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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas municipal solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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1

Syn-Gas Production from Catalytic Steam Gasification of Municipal Solid Wastes in a Combined Fixed Bed Reactor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The catalytic steam gasi?cation of municipal solid wastes (MSW) for syn-gas production was experimentally investigated in a combined fixed bed reactor using the newly developed tri-metallic catalyst. A series of experiments have been performed to explore ... Keywords: Biomass gasification, municipal solid wastes, catalyst, hydrogen production, energy recovery

Jianfen Li; Jianjun Liu; Shiyan Liao; Xiaorong Zhou; Rong Yan

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

A study of tritium in municipal solid waste leachate and gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It has become increasingly clear in the last few years that the vast majority of municipal solid waste landfills produce leachate that contains elevated levels of tritium. The authors recently conducted a study of landfills in New York and New Jersey and found that the mean concentration of tritium in the leachate from ten municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills was 33,800 pCi/L with a peak value of 192,000 pCi/L. A 2003 study in California reported a mean tritium concentration of 99,000 pCi/L with a peak value of 304,000 pCi/L. Studies in Pennsylvania and the UK produced similar results. The USEPA MCL for tritium is 20,000 pCi/L. Tritium is also manifesting itself as landfill gas and landfill gas condensate. Landfill gas condensate samples from landfills in the UK and California were found to have tritium concentrations as high as 54,400 and 513,000 pCi/L, respectively. The tritium found in MSW leachate is believed to derive principally from gaseous tritium lighting devices used in some emergency exit signs, compasses, watches, and even novelty items, such as 'glow stick' key chains. This study reports the findings of recent surveys of leachate from a number of municipal solid waste landfills, both open and closed, from throughout the United States and Europe. The study evaluates the human health and ecological risks posed by elevated tritium levels in municipal solid waste leachate and landfill gas and the implications to their safe management. We also assess the potential risks posed to solid waste management facility workers exposed to tritium-containing waste materials in transfer stations and other solid waste management facilities. (authors)

Mutch Jr, R. D. [HydroQual, Inc., 1200 MacArthur Blvd., Mahwah, NJ 07430 (United States); Manhattan College, Riverdale, NY (United States); Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Mahony, J. D. [HydroQual, Inc., 1200 MacArthur Blvd., Mahwah, NJ 07430 (United States); Manhattan College, Riverdale, NY (United States)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

3

Prototype demonstration of dual sorbent injection for acid gas control on municipal solid waste combustion units  

SciTech Connect

This report gathered and evaluated emissions and operations data associated with furnace injection of dry hydrated lime and duct injection of dry sodium bicarbonate at a commercial, 1500 ton per day, waste-to-energy facility. The information compiled during the project sheds light on these sorbents to affect acid gas emissions from municipal solid waste combustors. The information assesses the capability of these systems to meet the 1990 Clean Air Act and 1991 EPA Emission Guidelines.

None

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Comprehensive Municipal Solid Waste Management, Resource Recovery...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Municipal Solid Waste Management, Resource Recovery, and Conservation Act (Texas) Comprehensive Municipal Solid Waste Management, Resource Recovery, and Conservation...

5

Municipal Solid Waste:  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Methodology for Allocating Municipal Solid Waste Methodology for Allocating Municipal Solid Waste to Biogenic and Non-Biogenic Energy May 2007 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be attributed to the Energy Information Administration and should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy of the Department of Energy or any other organization. Contact This report was prepared by staff of the Renewable Information Team, Coal, Nuclear, and Renewables Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels.

6

Municipal Solid Waste | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Municipal Solid Waste Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Municipal Solid Waste Incentives Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleMunicipalSo...

7

The impact of municipal solid waste treatment methods on greenhouse gas emissions in Lahore, Pakistan  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The contribution of existing municipal solid waste management to emission of greenhouse gases and the alternative scenarios to reduce emissions were analyzed for Data Ganj Bukhsh Town (DGBT) in Lahore, Pakistan using the life cycle assessment methodology. DGBT has a population of 1,624,169 people living in 232,024 dwellings. Total waste generated is 500,000 tons per year with an average per capita rate of 0.84 kg per day. Alternative scenarios were developed and evaluated according to the environmental, economic, and social atmosphere of the study area. Solid waste management options considered include the collection and transportation of waste, collection of recyclables with single and mixed material bank container systems (SMBCS, MMBCS), material recovery facilities (MRF), composting, biogasification and landfilling. A life cycle inventory (LCI) of the six scenarios along with the baseline scenario was completed; this helped to quantify the CO{sub 2} equivalents, emitted and avoided, for energy consumption, production, fuel consumption, and methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions. LCI results showed that the contribution of the baseline scenario to the global warming potential as CO{sub 2} equivalents was a maximum of 838,116 tons. The sixth scenario had a maximum reduction of GHG emissions in terms of CO{sub 2} equivalents of -33,773 tons, but the most workable scenario for the current situation in the study area is scenario 5. It saves 25% in CO{sub 2} equivalents compared to the baseline scenario.

Batool, Syeda Adila [Department of Space Science, Punjab University, Lahore 54600 (Pakistan)], E-mail: aadila_batool@yahoo.com; Chuadhry, Muhammad Nawaz [College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan)], E-mail: muhammadnawazchaudhry@yahoo.com

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

8

Characteristics Of Fresh Municipal Solid Waste.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Hossain, Sahadat The characteristics of fresh municipal solid waste (MSW) are critical in planning, designing, operating or upgrading solid waste management systems. Physical composition, moisture… (more)

Taufiq, Tashfeena

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Eco-efficiency for greenhouse gas emissions mitigation of municipal solid waste management: A case study of Tianjin, China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The issue of municipal solid waste (MSW) management has been highlighted in China due to the continually increasing MSW volumes being generated and the limited capacity of waste treatment facilities. This article presents a quantitative eco-efficiency (E/E) analysis on MSW management in terms of greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. A methodology for E/E analysis has been proposed, with an emphasis on the consistent integration of life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC). The environmental and economic impacts derived from LCA and LCC have been normalized and defined as a quantitative E/E indicator. The proposed method was applied in a case study of Tianjin, China. The study assessed the current MSW management system, as well as a set of alternative scenarios, to investigate trade-offs between economy and GHG emissions mitigation. Additionally, contribution analysis was conducted on both LCA and LCC to identify key issues driving environmental and economic impacts. The results show that the current Tianjin's MSW management system emits the highest GHG and costs the least, whereas the situation reverses in the integrated scenario. The key issues identified by the contribution analysis show no linear relationship between the global warming impact and the cost impact in MSW management system. The landfill gas utilization scenario is indicated as a potential optimum scenario by the proposed E/E analysis, given the characteristics of MSW, technology levels, and chosen methodologies. The E/E analysis provides an attractive direction towards sustainable waste management, though some questions with respect to uncertainty need to be discussed further.

Zhao Wei, E-mail: zhaowei.tju@gmail.com [College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Liaoning University of Technology, 121000 Jinzhou (China); Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300RA Leiden (Netherlands); Huppes, Gjalt, E-mail: huppes@cml.leidenuniv.nl [Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300RA Leiden (Netherlands); Voet, Ester van der, E-mail: Voet@cml.leidenuniv.nl [Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300RA Leiden (Netherlands)

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

10

Municipal Solid Waste in The United States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2005 Facts and Figures Municipal Solid Waste in The United States #12;United States Environmental Protection Agency Office of Solid Waste (5306P) EPA530-R-06-011 October 2006 www.epa.gov #12;MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE IN THE UNITED STATES: 2005 FACTS AND FIGURES Table of Contents Chapter Page EXECUTIVE

Barlaz, Morton A.

11

List of Municipal Solid Waste Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Waste Incentives Waste Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 172 Municipal Solid Waste Incentives. CSV (rows 1 - 172) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active Advanced Clean Energy Project Grants (Texas) State Grant Program Texas Commercial Industrial Utility Biomass Municipal Solid Waste No Advanced Energy Fund (Ohio) Public Benefits Fund Ohio Commercial Industrial Institutional Residential Utility Biomass CHP/Cogeneration Fuel Cells Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Geothermal Electric Hydroelectric energy Landfill Gas Microturbines Municipal Solid Waste Photovoltaics Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Water Heat Wind energy Yes Alternative Energy Law (AEL) (Iowa) Renewables Portfolio Standard Iowa Investor-Owned Utility Anaerobic Digestion

12

Solid-State Lighting: 2010 Municipal Consortium Southwest Region Workshop  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

0 Municipal Consortium 0 Municipal Consortium Southwest Region Workshop Materials to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: 2010 Municipal Consortium Southwest Region Workshop Materials on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: 2010 Municipal Consortium Southwest Region Workshop Materials on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: 2010 Municipal Consortium Southwest Region Workshop Materials on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: 2010 Municipal Consortium Southwest Region Workshop Materials on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: 2010 Municipal Consortium Southwest Region Workshop Materials on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: 2010 Municipal Consortium Southwest Region Workshop Materials on AddThis.com... Conferences & Meetings Presentations Publications

13

Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium Southeast Region Workshop  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 Municipal Consortium 1 Municipal Consortium Southeast Region Workshop Materials to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium Southeast Region Workshop Materials on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium Southeast Region Workshop Materials on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium Southeast Region Workshop Materials on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium Southeast Region Workshop Materials on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium Southeast Region Workshop Materials on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium Southeast Region Workshop Materials on AddThis.com... Conferences & Meetings Presentations Publications

14

Information Resources: Webcast: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool This April 3, 2012 webcast presented information about the Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool developed by DOE"s Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium. Doug Elliott of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory provided a guided walk-through of what the tool can do and how to use it to evaluate costs and benefits associated with converting to LED street and roadway lighting. The webcast showed how city and other government agencies, utilities, finance and budget offices, and energy efficiency organizations can use the tool to compute annualized energy-cost savings, maintenance savings, greenhouse gas reductions, net present value, and simple payback, which can be helpful when putting together construction and conservation grant applications, as well as for preparing budgets and comparing incumbent costs to new costs.

15

Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium North Central Region  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2011 Municipal Consortium North 2011 Municipal Consortium North Central Region Workshop Materials to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium North Central Region Workshop Materials on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium North Central Region Workshop Materials on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium North Central Region Workshop Materials on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium North Central Region Workshop Materials on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium North Central Region Workshop Materials on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium North Central Region Workshop Materials on AddThis.com... Conferences & Meetings

16

Solid-State Lighting: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Municipal Solid-State Street Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Kickoff Webcast to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Kickoff Webcast on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Kickoff Webcast on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Kickoff Webcast on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Kickoff Webcast on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Kickoff Webcast on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Kickoff Webcast on AddThis.com... Conferences & Meetings

17

Solid-State Lighting: Text-Alternative Version: Municipal Solid-State  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Kickoff to someone by Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Kickoff to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: Text-Alternative Version: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Kickoff on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: Text-Alternative Version: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Kickoff on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Text-Alternative Version: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Kickoff on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Text-Alternative Version: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Kickoff on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: Text-Alternative Version: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Kickoff on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: Text-Alternative Version: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Kickoff on

18

Environmental impact on municipal solid waste management system in Chaiyaphum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Continually increasing amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) and the limited capacity of the existing waste management system are serious problems that Chaiyaphum municipality must deal with. The optimal waste management system should be adopted. Explicit ... Keywords: decision making, environmental evaluation, life cycle assessment, municipal solid waste

S. Piyaphant; K. Prayong

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Solid-State Lighting: DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Market-Based Programs Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Solid-State Lighting: DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium on AddThis.com... LED Lighting Facts

20

Municipal Solid Waste Resources and Technologies | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Municipal Solid Waste Resources and Technologies Municipal Solid Waste Resources and Technologies Municipal Solid Waste Resources and Technologies October 7, 2013 - 9:28am Addthis Black and white photo of a bulldozer pushing a large mound of trash in a landfill. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's high-solids digester converts wastes to biogas and compost for energy production. This page provides a brief overview of municipal solid waste energy resources and technologies supplemented by specific information to apply waste to energy within the Federal sector. Overview Municipal solid waste, also known as waste to energy, generates electricity by burning solid waste as fuel. This generates renewable electricity while also incinerating landfill and other municipal waste products such as trash, yard clippings and debris, furniture, food scraps, and other

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas municipal solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Municipal Solid Waste Resources and Technologies | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Municipal Solid Waste Resources and Technologies Municipal Solid Waste Resources and Technologies Municipal Solid Waste Resources and Technologies October 7, 2013 - 9:28am Addthis Black and white photo of a bulldozer pushing a large mound of trash in a landfill. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's high-solids digester converts wastes to biogas and compost for energy production. This page provides a brief overview of municipal solid waste energy resources and technologies supplemented by specific information to apply waste to energy within the Federal sector. Overview Municipal solid waste, also known as waste to energy, generates electricity by burning solid waste as fuel. This generates renewable electricity while also incinerating landfill and other municipal waste products such as trash, yard clippings and debris, furniture, food scraps, and other

22

Solid-State Lighting: Webcast: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Webcast: Municipal Solid-State Webcast: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: Webcast: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: Webcast: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Webcast: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Webcast: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: Webcast: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool on Digg

23

Municipal solid-waste management in Istanbul  

SciTech Connect

Istanbul, with a population of around 13 million people, is located between Europe and Asia and is the biggest city in Turkey. Metropolitan Istanbul produces about 14,000 tons of solid waste per day. The aim of this study was to assess the situation of municipal solid-waste (MSW) management in Istanbul. This was achieved by reviewing the quantity and composition of waste produced in Istanbul. Current requirements and challenges in relation to the optimization of Istanbul's MSW collection and management system are also discussed, and several suggestions for solving the problems identified are presented. The recovery of solid waste from the landfills, as well as the amounts of landfill-generated biogas and electricity, were evaluated. In recent years, MSW management in Istanbul has improved because of strong governance and institutional involvement. However, efforts directed toward applied research are still required to enable better waste management. These efforts will greatly support decision making on the part of municipal authorities. There remains a great need to reduce the volume of MSW in Istanbul.

Kanat, Gurdal, E-mail: gkanat@gmail.co [Yildiz Teknik Universitesi Cevre Muh Bolumu, 34220 Davutpasa-Esenler, Istanbul (Turkey)

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

24

Solid-State Lighting: Municipal Consortium Annual Meeting Presentations and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Information Information Resources Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Solid-State Lighting: Municipal Consortium Annual Meeting Presentations and Materials-Phoenix, AZ to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: Municipal Consortium Annual Meeting Presentations and Materials-Phoenix, AZ on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: Municipal Consortium Annual Meeting Presentations and Materials-Phoenix, AZ on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Municipal Consortium Annual Meeting Presentations and Materials-Phoenix, AZ on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Municipal Consortium Annual Meeting Presentations and Materials-Phoenix, AZ on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: Municipal Consortium Annual Meeting Presentations and Materials-Phoenix, AZ on Digg

25

Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium North Central Region  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Consortium North Consortium North Central Region Workshop Materials to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium North Central Region Workshop Materials on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium North Central Region Workshop Materials on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium North Central Region Workshop Materials on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium North Central Region Workshop Materials on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium North Central Region Workshop Materials on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium North Central Region Workshop Materials on AddThis.com... LED Lighting Facts CALiPER Program

26

Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium Northeast Region Workshop  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Northeast Region Workshop Materials to someone by E-mail Northeast Region Workshop Materials to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium Northeast Region Workshop Materials on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium Northeast Region Workshop Materials on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium Northeast Region Workshop Materials on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium Northeast Region Workshop Materials on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium Northeast Region Workshop Materials on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium Northeast Region Workshop Materials on AddThis.com... LED Lighting Facts CALiPER Program Standards Development Technical Information Network

27

Solid-State Lighting: Municipal Consortium LED Street Lighting Workshop  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Los Angeles, CA to someone Los Angeles, CA to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: Municipal Consortium LED Street Lighting Workshop Presentations and Materials-Los Angeles, CA on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: Municipal Consortium LED Street Lighting Workshop Presentations and Materials-Los Angeles, CA on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Municipal Consortium LED Street Lighting Workshop Presentations and Materials-Los Angeles, CA on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Municipal Consortium LED Street Lighting Workshop Presentations and Materials-Los Angeles, CA on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: Municipal Consortium LED Street Lighting Workshop Presentations and Materials-Los Angeles, CA on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: Municipal Consortium

28

Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium Northwest Region Workshop  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Northwest Region Workshop Materials to someone by E-mail Northwest Region Workshop Materials to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium Northwest Region Workshop Materials on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium Northwest Region Workshop Materials on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium Northwest Region Workshop Materials on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium Northwest Region Workshop Materials on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium Northwest Region Workshop Materials on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium Northwest Region Workshop Materials on AddThis.com... LED Lighting Facts CALiPER Program Standards Development Technical Information Network

29

Guide to Clean Development Mechanism Projects Related to Municipal Solid  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Guide to Clean Development Mechanism Projects Related to Municipal Solid Guide to Clean Development Mechanism Projects Related to Municipal Solid Waste Management Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: A Guide to Clean Development Mechanism Projects Related to Municipal Solid Waste Management Agency/Company /Organization: United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific Sector: Energy, Land Focus Area: - Landfill Gas, - Waste to Energy Topics: Implementation, Co-benefits assessment Resource Type: Guide/manual, Lessons learned/best practices Website: www.unescap.org/esd/environment/publications/cdm/Guide.pdf UN Region: Central Asia, Eastern Asia, South-Eastern Asia, "Pacific" is not in the list of possible values (Eastern Africa, Middle Africa, Northern Africa, Southern Africa, Western Africa, Caribbean, Central America, South America, Northern America, Central Asia, Eastern Asia, Southern Asia, South-Eastern Asia, Western Asia, Eastern Europe, Northern Europe, Southern Europe, Western Europe, Australia and New Zealand, Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia, Latin America and the Caribbean) for this property.

30

Co-firing coal and municipal solid waste  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this study was to experimentally investigate how different the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) or municipal solid waste (MSW) utilizing strategies affects the gas emission in simple fluidized bed combustion (FBC) of biomass. In this study, ground OFMSW and pulverized coal (PC) were used for co-firing tests. The tests were carried out in a bench-scale bubbling FBC. Coal and bio-waste fuels are quite different in composition. Ash composition of the bio-waste fuels is fundamentally different from ash composition of the coal. Chlorine (Cl) in the MSW may affect operation by corrosion. Ash deposits reduce heat transfer and also may result in severe corrosion at high temperatures. Nitrogen (N) and carbon ) assessments can play an important role in a strategy to control carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions while raising revenue. Regulations such as subsidies for oil, liquid petroleum gas (LPG) for natural gas powered vehicles, and renewables, especially biomass lines, to reduce emissions may be more cost-effective than assessments. Research and development (RD) resources are driven by energy policy goals and can change the competitiveness of renewables, especially solid waste. The future supply of co-firing depends on energy prices and technical progress, both of which are driven by energy policy priorities.

Demirbas, A. [Sila Science, Trabzon (Turkey)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Federal Energy Management Program: Municipal Solid Waste Resources...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's high-solids digester converts wastes to biogas and compost for energy production. This page provides a brief overview of municipal...

32

UTILIZATION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE COMPOST IN HORTICULTURE.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Composting of municipal solid waste (MSW) has long been considered an attractive waste management tool for effective reduction of waste volume and beneficial utilization of… (more)

Lu, Wenliang

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Wakefield Municipal Gas & Light Department- Residential Conservation Services Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Wakefield Municipal Gas & Light Department (WMGLD), in cooperation with the Massachusetts Municipal Wholesale Electric Company (MMWEC), offers the "Incentive Rebate Program" to encourage...

34

An Environment Friendly Energy Recovery Technology: Municipal Solid Waste Gasification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Energy from waste, is a perspective source to replace fossil fuels in the future, municipal solid waste (MSW) gasification is a new technique for waste treatment. MSW can be combusted directly to generate heat and electricity, and by means of gasification ... Keywords: municipal solid waste, gasification, incineration

Lei Ma; Chuanhua Liao; Yuezhao Zhu; Haijun Chen; Yanghuiqin Ding

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Evaluation of mixing systems for biogasification of municipal solid waste  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two specially selected mixing systems were tested and evaluated to determine how effectively they could prevent the formation of fibrous mats and stringers during the anaerobic digestion of a slurried mixture of preprocessed municipal solid waste and sewage sludge to produce methane gas. The tests were conducted in a modified 10.7-m (35-ft) diameter, nominal 378,000-liter (100,000-gal) capacity concrete vessel in the Franklin, Ohio, environmental complex. Between August 1977 and September 1978, nine tests were conducted with 3:1 and 9:1 solid waste/sewage sludge ratios and with 4, 7, and 10 percent total solids in the feedstock. Though the microbial culture was healthy in most tests, the mixing systems were not effective in preventing excessive fibrous mat and stringer formations. These formations occurred because of the high cellulosic content of the feedstock. The test with the best energy recovery had a gas production of 805 liters/kg of volatile solids destroyed. However, the energy recovered was only 50 percent of the energy available in the solid waste, and only four times greater than the mixing energy expended for that test. The solids accumulations were generally the same for the two mixing systems when they had common test conditions. In all tests, the percent solids for the top level were higher than those for the middle and bottom levels. As the feed ratio and the percent solids in the feedstock were increased, this differential became progressively more pronounced. Moreover, the percent of volatile solids (in a given amount of total solids) for the top level became disproportionately higher than those for the other two levels.

Swartzbaugh, J T; Smith, R B

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Solid-State Lighting: Text-Alternative Version: Municipal Solid-State  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool Webcast to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: Text-Alternative Version: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool Webcast on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: Text-Alternative Version: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool Webcast on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Text-Alternative Version: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool Webcast on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Text-Alternative Version: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool Webcast on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: Text-Alternative Version: Municipal

37

Mathematical Models in Municipal Solid Waste Management  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Two mathematical models developed as tools for solid waste planners in decisions concerning the overall management of solid waste in a municipality are described. The models have respectively been formulated as integer and mixed integer linear programming problems. The choice between the two models from the practical point of view depends on the user and the technology used. One user may prefer to measure the transportation costs in terms of costs per trip made from the waste source, in which case the first model is more appropriate. In this case we replace the coefficients of the decision variables in the objective function with the total cost per trip from the waste collection point. At the same time, instead of measuring the amount of waste using the number of trucks used multiplied by their capacities, continuous variables can be introduced to measure directly the amount of waste that goes to the plants and landfills. The integer linear problem is then transformed into a mixed integer problem that gives better total cost estimates and more precise waste amount measurements, but measuring transportation costs in terms of costs per trip. For instance, at the moment the first model is more relevant to the Ugandan situation, where the technology to measure waste as it is carried away from the waste sources is not available. Another user may prefer to measure the transportation costs in terms of costs per unit mass of

Michael K. Nganda

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Conversion of municipal solid waste to hydrogen  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

LLNL and Texaco are cooperatively developing a physical and chemical treatment method for the conversion of municipal solid waste (MSW) to hydrogen via the steps of hydrothermal pretreatment, gasification and purification. LLNL`s focus has been on hydrothermal pretreatment of MSW in order to prepare a slurry of suitable viscosity and heating value to allow efficient and economical gasification and hydrogen production. The project has evolved along 3 parallel paths: laboratory scale experiments, pilot scale processing, and process modeling. Initial laboratory-scale MSW treatment results (e.g., viscosity, slurry solids content) over a range of temperatures and times with newspaper and plastics will be presented. Viscosity measurements have been correlated with results obtained at MRL. A hydrothermal treatment pilot facility has been rented from Texaco and is being reconfigured at LLNL; the status of that facility and plans for initial runs will be described. Several different operational scenarios have been modeled. Steady state processes have been modeled with ASPEN PLUS; consideration of steam injection in a batch mode was handled using continuous process modules. A transient model derived from a general purpose packed bed model is being developed which can examine the aspects of steam heating inside the hydrothermal reactor vessel. These models have been applied to pilot and commercial scale scenarios as a function of MSW input parameters and have been used to outline initial overall economic trends. Part of the modeling, an overview of the MSW gasification process and the modeling of the MSW as a process material, was completed by a DOE SERS (Science and Engineering Research Semester) student. The ultimate programmatic goal is the technical demonstration of the gasification of MSW to hydrogen at the laboratory and pilot scale and the economic analysis of the commercial feasibility of such a process.

Richardson, J.H.; Rogers, R.S.; Thorsness, C.B. [and others

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Municipal solid waste management in Beijing City  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents an overview of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in Beijing City. Beijing, the capital of China, has a land area of approximately 1368.32 km{sup 2} with an urban population of about 13.33 million in 2006. Over the past three decades, MSW generation in Beijing City has increased tremendously from 1.04 million tons in 1978 to 4.134 million tons in 2006. The average generation rate of MSW in 2006 was 0.85 kg/capita/day. Food waste comprised 63.39%, followed by paper (11.07%), plastics (12.7%) and dust (5.78%). While all other wastes including tiles, textiles, glass, metals and wood accounted for less than 3%. Currently, 90% of MSW generated in Beijing is landfilled, 8% is incinerated and 2% is composted. Source separation collection, as a waste reduction method, has been carried out in a total of 2255 demonstration residential and commercial areas (covering about 4.7 million people) up to the end of 2007. Demonstration districts should be promoted over a wider range instead of demonstration communities. The capacity of transfer stations and treatment plants is an urgent problem as these sites are seriously overloaded. These problems should first be solved by constructing more sites and converting to new treatment technologies. Improvements in legislation, public education and the management of waste pickers are problematic issues which need to be addressed.

Li Zhenshan [Department of Environmental Engineering, Peking University, Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences, Ministry of Education, No. 5, Yi Heyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100871 (China); Key Laboratory for Environmental and Urban Sciences, Shenzhen Graduate School, Peking University, Shenzhen 518055 (China)], E-mail: lizhenshan@pku.edu.cn; Yang Lei [Department of Environmental Engineering, Peking University, Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences, Ministry of Education, No. 5, Yi Heyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100871 (China); Qu XiaoYan [Key Laboratory for Environmental and Urban Sciences, Shenzhen Graduate School, Peking University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Sui Yumei [Department of Environmental Engineering, Peking University, Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences, Ministry of Education, No. 5, Yi Heyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100871 (China)

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

40

Information Resources: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6, 2010 webcast served as the first official meeting of the new DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium. Ed Smalley of Seattle City Light and Bruce Kinzey of Pacific...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas municipal solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Solid-State Lighting: Municipal Consortium LED Street Lighting...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Boston, MA to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: Municipal Consortium LED Street Lighting Workshop Presentations and Materials-Boston, MA on Facebook Tweet about...

42

Solid-State Lighting: Municipal Consortium LED Street Lighting...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dallas, TX to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: Municipal Consortium LED Street Lighting Workshop Presentations and Materials-Dallas, TX on Facebook Tweet about...

43

Hydrogen production from municipal solid waste  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have modified a Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) hydrothermal pretreatment pilot plant for batch operation and blowdown of the treated batch to low pressure. We have also assembled a slurry shearing pilot plant for particle size reduction. Waste paper and a mixture of waste paper/polyethylene plastic have been run in the pilot plant with a treatment temperature of 275{degrees}C. The pilot-plant products have been used for laboratory studies at LLNL. The hydrothermal/shearing pilot plants have produced acceptable slurries for gasification tests from a waste paper feedstock. Work is currently underway with combined paper/plastic feedstocks. When the assembly of the Research Gasification Unit at Texaco (feed capacity approximately 3/4-ton/day) is complete (4th quarter of FY96), gasification test runs will commence. Laboratory work on slurry samples during FY96 has provided correlations between slurry viscosity and hydrothermal treatment temperature, degree of shearing, and the presence of surfactants and admixed plastics. To date, pumpable slurries obtained from an MSW surrogate mixture of treated paper and plastic have shown heating values in the range 13-15 MJ/kg. Our process modeling has quantified the relationship between slurry heating value and hydrogen yield. LLNL has also performed a preliminary cost analysis of the process with the slurry heating value and the MSW tipping fee as parameters. This analysis has shown that the overall process with a 15 MJ/kg slurry gasifier feed can compete with coal-derived hydrogen with the assumption that the tipping fee is of the order $50/ton.

Wallman, P.H.; Richardson, J.H.; Thorsness, C.B. [and others

1996-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

44

Hydrogen production by gasification of municipal solid waste  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As fossil fuel reserves run lower and lower, and as their continued widespread use leads toward numerous environmental problems, the need for clean and sustainable energy alternatives becomes ever clearer. Hydrogen fuel holds promise as such as energy source, as it burns cleanly and can be extracted from a number of renewable materials such as municipal solid waste (MSW), which can be considered largely renewable because of its high content of paper and biomass-derived products. A computer model is being developed using ASPEN Plus flow sheeting software to simulate a process which produces hydrogen gas from MSW; the model will later be used in studying the economics of this process and is based on an actual Texaco coal gasification plant design. This paper gives an overview of the complete MSW gasification process, and describes in detail the way in which MSW is modeled by the computer as a process material. In addition, details of the gasifier unit model are described; in this unit modified MSW reacts under pressure with oxygen and steam to form a mixture of gases which include hydrogen.

Rogers, R. III

1994-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

45

Municipal solid waste generation in municipalities: Quantifying impacts of household structure, commercial waste and domestic fuel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Waste management planning requires reliable data concerning waste generation, influencing factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. This paper aims at identifying and quantifying differences between different municipalities' municipal solid waste (MSW) collection quantities based on data from waste management and on socio-economic indicators. A large set of 116 indicators from 542 municipalities in the Province of Styria was investigated. The resulting regression model included municipal tax revenue per capita, household size and the percentage of buildings with solid fuel heating systems. The model explains 74.3% of the MSW variation and the model assumptions are met. Other factors such as tourism, home composting or age distribution of the population did not significantly improve the model. According to the model, 21% of MSW collected in Styria was commercial waste and 18% of the generated MSW was burned in domestic heating systems. While the percentage of commercial waste is consistent with literature data, practically no literature data are available for the quantity of MSW burned, which seems to be overestimated by the model. The resulting regression model was used as basis for a waste prognosis model (Beigl and Lebersorger, in preparation).

Lebersorger, S. [Institute of Waste Management, Department of Water, Atmosphere and Environment, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Muthgasse 107, A-1190 Wien (Austria); Beigl, P., E-mail: peter.beigl@boku.ac.at [Institute of Waste Management, Department of Water, Atmosphere and Environment, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Muthgasse 107, A-1190 Wien (Austria)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

46

Wakefield Municipal Gas and Light Department - Residential Conservation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Wakefield Municipal Gas and Light Department - Residential Wakefield Municipal Gas and Light Department - Residential Conservation Services Program Wakefield Municipal Gas and Light Department - Residential Conservation Services Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Sealing Your Home Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Appliances & Electronics Design & Remodeling Windows, Doors, & Skylights Manufacturing Commercial Lighting Lighting Water Heating Maximum Rebate Energy Audit Recommended Measures: $300 Programmable Thermostats: 2 units Program Info State Massachusetts Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Energy Audit Recommended Measures: 25% of total cost Refrigerators: $50 Clothes Washer: $50 Dishwasher: $50 Room AC: $50

47

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report investigated the potential of using municipal solid waste (MSW) to make synthesis gas (syngas) suitable for production of liquid fuels. Issues examined include: • MSW physical and chemical properties affecting its suitability as a gasifier feedstock and for liquid fuels synthesis • expected process scale required for favorable economics • the availability of MSW in quantities sufficient to meet process scale requirements • the state-of-the-art of MSW gasification technology.

Valkenburg, Corinne; Walton, Christie W.; Thompson, Becky L.; Gerber, Mark A.; Jones, Susanne B.; Stevens, Don J.

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Municipal solid waste management in Malaysia: Practices and challenges  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rapid economic development and population growth, inadequate infrastructure and expertise, and land scarcity make the management of municipal solid waste become one of Malaysia's most critical environmental issues. The study is aimed at evaluating the generation, characteristics, and management of solid waste in Malaysia based on published information. In general, the per capita generation rate is about 0.5-0.8 kg/person/day in which domestic waste is the primary source. Currently, solid waste is managed by the Ministry of Housing and Local Government, with the participation of the private sector. A new institutional and legislation framework has been structured with the objectives to establish a holistic, integrated, and cost-effective solid waste management system, with an emphasis on environmental protection and public health. Therefore, the hierarchy of solid waste management has given the highest priority to source reduction through 3R, intermediate treatment and final disposal.

Manaf, Latifah Abd [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Environmental Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)], E-mail: latifah@env.upm.my; Samah, Mohd Armi Abu; Zukki, Nur Ilyana Mohd [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Environmental Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

49

Sustainable recycling of municipal solid waste in developing countries  

SciTech Connect

This research focuses on recycling in developing countries as one form of sustainable municipal solid waste management (MSWM). Twenty-three case studies provided municipal solid waste (MSW) generation and recovery rates and composition for compilation and assessment. The average MSW generation rate was 0.77 kg/person/day, with recovery rates from 5-40%. The waste streams of 19 of these case studies consisted of 0-70% recyclables and 17-80% organics. Qualitative analysis of all 23 case studies identified barriers or incentives to recycling, which resulted in the development of factors influencing recycling of MSW in developing countries. The factors are government policy, government finances, waste characterization, waste collection and segregation, household education, household economics, MSWM (municipal solid waste management) administration, MSWM personnel education, MSWM plan, local recycled-material market, technological and human resources, and land availability. Necessary and beneficial relationships drawn among these factors revealed the collaborative nature of sustainable MSWM. The functionality of the factor relationships greatly influenced the success of sustainable MSWM. A correlation existed between stakeholder involvement and the three dimensions of sustainability: environment, society, and economy. The only factors driven by all three dimensions (waste collection and segregation, MSWM plan, and local recycled-material market) were those requiring the greatest collaboration with other factors.

Troschinetz, Alexis M. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sustainable Futures Institute, Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Dr., Houghton, MI 49931 (United States)], E-mail: alexis_troschinetz@yahoo.com; Mihelcic, James R. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sustainable Futures Institute, Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Dr., Houghton, MI 49931 (United States)

2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

50

Municipal solid waste to electricity in Bangkok, Thailand (prefeasibility study)  

SciTech Connect

Recognizing the problem of municipal waste disposal in Bangkok and the potential for energy recovery, the Royal Government of Thailand requested the US Trade and Development Program (TDP) to provide assistance in conducting an initial assessment of the potential options for managing Bangkok's waste disposal problem. Before undertaking a detailed feasibility study of a relatively attractive option for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal in Bangkok, the Thai government wanted to determine whether a project for waste disposal and energy recovery could be developed with the involvement of the private sector such that over time the project could be totally owned and operated in the private domain. In response to the request made by the National Energy Administration (NEA) and Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA), TDP asked Engineering and Economics Research Inc. (EER) to send a team of consultants to conduct a definitional study to make a preliminary assessment of a municipal waste solid disposal system which recovers energy in conjunction with the treatment/disposal of waste in an environmentally safe manner. The consultants visited Thailand for a period of 3 weeks and worked with officials from NEA and BMA.

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Comprehensive Municipal Solid Waste Management, Resource Recovery, and Conservation Act (Texas)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This Act encourages the establishment of regional waste management facilities and the cooperation of local waste management entities in order to streamline the management of municipal solid waste...

52

Methodology for Allocating Municipal Solid Waste to Biogenic and Non-Biogenic Energy  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report summarizes the methodology used to split the heat content of municipal solid waste (MSW) into its biogenic and non-biogenic shares.

Marie LaRiviere

2007-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

53

Evaluating the efficiency of municipalities in collecting and processing municipal solid waste: A shared input DEA-model  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Complexity in local waste management calls for more in depth efficiency analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Shared-input Data Envelopment Analysis can provide solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Considerable room for the Flemish municipalities to improve their cost efficiency. - Abstract: This paper proposed an adjusted 'shared-input' version of the popular efficiency measurement technique Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) that enables evaluating municipality waste collection and processing performances in settings in which one input (waste costs) is shared among treatment efforts of multiple municipal solid waste fractions. The main advantage of this version of DEA is that it not only provides an estimate of the municipalities overall cost efficiency but also estimates of the municipalities' cost efficiency in the treatment of the different fractions of municipal solid waste (MSW). To illustrate the practical usefulness of the shared input DEA-model, we apply the model to data on 293 municipalities in Flanders, Belgium, for the year 2008.

Rogge, Nicky, E-mail: Nicky.Rogge@hubrussel.be [Hogeschool-Universiteit Brussel (HUBrussel), Center for Business Management Research (CBMR), Warmoesberg 26, 1000 Brussels (Belgium); Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (KULeuven), Faculty of Business and Economics, Naamsestraat 69, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); De Jaeger, Simon [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (KULeuven), Faculty of Business and Economics, Naamsestraat 69, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Hogeschool-Universiteit Brussel (HUBrussel), Center for Economics and Corporate Sustainability (CEDON), Warmoesberg 26, 1000 Brussels (Belgium)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

54

Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides data for use in evaluating the proven technologies and combinations of technologies that might be considered for managing municipal solid waste (MSW). It covers five major methods for MSW management in common use today: Landfilling; Mass combustion for energy recovery; Production of refuse-derived fuel (RDF); Collection/separation of recyclables; and Composting. It also provides information on three MSW management technologies that are not widely used at present: Anaerobic digestion; Cofiring of MSW with coal; and Gasification/pyrolysis. To the extent possible with available reliable data, the report presents information for each proven MSW technology on: Net energy balances; Environmental releases; and Economics. In addition to data about individual operations, the report presents net energy balances and inventories of environmental releases from selected combined MSW management strategies that use two or more separate operations. The scope of the report extends from the waste's origin (defined as the point at which the waste is set out for collection), through transportation and processing operations, to its final disposition (e.g., recycling and remanufacturing, combustion, or landfilling operations). Data for all operations are presented on a consistent basis: one (1) ton of municipal (i.e., residential, commercial, and institutional) waste at the collection point. Selection of an MSW management plan may be influenced by many factors, in addition to the technical performance and economics of each option.

Not Available

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Process modeling of hydrogen production from municipal solid waste  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The ASPEN PLUS commercial simulation software has been used to develop a process model for a conceptual process to convert municipal solid waste (MSW) to hydrogen. The process consists of hydrothermal treatment of the MSW in water to create a slurry suitable as feedstock for an oxygen blown Texaco gasifier. A method of reducing the complicated MSW feed material to a manageable set of components is outlined along with a framework for modeling the stoichiometric changes associated with the hydrothermal treatment process. Model results indicate that 0.672 kmol/s of hydrogen can be produced from the processing of 30 kg/s (2600 tonne/day) of raw MSW. A number of variations on the basic processing parameters are explored and indicate that there is a clear incentive to reduce the inert fraction in the processed slurry feed and that cofeeding a low value heavy oil may be economically attractive.

Thorsness, C.B.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Municipal solid waste management in Kolkata, India - A review  

SciTech Connect

Kolkata is one of four metropolitan cities in India. With an area of 187.33 sq km and a population of about 8 million, it generates around 3,000 t d{sup -1} of municipal solid waste (MSW) at a rate of 450-500 g per capita per day. With rapid urbanization as a result of planned and unplanned growth and industrialization, the problems associated with handling MSW have increased at an alarming rate over the past few years. No source segregation arrangement exists; there is only limited (60%) house-to-house collection; and 50-55% open vats are used in the present collection system. The operational efficiency of the Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC) transport system is about 50%, with a fleet composed of about 30-35% old vehicles. The majority (80%) of these, particularly the hired vehicles, are more than 20 years old. The newly added areas covered by KMC have even lower collection efficiencies, and only an informal recycling system exists. The waste collected has a low energy value (3,350-4,200 kJ kg{sup -1}) with high moisture and inert content. A 700 t d{sup -1} compost plant set up in 2000 has not been functioning effectively since 2003. Open dumping (without liners and without a leachate management facility) and the threat of groundwater pollution, as well as saturation of an existing landfill site (Dhapa) are the most pressing problems for the city today. KMC spends 70-75% of its total expenditures on collection of solid waste, 25-30% on transportation, and less than 5% on final disposal arrangements. The Kolkata Environmental Improvement Project, funded by the Asian Development Bank, is seen as only a partial solution to the problem. A detailed plan should emphasize segregation at the source, investment in disposal arrangements (including the use of liners and leachate collection), and an optimized transport arrangement, among improvements.

