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1

THE ROLE OF METHANOL IN THE CRYSTALLIZATION OF TITAN'S PRIMORDIAL OCEAN  

SciTech Connect

A key parameter that controls the crystallization of primordial oceans in large icy moons is the presence of anti-freeze compounds, which may have maintained primordial oceans over the age of the solar system. Here we investigate the influence of methanol, a possible anti-freeze candidate, on the crystallization of Titan's primordial ocean. Using a thermodynamic model of the solar nebula and assuming a plausible composition of its initial gas phase, we first calculate the condensation sequence of ices in Saturn's feeding zone, and show that in Titan's building blocks methanol can have a mass fraction of {approx}4 wt% relative to water, i.e., methanol can be up to four times more abundant than ammonia. We then combine available data on the phase diagram of the water-methanol system and scaling laws derived from thermal convection to estimate the influence of methanol on the dynamics of the outer ice I shell and on the heat transfer through this layer. For a fraction of methanol consistent with the building blocks composition we determined, the vigor of convection in the ice I shell is strongly reduced. The effect of 5 wt% methanol is equivalent to that of 3 wt% ammonia. Thus, if methanol is present in the primordial ocean of Titan, the crystallization may stop, and a sub-surface ocean may be maintained between the ice I and high-pressure ice layers. A preliminary estimate indicates that the presence of 4 wt% methanol and 1 wt% ammonia may result in an ocean of thickness at least 90 km.

Deschamps, Frederic [Institute of Geophysics, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Mousis, Olivier [Universite de Franche-Comte, Institut UTINAM, CNRS/INSU, UMR 6213, 25030 Besancon Cedex (France); Sanchez-Valle, Carmen [Institute of Geochemistry and Petrology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Lunine, Jonathan I., E-mail: frederic.deschamps@erdw.ethz.c [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Roma 'Tor Vergata', Rome (Italy)

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Methanol production from biomass and natural gas as transportation fuel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two processes are examined for production of methanol. They are assessed against the essential requirements of a future alternative fuel for road transport: that it (1) is producible in amounts comparable to the 19 EJ of motor fuel annually consumed in the US, (2) minimizes emissions of criteria pollutants, (3) reduces greenhouse gas emissions from production and use, (4) is cost-competitive with petroleum fuel, and (5) is compatible with the emerging vehicle technologies, especially those powdered by fuel cells. The methanol yield, production cost, and potential for reduction of overall fuel-cycle CO{sub 2} emissions were evaluated and compared to those of reformulated gasoline. The results show that a process utilizing natural gas and biomass as cofeedstocks can meet the five requirements more effectively than individual processes utilizing those feedstocks separately. When end-use efficiencies are accounted for, the cost per vehicle mile traveled would be less than that of gasoline used in current vehicles. CO{sub 2} emissions from the vehicle fleet would be reduced 66% by methanol used in fuel cell vehicles and 8--36% in flexible-fuel or dedicated-methanol vehicles during the transition period. Methanol produced from natural gas and biomass, together in one process, and used in fuel cell vehicles would leverage petroleum displacement by a factor of about 5 and achieve twice the overall CO{sub 2} emission reduction obtainable from the use of biomass alone.

Borgwardt, R.H. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). National Risk Management Research Lab.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Methanol synthesis gas from catalytic steam reforming of wood  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Laboratory studies were successful in developing catalyst systems and operating conditions for generation of a methanol synthesis gas, a mixture of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Some methane remained in the gas mixture. Wood was reacted with steam at a steam-to-wood weight ratio of about 0.9 and a temperature of 750/sup 0/C (1380/sup 0/F) in the presence of several catalysts. Results are presented for two different catalyst systems.

