveness and Revise as Needed Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Spreadsheet Website: www.ghgprotocol.org/calculation-tools/all-tools Cost: Free References: The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Purchased Electricity[1] The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Stationary Combustion[2] The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Transport or Mobil Sources[3]

414

Methods for determining vented volumes during gas well blowouts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several methods are presented for determining vented volumes during gas well blowouts. The methods described apply to gas production in which no liquids phase(s), hydrocarbon and/or water, are present in the gas. Each method is illustrated with a numerical example. Sensitivity analyses provide estimates of probable errors. The method of crossplotting formation and flow string resistances is the only one which does not require special measurements. It is therefore applicalbe to cratered wells and underwater blowouts. The report includes several suggestions for investigations which might lead to better methods.

Hawkins, M.F. Jr.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Compressed Gas Cylinder Policy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

storage rack, a wall mounted cylinder rack, anchored to a fixed bench top, vented gas cabinet, or other

416

Natural Gas Weekly Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

. Home | Petroleum | Gasoline | Diesel | Propane | Natural Gas | Electricity | Coal | Nuclear Renewables | Alternative Fuels | Prices | States | International | Country Analysis...

417

Natural gas annual 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1994 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1990 to 1994 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

NONE

1995-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

418

Natural gas annual 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

NONE

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Residual gas analysis device  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system is provided for testing the hermeticity of a package, such as a microelectromechanical systems package containing a sealed gas volume, with a sampling device that has the capability to isolate the package and breach the gas seal connected to a pulse valve that can controllably transmit small volumes down to 2 nanoliters to a gas chamber for analysis using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy diagnostics.

Thornberg, Steven M. (Peralta, NM)

2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

420

Natural Gas Reforming  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Natural gas reforming is an advanced and mature production process that builds upon the existing natural gas pipeline delivery infrastructure. Today, 95% of the hydrogen produced in the United States is made by natural gas reforming in large central plants. This technology is an important pathway for near-term hydrogen production.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas phase gip" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Fuel: Bargain Gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... THE Gas Council has done well to agree on low prices for North Sea Gas with the Shell and Esso companies. The ... for North Sea Gas with the Shell and Esso companies. The price finally agreed is both much less than the two companies wanted and much less than ...

1968-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

422

Gas Cylinders: Proper Management  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Compressed Gas Cylinders: Proper Management And Use Published by the Office of Environment, Health;1 Introduction University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley) departments that use compressed gas cylinders (MSDS) and your department's Job Safety Analyses (JSAs). Talk to your gas supplier about hands

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

423

Gas Chromatography -Mass Spectrometry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GCMS - 1 Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry GC-MS ANALYSIS OF ETHANOL AND BENZENE IN GASOLINE Last updated: June 17, 2014 #12;GCMS - 2 Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry GC-MS ANALYSIS). The goal of this experiment is to separate the components in a sample of gasoline using Gas Chromatography

Nizkorodov, Sergey

424

Static gas expansion cooler  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is a cooler for television cameras and other temperature sensitive equipment. The cooler uses compressed gas ehich is accelerated to a high velocity by passing it through flow passageways having nozzle portions which expand the gas. This acceleration and expansion causes the gas to undergo a decrease in temperature thereby cooling the cooler body and adjacent temperature sensitive equipment.

Guzek, J.C.; Lujan, R.A.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Valve for gas centrifuges  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is pneumatically operated valve assembly for simulatenously (1) closing gas-transfer lines connected to a gas centrifuge or the like and (2) establishing a recycle path between two on the lines so closed. The value assembly is especially designed to be compact, fast-acting, reliable, and comparatively inexpensive. It provides large reductions in capital costs for gas-centrifuge cascades.

Hahs, C.A.; Rurbage, C.H.

1982-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

426

Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1 1 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year ................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells.................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Total................................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ...................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Vented and Flared.............................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ..................... 0 0 0 0 0 Marketed Production ..........................................

427

Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

9 9 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year ................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells.................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Total................................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ...................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Vented and Flared.............................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ..................... 0 0 0 0 0 Marketed Production ..........................................

428

Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

9 9 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year ................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells.................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Total................................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ...................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Vented and Flared.............................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ..................... 0 0 0 0 0 Marketed Production ..........................................

429

Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1 1 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year ................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells.................................................. 7,279 6,446 3,785 3,474 3,525 Total................................................................... 7,279 6,446 3,785 3,474 3,525 Repressuring ...................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Vented and Flared.............................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation................................ 7,279 6,446 3,785 3,474 3,525 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ..................... 788 736 431

430

Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year ................................... 15,206 15,357 16,957 17,387 18,120 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells................................................ 463,929 423,672 401,396 369,624 350,413 From Oil Wells.................................................. 63,222 57,773 54,736 50,403 47,784 Total................................................................... 527,151 481,445 456,132 420,027 398,197 Repressuring ...................................................... 896 818 775 714 677 Vented and Flared.............................................. 527 481 456 420 398 Wet After Lease Separation................................