Chattopadhyay, Subhasish [Solid Waste Management Department, KMC, Department of Civil Engineering, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, Howrah 711103 (India)], E-mail: subharpita@rediffmail.com; Dutta, Amit [Department of Civil Engineering, Bengal Engineering and Science University, P.O. Botanic Garden, Shibpur, Howrah 711 103 (India)], E-mail: amit@civil.becs.ac.in; Ray, Subhabrata [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India)], E-mail: sray@che.iitkhp.ernet.in

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

57

Gas turbines fired by solid fuels  

SciTech Connect

Steadily increasing energy requirements have spurred a search for new methods of generating energy from low-cost, abundant fuels. The development of a gas-turbine system equipped for the direct combustion of such fuels is now underway in the U.S. A one-megawatt pilot plant has been operating for over a year, using a fluidized bed to burn coal. The plant has also operated on wood waste and municipal solid waste as fuels. Methods have been developed for the suppression of noxious gases included among the combustion products, but there remain some problems with the removal of particulate matter from the exhaust gas prior to its entry into the turbine. A new high-temperature filter is being installed to alleviate these. A description of the one-megawatt pilot plant is provided, along with a discussion of operational results and mechanical problems and their solutions. A preliminary design for a full-scale plant is included.

Wade, G.L.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Development of a Segregated Municipal Solid Waste Gasification System for Electrical Power Generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gasification technologies are expected to play a key role in the future of solid waste management since the conversion of municipal and industrial solid wastes to a gaseous fuel significantly increases its value. Municipal solid waste (MSW) gasification for electrical power generation was conducted in a fluidized bed gasifier and the feasibility of using a control system was evaluated to facilitate its management and operation. The performance of an engine using the gas produced was evaluated. A procedure was also tested to upgrade the quality of the gas and optimize its production. The devices installed and automated control system developed was able to achieve and maintain the set conditions for optimum gasification. The most important parameters of reaction temperature and equivalence ratio were fully controlled. Gas production went at a rate of 4.00 kg min-1 with a yield of 2.78 m3 kg-1 of fuel and a heating value (HV) of 7.94 MJ Nm-3. Within the set limits of the tests, the highest production of synthesis gas and the net heating value of 8.97 MJ Nm-3 resulted from gasification at 725°C and ER of 0.25 which was very close to the predicted value of 7.47 MJ Nm-3. This was not affected by temperature but significantly affected by the equivalence ratio. The overall engine-generator efficiency at 7.5 kW electrical power load was lower at 19.81% for gasoline fueled engine compared to 35.27% for synthesis gas. The pressure swing adsorption (PSA) system increased the net heating value of the product gas by an average of 38% gas over that of inlet gas. There were no traces of carbon dioxide in the product gas indicating that it had been completely adsorbed by the system. MSW showed relatively lower fouling and slagging tendencies than cotton gin trash (CGT) and dairy manure (DM). This was further supported by the compressive strength measurements of the ash of MSW, CGT and DM and the EDS elemental analysis of the MSW ash.

Maglinao, Amado Latayan

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Business Case for Compressed Natural Gas in Municipal Fleets  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Technical Report Technical Report NREL/TP-7A2-47919 June 2010 Business Case for Compressed Natural Gas in Municipal Fleets Caley Johnson National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC Contract No. DE-AC36-08-GO28308 Technical Report NREL/TP-7A2-47919 June 2010 Business Case for Compressed Natural Gas in Municipal Fleets C Johnson aley Prepared under Task No. FC08.0032 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any

60

LCA comparison of container systems in municipal solid waste management  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The planning and design of integrated municipal solid waste management (MSWM) systems requires accurate environmental impact evaluation of the systems and their components. This research assessed, quantified and compared the environmental impact of the first stage of the most used MSW container systems. The comparison was based on factors such as the volume of the containers, from small bins of 60-80 l to containers of 2400 l, and on the manufactured materials, steel and high-density polyethylene (HDPE). Also, some parameters such as frequency of collections, waste generation, filling percentage and waste container contents, were established to obtain comparable systems. The methodological framework of the analysis was the life cycle assessment (LCA), and the impact assessment method was based on CML 2 baseline 2000. Results indicated that, for the same volume, the collection systems that use HDPE waste containers had more of an impact than those using steel waste containers, in terms of abiotic depletion, global warming, ozone layer depletion, acidification, eutrophication, photochemical oxidation, human toxicity and terrestrial ecotoxicity. Besides, the collection systems using small HDPE bins (60 l or 80 l) had most impact while systems using big steel containers (2400 l) had less impact. Subsequent sensitivity analysis about the parameters established demonstrated that they could change the ultimate environmental impact of each waste container collection system, but that the comparative relationship between systems was similar.

Rives, Jesus, E-mail: Jesus.Rives@uab.ca [SosteniPrA (UAB-IRTA), Institute of Environmental Science and Technology (ICTA), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona - UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Rieradevall, Joan; Gabarrell, Xavier [SosteniPrA (UAB-IRTA), Institute of Environmental Science and Technology (ICTA), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona - UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona - UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas municipal solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Energy potential of municipal solid waste is limited  

SciTech Connect

Energy recovery from municipal solid waste has the potential for making only a limited contribution to the nation`s overall energy production. Although the current contribution of waste-derived energy production is less than one-half of 1 percent of the nation`s total energy Supply, DOE has set a goal for energy from waste at 2 percent of the total supply by 2010. The industry`s estimates show a smaller role for waste as an energy source in the future. The energy potential from waste is limited not only by the volume and energy content of the waste itself, but also by the factors affecting the use of waste disposal options, including public opposition and the availability of financing. Energy production from waste combustors and from landfill gases generates pollutants, although these are reduced through current regulations that require the use of emissions control technology and define operational criteria for the facilities. Although DOE estimates that one-third of the energy available from waste is available in the form of energy savings through the recycling of materials, the Department`s research in this area is ongoing.

NONE

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Use of ash from municipal solid waste combustion. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report details the results of efforts to integrate municipal solid waste combustion ash into a high strength portland cement concrete matrix comprised of multiple waste materials. The material developed by this research was to be used to construct a large underground storage vault to house the Friendly Mobile Barrier, a safety barrier system for use at highway crossings for the high speed rail system. The subcontractor, Environmental Solutions, Inc., of Richmond, Virginia, worked with researchers at Pennsylvania State University and the State University of New York--Stony Brook to develop and test the material. The result of this work is a portland cement concrete matrix which utilizes 80.01% recycled materials, and a field-applicable method for incorporating MSW ash as a component at volumes up to 9.78%. Twenty-eight day strengths of over 4000 psi were achieved, with 315 day strengths of 6500 psi. All structural, chemical and environmental testing showed the material to be competitive with conventional concrete.

NONE

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Micro-scale anaerobic digestion of point source components of organic fraction of municipal solid waste  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Micro-scale anaerobic digestion of point source components of organic fraction of municipal solid that are needed when designing plug-flow type anaerobic bioreactors. More specifically, the decomposition patterns

Columbia University

64

Co-gasification of municipal solid waste and material recovery in a large-scale gasification and melting system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study evaluates the effects of co-gasification of MSW with MSW bottom ash. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No significant difference between MSW treatment with and without MSW bottom ash. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCDD/DFs yields are significantly low because of the high carbon conversion ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Slag quality is significantly stable and slag contains few hazardous heavy metals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The final landfill amount is reduced and materials are recovered by DMS process. - Abstract: This study evaluates the effects of co-gasification of municipal solid waste with and without the municipal solid waste bottom ash using two large-scale commercial operation plants. From the viewpoint of operation data, there is no significant difference between municipal solid waste treatment with and without the bottom ash. The carbon conversion ratios are as high as 91.7% and 95.3%, respectively and this leads to significantly low PCDD/DFs yields via complete syngas combustion. The gross power generation efficiencies are 18.9% with the bottom ash and 23.0% without municipal solid waste bottom ash, respectively. The effects of the equivalence ratio are also evaluated. With the equivalence ratio increasing, carbon monoxide concentration is decreased, and carbon dioxide and the syngas temperature (top gas temperature) are increased. The carbon conversion ratio is also increased. These tendencies are seen in both modes. Co-gasification using the gasification and melting system (Direct Melting System) has a possibility to recover materials effectively. More than 90% of chlorine is distributed in fly ash. Low-boiling-point heavy metals, such as lead and zinc, are distributed in fly ash at rates of 95.2% and 92.0%, respectively. Most of high-boiling-point heavy metals, such as iron and copper, are distributed in metal. It is also clarified that slag is stable and contains few harmful heavy metals such as lead. Compared with the conventional waste management framework, 85% of the final landfill amount reduction is achieved by co-gasification of municipal solid waste with bottom ash and incombustible residues. These results indicate that the combined production of slag with co-gasification of municipal solid waste with the bottom ash constitutes an ideal approach to environmental conservation and resource recycling.

Tanigaki, Nobuhiro, E-mail: tanigaki.nobuhiro@nsc-eng.co.jp [Nippon Steel Engineering Co., Ltd. (Head Office), Osaki Center Building 1-5-1, Osaki, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-8604 (Japan); Manako, Kazutaka [Nippon Steel Engineering Co., Ltd., 46-59, Nakabaru, Tobata-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 804-8505 (Japan); Osada, Morihiro [Nippon Steel Engineering Co., Ltd. (Head Office), Osaki Center Building 1-5-1, Osaki, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-8604 (Japan)

2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

65

MidAmerican Energy (Electric) - Municipal Solid-State Lighting Grant  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

MidAmerican Energy (Electric) - Municipal Solid-State Lighting MidAmerican Energy (Electric) - Municipal Solid-State Lighting Grant Program MidAmerican Energy (Electric) - Municipal Solid-State Lighting Grant Program < Back Eligibility Local Government Savings Category Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Maximum Rebate Minimum project size for the full $5,000 grant is 20 fixtures; smaller projects will receive a $250 per-fixture grant. Program Info State Iowa Program Type Utility Grant Program Rebate Amount Up to $5,000 Provider MidAmerican Energy Company MidAmerican Energy offers grants to munipalities which implement solid-state roadway street lighting upgrades. Grants of up to $5,000 are available to participating entities who install eligible roadway lighting fixtures. Participants must be an Iowa electric governmental customer of

66

Life cycle assessment of four municipal solid waste management scenarios in China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A life cycle assessment was carried out to estimate the environmental impact of municipal solid waste. Four scenarios mostly used in China were compared to assess the influence of various technologies on environment: (1) landfill, (2) incineration, (3) composting plus landfill, and (4) composting plus incineration. In all scenarios, the technologies significantly contribute to global warming and increase the adverse impact of non-carcinogens on the environment. The technologies played only a small role in the impact of carcinogens, respiratory inorganics, terrestrial ecotoxicity, and non-renewable energy. Similarly, the influence of the technologies on the way other elements affect the environment was ignorable. Specifically, the direct emissions from the operation processes involved played an important role in most scenarios except for incineration, while potential impact generated from transport, infrastructure and energy consumption were quite small. In addition, in the global warming category, highest potential impact was observed in landfill because of the direct methane gas emissions. Electricity recovery from methane gas was the key factor for reducing the potential impact of global warming. Therefore, increasing the use of methane gas to recover electricity is highly recommended to reduce the adverse impact of landfills on the environment.

Hong Jinglan, E-mail: hongjing@sdu.edu.c [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Li Xiangzhi [Department of Pathology, University of Michigan, 1301 Catherine, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Zhaojie Cui [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

67

Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This appendix contains the alphabetically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal waste management alternatives. The references are listed for each of the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized-bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting, and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

Not Available

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

MidAmerican Energy (Electric) - Municipal Solid-State Lighting Grant  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

MidAmerican Energy (Electric) - Municipal Solid-State Lighting Grant MidAmerican Energy (Electric) - Municipal Solid-State Lighting Grant Program (Iowa) No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Summary Last modified on November 9, 2012. Financial Incentive Program Place Iowa Additional Place applies to MidAmerican Energy Name MidAmerican Energy (Electric) - Municipal Solid-State Lighting Grant Program Incentive Type Utility Grant Program Applicable Sector Local Government Eligible Technologies Lighting, Lighting Controls/Sensors, Induction Lighitng, LED Lighting Active Incentive Yes Implementing Sector Utility Energy Category Energy Efficiency Incentive Programs Amount Up to $5,000 Equipment Requirements Fixtures must have an efficiency rating equal to or greater than 66 lumens per watt as tested under Illuminating Engineering Society of North America LM-79-08 testing to qualify for a grant.

69

An environmental assessment of recovering methane from municipal solid waste by anaerobic digestion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The development of an experimental process which produces synthetic natural gas (SNG) or biogas by anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste (MSW) is evaluated. This technology, if implemented, would be utilized in lieu of incineration or directly landfilling waste. An environmental assessment describing the principal impacts associated with operating the MSW anaerobic digestion process is presented. Variations in process configurations provide for SNG or electricity production and digester residue incineration, composting, or landfilling. Four process configuration are compared to the conventional solid waste disposal alternative of mass burn incineration and landfilling. Emissions are characterized, effluents quantified, and landfill areas predicted. The quantity of SNG and electricity recovered, and aluminum and ferrous metals recycled is predicted along with the emissions and effluents avoided by recovering energy and recycling metals. Air emissions are the primary on-site concern with the anaerobic digestion process. However, when compared to mass burn incineration, the projected particulate emissions for the anaerobic digestion process range from 2.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} to 2.6 {times} {sup 10{minus}5} pounds per ton of waste vs. 3.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} pounds per ton for mass burn. SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and PCCD emissions have a similar relationship.

O'Leary, P.R.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Biogas generation by two-phase anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The organic fraction of municipal solid waste can be a significant energy source for renewable energy generation. The total production of municipal solid waste in Turkey was 25?×?106 tones per year. Anaerobic digestion (AD) process may be a solution to the problems of energy demand and waste management since it provides biomethanation along with waste stabilization. AD can be operated in single or two phase configurations. Two-phase processes have some advantages over one phase systems in terms of selection of microorganisms

Eylem Dogan; Göksel N. Demirer

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Study of the VOC emissions from a municipal solid waste storage pilot-scale cell: Comparison with biogases from municipal waste landfill site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highlights: > Follow-up of the emission of VOCs in a municipal waste pilot-scale cell during the acidogenesis and acetogenesis phases. > Study from the very start of waste storage leading to a better understanding of the decomposition/degradation of waste. > Comparison of the results obtained on the pilot-scale cell with those from 3 biogases coming from the same landfill site. > A methodology of characterization for the progression of the stabilization/maturation of waste is finally proposed. - Abstract: The emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from municipal solid waste stored in a pilot-scale cell containing 6.4 tonnes of waste (storage facility which is left open during the first period (40 days) and then closed with recirculation of leachates during a second period (100 days)) was followed by dynamic sampling on activated carbon and analysed by GC-MS after solvent extraction. This was done in order to know the VOC emissions before the installation of a methanogenesis process for the entire waste mass. The results, expressed in reference to toluene, were exploited during the whole study on all the analyzable VOCs: alcohols, ketones and esters, alkanes, benzenic and cyclic compounds, chlorinated compounds, terpene, and organic sulphides. The results of this study on the pilot-scale cell are then compared with those concerning three biogases from a municipal waste landfill: biogas (1) coming from waste cells being filled or recently closed, biogas (2) from all the waste storage cells on site, and biogas (3) which is a residual gas from old storage cells without aspiration of the gas. The analysis of the results obtained revealed: (i) a high emission of VOCs, principally alcohols, ketones and esters during the acidogenesis; (ii) a decrease in the alkane content and an increase in the terpene content were observed in the VOCs emitted during the production of methane; (iii) the production of heavier alkanes and an increase in the average number of carbon atoms per molecule of alkane with the progression of the stabilisation/maturation process were also observed. Previous studies have concentrated almost on the analysis of biogases from landfills. Our research aimed at gaining a more complete understanding of the decomposition/degradation of municipal solid waste by measuring the VOCs emitted from the very start of the landfill process i.e. during the acidogenesis and acetogenesis phases.

Chiriac, R., E-mail: rodica.chiriac@univ-lyon1.fr [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR 5615, Laboratoire des Multimateriaux et Interfaces, 43 boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); De Araujos Morais, J. [Universite Federal de Paraiba, Campus I Departamento de Engenharia Civil e Ambiental, Joao Pessoa, Paraiba (Brazil); Carre, J. [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR 5256, Institut de Recherche sur la Catalyse et l'Environnement, 43 boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Bayard, R. [Universite de Lyon, INSA de Lyon, Laboratoire de Genie Civil et d'Ingenierie environnementale (LGCIE), F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Chovelon, J.M. [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR 5256, Institut de Recherche sur la Catalyse et l'Environnement, 43 boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Gourdon, R. [Universite de Lyon, INSA de Lyon, Laboratoire de Genie Civil et d'Ingenierie environnementale (LGCIE), F-69622 Villeurbanne (France)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

72

Combustion of municipal solid wastes with oil shale in a circulating fluidized bed. Quarterly report, quarter ending December 31, 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate that cocombustion of municipal solid waste and oil shale can reduce emissions of gaseous pollutants (SO{sub 2} and HCl) to acceptable levels. Tests in 6- and 15-inch units showed that the oil shale absorbs acid gas pollutants and produces an ash which could be, at the least, disposed of in a normal landfill. Further analysis of the results are underway to estimate scale-up to commercial size. Additional work will be done to evaluate the cementitious properties of oil shale ash.

NONE

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Integrated municipal solid waste treatment using a grate furnace incinerator: The Indaver case  

SciTech Connect

An integrated installation for treatment of municipal solid waste and comparable waste from industrial origin is described. It consists of three grate furnace lines with flue gas treatment by half-wet scrubbing followed by wet scrubbing, and an installation for wet treatment of bottom ash. It is demonstrated that this integrated installation combines high recovery of energy (40.8% net) with high materials recovery. The following fractions were obtained after wet treatment of the bottom ash: ferrous metals, non-ferrous metals, three granulate fractions with different particle sizes, and sludge. The ferrous and non-ferrous metal fractions can both be recycled as high quality raw materials; the two larger particle size particle fractions can be applied as secondary raw materials in building applications; the sand fraction can be used for applications on a landfill; and the sludge is landfilled. For all components of interest, emissions to air are below the limit values. The integrated grate furnace installation is characterised by zero wastewater discharge and high occupational safety. Moreover, with the considered installation, major pollutants, such as PCDD/PCDF, Hg and iodine-136 are to a large extent removed from the environment and concentrated in a small residual waste stream (flue gas cleaning residue), which can be landfilled after stabilisation.

Vandecasteele, C. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, De Croylaan 46, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)], E-mail: carlo.vandecasteele@cit.kuleuven.be; Wauters, G. [Indaver, Dijle 17a, 2800 Mechelen (Belgium); Arickx, S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, De Croylaan 46, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Jaspers, M. [Indaver, Dijle 17a, 2800 Mechelen (Belgium); Van Gerven, T. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, De Croylaan 46, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Atmospheric fluidized bed combustion of municipal solid waste: test program results  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Air classified municipal solid waste (MSW) was fired in an atmospheric fluidized bed combustor at low excess air to simulate boiler conditions. The 7 ft/sup 2/ combustor at Combustion Power Company's energy laboratory in Menlo Park, CA, incorporates water tubes for heat extraction and recycles elutriated particles to the bed. System operation was stable while firing processed MSW for the duration of a 300-h test. Low excess air, low exhaust gas emissions, and constant bed temperature demonstrated feasibility of steam generation from fluidized bed combustion of MSW. During the 300-h test, combustion efficiency averaged 99%. Excess air was typically 44% while an average bed temperature of 1400/sup 0/F and an average superficial gas velocity of 4.6 fps were maintained. Typical exhaust emission levels were 30 ppM SO/sub 2/, 160 ppM NO/sub x/, 200 ppM CO, and 25 ppM hydrocarbons. No agglomeration of bed material or detrimental change in fluidization properties was experienced. A conceptual design study of a full scale plant to be located at Stanford University was based on process conditions from the 300-h test. The plant would produce 250,000 lb/hr steam at the maximum firing rate of 1000 tons per day (TPD) processed MSW. The average 800 TPD firing rate would utilize approximately 1200 TPD raw MSW from surrounding communities. The Stanford Solid Waste energy Program was aimed at development of a MSW-fired fluidized bed boiler and cogeneration plant to supply most of the energy needs of Stanford University.

Preuit, L C; Wilson, K B

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

High temperature behavior of electrostatic precipitator ash from municipal solid waste combustors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

combustion may cause the oxidation of mercury, and chloride mercury #12;13 13 species may be the major form combustion and gasification flue gases, Environ. Sci. Technol. 30 (1996) 2421-2426. [23] S.B. Ghorishi, C Ms. Ref. No.: HAZMAT-D-07-00176 Accepted manuscript #12;2 2 Abstract Municipal solid waste (MSW) flue

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

76

DISTRICT ENERGY SYSTEMS POWERED THROUGH THE COMBUSTION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.assure.org Biography: Mr. Tomberlin has 21 years of experience in the design of power generation facilities having & Brad Moorman Barlow Projects, Inc. 2000 Vermont Drive, Fort Collins, CO 80525 (970) 226-8557 info municipal solid waste (MSW) by 90%-95% creating energy in the form of steam and/or electricity

Columbia University

77

THE BURNING ISSUES OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL WHAT WORKS AND WHAT DOESN'T  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 THE BURNING ISSUES OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL ­ WHAT WORKS AND WHAT DOESN'T By: Jack D devil burns and the Lord recycles." Perhaps these negative references to waste burning come from, the Valley of Hinnom south of ancient Jerusalem. This was the site of a foul, smoking, open burning garbage

Columbia University

78

Recovery of solid fuel from municipal solid waste by hydrothermal treatment using subcritical water  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrothermal treatment using subcritical water was studied to recover solid fuel from MSW. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer More than 75% of carbon in MSW was recovered as char. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heating value of char was comparable to that of brown coal and lignite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polyvinyl chloride was decomposed at 295 Degree-Sign C and 8 MPa and was removed by washing. - Abstract: Hydrothermal treatments using subcritical water (HTSW) such as that at 234 Degree-Sign C and 3 MPa (LT condition) and 295 Degree-Sign C and 8 MPa (HT condition) were investigated to recover solid fuel from municipal solid waste (MSW). Printing paper, dog food (DF), wooden chopsticks, and mixed plastic film and sheets of polyethylene, polypropylene, and polystyrene were prepared as model MSW components, in which polyvinylchloride (PVC) powder and sodium chloride were used to simulate Cl sources. While more than 75% of carbon in paper, DF, and wood was recovered as char under both LT and HT conditions, plastics did not degrade under either LT or HT conditions. The heating value (HV) of obtained char was 13,886-27,544 kJ/kg and was comparable to that of brown coal and lignite. Higher formation of fixed carbon and greater oxygen dissociation during HTSW were thought to improve the HV of char. Cl atoms added as PVC powder and sodium chloride to raw material remained in char after HTSW. However, most Cl originating from PVC was found to converse into soluble Cl compounds during HTSW under the HT condition and could be removed by washing. From these results, the merit of HTSW as a method of recovering solid fuel from MSW is considered to produce char with minimal carbon loss without a drying process prior to HTSW. In addition, Cl originating from PVC decomposes into soluble Cl compound under the HT condition. The combination of HTSW under the HT condition and char washing might improve the quality of char as alternative fuel.

Hwang, In-Hee, E-mail: hwang@eng.hokudai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Solid Waste Disposal Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060 8628 (Japan); Aoyama, Hiroya; Matsuto, Toshihiko; Nakagishi, Tatsuhiro; Matsuo, Takayuki [Laboratory of Solid Waste Disposal Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060 8628 (Japan)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

79

MidAmerican Energy (Electric) - Municipal Solid-State Lighting...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

must be an Iowa electric governmental customer of MidAmerican Energy Company. Light-emitting diode and induction types of solid state lighting (SSL) qualify under this program....

80

Municipal solid waste combustion: Fuel testing and characterization  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this study is to screen and characterize potential biomass fuels from waste streams. This will be accomplished by determining the types of pollutants produced while burning selected municipal waste, i.e., commercial mixed waste paper residential (curbside) mixed waste paper, and refuse derived fuel. These materials will be fired alone and in combination with wood, equal parts by weight. The data from these experiments could be utilized to size pollution control equipment required to meet emission standards. This document provides detailed descriptions of the testing methods and evaluation procedures used in the combustion testing and characterization project. The fuel samples will be examined thoroughly from the raw form to the exhaust emissions produced during the combustion test of a densified sample.

Bushnell, D.J.; Canova, J.H.; Dadkhah-Nikoo, A.

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas municipal solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Combustion of municipal solid wastes with oil shale in a circulating fluidized bed. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The problem addressed by our invention is that of municipal solid waste utilization. The dimensions of the problem can be visualized by the common comparison that the average individual in America creates in five years time an amount of solid waste equivalent in weight to the Statue of Liberty. The combustible portion of the more than 11 billion tons of solid waste (including municipal solid waste) produced in the United States each year, if converted into useful energy, could provide 32 quads per year of badly needed domestic energy, or more than one-third of our annual energy consumption. Conversion efficiency and many other factors make such a production level unrealistic, but it is clear that we are dealing with a very significant potential resource. This report describes research pertaining to the co-combustion of oil shale with solid municipal wastes in a circulating fluidized bed. The oil shale adds significant fuel content and also constituents that can possible produce a useful cementitious ash.

NONE

1996-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

82

Constructed wetlands for municipal solid waste landfill leachate treatment. Final report  

SciTech Connect

In 1989, the US Geological Survey and Cornell University, in cooperation with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority and the Tompkins County Solid Waste Department, began a three-year study at a municipal solid-waste landfill near Ithaca, New York, to test the effectiveness of leachate treatment with constructed wetlands and to examine the associated treatment processes. Specific objectives of the study were to examine: treatment efficiency as function of substrate composition and grain size, degree of plant growth, and seasonal changes in evapotranspiration rates and microbial activity; effects of leachate and plant growth on the hydraulic characteristics of the substrate; and chemical, biological, and physical processes by which nutrients, metals, and organic compounds are removed from leachate as it flows through the substrate. A parallel study at a municipal solid-waste landfill near Fenton, New York was conducted by researchers at Cornell University, Ithaca College, and Hawk Engineering (Trautmann and others, 1989). Results are described.

Peverly, J.; Sanford, W.E.; Steenhuis, T.S. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Municipal solid waste management: A bibliography of US Department of Energy contractor report through 1994  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

U.S. Department of Energy contractors continue to conduct research targeting the productive and responsible use of the more than 516,000 metric tons (567,000 tons) of municipal solid waste (MSW) that is generated each day in the United States. It is becoming more and more prudent to improve current methods of MSW management and to continue to search for additional cost-effective, energy-efficient means to manage our MSW resource. This bibliography provides information about technical reports on energy from municipal waste that were prepared under grants or contracts from the US DOE. The reports listed focus on energy from municipal waste technologies and energy conservation in wastewater treatment.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Process and technological aspects of municipal solid waste gasification. A review  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Critical assessment of the main commercially available MSW gasifiers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Detailed discussion of the basic features of gasification process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Description of configurations of gasification-based waste-to-energy units. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmental performance analysis, on the basis of independent sources data. - Abstract: The paper proposes a critical assessment of municipal solid waste gasification today, starting from basic aspects of the process (process types and steps, operating and performance parameters) and arriving to a comparative analysis of the reactors (fixed bed, fluidized bed, entrained bed, vertical shaft, moving grate furnace, rotary kiln, plasma reactor) as well as of the possible plant configurations (heat gasifier and power gasifier) and the environmental performances of the main commercially available gasifiers for municipal solid wastes. The analysis indicates that gasification is a technically viable option for the solid waste conversion, including residual waste from separate collection of municipal solid waste. It is able to meet existing emission limits and can have a remarkable effect on reduction of landfill disposal option.

Arena, Umberto, E-mail: umberto.arena@unina2.it [Department of Environmental Sciences, Second University of Naples, Via A. Vivaldi, 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy)

2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

85

A study of the metal content of municipal solid waste. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Knowledge of the content of toxic components, so called pollutant precursors, in the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream is essential to development of the strategies for source reduction and reuse, recycling, composting and disposal. Data are scarce; trends in composition for any locality even more so. In a previous study the total and water soluble chlorine content of the components of municipal solid waste were determined from sampling studies at two sites, Baltimore County, MD, and Brooklyn, NY, each for a five day period. The total sulfur content of the combined combustible components was also determined. Because of the scarcity of data and synergistic effects, it seemed appropriate to determine the heavy metal content of the preceding material prior to its disposal. The metals chosen were the so-called priority pollutant metals (PPM): antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, selenium, silver, thallium, and zinc.

Churney, K.L.; Domalski, E.S.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

GAS-LIQUID-SOLID CAVITATION CHEMISTRY  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this chapter we briefly evaluate the effects of cavitation on the gas-liquid-solid ..... synthesis of A-type zeolites by enabling cheap natural minerals such as kaolin to ..... the aldehyde substrate is adsorbed, whereas under sonochemical ...

87

RD & D priorities for energy production and resource conservation from municipal solid waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report identifies research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) needs and priorities associated with municipal solid waste (MSW) management technologies that conserve or produce energy or resources. The changing character of MSW waste management and the public`s heightened awareness of its real and perceived benefits and costs creates opportunities for RD&D in MSW technologies. Increased recycling, for example, creates new opportunities for energy, chemicals, and materials recovery. New technologies to control and monitor emissions from MSW combustion facilities are available for further improvement or application. Furthermore, emerging waste-to-energy technologies may offer environmental, economic, and other advantages. Given these developments, DOE identified a need to assess the RD&D needs and pdodties and carefully target RD&D efforts to help solve the carbon`s waste management problem and further the National Energy Strategy. This report presents such an assessment. It identifies and Documents RD&D needs and priorities in the broad area of MSW resource . recovery, focusing on efforts to make MSW management technologies commercially viable or to improve their commercial deployment over a 5 to l0 year period. Panels of technical experts identifies 279 RD&D needs in 12 technology areas, ranking about one-fifth of these needs as priorities. A ``Peer Review Group`` identified mass-burn combustion, ``systems studies,`` landfill gas, and ash utilization and disposal as high priority areas for RD&D based on cost and the impacts of further RD&D. The results of this assessment are intended to provide guidance to DOE concerning possible future RD&D projects.

Not Available

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Municipal solid waste management: A bibliography of US Department of Energy contractor reports through 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

US Department of Energy contractors continue to conduct research targeting the productive and responsible use of the more than 536,000 tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) that is generated each day in the United States. It is becoming more and more prudent to improve current methods of MSW management and to continue to search for additional cost-effective, energy-efficient means to manage our MSW resource. This bibliography is an updated version of Municipal Waste to Energy: An Annotated Bibliography of US Department of Energy Contractor Reports, by Caroline Brooks, published in 1987. Like its predecessor, this bibliography provides information about technical reports on energy from municipal waste that were prepared under grants or contracts from the US Department of Energy. The reports listed focus on energy from municipal waste technologies and energy conservation in wastewater treatment. The bibliography contains three indexes -- an author index, a subject index, and a title index. The reports are listed alphabetically in the subject areas and may appear under more than one subject. All of the reports cited in the original MSW bibliography are also included in this update. The number of copies of each report originally published varied according to anticipated public demand. However, all reports are available in either microfiche or hard copy form and may be ordered from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS), US Department of Commerce, Springfield, VA 22161. Explicit information on ordering reports is included in Appendix A.

Shepherd, P.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Business Case for Compressed Natural Gas in Municipal Fleets | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Business Case for Compressed Natural Gas in Municipal Fleets Business Case for Compressed Natural Gas in Municipal Fleets Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Business Case for Compressed Natural Gas in Municipal Fleets Agency/Company /Organization: National Renewable Energy Laboratory Focus Area: Fuels & Efficiency Topics: Analysis Tools, Best Practices Website: www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/pdfs/47919.pdf This report describes how the compressed natural gas (CNG) Vehicle and Infrastructure Cash-Flow Evaluation (VICE) model can be used to establish guidance for fleets making decisions about using CNG. The model assists fleets and businesses in evaluating the profitability of potential CNG projects by demonstrating the relationship between project profitability and fleet operating parameters.

90

Effects of residues from municipal solid waste landfill on corn yield and heavy metal content  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of residues from municipal solid waste landfill, Khon Kaen Municipality, Thailand, on corn (Zea mays L.) yield and heavy metal content were studied. Field experiments with randomized complete block design with five treatments (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80% v/v of residues and soil) and four replications were carried out. Corn yield and heavy metal contents in corn grain were analyzed. Corn yield increased by 50, 72, 85 and 71% at 20, 40, 60 and 80% treatments as compared to the control, respectively. All heavy metals content, except cadmium, nickel and zinc, in corn grain were not significantly different from the control. Arsenic, cadmium and zinc in corn grain were strongly positively correlated with concentrations in soil. The heavy metal content in corn grain was within regulated limits for human consumption.

Prabpai, S. [Suphan Buri Campus Establishment Project, Kasetsart University, 50 U Floor, Administrative Building, Paholyothin Road, Jatujak, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand)], E-mail: s.prabpai@hotmail.com; Charerntanyarak, L. [Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Public Health, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand)], E-mail: lertchai@kku.ac.th; Siri, B. [Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand)], E-mail: boonmee@kku.ac.th; Moore, M.R. [The University of Queensland, The National Research Center for Environmental Toxicology, 39 Kessels Road, Coopers Plans, Brisbane, Queensland 4108 (Australia)], E-mail: m.moore@uq.edu.au; Noller, Barry N. [The University of Queensland, Centre for Mined Land Rehabilitation, Brisbane, Queensland 4072 (Australia)], E-mail: b.noller@uq.edu.au

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

91

Life-cycle assessment of municipal solid wastes: Development of the WASTED model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the development of the Waste Analysis Software Tool for Environmental Decisions (WASTED) model. This model provides a comprehensive view of the environmental impacts of municipal solid waste management systems. The model consists of a number of separate submodels that describe a typical waste management process: waste collection, material recovery, composting, energy recovery from waste and landfilling. These submodels are combined to represent a complete waste management system. WASTED uses compensatory systems to account for the avoided environmental impacts derived from energy recovery and material recycling. The model is designed to provide solid waste decision-makers and environmental researchers with a tool to evaluate waste management plans and to improve the environmental performance of solid waste management strategies. The model is user-friendly and compares favourably with other earlier models.

Diaz, R. [Civil Engineering Department, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, Ont., M5B 2K3 (Canada); Warith, M. [Civil Engineering Department, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, Ont., M5B 2K3 (Canada)]. E-mail: mwarith@ryerson.ca

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Gibbs Energy Minimization in Gas + Liquid + Solid Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gibbs Energy Minimization in Gas + Liquid + Solid Systems DENTON S. EBEL,1 MARK S. GHIORSO,2 in solar nebula gas,4 and more recent treatments of gas + solid + liquid equilibria in solar gas.5, 6 nonideal liquid and solid solutions and a vapor composed of a mixture of ideal gas species, all at fixed

Grossman, Lawrence

93

Assessment of municipal solid waste for energy production in the western United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Municipal solid waste (MSW) represents both a significant problem and an abundant resource for the production of energy. The residential, institutional, and industrial sectors of this country generate about 250 million tons of MSW each year. In this report, the authors have compiled data on the status of MSW in the 13-state western region, including economic and environmental issues. The report is designed to assist the members of the Western Regional Biomass Energy Program Ad Hoc Resource Committee in determining the potential for using MSW to produce energy in the region. 51 refs., 7 figs., 18 tabs.

Goodman, B.J.; Texeira, R.H.

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

National survey of industrial markets for steam produced from burning municipal solid waste  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents the methodology and findings of an analysis to determine the maximum size of the industrial market for steam produced from municipal solid waste in the United States. The data used in the analysis were developed from the 1980 census report and the US Chamber of Commerce's 1979 Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) listing. The process used to match potential steam users with populations large enough to generate suitable quantities of waste is presented. No attempt was made to rank the markets or analyze the market economics.

Pearson, C.V.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Evaluation of Energy Recovery from Municipal Solid Waste in Oil-Fired Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Five methods of energy recovery from municipal solid waste (MSW) in oil-fired power plants are evaluated: preparation and supplemental firing of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with oil in a utility boiler originally designed for coal firing; 100% firing of either RDF or MSW in a dedicated water-wall incinerator and use of the steam to drive a dedicated turbine generator unit; and 100% firing of RDF or MSW in a dedicated water-wall incinerator and integration of the steam into the power plant steam cycle.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Energy recovery from municipal solid waste, an environmental and safety mini-overview survey  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The environmental and safety aspects of processing municipal solid wastes to recover energy and materials are reviewed in some detail. The state of the art in energy recovery, energy potential for the near and long-term, and constraints to commercialization are discussed. Under the environmental and safety aspects the state of the art, need for research and development, and need for coordination among federal agencies and private industry are considered. Eleven principal types of refuse-to-energy processes are described and a projected energy balance is derived for each process. (JSR)

Johnson, R.L.

1976-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Methanogenic Population Dynamics during Start-Up of Anaerobic Digesters Treating Municipal Solid Waste  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: An aggressive start-up strategy was used to initiate codigestion in two anaerobic, continuously mixed bench-top reactors at mesophilic (37°C) and thermophilic (55°C) conditions. The digesters were inoculated with mesophilic anaerobic sewage sludge and cattle manure and were fed a mixture of simulated municipal solid waste and biosolids in proportions that reflect U.S. production rates. The design organic loading rate was 3.1 kg volatile solids/m 3 /day and the retention time was 20 days. Ribosomal RNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes were used to determine the methanogenic community structure in the inocula and the digesters. Chemical analyses were performed to evaluate digester performance. The aggressive start-up strategy was successful for the thermophilic reactor, despite the use of a

Biosolids; Matt E. Griffin; Katherine D. Mcmahon; Roderick I. Mackie; Lutgarde Raskin

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Municipal solid waste management challenges in developing countries - Kenyan case study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper provides an overview of the state of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) by local authorities in Kenya as a case study of a low-income developing country. Approaches of possible solutions that can be undertaken to improve municipal solid waste (MSW) services are discussed. Poor economic growth (1.1% in 1993) has resulted in an increase in the poverty level which presently stands at 56%. Migration from the rural areas to the urban areas has resulted in unplanned settlements in suburban areas accommodating about 60% of the urban population on only 5% urban land area. Political interference also hampers smooth running of local authorities. Vulnerability of pollution of surface and groundwater is high because local authorities rarely considered environmental impact in siting MSW disposal sites. Illegal dumping of MSW on the river banks or on the roadside poses environmental and economic threats on nearby properties. Poor servicing of MSW collection vehicles, poor state of infrastructure and the lack of adequate funding militate against optimization of MSW disposal service. The rural economy needs to be improved if rural-urban migration is to be managed. Involvement of stakeholders is important to achieve any meaningful and sustainable MSWM. The role of the informal sector through community-based organizations (CBOs), Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and the private sector in offering solutions towards improvement of MSWM also is explored.