Mudge, L.K.; Mitchell, D.H.; Robertus, R.J.; Weber, S.L.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Process Design and Integration of Shale Gas to Methanol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent breakthroughs in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technology have made huge reservoirs of previously untapped shale gas and shale oil formations available for use. These new resources have already made a significant impact on the United States chemical industry and present many opportunities for new capital investments and industry growth. As in conventional natural gas, shale gas contains primarily methane, but some formations contain significant amounts of higher molecular weight hydrocarbons and inorganic gases such as nitrogen and carbon dioxide. These differences present several technical challenges to incorporating shale gas with current infrastructure designed to be used with natural gas. However, each shale presents opportunities to develop novel chemical processes that optimize its composition in order to more efficiently and profitably produce valuable chemical products. This paper is aimed at process synthesis, analysis, and integration of different processing pathways for the production of methanol from shale gas. The composition of the shale gas feedstock is assumed to come from the Barnett Shale Play located near Fort Worth, Texas, which is currently the most active shale gas play in the US. Process simulation and published data were used to construct a base-case scenario in Aspen Plus. The impact of different processing pathways was analyzed. Key performance indicators were assessed. These include overall process targets for mass and energy, economic performance, and environmental impact. Finally, the impact of several factors (e.g., feedstock composition, design and operating variables) is studied through a sensitivity analysis. The results show a profitable process above a methanol selling price of approximately $1.50/gal. The sensitivity analysis shows that the ROI depends much more heavily on the selling price of methanol than on the operating costs. Energy integration leads to a savings of $30.1 million per year, or an increase in ROI of 2% points. This also helps offset some of the cost required for the oxygen necessary for syngas generation through partial oxidation. For a sample shale gas composition with high levels of impurities, preprocessing costs require a price differential of $0.73/MMBtu from natural gas. The process is also environmentally desirable because shale gas does not lead to higher GHG emissions than conventional natural gas. More water is required for hydraulic fracturing, but some of these concerns can be abated through conservation techniques and regulation.

Ehlinger, Victoria M.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Methanol production with elemental phosphorus byproduct gas: technical and economic feasibility  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The technical and economic feasibility of using a typical, elemental, phosphorus byproduct gas stream in methanol production is assessed. The purpose of the study is to explore the potential of a substitute for natural gas. The first part of the study establishes economic tradeoffs between several alternative methods of supplying the hydrogen which is needed in the methanol synthesis process to react with CO from the off gas. The preferred alternative is the Battelle Process, which uses natural gas in combination with the off gas in an economically sized methanol plant. The second part of the study presents a preliminary basic design of a plant to (1) clean and compress the off gas, (2) return recovered phosphorus to the phosphorus plant, and (3) produce methanol by the Battelle Process. Use of elemental phosphorus byproduct gas in methanol production appears to be technically feasible. The Battelle Process shows a definite but relatively small economic advantage over conventional methanol manufacture based on natural gas alone. The process would be economically feasible only where natural gas supply and methanol market conditions at a phosphorus plant are not significantly less favorable than at competing methanol plants. If off-gas streams from two or more phosphorus plants could be combined, production of methanol using only offgas might also be economically feasible. The North American methanol market, however, does not seem likely to require another new methanol project until after 1990. The off-gas cleanup, compression, and phosphorus-recovery system could be used to produce a CO-rich stream that could be economically attractive for production of several other chemicals besides methanol.

Lyke, S.E.; Moore, R.H.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Using Rare Gas Permeation to Probe Methanol Diffusion near the Glass Transition Temperature  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The permeation of rare-gas atoms through deeply supercooled metastable liquid methanol films is used to probe the diffusivity. The technique allows for measurement of supercooled liquid self-diffusion at temperatures just above the glass transition. The diffusivity near the glass transition is characterized by an activation energy and prefactor that are seven and 1030 times greater, respectively, than those of the room temperature liquid. The temperature dependence of the diffusivity is well-described by a Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman (VFT) equation. These new measurements, their kinetic parameters, and temperature dependence provide clear evidence that methanol is a fragile liquid.

Matthiesen, Jesper; Smith, R. Scott; Kay, Bruce D.

2009-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

7

A Gas-Capture Buoy for Measuring Bubbling Gas Flux in Oceans and Lakes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The design, calibration, and deployment of a buoy and gas-capture assembly for measuring bubbling gas flux in oceans and lakes are described. The assembly collects gas in a chamber while continuously measuring the position of the gas–water ...

Libe Washburn; Cyril Johnson; Chris C. Gotschalk; E. Thor Egland

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Method and apparatus for recovering a gas from a gas hydrate located on the ocean floor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for recovering a gas from a gas hydrate on the ocean floor includes a flexible cover, a plurality of steerable base members secured to the cover, and a steerable mining module. A suitable source for inflating the cover over the gas hydrate deposit is provided. The mining module, positioned on the gas hydrate deposit, is preferably connected to the cover by a control cable. A gas retrieval conduit or hose extends upwardly from the cover to be connected to a support ship on the ocean surface.