431

Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7 7 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year ................................... 9 8 7 9 6 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells................................................ 368 305 300 443 331 From Oil Wells.................................................. 1 1 0 0 0 Total................................................................... 368 307 301 443 331 Repressuring ...................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Vented and Flared.............................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation................................ 368 307 301 443 331 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ..................... 0 0 0 0 0 Marketed Production ..........................................

432

Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7 7 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year ................................... 98 96 106 109 111 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells................................................ 869 886 904 1,187 1,229 From Oil Wells.................................................. 349 322 288 279 269 Total................................................................... 1,218 1,208 1,193 1,466 1,499 Repressuring ...................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Vented and Flared.............................................. 0 0 5 12 23 Wet After Lease Separation................................ 1,218 1,208 1,188 1,454 1,476 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed .....................

433

Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

9 9 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year ................................... 4 4 4 4 4 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells.................................................. 7 7 6 6 5 Total................................................................... 7 7 6 6 5 Repressuring ...................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Vented and Flared.............................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation................................ 7 7 6 6 5 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ..................... 0 0 0 0 0 Marketed Production ..........................................

434

Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3 3 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year ................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells.................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Total................................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ...................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Vented and Flared.............................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ..................... 0 0 0 0 0 Marketed Production ..........................................

435

Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year ................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells.................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Total................................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ...................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Vented and Flared.............................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ..................... 0 0 0 0 0 Marketed Production ..........................................

436

Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3 3 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year ................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells.................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Total................................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ...................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Vented and Flared.............................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ..................... 0 0 0 0 0 Marketed Production ..........................................

437

Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3 3 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year ................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells.................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Total................................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ...................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Vented and Flared.............................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ..................... 0 0 0 0 0 Marketed Production ..........................................

438

Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3 3 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year ................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells.................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Total................................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ...................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Vented and Flared.............................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ..................... 0 0 0 0 0 Marketed Production ..........................................

439

Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1 1 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year ................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells.................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Total................................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ...................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Vented and Flared.............................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ..................... 0 0 0 0 0 Marketed Production ..........................................

440

Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7 7 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year ................................... 380 350 400 430 280 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells.................................................. 1,150 2,000 2,050 1,803 2,100 Total................................................................... 1,150 2,000 2,050 1,803 2,100 Repressuring ...................................................... NA NA NA 0 NA Vented and Flared.............................................. NA NA NA 0 NA Wet After Lease Separation................................ 1,150 2,000 2,050 1,803 2,100 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed .....................

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas phase gip" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year ................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells.................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Total................................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ...................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Vented and Flared.............................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ..................... 0 0 0 0 0 Marketed Production ..........................................

442

Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1 1 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year ................................... 1,502 1,533 1,545 2,291 2,386 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells................................................ 899 1,064 1,309 1,464 3,401 From Oil Wells.................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Total................................................................... 899 1,064 1,309 1,464 3,401 Repressuring ...................................................... NA NA NA 0 NA Vented and Flared.............................................. NA NA NA 0 NA Wet After Lease Separation................................ 899 1,064 1,309 1,464 3,401 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed .....................

443

Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

9 9 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year ................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells.................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Total................................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ...................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Vented and Flared.............................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ..................... 0 0 0 0 0 Marketed Production ..........................................

444

Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3 3 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year ................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells.................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Total................................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ...................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Vented and Flared.............................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ..................... 0 0 0 0 0 Marketed Production ..........................................

445

Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7 7 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year ................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells.................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Total................................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ...................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Vented and Flared.............................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ..................... 0 0 0 0 0 Marketed Production ..........................................

446

Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3 3 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year ................................... 7 7 5 7 7 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells................................................ 34 32 22 48 34 From Oil Wells.................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Total................................................................... 34 32 22 48 34 Repressuring ...................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Vented and Flared.............................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation................................ 34 32 22 48 34 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ..................... 0 0 0 0 0 Marketed Production ..........................................

447

Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1 1 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year ................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells.................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Total................................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ...................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Vented and Flared.............................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ..................... 0 0 0 0 0 Marketed Production ..........................................

448

Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1 1 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells...................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells........................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Total......................................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ............................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Vented and Flared .................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation...................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed............................ 0 0 0 0 0 Marketed Production

449

Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7 7 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year ................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells.................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Total................................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ...................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Vented and Flared.............................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ..................... 0 0 0 0 0 Marketed Production ..........................................