Henry, Rotich K. [College of Environment and Resources, Jilin University, Changchun 130026 (China); Zhao Yongsheng [College of Environment and Resources, Jilin University, Changchun 130026 (China)]. E-mail: zhaoyongsheng@jlu.edu.cn; Dong Jun [College of Environment and Resources, Jilin University, Changchun 130026 (China)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Municipal solid waste source-separated collection in China: A comparative analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A pilot program focusing on municipal solid waste (MSW) source-separated collection was launched in eight major cities throughout China in 2000. Detailed investigations were carried out and a comprehensive system was constructed to evaluate the effects of the eight-year implementation in those cities. This paper provides an overview of different methods of collection, transportation, and treatment of MSW in the eight cities; as well as making a comparative analysis of MSW source-separated collection in China. Information about the quantity and composition of MSW shows that the characteristics of MSW are similar, which are low calorific value, high moisture content and high proportion of organisms. Differences which exist among the eight cities in municipal solid waste management (MSWM) are presented in this paper. Only Beijing and Shanghai demonstrated a relatively effective result in the implementation of MSW source-separated collection. While the six remaining cities result in poor performance. Considering the current status of MSWM, source-separated collection should be a key priority. Thus, a wider range of cities should participate in this program instead of merely the eight pilot cities. It is evident that an integrated MSWM system is urgently needed. Kitchen waste and recyclables are encouraged to be separated at the source. Stakeholders involved play an important role in MSWM, thus their responsibilities should be clearly identified. Improvement in legislation, coordination mechanisms and public education are problematic issues that need to be addressed.

Tai Jun [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Urbanization and Ecological Restoration, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Shanghai Environmental Engineering Design Research Institute, Shanghai 200232 (China); Zhang Weiqian [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Urbanization and Ecological Restoration, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Che Yue, E-mail: yche@des.ecnu.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Urbanization and Ecological Restoration, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Feng Di [Shanghai Environmental Engineering Design Research Institute, Shanghai 200232 (China)

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

100

Recovery and recycling practices in municipal solid waste management in Lagos, Nigeria  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The population of Lagos, the largest city in Nigeria, increased seven times from 1950 to 1980 with a current population of over 10 million inhabitants. The majority of the city's residents are poor. The residents make a heavy demand on resources and, at the same time, generate large quantities of solid waste. Approximately 4 million tonnes of municipal solid waste (MSW) is generated annually in the city, including approximately 0.5 million of untreated industrial waste. This is approximately 1.1 kg/cap/day. Efforts by the various waste management agencies set up by the state government to keep its streets and neighborhoods clean have achieved only minimal success. This is because more than half of these wastes are left uncollected from the streets and the various locations due to the inadequacy and inefficiency of the waste management system. Whilst the benefits of proper solid waste management (SWM), such as increased revenues for municipal bodies, higher productivity rate, improved sanitation standards and better health conditions, cannot be overemphasized, it is important that there is a reduction in the quantity of recoverable materials in residential and commercial waste streams to minimize the problem of MSW disposal. This paper examines the status of recovery and recycling in current waste management practice in Lagos, Nigeria. Existing recovery and recycling patterns, recovery and recycling technologies, approaches to materials recycling, and the types of materials recovered from MSW are reviewed. Based on these, strategies for improving recovery and recycling practices in the management of MSW in Lagos, Nigeria are suggested.

Kofoworola, O.F. [Environment Division, Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkuts University of Technology Thonburi, 91 Prachauthit Road, Bangmod, Tungkru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)], E-mail: sholafemi28@yahoo.com

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas municipal solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Reducing Mercury Emissions from Municipal Solid Waste Combustion (Results of Investigations and Testing at the Camden Resource Recovery Facility)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

technologies for mercury control for flue gases of Municipal Waste Combustors (MWCs) not only ecological hydrochloric acid (HCl) and elemental mercury (Hg") under oxidizing conditions of the off-gases downstream to the decreasing gas temperature, the elemental mercury is able to react with other flue gas components. The main

Columbia University

102

Business Case for Compressed Natural Gas in Municipal Fleets  

SciTech Connect

This report describes how NREL used the CNG Vehicle and Infrastructure Cash-Flow Evaluation (VICE) model to establish guidance for fleets making decisions about using compressed natural gas.

Johnson, C.

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 1, Report text  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides data for use in evaluating the proven technologies and combinations of technologies that might be considered for managing municipal solid waste (MSW). It covers five major methods for MSW management in common use today: Landfilling; Mass combustion for energy recovery; Production of refuse-derived fuel (RDF); Collection/separation of recyclables; and Composting. It also provides information on three MSW management technologies that are not widely used at present: Anaerobic digestion; Cofiring of MSW with coal; and Gasification/pyrolysis. To the extent possible with available reliable data, the report presents information for each proven MSW technology on: Net energy balances; Environmental releases; and Economics. In addition to data about individual operations, the report presents net energy balances and inventories of environmental releases from selected combined MSW management strategies that use two or more separate operations. The scope of the report extends from the waste`s origin (defined as the point at which the waste is set out for collection), through transportation and processing operations, to its final disposition (e.g., recycling and remanufacturing, combustion, or landfilling operations). Data for all operations are presented on a consistent basis: one (1) ton of municipal (i.e., residential, commercial, and institutional) waste at the collection point. Selection of an MSW management plan may be influenced by many factors, in addition to the technical performance and economics of each option.

Not Available

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Method for improved gas-solids separation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods are disclosed for the removal of particulate solids from a gas stream at high separation efficiency, including the removal of submicron size particles. The apparatus includes a cyclone separator type of device which contains an axially mounted perforated cylindrical hollow rotor. The rotor is rotated at high velocity in the same direction as the flow of an input particle-laden gas stream to thereby cause enhanced separation of particulate matter from the gas stream in the cylindrical annular space between the rotor and the sidewall of the cyclone vessel. Substantially particle-free gas passes through the perforated surface of the spinning rotor and into the hollow rotor, from where it is discharged out of the top of the apparatus. Separated particulates are removed from the bottom of the vessel. 4 figs.

Kusik, C.L.; He, B.X.

1990-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

105

Method for improved gas-solids separation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods are disclosed for the removal of particulate solids from a gas stream at high separation efficiency, including the removal of submicron size particles. The apparatus includes a cyclone separator type of device which contains an axially mounted perforated cylindrical hollow rotor. The rotor is rotated at high velocity in the same direction as the flow of an input particle-laden gas stream to thereby cause enhanced separation of particulate matter from the gas stream in the cylindrical annular space between the rotor and the sidewall of the cyclone vessel. Substantially particle-free gas passes through the perforated surface of the spinning rotor and into the hollow rotor, from when it is discharged out of the top of the apparatus. Separated particulates are removed from the bottom of the vessel.

Kusik, Charles L. (Lincoln, MA); He, Bo X. (Newton, MA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

On-line early fault detection and diagnosis of municipal solid waste incinerators  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A fault detection and diagnosis framework is proposed in this paper for early fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) in order to improve the safety and continuity of production. In this framework, principal component analysis (PCA), one of the multivariate statistical technologies, is used for detecting abnormal events, while rule-based reasoning performs the fault diagnosis and consequence prediction, and also generates recommendations for fault mitigation once an abnormal event is detected. A software package, SWIFT, is developed based on the proposed framework, and has been applied in an actual industrial MSWI. The application shows that automated real-time abnormal situation management (ASM) of the MSWI can be achieved by using SWIFT, resulting in an industrially acceptable low rate of wrong diagnosis, which has resulted in improved process continuity and environmental performance of the MSWI.

Zhao Jinsong [College of Information Science and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)], E-mail: jinsongzhao@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Huang Jianchao [College of Information Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 10086 (China); Sun Wei [College of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

107

An analytic network process model for municipal solid waste disposal options  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this paper is to present an evaluation method that can aid decision makers in a local civic body to prioritize and select appropriate municipal solid waste disposal methods. We introduce a hierarchical network (hiernet) decision structure and apply the analytic network process (ANP) super-matrix approach to measure the relative desirability of disposal alternatives using value judgments as the input of the various stakeholders. ANP is a flexible analytical program that enables decision makers to find the best possible solution to complex problems by breaking down a problem into a systematic network of inter-relationships among the various levels and attributes. This method therefore may not only aid in selecting the best alternative but also helps decision makers to understand why an alternative is preferred over the other options.

Khan, Sheeba [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Youngstown State University, OH 44555, United States of America (United States)], E-mail: sheebanishat@yahoo.com; Faisal, Mohd Nishat [Department of Management Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110 016 (India)], E-mail: nishat786@yahoo.com

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Evaluation of gasification and novel thermal processes for the treatment of municipal solid waste  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report identifies seven developers whose gasification technologies can be used to treat the organic constituents of municipal solid waste: Energy Products of Idaho; TPS Termiska Processor AB; Proler International Corporation; Thermoselect Inc.; Battelle; Pedco Incorporated; and ThermoChem, Incorporated. Their processes recover heat directly, produce a fuel product, or produce a feedstock for chemical processes. The technologies are on the brink of commercial availability. This report evaluates, for each technology, several kinds of issues. Technical considerations were material balance, energy balance, plant thermal efficiency, and effect of feedstock contaminants. Environmental considerations were the regulatory context, and such things as composition, mass rate, and treatability of pollutants. Business issues were related to likelihood of commercialization. Finally, cost and economic issues such as capital and operating costs, and the refuse-derived fuel preparation and energy conversion costs, were considered. The final section of the report reviews and summarizes the information gathered during the study.

Niessen, W.R.; Marks, C.H.; Sommerlad, R.E. [Camp Dresser and McKee, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)] [Camp Dresser and McKee, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Anaerobic digestion of pressed off leachate from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A highly polluted liquid ('press water') was obtained from the pressing facility for the organic fraction of municipal solid waste in a composting plant. Methane productivity of the squeezed-off leachate was investigated in batch assays. To assess the technical feasibility of 'press water' as a substrate for anaerobic digestion, a laboratory-scale glass column reactor was operated semi-continuously at 37 {sup o}C. A high methane productivity of 270 m{sup -3} CH{sub 4} ton{sup -1} COD{sub added} or 490 m{sup -3} CH{sub 4} ton{sup -1} VS{sub added} was achieved in the batch experiment. The semi-continuously run laboratory-scale reactor was initially operated at an organic loading rate of 10.7 kg COD m{sup -3} d{sup -1}. The loading was increased to finally 27.7 kg COD m{sup -3} d{sup -1}, corresponding to a reduction of the hydraulic retention time from initially 20 to finally 7.7 days. During the digestion, a stable elimination of organic material (measured as COD elimination) of approximately 60% was achieved. Linearly with the increment of the OLR, the volumetric methane production of the reactor increased from 2.6 m{sup 3} m{sub reactor}{sup -3} d{sup -1} to 7.1 m{sup 3} m{sub reactor}{sup -3} d{sup -1}. The results indicated that 'press water' from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste was a suitable substrate for anaerobic digestion which gave a high biogas yield even at very high loading rates.

Nayono, Satoto E. [Department of Civil Engineering, Yogyakarta State University, Campus UNY Karangmalang Yogyakarta 55281 (Indonesia); Institute of Biology for Engineers and Biotechnology of Wastewater, University of Karlsruhe, Am Fasanengarten, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Winter, Josef, E-mail: josef.winter@iba.uka.d [Institute of Biology for Engineers and Biotechnology of Wastewater, University of Karlsruhe, Am Fasanengarten, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Gallert, Claudia [Institute of Biology for Engineers and Biotechnology of Wastewater, University of Karlsruhe, Am Fasanengarten, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

110

Review of composting and anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste and a methodological proposal for a mid-size city  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Review of composting and anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste and a methodological proposal and processes on composting and anaerobic digestion are compiled, showing the versatility and multivariable of the compost. In addition, anaerobic decomposition followed by vermicomposting is pointed as one of the best

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

111

Processing high solids concentration of municipal solid waste by anaerobic digester for methane production  

SciTech Connect

Cellulosic solids are pretreated by calcium hydroxide to produce salts of volatile orangic acids and other water-soluble substances. Pure cellulose, sawdust, and waste paper are used as model substances for the study of alkaline degradation. It is found that sawdust is more difficult to degrade than the other two substances. The cooking conditions for high conversion of model substances and high yeild of orangic acids are found to be 275/degree/C to 300/degree/C with the corresponding reaction time from 30 minutes to 15 minutes. The cooking liquor can be readily fermented in an anaerobic fluidized-bed digester for methane production. The cooking liquor from different reaction conditions can all be digested by the methanogens. Higher than 90% of COD can be removed under the conditions of low organic loading rate (<2.0 g COD/1/day) and low hydraulic retention time (1.5 to 2.0 days). 14 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

Tsao, G.T.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Fuzzy multicriteria disposal method and site selection for municipal solid waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of fuzzy multiple criteria analysis (MCA) in solid waste management has the advantage of rendering subjective and implicit decision making more objective and analytical, with its ability to accommodate both quantitative and qualitative data. In this paper a modified fuzzy TOPSIS methodology is proposed for the selection of appropriate disposal method and site for municipal solid waste (MSW). Our method is superior to existing methods since it has capability of representing vague qualitative data and presenting all possible results with different degrees of membership. In the first stage of the proposed methodology, a set of criteria of cost, reliability, feasibility, pollution and emission levels, waste and energy recovery is optimized to determine the best MSW disposal method. Landfilling, composting, conventional incineration, and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) combustion are the alternatives considered. The weights of the selection criteria are determined by fuzzy pairwise comparison matrices of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). It is found that RDF combustion is the best disposal method alternative for Istanbul. In the second stage, the same methodology is used to determine the optimum RDF combustion plant location using adjacent land use, climate, road access and cost as the criteria. The results of this study illustrate the importance of the weights on the various factors in deciding the optimized location, with the best site located in Catalca. A sensitivity analysis is also conducted to monitor how sensitive our model is to changes in the various criteria weights.

Ekmekcioglu, Mehmet, E-mail: meceng3584@yahoo.co [Istanbul Technical University, Department of Management Engineering, 34367 Macka, Istanbul (Turkey); Kaya, Tolga [Istanbul Technical University, Department of Management Engineering, 34367 Macka, Istanbul (Turkey); Kahraman, Cengiz [Istanbul Technical University, Department of Industrial Engineering, 34367 Macka, Istanbul (Turkey)

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

113

Micro-scale anaerobic digestion of point source components of organic fraction of municipal solid waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The fermentation characteristics of six specific types of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) were examined, with an emphasis on properties that are needed when designing plug-flow type anaerobic bioreactors. More specifically, the decomposition patterns of a vegetable (cabbage), fruits (banana and citrus peels), fresh leaf litter of bamboo and teak leaves, and paper (newsprint) waste streams as feedstocks were studied. Individual OFMSW components were placed into nylon mesh bags and subjected to various fermentation periods (solids retention time, SRT) within the inlet of a functioning plug-flow biogas fermentor. These were removed at periodic intervals, and their composition was analyzed to monitor decomposition rates and changes in chemical composition. Components like cabbage waste, banana peels, and orange peels fermented rapidly both in a plug-flow biogas reactor (PFBR) as well as under a biological methane potential (BMP) assay, while other OFMSW components (leaf litter from bamboo and teak leaves and newsprint) fermented slowly with poor process stability and moderate biodegradation. For fruit and vegetable wastes (FVW), a rapid and efficient removal of pectins is the main cause of rapid disintegration of these feedstocks, which left behind very little compost forming residues (2-5%). Teak and bamboo leaves and newsprint decomposed only to 25-50% in 30 d. These results confirm the potential for volatile fatty acids accumulation in a PFBR's inlet and suggest a modification of the inlet zone or operation of a PFBR with the above feedstocks.

Chanakya, H.N. [Centre for Sustainable Technologies, (formerly ASTRA), Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India)], E-mail: chanakya@astra.iisc.ernet.in; Sharma, Isha [Centre for Sustainable Technologies, (formerly ASTRA), Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Ramachandra, T.V. [Centre for Sustainable Technologies, (formerly ASTRA), Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India)

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

114

Leachability of heavy metals from growth media containing source-separated municipal solid waste compost  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The leaching of heavy metals in source-separated municipal solid waste (MSW) compost was determined by irrigation leaching of growth medium, admixed with varying amounts of compost, used for container grown plants. Perennial flowers (black-eyed Susan, Rudbeckia hirta L.) were grown in 2-L containers filled with the growth medium for a 10-wk period. Rainfall was supplemented with overhead irrigation to supply 2 cm of water per day. Leachates collected over each 2-wk period were analyzed for Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn using atomic spectrometry. Concentrations of the heavy metals in the leachates increased with increasing proportions of MSW compost in the growth medium, but decreased with time of leaching. Leaching of the metals occurred at relatively high concentrations initially, followed by continued leaching at low concentrations. The initial leaching of heavy metals is attributed to their soluble or exchangeable forms and the subsequent slow leaching to the solid compounds. The concentrations of the heavy metals remained below the current drinking water standards in all treatments throughout the leaching period. The results thus suggest that contamination of groundwater with heavy metals from source-separated MSW compost applied as a soil amendment should be negligible, as the low concentrations in the leachates leaving the surface soil would be further attenuated by the subsoil. 29 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Sawhney, B.L.; Bugbee, G.J.; Stilwell, D.E. [Connecticut Agricultural Experimental Station, New Haven, CT (United States)

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash: Characterization and kinetic studies of organic matter  

SciTech Connect

Bottom ash is the main solid residue which is produced by municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) facilities. To be reused in public works, it has to be stored previously a few months. This material is composed primarily of a mineral matrix but also contains unburnt organic matter. The mineral content and its change in the course of aging are relatively well-known, in contrast with the organic content. So in order to detect the phenomena responsible for changes in organic matter and their effects during aging, the concentrations of the main organic compounds previously characterized, the number of microorganisms, and the release of carbon dioxide were followed kinetically in model laboratory conditions. The results showed that the aging process led to the natural biodegradation of the organic matter available in bottom ash, composed essentially of carboxylic acids and n-alkanes (steroids and PAH`s to a lesser extent), and consequently that it would improve the bottom ash quality. Furthermore these results were confirmed by the study of aging conducted in conditions used in the industrial scale.

Dugenest, S.; Casabianca, H.; Grenier-Loustalot, M.F. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Vernaison (France). Service central d`Analyse; Combrisson, J. [Univ. Claude Bernard-Lyon I, Villeurbanne (France). Lab. d`Ecologie Microbienne du Sol

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

The estimation of N{sub 2}O emissions from municipal solid waste incineration facilities: The Korea case  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The greenhouse gases (GHGs) generated in municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration are carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O). In South Korea case, the total of GHGs from the waste incineration facilities has been increasing at an annual rate 10%. In these view, waste incineration facilities should consider to reduce GHG emissions. This study is designed to estimate the N{sub 2}O emission factors from MSW incineration plants, and calculate the N{sub 2}O emissions based on these factors. The three MSW incinerators examined in this study were either stoker or both stoker and rotary kiln facilities. The N{sub 2}O concentrations from the MSW incinerators were measured using gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD) equipment. The average of the N{sub 2}O emission factors for the M01 plant, M02 plant, and M03 plant are 71, 75, and 153 g-N{sub 2}O/ton-waste, respectively. These results showed a significant difference from the default values of the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC), while approaching those values derived in Japan and Germany. Furthermore, comparing the results of this study to the Korea Energy Economics Institute (KEEI) (2007) data on waste incineration, N{sub 2}O emissions from MSW incineration comprised 19% of the total N{sub 2}O emissions.

Park, Sangwon; Choi, Jun-Ho [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jinwon, E-mail: jwpark@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

117

Municipal solid waste management in Africa: Strategies and livelihoods in Yaounde, Cameroon  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper provides an overview of the state of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in the capital of Cameroon, Yaounde, and suggests some possible solutions for its improvement. The institutional, financial, and physical aspects of MSW management, as well as the livelihoods of the population, were analyzed. Our study revealed that distances and lack of infrastructure have a major impact on waste collection. Garbage bins are systematically mentioned as the primary infrastructure needed by the population in all quarters, whether it be a high or low standard community. The construction of transfer stations and the installation of garbage bins are suggested as a solution to reduce distances between households and garbage bins, thus improving waste collection vehicle accessibility. Transfer stations and garbage bins would enable the official waste collection company to expand its range of services and significantly improve waste collection rates. Several transfer stations have already been set up by non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and community-based organizations (CBOs), but they require technical, institutional and funding support. Research is needed on the quality and safety of community-made compost, as well as on soil fertility in urban and peri-urban areas. Most of the stakeholders, municipalities, the official waste collection company and households acknowledge the need for better monitoring and regulation of MSW management. The urban community of Yaounde also needs to maintain its support of MSW management and promote the sustainability of NGOs and CBOs operating in underserved areas not yet covered by adequate infrastructures. A major opportunity for implementation of such waste policy is the heavily indebted poor countries (HIPC) program dedicated to urban planning and good governance.

Parrot, Laurent [Centre de Cooperation Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Developpement (CIRAD), Montpellier 34398 Cedex 5 (France)], E-mail: laurent.parrot@cirad.fr; Sotamenou, Joel; Dia, Bernadette Kamgnia [University of Yaounde II - Soa, Faculty of Economics and Management, P.O. Box 1365, Yaounde (Cameroon)

2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

118

Municipal solid waste management in India: From waste disposal to recovery of resources?  

SciTech Connect

Unlike that of western countries, the solid waste of Asian cities is often comprised of 70-80% organic matter, dirt and dust. Composting is considered to be the best option to deal with the waste generated. Composting helps reduce the waste transported to and disposed of in landfills. During the course of the research, the author learned that several developing countries established large-scale composting plants that eventually failed for various reasons. The main flaw that led to the unsuccessful establishment of the plants was the lack of application of simple scientific methods to select the material to be composted. Landfills have also been widely unsuccessful in countries like India because the landfill sites have a very limited time frame of usage. The population of the developing countries is another factor that detrimentally impacts the function of landfill sites. As the population keeps increasing, the garbage quantity also increases, which, in turn, exhausts the landfill sites. Landfills are also becoming increasingly expensive because of the rising costs of construction and operation. Incineration, which can greatly reduce the amount of incoming municipal solid waste, is the second most common method for disposal in developed countries. However, incinerator ash may contain hazardous materials including heavy metals and organic compounds such as dioxins, etc. Recycling plays a large role in solid waste management, especially in cities in developing countries. None of the three methods mentioned here are free from problems. The aim of this study is thus to compare the three methods, keeping in mind the costs that would be incurred by the respective governments, and identify the most economical and best option possible to combat the waste disposal problem.

Narayana, Tapan [Hidayatullah National Law University, HNLU Bhawan, Civil Lines, Raipur 492001, Chhattisgarh (India)], E-mail: tapan.narayana@gmail.com

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

119

Guide to implementing reclamation processes at Department of Defense municipal solid waste and construction debris landfills. Master's thesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This thesis serves as a guide for implementing landfill reclamation techniques on municipal solid waste or construction debris landfills owned, operated, or used by the DoD. The research describes historical and current methods for disposing of solid waste including open dumping, sanitary landfilling, and the development of state-of-the-art sanitary landfill cell technology. The thesis also identifies the factors which have led to the need for new methods of managing municipal solid waste. The vast majority of the study is devoted to identifying actions which should be taken before, during, and after implementation of a landfill reclamation project. These actions include the development of health, safety, and contingency planning documents, the establishment of systems for characterizing and monitoring site conditions, and the identification of other procedures and processes necessary for performing successful operations. Finally, this study contains a model for analyzing under which conditions reclamation is economically feasible. The model examines economic feasibility in four separate conditions and shows that reclamation is economically feasible in a wide variety of markets. However, the model also shows that feasibility is directly associated with a continuance of normal landfilling operations. Landfill, Landfill reclamation, Landfill mining, Municipal solid waste, Recycling, Construction debris.

Tures, G.L.

1993-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

120

Dry-thermophilic anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste: Methane production modeling  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Methane generation may be modeled by means of modified product generation model of Romero Garcia (1991). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Organic matter content and particle size influence the kinetic parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher organic matter content and lower particle size enhance the biomethanization. - Abstract: The influence of particle size and organic matter content of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) in the overall kinetics of dry (30% total solids) thermophilic (55 Degree-Sign C) anaerobic digestion have been studied in a semi-continuous stirred tank reactor (SSTR). Two types of wastes were used: synthetic OFMSW (average particle size of 1 mm; 0.71 g Volatile Solids/g waste), and OFMSW coming from a composting full scale plant (average particle size of 30 mm; 0.16 g Volatile Solids/g waste). A modification of a widely-validated product-generation kinetic model has been proposed. Results obtained from the modified-model parameterization at steady-state (that include new kinetic parameters as K, Y{sub pMAX} and {theta}{sub MIN}) indicate that the features of the feedstock strongly influence the kinetics of the process. The overall specific growth rate of microorganisms ({mu}{sub max}) with synthetic OFMSW is 43% higher compared to OFMSW coming from a composting full scale plant: 0.238 d{sup -1} (K = 1.391 d{sup -1}; Y{sub pMAX} = 1.167 L CH{sub 4}/gDOC{sub c}; {theta}{sub MIN} = 7.924 days) vs. 0.135 d{sup -1} (K = 1.282 d{sup -1}; Y{sub pMAX} = 1.150 L CH{sub 4}/gDOC{sub c}; {theta}{sub MIN} = 9.997 days) respectively. Finally, it could be emphasized that the validation of proposed modified-model has been performed successfully by means of the simulation of non-steady state data for the different SRTs tested with each waste.

Fdez-Gueelfo, L.A., E-mail: alberto.fdezguelfo@uca.es [Department of Chemical Engineering and Food Technology, Faculty of Science, University of Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Alvarez-Gallego, C. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Food Technology, Faculty of Science, University of Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Sales, D. [Department of Environmental Technologies, Faculty of Marine and Environmental Sciences, University of Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Romero Garcia, L.I. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Food Technology, Faculty of Science, University of Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas municipal solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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121

A comparison of municipal solid waste management in Berlin and Singapore  

SciTech Connect

A comparative analysis of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in Singapore and Berlin was carried out in order to identify its current status, and highlight the prevailing conditions of MSWM. An overview of the various aspects of MSWM in these two cities is provided, with emphasis on comparing the legal, technical, and managerial aspects of MSW. Collection systems and recycling practiced with respect to the involvement of the government and the private sector, are also presented. Over last two decades, the city of Berlin has made impressive progress with respect to its waste management. The amounts of waste have declined significantly, and at the same time the proportion that could be recovered and recycled has increased. In contrast, although Singapore's recycling rate has been increasing over the past few years, rapid economic and population growth as well as change in consumption patterns in this city-state has caused waste generation to continue to increase. Landfilling of MSW plays minor role in both cities, one due to geography (Singapore) and the other due to legislative prohibition (Berlin). Consequently, both in Singapore and Berlin, waste is increasingly being used as a valuable resource and great efforts have been made for the development of incineration technology and energy recovery, as well as climate protection.

Zhang Dongqing, E-mail: dqzhang@ntu.edu.s [DHI-NTU Centre, Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Keat, Tan Soon [Maritime Research Centre, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Gersberg, Richard M. [Graduate School of Public Health, San Diego State University, Hardy Tower 119, 5500 Campanile, San Diego CA 92182-4162 (United States)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

122

Oxygen respirometry to assess stability and maturity of composted municipal solid waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The stability and maturity of compost prepared from municipal solid waste (MSW) at a full-scale composting plant was assessed through chemical, physical, and biological assays. Respiration bioassays used to determine stability (O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} respirometry) were sensitive to process control problems at the composting plant and indicated increasing stability with time. Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) growth bioassays revealed that immature compost samples inhibited growth. Growth of ryegrass in potting mix prepared with cured compost not amended with fertilizer was enhanced as compared to a pest control. Garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.) seed germination, used as an indicator of phytotoxicity, revealed inhibition of germination at all compost maturity levels. The phytotoxicity was though to be salt-related. Spearman rank-order correlations demonstrated that O{sub 2} respirometry, water-soluble organic C, and the water extract organic C to organic N ratio, significantly correlated with compost age and best indicated an acceptable level of stability. Oxygen respirometry also best predicted the potential for ryegrass growth, and an acceptable level of compost maturity. 31 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

Iannotti, D.A.; Grebus, M.E.; Toth, B.L.; Madden, L.V.; Hoitink, A.J. [Ohio State Univ./Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, Wooster, OH (United States)

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Flow analysis of metals in a municipal solid waste management system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study aimed to identify the metal flow in a municipal solid waste (MSW) management system. Outputs of a resource recovery facility, refuse derived fuel (RDF) production facility, carbonization facility, plastics liquefaction facility, composting facility, and bio-gasification facility were analyzed for metal content and leaching concentration. In terms of metal content, bulky and incombustible waste had the highest values. Char from a carbonization facility, which treats household waste, had a higher metal content than MSW incinerator bottom ash. A leaching test revealed that Cd and Pb in char and Pb in RDF production residue exceeded the Japanese regulatory criteria for landfilling, so special attention should be paid to final disposal of these substances. By multiplying metal content and the generation rate of outputs, the metal content of input waste to each facility was estimated. For most metals except Cr, the total contribution ratio of paper/textile/plastics, bulky waste, and incombustible waste was over 80%. Approximately 30% of Cr originated from plastic packaging. Finally, several MSW management scenarios showed that most metals are transferred to landfills and the leaching potential of metals to the environment is quite small.

Jung, C.H. [Laboratory of Solid Waste Disposal Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Matsuto, T. [Laboratory of Solid Waste Disposal Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)]. E-mail: matsuto@eng.hokudai.ac.jp; Tanaka, N. [Laboratory of Solid Waste Disposal Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Combustion of municipal solid wastes with oil shale in a circulating fluidized bed. Quarterly report ending March 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

This document contains a progress report for the Project Description of Grant No. DE-FG01-94CE15612, {open_quotes}Develop a Combustion of Municipal Solid Waste with Oil Shale in Circulating Fluidized Bed{close_quotes}, dated September 2, 1994. The Project Description lists and describes six tasks, four of which are complete, and two others nearing completion. A summary of progress on each task is presented in this report.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Integration of the informal sector into municipal solid waste management in the Philippines - What does it need?  

SciTech Connect

The integration of the informal sector into municipal solid waste management is a challenge many developing countries face. In Iloilo City, Philippines around 220 tons of municipal solid waste are collected every day and disposed at a 10 ha large dumpsite. In order to improve the local waste management system the Local Government decided to develop a new Waste Management Center with integrated landfill. However, the proposed area is adjacent to the presently used dumpsite where more than 300 waste pickers dwell and depend on waste picking as their source of livelihood. The Local Government recognized the hidden threat imposed by the waste picker's presence for this development project and proposed various measures to integrate the informal sector into the municipal solid waste management (MSWM) program. As a key intervention a Waste Workers Association, called USWAG Calahunan Livelihood Association Inc. (UCLA) was initiated and registered as a formal business enterprise in May 2009. Up to date, UCLA counts 240 members who commit to follow certain rules and to work within a team that jointly recovers wasted materials. As a cooperative they are empowered to explore new livelihood options such as the recovery of Alternative Fuels for commercial (cement industry) and household use, production of compost and making of handicrafts out of used packages. These activities do not only provide alternative livelihood for them but also lessen the generation of leachate and Greenhouse Gases (GHG) emissions from waste disposal, whereby the life time of the proposed new sanitary landfill can be extended likewise.

Paul, Johannes G., E-mail: jp.aht.p3@gmail.com [GIZ-AHT Project Office SWM4LGUs, c/o DENR, Iloilo City (Philippines); Arce-Jaque, Joan [GIZ-AHT Project Office SWM4LGUs, c/o DENR, Iloilo City (Philippines); Ravena, Neil; Villamor, Salome P. [General Service Office, City Government, Iloilo City (Philippines)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

126

Ionic Solid Oxides for High Temperature Optical Gas Sensing in ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Ionic Solid Oxides for High Temperature Optical Gas Sensing in Fossil Fuel Based Power Plants. Author(s), Junhang Dong, Xiling Tang, Kurtis  ...

127

Nitrogen availability and leaching from soil amended with municipal solid waste compost  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Beneficial use of municipal solid waste compost depends on identifying a management strategy that supports crop production and protects water quality. Effects of compost and N fertilizer management strategies on corn (Zea mays L.) yield and NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N leaching were evaluated in a 3-yr study on a Hubbard loamy sand soil. Two composts were each applied at either 90 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} yr{sup {minus}1} from 1993 to 1995, or at 270 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} in one application in 1993. The compost and non-amended plots were side dressed annually with N fertilizer as urea at 0, 125, and 250 kg ha{sup {minus}1}. Biochemical properties of the compost as well as compost management strongly affected crop response and fate of N. Compost increased grain yield with no significant yield response to N fertilizer with the single compost application in Year 1 and the annual compost application in Year 3. Plant N uptake increased with N fertilizer rate, except in the 270 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} compost treatments in Year 1. Over the 3-yr period, NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N leaching with the 270 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} compost application was 1.8 times greater compared to that with the annual application. The estimated N mineralization ranged from 0 to 12% and 3 to 6% in the annual and single compost addition, respectively. Under the conditions of this study, annual compost application with reduced supplemental N fertilizer was the best management strategy to reach optimum crop yield while minimizing NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N leaching losses.

Mamo, M.; Rosen, C.J.; Halbach, T.R.

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Toxicity mitigation and solidification of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash using alkaline activated coal ash  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incinerator fly ash (IFA) is added to an alkali activated coal fly ash (CFA) matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Means of stabilizing the incinerator ash for use in construction applications. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concrete made from IFA, CFA and IFA-CFA mixes was chemically characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmentally friendly solution to IFA disposal by reducing its toxicity levels. - Abstract: Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration is a common and effective practice to reduce the volume of solid waste in urban areas. However, the byproduct of this process is a fly ash (IFA), which contains large quantities of toxic contaminants. The purpose of this research study was to analyze the chemical, physical and mechanical behaviors resulting from the gradual introduction of IFA to an alkaline activated coal fly ash (CFA) matrix, as a mean of stabilizing the incinerator ash for use in industrial construction applications, where human exposure potential is limited. IFA and CFA were analyzed via X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Inductive coupled plasma (ICP) to obtain a full chemical analysis of the samples, its crystallographic characteristics and a detailed count of the eight heavy metals contemplated in US Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR). The particle size distribution of IFA and CFA was also recorded. EPA's Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was followed to monitor the leachability of the contaminants before and after the activation. Also images obtained via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), before and after the activation, are presented. Concrete made from IFA, CFA and IFA-CFA mixes was subjected to a full mechanical characterization; tests include compressive strength, flexural strength, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio and setting time. The leachable heavy metal contents (except for Se) were below the maximum allowable limits and in many cases even below the reporting limit. The leachable Chromium was reduced from 0.153 down to 0.0045 mg/L, Arsenic from 0.256 down to 0.132 mg/L, Selenium from 1.05 down to 0.29 mg/L, Silver from 0.011 down to .001 mg/L, Barium from 2.06 down to 0.314 mg/L and Mercury from 0.007 down to 0.001 mg/L. Although the leachable Cd exhibited an increase from 0.49 up to 0.805 mg/L and Pd from 0.002 up to 0.029 mg/L, these were well below the maximum limits of 1.00 and 5.00 mg/L, respectively.

Ivan Diaz-Loya, E. [Alternative Cementitious Binders Laboratory (ACBL), Department of Civil Engineering, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States); Allouche, Erez N., E-mail: allouche@latech.edu [Alternative Cementitious Binders Laboratory (ACBL), Department of Civil Engineering, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States); Eklund, Sven; Joshi, Anupam R. [Department of Chemistry, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States); Kupwade-Patil, Kunal [Alternative Cementitious Binders Laboratory (ACBL), Department of Civil Engineering, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

129

Solute transport under steady and transient conditions in biodegraded municipal solid waste  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The transport of a conservative tracer (lithium) in a large (3.5 m3) undisturbed municipal solid waste sample has been investigated under steady and fully transient conditions using a simple model. The model comprises a kinematic wave approximation for water movement, presented in a previous paper, and a strict convective solute flux law. The waste medium is conceptualized as a three-domain system consisting of a mobile domain (channels), an immobile fast domain, and an immobile slow domain. The mobile domain constitutes only a minor fraction of the medium, and the access to the major part of medium is constrained by diffusive transport. Thus the system is in a state of physical nonequilibrium. The fast immobile domain is the part of the matrix which surrounds the channels and forms the boundary between the channels and the matrix. Owing to its exposure to mobile water, which enhances the biodegradation process, this domain is assumed to be more porous and loose in its structure and therefore to respond faster to a change in solute concentration in the mobile domain compared to the regions deep inside the matrix. The diffusive mass exchange between the domains is modeled with two first-order mass transfer expressions coupled in series. Under transient conditions the system will also be in a state of hydraulic nonequilibrium. Hydraulic gradients build up between the channel domain and the matrix in response to the water input events. The gradients will govern a reversible flow and convective transport between the domains, here represented as a source/sink term in the governing equation. The model has been used to interpret and compare the results from a steady state experiment and an unsteady state experiment. By solely adjusting the size of the fraction of the immobile fast domain that is active in transferring solute, the model is capable of accurately reproducing the measured outflow breakthrough curves for both the steady and unsteady state experiments. During transient conditions the fraction of the immobile fast domain that is active in transferring solute is found to be about 65% larger than that under steady state conditions. It is therefore concluded that the water input pattern governs the size of the fraction of the immobile fast domain which, in turn, governs the solute residence time in the solid waste. It can be concluded that the contaminant transport process in landfills is likely to be in a state of both physical, hydraulic, and chemical nonequilibrium. The transport process for a conservative solute is here shown to be dominated by convective transport in the channels and a fast diffusive mass exchange with the surrounding matrix. This may imply that the observed leachate quality from landfills mainly reflects the biochemical conditions in these regions. The water input pattern is of great importance for the transport process since it governs the size of the fraction of the immobile fast domain which is active in transferring solute. This may be the reason for leachate quality to be seasonally or water flux dependent, which has been observed in several investigations. The result also has a significant practical implication for efforts to enhance the biodegradation process in landfills by recycling of the leachate.

Bendz, David; Singh, Vijay P.