450

Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3 3 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year ................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells.................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Total................................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ...................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Vented and Flared.............................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ..................... 0 0 0 0 0 Marketed Production ..........................................

451

Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7 7 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year ................................... 17 20 18 15 15 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells................................................ 1,412 1,112 837 731 467 From Oil Wells.................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Total................................................................... 1,412 1,112 837 731 467 Repressuring ...................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Vented and Flared.............................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation................................ 1,412 1,112 837 731 467 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ..................... 198 3 0 0 0 Marketed Production

452

Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7 7 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year ................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells.................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Total................................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ...................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Vented and Flared.............................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ..................... 0 0 0 0 0 Marketed Production ..........................................

453

Prediction of Gas Injection Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes research into gas injection processes in four main areas: laboratory experiments to measure three-phase relative permeability; network modeling to predict three-phase relative permeability; benchmark simulations of gas injection and water flooding at the field scale; and the development of fast streamline techniques to study field-scale ow. The aim of the work is to achieve a comprehensive description of gas injection processes from the pore to the core to the reservoir scale. To this end, measurements of three-phase relative pemeability have been made and compared with predictions from pore scale modeling. At the field scale, streamline-based simulation has been extended to compositional displacements, providing a rapid method to predict oil recovery from gas injection.

Franklin M. Orr, Jr.; Martin J. Blunt

1998-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

454

Modelling and Numerical Simulation of Gas Migration in a Nuclear Waste Repository  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a compositional compressible two-phase, liquid and gas, flow model for numerical simulations of hydrogen migration in deep geological radioactive waste repository. This model includes capillary effects and the gas diffusivity. The choice of the main variables in this model, Total or Dissolved Hydrogen Mass Concentration and Liquid Pressure, leads to a unique and consistent formulation of the gas phase appearance and disappearance. After introducing this model, we show computational evidences of its adequacy to simulate gas phase appearance and disappearance in different situations typical of underground radioactive waste repository.

Bourgeat, Alain; Smai, Farid

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Gas fired Advanced Turbine System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary objective of the first phase of the Advanced Gas Turbine System (ATS) program was the concept definition of an advanced engine system that meets efficiency and emission goals far exceeding those that can be provided with today`s equipment. The thermal efficiency goal for such an advanced industrial engine was set at 50% some 15 percentage points higher than current equipment levels. Exhaust emissions goals for oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO), and unburned hydrocarbons (UH) were fixed at 8 parts per million by volume (ppmv), 20 ppmv, and 20 ppmv respectively, corrected to 15% oxygen (O{sub 2}) levels. Other goals had to be addressed; these involved reducing the cost of power produced by 10 percent and improving or maintaining the reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) at current levels. This advanced gas turbine was to be fueled with natural gas, and it had to embody features that would allow it bum coal or coal derived fuels.

LeCren, R.T.; White, D.J.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Natural Gas Industrial Price  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Electric Power Price Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Coalbed Wells Repressuring Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed Vented and Flared Marketed Production NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Dry Production Imports By Pipeline LNG Imports Exports Exports By Pipeline LNG Exports Underground Storage Capacity Gas in Underground Storage Base Gas in Underground Storage Working Gas in Underground Storage Underground Storage Injections Underground Storage Withdrawals Underground Storage Net Withdrawals Total Consumption Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption Pipeline & Distribution Use Delivered to Consumers Residential Commercial Industrial Vehicle Fuel Electric Power Period: Monthly Annual

457

Feedback under the microscope – II. Heating, gas uplift and mixing in the nearest cluster core  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......volume-averaged way would overheat the surrounding gas and is...cool and hot gas phases are in thermal communication. The emission...volume-averaged heating mechanism would overheat the surrounding gas and can...keV. By helping to get hot thermal particles into contact with......

N. Werner; A. Simionescu; E. T. Million; S. W. Allen; P. E. J. Nulsen; A. von der Linden; S. M. Hansen; H. Böhringer; E. Churazov; A. C. Fabian; W. R. Forman; C. Jones; J. S. Sanders; G. B. Taylor

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Airway Gas Exchange and Exhaled Biomarkers Steven C. George*1,2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Airway Gas Exchange and Exhaled Biomarkers Steven C. George*1,2 and Michael P. Hlastala3,4 ABSTRACT. However, despite a significantly smaller surface area, and thicker barrier separating the gas phase from the blood when compared to the alveolar region, the airway tree can participate in gas exchange under

George, Steven C.