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

COMPACTING BIOMASS AND MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTES TO FORM AND UPGRADED FUEL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Biomass waste materials exist in large quantity in every city and in numerous industrial plants such as wood processing plants and waste paper collection centers. Through minimum processing, such waste materials can be turned into a solid fuel for combustion at existing coal-fired power plants. Use of such biomass fuel reduces the amount of coal used, and hence reduces the greenhouse effect and global warming, while at the same time it reduces the use of land for landfill and the associated problems. The carbon-dioxide resulting from burning biomass fuel is recycled through plant growth and hence does not contribute to global warming. Biomass fuel also contains little sulfur and hence does not contribute to acid rain problems. Notwithstanding the environmental desirability of using biomass waste materials, not much of them are used currently due to the need to densify the waste materials and the high cost of conventional methods of densification such as pelletizing and briquetting. The purpose of this project was to test a unique new method of biomass densification developed from recent research in coal log pipeline (CLP). The new method can produce large agglomerates of biomass materials called ''biomass logs'' which are more than 100 times larger and 30% denser than conventional ''pellets'' or ''briquettes''. The Phase I project was to perform extensive laboratory tests and an economic analysis to determine the technical and economic feasibility of the biomass log fuel (BLF). A variety of biomass waste materials, including wood processing residues such as sawdust, mulch and chips of various types of wood, combustibles that are found in municipal solid waste stream such as paper, plastics and textiles, energy crops including willows and switch grass, and yard waste including tree trimmings, fallen leaves, and lawn grass, were tested by using this new compaction technology developed at Capsule Pipeline Research Center (CPRC), University of Missouri-Columbia (MU). The compaction conditions, including compaction pressure, pressure holding time, back pressure, moisture content, particle size and shape, piston and mold geometry and roughness, and binder for the materials were studied and optimized. The properties of the compacted products--biomass logs--were evaluated in terms of physical, mechanical, and combustion characteristics. An economic analysis of this technology for anticipated future commercial operations was performed. It was found that the compaction pressure and the moisture content of the biomass materials are critical for producing high-quality biomass logs. For most biomass materials, dense and strong logs can be produced under room temperature without binder and at a pressure of 70 MPa (10,000 psi), approximately. A few types of the materials tested such as sawdust and grass need a minimum pressure of 100 MPa (15,000 psi) in order to produce good logs. The appropriate moisture range for compacting waste paper into good logs is 5-20%, and the optimum moisture is in the neighborhood of 13%. For the woody materials and yard waste, the appropriate moisture range is narrower: 5-13%, and the optimum is 8-9%. The compacted logs have a dry density of 0.8 to 1.0 g/cm{sup 3}, corresponding to a wet density of 0.9 to 1.1 g/cm{sup 3}, approximately. The logs have high strength and high resistance to impact and abrasion, but are feeble to water and hence need to be protected from water or rain. They also have good long-term performance under normal environmental conditions, and can be stored for a long time without significant deterioration. Such high-density and high-strength logs not only facilitate handling, transportation, and storage, but also increase the energy content of biomass per unit volume. After being transported to power plants and crushed, the biomass logs can be co-fired with coal to generate electricity.

Henry Liu; Yadong Li

2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

On the superficial gas velocity in deep gas-solids fluidized beds  

SciTech Connect

The superficial gas velocity is one of the key parameters used to determine the flow hydrodynamics in gas–solids fluidized beds. However, the superficial velocity varies with height in practice, and there is no consistent basis for its specification. Different approaches to determine the superficial gas velocity in a deep gas–solids system are shown to cause difficulties in developing models and in comparing predictions with experimental results. In addition, the reference conditions for superficial gas velocity are important in modeling of deep gas–solids systems where there is a considerable pressure drop.

Li, Tingwen; Grace, John; Shadle, Lawrence; Guenther, Chris

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

132

On the Superficial Gas Velocity in Deep Gas-Solid Fluidized Beds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The superficial gas velocity is one of the key parameters used to determine the flow hydrodynamics in gas–solids fluidized beds. However, the superficial velocity varies with height in practice, and there is no consistent basis for its specification. Different approaches to determine the superficial gas velocity in a deep gas–solids system are shown to cause difficulties in developing models and in comparing predictions with experimental results. In addition, the reference conditions for superficial gas velocity are important in modeling of deep gas–solids systems where there is a considerable pressure drop.

Li, Tingwen; Grace, John; Shadle, Lawrence; Guenther, Chris

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

133

Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 11, Alphabetically indexed bibliography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This appendix contains the alphabetically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal waste management alternatives. The references are listed for each of the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized-bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting, and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

Not Available

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Potential for Materials and Energy RecoveryPotential for Materials and Energy Recovery the Municipal Solid Wastes (the Municipal Solid Wastes (MSWMSW) of Beograd) of Beograd  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

%) and glass (15%). · Recovery of energy by anaerobic digestion: The natural organics in MSW react anaerobically (in absence of O2).to form methane gas · Recovery of soil nutrients: By aerobic composting (in + 6.5O2 = 6CO2 + 5H2O + 23,000 kJ/kg On basis of chemical analysis, the average composition

Columbia University

135

Two-year performance by evapotranspiration covers for municipal solid waste landfills in northwest Ohio  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All ET covers produced rates of percolation less than 32 cm yr{sup -1}, the maximum allowable rate by the Ohio EPA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dredged sediment provided sufficient water storage and promoted growth by native plant species. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Native plant mixtures attained acceptable rates of evapotranspiration throughout the growing season. - Abstract: Evapotranspiration (ET) covers have gained interest as an alternative to conventional covers for the closure of municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills because they are less costly to construct and are expected to have a longer service life. Whereas ET covers have gained acceptance in arid and semi-arid regions (defined by a precipitation (P) to potential evapotranspiration (PET) ratio less than 0.75) by meeting performance standards (e.g. rate of percolation), it remains unclear whether they are suitable for humid regions (P:PET greater than 0.75). The goal of this project is to extend their application to northwest Ohio (P:PET equals 1.29) by designing covers that produce a rate of percolation less than 32 cm yr{sup -1}, the maximum acceptable rate by the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (OEPA). Test ET covers were constructed in drainage lysimeters (1.52 m diameter, 1.52 m depth) using dredged sediment amended with organic material and consisted of immature (I, plants seeded onto soil) or mature (M, plants transferred from a restored tall-grass prairie) plant mixtures. The water balance for the ET covers was monitored from June 2009 to June 2011, which included measured precipitation and percolation, and estimated soil water storage and evapotranspiration. Precipitation was applied at a rate of 94 cm yr{sup -1} in the first year and at rate of 69 cm yr{sup -1} in the second year. During the first year, covers with the M plant mixture produced noticeably less percolation (4 cm) than covers with the I plant mixture (17 cm). However, during the second year, covers with the M plant mixture produced considerably more percolation (10 cm) than covers with the I plant mixture (3 cm). This is likely due to a decrease in the aboveground biomass for the M plant mixture from year 1 (1008 g m{sup -2}) to year 2 (794 g m{sup -2}) and an increase for the I plant mixture from year 1 (644 g m{sup -2}) to year 2 (1314 g m{sup -2}). Over the 2-year period, the mean annual rates of percolation for the covers with the M and I plant mixtures were 7 and 8 cm yr{sup -1}, which are below the OEPA standard. The results suggest the application of ET covers be extended to northwest Ohio and other humid regions.

Barnswell, Kristopher D., E-mail: kristopher.barnswell2@rockets.utoledo.edu [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Toledo, Lake Erie Center, 6200 Bayshore Rd., Oregon, OH 43616 (United States); Dwyer, Daryl F., E-mail: daryl.dwyer@utoledo.edu [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft, Mail Stop 604, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

136

A new correlation for holdup in gas-solids cyclone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The performance of cyclone as gas to solids heat exchanger depends on the surface area of holdup of the solid particles inside the cyclone. Unlike the conventional heat exchangers where heat transfer area is fixed for a particular heat exchanger, heat ... Keywords: correlation, cyclone, holdup, marquardt-levenberg algorithm, regression

Anuj Jain; A. R. Paul; S. K. Aggarwal; B. Mohanty; B. P. Mani

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Solid State Gas Sensors - Energy Innovation Portal  

The total cost of ownership (TCO) for gas sensors today is a limiting factor in improving safety, air quality, and energy efficiency.

138

The Potential of Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Municipal Solid Waste: A Technical and Economic Evaluation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

process streams. Handb. Bioethanol:395-415. 10. Ehrman T.solid waste used as bioethanol sources and its relatedof cellulosic biomass into bioethanol as an alternative

Shi, Jian; Ebrik, Mirvat; Yang, Bin; Wyman, Charles E.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

RefCOM: A TEST-BED CONVERTING MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE TO METHANE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and introduced into a pipeline as synthetic natural gas (SNG). The effluent from the digesters passes through

Columbia University

140

Life-cycle assessment of municipal solid waste management alternatives with consideration of uncertainty: SIWMS development and application  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the development and application of the Stochastic Integrated Waste Management Simulator (SIWMS) model. SIWMS provides a detailed view of the environmental impacts and associated costs of municipal solid waste (MSW) management alternatives under conditions of uncertainty. The model follows a life-cycle inventory approach extended with compensatory systems to provide more equitable bases for comparing different alternatives. Economic performance is measured by the net present value. The model is verified against four publicly available models under deterministic conditions and then used to study the impact of uncertainty on Sydney's MSW management 'best practices'. Uncertainty has a significant effect on all impact categories. The greatest effect is observed in the global warming category where a reversal of impact direction is predicted. The reliability of the system is most sensitive to uncertainties in the waste processing and disposal. The results highlight the importance of incorporating uncertainty at all stages to better understand the behaviour of the MSW system.

El Hanandeh, Ali, E-mail: alel5804@uni.sydney.edu.a [School of Civil Engineering, Building J05, University of Sydney NSW 2006 (Australia); El-Zein, Abbas [School of Civil Engineering, Building J05, University of Sydney NSW 2006 (Australia)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas municipal solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Combustion of municipal solid wastes with oil shale in a circulating fluidized bed. Quarterly report, quarter ending 31 December 1994  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The test plan is designed to demonstrate that oil shale co-combusted with municipal solid waste (MSW) can reduce gaseous pollutants (SO{sub 2}, CO) to acceptable levels (90%+ reduction) and produce a cementitious ash which will, at a minimum, be acceptable in normal land fills. The small-scale combustion testing will be accomplished in a 6-in. circulating fluid bed combustor (CFBC) at Hazen Research Laboratories. This work will be patterned after the study the authors conducted in 1988 when coal and oil shale were co-combusted in a program sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute. The specific purpose of the test program will be to: determine the required ratio of oil shale to MSW by determining the ratio of absorbent to pollutant (A/P); determine the effect of temperature and resident time in the reactor; and determine if kinetic model developed for coal/oil shale mixture is applicable.

Not Available

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Solid fuel combustion system for gas turbine engine  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid fuel, pressurized fluidized bed combustion system for a gas turbine engine includes a carbonizer outside of the engine for gasifying coal to a low Btu fuel gas in a first fraction of compressor discharge, a pressurized fluidized bed outside of the engine for combusting the char residue from the carbonizer in a second fraction of compressor discharge to produce low temperature vitiated air, and a fuel-rich, fuel-lean staged topping combustor inside the engine in a compressed air plenum thereof. Diversion of less than 100% of compressor discharge outside the engine minimizes the expense of fabricating and maintaining conduits for transferring high pressure and high temperature gas and incorporation of the topping combustor in the compressed air plenum of the engine minimizes the expense of modifying otherwise conventional gas turbine engines for solid fuel, pressurized fluidized bed combustion.

Wilkes, Colin (Lebanon, IN); Mongia, Hukam C. (Carmel, IN)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure fails to extract oxoanion-forming elements that are extracted by municipal solid waste leachates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

US EPA and state regulatory agencies rely on standard extraction tests to identify wastes that have the potential to contaminate surface water or groundwater. To evaluate the predictive abilities of these extraction tests, the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), the Waste Extraction Test (WET), and the Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure (SPLP) were compared with actual municipal solid waste leachates (MSWLs) for their ability to extract regulated elements from a variety of industrial solid wastes in short- and long-term extractions. Short-term extractions used MSWLs from a variety of California landfills. Long-term sequential extractions simulated longer term leaching, as might occur in MSW landfills. For most regulated elements, the TCLP roughly predicted the maximum concentrations extracted by the MSWLs. For regulated elements that form oxoanions (e.g., Sb, As, Mo, Se, V), however the TCLP underpredicted the levels extracted by the MSWL. None of the standard tests adequately predicted these levels. The results emphasize the need for better standardized techniques to identify wastes that have the potential to contaminate groundwater with oxoanion-forming elements, particularly arsenic.

Hooper, K.; Iskander, M.; Sivia, G. [California Dept. of Toxic Substances Control, Berkeley, CA (United States). Hazardous Materials Lab.] [and others

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Environmental & economical optimization for municipal solid waste collection problems, a modeling and algorithmic approach case study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Increasing environmental concerns and interests in material and energy conservation have lead to increasing advancement in the management of solid waste over the past two decades. The field of modeling of waste management system, as opposed to the modeling ... Keywords: CO2 emission, MSW collection and routing, MSW costs analysis, network design

F. Rhoma; Z. Zhang; Y. Luo; B. Noche

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

RefCOM: A TEST-BED CONVERTING MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE TO METHANE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

gas (SNG) that contains nearly 10% hydrogen mixed with the SNG. Slipstreams along TGC's 1,000-mile pipeline system could be used to separate the H2 from the SNG for use at local fueling stations. "This

Columbia University

146

Miniature solid-state gas compressor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A miniature apparatus for compressing gases is disclosed in which an elastomer disposed between two opposing electrostrictive or piezoelectric ceramic blocks, or between a single electrostrictive or piezoelectric ceramic block and a rigid surface, is caused to extrude into or recede from a channel defined adjacent to the elastomer in response to application or removal of an electric field from the blocks. Individual cells of blocks and elastomer are connected to effect a gas compression by peristaltic activation of the individual cells. The apparatus is self-valving in that the first and last cells operate as inlet and outlet valves, respectively. Preferred electrostrictive and piezoelectric ceramic materials are disclosed, and an alternative, non-peristaltic embodiment of the apparatus is described.

Lawless, William N. (518 Illinois Ct., Westerville, OH 43081); Cross, Leslie E. (401 Glenn Rd., State College, PA 16801); Steyert, William A. (c/o Oakhurst Dr., R.D. 1, Box 99, Center Valley, PA 18034)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Site hydrogeologic/geotechnical characterization report for Site B new municipal solid waste landfill  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Site Hydrogeologic/Geotechnical Characterization Report (SHCR) presents the results of a comprehensive study conducted on a proposed solid waste landfill site, identified herein as Site B, at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This report is intended to satisfy all requirements of the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) with regard to landfill siting requirements and ground water and environmental protection. In addition, this report provides substantial geotechnical data pertinent to the landfill design process.

Reynolds, R.; Nowacki, P.

1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Resource recovery potential from secondary components of segregated municipal solid wastes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for decentralized biogas plants to be operated in the vicinity. We characterized the fermen- tation potential of six differently for each of the feedstocks to obtain a higher gas recovery. Bagasse produced the largest fraction-systems. The existing centralized collection and open landfill systems are gradually becoming expensive and will need

Columbia University

149

Evaluation of oxygen utilization as an indicator of municipal solid-waste compost stability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This research evaluated oxygen utilization parameters as indicators of MSW compost stability. Parameters evaluated were the oxygen utilization rate (OUR), specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR), five-day biochemical oxygen demand, and chemical oxygen demand. In addition, other suggested indicators of stability were investigated including percent volatile solids, volatile solids reduction, nitrogen content, carbon: nitrogen ratio, and reheating potential (RP). OUR is a measure of the rate of oxygen utilization by the microorganisms in the decomposition of organic matter in compost. OUR was observed to be sensitive to the degree of stabilization and decreased with increasing compost age and stability. OUR values near zero indicate that the compost microorganisms are in a state of endogenous respiration, which is characteristic of a stable compost. Therefore, OUR is an excellent indicator of stability. A number of disadvantages are associated with OUR for practical application. Therefore, other parameters were evaluated as indicators of stability based on their statistical correlation to OUR. RP exhibited the strongest correlation to OUR. In combination, RP and SOUR were the two parameters which exhibited the strongest correlation to OUR. OUR, RP, and SOUR are all measures of microbial activity which reflect the degree of organic decomposition, and therefore, stability. Based on the results of this research; OUR, RP, and SOUR are useful parameters in assessing compost stability.

Zimmerman, R.A.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Under consideration for publication in J. Fluid Mech. 1 Liquid-solid impacts with compressible gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Under consideration for publication in J. Fluid Mech. 1 Liquid-solid impacts with compressible gas: The role played by gas compressibility in gas cushioned liquid-solid impacts is investigated within a viscous gas and inviscid liquid regime. A full analysis of the en- ergy conservation in the gas

Purvis, Richard

151

A variational approach to motion of triple junction of gas, liquid and solid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A variational approach to motion of triple junction of gas, liquid and solid Kensuke Yokoia;b;c;1 a to deal with motion of triple junctions of gas, liquid (or two kinds of uid) and solid based on the level with triple junctions of gas, liquid and solid. Numerical simulations for free surface ows with moving

Soatto, Stefano

152

The Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Gas Turbine (GT) Systems Steady State Modeling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Gas Turbine (GT) Systems Steady State Modeling Penyarat plants offer high cycle efficiencies. In this work a hybrid solid oxide fuel cell and gas turbine power, Gas turbine, Hybrid, Solid Oxide Fuel Cell hal-00703135,version1-31May2012 Author manuscript

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

153

Clean energy from municipal solid waste. ERIP technical progress report {number_sign}6  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The ground carbonized RDF slurry from the grinding trials at IKA Works at approximately 50 wt.% solids was sealed in drums and shipped to the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) for the dioxin/furan and trace heavy metal combustion tests. In addition, a fuel characterization and trace component analysis was completed for this final carbonized RDF slurry fuel. This final fuel was a blend of several fuels from the pilot scale slurry carbonization experiments. As can be seen from the data, the final carbonized RDF has an exceptional heating value and volatile matter content. In addition, trace components are significantly lower than the raw RDF pellets. The report summarizes results from combustion tests and air pollution monitoring of these tests. For the upcoming time period 10/96--01/97, it is anticipated that the analysis of the dioxin/furan and trace heavy metal combustion test will be completed. This analysis includes rheology and particle size distribution analysis of the carbonized RDF slurry fuel, carbon content and TCLP of the combustion ash, trace heavy metal balances around combustor, and dioxin/furan emissions. Finally, the slurry carbonization computer model and computer simulations will be completed in the next reporting period (including the waste water treatment subsystem). Based upon this computer model, initial economic estimates and optimizations of the slurry carbonization process will be completed in the next reporting period.

NONE

1996-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

154

Clean energy from municipal solid waste. Technical progress report number 3  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Development of the computer models for slurry carbonization have begun and were based upon the collected data (mass balances, yield, temperatures, and pressures) from the previous pilot plant campaigns. All computer models are being developed with Aspen`s SpeedUp{trademark} software. The primary flow sheet with major alternatives has been developed and the majority of equipment descriptions and models, cost algorithms, and baseline parameters have been input to SpeedUp. The remaining modeling parameters will be input in the next reporting period and the initial flow sheet skeleton and model will be completed. The computer models will focus on optimizing capital and operating costs, and evaluating alternative waste water recycling technologies. The weaknesses of the previous pilot plant data and the data required for design of the commercial demonstration facility were identified. The identified weaknesses of the existing data included mass balance precision and accuracy, reactor residence time control (i.e. reactor level control), reactor temperature variations, and air entrainment in the feed RDF slurry. To improve mass balance precision and accuracy, an alternative carbonization gas flow meter will be designed and installed on the pilot plant. EnerTech`s carbonization gas flow meter design has been submitted to the EERC for final approval. In addition, an appropriate number of feed RDF samples will be characterized for moisture content just prior to the next pilot plant run to estimate incoming moisture variation. A pumping test also will be performed with the feed RDF slurry to determine the amount of air entrainment with the feed slurry.

Klosky, M.

1996-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

155

A CFD study of gas-solid jet in a CFB riser flow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three-dimensional high-resolution numerical simulations of a gas–solid jet in a high-density riser flow were conducted. The impact of gas–solid injection on the riser flow hydrodynamics was investigated with respect to voidage, tracer mass fractions, and solids velocity distribution. The behaviors of a gas–solid jet in the riser crossflow were studied through the unsteady numerical simulations. Substantial separation of the jetting gas and solids in the riser crossflow was observed. Mixing of the injected gas and solids with the riser flow was investigated and backmixing of gas and solids was evaluated. In the current numerical study, both the overall hydrodynamics of riser flow and the characteristics of gas–solid jet were reasonably predicted compared with the experimental measurements made at NETL.

Li, Tingwen; Guenther, Chris

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Municipal waste processing apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to apparatus for processing municipal waste, and more particularly to vibrating mesh screen conveyor systems for removing grit, glass, and other noncombustible materials from dry municipal waste. Municipal waste must be properly processed and disposed of so that it does not create health risks to the community. Generally, municipal waste, which may be collected in garbage trucks, dumpsters, or the like, is deposited in processing areas such as landfills. Land and environmental controls imposed on landfill operators by governmental bodies have increased in recent years, however, making landfill disposal of solid waste materials more expensive. 6 figs.

Mayberry, J.L.

1988-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

157

Examining the effectiveness of municipal solid waste management systems: An integrated cost-benefit analysis perspective with a financial cost modeling in Taiwan  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to develop a sound material-cycle society, cost-effective municipal solid waste (MSW) management systems are required for the municipalities in the context of the integrated accounting system for MSW management. Firstly, this paper attempts to establish an integrated cost-benefit analysis (CBA) framework for evaluating the effectiveness of MSW management systems. In this paper, detailed cost/benefit items due to waste problems are particularly clarified. The stakeholders of MSW management systems, including the decision-makers of the municipalities and the citizens, are expected to reconsider the waste problems in depth and thus take wise actions with the aid of the proposed CBA framework. Secondly, focusing on the financial cost, this study develops a generalized methodology to evaluate the financial cost-effectiveness of MSW management systems, simultaneously considering the treatment technological levels and policy effects. The impacts of the influencing factors on the annual total and average financial MSW operation and maintenance (O and M) costs are analyzed in the Taiwanese case study with a demonstrative short-term future projection of the financial costs under scenario analysis. The established methodology would contribute to the evaluation of the current policy measures and to the modification of the policy design for the municipalities.

Weng, Yu-Chi, E-mail: clyde.weng@gmail.com [Solid Waste Management Research Center, Okayama University, Okayama (Japan); Fujiwara, Takeshi [Solid Waste Management Research Center, Okayama University, Okayama (Japan)

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

158

Combustion of municipal solid wastes with oil shale in a circulating fluidized bed. Second quarterly report ending March 31, 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Project Description lists and describes six tasks, three of which are virtually complete, with three others underway. A summary of progress on each task follows. Task 1: Development of a Detailed Test Plan. This task is complete. Task 2: Preparation of Test Equipment. This task is complete. Two test units (a six-inch internal diameter and a fifteen-inch internal diameter unit) were prepared and used as described under Task 4. Task 3: Obtain test materials. The required amounts of oil shale and pelletized municipal solid waste have been obtained, tested, and found to be suitable. We have obtained an adequate quantity of a pelletized ``standard`` MSW from BEPR/BFI, Eden Prairie, MN. For test purposes, we synthesized the desired ``worst probable case`` of MSW by the addition of sulfur and chlorine to reach the sulfur and chlorine levels characteristic of such waste. Task 4: Execute Feasibility Demonstration Program. The fluidized bed tests associated with the program have been completed. Analysis of the results is continuing. Testing of the waste stream material generated from these runs will begin about 6 April to evaluate its possible use as cement for specific applications. Information on the technical feasibility of the invention as indicated by the fluid bed test program is included as Attachment A. The results demonstrate that the process is technically feasible. Task 5: Data Analysis. This task is beginning. Task 6: Project Management, Reporting, and Necessary Liaison Activities. Those portions of this task associated with work done on Tasks 1 through 4 have been completed. This task will continue throughout the period of the study. In summary, work is proceeding within budget. No serious problems in the next scheduled tasks are foreseen.

NONE

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

The equivalent electrical permittivity of gas-solid mixtures at intermediate solid volume fractions.  

SciTech Connect

Several mixture models are evaluated for their suitability in predicting the equivalent permittivity of dielectric particles in a dielectric medium for intermediate solid volume fractions (0.4 to 0.6). Predictions of the Maxwell, Rayleigh, Bottcher and Bruggeman models are compared to computational simulations of several arrangements of solid particles in a gas and to the experimentally determined permittivity of a static particle bed. The experiment uses spherical glass beads in air, so air and glass permittivity values (1 and 7, respectively) are used with all of the models and simulations. The experimental system used to measure the permittivity of the static particle bed and its calibration are described. The Rayleigh model is found to be suitable for predicting permittivity over the entire range of solid volume fractions (0-0.6).

Torczynski, John Robert; Ceccio, Steven Louis; Tortora, Paul Richard

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Thermal conversion of municipal solid waste via hydrothermal carbonization: Comparison of carbonization products to products from current waste management techniques  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a novel thermal conversion process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HTC converts wastes into value-added resources. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbonization integrates majority of carbon into solid-phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbonization results in a hydrochar with high energy density. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using hydrochar as an energy source may be beneficial. - Abstract: Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a novel thermal conversion process that may be a viable means for managing solid waste streams while minimizing greenhouse gas production and producing residual material with intrinsic value. HTC is a wet, relatively low temperature (180-350 Degree-Sign C) thermal conversion process that has been shown to convert biomass to a carbonaceous residue referred to as hydrochar. Results from batch experiments indicate HTC of representative waste materials is feasible, and results in the majority of carbon (45-75% of the initially present carbon) remaining within the hydrochar. Gas production during the batch experiments suggests that longer reaction periods may be desirable to maximize the production of energy-favorable products. If using the hydrochar for applications in which the carbon will remain stored, results suggest that the gaseous products from HTC result in fewer g CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions than the gases associated with landfilling, composting, and incineration. When considering the use of hydrochar as a solid fuel, more energy can be derived from the hydrochar than from the gases resulting from waste degradation during landfilling and anaerobic digestion, and from incineration of food waste. Carbon emissions resulting from the use of the hydrochar as a fuel source are smaller than those associated with incineration, suggesting HTC may serve as an environmentally beneficial alternative to incineration. The type and extent of environmental benefits derived from HTC will be dependent on hydrochar use/the purpose for HTC (e.g., energy generation or carbon storage).

Lu Xiaowei; Jordan, Beth [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of South Carolina, 300 Main Street, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Berge, Nicole D., E-mail: berge@cec.sc.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of South Carolina, 300 Main Street, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas municipal solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures includes the steps of dissolving the gas mixture and carbon dioxide in water providing a gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture; adding a porous solid media to the gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture forming a slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media; heating the slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media producing steam; and cooling the steam to produce purified water and carbon dioxide.

Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Viani, Brian

2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

162

"1. Beluga","Gas","Chugach Electric Assn Inc",344 "2. George M Sullivan Generation Plant 2","Gas","Anchorage Municipal Light and Power",220  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Alaska" Alaska" "1. Beluga","Gas","Chugach Electric Assn Inc",344 "2. George M Sullivan Generation Plant 2","Gas","Anchorage Municipal Light and Power",220 "3. North Pole","Petroleum","Golden Valley Elec Assn Inc",144 "4. Bradley Lake","Hydroelectric","Homer Electric Assn Inc",126 "5. Anchorage 1","Gas","Anchorage Municipal Light and Power",88 "6. Snettisham","Hydroelectric","Alaska Electric Light&Power Co",78 "7. Bernice Lake","Gas","Chugach Electric Assn Inc",62 "8. Lemon Creek","Petroleum","Alaska Electric Light&Power Co",58

163

Cover and startup gas supply system for solid oxide fuel cell generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cover and startup gas supply system for a solid oxide fuel cell power generator is disclosed. Hydrocarbon fuel, such as natural gas or diesel fuel, and oxygen-containing gas are supplied to a burner. Combustion gas exiting the burner is cooled prior to delivery to the solid oxide fuel cell. The system mixes the combusted hydrocarbon fuel constituents with hydrogen which is preferably stored in solid form to obtain a non-explosive gas mixture. The system may be used to provide both non-explosive cover gas and hydrogen-rich startup gas to the fuel cell.

Singh, Prabhakar (Export, PA); George, Raymond A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Cover and startup gas supply system for solid oxide fuel cell generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cover and startup gas supply system for a solid oxide fuel cell power generator is disclosed. Hydrocarbon fuel, such as natural gas or diesel fuel, and oxygen-containing gas are supplied to a burner. Combustion gas exiting the burner is cooled prior to delivery to the solid oxide fuel cell. The system mixes the combusted hydrocarbon fuel constituents with hydrogen which is preferably stored in solid form to obtain a non-explosive gas mixture. The system may be used to provide both non-explosive cover gas and hydrogen-rich startup gas to the fuel cell. 4 figs.

Singh, P.; George, R.A.

1999-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

165

Acoustic cross-correlation flowmeter for solid-gas flow  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for measuring particle velocity in a solid-gas flow within a pipe includes: first and second transmitting transducers for transmitting first and second ultrasonic signals into the pipe at first and second locations, respectively, along the pipe; an acoustic decoupler, positioned between said first and second transmitting transducers, for acoustically isolating said first and second signals from one another; first and second detecting transducers for detecting said first and second signals and for generating first and second detected signals; and means for cross-correlating said first and second output signals.

Sheen, S.H.; Raptis, A.C.

1984-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

166

Method and apparatus for improved gas-solids separation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for utility boilers limit particulate emissions to 0.03 pound of total suspended particles per million BTU of heat input. To meet NSPS the particulate removal efficiency of a control device must be 99.0 to 99.9%, depending upon the heating value of the coal. Methods and apparatus are disclosed for the removal of particulate solids from a gas stream at high separation efficiency, including the removal of submicron size particles. The apparatus includes a cyclone separator type of device which contains an axially mounted perforated cylindrical hollow rotor. The rotor is rotated at high velocity in the same direction as the flow of an input particle-laden gas stream to thereby cause enhanced separation of particulate matter from the gas stream in the cylindrical annular space between the rotor and the sidewall of the cyclone vessel. Substantially particle-free gas passes through the perforated surface of the spinning rotor and into the hollow rotor, from whence it is discharged out of the top of the apparatus. Separated particulates are removed from the bottom of the vessel. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

Kusik, C.L.; He, Bo X.

1989-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

167

PRESSURIZED SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL/GAS TURBINE POWER SYSTEM  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Power systems based on the simplest direct integration of a pressurized solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) generator and a gas turbine (GT) are capable of converting natural gas fuel energy to electric power with efficiencies of approximately 60% (net AC/LHV), and more complex SOFC and gas turbine arrangements can be devised for achieving even higher efficiencies. The results of a project are discussed that focused on the development of a conceptual design for a pressurized SOFC/GT power system that was intended to generate 20 MWe with at least 70% efficiency. The power system operates baseloaded in a distributed-generation application. To achieve high efficiency, the system integrates an intercooled, recuperated, reheated gas turbine with two SOFC generator stages--one operating at high pressure, and generating power, as well as providing all heat needed by the high-pressure turbine, while the second SOFC generator operates at a lower pressure, generates power, and provides all heat for the low-pressure reheat turbine. The system cycle is described, major system components are sized, the system installed-cost is estimated, and the physical arrangement of system components is discussed. Estimates of system power output, efficiency, and emissions at the design point are also presented, and the system cost of electricity estimate is developed.

W.L. Lundberg; G.A. Israelson; R.R. Moritz (Rolls-Royce Allison); S.E. Veyo; R.A. Holmes; P.R. Zafred; J.E. King; R.E. Kothmann (Consultant)

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Gas Bubbles and Gas Pancakes at Liquid/Solid Interface: A Continuum Theory Incorporated with Molecular Interactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The states of gas accumulated at the liquid-solid interface are analyzed based on the continuum theory where the Hamaker constant is used to describe the long-range interaction at the microscopic scale. The Hamaker constant is always negative, whereas the gas spreading coefficient can be either sign. Despite the complexity of gas, including that the density profile may not be uniform due to absorption on both solid and liquid surfaces, we predict three possible gas states at the liquid-solid interface, i.e. complete wetting, partial wetting and pseudopartial wetting. These possible gas states correspond respectively to a gas pancake (or film) surrounded by a wet solid, a gas bubble with a finite contact angle, and a gas bubble(s) coexisting with a gas pancake. Typical thickness of the gas pancakes is at the nanoscale within the force range of the long-range interaction, whereas the radius of the gas bubbles can be large. The state of gas bubble(s) coexisting with a gas film is predicted theoretically for the first time. Our theoretical results can contribute to the development of a unified picture of gas nucleation at the liquid-solid interface.

Zhaoxia Li; Xuehua Zhang; Lijuan Zhang; Xiaocheng Zeng; Jun Hu; Haiping Fang

2006-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

169

Risk assessment of the health liabilities from exposure to toxic metals found in the composted material of Air Force municipal solid waste. Master's thesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This thesis assesses the risk of the health liabilities from exposure to toxic metals found in the composted material of Air Force municipal solid waste (MSW). The goal is to determine the probability that the composted MSW could be a health hazard if it were used as a soil amendment. The research limited the assessment of the exposure risk to heavy metals found in raw MSW and its resulting compost. The thesis uses reviews of present literature to examine the food and soil ingestion exposure pathways. These pathways are assessed using the heavy metal concentrations found in MSW compost and the soil-plant partition coefficients of vegetables grown in soil mixed with sewage sludge or soil irrigated with sewage sludge or soil irrigated with sewage sludge leachate. The recommendation resulting from this research is that the Air Force should not use MSW composting as part of its future solid waste management plan. This alternative to landfilling contains a chronic health risk that is greater than the Environmental Protection Agency's guideline. If the Air Force would use MSW composting in the future, it may endanger Air Force personnel and others who use the compost created from Air Force MSW. Risk assessment, Heavy metals, Recycling municipal solid waste, Pollution, Composting.

Merrymon, T.L.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Gas-Solid Coexistence in Highly Charged Colloidal Suspensions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aqueous suspensions of highly charged polystyrene particles with different volume fractions have been investigated for structural ordering and phase behavior using static light scattering (SLS) and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). Under deionized conditions, suspensions of high charge density colloidal particles remained disordered whereas suspensions of relatively low charge density showed crystallization by exhibiting iridescence for the visible light. Though for unaided eye crystallized suspensions appeared homogeneous, static light scattering measurements and CLSM observations have revealed their inhomogeneous nature in the form of coexistence of voids with dense ordered regions. CLSM investigations on disordered suspensions showed their inhomogeneous nature in the form coexistence of voids with dense disordered (amorphous) regions. Our studies on highly charged colloids confirm the occurrence of gas-solid transition and are in accordance with predictions of Monte Carlo simulations using a pair-potential having a long-range attractive term [Mohanty and Tata, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 2003, 264, 101]. Based on our experimental and simulation results we argue that the reported reentrant disordered state [Yamanaka et al Phys. Rev. Lett. 1998, 80, 5806 and Toyotama et al Langmuir, 2003, 19, 3236] in charged colloids observed at high charge densities is a gas-solid coexistence state.

P. S. Mohanty; B. V. R. Tata; A. Toyotama; T. Sawada

2005-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

171

Moving from irate rivals to friendly partners. [The new-found partnership between Pacific Gas and Electric and the Sacramento Municipal Utility District  

SciTech Connect

This article discusses the issues which have in the past made Pacific Gas Electric and the Sacramento Municipal Utility District sometimes litigious rivals and what has happened recently to bring them into cooperation. They are now cooperating in the areas of power pooling, open access transmission, conservation programs, alternative power source programs, air quality improvement and transportation technologies.

Asmus, P.

1991-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

172

Time-resolved ellipsometry for studies of heat transfer at liquid/solid and gas/solid interfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

partly controlled by the rate of heat transfer across the interface. Heat moving from the metal film is heated by 10 K using an ultrafast optical pump pulse; the subsequent changes of the phase differenceTime-resolved ellipsometry for studies of heat transfer at liquid/solid and gas/solid interfaces

Granick, Steve

173

Energy conservation: policy issues and end-use scenarios of savings potential. Part 2. Tradeoffs of municipal solid-waste-processing alternatives  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this report is to assess the comparative performance and advantages of the various garbage-processing or disposal (landfill) techniques, and to address the issue of large-scale recycling of waste material. Five general methods are discussed: close-in landfill, remote landfill, refuse-derived solid fuel (RDSF), pyrolysis, and incineration. The major issue at this time concerning municipal solid waste disposal is whether to continue with landfill as the primary method or to use some combination of source separation, resource recovery, and energy generation. The constraints surrounding this issue are capital and labor costs, technical feasibility, environmental impacts--especially air pollution--marketability of the derived energy and recycled resources, and public cooperation. (MCW)

Codina, R.; Langlois, C.

1978-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Low-Cost Miniature Multifunctional Solid-State Gas Sensors  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Richard J. Dunst Richard J. Dunst Project Manager National Energy Technology Laboratory 626 Cochrans Mill Road P.O. Box 10940 Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 412-386-6694 richard.dunst@netl.doe.gov Eric D. Wachsman Principal Investigator University of Florida 339 Weil Hall Gainesville, FL 32611-4025 352-846-2991 ewach@mse.ufl.edu Low-Cost Miniature MuLtifunCtionaL soLid-state Gas sensors Description Research sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE) through the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), and performed by the University of Florida, has resulted in successful development of solid-state sensor technology that can provide an inexpensive, rugged device that is capable of measuring the concentration of multiple pollutants in lean-burn coal

175

Anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste combining two pretreatment modalities, high temperature microwave and hydrogen peroxide  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microwave and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} pretreatment were studied to enhance anaerobic digestion of organic waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The whole waste pretreated at 115 Degree-Sign C or 145 Degree-Sign C had the highest biogas production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biogas production of the whole waste decreased at 175 Degree-Sign C due to formation of refractory compounds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pretreatment to 145 Degree-Sign C and 175 Degree-Sign C were the best when considering only the free liquid fraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 2}O{sub 2} pretreatment had a lag phase and the biogas production was not higher than MW pretreated samples. - Abstract: In order to enhance anaerobic digestion (AD) of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), pretreatment combining two modalities, microwave (MW) heating in presence or absence of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) were investigated. The main pretreatment variables affecting the characteristics of the OFMSW were temperature (T) via MW irradiation and supplemental water additions of 20% and 30% (SWA20 and SW30). Subsequently, the focus of this study was to evaluate mesophilic batch AD performance in terms of biogas production, as well as changes in the characteristics of the OFMSW post digestion. A high MW induced temperature range (115-175 Degree-Sign C) was applied, using sealed vessels and a bench scale MW unit equipped with temperature and pressure controls. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests were conducted on the whole OFMSW as well as the liquid fractions. The whole OFMSW pretreated at 115 Degree-Sign C and 145 Degree-Sign C showed 4-7% improvement in biogas production over untreated OFMSW (control). When pretreated at 175 Degree-Sign C, biogas production decreased due to formation of refractory compounds, inhibiting the digestion. For the liquid fraction of OFMSW, the effect of pretreatment on the cumulative biogas production (CBP) was more pronounced for SWA20 at 145 Degree-Sign C, with a 26% increase in biogas production after 8 days of digestion, compared to the control. When considering the increased substrate availability in the liquid fraction after MW pretreatment, a 78% improvement in biogas production vs. the control was achieved. Combining MW and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} modalities did not have a positive impact on OFMSW stabilization and enhanced biogas production. In general, all samples pretreated with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} displayed a long lag phase and the CBP was usually lower than MW irradiated only samples. First order rate constant was calculated.

Shahriari, Haleh, E-mail: haleh.shahriari@gmail.com [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Ottawa, 161 Louis Pasteur St., P.O. Box 450, Stn. A, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Warith, Mostafa [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Ottawa, 161 Louis Pasteur St., P.O. Box 450, Stn. A, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Hamoda, Mohamed [Department of Environmental Technology and Management, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 5969, Safat 13060 (Kuwait); Kennedy, Kevin J. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Ottawa, 161 Louis Pasteur St., P.O. Box 450, Stn. A, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

176

Numerical Simulation of Gas/Solid Flow in a Novel Annular Spouted Bed with Multiple Gas Nozzles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel annular spouted bed with multiple gas nozzles, has been proposed for dryness, pyrolysis, and gasification of coal particulates. It consists of two homocentric upright cylinders with some annularly located spouting gas nozzles between inner and ... Keywords: gas/solid flow, CFD, Eulerian multiphase model, kinetic theory of granular flow, annular spouted bed

Gong Xi-wu; Hu Guo-xin; Zhou Hai-jiang; Shi Qian

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Non-uniform isentropic gas flow analysis of explosion in fractured solid media  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a new formulation of non-uniform isentropic gas flow during an explosion in solid media. The present form takes into account additional effects of variations in geometries of voids and crack openings. Variations of mass, density, ... Keywords: Blast, Combined finite/discrete element method, Explosion, Gas-solid interaction

S. Mohammadi; A. Pooladi

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Application of spatial and non-spatial data analysis in determination of the factors that impact municipal solid waste generation rates in Turkey  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spatial autocorrelation exists in municipal solid waste generation rates for different provinces in Turkey. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Traditional non-spatial regression models may not provide sufficient information for better solid waste management. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Unemployment rate is a global variable that significantly impacts the waste generation rates in Turkey. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Significances of global parameters may diminish at local scale for some provinces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GWR model can be used to create clusters of cities for solid waste management. - Abstract: In studies focusing on the factors that impact solid waste generation habits and rates, the potential spatial dependency in solid waste generation data is not considered in relating the waste generation rates to its determinants. In this study, spatial dependency is taken into account in determination of the significant socio-economic and climatic factors that may be of importance for the municipal solid waste (MSW) generation rates in different provinces of Turkey. Simultaneous spatial autoregression (SAR) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) models are used for the spatial data analyses. Similar to ordinary least squares regression (OLSR), regression coefficients are global in SAR model. In other words, the effect of a given independent variable on a dependent variable is valid for the whole country. Unlike OLSR or SAR, GWR reveals the local impact of a given factor (or independent variable) on the waste generation rates of different provinces. Results show that provinces within closer neighborhoods have similar MSW generation rates. On the other hand, this spatial autocorrelation is not very high for the exploratory variables considered in the study. OLSR and SAR models have similar regression coefficients. GWR is useful to indicate the local determinants of MSW generation rates. GWR model can be utilized to plan waste management activities at local scale including waste minimization, collection, treatment, and disposal. At global scale, the MSW generation rates in Turkey are significantly related to unemployment rate and asphalt-paved roads ratio. Yet, significances of these variables may diminish at local scale for some provinces. At local scale, different factors may be important in affecting MSW generation rates.

Keser, Saniye [Department of Environmental Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Duzgun, Sebnem [Department of Mining Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Department of Geodetic and Geographic Information Technologies, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Aksoy, Aysegul, E-mail: aaksoy@metu.edu.tr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

179

Development of a purpose built landfill system for the control of methane emissions from municipal solid waste  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of landfill gas (LFG). Economic feasibility of the proposed system has been tested by comparing unit cost with gas recovery option. In the present paper, a methodology called purpose build landfill system (PBLF of the proposed system. A purpose built landfill system (PBLS) is a semi-engi- neered landfill with gas recovery

Columbia University

180

Reducing volatilization of heavy metals in phosphate-pretreated municipal solid waste incineration fly ash by forming pyromorphite-like minerals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This research investigated the feasibility of reducing volatilization of heavy metals (lead, zinc and cadmium) in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash by forming pyromorphite-like minerals via phosphate pre-treatment. To evaluate the evaporation characteristics of three heavy metals from phosphate-pretreated MSWI fly ash, volatilization tests have been performed by means of a dedicated apparatus in the 100-1000 deg. C range. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) test and BCR sequential extraction procedure were applied to assess phosphate stabilization process. The results showed that the volatilization behavior in phosphate-pretreated MSWI fly ash could be reduced effectively. Pyromorphite-like minerals formed in phosphate-pretreated MSWI fly ash were mainly responsible for the volatilization reduction of heavy metals in MSWI fly ash at higher temperature, due to their chemical fixation and thermal stabilization for heavy metals. The stabilization effects were encouraging for the potential reuse of MSWI fly ash.

Sun Ying; Zheng Jianchang [School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Zou Luquan [Shanghai Center of Solid Waste Disposal, Shanghai (China); Liu Qiang; Zhu Ping [School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Qian Guangren, E-mail: grqian@mail.shu.edu.cn [School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas municipal solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

South Carolina Municipalities - Green Power Purchasing | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

South Carolina Municipalities - Green Power Purchasing South Carolina Municipalities - Green Power Purchasing South Carolina Municipalities - Green Power Purchasing < Back Eligibility Local Government Savings Category Bioenergy Solar Buying & Making Electricity Wind Program Info State South Carolina Program Type Green Power Purchasing Provider Santee Cooper Santee Cooper's Green Power Program was launched in September of 2001. All of the state's 20 electric cooperatives and the City of Georgetown participate in the Green Power Program, which is Green-e accredited. The renewable resources sold under the Green Power Program are comprised of 99% landfill gas (methane) and less than 1% solar energy. Santee Cooper is currently using landfill gas (methane) to produce electricity at six facilities in South Carolina: Horry Solid Waste

182

Thermodynamic estimation of minor element distribution between immiscible liquids in Fe-Cu-based metal phase generated in melting treatment of municipal solid wastes  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two liquids separation of metal occurs in the melting of municipal solid waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The distribution of PGMs etc. between two liquid metal phases is studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quite simple thermodynamic model is applied to predict the distribution ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Au and Ag originated from WEEE are found to be concentrated into Cu-rich phase. - Abstract: Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has become an important target in managing material cycles from the viewpoint of not only waste management and control of environmental pollution but also resource conservation. This study investigated the distribution tendency of trace elements in municipal solid waste (MSW) or incinerator ash, including valuable non-ferrous metals (Ni, Co, Cr, Mn, Mo, Ti, V, W, Zr), precious group metals (PGMs) originated from WEEE (Ag, Au, Pd, Pt), and others (Al, B, Pb, Si), between Fe-rich and Cu-rich metal phases by means of simple thermodynamic calculations. Most of the typical alloying elements for steel (Co, Cr, Mo, Nb, Ni, Si, Ti, V, and W) and Rh were preferentially distributed into the Fe-rich phase. PGMs, such as Au, Ag, and Pd, were enriched in the Cu-rich phase, whereas Pt was almost equally distributed into both phases. Since the primary metallurgical processing of Cu is followed by an electrolysis for refining, and since PGMs in crude copper have been industrially recovered from the resulting anode slime, our results indicated that Ag, Au, and Pd could be effectively recovered from MSW if the Cu-rich phase could be selectively collected.

Lu, X. [School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, The University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Nakajima, K.; Sakanakura, H. [Research Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8506 (Japan); Matsubae, K. [Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-11 Aza-Aoba, Aramaki, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Bai, H. [School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, The University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Nagasaka, T., E-mail: t-nagasaka@m.tohoku.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-11 Aza-Aoba, Aramaki, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

183

Numerical Study of Ultrasound Bioeffects by Solving Gas-Liquid-Solid Interaction Problems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Numerical Study of Ultrasound Bioeffects by Solving Gas-Liquid-Solid Interaction Problems and a nearby structure. First, a one-dimensional Gilmore model combined with gas diffusion was used to predict and bubble sizes. The results indicated gas diffusion had little influence on the maximum bubble radius

Goldman, Steven A.

184

Solid Waste Management Act (Pennsylvania)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This Act provides for the planning and regulation of solid waste storage, collection, transportation, processing, treatment, and disposal. It requires that municipalities submit plans for municipal...

185

Municipal Solid Waste Combustion : Fuel Testing and Characterization : Task 1 Report, May 30, 1990-October 1, 1990.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this study is to screen and characterize potential biomass fuels from waste streams. This will be accomplished by determining the types of pollutants produced while burning selected municipal waste, i.e., commercial mixed waste paper residential (curbside) mixed waste paper, and refuse derived fuel. These materials will be fired alone and in combination with wood, equal parts by weight. The data from these experiments could be utilized to size pollution control equipment required to meet emission standards. This document provides detailed descriptions of the testing methods and evaluation procedures used in the combustion testing and characterization project. The fuel samples will be examined thoroughly from the raw form to the exhaust emissions produced during the combustion test of a densified sample.

Bushnell, Dwight J.; Canova, Joseph H.; Dadkhah-Nikoo, Abbas.

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

International Best Practices for Pre-Processing and Co-Processing Municipal Solid Waste and Sewage Sludge in the Cement Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

uniformity. Shredding of mixed waste to about 10 centimetersand untreated mixed municipal waste. GTZ/Holcim (2006) givesCEMBUREAU 2009). Mixed municipal waste must be pre-processed

Hasanbeigi, Ali

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

In Situ Characterization of Nanoscale Gas-Solid Interactions ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of carbon nanotubes. The redox process is central to the functioning of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode. We are investigating ...

2013-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

188

CO2 Capture from Flue Gas Using SOlid Molecular Basket Sorbents  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

from Flue Gas Using Solid from Flue Gas Using Solid Molecular Basket Sorbents Background The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) Existing Plants, Emissions & Capture (EPEC) Research & Development (R&D) Program is to develop innovative environmental control technologies to enable full use of the nation's vast coal reserves, while at the same time allowing the current fleet of coal-

189

Parameters affecting the stability of the digestate from a two-stage anaerobic process treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste  

SciTech Connect

This paper focused on the factors affecting the respiration rate of the digestate taken from a continuous anaerobic two-stage process treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). The process involved a hydrolytic reactor (HR) that produced a leachate fed to a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR). It was found that a volatile solids (VS) removal in the range 40-75% and an operating temperature in the HR between 21 and 35 {sup o}C resulted in digestates with similar respiration rates, with all digestates requiring 17 days of aeration before satisfying the British Standard Institution stability threshold of 16 mg CO{sub 2} g VS{sup -1} day{sup -1}. Sanitization of the digestate at 65 {sup o}C for 7 days allowed a mature digestate to be obtained. At 4 g VS L{sup -1} d{sup -1} and Solid Retention Times (SRT) greater than 70 days, all the digestates emitted CO{sub 2} at a rate lower than 25 mg CO{sub 2} g VS{sup -1} d{sup -1} after 3 days of aeration, while at SRT lower than 20 days all the digestates displayed a respiration rate greater than 25 mg CO{sub 2} g VS{sup -1} d{sup -1}. The compliance criteria for Class I digestate set by the European Commission (EC) and British Standard Institution (BSI) could not be met because of nickel and chromium contamination, which was probably due to attrition of the stainless steel stirrer in the HR.

Trzcinski, Antoine P., E-mail: a.trzcinski05@ic.ac.uk [Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College of Science and Technology and Medicine, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Stuckey, David C., E-mail: d.stuckey@ic.ac.uk [Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College of Science and Technology and Medicine, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

190

A coupled gas-solid interaction model for FE/DE simulation of explosion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Blasting is a complicated phenomenon usually assumed to be too complex for deterministic analysis, and many engineers have preferred empirical approaches. In this paper, however, a numerical simulation based on the discrete element methodology is presented ... Keywords: combined finite/discrete element method, explosion, gas flow, gas solid interaction, rock blasting

S. Mohammadi; A. Bebamzadeh

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

A coupled gas-solid interaction model for FE/DE simulation of explosion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Blasting is a complicated phenomenon usually assumed to be too complex for deterministic analysis, and many engineers have preferred empirical approaches. In this paper, however, a numerical simulation based on the discrete element methodology is presented ... Keywords: Combined finite/discrete element method, Explosion, Gas flow, Gas solid interaction, Rock blasting

S. Mohammadi; A. Bebamzadeh

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Dispersed Bubble Reactor For Enhanced Gas-Liquid-Solids ...  

An apparatus to promote gas-liquid contact and facilitate enhanced mass transfer. The dispersed bubble reactor (DBR) operates in the dispersed bubble ...

193

Method and apparatus for the separation of a gas-solids mixture in a circulating fluidized bed reactor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The system of the present invention includes a centripetal cyclone for separating particulate material from a particulate laden gas solids stream. The cyclone includes a housing defining a conduit extending between an upstream inlet and a downstream outlet. In operation, when a particulate laden gas-solids stream passes through the upstream housing inlet, the particulate laden gas-solids stream is directed through the conduit and at least a portion of the solids in the particulate laden gas-solids stream are subjected to a centripetal force within the conduit.

Vimalchand, Pannalal (Birmingham, AL); Liu, Guohai (Birmingham, AL); Peng, WanWang (Birmingham, AL)

2010-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

194

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 2: A Techno-economic Evaluation of the Production of Mixed Alcohols  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). However, biomass is not always available in sufficient quantity at a price compatible with fuels production. Municipal solid waste (MSW) on the other hand is readily available in large quantities in some communities and is considered a partially renewable feedstock. Furthermore, MSW may be available for little or no cost. This report provides a techno-economic analysis of the production of mixed alcohols from MSW and compares it to the costs for a wood based plant. In this analysis, MSW is processed into refuse derived fuel (RDF) and then gasified in a plant co-located with a landfill. The resulting syngas is then catalytically converted to mixed alcohols. At a scale of 2000 metric tons per day of RDF, and using current technology, the minimum ethanol selling price at a 10% rate of return is approximately $1.85/gallon ethanol (early 2008 $). However, favorable economics are dependent upon the toxicity characteristics of the waste streams and that a market exists for the by-product scrap metal recovered from the RDF process.

Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua; Valkenburg, Corinne

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Assessment of landfill reclamation and the effects of age on the combustion of recovered municipal solid waste  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarized the Lancaster county Solid Waste Management Authorities`s (LCSWMA)landfill reclamation activities, ongoing since 1991. All aspects have been analyzed from the manpower and equipment requirements at the landfill to the operational impacts felt at the LCSWMA Resource Recovery Facility (RRF) where the material is delivered for processing. Characteristics of the reclaimed refuse and soil recovered from trommeling operations are discussed as are results of air monitoring performed at the landfill excavation site and the RRF. The report also discusses the energy value of the reclaimed material and compares this value with those obtained for significantly older reclaimed waste streams. The effects of waste age on the air emissions and ash residue quality at the RRF are also provided. The report concludes by summarizing the project benefits and provides recommendations for other landfill reclamation operations and areas requiring further research.

Forster, G.A. [Lancaster Environmental Foundation, PA (United States)] [Lancaster Environmental Foundation, PA (United States)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Gas atomization synthesis of refractory or intermetallic compounds and supersaturated solid solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A metallic melt is atomized using a high pressure atomizing gas wherein the temperature of the melt and the composition of the atomizing gas are selected such that the gas and melt react in the atomization spray zone to form a refractory or intermetallic compound in the as-atomized powder particles. A metallic melt is also atomized using a high pressure atomizing gas mixture gas wherein the temperature of the melt and the ratio of a reactive gas to a carrier gas are selected to form powder particles comprising a supersaturated solid solution of the atomic species of the reactive gas in the particles. The powder particles are then heat treated to precipitate dispersoids in-situ therein to form a dispersion strengthened material.

Anderson, Iver E. (Ames, IA); Lograsso, Barbara K. (Ames, IA); Ellis, Timothy W. (Ames, IA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Gas atomization synthesis of refractory or intermetallic compounds and supersaturated solid solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A metallic melt is atomized using a high pressure atomizing gas wherein the temperature of the melt and the composition of the atomizing gas are selected such that the gas and melt react in the atomization spray zone to form a refractory or intermetallic compound in the as-atomized powder particles. A metallic melt is also atomized using a high pressure atomizing gas mixture gas wherein the temperature of the melt and the ratio of a reactive gas to a carrier gas are selected to form powder particles comprising a supersaturated solid solution of the atomic species of the reactive gas in the particles. The powder particles are then heat treated to precipitate dispersoids in-situ therein to form a dispersion strengthened material. 9 figures.

Anderson, I.E.; Lograsso, B.K.; Ellis, T.W.

1994-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

198

Flow Mapping in a Gas-Solid Riser via Computer Automated Radioactive Particle Tracking (CARPT)  

SciTech Connect

Statement of the Problem: Developing and disseminating a general and experimentally validated model for turbulent multiphase fluid dynamics suitable for engineering design purposes in industrial scale applications of riser reactors and pneumatic conveying, require collecting reliable data on solids trajectories, velocities ? averaged and instantaneous, solids holdup distribution and solids fluxes in the riser as a function of operating conditions. Such data are currently not available on the same system. Multiphase Fluid Dynamics Research Consortium (MFDRC) was established to address these issues on a chosen example of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) reactor, which is widely used in petroleum and chemical industry including coal combustion. This project addresses the problem of lacking reliable data to advance CFB technology. Project Objectives: The objective of this project is to advance the understanding of the solids flow pattern and mixing in a well-developed flow region of a gas-solid riser, operated at different gas flow rates and solids loading using the state-of-the-art non-intrusive measurements. This work creates an insight and reliable database for local solids fluid-dynamic quantities in a pilot-plant scale CFB, which can then be used to validate/develop phenomenological models for the riser. This study also attempts to provide benchmark data for validation of Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) codes and their current closures. Technical Approach: Non-Invasive Computer Automated Radioactive Particle Tracking (CARPT) technique provides complete Eulerian solids flow field (time average velocity map and various turbulence parameters such as the Reynolds stresses, turbulent kinetic energy, and eddy diffusivities). It also gives directly the Lagrangian information of solids flow and yields the true solids residence time distribution (RTD). Another radiation based technique, Computed Tomography (CT) yields detailed time averaged local holdup profiles at various planes. Together, these two techniques can provide the needed local solids flow dynamic information for the same setup under identical operating conditions, and the data obtained can be used as a benchmark for development, and refinement of the appropriate riser models. For the above reasons these two techniques were implemented in this study on a fully developed section of the riser. To derive the global mixing information in the riser, accurate solids RTD is needed and was obtained by monitoring the entry and exit of a single radioactive tracer. Other global parameters such as Cycle Time Distribution (CTD), overall solids holdup in the riser, solids recycle percentage at the bottom section of the riser were evaluated from different solids travel time distributions. Besides, to measure accurately and in-situ the overall solids mass flux, a novel method was applied.

Muthanna Al-Dahhan; Milorad P. Dudukovic; Satish Bhusarapu; Timothy J. O'hern; Steven Trujillo; Michael R. Prairie

2005-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

199

High-Resolution Simulations of Gas-Solids Jet Penetration Into a High Density Riser Flow  

SciTech Connect

High-resolution simulations of a gas-solids jet in a 0.3 m diameter and 15.9 m tall circulating fluidized bed (CFB) riser were conducted with the open source software-MFIX. In the numerical simulations, both gas and solids injected through a 1.6 cm diameter radial-directed tube 4.3 m above the bottom distributor were tracked as tracers, which enable the analysis of the characteristics of a two-phase jet. Two jetting gas velocities of 16.6 and 37.2 m/s were studied with the other operating conditions fixed. Reasonable flow hydrodynamics with respect to overall pressure drop, voidage, and solids velocity distributions were predicted. Due to the different dynamic responses of gas and particles to the crossflow, a significant separation of gas and solids within the jet region was predicted for both cases. In addition, the jet characteristics based on tracer concentration and tracer mass fraction profiles at different downstream levels are discussed. Overall, the numerical predictions compare favorably to the experimental measurements made at NETL.

Li, Tingwen

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Mercury emissions from municipal solid waste combustors. An assessment of the current situation in the United States and forecast of future emissions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report examines emissions of mercury (Hg) from municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion in the United States (US). It is projected that total annual nationwide MSW combustor emissions of mercury could decrease from about 97 tonnes (1989 baseline uncontrolled emissions) to less than about 4 tonnes in the year 2000. This represents approximately a 95 percent reduction in the amount of mercury emitted from combusted MSW compared to the 1989 mercury emissions baseline. The likelihood that routinely achievable mercury emissions removal efficiencies of about 80 percent or more can be assured; it is estimated that MSW combustors in the US could prove to be a comparatively minor source of mercury emissions after about 1995. This forecast assumes that diligent measures to control mercury emissions, such as via use of supplemental control technologies (e.g., carbon adsorption), are generally employed at that time. However, no present consensus was found that such emissions control measures can be implemented industry-wide in the US within this time frame. Although the availability of technology is apparently not a limiting factor, practical implementation of necessary control technology may be limited by administrative constraints and other considerations (e.g., planning, budgeting, regulatory compliance requirements, etc.). These projections assume that: (a) about 80 percent mercury emissions reduction control efficiency is achieved with air pollution control equipment likely to be employed by that time; (b) most cylinder-shaped mercury-zinc (CSMZ) batteries used in hospital applications can be prevented from being disposed into the MSW stream or are replaced with alternative batteries that do not contain mercury; and (c) either the amount of mercury used in fluorescent lamps is decreased to an industry-wide average of about 27 milligrams of mercury per lamp or extensive diversion from the MSW stream of fluorescent lamps that contain mercury is accomplished.

Not Available

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas municipal solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Quantification of greenhouse gas emissions from waste management processes for municipalities - A comparative review focusing on Africa  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The amount of greenhouse gases (GHG) emitted due to waste management in the cities of developing countries is predicted to rise considerably in the near future; however, these countries have a series of problems in accounting and reporting these gases. Some of these problems are related to the status quo of waste management in the developing world and some to the lack of a coherent framework for accounting and reporting of greenhouse gases from waste at municipal level. This review summarizes and compares GHG emissions from individual waste management processes which make up a municipal waste management system, with an emphasis on developing countries and, in particular, Africa. It should be seen as a first step towards developing a more holistic GHG accounting model for municipalities. The comparison between these emissions from developed and developing countries at process level, reveals that there is agreement on the magnitude of the emissions expected from each process (generation of waste, collection and transport, disposal and recycling). The highest GHG savings are achieved through recycling, and these savings would be even higher in developing countries which rely on coal for energy production (e.g. South Africa, India and China) and where non-motorized collection and transport is used. The highest emissions are due to the methane released by dumpsites and landfills, and these emissions are predicted to increase significantly, unless more of the methane is captured and either flared or used for energy generation. The clean development mechanism (CDM) projects implemented in the developing world have made some progress in this field; however, African countries lag behind.

Friedrich, Elena, E-mail: Friedriche@ukzn.ac.za [CRECHE Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Surveying and Construction, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban (South Africa); Trois, Cristina [CRECHE Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Surveying and Construction, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban (South Africa)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

202

Community Renewable Energy Deployment: Sacramento Municipal Utility  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Deployment: Sacramento Municipal Utility Deployment: Sacramento Municipal Utility District Projects Jump to: navigation, search Name Community Renewable Energy Deployment: Sacramento Municipal Utility District Projects Agency/Company /Organization US Department of Energy Focus Area Agriculture, Economic Development, Greenhouse Gas, Renewable Energy, Biomass - Anaerobic Digestion, Solar - Concentrating Solar Power, Solar, - Solar Pv, Biomass - Waste To Energy Phase Bring the Right People Together, Develop Finance and Implement Projects Resource Type Case studies/examples Availability Publicly available--Free Publication Date 2/2/2011 Website http://www1.eere.energy.gov/co Locality Sacramento Municipal Utility District, CA References Community Renewable Energy Deployment: Sacramento Municipal Utility District Projects[1]

203

Sulfur gas sensor using a calcium fluoride solid electrolyte  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The sulfur gas potentials in the H/sub 2/S + H/sub 2/ buffer gases were measured by a galvanic cell Ps/sub 2/(g),Au(Pt)/(MoS/sub 2/ + CaS)/CaF/sub 2//(Cu + Cu/sub 2/S + CaS)/Au(Pt) in the temperature range from 650/sup 0/ to 950/sup 0/C and Ps/sub 2/ region from 10/sup -2/ to 10/sup -10/ atm. A quick response time (within 5 to 10 min) in emf with the change of Ps/sub 2/ at a given temperature was observed by placing a MoS/sub 2/ and CaS mixed pellet auxiliary electrode at the bottom of the cylindrical single-crystal CaF/sub 2/ electrolyte. The observed emf's agreed well with with those calculated from the Nernst equation. Using this sensor, Ps/sub 2/ values in the SO/sub 2/ + H/sub 2/ + H/sub 2/S gas system were also evaluated from the measured emf at 827/sup 0/C and were found to be in close agreement with those calculated from the thermochemical tables.

Toniguchi, M.; Wakihara, M.; Uchida, T.; Hirakawa, K.; Nii, J.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Experimental performance of solid-gas chemical heat pump in solar chemical heat pump dryer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A solar assisted chemical heat pump dryer has been designed, fabricated and tested. The performance of the system has been studied under the meteorological conditions of Malaysia. The system consists of four mean components: solar collector (evacuated ... Keywords: coefficient of performance, drying, energy density, evacuated tubes solar collector, reactor temperature, solid gas chemical heat pump

M. Ibrahim; K. Sopian; A. S. Hussein; W. R. W. Daud; A. Zaharim

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

SNG or syn-gas from wet solid waste and low grade fuels  

SciTech Connect

The substitute natural gas (SNG) or a synthesis gas (syngas) is prepared by partly oxidizing wastes and low-grade fuels (peat, lignite, many forms of biomass) containing 0.5-30 times as much water as the dry solids with O or air at 240-300/sup 0/C and 70-100 atmospheres. Sulfur in high S coal is oxidized selectively to SO/sub 4//sup -2/, and the heat to bring the combustible to the necessary temperature is supplied by burning part of the combustible itself. The residual solids (now 70-95% of the original fuel) are mechanically separated from all but 0.5-2 lb water. These solids come from the dewatering unit at a high pressure and may be passed, without loss of pressure or temperature to be gasified in conventional processes and gasifiers by partial oxidation.

Othmer, D.F.

1981-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

206

A STUDY OF GAS-SOLID SUSPENSIONS AT HIGH TEMPERATURES AND EFFECT OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS. Technical Report IIL-7-P  

SciTech Connect

The equilibrium between thermionic emission from solid particles and space charges of the phases in a gas-solid suspension (thermal electrification) was previously studied. Some further considerations are examined. Investigation of the effects of the properties of the solid phase on thermal electrification indicates that solid particies in a gassolid system could be much hotter than the gas phase since thermal electrification depends mainly on solid particle temperature. Control of thermal electrification by the initial charge of solid particles, particularly removal of electrons by positively charged particles, is considered. The rate of solid particle dispersion is found to be the main factor in deionization of hot gases by charged solid particles. Investigation of the electrical conductivity of a mixture of electrons, charged solid particles, and the gas atoms of the suspending gas reveals that thermal electrification is not the only contributor to high electrical conductivity. Use of a gas-solid system for magnetohydrodynamic energy conversion is also examined. Solid particles of controlled size contribute favorably to MHD generation, but in plasma MHD accelerators would reduce performance. (D.C.W.)

Soo, S.L.

1962-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

A two-mesh coupled gas flow-solid interaction model for 2D blast analysis in fractured media  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A 2D coupled two-mesh interaction model for blast gas flow through fractured and fragmented solid media is presented. It is mainly designed to solve blast problems where a complicated set of wide difficult phenomena are involved: shock waves, progressive ... Keywords: Blast, Combined finite/discrete element method, Cracking, Explosion, Fragmentation, Gas-solid interaction

S. Mohammadi; A. Pooladi

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Microsoft PowerPoint - Investigation of Gas Solid_Choudhuri_Love  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

INVESTIGATION OF GAS-SOLID FLUIDIZED BED INVESTIGATION OF GAS-SOLID FLUIDIZED BED DYNAMICS WITH NON-SPHERICAL PARTICLES PI - Ahsan Choudhuri, Co-PI - Norman Love Center for Space Exploration and Technology Research Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Texas at El Paso Presented by: Norman Love Project Participants * PI: Ahsan Choudhuri * Co-PI: Norman Love * Doctoral: MD Rashedul Sarker * Masters: ASM Raufur Chowdhury Graduates Mario Ruvalcaba- PhD - (Now at Federal Mogul) MD Rashedul Sarker- MS - (Continuing on at UTEP) MD Mahamudur Rahman- MS - (Now at Drexel Univ) cSETR POWERING INNOVATION THROUGH DIVERSITY * Gasifier:  Types of gasifiers used commercially: Introduction U.S. Department of Energy, Clean Coal & Natural Gas Power Systems,

209

Solid Sorbents for Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Gas Streams at Low Temperatures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sorbents for Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Sorbents for Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Gas Streams at Low Temperatures Opportunity The Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory is seeking licensing partners interested in implementing United States Patent Number 6,908,497 entitled "Solid Sorbents for Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Gas Streams at Low Temperatures." Disclosed in this patent is a new low-cost carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) sorbent that can be used in large-scale gas-solid processes. Researchers have developed a new method to prepare these sorbents by treating substrates with an amine and/or an ether in a way that either one comprises at least 50 weight percent of the sorbent. The sorbent captures compounds contained in gaseous fluids through chemisorptions and/or

210

Coal/biomass fuels and the gas turbine: Utilization of solid fuels and their derivatives  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper discusses key design and development issues in utilizing coal and other solid fuels in gas turbines. These fuels may be burned in raw form or processed to produce liquids or gases in more or less refined forms. The use of such fuels in gas turbines requires resolution of technology issues which are of little or no consequence for conventional natural gas and refined oil fuels. For coal, these issues are primarily related to the solid form in which coal is naturally found and its high ash and contaminant levels. Biomass presents another set of issues similar to those of coal. Among the key areas discussed are effects of ash and contaminant level on deposition, corrosion, and erosion of turbine hot parts, with particular emphasis on deposition effects.

DeCorso, M. [Power Tech Associates, Inc., Paramus, NJ (United States); Newby, R. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Anson, D. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States); Wenglarz, R. [Allison Engine Co., Indianapolis, IN (United States); Wright, I. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Modeling of ultrasound transmission through a solid-liquid interface comprising a network of gas pockets  

SciTech Connect

Ultrasonic inspection of sodium-cooled fast reactor requires a good acoustic coupling between the transducer and the liquid sodium. Ultrasonic transmission through a solid surface in contact with liquid sodium can be complex due to the presence of microscopic gas pockets entrapped by the surface roughness. Experiments are run using substrates with controlled roughness consisting of a network of holes and a modeling approach is then developed. In this model, a gas pocket stiffness at a partially solid-liquid interface is defined. This stiffness is then used to calculate the transmission coefficient of ultrasound at the entire interface. The gas pocket stiffness has a static, as well as an inertial component, which depends on the ultrasonic frequency and the radiative mass.

Paumel, K.; Baque, F. [CEA, DEN, Nuclear Technology Department, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Moysan, J.; Corneloup, G. [Laboratoire de Caracterisation Non Destructive, Universite de la Mediterranee, IUT Aix-en-Provence, Avenue Gaston Berger, 13625 Aix-en-Provence (France); Chatain, D. [CNRS, Aix-Marseille Universite, CINAM-UPR3118, Campus de Luminy, Case 913, 13288 Marseille cedex 09 (France)

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

212

Guide to Clean Development Mechanism Projects Related to Municipal...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Name A Guide to Clean Development Mechanism Projects Related to Municipal Solid Waste Management AgencyCompany Organization United Nations Economic and Social Commission for...

213

NATURAL GAS REBURNING TECHNOLOGY FOR NOx REDUCTION FROM MSW COMBUSTION SYSTEMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NATURAL GAS REBURNING TECHNOLOGY FOR NOx REDUCTION FROM MSW COMBUSTION SYSTEMS ABSTRACf CRAIG A series, injection of up to 15% (HHV basis) natural gas reduced NOx by 50-70% while maintain ing, Illinois DAVID G. LINZ Gas Research Institute Chicago, Illinois ducing NOx emISSIons from municipal solid

Columbia University

214

Liquid-gas-solid flows with lattice Boltzmann: Simulation of floating bodies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents a model for the simulation of liquid-gas-solid flows by means of the lattice Boltzmann method. The approach is built upon previous works for the simulation of liquid-solid particle suspensions on the one hand, and on a liquid-gas free surface model on the other. We show how the two approaches can be unified by a novel set of dynamic cell conversion rules. For evaluation, we concentrate on the rotational stability of non-spherical rigid bodies floating on a plane water surface - a classical hydrostatic problem known from naval architecture. We show the consistency of our method in this kind of flows and obtain convergence towards the ideal solution for the measured heeling stability of a floating box.

Bogner, Simon

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Solid sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams at low temperatures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

New low-cost CO.sub.2 sorbents are provided that can be used in large-scale gas-solid processes. A new method is provided for making these sorbents that involves treating substrates with an amine and/or an ether so that the amine and/or ether comprise at least 50 wt. percent of the sorbent. The sorbent acts by capturing compounds contained in gaseous fluids via chemisorption and/or physisorption between the unit layers of the substrate's lattice where the polar amine liquids and solids and/or polar ether liquids and solids are located. The method eliminates the need for high surface area supports and polymeric materials for the preparation of CO.sub.2 capture systems, and provides sorbents with absorption capabilities that are independent of the sorbents' surface areas. The sorbents can be regenerated by heating at temperatures in excess of 35.degree. C.

Sirwardane, Ranjani V. (Morgantown, WV)

2005-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

216

Solid Sorbents for Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Gas Streams at Low Temperatures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

New low-cost CO2 sorbents are provided that can be used in large-scale gas-solid processes. A new method is provided for making these sorbents that involves treating substrates with an amine and/or an ether so that the amine and/or ether comprise at least 50 wt. percent of the sorbent. The sorbent acts by capturing compounds contained in gaseous fluids via chemisorption and/or physisorption between the unit layers of the substrate's lattice where the polar amine liquids and solids and/or polar ether liquids and solids are located. The method eliminates the need for high surface area supports and polymeric materials for the preparation of CO2 capture systems, and provides sorbents with absorption capabilities that are independent of the sorbents' surface areas. The sorbents can be regenerated by heating at temperatures in excess of 35 degrees C.

Sirwardane, Ranjani V.

2005-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

217

Solid-Phase Biotreatment Technology Studies Using Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) Soils  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The utility industry has been conducting site investigations to assess the presence of tar residuals at manufactured gas plant sites and to determine appropriate remediation actions. Tars typically contain volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semi-volatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. This report evaluates the feasibility of remediating such tarry materials using a patented solid-phase bioremediation technology to target PAH degradation. Bench- and pilot scale treatability trials det...

2000-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

218

International Best Practices for Pre-Processing and Co-Processing Municipal Solid Waste and Sewage Sludge in the Cement Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

engineering.de/116/) Co-firing of MSW and sewage sludge indevice for solid waste fuel co-firing Solid waste fuels areand HF produced during firing. ? CO is largely unaffected. ?

Hasanbeigi, Ali

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Geometrical Field Representation of Solid, Fluid, and Gas as Continuum in Rational Mechanics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Based on the points-set transformation concept about the motion transformation in continuum, the macro classical strain is expressed by the additive addition of the intrinsic stretching of material element and its intrinsic local rotation. For zero classical strain (no macro deformation observed on its configuration surface, suitable container is required for liquid and gas to make up macro invariant configuration), the results show that: (1) For solid, the local rotation angular is zero. The material element has no intrinsic stretching. (2) For liquid, the local rotation will not change the basic gauge tensor. The material element has intrinsic plane stretching on the rotation plane. (3) For gas state, the intrinsic local rotation will amplify the basic gauge tensor. The material element has intrinsic stretching along the rotation direction. Hence, under the condition of no macro classical strain be observed, the material element has three different physical states: solid (no intrinsic stretching), fluid (plane intrinsic stretching), and gas (directional intrinsic stretching). Furthermore, for the three states, the free conditions are defined by zero intrinsic stretching. Referring to this free condition, the constitutive equations for the materials at multiple states are established.

Jianhua Xiao

2009-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

220

Business Case for CNG in Municipal Fleets (Presentation)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation about compressed natural gas in municipal fleets, assessing investment profitability, the VICE model, base-case scenarios, and pressing questions for fleet owners.

Johnson, C.

2010-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas municipal solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

The Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Gas Turbine (GT) Systems Steady State Modeling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) are of great interest nowadays. The feature of SOFCs makes them suitable for hybrid systems because they work high operating temperature and when combined with conventional turbine power plants offer high cycle efficiencies. In this work a hybrid solid oxide fuel cell and gas turbine power system model is developed. Two models have been developed based on simple thermodynamic expressions. The simple models are used in the preliminary part of the study and a more realistic based on the performance maps. A comparative study of the simulated configurations, based on an energy analysis is used to perform a parametric study of the overall hybrid system efficiency. Some important observations are made by means of a sensitivity study of the whole cycle for the selected configuration. The results of the selected model were compared to an earlier model from an available literature.

Penyarat Chinda; Pascal Brault

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Title I preliminary engineering for: A. S. E. F. solid waste to methane gas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An assignment to provide preliminary engineering of an Advanced System Experimental Facility for production of methane gas from urban solid waste by anaerobic digestion is documented. The experimental facility will be constructed on a now-existing solid waste shredding and landfill facility in Pompano Beach, Florida. Information is included on: general description of the project; justification of basic need; process design; preliminary drawings; outline specifications; preliminary estimate of cost; and time schedules for design and construction of accomplishment of design and construction. The preliminary cost estimate for the design and construction phases of the experimental program is $2,960,000, based on Dec. 1975 and Jan. 1976 costs. A time schedule of eight months to complete the Detailed Design, Equipment Procurement and the Award of Subcontracts is given.

None

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Kerr-AdS analogue of tricritical point and solid/liquid/gas phase transition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the thermodynamic behavior of multi-spinning d=6 Kerr-anti de Sitter black holes in the canonical ensemble of fixed angular momenta J1 and J2. We find, dependent on the ratio q=J2/J1, qualitatively different interesting phenomena known from the `every day thermodynamics' of simple substances. For q=0 the system exhibits recently observed reentrant large/small/large black hole phase transitions, but for 0liquid' phase transition. Furthermore, for 0.00905liquid/gas phase transition except that the coexistence line of small and intermediate black holes does not continue for an arbitrary value of pressure (similar to the solid/liquid coexistence line) but rather terminates at one of the critical points. Finally, for q>0.0985 we observe the `standard liquid/gas behavior' of the Van der Waals fluid.

Natacha Altamirano; David Kubiznak; Robert B. Mann; Zeinab Sherkatghanad

2013-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

224

Equilibrium gas-liquid-solid contact angle from density-functional theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the equilibrium of a fluid in contact with a solid boundary through a density-functional theory. Depending on the conditions, the fluid can be in one phase, gas or liquid, or two phases, while the wall induces an external field acting on the fluid particles. We first examine the case of a liquid film in contact with the wall. We construct bifurcation diagrams for the film thickness as a function of the chemical potential. At a specific value of the chemical potential, two equally stable films, a thin one and a thick one, can coexist. As saturation is approached, the thickness of the thick film tends to infinity. This allows the construction of a liquid-gas interface that forms a well defined contact angle with the wall.

Pereira, Antonio

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Best Practices for Siting Solar Photovoltaics on Municipal Solid Waste Landfills. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Environmental Protection Agency and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed this best practices document to address common technical challenges for siting solar photovoltaics (PV) on municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The purpose of this document is to promote the use of MSW landfills for solar energy systems. Closed landfills and portions of active landfills with closed cells represent thousands of acres of property that may be suitable for siting solar photovoltaics (PV). These closed landfills may be suitable for near-term construction, making these sites strong candidate to take advantage of the 30% Federal Business Energy Investment Tax Credit. It was prepared in response to the increasing interest in siting renewable energy on landfills from solar developers; landfill owners; and federal, state, and local governments. It contains examples of solar PV projects on landfills and technical considerations and best practices that were gathered from examining the implementation of several of these projects.

Kiatreungwattana, K.; Mosey, G.; Jones-Johnson, S.; Dufficy, C.; Bourg, J.; Conroy, A.; Keenan, M.; Michaud, W.; Brown, K.