459

Control structure design for stabilizing unstable gas-lift oil wells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Control structure design for stabilizing unstable gas-lift oil wells Esmaeil Jahanshahi, Sigurd valve is the recommended solution to prevent casing-heading instability in gas-lifted oil wells. Focus to be effective to stabilize this system. Keywords: Oil production, two-phase flow, gas-lift, controllability, H

Skogestad, Sigurd

460

Multi-Phase Galaxy Formation and Quasar Absorption Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The central problem of galaxy formation is understanding the cooling and condensation of gas in dark matter halos. It is now clear that to match observations this requires further physics than the simple assumptions of single phase gas cooling. A model of multi-phase cooling (Maller & Bullock 2004) can successfully account for the upper cutoff in the masses of galaxies and provides a natural explanation of many types of absorption systems (Mo & Miralda-Escude 1996). Absorption systems are our best probes of the gaseous content of galaxy halos and therefore provide important constraints on models for gas cooling into galaxies. All physical processes that effect gas cooling redistribute gas and therefore are detectable in absorption systems. Detailed studies of the nature of gas in galaxy halos using absorption systems are crucial for building a correct theory of galaxy formation.

Ariyeh H. Maller

2005-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas phase gip" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Natural Gas Annual 2006  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

6 6 Released: October 31, 2007 The Natural Gas Annual 2006 Summary Highlights provides an overview of the supply and disposition of natural gas in 2006 and is intended as a supplement to the Natural Gas Annual 2006. The Natural Gas Annual 2006 Summary Highlights provides an overview of the supply and disposition of natural gas in 2006 and is intended as a supplement to the Natural Gas Annual 2006. Natural Gas Annual --- Full report in PDF (5 MB) Special Files --- All CSV files contained in a self-extracting executable file. Respondent/Company Level Natural Gas Data Files Annual Natural and Supplemental Gas Supply and Disposition Company level data (1996 to 2007) as reported on Form EIA-176 are provided in the EIA-176 Query System and selected data files. EIA-191A Field Level Underground Natural Gas Storage Data: Detailed annual data (2006 and 2007) of storage field capacity, field type, and maximum deliverability as of December 31st of the report year, as reported by operators of all U.S. underground natural gas storage fields.

462

Gas Hydrate Storage of Natural Gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Environmental and economic benefits could accrue from a safe, above-ground, natural-gas storage process allowing electric power plants to utilize natural gas for peak load demands; numerous other applications of a gas storage process exist. A laboratory study conducted in 1999 to determine the feasibility of a gas-hydrates storage process looked promising. The subsequent scale-up of the process was designed to preserve important features of the laboratory apparatus: (1) symmetry of hydrate accumulation, (2) favorable surface area to volume ratio, (3) heat exchanger surfaces serving as hydrate adsorption surfaces, (4) refrigeration system to remove heat liberated from bulk hydrate formation, (5) rapid hydrate formation in a non-stirred system, (6) hydrate self-packing, and (7) heat-exchanger/adsorption plates serving dual purposes to add or extract energy for hydrate formation or decomposition. The hydrate formation/storage/decomposition Proof-of-Concept (POC) pressure vessel and supporting equipment were designed, constructed, and tested. This final report details the design of the scaled POC gas-hydrate storage process, some comments on its fabrication and installation, checkout of the equipment, procedures for conducting the experimental tests, and the test results. The design, construction, and installation of the equipment were on budget target, as was the tests that were subsequently conducted. The budget proposed was met. The primary goal of storing 5000-scf of natural gas in the gas hydrates was exceeded in the final test, as 5289-scf of gas storage was achieved in 54.33 hours. After this 54.33-hour period, as pressure in the formation vessel declined, additional gas went into the hydrates until equilibrium pressure/temperature was reached, so that ultimately more than the 5289-scf storage was achieved. The time required to store the 5000-scf (48.1 hours of operating time) was longer than designed. The lower gas hydrate formation rate is attributed to a lower heat transfer rate in the internal heat exchanger than was designed. It is believed that the fins on the heat-exchanger tubes did not make proper contact with the tubes transporting the chilled glycol, and pairs of fins were too close for interior areas of fins to serve as hydrate collection sites. A correction of the fabrication fault in the heat exchanger fin attachments could be easily made to provide faster formation rates. The storage success with the POC process provides valuable information for making the process an economically viable process for safe, aboveground natural-gas storage.

Rudy Rogers; John Etheridge

2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

463

BNL Gas Storage Achievements, Research Capabilities, Interests...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

BNL Gas Storage Achievements, Research Capabilities, Interests, and Project Team Metal hydride gas storage Cryogenic gas storage Compressed gas storage Adsorbed gas storage...