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Emission assessment at the Burj Hammoud inactive municipal landfill: Viability of landfill gas recovery under the clean development mechanism  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LFG emissions are measured at an abandoned landfill with highly organic waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mean headspace and vent emissions are 0.240 and 0.074 l CH{sub 4}/m{sup 2} hr, respectively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At sites with high food waste content, LFG generation drops rapidly after site closure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The viability of LFG recovery for CDMs in developing countries is doubtful. - Abstract: This paper examines landfill gas (LFG) emissions at a large inactive waste disposal site to evaluate the viability of investment in LFG recovery through the clean development mechanism (CDM) initiative. For this purpose, field measurements of LFG emissions were conducted and the data were processed by geospatial interpolation to estimate an equivalent site emission rate which was used to calibrate and apply two LFG prediction models to forecast LFG emissions at the site. The mean CH{sub 4} flux values calculated through tessellation, inverse distance weighing and kriging were 0.188 {+-} 0.014, 0.224 {+-} 0.012 and 0.237 {+-} 0.008 l CH{sub 4}/m{sup 2} hr, respectively, compared to an arithmetic mean of 0.24 l/m{sup 2} hr. The flux values are within the reported range for closed landfills (0.06-0.89 l/m{sup 2} hr), and lower than the reported range for active landfills (0.42-2.46 l/m{sup 2} hr). Simulation results matched field measurements for low methane generation potential (L{sub 0}) values in the range of 19.8-102.6 m{sup 3}/ton of waste. LFG generation dropped rapidly to half its peak level only 4 yrs after landfill closure limiting the sustainability of LFG recovery systems in similar contexts and raising into doubt promoted CDM initiatives for similar waste.

El-Fadel, Mutasem, E-mail: mfadel@aub.edu.lb [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, American University of Beirut (Lebanon); Abi-Esber, Layale; Salhab, Samer [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, American University of Beirut (Lebanon)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

227

FORCE2: A multidimensional flow program for gas solids flow theory guide  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the theory and structure of the FORCE2 flow program. The manual describes the governing model equations, solution procedure and their implementation in the computer program. FORCE2 is an extension of an existing B&V multidimensional, two-phase flow program. FORCE2 was developed for application to fluid beds by flow implementing a gas-solids modeling technology derived, in part, during a joint government -- industry research program, ``Erosion of FBC Heat Transfer Tubes,`` coordinated by Argonne National Laboratory. The development of FORCE2 was sponsored by ASEA-Babcock, an industry participant in this program. This manual is the principal documentation for the program theory and organization. Program usage and post-processing of code predictions with the FORCE2 post-processor are described in a companion report, FORCE2 -- A Multidimensional Flow Program for Fluid Beds, User`s Guide. This manual is segmented into sections to facilitate its usage. In section 2.0, the mass and momentum conservation principles, the basis for the code, are presented. In section 3.0, the constitutive relations used in modeling gas-solids hydrodynamics are given. The finite-difference model equations are derived in section 4.0 and the solution procedures described in sections 5.0 and 6.0. Finally, the implementation of the model equations and solution procedure in FORCE2 is described in section 7.0.

Burge, S.W.

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Development and demonstration of a solid fuel-fired gas turbine system  

SciTech Connect

Western Research Institute (WRI) and Power Generating Incorporated (PGI) are developing a solid fuel-fired gas turbine system for specialized cogeneration applications. The system is based on a patented pressurized combustor designed and tested by PGI in conjunction with McConnell Industries. The other components of the system are (a) fuel receiving, preparation, storage and feeding system, (b) gas clean-up equipment, and (c) a gas turbine generator. An approximately 400 kW prototype system is under construction at the WRI facilities in Laramie, Wyoming. As a part of this demonstration the integrated system, following a short shakedown period, will be operated on white wood. White wood was selected as the fuel for early tests because of its low ash (0.5 - 1.0 %), silica, and sulfur contents. The system will then be operated on coal. It is expected that the design of the coal-based system will evolve as the wood testing proceeds. In previous similar wood-fired system development attempts, albeit at lower turbine inlet temperatures, a major technical hindrance to long-term operation of a gas turbine power system has been the degradation of the hot section of the gas turbine. Deposition, erosion, and corrosion are main issues that need to be addressed. In the wood-fired PGI system, erosion is not likely to be of concern because of the low silica and low overall ash content of the fuel and the fact that the wood ash particle size is expected to be in the range where little or no erosion would be expected. However, because of the high alkali content of the fuel, deposition and corrosion can become major issues. This paper will deal with the issues pertaining to the design of the prototype being constructed at the WRI premises. Preliminary thoughts on the design aspects of the plant modifications required for coal testing will also be presented.

Speight, J.G.; Sethi, V.K.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

International Best Practices for Pre-Processing and Co-Processing Municipal Solid Waste and Sewage Sludge in the Cement Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

dioxins and furans, HCl, chlorine gas, Pb, manganese, andas calorific value and chlorine, ash, and trace element (influence setting time Chlorine, sulfur, and alkali, which

Hasanbeigi, Ali

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Impacts of Marcellus Shale Development on Municipal Governments in Susquehanna  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Impacts of Marcellus Shale Development on Municipal Governments in Susquehanna and Washington Marcellus shale gas development. The study focused on how gas development is affecting the demand (1) their already extensive shale activity; (2) their divergent geographical, cultural

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

231

Harsh-Environment Solid-State Gamma Detector for Down-hole Gas and Oil Exploration  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this program was to develop a revolutionary solid-state gamma-ray detector suitable for use in down-hole gas and oil exploration. This advanced detector would employ wide-bandgap semiconductor technology to extend the gamma sensor's temperature capability up to 200 C as well as extended reliability, which significantly exceeds current designs based on photomultiplier tubes. In Phase II, project tasks were focused on optimization of the final APD design, growing and characterizing the full scintillator crystals of the selected composition, arranging the APD device packaging, developing the needed optical coupling between scintillator and APD, and characterizing the combined elements as a full detector system preparing for commercialization. What follows is a summary report from the second 18-month phase of this program.

Peter Sandvik; Stanislav Soloviev; Emad Andarawis; Ho-Young Cha; Jim Rose; Kevin Durocher; Robert Lyons; Bob Pieciuk; Jim Williams; David O'Connor

2007-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

232

Evaluation of the Natick enzymatic hydrolysis process for use in the production of ethanol from municipal solid waste or from wood. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Economic evaluation of a conceptual, large-scale, commercial ethanol production facility using the enzymatic hydrolysis technology are presented. Designs and cost estimates for the mechanical processing and the ethanol fermentation and recovery are included. Production of ethanol from both wood and solid wastes is covered. (MHR)

Jones, J. L.; Fong, W. S.; Chatterjee, A. K.

1979-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Landfill gas emission prediction using Voronoi diagrams and importance sampling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills are among the nation's largest emitters of methane, a key greenhouse gas, and there is considerable interest in quantifying the surficial methane emissions from landfills. There are limitations in obtaining accurate ... Keywords: Air dispersion modeling, Delaunay tessellation, Kriging, Least squares, MSW landfill, Voronoi diagram

K. R. Mackie; C. D. Cooper

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Chemical Spills, Releases, Explosions, Exposures, or Injuries (includes corrosive, reactive, flammable, and toxic chemicals in solid, liquid or gas form)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chemical Spills, Releases, Explosions, Exposures, or Injuries (includes corrosive, reactive, flammable, and toxic chemicals in solid, liquid or gas form) EHS Contact: Kate Lumley-Sapanski (kxl3@psu apply: When to Report: · All chemical exposures or explosions requiring medical attention must

Yener, Aylin

235

Mathematical modelling of diffusion and reaction for gas-solid catalytic systems with complex reaction networks. Negative effectiveness factors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The concept of effectiveness factor (@h) as a measure of diffusional limitations for gas-solid catalytic reactions has gone a long way since the time of Thiele. Multiple steady states giving rise to multiple values of (@h) for the same bulk conditions, ...

S. S. E. H. Elnashaie; M. A. Soliman; M. E. Abashar; S. Almuhana

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

WASTE SEPARATION-DOES IT INFLUENCE MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTOR EMISSIONS?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

WASTE SEPARATION- DOES IT INFLUENCE MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTOR EMISSIONS? A. John Chandler A a commendable job in proving that trace emissions from a modem waste to energy plant have little to do with the trace compounds in individual components of municipal solid waste. Ogden, the leader in designing

Columbia University

237

Emissions of PCDD/Fs from municipal solid waste incinerators in China Yuwen Ni, Haijun Zhang, Su Fan, Xueping Zhang, Qing Zhang, Jiping Chen *  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

s t r a c t Gas emission of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD.5% of the total production of the world (Zhang and Zhu, 2006). The lack of landfill sites for the wastes has operated in China (Yan et al., 2006). However, until now there was a lack of detailed information

Columbia University

238

Solid Waste Disposal Act (Texas)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality is responsible for the regulation and management of municipal solid waste and hazardous waste. A fee is applied to all solid waste disposed in the...

239

Heat removal from high temperature tubular solid oxide fuel cells utilizing product gas from coal gasifiers.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this work we describe the results of a computer study used to investigate the practicality of several heat exchanger configurations that could be used to extract heat from tubular solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) . Two SOFC feed gas compositions were used in this study. They represent product gases from two different coal gasifier designs from the Zero Emission Coal study at Los Alamos National Laboratory . Both plant designs rely on the efficient use of the heat produced by the SOFCs . Both feed streams are relatively rich in hydrogen with a very small hydrocarbon content . One feed stream has a significant carbon monoxide content with a bit less hydrogen . Since neither stream has a significant hydrocarbon content, the common use of the endothermic reforming reaction to reduce the process heat is not possible for these feed streams . The process, the method, the computer code, and the results are presented as well as a discussion of the pros and cons of each configuration for each process .

Parkinson, W. J. (William Jerry),

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Real time mass flux measurements of gas-solid suspensions at low velocities  

SciTech Connect

In previous work, measurement of the particulate mass flux was made based upon a novel electrostatic technique. A small conducting wire sensor was inserted in the flow and as each particle hit the sensor an individual pulse of current was identified. Through suitable electronic circuitry, the number of pulses in a given time were counted. This was a direct measure of the number of particle-probe collisions which was related to local particle mass flow. The technique is currently limited to monodisperse suspensions. A primary advantage of the impact counter system is that the output does not depend upon the magnitude of the actual charge transfer. As long as the pulses are sufficiently above the noise level, variations in charge transfer will not affect the measurement. For the current work, the technique was applied to vertical gas-solid flow where the fluid velocity was slightly above the particle terminal velocity. Under these conditions a sufficient signal to noise ratio was not found. The Cheng-Soo charge transfer theory indicated that the low particle-sensor impact velocity was responsible. The probe system was then modified by extracting a particulate sample isokinetically and accelerating the particles to a sufficient velocity by an area reduction in the sampling tube. With this technique the signal to noise ratio was about 12 to 1. Mass flux results are shown to compare favorably with filter collection and weighing.

Saunders, J H; Chao, B T; Soo, S L

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas municipal solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Comparison of municipal solid waste management systems in Canada and Ghana: A case study of the cities of London, Ontario, and Kumasi, Ghana  

SciTech Connect

Integrated waste management has been accepted as a sustainable approach to solid waste management in any region. It can be applied in both developed and developing countries. The difference is the approach taken to develop the integrated waste management system. This review looks at the integrated waste management system operating in the city of London, Ontario-Canada and how lessons can be drawn from the system's development and operation that will help implement a sustainable waste management system in the city of Kumasi, Ghana. The waste management system in London is designed such that all waste generated in the city is handled and disposed of appropriately. The responsibility of each sector handling waste is clearly defined and monitored. All major services are provided and delivered by a combination of public and private sector forces. The sustainability of the waste management in the city of London is attributed to the continuous improvement strategy framework adopted by the city based on the principles of integrated waste management. It is perceived that adopting a strategic framework based on the principles of integrated waste management with a strong political and social will, can transform the current waste management in Kumasi and other cities in developing countries in the bid for finding lasting solutions to the problems that have plagued the waste management system in these cities.

Asase, Mizpah [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi (Ghana); Yanful, Ernest K. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The University of Western Ontario London, Ontario, N6A 5B9 (Canada)], E-mail: eyanful@eng.uwo.ca; Mensah, Moses [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi (Ghana); Stanford, Jay [City of London, 300 Dufferin Ave. P.O. Box 5035, Ontario, N6A 4L9 (Canada); Amponsah, Samuel [Mathematics Department, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi (Ghana)

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

242

Solid-state NMR evidence for inequivalent GvpA subunits in gas vesicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gas vesicles are organelles that provide buoyancy to the aquatic microorganisms that harbor them. The gas vesicle shell consists almost exclusively of the hydrophobic 70-residue gas vesicle protein A, arranged in an ordered ...

Sivertsen, Astrid C.

243

Municipal Utility Districts (Texas)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Municipal Utility Districts, regulated by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, may be created for the following purposes: (1) the control, storage, preservation, and distribution of its...

244

Organic-vapor-liquid-solid deposition with an impinging gas jet Daniel W. Shaw, Kevin Bufkin, Alexandr A. Baronov, Brad L. Johnson, and David L. Patrick  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Organic-vapor-liquid-solid deposition with an impinging gas jet Daniel W. Shaw, Kevin Bufkin gas jet to a substrate coated by a thin liquid solvent layer. Films of the organic semiconductor, and the results compared to experiment. The combination of gas jet delivery with an organic-vapor-liquid

Patrick, David L.

245

Biogas From Municipal WWTPs: Fuel Cells Viewed as a Value Proposition  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

From Municipal WWTPs From Municipal WWTPs Fuel Cells Viewed as a Value Proposition Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, Colorado June 12, 2012 WWTP Anaerobic Digestion * Common method of processing sludge to reduce volume of solids & volatile content * Reduces sludge disposal cost & increases outlets for disposal * Since motivation is disposal rather than digester gas (DG) production, the DG is available at no cost * This is unlike many other organic waste digestion facilities, where the energy project must bear cost of the digester(s) WWTP Anaerobic Digestion * WWTP anaerobic digesters require heat * Typically a portion of the DG is used to produce steam or hot water to provide the heat * The heat required varies seasonally,

246

A Reversible Planar Solid Oxide Fuel-Fed Electrolysis Cell and Solid Oxide Fuel Cell for Hydrogen and Electricity Production Operating on Natural Gas/Biomass Fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A solid oxide fuel-assisted electrolysis technique was developed to co-generate hydrogen and electricity directly from a fuel at a reduced cost of electricity. Solid oxide fuel-assisted electrolysis cells (SOFECs), which were comprised of 8YSZ electrolytes sandwiched between thick anode supports and thin cathodes, were constructed and experimentally evaluated at various operation conditions on lab-level button cells with 2 cm2 per-cell active areas as well as on bench-scale stacks with 30 cm2 and 100 cm2 per-cell active areas. To reduce the concentration overpotentials, pore former systems were developed and engineered to optimize the microstructure and morphology of the Ni+8YSZ-based anodes. Chemically stable cathode materials, which possess good electronic and ionic conductivity and exhibit good electrocatalytic properties in both oxidizing and reducing gas atmospheres, were developed and materials properties were investigated. In order to increase the specific hydrogen production rate and thereby reduce the system volume and capital cost for commercial applications, a hybrid system that integrates the technologies of the SOFEC and the solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC), was developed and successfully demonstrated at a 1kW scale, co-generating hydrogen and electricity directly from chemical fuels.

Tao, Greg, G.

2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

247

CO{sub 2} Capture from Flue Gas Using Solid Molecular Basket Sorbents  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop a new generation of solid, regenerable polymeric molecular basket sorbent (MBS) for more cost-efficient capture and separation of CO{sub 2} from flue gas of coal-fired power plants. The primary goal is to develop a cost-effective MBS sorbent with better thermal stability. To improve the cost-effectiveness of MBS, we have explored commercially available and inexpensive support to replace the more expensive mesoporous molecular sieves like MCM-41 and SBA- 15. In addition, we have developed some advanced sorbent materials with 3D pore structure such as hexagonal mesoporous silica (HMS) to improve the CO{sub 2} working capacity of MBS, which can also reduce the cost for the whole CO{sub 2} capture process. During the project duration, the concern regarding the desorption rate of MBS sorbents has been raised, because lower desorption rate increases the desorption time for complete regeneration of the sorbent which in turn leads to a lower working capacity if the regeneration time is limited. Thus, the improvement in the thermal stability of MBS became a vital task for later part of this project. The improvement in the thermal stability was performed via increasing the polymer density either using higher molecular weight PEI or PEI cross-linking with an organic compound. Moreover, we have used the computational approach to estimate the interaction of CO{sub 2} with different MBSs for the fundamental understanding of CO{sub 2} sorption, which may benefit the development, design and modification of the sorbents and the process.

Fillerup, Eric; Zhang, Zhonghua; Peduzzi, Emanuela; Wang, Dongxiang; Guo, Jiahua; Ma, Xiaoliang; Wang, Xiaoxing; Song, Chunshan

2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

248

Photovoltaics for municipal planners  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This booklet is intended for city and county government personnel, as well as community organizations, who deal with supplying, regulating, or recommending electric power resources. Specifically, this document deals with photovoltaic (PV) power, or power from solar cells, which is currently the most cost-effective energy source for electricity requirements that are relatively small, located in isolated areas, or difficult to serve with conventional technology. Recently, PV has been documented to be more cost-effective than conventional alternatives (such as line extensions or engine generators) in dozens of applications within the service territories of electric, gas, and communications utilities. Here, we document numerous cost-effective urban applications, chosen by planners and utilities because they were the most cost-effective option or because they were appropriate for environmental or logistical reasons. These applications occur within various municipal departments, including utility, parks and recreation, traffic engineering, transportation, and planning, and they include lighting applications, communications equipment, corrosion protection, irrigation control equipment, remote monitoring, and even portable power supplies for emergency situations.

Not Available

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Anaerobic co-digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste with FOG waste from a sewage treatment plant: Recovering a wasted methane potential and enhancing the biogas yield  

SciTech Connect

Anaerobic digestion is applied widely to treat the source collected organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (SC-OFMSW). Lipid-rich wastes are a valuable substrate for anaerobic digestion due to their high theoretical methane potential. Nevertheless, although fat, oil and grease waste from sewage treatment plants (STP-FOGW) are commonly disposed of in landfill, European legislation is aimed at encouraging more effective forms of treatment. Co-digestion of the above wastes may enhance valorisation of STP-FOGW and lead to a higher biogas yield throughout the anaerobic digestion process. In the present study, STP-FOGW was evaluated as a co-substrate in wet anaerobic digestion of SC-OFMSW under mesophilic conditions (37 {sup o}C). Batch experiments carried out at different co-digestion ratios showed an improvement in methane production related to STP-FOGW addition. A 1:7 (VS/VS) STP-FOGW:SC-OFMSW feed ratio was selected for use in performing further lab-scale studies in a 5 L continuous reactor. Biogas yield increased from 0.38 {+-} 0.02 L g VS{sub feed}{sup -1} to 0.55 {+-} 0.05 L g VS{sub feed}{sup -1} as a result of adding STP-FOGW to reactor feed. Both VS reduction values and biogas methane content were maintained and inhibition produced by long chain fatty acid (LCFA) accumulation was not observed. Recovery of a currently wasted methane potential from STP-FOGW was achieved in a co-digestion process with SC-OFMSW.

Martin-Gonzalez, L., E-mail: lucia.martin@uab.ca [Departament d'Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Colturato, L.F. [Departament d'Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Font, X.; Vicent, T. [Departament d'Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Institut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambiental (ICTA) Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

250

Municipal Waste Combustion (New Mexico)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This rule establishes requirements for emissions from, and design and operation of, municipal waste combustion units. "Municipal waste" means all materials and substances discarded from residential...

251

NETL: CO2 Capture from Flue Gas Using Solid Molecular Basket...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

molecular basket sorbent for CO2 capture from flue gas. Energy Fuels 2011, 25, 456-458. XX Wang, SQ Zhao, XL Ma, CS Song, CO2 capture from gas streams with low CO2...

252

Comparison of slope stability in two Brazilian municipal landfills  

SciTech Connect

The implementation of landfill gas to energy (LFGTE) projects has greatly assisted in reducing the greenhouse gases and air pollutants, leading to an improved local air quality and reduced health risks. The majority of cities in developing countries still dispose of their municipal waste in uncontrolled 'open dumps.' Municipal solid waste landfill construction practices and operating procedures in these countries pose a challenge to implementation of LFGTE projects because of concern about damage to the gas collection infrastructure (horizontal headers and vertical wells) caused by minor, relatively shallow slumps and slides within the waste mass. While major slope failures can and have occurred, such failures in most cases have been shown to involve contributory factors or triggers such as high pore pressures, weak foundation soil or failure along weak geosynthetic interfaces. Many researchers who have studied waste mechanics propose that the shear strength of municipal waste is sufficient such that major deep-seated catastrophic failures under most circumstances require such contributory factors. Obviously, evaluation of such potential major failures requires expert analysis by geotechnical specialists with detailed site-specific information regarding foundation soils, interface shearing resistances and pore pressures both within the waste and in clayey barrier layers or foundation soils. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the potential use of very simple stability analyses which can be used to study the potential for slumps and slides within the waste mass and which may represent a significant constraint on construction and development of the landfill, on reclamation and closure and on the feasibility of a LFGTE project. The stability analyses rely on site-specific but simple estimates of the unit weight of waste and the pore pressure conditions and use 'generic' published shear strength envelopes for municipal waste. Application of the slope stability analysis method is presented in a case study of two Brazilian landfill sites; the Cruz das Almas Landfill in Maceio and the Muribeca Landfill in Recife. The Muribeca site has never recorded a slope failure and is much larger and better-maintained when compared to the Maceio site at which numerous minor slumps and slides have been observed. Conventional limit-equilibrium analysis was used to calculate factors of safety for stability of the landfill side slopes. Results indicate that the Muribeca site is more stable with computed factors of safety values in the range 1.6-2.4 compared with computed values ranging from 0.9 to 1.4 for the Maceio site at which slope failures have been known to occur. The results suggest that this approach may be useful as a screening-level tool when considering the feasibility of implementing LFGTE projects.

Gharabaghi, B. [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada)], E-mail: bgharaba@uoguelph.ca; Singh, M.K. [Department of Civil and Geological Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, S7N 5A9 (Canada); Inkratas, C. [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada)], E-mail: cinkrata@uoguelph.ca; Fleming, I.R. [Department of Civil and Geological Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, S7N 5A9 (Canada)], E-mail: ian.fleming@usask.ca; McBean, E. [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada)], E-mail: emcbean@uoguelph.ca

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Landfill Gas Sequestration in Kansas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Road Road P.O. Box 880 Morgantown, WV 26505-0880 304-285-4132 Heino.beckert@netl.doe.gov David newell Principal Investigator Kansas Geological Survey 1930 Constant Avenue Lawrence, KS 66045 785-864-2183 dnewall@kgs.uk.edu LandfiLL Gas sequestration in Kansas Background Municipal solid waste landfills are the largest source of anthropogenic methane emissions in the United States, accounting for about 34 percent of these emissions in 2004. Most methane (CH 4 ) generated in landfills and open dumps by anaerobic decomposition of the organic material in solid-waste-disposal landfills is either vented to the atmosphere or converted to carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) by flaring. The gas consists of about 50 percent methane (CH 4 ), the primary component of natural gas, about 50 percent carbon dioxide (CO

254

Clean energy from municipal solid waste  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This progress report describes a slurry grinding trial where a carbonized refuse derived fuel was dispersed in water. The RDF slurry produced in this study is to subjected to dioxin combustion tests.

Klosky, M.

1996-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

255

High solids fermentation reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

Wyman, Charles E. (Lakewood, CO); Grohmann, Karel (Littleton, CO); Himmel, Michael E. (Littleton, CO); Richard, Christopher J. (Lakewood, CO)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Measurement of gas temperature field in a flame spreading over solid fuel.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??An experimental measurement is developed to measure the gas temperature field in a flame spreading downward over thermally thin filter paper. A flame stabilizer apparatus… (more)

Alghamdi, Abdulaziz Othman

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Landfill Gas-to-Electricity Demonstration Project  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Medium Btu methane gas is a naturally occurring byproduct of anaerobic digestion of landfilled municipal solid waste. The energy potential of landfill gas in New York State is estimated to be 61 trillion Btu's per year or the equivalent of 10% of the natural gas used annually in the state. The 18-month Landfill Gas-to-Electricity Demonstration Project conducted at the Fresh Kills Landfill in Staten Island, New York conclusively demonstrated that landfill gas is an acceptable fuel for producing electricity using an internal combustion engine/generator set. Landfill gas proved to be a reliable and consistent fuel source during a six-month field test program. Engine exhaust emissions were determined to be comparable to that of natural gas and no unusually high corrosion rates on standard pipeline material were found.

Not Available

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Durability Prediction of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode Material under Thermo-Mechanical and Fuel Gas Contaminants Effects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) operate under harsh environments, which cause deterioration of anode material properties and service life. In addition to electrochemical performance, structural integrity of the SOFC anode is essential for successful long-term operation. The SOFC anode is subjected to stresses at high temperature, thermal/redox cycles, and fuel gas contaminants effects during long-term operation. These mechanisms can alter the anode microstructure and affect its electrochemical and structural properties. In this research, anode material degradation mechanisms are briefly reviewed and an anode material durability model is developed and implemented in finite element analysis. The model takes into account thermo-mechanical and fuel gas contaminants degradation mechanisms for prediction of long-term structural integrity of the SOFC anode. The proposed model is validated experimentally using a NexTech ProbostatTM SOFC button cell test apparatus integrated with a Sagnac optical setup for simultaneously measuring electrochemical performance and in-situ anode surface deformation.

Iqbal, Gulfam; Guo, Hua; Kang , Bruce S.; Marina, Olga A.

2011-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

259

Demonstration of a Highly Efficient Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power System Using Adiabatic Steam Reforming and Anode Gas Recirculation  

SciTech Connect

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are currently being developed for a wide variety of applications because of their high efficiency at multiple power levels. Applications for SOFCs encompass a large range of power levels including 1-2 kW residential combined heat and power applications, 100-250 kW sized systems for distributed generation and grid extension, and MW-scale power plants utilizing coal. This paper reports on the development of a highly efficient, small-scale SOFC power system operating on methane. The system uses adiabatic steam reforming of methane and anode gas recirculation to achieve high net electrical efficiency. The anode exit gas is recirculated and all of the heat and water required for the endothermic reforming reaction are provided by the anode gas emerging from the SOFC stack. Although the single-pass fuel utilization is only about 55%, because of the anode gas recirculation the overall fuel utilization is up to 93%. The demonstrated system achieved gross power output of 1650 to 2150 watts with a maximum net LHV efficiency of 56.7% at 1720 watts. Overall system efficiency could be further improved to over 60% with use of properly sized blowers.

Powell, Michael R.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Chick, Lawrence A.; Mcvay, Gary L.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Managing America`s solid waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents an historical overview of the federal role in municipal solid waste management from 1965 to approximately 1995. Attention is focuses on the federal role in safeguarding public health, protecting the environment, and wisely using material and energy resources. It is hoped that this report will provide important background for future municipal solid waste research and development initiatives.

Not Available

1998-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas municipal solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Internal natural gas reformer-dividers for a solid oxide fuel cell generator configuration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This patent describes a fuel cell generator configuration. It comprises electrically connected, axially elongated, fuel cells, each cell having an outer and inner electrode with solid oxide electrolyte therebetween; where elongated dividers separate and are positioned between fuel cells, and where at least one of the elongated dividers is hollow, the hollow divider having solid elongated walls, a reformable fuel mixture entrance, and an exit allowing passage of reformed fuel to the fuel cells, and where the cross-section of the divider contains a catalytic reforming material.

Reichner, P.

1992-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

262

Optimization of the controlling design parameters of fluidised bed gas-solid heat exchangers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Generalised analytical correlations relating heat transfer coefficient, mass velocity of gas, tube diameter, bed particle size and relative pitch have been formulated based on experimental data reported in literature. These correlations are used to predict ...

V. N. Vedamurthy; T. Janakirajan; S. Natarajan; C. P. Sarathy

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

ETC/RWM working paper 2008/1 Municipal waste management  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.............................................................................. 19 6. Modelling greenhouse gas emissions............................................................. 21 6.1. Greenhouse gas emissions as environmental indicatorETC/RWM working paper 2008/1 Municipal waste management and greenhouse gases Prepared by: Mette

264

Gas Safety Law (Florida) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Gas Safety Law (Florida) Gas Safety Law (Florida) Eligibility Commercial Construction Industrial Investor-Owned Utility MunicipalPublic Utility Retail Supplier Rural Electric...

265

Sampling and Analysis Procedures for Gas, Condensate, Brine, and Solids: Pleasant Bayou Well Test, 1988-Present  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This section covers analyses performed on gas. Chemical analyses can only be related to well performance if the quantity of the various fluids are known. The IGT on-line data computer system measures the flowrate, the pressures, and the temperatures every 10 seconds. These values are automatically recorded over operator selected intervals both on magnetic media and on paper. This allows review of samples versus operating conditions. This paper covers analyses performed on gas, including: An approximate sampling schedule during flow tests; On-site sample handling and storage of gas samples; Addresses of laboratories that perform off site analyses; Sample shipping instructions; Data archiving; and Quality Control/Quality Assurance. It is expected that the above procedures will change as the flow test progresses, but deviations from the written procedures should be approved by C. Hayden of IGT and noted on the results of the analysis.

Hayden, Chris

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

American Municipal Power (Public Electric Utilities) - Residential...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

American Municipal Power (Public Electric Utilities) - Residential Efficiency Smart Program (Ohio) American Municipal Power (Public Electric Utilities) - Residential Efficiency...

267

Electrochemical, Structural and Surface Characterization of Nickel/Zirconia Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes in Coal Gas Containing Antimony  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The interaction of antimony with the nickel-zirconia solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode has been investigated. Tests with both anode-supported and electrolyte-supported button cells were performed at 700 and 800oC in synthetic coal gas containing 10 ppb to 9 ppm antimony. Minor performance loss was observed immediately after Sb introduction to coal gas resulting in ca. 5 % power output drop. While no further degradation was observed during the following several hundred hours of testing, cells abruptly and irreversibly failed after 800-1500 hours depending on Sb concentration and test temperature. Antimony was found to interact strongly with nickel and result in extensive alteration phase formation, consistent with expectations based on thermodynamic properties. Nickel antimonide phases, NiSb and Ni5Sb2, were partially coalesced into large grains and eventually affected electronic percolation through the anode support. Initial degradation was attributed to diffusion of antimony to the active anode/electrolyte interface to form an adsorption layer.

Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Edwards, Danny J.

2011-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

268

Leaching Assessment of Fly Ash, Flue Gas Desulfurization Filter Cake, and Fixated Scrubber Solids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The by-products of coal combustion (for example, fly ash and flue gas desulfurization filter cake) are an important environmental concern due to potential leaching of trace constituents and the large volume of residues produced. About 40% of these by-products may be utilized as raw materials outside of the energy sector; the remaining 60% of the coal combustion products (CCPs) are disposed of as waste. At Plant 14090, the subject of this report, fly ash and scrubber sludge are blended with quicklime ...

2012-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

269

Effect of sewage sludge content on gas quality and solid residues produced by cogasification in an updraft gasifier  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cogasification of sewage sludge with wood pellets in updraft gasifier was analysed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of sewage sludge content on the gasification process were examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sewage sludge addition up to 30 wt.% reduces moderately the process performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At high sewage sludge content slagging and clinker formation occurred. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid residues produced resulted acceptable at landfills for non-hazardous waste. - Abstract: In the present work, the gasification with air of dehydrated sewage sludge (SS) with 20 wt.% moisture mixed with conventional woody biomass was investigated using a pilot fixed-bed updraft gasifier. Attention was focused on the effect of the SS content on the gasification performance and on the environmental impact of the process. The results showed that it is possible to co-gasify SS with wood pellets (WPs) in updraft fixed-bed gasification installations. However, at high content of sewage sludge the gasification process can become instable because of the very high ash content and low ash fusion temperatures of SS. At an equivalent ratio of 0.25, compared with wood pellets gasification, the addition of sewage sludge led to a reduction of gas yield in favor of an increase of condensate production with consequent cold gas efficiency decrease. Low concentrations of dioxins/furans and PAHs were measured in the gas produced by SS gasification, well below the limiting values for the exhaust gaseous emissions. NH{sub 3}, HCl and HF contents were very low because most of these compounds were retained in the wet scrubber systems. On the other hand, high H{sub 2}S levels were measured due to high sulfur content of SS. Heavy metals supplied with the feedstocks were mostly retained in gasification solid residues. The leachability tests performed according to European regulations showed that metals leachability was within the limits for landfilling inert residues. On the other hand, sulfate and chloride releases were found to comply with the limits for non-hazardous residues.

Seggiani, Maurizia, E-mail: m.seggiani@diccism.unipi.it [Department of Chemical Engineering, Industrial Chemistry and Material Science, University of Pisa, Largo Lucio Lazzarino 1, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Puccini, Monica, E-mail: m.puccini@diccism.unipi.it [Department of Chemical Engineering, Industrial Chemistry and Material Science, University of Pisa, Largo Lucio Lazzarino 1, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Raggio, Giovanni, E-mail: g.raggio@tiscali.it [Italprogetti Engineering SPA, Lungarno Pacinotti, 59/A, 56020 San Romano (Pisa) (Italy); Vitolo, Sandra, E-mail: s.vitolo@diccism.unipi.it [Department of Chemical Engineering, Industrial Chemistry and Material Science, University of Pisa, Largo Lucio Lazzarino 1, 56126 Pisa (Italy)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

270

Liquid-impregnated clay solid sorbents for CO2 removal from postcombustion gas streams  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel liquid-impregnated clay sorbent #1;R. V. Siriwardane, U.S. Patent No. 6,908,497 B1 #2;2003#3;#4; was developed for carbon dioxide #1;CO2#2; removal in the temperature range of ambient to 60°C for both fixed-bed and fluidized-bed reactor applications. The sorbent is regenerable at 80–100°C. A 20-cycle test conducted in an atmospheric reactor with simulated flue gas with moisture demonstrated that the sorbent retains its CO2 sorption capacity with CO2 removal efficiency of about 99% during the cyclic tests. The sorbents suitable for fluidized-bed reactor operations showed required delta CO2 capacity requirements for sorption of CO2 at 40°C and regeneration at 100°C. The parameters such as rate of sorption, heat of sorption, minimum fluidization velocities, and attrition resistance data that are necessary for the design of a reactor suitable for capture and regeneration were also determined for the sorbent. A 20-cycle test conducted in the presence of flue-gas pollutant sulfur dioxide—SO2 #2;20 parts per million#3;—indicated that the sorbent performance was not affected by the presence of SO2.

Siriwardane, R.; Robinson, C.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Solid oxide fuel cell/gas turbine power plant cycles and performance estimates  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

SOFC pressurization enhances SOFC efficiency and power performance. It enables the direct integration of the SOFC and gas turbine technologies which can form the basis for very efficient combined- cycle power plants. PSOFC/GT cogeneration systems, producing steam and/or hot water in addition to electric power, can be designed to achieve high fuel effectiveness values. A wide range of steam pressures and temperatures are possible owing to system component arrangement flexibility. It is anticipated that Westinghouse will offer small PSOFC/GT power plants for sale early in the next decade. These plants will have capacities less than 10 MW net ac, and they will operate with efficiencies in the 60-65% (net ac/LHV) range.

Lundberg, W.L.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

272

Municipal Solid WasteMunicipal Solid Waste Landfills In CitiesLandfills In Cities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

trench c) Liner Deployment d) Seaming Double Hot wedge Fillet Extrusion Seam properties ­ ASTM D6392 e-wise construction of landfill #12;Daily cell, cover, lift & phase of a landfill #12;Operational Points Provisions (contd) Check for compatibilities of different wastes. Divide landfill into cells. Non

Columbia University

273

Solid aerosol generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates.

Prescott, Donald S. (Shelley, ID); Schober, Robert K. (Midwest City, OK); Beller, John (Idaho Falls, ID)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Quality Services: Solid Wastes, Part 360: Solid Waste Management Facilities  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

0: Solid Waste Management 0: Solid Waste Management Facilities (New York) Quality Services: Solid Wastes, Part 360: Solid Waste Management Facilities (New York) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fuel Distributor Industrial Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Transportation Utility Program Info State New York Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider NY Department of Environmental Conservation These regulations apply to all solid wastes with the exception of hazardous or radioactive waste. Proposed solid waste processing facilities are required to obtain permits prior to construction, and the regulations provide details about permitting, construction, registration, and operation requirements. The regulations contain specific guidance for land

275

Municipal waste processing apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Municipal waste materials are processed by crushing the materials so that pieces of noncombustible material are smaller than a selected size and pieces of combustible material are larger than the selected size. The crushed materials are placed on a vibrating mesh screen conveyor belt having openings which pass the smaller, noncombustible pieces of material, but do not pass the larger, combustible pieces of material. Pieces of material which become lodged in the openings of the conveyor belt may be removed by cylindrical deraggers or pressurized air. The crushed materials may be fed onto the conveyor belt by a vibrating feed plate which shakes the materials so that they tend to lie flat.

Mayberry, J.L.

1987-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

276

Municipal waste processing apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Municipal waste materials are processed by crushing the materials so that pieces of noncombustible material are smaller than a selected size and pieces of combustible material are larger than the selected size. The crushed materials are placed on a vibrating mesh screen conveyor belt having openings which pass the smaller, noncombustible pieces of material, but do not pass the larger, combustible pieces of material. Pieces of material which become lodged in the openings of the conveyor belt may be removed by cylindrical deraggers or pressurized air. The crushed materials may be fed onto the conveyor belt by a vibrating feed plate which shakes the materials so that they tend to lie flat.

Mayberry, John L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Municipal waste processing apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Municipal waste materials are processed by crushing the materials so that pieces of noncombustible material are smaller than a selected size and pieces of combustible material are larger than the selected size. The crushed materials are placed on a vibrating mesh screen conveyor belt having openings which pass the smaller, noncombustible pieces of material, but do not pass the larger, combustible pieces of material. Consecutive conveyors may be connected by an intermediate vibratory plate. An air knife can be used to further separate materials based on weight.

Mayberry, John L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Implements a gas based on the ideal gas law. It should be noted that this model of gases is niave (from many perspectives). ...

279

Municipal spotlight: Working together in Northern Virginia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Northern Virginia region is one of the nation`s liveliest centers of commerce as measured by job creation, new business formation, residential and commercial construction, and retail sales. The region also has one of the most advanced integrated waste management programs. In 1994, more than 1.6 million tons of municipal solid (MSW) were generated in the Northern Virginia region. Of that amount, 1 million tons were recovered as energy and more than 500,000 tons were landfilled. Additionally, more than 500,000 tons were recycled. The jurisdictions in this region have built an extensive network of solid waste management programs that are handled on the local government level, through cooperative programs, and through implementation of unique interjurisdictional agreements. These programs are arranged in the following hierarchy: source reduction, composting, recycling, energy recovery, and landfilling. This article provides a description of how this hierarchy is implemented in the region.

Arner, R.

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Wakefield Municipal Gas & Light Department - Residential Conservation...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

include programmable thermostats, clothes washers, dishwashers, room and central AC units, dehumidifiers, and water heaters. All appliances must be Energy Star labeled , with...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas municipal solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Utah Municipal Power Agency | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Utah Municipal Power Agency Jump to: navigation, search Name Utah Municipal Power Agency...