464

Natural Gas Annual, 2004  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4 4 EIA Home > Natural Gas > Natural Gas Data Publications Natural Gas Annual, 2004 Natural Gas Annual 2004 Release date: December 19, 2005 Next release date: January 2007 The Natural Gas Annual, 2004 provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas in the United States. Production, transmission, storage, deliveries, and price data are published by State for 2004. Summary data are presented for each State for 2000 to 2004. The data that appear in the tables of the Natural Gas Annual, 2004 is available as self-extracting executable file or CSV file format. This volume emphasizes information for 2004, although some tables show a five-year history. Please read the file entitled README.V1 for a description and documentation of information included in this file.

465

Natural gas leak mapper  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system is described that is suitable for use in determining the location of leaks of gases having a background concentration. The system is a point-wise backscatter absorption gas measurement system that measures absorption and distance to each point of an image. The absorption measurement provides an indication of the total amount of a gas of interest, and the distance provides an estimate of the background concentration of gas. The distance is measured from the time-of-flight of laser pulse that is generated along with the absorption measurement light. The measurements are formated into an image of the presence of gas in excess of the background. Alternatively, an image of the scene is superimosed on the image of the gas to aid in locating leaks. By further modeling excess gas as a plume having a known concentration profile, the present system provides an estimate of the maximum concentration of the gas of interest.

Reichardt, Thomas A. (Livermore, CA); Luong, Amy Khai (Dublin, CA); Kulp, Thomas J. (Livermore, CA); Devdas, Sanjay (Albany, CA)

2008-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

466

Plains CO2 Reduction Partnership--Validation Phase  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Validation Phase Validation Phase Background The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has selected seven partnerships, through its Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (RCSP) initiative, to determine the best approaches for capturing and permanently storing carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), a greenhouse gas (GHG) which can contribute to global climate change. The RCSPs are made up of state and local agencies, coal companies, oil and gas companies, electric utilities,

467

Transport coefficients of a massive pion gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We review or main results concerning the transport coefficients of a light meson gas, in particular we focus on the case of a massive pion gas. Leading order results according to the chiral power-counting are presented for the DC electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, shear viscosity, and bulk viscosity. We also comment on the possible correlation between the bulk viscosity and the trace anomaly in QCD, as well as the relation between unitarity and a minimum of the quotient $\\eta/s$ near the phase transition.

D. Fernandez-Fraile; A. Gomez Nicola

2009-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

468

Isoscaling in the Lattice Gas Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The isoscaling behavior is investigated using the isotopic/isobaric yields from the equilibrated thermal source which is prepared by the lattice gas model for lighter systems with A = 36. The isoscaling parameters $\\alpha$ and -$\\beta$ are observed to drop with temperature. The difference of neutron and proton chemical potential shows a turning point around 5 MeV where the liquid gas phase transition occurs in the model. The relative free neutron or proton density shows a nearly linear relation with the N/Z (neutron to proton ratio) of system and the isospin fractionation is observed.

Y. G. Ma; K. Wang; Y. B. Wei; G. L. Ma; X. Z. Cai; J. G. Chen; D. Q. Fang; W. Guo; W. Q. Shen; W. D. Tian; C. Zhong

2004-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

469

Presque Isle Elec & Gas Coop | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Elec & Gas Coop Elec & Gas Coop Jump to: navigation, search Name Presque Isle Elec & Gas Coop Place Michigan Utility Id 15340 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location RFC NERC RFC Yes ISO MISO Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Controlled Heating Residential Customer Owned Backup Generation Commercial General Service - Single Phase Commercial General Service - Single Phase(Oil Related Accounts) Commercial General Service - Three Phase Commercial General Service - Three Phase(Oil Related Accounts) Commercial Green/Renewable Energy Rider

470

NETL: Oil & Natural Gas Technologies Reference Shelf - Presentation on  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mechanisms by Which Methane Gas and Methane Hydrate Coexist In Ocean Sediments Mechanisms by Which Methane Gas and Methane Hydrate Coexist In Ocean Sediments Mechanisms by Which Methane Gas and Methane Hydrate Coexist In Ocean Sediments Authors: Maša Prodanovic (speaker), Javad Behseresht, Yao Peng, Steven L. Bryant, Antone K. Jain and Ruben Juanes Venue: 2008 Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, Texas, May 5-8, 2008 ( http://www.spe.org and http://www.smenet.org [external sites] ) Abstract: A spectrum of behavior is encountered in methane hydrate provinces, especially ocean sediments, ranging from essentially static accumulations where the pore space is filled with hydrate and brine, to active seeps where hydrate and methane gas phase co-exist in the hydrate stability zone (HSZ). The grain-scale models of drainage and fracturing presented demonstrate key processes involved in pressure-driven gas phase invasion of a sediment. A novel extension of invasion percolation to infinite-acting, physically representative networks is used to evaluate the connectivity of water in a gas-drained sediment. A novel implementation of the level set method (LSM) is used to determine the capillarity-controlled displacement of brine by gas from sediment and from fractures within the sediment. The discrete element method (DEM) is extended to model the coupling between the pore fluids and the solid, and thereby predict the onset of sediment fracturing by gas phase pressure under in situ loading conditions. The DEM grain mechanics model accounts for the different pressure of brine and methane gas in a “membrane” two-fluid model. The fluid-fluid configuration from LSM can be mapped directly to the pore space in DEM, thereby coupling the drainage and mechanics models. The type of behavior that can emerge from the coupled processes is illustrated with an extended LSM model. The extension computes grain displacement by the gas phase with a simple kinematic rule.

471

ComEd, Nicor Gas, Peoples Gas and North Shore Gas - Bonus Rebate Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

ComEd, Nicor Gas, Peoples Gas and North Shore Gas - Bonus Rebate ComEd, Nicor Gas, Peoples Gas and North Shore Gas - Bonus Rebate Program (Illinois) ComEd, Nicor Gas, Peoples Gas and North Shore Gas - Bonus Rebate Program (Illinois) < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Heating Maximum Rebate $1,000 Program Info Start Date 01/01/2013 Expiration Date 04/30/2013 State Illinois Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount ComEd Rebates Central Air Conditioner Unit 14 SEER or above: $350 Central Air Conditioner Unit Energy Star rated: $500 Nicor Gas, Peoples Gas and North Shore Gas Furnace: $200 - $500 (varies based on gas company and unit installed) Provider ComEd Energy ComEd, Nicor Gas, Peoples Gas and North Shore Gas are offering a Complete System Replacement Rebate Program to residential customers. The program is

472

U.S. Natural Gas Supplemental Gas - Refinery Gas (Million Cubic...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Refinery Gas (Million Cubic Feet) U.S. Natural Gas Supplemental Gas - Refinery Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

473

U.S. Natural Gas Supplemental Gas - Biomass Gas (Million Cubic...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Biomass Gas (Million Cubic Feet) U.S. Natural Gas Supplemental Gas - Biomass Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

474

Recovery of hydrogen and other components from refinery gas stream by partial condensation using preliminary reflux condensation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process is disclosed for separating a hydrogen-containing refinery-type gas mixture into various fractions using reflux condensation, drying and partial condensation and phase separation.

Beddome, R.A.; Fenner, G.W.; Saunders, J.B.

1984-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

475

Natural Gas Annual 2007  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7 7 Released: January 28, 2009 The Natural Gas Annual 2007 provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas in the United States. Production, transmission, storage, deliveries, and price data are published by State for 2007. Summary data are presented for each State for 2003 to 2007. The Natural Gas Annual 2007 Summary Highlights provides an overview of the supply and disposition of natural gas in 2007 and is intended as a supplement to the Natural Gas Annual 2007. Natural Gas Annual --- Full report in PDF (5 MB) Special Files --- All CSV files contained in a self-extracting executable file. Respondent/Company Level Natural Gas Data Files Annual Natural and Supplemental Gas Supply and Disposition Company level data (1996 to 2007) as reported on Form EIA-176 are provided in the EIA-176 Query System and selected data files. EIA-191A Field Level Underground Natural Gas Storage Data: Detailed annual data (2005 to 2007) of storage field capacity, field type, and maximum deliverability as of December 31st of the report year, as reported by operators of all U.S. underground natural gas storage fields.

476

Natural Gas Annual, 2003  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3 3 EIA Home > Natural Gas > Natural Gas Data Publications Natural Gas Annual, 2003 Natural Gas Annual 2003 Release date: December 22, 2004 Next release date: January 2006 The Natural Gas Annual, 2003 provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas in the United States. Production, transmission, storage, deliveries, and price data are published by State for 2003. Summary data are presented for each State for 1999 to 2003. “The Natural Gas Industry and Markets in 2003” is a special report that provides an overview of the supply and disposition of natural gas in 2003 and is intended as a supplement to the Natural Gas Annual 2003. The data that appear in the tables of the Natural Gas Annual, 2003 is available as self-extracting executable file or CSV file format. This volume emphasizes information for 2003, although some tables show a five-year history. Please read the file entitled README.V1 for a description and documentation of information included in this file.