282

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Environment Environment Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the U. S. Release Date: March 31, 2011 | Next Release Date: Report Discontinued | Report Number: DOE/EIA-0573(2009) Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview Diagram Notes [a] CO2 emissions related to petroleum consumption (includes 64 MMTCO2 of non-fuel-related emissions). [b] CO2 emissions related to coal consumption (includes 0.3 MMTCO2 of non-fuel-related emissions). [c] CO2 emissions related to natural gas consumption (includes 13 MMTCO2 of non-fuel-related emissions). [d] Excludes carbon sequestered in nonfuel fossil products. [e] CO2 emissions from the plastics portion of municipal solid waste (11 MMTCO2) combusted for electricity generation and very small amounts (0.4 MMTCO2) of geothermal-related emissions.

283

Municipal waste incineration; An environmentally benign energy source for district heating  

SciTech Connect

Municipal solid waste should be regarded as a good fuel. Emissions from solid waste incineration can be kept within any reasonable limit. Compared with fossil fuels, waste can be regarded as a renewable source of energy that does not contribute to the greenhouse effect. Finally, waste incineration for district heating can be very economical.

Astrand, L.E. (Uppsala Energi AB, Uppsala (SE))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Gas Pipeline Securities (Indiana) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Pipeline Securities (Indiana) Gas Pipeline Securities (Indiana) Eligibility Utility Investor-Owned Utility Industrial MunicipalPublic Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Fuel...

285

Gas Production Tax (Texas) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Production Tax (Texas) Gas Production Tax (Texas) Eligibility Utility Commercial Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility Industrial Construction MunicipalPublic Utility Local...

286

Gas Pipelines (Texas) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Pipelines (Texas) Gas Pipelines (Texas) Eligibility Utility Fed. Government Commercial Investor-Owned Utility Industrial Construction MunicipalPublic Utility Local Government...

287

Burbank Water and Power SBX1 2 Compliance Plan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

impact hydroelectric generation, digester gas, municipal solid waste, landfill gas, ocean wave, ocean

288

ELIGIBILITY SECOND EDITION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, certification, digester gas, eligibility, geothermal, landfill gas, municipal solid waste, ocean wave

289

Municipal Aggregation and Retail Competition in the Ohio Energy Sector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ohio allows communities to vote to aggregate the loads of individual consumers (unless they opt out) in order to seek a competitive energy supplier. Over 200 communities have voted to do this for electricity. By 2004 residential switching reached 69 % in Cleveland territory (95 % from municipal aggregation) but by 2006 had fallen to 8%. Savings are now small, but customer acquisition costs are low and the cost to consumers is negligible. Aggregation and retail competition have been thwarted by Rate Stabilization Plans holding incumbent utility prices below cost since 2006. In the Ohio gas sector, rate regulation has not discouraged aggregation and competition, but market prices falling below municipally negotiated rates can be politically embarrassing. How municipal aggregation would fare against individual choice in a market conducive to retail competition is an open question, but the policy deserves consideration elsewhere.

Stephen Littlechild; Stephen Littlechild

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Solid oxide fuel cell with transitioned cross-section for improved anode gas management at the open end  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid oxide fuel cell (400) is made having a tubular, elongated, hollow, active section (445) which has a cross-section containing an air electrode (452) a fuel electrode (454) and solid oxide electrolyte (456) between them, where the fuel cell transitions into at least one inactive section (460) with a flattened parallel sided cross-section (462, 468) each cross-section having channels (472, 474, 476) in them which smoothly communicate with each other at an interface section (458).

Zafred, Paolo R. (Murrysville, PA); Draper, Robert (Pittsburgh, PA)

2012-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

291

Solid Waste Management (Indiana) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Solid Waste Management (Indiana) Solid Waste Management (Indiana) Solid Waste Management (Indiana) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Industrial Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative State/Provincial Govt Utility Program Info State Indiana Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Association of Indiana Solid Wastes Districts Inc. The state supports the implementation of source reduction, recycling, and other alternative solid waste management practices over incineration and land disposal. The Indiana Department of Environmental Management and the Indiana Solid Waste Management Board are tasked with planning and adopting rules and regulations governing solid waste management practices. Provisions pertaining to landfill management and expansion, permitting,

292

Multidisciplinary Modeling, Control, and Optimization of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell/Gas Turbine Hybrid Power System.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis describes a systematical study, including multidisciplinary modeling, simulation, control, and optimization, of a fuel cell - gas turbine hybrid power system that aims… (more)

Abbassi Baharanchi, Atid

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PLAN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The Chelan County Public Works Department would like to thank the following organizations and individuals for their assistance in the development of this plan: ? Chelan County’s Solid Waste Council members, past and present, and the municipalities they represent. ? Chelan County’s Solid Waste Advisory Committee members, past and present, and the agencies and businesses they represented. ? the Chelan–Douglas Health District staff. ? Washington Department of Ecology staff. Chelan County residents and businesses also contributed to this document through comments provided during public meetings and through various other channels. The Board of County Commissioners and the Public Works Department gratefully acknowledge this input by the

unknown authors

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Greenhouse gases emission from municipal waste management: The role of separate collection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The municipal solid waste management significantly contributes to the emission in the atmosphere of greenhouse gases (e.g. CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O) and therefore the management process from collection to treatment and disposal has to be optimized in order to reduce these emissions. In this paper, starting from the average composition of undifferentiated municipal solid waste in Italy, the effect of separate collection on greenhouse gases emissions from municipal waste management has been assessed. Different combinations of separate collection scenarios and disposal options (i.e. landfilling and incineration) have been considered. The effect of energy recovery from waste both in landfills and incinerators has also been addressed. The results outline how a separate collection approach can have a significant effect on the emission of greenhouse gases and how wise municipal solid waste management, implying the adoption of Best Available Technologies (i.e. biogas recovery and exploitation system in landfills and energy recovery system in Waste to Energy plants), can not only significantly reduce greenhouse gases emissions but, in certain cases, can also make the overall process a carbon sink. Moreover it has been shown that separate collection of plastic is a major issue when dealing with global warming relevant emissions from municipal solid waste management.

Calabro, Paolo S. [Dipartimento di Meccanica e Materiali, Universita degli Studi Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, via Graziella - loc. Feo di Vito, 89122 Reggio Calabria (Italy)], E-mail: paolo.calabro@unirc.it

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

295

Evaluation of methane emissions from Palermo municipal landfill: Comparison between field measurements and models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methane (CH{sub 4}) diffuse emissions from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills represent one of the most important anthropogenic sources of greenhouse gas. CH{sub 4} is produced by anaerobic biodegradation of organic matter in landfilled MSW and constitutes a major component of landfill gas (LFG). Gas recovery is a suitable method to effectively control CH{sub 4} emissions from landfill sites and the quantification of CH{sub 4} emissions represents a good tool to evaluate the effectiveness of a gas recovery system in reducing LFG emissions. In particular, LFG emissions can indirectly be evaluated from mass balance equations between LFG production, recovery and oxidation in the landfill, as well as by a direct approach based on LFG emission measurements from the landfill surface. However, up to now few direct measurements of landfill CH{sub 4} diffuse emissions have been reported in the technical literature. In the present study, both modeling and direct emission measuring methodologies have been applied to the case study of Bellolampo landfill located in Palermo, Italy. The main aim of the present study was to evaluate CH{sub 4} diffuse emissions, based on direct measurements carried out with the flux accumulation chamber (static, non-stationary) method, as well as to obtain the CH{sub 4} contoured flux map of the landfill. Such emissions were compared with the estimate achieved by means of CH{sub 4} mass balance equations. The results showed that the emissions obtained by applying the flux chamber method are in good agreement with the ones derived by the application of the mass balance equation, and that the evaluated contoured flux maps represent a reliable tool to locate areas with abnormal emissions in order to optimize the gas recovery system efficiency.

Di Bella, Gaetano, E-mail: dibella@idra.unipa.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Ambientale e Aerospaziale, Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Di Trapani, Daniele, E-mail: ditrapani@idra.unipa.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Ambientale e Aerospaziale, Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Viviani, Gaspare, E-mail: gviv@idra.unipa.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Ambientale e Aerospaziale, Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy)

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

296

Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) Compressed Air Energy Storage Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides a scoping and conceptual engineering analysis of the compressed air energy storage (CAES) technology and how it can be deployed within the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) services territory, with specific focus on the use of one or more Solano County, California, depleted gas reservoirs, which are underneath the SMUD Solano Wind Farm near the city of Rio Vista, California. Results are presented on the geologic opportunities for building a CAES plant that uses sites near ...

2012-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

297

Illinois Municipal Electric Agency - Electric Efficiency Program...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Electric Agency - Electric Efficiency Program < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Industrial Institutional Municipal Utility Nonprofit Schools Savings Category Home...

298

Cape Light Compact - Commercial, Industrial and Municipal Buildings...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Industrial and Municipal Buildings Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Cape Light Compact - Commercial, Industrial and Municipal Buildings Energy Efficiency Rebate Program...

299

Mansfield Municipal Electric Department - Residential Energy Efficiency  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Mansfield Municipal Electric Department - Residential Energy Mansfield Municipal Electric Department - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Mansfield Municipal Electric Department - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Appliances & Electronics Maximum Rebate $100 limit per customer account for appliances purchased in the same calendar year. Program Info Expiration Date 12/31/2014 State Massachusetts Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Central AC: $100 Refrigerators: $100 Clothes Washing Machines: $100 Dishwashers: $75 Dehumidifiers: $50 Window Air Conditioners: $50 Provider Mansfield Municipal Electric Department Mansfield Municipal Electric Department encourages energy efficiency

300

Massachusetts Municipal Commercial Industrial Incentive Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Massachusetts Municipal Commercial Industrial Incentive Program Massachusetts Municipal Commercial Industrial Incentive Program Massachusetts Municipal Commercial Industrial Incentive Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Sealing Your Home Cooling Construction Design & Remodeling Manufacturing Other Windows, Doors, & Skylights Ventilation Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Insulation Water Heating Maximum Rebate Varies depending on utility Program Info Start Date Varies Expiration Date Varies State Massachusetts Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Varies depending on utility Provider Massachusetts Municipal Wholesale Electric Company Certain municipal utilities in Massachusetts, in cooperation with

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas municipal solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

American Municipal Power | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Municipal Power Municipal Power Jump to: navigation, search Name American Municipal Power Place Columbus, Ohio Zip 43219 Product AMP is a non-profit corporation that owns and operates electric facilities. AMP purchases wholesale electric power and energy, and develops alternate power resources for its members. References American Municipal Power[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. American Municipal Power is a company located in Columbus, Ohio . References ↑ "American Municipal Power" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=American_Municipal_Power&oldid=342122" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations Companies Organizations Stubs

302

Interstate Oil and Gas Conservation Compact (Montana) | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Montana) Interstate Oil and Gas Conservation Compact (Montana) Eligibility Utility Commercial Investor-Owned Utility Industrial Construction MunicipalPublic Utility Rural Electric...

303

Oil and Gas Conservation (Montana) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Conservation (Montana) Oil and Gas Conservation (Montana) Eligibility Utility Commercial Investor-Owned Utility Industrial Construction MunicipalPublic Utility Installer...

304

I 95 Municipal Landfill Phase I Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Municipal Landfill Phase I Biomass Facility Municipal Landfill Phase I Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name I 95 Municipal Landfill Phase I Biomass Facility Facility I 95 Municipal Landfill Phase I Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location Fairfax County, Virginia Coordinates 38.9085472°, -77.2405153° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":38.9085472,"lon":-77.2405153,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

305

Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium Southwest Region...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Market Assessment of Networked Outdoor Lighting Controls Mark Rehley, NEEA; Jordan Shackelford, Energy Solutions MSSLC Specification for Remote Monitoring and...

306

Municipal solid waste plants convert garbage to electricity ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Includes hydropower, solar, wind, geothermal, biomass and ethanol. Nuclear & Uranium. Uranium fuel, nuclear reactors, generation, spent fuel. Total Energy.

307

PYROLYSIS OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE M. IGARASHI Y. HAYAFUNE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

modern biomass can produce a bio-char by-product through pyrolysis which results in 30.6 kg C, pyrolysis and gasification of biomass. In the context of bio-char sequestration, only pyrolysis yields in bio-char was the type of biomass used for pyrolysis. Greater concentrations of lignin increased

Columbia University

308

Clean energy from municipal solid waste. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The aim of the project was to demonstrate the environmental and combustion performance advantages of a carbonized refuse derived fuel (RDF) slurry, produced from EnerTech`s slurry carbonization process, using continuous pilot scale equipment and its suitability as an alternative fuel for utility and industrial boilers.

Klosky, M.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Engineering and Economic Evaluation of Municipal Solid Waste Technologies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In 2006, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) initiated a project to conduct engineering and economic evaluations of renewable energy technologies, including wind, biomass, solar, geothermal, hydro, and ocean tidal and wave (Program 84). The goal of the evaluations is to develop an objective and consistent assessment of the current performance and project the future performance of the technologies with regard to thermal efficiency, capital and operation and maintenance costs, resource requirement...

2011-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

310

PYROLISIS OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE M. IGARASHI Y. HAYAFUNE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-energy Pyrolysis is one of many technologies to produce energy from biomass (Bridgwater 2003). What distinguishes pyrolysis from alternative ways of converting biomass to energy is that pyrolysis produces a carbon-temperature pyrolysis"), using a variety of different reactor configurations. At these tem- peratures, biomass undergoes

Columbia University

311

Municipal solid waste management in Lahore City District, Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

This study deals with generation, composition, collection, transportation, and disposal, as well as the present cost of the waste management on the basis of 60% collection of the total waste and the cost of proposed improved system of management on the basis of 100% waste collection using the IWM-2 LCI model. A GIS map of Data Ganj Bakhsh Town (DGBT) of Lahore City District showing communal storage facilities is also provided. DGBT has a population of 1,624,169 living in 232,024 dwellings. The total waste generated per year is 500,000 tons, or 0.84/kg/cap/day. Presently 60% of the MSW is collected and disposed in open dumps, while 40% is not collected and lies along roadsides, streets railway lines, depressions, vacant plots, drains, storm drains and open sewers. In DGBT, 129 containers of 5-m{sup 3} capacity, 120 containers of 10-m{sup 3} capacity and 380 skips of 2.5-m{sup 3} capacity are placed for waste collection. The overall collection and disposal cost of the MSW of DGBT is $3,177,900/yr, which is $10.29/ton. Modeling was conducted using the IWM-2 model for improved collection and disposal on the basis of 100% service, compared to the current 60% service. The modelled cost is $8.3/per ton, which is 20% less than the present cost, but the overall cost of 100% collection and disposal increases to $4,155,737/yr.

Batool, Syeda Adila [Department of Space Science, Punjab University, Lahore (Pakistan)], E-mail: aadila_batool@yahoo.com; Muhammad Nawaz Ch [College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan)], E-mail: muhammadnawazchaudhry@yahoo.com

2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

312

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Municipal Alternative Fuel Tax Regulation  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Municipal Alternative Municipal Alternative Fuel Tax Regulation to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Municipal Alternative Fuel Tax Regulation on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Municipal Alternative Fuel Tax Regulation on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Municipal Alternative Fuel Tax Regulation on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Municipal Alternative Fuel Tax Regulation on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Municipal Alternative Fuel Tax Regulation on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Municipal Alternative Fuel Tax Regulation on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Municipal Alternative Fuel Tax Regulation

313

Reading Municipal Light Department - Residential ENERGY STAR...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Residential ENERGY STAR Appliance Rebate Program Reading Municipal Light Department - Residential ENERGY STAR Appliance Rebate Program Eligibility Residential Savings For Heating &...

314

Mansfield Municipal Electric Department - Residential Energy...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

50 Mansfield Municipal Electric Department encourages energy efficiency through the ENERGY STAR Appliance Rebate Incentive Program. Cash rebates are offered for ENERGY STAR...

315

Energy management in municipal street lighting  

SciTech Connect

This report presents strategies to reduce the energy used in street lighting and, at the same time, reduce or stabilize the cost of street lighting to municipalities.

1977-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Reading Municipal Light Department - Residential Renewable Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Summary Reading Municipal Light Department (RMLD) offers rebates of 1.00watt for solar photovoltaic and small wind installations for residential customers. A 0.25watt...

317

North Branch Municipal Water & Light - Commercial & Industrial...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

150 - 400 Dishwashers: 300 - 1,000 Ventilation Hood Controllers: 165HP Low-Flow Spray Valve: 50% of installed cost Southern Minnesota Municipal Power Agency (http:...

318

Mora Municipal Utilities - Commercial & Industrial Energy Efficiency...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

150 - 400 Dishwashers: 300 - 1,000 Ventilation Hood Controllers: 165HP Low-Flow Spray Valve: 50% of installed cost Southern Minnesota Municipal Power Agency (http:...

319

Saint Peter Municipal Utilities - Commercial & Industrial Energy...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

150 - 400 Dishwashers: 300 - 1,000 Ventilation Hood Controllers: 165HP Low-Flow Spray Valve: 50% of installed cost Southern Minnesota Municipal Power Agency (http:...

320

Financing Strategies for Municipal Energy Efficiency.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Energy efficiency represents a significant opportunity to reduce energy use, save money and reduce environmental impacts. For municipalities that are facing increasingly tight budgets and… (more)

Lubershane, Andrew

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas municipal solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Energy Efficiency Strategies for Municipal Wastewater Treatment...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities J. Daw and K. Hallett National Renewable Energy Laboratory J. DeWolfe and I. Venner Malcolm Pirnie, the Water Division of ARCADIS...

322

Wellesley Municipal Light Plant - Residential Energy Efficiency...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Refrigerator: 100 Clothes Washing Machine: 75 Central AC: 100 Room AC Unit: 50 Dishwasher: 75 Dehumidifier: 50 Wellesley Municipal Light Plant (WMLP) offers a number of...

323

Cogeneration in municipalities. Workshop proceedings for local governments and municipal utilities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Five papers from workshops for local governments and municipal utilities are included. A separate abstract was prepared for each one.

Patterson, S. (ed.)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Municipals  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hillsboro Hope Lakota Maddock Northwood Park River Riverdale Sharon Stanton Valley City South Dakota Aberdeen Arlington Aurora Badger Beresford Big Stone City Brookings Bryant...

325

For Immediate release: 10/17/11 Contact: Ingrid Wright  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-diesel, landfill gas, water reuse, and municipal solid waste technologies. This year's conference focus

Ward, Karen

326

Solid-State Lighting: Design Competitions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Market-Based Programs Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Solid-State Lighting: Design Competitions to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: Design Competitions on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: Design Competitions on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Design Competitions on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Design Competitions on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: Design Competitions on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: Design Competitions on AddThis.com... LED Lighting Facts CALiPER Program Standards Development Technical Information Network Gateway Demonstrations Municipal Consortium Design Competitions Design Competitions National design competitions heighten awareness and market adoption of high-performance solid-state lighting products.

327

Factors determining municipal broadband strategies across Europe  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recognizing that high-speed broadband connectivity emerges as a key element for growth, city authorities engage in fiber access deployments to empower their local communities in the digital economy. Currently, a growing number of municipal fiber projects ... Keywords: Broadband, Europe, Infrastructure development, Municipal strategies

Costas Troulos; Vasilis Maglaris

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Feasibility study on the management of the disposal of Bangkok municipal waste. Final report  

SciTech Connect

In January, 1985, the Government of Thailand sought assistance from the United States Trade and Development Program (USTDP) to undertake a feasibility study to review and update the solid waste management master plan, with particular emphasis to be placed on waste disposal methods. In April, 1985, the USTDP engaged the firm of Engineering and Economic Research, Inc. to carry out a definitional/prefeasibility study to assess the potential of a project for solid waste management and energy production using municipal solid waste as fuel.

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Hull Municipal Light Plant | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Municipal Light Plant Municipal Light Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name Hull Municipal Light Plant Place Massachusetts Utility Id 8797 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location NPCC NERC NPCC Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Area Lights Rate 150 WATT Lighting Area Lights Rate 250 WATT Lighting Area Lights Rate 400 WATT Lighting Large Power Rate 35 Industrial Large Power Taxable Rate 39 Industrial Municipal Lighting Rate 33 Lighting Municipal Rate 36 Commercial Residential Rate 31 Residential

330

Alameda Municipal Power - Residential Energy Efficiency Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Alameda Municipal Power - Residential Energy Efficiency Program Alameda Municipal Power - Residential Energy Efficiency Program Alameda Municipal Power - Residential Energy Efficiency Program < Back Eligibility Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Residential Savings Category Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Sealing Your Home Heating & Cooling Construction Commercial Heating & Cooling Design & Remodeling Program Info State California Program Type Utility Grant Program Rebate Amount Refrigerator Replacement: Up to $100 Second Refrigerator Pickup: $35 CFLs: 3 free replacement bulbs Motors: $0.18/per kWh saved Lighting: $0.20/per kWh saved HVAC: $0.22/per kWh saved Refrigeration: $0.22/per kWh saved Provider Alameda Municipal Power Alameda Municipal Power (AMP) has multiple program in place to help

331

Municipal Waste Planning, Recycling and Waste Reduction Act (Pennsylvania)  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Waste Planning, Recycling and Waste Reduction Act (Pennsylvania) Waste Planning, Recycling and Waste Reduction Act (Pennsylvania) No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on February 13, 2013. EZFeed Policy Place Pennsylvania Name Municipal Waste Planning, Recycling and Waste Reduction Act (Pennsylvania) Policy Category Other Policy Policy Type Environmental Regulations Affected Technologies Biomass/Biogas, Coal with CCS, Concentrating Solar Power, Energy Storage, Fuel Cells, Geothermal Electric, Hydroelectric, Hydroelectric (Small), Natural Gas, Nuclear, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind energy Active Policy Yes Implementing Sector State/Province Program Administrator Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection

332

Standards for Municipal Small Wind Regulations and Small Wind...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Standards for Municipal Small Wind Regulations and Small Wind Model Wind Ordinance Standards for Municipal Small Wind Regulations and Small Wind Model Wind Ordinance Eligibility...

333

Toward Energy Efficient Municipalities: General Comments on Policy...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Toward Energy Efficient Municipalities: General Comments on Policy and Logistical Challenges to Smart Grid Implementation Toward Energy Efficient Municipalities: General Comments...

334

Exploring How Municipal Utilities Fund Solar Energy Projects...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Exploring How Municipal Utilities Fund Solar Energy Projects Webinar Exploring How Municipal Utilities Fund Solar Energy Projects Webinar February 19, 2013 1:00PM MST Webinar This...

335

Taunton Municipal Lighting Plant - Residential Energy Star Appliance...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Taunton Municipal Lighting Plant - Residential Energy Star Appliance Rebate Program Taunton Municipal Lighting Plant - Residential Energy Star Appliance Rebate Program Eligibility...

336

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Painesville Municipal Electric Power Vanadium...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Painesville Municipal Electric Power Vanadium Redox Battery Demonstration Project Jodi Startari Ashlawn Energy LLC Briefing Overview * Painesville Municipal Electric Power Plant...

337

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Municipal Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV)  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Municipal Alternative Municipal Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Acquisition Requirements to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Municipal Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Acquisition Requirements on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Municipal Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Acquisition Requirements on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Municipal Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Acquisition Requirements on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Municipal Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Acquisition Requirements on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Municipal Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Acquisition Requirements on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Municipal Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Acquisition Requirements on AddThis.com...

338

Demonstration of Alternative Fuel, Light and Heavy Duty Vehicles in State and Municipal Vehicle Fleets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project involved the purchase of two Compressed Natural Gas School Buses and two electric Ford Rangers to demonstrate their viability in a municipal setting. Operational and maintenance data were collected for analysis. In addition, an educational component was undertaken with middle school children. The children observed and calculated how electric vehicles could minimize pollutants through comparison to conventionally powered vehicles.

Kennedy, John H.; Polubiatko, Peter; Tucchio, Michael A.

2002-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

339

Innovations through Ceramic Processing by Tailoring Solid-Liquid ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Tailoring the solid-gas and solid-liquid interfaces of particles by ... By using principles found in natural composites, layered polymer/ceramic ...

340

Solid Waste Regulation No. 8 - Solid Waste Composting Facilities (Rhode  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Regulation No. 8 - Solid Waste Composting Facilities Regulation No. 8 - Solid Waste Composting Facilities (Rhode Island) Solid Waste Regulation No. 8 - Solid Waste Composting Facilities (Rhode Island) < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Utility Program Info State Rhode Island Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Department of Environmental Management Facilities which compost putrescible waste and/or leaf and yard waste are subject to these regulations. The regulations establish permitting, registration, and operational requirements for composting facilities. Operational requirements for putrescible waste facilities include siting, distance, and buffer requirements, as well as standards for avoiding harm to endangered species and contamination of air and water sources. Specific

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas municipal solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Osage Municipal Utilities Wind | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Osage Municipal Utilities Wind Osage Municipal Utilities Wind Jump to: navigation, search Name Osage Municipal Utilities Wind Facility Osage Municipal Utilities Wind Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner Osage Municipal Utilities Developer Osage Municipal Utilities Energy Purchaser Osage Municipal Utilities Location West of Osage IA Coordinates 43.298363°, -92.84096° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":43.298363,"lon":-92.84096,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

342

Solid Waste Management (Kansas) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Solid Waste Management (Kansas) Solid Waste Management (Kansas) Solid Waste Management (Kansas) < Back Eligibility Commercial Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Utility Program Info State Kansas Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Health and Environment This act aims to establish and maintain a cooperative state and local program of planning and technical and financial assistance for comprehensive solid waste management. No person shall construct, alter or operate a solid waste processing facility or a solid waste disposal area of a solid waste management system, except for clean rubble disposal sites, without first obtaining a permit from the secretary. Every person desiring to obtain a permit shall make application for such a permit on forms

343

Solid-State Lighting: LED Lighting Facts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Market-Based Programs Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Solid-State Lighting: LED Lighting Facts to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: LED Lighting Facts on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: LED Lighting Facts on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: LED Lighting Facts on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: LED Lighting Facts on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: LED Lighting Facts on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: LED Lighting Facts on AddThis.com... LED Lighting Facts CALiPER Program Standards Development Technical Information Network Gateway Demonstrations Municipal Consortium Design Competitions LED Lighting Facts LED lighting facts - A Program of the U.S. DOE DOE's LED Lighting Facts® program showcases LED products for general

344

Municipal Energy Reduction Fund | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Municipal Energy Reduction Fund Municipal Energy Reduction Fund Municipal Energy Reduction Fund < Back Eligibility Local Government Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Sealing Your Home Cooling Construction Design & Remodeling Manufacturing Other Windows, Doors, & Skylights Ventilation Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Insulation Buying & Making Electricity Energy Sources Maximum Rebate $400,000 Program Info Start Date 3/17/2010 State New Hampshire Program Type State Loan Program Rebate Amount $5,000 to $400,000 Provider New Hampshire Community Development Finance Authority In March 2010, the New Hampshire Community Development Finance Authority (CDFA) launched a revolving loan program to encourage the state's

345

Louisiana Solid Waste Management and Resource Recovery Law (Louisiana) |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Louisiana Solid Waste Management and Resource Recovery Law Louisiana Solid Waste Management and Resource Recovery Law (Louisiana) Louisiana Solid Waste Management and Resource Recovery Law (Louisiana) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Construction Developer Industrial Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Utility Program Info State Louisiana Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality The Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality manages solid waste for the state of Louisiana under the authority of the Solid Waste Management and Resource Recover Law. The Department makes rules and regulations that establish standards governing the storage, collection, processing, recovery and reuse, and disposal of solid waste; implement a management program that

346

Woodstock Municipal Wind | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Municipal Wind Municipal Wind Jump to: navigation, search Name Woodstock Municipal Wind Facility Woodstock Municipal Wind Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Developer Juhl Wind Energy Purchaser Xcel Energy Location Woodstock MN Coordinates 44.009957°, -96.100552° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":44.009957,"lon":-96.100552,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

347

New London Municipal Utilities | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

New London Municipal Utilities New London Municipal Utilities Place Iowa Utility Id 13468 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Distribution Yes Activity Bundled Services Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png City All-Electric Residential Residential City Residential Residential General Service and Municipal Commercial Large General Service and Municipal (Demand) Commercial Rural Resident and Farm Residential Rural Resident and Farm All-Electric Residential Security Lights 100w HPS Metered light Lighting

348

River Falls Municipal Utilities - Business Energy Efficiency...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Will match Focus on Energy incentive to 5,000 Commercial Central AC Tune-Up: 50 LED Exit Signs: Free Installation River Falls Municipal Utility (RFMU) offers a variety of...

349

Waverly Municipal Elec Utility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Municipal Elec Utility Municipal Elec Utility Jump to: navigation, search Name Waverly Municipal Elec Utility Place Iowa Utility Id 20214 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes ISO MISO Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Commercial Service Commercial Commercial and Municipal time of Use Service Commercial Electric Heat Rate for Residential Service Residential General Service General and Minicipal Demand Time of Use Service Commercial

350

Sacramento Municipal Utility District | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Municipal Utility District Municipal Utility District (Redirected from Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD)) Jump to: navigation, search Name Sacramento Municipal Util Dist Place Sacramento, California Website www.smud.org Utility Id 16534 Utility Location Yes Ownership P NERC Location WECC NERC WECC Yes ISO CA Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes Activity Wholesale Marketing Yes Alt Fuel Vehicle Yes Alt Fuel Vehicle2 Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] Energy Information Administration Form 826[2] SGIC[3] Information About Partnership with NREL Partnership with NREL Yes Partnership Type Test & Evaluation Partner Partnering Center within NREL Electricity Resources & Building Systems Integration

351

Gowrie Municipal Utilities | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Gowrie Municipal Utilities Gowrie Municipal Utilities Jump to: navigation, search Name Gowrie Municipal Utilities Place Iowa Utility Id 7424 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes ISO MISO Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Bundled Services Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Commercial Commercial Residential Residential Average Rates Residential: $0.0976/kWh Commercial: $0.0900/kWh References ↑ "EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Gowrie_Municipal_Utilities&oldid=41075

352

Lawrenceburg Municipal Utils | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Lawrenceburg Municipal Utils Lawrenceburg Municipal Utils Jump to: navigation, search Name Lawrenceburg Municipal Utils Place Indiana Utility Id 10798 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location RFC NERC RFC Yes ISO MISO Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png No rate schedules available. Average Rates Residential: $0.0749/kWh Commercial: $0.1150/kWh Industrial: $0.0597/kWh References ↑ "EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Lawrenceburg_Municipal_Utils&oldid=410978

353

Minnesota Municipal Power Agency | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

(Redirected from Minnesota Municipal Power Agny) (Redirected from Minnesota Municipal Power Agny) Jump to: navigation, search Name Minnesota Municipal Power Agency Place Minnesota Utility Id 12667 Utility Location Yes Ownership A NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes ISO MISO Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity Wholesale Marketing Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png No rate schedules available. Average Rates No Rates Available References ↑ "EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Minnesota_Municipal_Power_Agency&oldid=412260

354

Texas Municipal Power Agency | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Municipal Power Agency Municipal Power Agency Jump to: navigation, search Name Texas Municipal Power Agency Place Texas Utility Id 18715 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location TRE NERC ERCOT Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png No rate schedules available. Average Rates No Rates Available References ↑ "EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Texas_Municipal_Power_Agency&oldid=411659" Categories:

355

Hudson Municipal Electric Utility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Municipal Electric Utility Municipal Electric Utility Jump to: navigation, search Name Hudson Municipal Electric Utility Place Iowa Utility Id 8966 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Commercial Commercial Residential Residential Residential All-Electric Residential School Rate Commercial Average Rates Residential: $0.0993/kWh Commercial: $0.0905/kWh References ↑ "EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Hudson_Municipal_Electric_Utility&oldid=410846

356

American Municipal Power (Public Electric Utilities) - Residential  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

American Municipal Power (Public Electric Utilities) - Residential American Municipal Power (Public Electric Utilities) - Residential Efficiency Smart Program (Ohio) American Municipal Power (Public Electric Utilities) - Residential Efficiency Smart Program (Ohio) < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Cooling Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Water Heating Program Info Funding Source American Municipal Power Start Date 01/2011 Expiration Date 12/31/2013 State Ohio Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Ceiling Fan with Lights: $15 Dehumidifier: $25 Select Clothes Washer: $50 ENERGY STAR Refrigerator: $50 Refrigerator/Freezer Recycling: $50 Furnace Fan with ECM: $100 Heat Pump Water Heaters: $250 CFLs: up to 85% of cost Efficiency Smart (tm) provides energy efficiency incentives to the American

357

Alameda Municipal Power- Solar Photovoltaics Rebate Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

'''''Note: Alameda Municipal Power had a budget of $4.2 million to support this program. The utility has allocated the full budget and is no longer accepting applications. The information below is...

358

Alameda Municipal Power- Residential Energy Efficiency Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Alameda Municipal Power (AMP) has multiple program in place to help encourage its customers to adopt energy efficient equipment and practices in their homes.  The first of these initiatives is a...

359

GAS SEAL  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A seal is described for a cover closing an opening in the top of a pressure vessel that may house a nuclear reactor. The seal comprises a U-shaped trough formed on the pressure vessel around the opening therein, a mass of metal in the trough, and an edge flange on the cover extending loosely into the trough and dipping into the metal mass. The lower portion of the metal mass is kept melted, and the upper portion, solid. The solid pontion of the metal mass prevents pressure surges in the vessel from expelling the liquid portion of the metal mass from the trough; the liquld portion, thus held in place by the solid portion, does not allow gas to go through, and so gas cannot escape through shrinkage holes in the solid portion.

Monson, H.; Hutter, E.

1961-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

360

Solids irradiator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A novel facility for irradiation of solids embodying pathogens wherein solids are conveyed through an irradiation chamber in individual containers of an endless conveyor.

Morris, Marvin E. (Albuquerque, NM); Pierce, Jim D. (Albuquerque, NM); Whitfield, Willis J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas municipal solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

A generalized multistage optimization modeling framework for life cycle assessment-based integrated solid waste management  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solid waste management (SWM) is an integral component of civil infrastructure and the global economy, and is a growing concern due to increases in population, urbanization, and economic development. In 2011, 1.3 billion metric tons of municipal solid ... Keywords: Decision support, Life cycle assessment, Multi-stage, Optimization, Solid waste

James W. Levis, Morton A. Barlaz, Joseph F. Decarolis, S. Ranji Ranjithan

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Fuzzy parametric programming model for multi-objective integrated solid waste management under uncertainty  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solid waste management is increasingly becoming a challenging task for the municipal authorities due to increasing waste quantities, changing waste composition, decreasing land availability for waste disposal sites and increasing awareness about the ... Keywords: Fuzzy parametric programming, Integrated solid waste management system, Long term planning, Multi-objective and multi-period planning, Solid waste management

Amitabh Kumar Srivastava; Arvind K. Nema

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Municipal bond financing of solar energy facilities  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The application of the laws of municipal bond financing to solar facilities is examined. The type of facilities under consideration are outlined. The general legal principles of municipal securities financing are discussed. The effect of recent decisions applying antitrust liability to municipal corporations is also discussed. Five specific types of municipal bonds are explained. The application of Section 103 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954, as amended, to the issuance of municipal bonds for solar facility financing is examined also. Five bond laws of five representative states are examined and whether the eight types of solar facilities under consideration could be financed under such law is discussed. The application of the general legal principle is illustrated. Three hypothetical situations are set forth and common legal issues to be confronted by city officials in proposing such financing are discussed. These issues will be raised in most financings, but the purpose is to examine the common context in which they are raised. It is concluded that if it can be shown that the purpose of the solar facilities to be financed is to benefit the public, all legal obstacles to the use of municipal financing of solar facilities can be substantially overcome.

White, S.S.

1979-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Management of Solid Waste (Oklahoma) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Management of Solid Waste (Oklahoma) Management of Solid Waste (Oklahoma) Management of Solid Waste (Oklahoma) < Back Eligibility Utility Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility Industrial Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Program Info State Oklahoma Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality The Solid Waste Management Division of the Department of Environmental Quality regulates solid waste disposal or any person who generates, collects, transports, processes, and/or disposes of solid waste and/or waste tires. The following solid waste disposal facilities require a solid waste permit prior to construction and/or operation: land disposal facilities; solid waste processing facilities, including: transfer stations; solid waste incinerators receiving waste from off-site sources; regulated medical waste

365

Photovoltaics for municipal planners. Cost-effective municipal applications of photovoltaics for electric power  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This booklet is intended for city and county government personnel, as well as community organizations, who deal with supplying, regulating, or recommending electric power resources. Specifically, this document deals with photovoltaic (PV) power, or power from solar cells, which is currently the most cost-effective energy source for electricity requirements that are relatively small, located in isolated areas, or difficult to serve with conventional technology. Recently, PV has been documented to be more cost-effective than conventional alternatives (such as line extensions or engine generators) in dozens of applications within the service territories of electric, gas, and communications utilities. Here, we document numerous cost-effective urban applications, chosen by planners and utilities because they were the most cost-effective option or because they were appropriate for environmental or logistical reasons. These applications occur within various municipal departments, including utility, parks and recreation, traffic engineering, transportation, and planning, and they include lighting applications, communications equipment, corrosion protection, irrigation control equipment, remote monitoring, and even portable power supplies for emergency situations.

Not Available

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Virginia - State Energy Profile Analysis - U.S. Energy ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Natural gas consumption by Virginia's electric power generators has increased sharply since 2009. ... Municipal solid waste and landfill gas also ...

367

Municipal performance: does mayoral quality matter?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This research addresses the question of what explains municipal performance in terms of delivering social services and fiscal performance. While the existing literature explains governmental performance with political, institutional and socio-demographic factors, I suggest that the greatest influence on municipal performance comes from having qualified managers. Specifically, I argue that that mayoral qualifications influence municipal performance. By qualifications I mean mayors’ human capital, that is, their educational and job-related experience. The rationale for my proposition rests on the fact that in developing municipalities the mayor is not just the elected leader but also the public manager, as s/he performs not just political but also administrative functions. Under certain circumstances, however, mayoral qualifications may not have the same influential power on municipal performance. Therefore, I also argue that in unfavorable municipal contexts, the potential influence of mayoral qualifications on performance decreases. I use both statistical and survey-experimental methodologies to test the hypotheses derived from the proposed “mayoral quality theory.” I collected six years of data for the statistical analyses by doing field research across the 40 municipalities that comprise the Colombian Department of Norte of Santander. For the surveyexperimental analysis, I gathered data from interviews and surveys with 120 mayors from 12 Latin American countries, who participated in the II Latin American Congress of Cities and Local Governments held in Cali, Colombia, on July 26-29, 2006. The statistical findings reveal that mayoral qualifications—education and jobrelated experience—positively influence municipal performance with respect to education enrollment, tax property collection, and social program investment. However, the positive impact that mayoral qualifications have on such performance indicators decreases under external constraints, such as the presence of illegal armed groups. From the survey-experimental study, findings show that issue salience (or nature of municipal need) moderates the impact that mayoral qualifications have on mayors’ decision-making. In education issues, for example, qualified mayors are more likely to perform better, while in infrastructure issues they are less likely to do so.