477

Natural Gas Annual, 2002  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2 2 EIA Home > Natural Gas > Natural Gas Data Publications Natural Gas Annual, 2002 Natural Gas Annual 2002 Release date: January 29, 2004 Next release date: January 2005 The Natural Gas Annual, 2002 provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas in the United States. Production, transmission, storage, deliveries, and price data are published by State for 2002. Summary data are presented for each State for 1998 to 2002. “The Natural Gas Industry and Markets in 2002” is a special report that provides an overview of the supply and disposition of natural gas in 2002 and is intended as a supplement to the Natural Gas Annual 2002. Changes to data sources for this Natural Gas Annual, as a result of ongoing data quality efforts, have resulted in revisions to several data series. Production volumes have been revised for the Federal offshore and several States. Several data series based on the Form EIA-176, including deliveries to end-users in several States, were also revised. Additionally, revisions have been made to include updates to the electric power and vehicle fuel end-use sectors.

478

Natural Gas Annual 2009  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

9 9 Released: December 28, 2010 The Natural Gas Annual 2009 provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas in the United States. Production, transmission, storage, deliveries, and price data are published by State for 2009. Summary data are presented for each State for 2005 to 2009. The Natural Gas Annual 2009 Summary Highlights provides an overview of the supply and disposition of natural gas in 2009 and is intended as a supplement to the Natural Gas Annual 2009. Natural Gas Annual --- Full report in PDF (5 MB) Special Files --- All CSV files contained in a self-extracting executable file. Respondent/Company Level Natural Gas Data Files Annual Natural and Supplemental Gas Supply and Disposition Company level data (1996 to 2009) as reported on Form EIA-176 are provided in the EIA-176 Query System and selected data files. EIA-191A Field Level Underground Natural Gas Storage Data: Detailed annual data (2005 to 2009) of storage field capacity, field type, and maximum deliverability as of December 31st of the report year, as reported by operators of all U.S. underground natural gas storage fields.

479

Natural Gas Annual 2008  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

8 8 Released: March 2, 2010 The Natural Gas Annual 2008 provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas in the United States. Production, transmission, storage, deliveries, and price data are published by State for 2008. Summary data are presented for each State for 2004 to 2008. The Natural Gas Annual 2008 Summary Highlights provides an overview of the supply and disposition of natural gas in 2008 and is intended as a supplement to the Natural Gas Annual 2008. Natural Gas Annual --- Full report in PDF (5 MB) Special Files --- All CSV files contained in a self-extracting executable file. Respondent/Company Level Natural Gas Data Files Annual Natural and Supplemental Gas Supply and Disposition Company level data (1996 to 2008) as reported on Form EIA-176 are provided in the EIA-176 Query System and selected data files. EIA-191A Field Level Underground Natural Gas Storage Data: Detailed annual data (2005 to 2008) of storage field capacity, field type, and maximum deliverability as of December 31st of the report year, as reported by operators of all U.S. underground natural gas storage fields.

480

Quantum Nature of a Nuclear Phase Transition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

At finite temperatures and low densities, nuclei may undergo a phase change similar to a classical liquid-gas phase transition. Temperature is the control parameter while density and pressure are the conjugate variables. In the nucleus the difference between the proton and neutron concentrations acts as an additional order parameter, for which the symmetry potential is the conjugate variable. We present experimental results which reveal the N/Z dependence of the phase transition and discuss possible implications of these observations in terms of the Landau free energy description of critical phenomena.

A. Bonasera; Z. Chen; R. Wada; K. Hagel; J. Natowitz; P. Sahu; L. Qin; S. Kowalski; Th. Keutgen; T. Materna; T. Nakagawa

2008-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas phase gip" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Natural Gas Weekly Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2, 2011 at 2:00 P.M. 2, 2011 at 2:00 P.M. Next Release: Thursday, May 19, 2011 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, May 11, 2011) Natural gas prices fell across the board as oil prices dropped steeply along with most other major commodities. At the Henry Hub, the natural gas spot price fell 36 cents from $4.59 per million Btu (MMBtu) on Wednesday, May 4, to $4.23 per MMBtu on Wednesday, May 11. At the New York Mercantile Exchange, the price of the near-month natural gas contract (June 2011) dropped almost 9 percent, falling from $4.577 per MMBtu last Wednesday to $4.181 yesterday. Working natural gas in storage rose by 70 billion cubic feet (Bcf) to 1,827 Bcf, according to EIAÂ’s Weekly Natural Gas Storage Report.

482

Natural Gas Weekly Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2, 2010 at 2:00 P.M. 2, 2010 at 2:00 P.M. Next Release: Thursday, July 29, 2010 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, July 21, 2010) Natural gas prices rose across market locations in the lower 48 States during the report week. The Henry Hub natural gas spot price rose 31 cents, or 7 percent, during the week, averaging $4.70 per million Btu (MMBtu) yesterday, July 21. At the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX), the price of the August 2010 natural gas futures contract for delivery at the Henry Hub rose about 21 cents, or 5 percent, ending the report week at $4.513 per MMBtu. Working natural gas in storage increased to 2,891 billion cubic feet (Bcf) as of Friday, July 16, according to EIAÂ’s Weekly Natural Gas Storage

483

Chapter 8 - Natural Gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Although natural gas is a nonrenewable resource, it is included for discussion because its sudden growth from fracking will impact the development and use of renewable fuels. Firms who are engaged in the development of processes that employ synthesis gas as an intermediate have concluded that the synthesis gas is more economically obtainable by steam reforming of natural gas than by gasification of waste cellulose. In some instances, firms have largely abandoned the effort to produce a renewable fuel as such, and in others firms are developing hybrid processes that employ natural gas in combination with a fermentation system. Moreover, natural gas itself is an attractive fuel for internal combustion engines since it can be the least expensive option on a cost per joule basis. It is also aided by its high octane number of 130.

Arthur M. Brownstein

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Gas shielding apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus for preventing oxidation by uniformly distributing inert shielding gas over the weld area of workpieces such as pipes being welded together. The apparatus comprises a chamber and a gas introduction element. The chamber has an annular top wall, an annular bottom wall, an inner side wall and an outer side wall connecting the top and bottom walls. One side wall is a screen and the other has a portion defining an orifice. The gas introduction element has a portion which encloses the orifice and can be one or more pipes. The gas introduction element is in fluid communication with the chamber and introduces inert shielding gas into the chamber. The inert gas leaves the chamber through the screen side wall and is dispersed evenly over the weld area.

Brandt, D.

1984-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

485

Dewatering of coalbed methane wells with hydraulic gas pump  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The coalbed methane industry has become an important source of natural gas production. Proper dewatering of coalbed methane (CBM) wells is the key to efficient gas production from these reservoirs. This paper presents the Hydraulic Gas Pump as a new alternative dewatering system for CBM wells. The Hydraulic Gas Pump (HGP) concept offers several operational advantages for CBM wells. Gas interference does not affect its operation. It resists solids damage by eliminating the lift mechanism and reducing the number of moving parts. The HGP has a flexible production rate and is suitable for all production phases of CBM wells. It can also be designed as a wireline retrievable system. We conclude that the Hydraulic Gas Pump is a suitable dewatering system for coalbed methane wells.

Amani, M.; Juvkam-Wold, H.C. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

486

Gas Filter Testing Methods  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Gas filtration of air in the cleanroom is carried out with HEPA (high- ... filter. The ambient air filters for the cleanroom are relatively fragile and require great care...

Alvin Lieberman

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

,"Colorado Natural Gas Prices"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Colorado Natural Gas Prices",8,"Monthly","112014","1151989" ,"Release Date:","1302015"...

488

,"California Natural Gas Summary"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1982" ,"Data 5","Underground Storage",4,"Annual",2013,"6301967" ,"Data 6","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",3,"Annual",2013,"6301980" ,"Data 7","Consumption",11,"Annual",2013,...

489

,"Maryland Natural Gas Summary"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1999" ,"Data 4","Underground Storage",4,"Annual",2013,"6301967" ,"Data 5","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",3,"Annual",2013,"6301980" ,"Data 6","Consumption",10,"Annual",2013,...

490

,"Georgia Natural Gas Summary"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1999" ,"Data 3","Underground Storage",3,"Annual",1975,"6301974" ,"Data 4","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",3,"Annual",2013,"6301980" ,"Data 5","Consumption",8,"Annual",2013,"...

491

,"Massachusetts Natural Gas Summary"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1982" ,"Data 3","Underground Storage",3,"Annual",1975,"6301967" ,"Data 4","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",3,"Annual",2013,"6301980" ,"Data 5","Consumption",8,"Annual",2013,"...

492

,"Oregon Natural Gas Summary"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1979" ,"Data 3","Underground Storage",4,"Annual",2013,"6301973" ,"Data 4","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",3,"Annual",2013,"6301980" ,"Data 5","Consumption",10,"Annual",2013,...

493

,"Texas Natural Gas Summary"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1982" ,"Data 5","Underground Storage",4,"Annual",2013,"6301967" ,"Data 6","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",1,"Annual",2013,"6302012" ,"Data 7","Consumption",11,"Annual",2013,...