Avellaneda, Claudia Nancy

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Chapter 47 Solid Waste Facilities (Kentucky) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Chapter 47 Solid Waste Facilities (Kentucky) Chapter 47 Solid Waste Facilities (Kentucky) Chapter 47 Solid Waste Facilities (Kentucky) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Developer Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Program Info State Kentucky Program Type Environmental Regulations Fees Siting and Permitting Provider Kentucky Division of Waste Management This chapter establishes the permitting standards for solid waste sites or facilities, the standards applicable to all solid waste sites or

369

Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority - Commercial and Industrial Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority - Commercial and Industrial Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority - Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Program Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority - Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Local Government Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Heat Pumps Heating Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Manufacturing Maximum Rebate $100,000 Program Info Funding Source American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 State Oklahoma Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Matching Funds up to $100,000 Provider Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority The Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority (OMPA) offers the Demand and Energy Efficiency Program (DEEP) to eligible commercial, industrial, and municipal

370

Trenton Municipal Utilities | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Trenton Municipal Utilities Trenton Municipal Utilities Jump to: navigation, search Name Trenton Municipal Utilities Place Missouri Utility Id 19150 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes Alt Fuel Vehicle Yes Alt Fuel Vehicle2 Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Church Rate Commercial Commercial All Electric Rate Commercial Commercial General Electric Rate Commercial Commercial Power Rate Commercial Grundy Electric Rate for City Line Usage Commercial

371

Philippi Municipal Electric | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Philippi Municipal Electric Philippi Municipal Electric Place West Virginia Utility Id 14954 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location RFC NERC RFC Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Economic Development Rate Industrial General Service Commercial Large Power Commercial Outdoor Lighting- 175W High Pressure Sodium Lighting Residential Residential Average Rates Residential: $0.0904/kWh Commercial: $0.0800/kWh Industrial: $0.0976/kWh References ↑ "EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Philippi_Municipal_Electric&oldid=411361

372

Rancho Cucamonga Municipal Utility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Rancho Cucamonga Municipal Utility Rancho Cucamonga Municipal Utility Jump to: navigation, search Name Rancho Cucamonga Municipal Utility Place California Utility Id 56224 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC WECC Yes ISO CA Yes Activity Distribution Yes Alt Fuel Vehicle Yes Alt Fuel Vehicle2 Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Irrigation Systems Commercial Large Commercial Commercial Medium Commercial Commercial Medium Commercial (Time-Of-Use) Commercial Net Energy Metering Commercial Outdoor Area Lighting Lighting Small Comercial Commercial Small Commercial Three Phase Commercial

373

Wyoming Municipal Power Agency | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Wyoming Municipal Power Agency Wyoming Municipal Power Agency Place Wyoming Utility Id 40603 Utility Location Yes Ownership A NERC Location WECC NERC WECC Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity Wholesale Marketing Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png No rate schedules available. Average Rates No Rates Available References ↑ "EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Wyoming_Municipal_Power_Agency&oldid=412214

374

Mohawk Municipal Comm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Municipal Comm Municipal Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name Mohawk Municipal Comm Place New York Utility Id 12759 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location NPCC Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Industrial Rate Industrial Large Commercial Commercial Public Street Lighting Lighting Security Lighting 150 w lamp Lighting Security Lighting 175 w lamp Lighting Security Lighting 250 w lamp Lighting Security Lighting 400 w lamp Lighting Single-Phase Residential Residential Small Commercial Business Commercial Average Rates Residential: $0.0366/kWh

375

Lassen Municipal Utility District | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Municipal Utility District Municipal Utility District Jump to: navigation, search Name Lassen Municipal Utility District Place California Utility Id 10724 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location WECC NERC WECC Yes Activity Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Agricultural Pumping Commercial Domestic Residential General Service (Non-Demand) Commercial General Service Metered Demand Commercial Industrial Industrial Outdoor Area Lighting 100W Lighting Outdoor Area Lighting 200W Lighting Standby Reactive Rate Commercial Average Rates

376

Canton Municipal Utilities | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Canton Municipal Utilities Canton Municipal Utilities Jump to: navigation, search Name Canton Municipal Utilities Place Mississippi Utility Id 2974 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SERC NERC SERC Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png E01 RESIDENTIAL ALL ELECTRIC Residential E04 COMMERCIAL ELECTRIC Commercial E08 LARGE INDUSTRIAL ELECTRIC Industrial E09 RESIDENTIAL ELECTRIC Residential E12 SMALL INDUSTRIAL ELECTRIC Industrial E13 ELECTRIC WATER HEATER Commercial Average Rates Residential: $0.0978/kWh

377

Delano Municipal Utilities | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Municipal Utilities Municipal Utilities Jump to: navigation, search Name Delano Municipal Utilities Place Minnesota Utility Id 5015 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes ISO MISO Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Commerical Rate Commercial Industrial Rate Industrial Residential Rate Residential Average Rates Residential: $0.1060/kWh Commercial: $0.0995/kWh Industrial: $0.0854/kWh References ↑ "EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a"

378

Illinois Municipal Elec Agency | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Illinois Municipal Elec Agency Illinois Municipal Elec Agency Place Illinois Utility Id 9286 Utility Location Yes Ownership A NERC Location RFC & SERC NERC RFC Yes NERC SERC Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity Buying Distribution Yes Activity Wholesale Marketing Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png No rate schedules available. Average Rates No Rates Available References ↑ "EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Illinois_Municipal_Elec_Agency&oldid=410862

379

Bancroft Municipal Utilities | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Bancroft Municipal Utilities Bancroft Municipal Utilities Jump to: navigation, search Name Bancroft Municipal Utilities Place Iowa Utility Id 1172 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Commercial Demand Rates Commercial Schedule 1 Residential Schedule 2 Commercial Schedule 3 Residential Average Rates Residential: $0.1020/kWh Commercial: $0.0990/kWh Industrial: $0.0932/kWh References ↑ "EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a"

380

Tipton Municipal Electric Util | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Tipton Municipal Electric Util Tipton Municipal Electric Util Jump to: navigation, search Name Tipton Municipal Electric Util Place Indiana Utility Id 18942 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location RFC NERC RFC Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Rate A- Residential Electric Service Residential Rate B- Commercial Electric Service Commercial Rate C- General and Industrial Power Service, Single Phase Industrial Rate C- General and Industrial Power Service, Three Phase Industrial Rate CG- Cogeneration Commercial Rate D- Primary Power and Lighting Service

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas municipal solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Indianola Municipal Utilities - Energy Efficiency Rebate Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Indianola Municipal Utilities - Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Indianola Municipal Utilities - Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Indianola Municipal Utilities - Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Residential Savings Category Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Maximum Rebate Central AC: $250 maximum; 10 unit maximum per customer per year Commercial Lighting: $5,000 per customer per year Air Source Heat Pumps: $500 maximum; 10 units per customer per year Geothermal Heat Pumps: $1,000 maximum, 5 units per customer per year Program Info State Iowa Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Central AC: $100/unit; $50 for each SEER above minimum Commercial Lighting: $2 - $25/fixture depending on type and efficiency

382

Thurmont Municipal Light Co | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Thurmont Municipal Light Co Thurmont Municipal Light Co Jump to: navigation, search Name Thurmont Municipal Light Co Place Maryland Utility Id 18901 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location RFC NERC RFC Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png LARGE GENERAL SERVICE Primary Voltage Industrial LARGE GENERAL SERVICE Secondary Voltage Industrial MEDIUM GENERAL SERVICE Industrial OUTDOOR LIGHTING SERVICE(11,000) Lighting OUTDOOR LIGHTING SERVICE(20,000) Lighting OUTDOOR LIGHTING SERVICE(400w) Lighting OUTDOOR LIGHTING SERVICE(7,000) Lighting RESIDENTIAL SERVICE Residential

383

Cascade Municipal Utilities | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cascade Municipal Utilities Cascade Municipal Utilities Jump to: navigation, search Name Cascade Municipal Utilities Place Iowa Utility Id 3137 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes ISO MISO Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png All Electric Rate Residential City/Interdept. Rate Commercial Commercial Rate 3-phase Commercial Commercial Rate Single-phase Commercial Demand Rate Industrial Residential Rates Residential Average Rates Residential: $0.1040/kWh

384

Indianola Municipal Utilities | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Indianola Municipal Utilities Indianola Municipal Utilities Jump to: navigation, search Name Indianola Municipal Utilities Place Iowa Utility Id 9275 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes Activity Bundled Services Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Commercial Rates Commercial Electric Heat Source Commercial Government Commercial Large Industrial Industrial Outside City Limits Residential Residential Rates Residential Small Industrial Industrial

385

Chillicothe Municipal Utils | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Chillicothe Municipal Utils Chillicothe Municipal Utils Jump to: navigation, search Name Chillicothe Municipal Utils Place Missouri Utility Id 3486 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png COMMERCIAL (NON DEMAND)SERVICE SCHEDULE - CO Commercial LARGE COMMERCIAL SERVICE SCHEDULE - LP Commercial LARGE INDUSTRIAL SERVICE SCHEDULE - LI-01 Industrial RESIDENTIAL SERVICE SCHEDULE Residential SMALL INDUSTRIAL (NON DEMAND) SERVICE SCHEDULE - CO-06 Industrial Average Rates

386

Marblehead Municipal Light Department - Residential Energy Efficiency  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Marblehead Municipal Light Department - Residential Energy Marblehead Municipal Light Department - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Marblehead Municipal Light Department - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Appliances & Electronics Heat Pumps Maximum Rebate Insulation: $1,600 Program Info State Massachusetts Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Refrigerators: $100, plus $25 for disposal of old refrigerator Clothes Washers: $50 - $100 Dishwashers: $25 - $50 Room A/C Units: 50% of purchase price up to $50 Central A/C: $325 - $525, varies by efficiency and technology Heat Pumps: $325 - $675, varies by efficiency and technology Programmable Thermostat: up to 50% of the purchase price

387

Dublin Municipal Electric Util | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Dublin Municipal Electric Util Dublin Municipal Electric Util Jump to: navigation, search Name Dublin Municipal Electric Util Place Indiana Utility Id 5392 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location RFC NERC RFC Yes Activity Distribution Yes Activity Wholesale Marketing Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Commercial Commercial General Power Rate OL: Outdoor Lighting (Security Lights) Lighting Rate SL: Street Lighting, All Public Street Lighting Lighting Rate SL: Street Lighting, State Highway Stoplight Lighting Residential Residential Residential: Space Heating and/or Air Conditioning Service Residential

388

Kenyon Municipal Utilities | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Kenyon Municipal Utilities Kenyon Municipal Utilities Jump to: navigation, search Name Kenyon Municipal Utilities Place Minnesota Utility Id 10179 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Commercial Service Rate Commercial Large Commercial/Demand Service Rate Commercial Residential Service Rate Residential Security Lights Lighting Street Lights Lighting Average Rates Residential: $0.1200/kWh Commercial: $0.1100/kWh

389

Winner Municipal Utility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Winner Municipal Utility Winner Municipal Utility Jump to: navigation, search Name Winner Municipal Utility Place South Dakota Utility Id 20823 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Large Commercial Rate Commercial Mutiple Dwelling Rate Residential Residential Rate Residential Security Lighting Rate Lighting Small Commercial Rate Commercial Average Rates Residential: $0.0929/kWh Commercial: $0.0845/kWh References ↑ "EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a" Retrieved from

390

Rock Rapids Municipal Utility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Rapids Municipal Utility Rapids Municipal Utility Jump to: navigation, search Name Rock Rapids Municipal Utility Place Iowa Utility Id 16206 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Commercial Power (Single-Phase) Commercial Commercial Power (Three-Phase) Commercial Residential Power Residential Average Rates Residential: $0.0807/kWh Commercial: $0.0633/kWh Industrial: $0.0899/kWh

391

Albertville Municipal Utils Bd | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Albertville Municipal Utils Bd Albertville Municipal Utils Bd Jump to: navigation, search Name Albertville Municipal Utils Bd Place Alabama Utility Id 241 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SERC NERC SERC Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png General Power Rate - SGSC Commercial General Power Rate - SGSD Industrial General Power Rate(Schedule GSA)-Part 1 Commercial General Power Rate(Schedule GSA)-Part 2 Commercial General Power Rate(Schedule GSA)-Part 3 Commercial Manufacturing Service Rate - SMSB Industrial Manufacturing Service Rate - SMSC Industrial

392

Madisonville Municipal Utils | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Madisonville Municipal Utils Madisonville Municipal Utils Jump to: navigation, search Name Madisonville Municipal Utils Place Kentucky Utility Id 11488 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location RFC NERC RFC Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Commercial Electric Service-less than 50 KW Commercial Demand Commercial Electric Service-50 KW per month or more Commercial Residential Electric Service Residential Security Lights Overhead Flood Light HPS 400 W Lighting Security Lights Overhead Flood Light MH 400 W Lighting Security Lights Overhead HPS 150 W Lighting

393

Willmar Municipal Utilities | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Municipal Utilities Municipal Utilities Jump to: navigation, search Name Willmar Municipal Utilities Place Minnesota Website wmu.willmar.mn.us/main/ Utility Id 20737 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes ISO MISO Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes Activity Bundled Services Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png General service rate Commercial Heat pump rate Commercial Industrial(≥500KW;Primary Service) Industrial Industrial;≥500KW(Secondary Service) Industrial

394

Price Municipal Corporation | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Municipal Corporation Municipal Corporation Jump to: navigation, search Name Price Municipal Corporation Place Utah Utility Id 14198 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location WECC NERC WECC Yes Activity Distribution Yes Activity Buying Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Electrical substation delivery discount Commercial General Service- Large Industrial General service-small Industrial Residential Residential Security area lighting-250 watts and up Lighting Security area lighting-Less than 250 watts Lighting Special service-Non profit charitable organization Commercial

395

Rochelle Municipal Utilities | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Municipal Utilities Municipal Utilities Jump to: navigation, search Name Rochelle Municipal Utilities Place Illinois Utility Id 16179 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location RFC NERC RFC Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes Activity Buying Distribution Yes Activity Wholesale Marketing Yes Activity Retail Marketing Yes Activity Bundled Services Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Large General Service Commercial Large General Service Time of Day Commercial

396

Edinburg Municipal Utilities | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Edinburg Municipal Utilities Edinburg Municipal Utilities Jump to: navigation, search Name Edinburg Municipal Utilities Place Indiana Utility Id 5655 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location RFC NERC RFC Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png All Electric Residential and Farm Residential Electric Commercial Commercial Electric General Power Industrial Industrial Power(Transformer capacity Greater than 999kVA) Industrial Residential Residential Rural Commercial Commercial Rural Residential and Farm Residential Average Rates Residential: $0.0912/kWh

397

Indiana Municipal Power Agency | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Municipal Power Agency Municipal Power Agency Place Indiana Utility Id 9234 Utility Location Yes Ownership A NERC Location RFC NERC RFC Yes RTO PJM Yes ISO MISO Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity Wholesale Marketing Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png No rate schedules available. Average Rates No Rates Available References ↑ "EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Indiana_Municipal_Power_Agency&oldid=41086

398

Alameda Municipal Power - Residential Energy Efficiency Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Residential Energy Efficiency Program Residential Energy Efficiency Program Alameda Municipal Power - Residential Energy Efficiency Program < Back Eligibility Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Residential Savings Category Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Sealing Your Home Heating & Cooling Construction Commercial Heating & Cooling Design & Remodeling Maximum Rebate Single family, duplex, or triplex: $960 per unit Multi-family dwelling (four or more units): $480 per unit. Program Info State California Program Type Utility Grant Program Rebate Amount Weatherization: 80% of the cost Do-It-Yourself Weatherization: 70% of the cost Provider Alameda Municipal Power Alameda Municipal Power (AMP) offers a grant to help its residential customers who have electric heat weatherize homes to increase efficiency.

399

Business Case for Compressed Natural Gas in Municipal Fleets  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would...

400

CLEANING OF MUNICIPAL WASTE INCINERATOR FLUE GAS IN EUROPE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

/07/11 2015 Narcotics Violation Towers Hall A resident admitted to smoking marijuana and turned over arrested. 04/21/11 1417 04/21/11 1200- 1405 Theft Towers A credit card was stolen. Report taken. 04 The bus shelter was spray-painted on north and west sides. Report taken. 04/09/11 1047 04/09/11 1047

Columbia University

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas municipal solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

CLEANING OF MUNICIPAL WASTE INCINERATOR FLUE GAS IN EUROPE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

's personal copy Afforestation for reduction of NOX concentration in Lanzhou China Peter C. Chu a,, Yuchun of this study is to investigate the effect of af- forestation on the reduction of NO2 and NOX pollutions-level criterion). NOX has an evident decreasing trend (with time) since 1995. Reduction of NOX concentration since

Columbia University

402

North Branch Municipal Water & Light- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Southern Minnesota Municipal Power Agency ([http://www.smmpa.com SMMPA]) is a joint-action agency which generates and sells reliable electricity at wholesale to its eighteen non-profit, municipally...

403

A new way to stabilize fly ash from municipal incinerators  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heavy metals and toxic chlorinated organics, added to very low grain-size distributions, make fly ashes from municipal incinerators a very hazardous waste. For their disposal, the present general trend is, not only to stabilize chemically the ashes, i.e., to reduce the leachability of the toxic substances, but also to stabilize them mechanically, i.e., to convert them into massive, resistant, and unleachable solids. This paper describes various stabilization methods used on representative European fly ash samples, which led to the development of a new stabilization technique taking place in four stages: elimination of the alkali chlorides by dissolution; addition of a moderate quantity of phosphoric acid; calcination; and solidification with Portland clinker or cement. The principal advantages of the process are as follows: the polychlorodibenzodioxins-polychlorodibenzofurans are destroyed, the reactivity of the heavy metals is reduced drastically, the final solids have satisfactory mechanical properties, and the increase in weight of the waste to be disposed of does not exceed one fourth. Comparative results of TCLP extraction tests are presented.

Derie, R. [Free Univ. of Brussels (Belgium). Dept. of Ore Dressing

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

404

Integrated solid waste management of Minneapolis, Minnesota  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The subject document reports the results of an in-depth investigation of the fiscal year 1992 cost of the City of Minneapolis, Minnesota (Hennepin County) integrated municipal solid waste management (IMSWM) system, the energy consumed to operate the system, and the environmental performance requirements for each of the system`s waste-processing and disposal facilities. Actual data from records kept by participants is reported in this document. Every effort was made to minimize the use of assumptions, and no attempt is made to interpret the data reported. Analytical approaches are documented so that interested analysts may perform manipulation or further analysis of the data. As such, the report is a reference document for municipal solid waste (MSW) management professionals who are interested in the actual costs and energy consumption for a one-year period, of an operating IMSWM system.

NONE

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Prospects for pyrolysis technologies in managing municipal, industrial, and DOE cleanup wastes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Pyrolysis converts portions of municipal solid wastes, hazardous wastes, and special wastes such as tires, medical wastes, and even old landfills into solid carbon and a liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon stream. Pyrolysis heats a carbonaceous waste stream typically to 290--900 C in the absence of oxygen, and reduces the volume of waste by 90% and its weight by 75%. The solid carbon char has existing markets as an ingredient in many manufactured goods, and as an adsorbent or filter to sequester certain hazardous wastes. Pyrolytic gases may be burned as fuel by utilities, or liquefied for use as chemical feedstocks, or low-pollution motor vehicle fuels and fuel additives. This report analyzes the potential applications of pyrolysis in the Long Island region and evaluates for the four most promising pyrolytic systems their technological and commercial readiness, their applicability to regional waste management needs, and their conformity with DOE requirements for environmental restoration and waste management. This summary characterizes their engineering performance, environmental effects, costs, product applications, and markets. Because it can effectively treat those wastes that are inadequately addressed by current systems, pyrolysis can play an important complementing role in the region`s existing waste management strategy. Its role could be even more significant if the region moves away from existing commitments to incineration and MSW composting. Either way, Long Island could become the center for a pyrolysis-based recovery services industry serving global markets in municipal solid waste treatment and hazardous waste cleanup. 162 refs.

Reaven, S.J. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Doing business with business: Municipal utility energy audits  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article is a review of the ways in which municipal utilities can use energy audits to identify the energy efficiency measures that are most effective for themselves and their customers. Two examples, Osage Municipal Utilities in Iowa and Sacramento Municipal Utility District in California, are used to illustrate the strategies that are most cost effective.

NONE

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Characterization of human expired breath by solid phase microextraction and analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and differential mobility spectrometry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Breath analysis has potential to become a new medical diagnostic modality. In this thesis, a method for the analysis of human expired breath was developed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. It was subsequently ...

Merrick, William (William F. W.)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Underground Storage of Natural Gas and Liquefied Petroleum Gas (Nebraska) |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Underground Storage of Natural Gas and Liquefied Petroleum Gas Underground Storage of Natural Gas and Liquefied Petroleum Gas (Nebraska) Underground Storage of Natural Gas and Liquefied Petroleum Gas (Nebraska) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Program Info State Nebraska Program Type Siting and Permitting Provider Nebraska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission This statute declares underground storage of natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas to be in the public interest if it promotes the conservation

409

River Falls Municipal Utilities - Renewable Energy Finance Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

River Falls Municipal Utilities - Renewable Energy Finance Program River Falls Municipal Utilities - Renewable Energy Finance Program River Falls Municipal Utilities - Renewable Energy Finance Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Other Buying & Making Electricity Solar Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Water Heating Wind Program Info State Wisconsin Program Type PACE Financing Provider River Falls Municipal Utilities River Falls Municipal Utilities (RFMU) offers loans of $2,500 - $50,000 to its residential customers for the installation of photovoltaic (PV), solar thermal, geothermal, wind electric systems. The program will also support the installation of energy efficiency measures in connection with a qualifying renewable energy project, provided that the renewable energy

410

Solid Waste Management Act (Oklahoma) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

You are here You are here Home » Solid Waste Management Act (Oklahoma) Solid Waste Management Act (Oklahoma) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Industrial Installer/Contractor Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Utility Program Info State Oklahoma Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality This Act establishes rules for the permitting, posting of security, construction, operation, closure, maintenance and remediation of solid waste disposal sites; disposal of solid waste in ways that are environmentally safe and sanitary, as well as economically feasible; submission of laboratory reports or analyses performed by certified laboratories for the purposes of compliance monitoring and testing and for

411

Solid Waste Facilities Regulations (Massachusetts) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Solid Waste Facilities Regulations (Massachusetts) Solid Waste Facilities Regulations (Massachusetts) Solid Waste Facilities Regulations (Massachusetts) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Program Info State Massachusetts Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Department of Environmental Protection This chapter of the Massachusetts General Laws governs the operation of solid waste facilities. It seeks to encourage sustainable waste management

412

Solid Waste Disposal Facilities (Massachusetts) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Solid Waste Disposal Facilities (Massachusetts) Solid Waste Disposal Facilities (Massachusetts) Solid Waste Disposal Facilities (Massachusetts) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Fuel Distributor Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative State/Provincial Govt Transportation Tribal Government Utility Program Info State Massachusetts Program Type Siting and Permitting Provider Department of Environmental Protection These sections articulate rules for the maintenance and operation of solid waste disposal facilities, as well as site assignment procedures. Applications for site assignment will be reviewed by the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection as well as the Department of Public

413

Solid Waste Management (Connecticut) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Connecticut) Connecticut) Solid Waste Management (Connecticut) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Program Info State Connecticut Program Type Siting and Permitting Provider Department of Energy and Environmental Protection Solid waste facilities operating in Connecticut must abide by these regulations, which describe requirements and procedures for issuing construction and operating permits; environmental considerations;

414

Solid Waste Policies (Iowa) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Policies (Iowa) Policies (Iowa) Solid Waste Policies (Iowa) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fuel Distributor Industrial Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Utility Program Info State Iowa Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Iowa Department of Natural Resources This statute establishes the support of the state for alternative waste management practices that reduce the reliance upon land disposal and incorporate resource recovery. Cities and counties are required to establish and operate a comprehensive solid waste reduction program. These regulations discuss land application of processed wastes as well as requirements for sanitary landfills and for groundwater monitoring near land disposal sites

415

Solid Waste Management (Michigan) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Michigan) Michigan) Solid Waste Management (Michigan) < Back Eligibility Utility Fed. Government Commercial Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility State/Provincial Govt Industrial Construction Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Residential Installer/Contractor Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Low-Income Residential Schools Retail Supplier Institutional Multi-Family Residential Systems Integrator Fuel Distributor Nonprofit General Public/Consumer Transportation Program Info State Michigan Program Type Siting and Permitting Provider Department of Environmental Quality This Act encourages the Department of Environmental Quality and Health Department representatives to develop and encourage methods for disposing solid waste that are environmentally sound, that maximize the utilization

416

Cap May County Municipal Utilities Authority | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cap May County Municipal Utilities Authority Cap May County Municipal Utilities Authority Jump to: navigation, search Name Cap May County Municipal Utilities Authority Place Cape May Court House, New Jersey Zip 8210 Product The CMCMUA was created to design, construct and operate efficient wastewater treatment facilities. References Cap May County Municipal Utilities Authority[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Cap May County Municipal Utilities Authority is a company located in Cape May Court House, New Jersey . References ↑ "Cap May County Municipal Utilities Authority" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Cap_May_County_Municipal_Utilities_Authority&oldid=343207"

417

Municipal Energy Plan Program (Ontario, Canada) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Municipal Energy Plan Program (Ontario, Canada) Municipal Energy Plan Program (Ontario, Canada) Municipal Energy Plan Program (Ontario, Canada) < Back Eligibility Municipal/Public Utility Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Maximum Rebate 90,000 Program Info Expiration Date 11/29/2013 State Ontario Program Type Grant Program Rebate Amount 50 percent of eligible costs Ontario is supporting local energy planning by introducing the Municipal Energy Plan (MEP) program. The MEP program is designed to help municipalities better understand their local energy needs and conservation opportunities, set goals and develop implementation plans. A MEP takes an integrated approach to energy planning by aligning energy, infrastructure and land use planning. MEPs will help municipalities:

418

Valley Center Municipal Water District | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Municipal Water District Municipal Water District Jump to: navigation, search Name Valley Center Municipal Water District Place Valley Center, California Zip 92082 Product VCMWD is the second largest water provider in San Diego County behind the City of San Diego. References Valley Center Municipal Water District[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Valley Center Municipal Water District is a company located in Valley Center, California . References ↑ "Valley Center Municipal Water District" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Valley_Center_Municipal_Water_District&oldid=352717" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations Companies Organizations

419

Mitigation of chromium poisoning in solid oxide fuel cell system by ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ionic Solid Oxides for High Temperature Optical Gas Sensing in Fossil Fuel Based Power Plants · Mitigation of chromium poisoning in solid oxide fuel cell ...

420

Importance of Gas-Phase Kinetics within the Anode Channel of a Solid-Oxide Fuel Cell Chad Y. Sheng and Anthony M. Dean*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ReceiVed: December 12, 2003; In Final Form: February 27, 2004 Experiments using n-butane channel of a solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Butane conversion and product formation were monitored used: neat n-butane, 50% n-C4H10/50% H2O, and 50% n-C4H10/50% N2. These experiments demonstrate

Dean, Anthony M.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas municipal solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Capacity-to-Act in India's Solid Waste Management and Waste-to-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Capacity-to-Act in India's Solid Waste Management and Waste-to- Energy Industries Perinaz Bhada and disposal of garbage, or municipal solid waste, compounded by increasing consumption levels. Another serious of converting waste into different forms of energy. The process of using waste as a fuel source and converting

Columbia University

422

Coupled gas flow/solid dynamics model for predicting the formation of fracture patterns in gas well simulation experiments. [Propellant mixture used instead of explosives to fracture rock surrounding borehole  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A two-dimensional finite element model for predicting fracture patterns obtained in high energy gas fracture experiments is presented. In these experiments, a mixture of propellants is used instead of explosives to fracture the rock surrounding the borehole. The propellant mixture is chosen to tailor the pressure pulse so that multiple fractures emanate from the borehole. The model allows the fracture pattern and pressure pulse to be calculated for different combinations of propellant mixture, in situ stress conditions, and rock properties. The model calculates the amount of gas generated by the burning propellants using a burn rate given by a power law in pressure. By assuming that the gas behaves as a perfect gas and that the flow down the fractures is isothermal, the loss of gas from the borehole due to flow down the cracks is accounted for. The flow of gas down the cracks is included in an approximate manner by assuming self-similar pressure profiles along the fractures. Numerical examples are presented and compared to three different full-scale experiments. Results show a good correlation with the experimental data over a wide variety of test parameters. 9 reference, 10 figures, 3 tables.

Taylor, L.M.; Swenson, D.V.; Cooper, P.W.

1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Oklahoma Municipal Power Auth | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Auth Auth Jump to: navigation, search Name Oklahoma Municipal Power Auth Place Oklahoma Utility Id 14077 Utility Location Yes Ownership S NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity Wholesale Marketing Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png No rate schedules available. Average Rates No Rates Available References ↑ "EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Oklahoma_Municipal_Power_Auth&oldid=411268

424

Shawano Municipal Utilities | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Shawano Municipal Utilities Shawano Municipal Utilities Place Wisconsin Utility Id 17011 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location RFC NERC RFC Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Field Lighting Service Lighting General Single Phase Commercial General Single Phase TOD Commercial General Single Phase TOD 2 Commercial General Single Phase TOD 3 Commercial General Three Phase Commercial General Three Phase TOD Commercial General Three Phase TOD 2 Commercial General Three Phase TOD 3 Commercial Industrial Time-of-day Industrial Interdepartmental Commercial

425

Wyandotte Municipal Serv Comm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Wyandotte Municipal Serv Comm Wyandotte Municipal Serv Comm Place Michigan Utility Id 21048 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location RFC NERC RFC Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png HEATING STEAM RATE Residential HOT WATER DISTRICT HEATING RATE Commercial LARGE GENERAL SERVICE RATE Commercial Commercial LARGE GENERAL SERVICE RATE Commercial (Time-Differentiated Meter) Commercial LARGE GENERAL SERVICE RATE Industrial (Time-Differentiated Meter)

426

Atlantic Municipal Utilities | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Atlantic Municipal Utilities Atlantic Municipal Utilities Place Iowa Utility Id 965 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes ISO MISO Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png All- Electric Residential (Single Phase) Residential All- Electric Residential (Three Phase) Residential Commercial All- Electric Commercial Commercial Supplemental Electric Heat Commercial Industrial Electric Service (over 2,000kW) Industrial

427

Energy utilization: municipal waste incineration. Final report  

SciTech Connect

An assessment is made of the technical and economical feasibility of converting municipal waste into useful and useable energy. The concept presented involves retrofitting an existing municipal incinerator with the systems and equipment necessary to produce process steam and electric power. The concept is economically attractive since the cost of necessary waste heat recovery equipment is usually a comparatively small percentage of the cost of the original incinerator installation. Technical data obtained from presently operating incinerators designed specifically for generating energy, documents the technical feasibility and stipulates certain design constraints. The investigation includes a cost summary; description of process and facilities; conceptual design; economic analysis; derivation of costs; itemized estimated costs; design and construction schedule; and some drawings.

LaBeck, M.F.

1981-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

428

Solid-State Lighting: Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Market-Based Programs Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Solid-State Lighting: Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool on AddThis.com... LED Lighting Facts CALiPER Program Standards Development Technical Information Network Gateway Demonstrations Municipal Consortium About the Consortium FAQs

429

Solid-State Lighting: CALiPER Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Market-Based Programs Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Solid-State Lighting: CALiPER Program to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: CALiPER Program on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: CALiPER Program on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: CALiPER Program on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: CALiPER Program on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: CALiPER Program on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: CALiPER Program on AddThis.com... LED Lighting Facts CALiPER Program About the Program FAQs Summary Reports Detailed Reports Benchmark Reports Exploratory Studies Testing Laboratories Standards Development Technical Information Network Gateway Demonstrations Municipal Consortium Design Competitions CALiPER Program

430

Solid-State Lighting: Market-Based Programs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Market-Based Programs Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Solid-State Lighting: Market-Based Programs to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: Market-Based Programs on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: Market-Based Programs on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Market-Based Programs on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Market-Based Programs on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: Market-Based Programs on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: Market-Based Programs on AddThis.com... LED Lighting Facts CALiPER Program Standards Development Technical Information Network Gateway Demonstrations Municipal Consortium Design Competitions Market-Based Programs To facilitate successful market introduction of high-quality,

431

Solid-State Lighting: Adaptive Street Lighting Controls  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Adaptive Street Lighting Adaptive Street Lighting Controls to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: Adaptive Street Lighting Controls on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: Adaptive Street Lighting Controls on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Adaptive Street Lighting Controls on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Adaptive Street Lighting Controls on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: Adaptive Street Lighting Controls on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: Adaptive Street Lighting Controls on AddThis.com... Conferences & Meetings Presentations Publications Webcasts Videos Tools Adaptive Street Lighting Controls This two-part DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium webinar focused on LED street lighting equipped with adaptive control components.

432

Thermal and combined thermal and radiolytic reactions involving nitrous oxide, hydrogen, and nitrogen in the gas phase; comparison of gas generation rates in supernate and solid fractions of Tank 241-SY-101 simulated waste  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes progress made in evaluating me by which flammable gases are generated in Hanford double-shell tank wastes, based on the results of laboratory tests using simulated waste mixtures. Work described in this report. was conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the Flammable Gas Safety Project, the purpose of which is to develop information needed to support Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) in their efforts to ensure the safe interim storage of wastes at the Hanford Site. This work is related to gas generation studies being performed at Georgia Institute of Technology (GIT), under subcontract to PNL, using simulated wastes, and to studies being performed at VMC using actual wastes.

Bryan, S.A.; Pederson, L.R.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Solid oxide fuel cell generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a pair of spaced apart tubesheets in a housing. At least two intermediate barrier walls are between the tubesheets and define a generator chamber between two intermediate buffer chambers. An array of fuel cells have tubes with open ends engaging the tubesheets. Tubular, axially elongated electrochemical cells are supported on the tubes in the generator chamber. Fuel gas and oxidant gas are preheated in the intermediate chambers by the gases flowing on the other side of the tubes. Gas leakage around the tubes through the tubesheets is permitted. The buffer chambers reentrain the leaked fuel gas for reintroduction to the generator chamber.

Draper, Robert (Churchill Boro, PA); George, Raymond A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Shockling, Larry A. (Plum Borough, PA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Technological analysis of options for generating electricity with solid waste fuel in the Bangkok metropolitan area  

SciTech Connect

A discussion of relatively current techniques for converting mixed municipal waste into electricity is presented. A brief review of the comparative capabilities of the relevant energy recovery systems is documented in this section. The discussion is focused on the principal system and technological strategies that would be best suited for the municipal solid waste recovery project in Thailand. Emphasis in the review was placed on mixed waste processing in a mass burning waterwalled system.

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Mandatory Green Power Option for Large Municipal Utilities | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Green Power Option for Large Municipal Utilities Green Power Option for Large Municipal Utilities Mandatory Green Power Option for Large Municipal Utilities < Back Eligibility Municipal Utility Savings Category Bioenergy Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Buying & Making Electricity Solar Wind Program Info State Colorado Program Type Mandatory Utility Green Power Option Provider Colorado Public Utilities Commission Municipal electric utilities serving more than 40,000 customers in Colorado must offer an optional green-power program that allows retail customers the choice of supporting emerging renewable technologies. This policy complements Colorado's renewable portfolio standard (RPS), which requires municipal utilities serving more than 40,000 customers to use renewable energy and energy recycling to account for 10% of retail sales by 2020.

436

A Municipal Official's Guide to Diesel Idling Reduction | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

A Municipal Official's Guide to Diesel Idling Reduction A Municipal Official's Guide to Diesel Idling Reduction Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: A Municipal Official's Guide to Diesel Idling Reduction Agency/Company /Organization: United States Environmental Protection Agency Partner: New York Planning Federation Sector: Climate, Energy Focus Area: Transportation Resource Type: Lessons learned/best practices Website: www.nyserda.org/publications/09-06GuidetoDieselIdlingReduction.pdf Language: English References: A Municipal Official's Guide to Diesel Idling Reduction[1] References ↑ "A Municipal Official's Guide to Diesel Idling Reduction" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=A_Municipal_Official%27s_Guide_to_Diesel_Idling_Reduction&oldid=390471"

437

Solids production and control in petroleum recovery  

SciTech Connect

Reservoir solids may be produced during exploitation of petroleum reservoirs. Solids management practices depend on the nature of the reservoir and the produced fluids. For conventional oil and gas reservoirs, operators normally have focused on prevention or control of solids influx into production wells. In Canada, exploitation of heavy oil reservoirs has been found to be more effective when solids are produced. Solids production from conventional oil and gas reservoirs can have detrimental effects on well productivity and equipment. Therefore, the practice has been to attempt to prevent or control solids influx into the wells by using screens, gravel packs, or other means to restrict solids flow. If, when, where, and how to install solids control systems are governed by both cost and risk factors. From a solids management point of view, production of heavy oil from unconsolidated formations poses different challenges than conventional oil and gas production. Production of large quantities of solids is critical for maintaining the productivity of wells in heavy oil reservoirs. This has necessitated the development of special pumping systems to transport fluids with high solids content. Many reservoirs are now being exploited by horizontal wells, which have long horizontal contact with the reservoir. Solids control methods for horizontal wells have been adapted from those used in vertical wells. Special techniques and equipment have been developed to remove deposited solids from horizontal wells. Specially designed equipment and techniques are required for the surface handling of high solids cut fluids. Separation, cleaning, and disposal of produced solids can be costly, especially if the solids must be oil-free to satisfy environmental regulations. 138 refs., 20 figs., 3 tabs.

Hawkins, B.F.; Adamache, I.; Leopold, G. [Petroleum Recovery Inst., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

438

Heating and cooling of municipal buildings with waste heat from ground water  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The feasibility of using waste heat from municipal water wells to replace natural gas for heating of the City Hall, Fire Station, and Community Hall in Wilmer, Texas was studied. At present, the 120/sup 0/F well water is cooled by dissipating the excess heat through evaporative cooling towers before entering the distribution system. The objective of the study was to determine the pumping cycle of the well and determine the amount of available heat from the water for a specified period. This data were correlated with the heating and cooling demand of the City's buildings, and a conceptual heat recovery system will be prepared. The system will use part or all of the excess heat from the water to heat the buildings, thereby eliminating the use of natural gas. The proposed geothermal retrofit of the existing natural gas heating system is not economical because the savings in natural gas does not offset the capital cost of the new equipment and the annual operating and maintenance costs. The fuel savings and power costs are a virtual trade-off over the 25-year period. The installation and operation of the system was estimated to cost $105,000 for 25 years which is an unamortized expense. In conclusion, retrofitting the City of Wilmer's municipal buildings is not feasible based on the economic analysis and fiscal projections as presented.

Morgan, D.S.; Hochgraf, J.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Municipal Water Pollution Control (Minnesota) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Municipal Water Pollution Control (Minnesota) Municipal Water Pollution Control (Minnesota) Municipal Water Pollution Control (Minnesota) < Back Eligibility Utility Fed. Government Commercial Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility State/Provincial Govt Industrial Construction Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Residential Installer/Contractor Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Low-Income Residential Schools Retail Supplier Institutional Multi-Family Residential Systems Integrator Fuel Distributor Nonprofit General Public/Consumer Transportation Program Info State Minnesota Program Type Siting and Permitting This statute applies to a city, sanitary district, or other governmental subdivision or public corporation. The statute gives the Pollution Control Agency the authority to prepare and enforce a long-range plan pertaining to

440

Municipal Waste Planning, Recycling and Waste Reduction Act (Pennsylvania)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Municipal Waste Planning, Recycling and Waste Reduction Act Municipal Waste Planning, Recycling and Waste Reduction Act (Pennsylvania) Municipal Waste Planning, Recycling and Waste Reduction Act (Pennsylvania) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Pennsylvania Program Type Environmental Regulations

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas municipal solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Delivering energy services: the emerging role of California's municipal utilities  

SciTech Connect

The financial circumstances and energy service opportunities for California's municipal electric utilities are explored. The structure and financial operation of municipal utilities, including the new role of joint powers agency financing, are analyzed. The advantages which conservation and alternative energy resources can offer municipal utilities are discussed: reduced capital requirements, increased cash flow, oil displacement, improved air quality, reduced risk of large plant outages, and matching new capacity to uncertain load growth. Recommendations are presented for removing the existing barriers which discourage prospects for