Wyatt, Douglas E. (Aiken, SC)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Method for making methanol  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methanol is made in a liquid-phase methanol reactor by entraining a methanol-forming catalyst in an inert liquid and contacting said entrained catalyst with a synthesis gas comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

Mednick, R. Lawrence (Roslyn Heights, NY); Blum, David B. (Wayne, NJ)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Method for making methanol  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methanol is made in a liquid-phase methanol reactor by entraining a methanol-forming catalyst in an inert liquid and contacting said entrained catalyst with a synthesis gas comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

Mednick, R. Lawrence (Roslyn Heights, NY); Blum, David B. (Wayne, NJ)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Contribution of oceanic gas hydrate dissociation to the formation of Arctic Ocean methane plumes  

SciTech Connect

Vast quantities of methane are trapped in oceanic hydrate deposits, and there is concern that a rise in the ocean temperature will induce dissociation of these hydrate accumulations, potentially releasing large amounts of carbon into the atmosphere. Because methane is a powerful greenhouse gas, such a release could have dramatic climatic consequences. The recent discovery of active methane gas venting along the landward limit of the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) on the shallow continental slope (150 m - 400 m) west of Svalbard suggests that this process may already have begun, but the source of the methane has not yet been determined. This study performs 2-D simulations of hydrate dissociation in conditions representative of the Arctic Ocean margin to assess whether such hydrates could contribute to the observed gas release. The results show that shallow, low-saturation hydrate deposits, if subjected to recently observed or future predicted temperature changes at the seafloor, can release quantities of methane at the magnitudes similar to what has been observed, and that the releases will be localized near the landward limit of the GHSZ. Both gradual and rapid warming is simulated, along with a parametric sensitivity analysis, and localized gas release is observed for most of the cases. These results resemble the recently published observations and strongly suggest that hydrate dissociation and methane release as a result of climate change may be a real phenomenon, that it could occur on decadal timescales, and that it already may be occurring.

Reagan, M.; Moridis, G.; Elliott, S.; Maltrud, M.

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Hynol -- An economic process for methanol production from biomass and natural gas with reduced CO{sub 2} emission  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Hynol process is proposed to meet the demand for an economical process for methanol production with reduced CO{sub 2} emission. This new process consists of three reaction steps: (a) hydrogasification of biomass, (b) steam reforming of the produced gas with additional natural gas feedstock, and (c) methanol synthesis of the hydrogen and carbon monoxide produced during the previous two steps. The H{sub 2}-rich gas remaining after methanol synthesis is recycled to gasify the biomass in an energy neutral reactor so that there is no need for an expensive oxygen plant as required by commercial steam gasifiers. Recycling gas allows the methanol synthesis reactor to perform at a relatively lower pressure than conventional while the plant still maintains high methanol yield. Energy recovery designed into the process minimizes heat loss and increases the process thermal efficiency. If the Hynol methanol is used as an alternative and more efficient automotive fuel, an overall 41% reduction in CO{sub 2} emission can be achieved compared to the use of conventional gasoline fuel. A preliminary economic estimate shows that the total capital investment for a Hynol plant is 40% lower than that for a conventional biomass gasification plant. The methanol production cost is $0.43/gal for a 1085 million gal/yr Hynol plant which is competitive with current U.S. methanol and equivalent gasoline prices. Process flowsheet and simulation data using biomass and natural gas as cofeedstocks are presented. The Hynol process can convert any condensed carbonaceous material, especially municipal solid waste (MSW), to produce methanol.

Steinberg, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Dong, Yuanji [Hynol Corp., New York, NY (United States)

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Isobutanol-methanol mixtures from synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 January--31 March 1995  

SciTech Connect

The contract objectives are: to design a catalytic material for the synthesis of isobutanol with a productivity of 200 g isoalcohols/g-cat-h and a molar isobutanol/methanol ratio near unity; and to develop structure-function rules for the design of catalysts for the selective conversion of synthesis gas to isoalcohols. Several catalyst samples have been prepared by controlled co-precipitation from aqueous mixtures of metal nitrates. The composition of these materials is based on reports of best available catalysts for methanol synthesis, for isobutanol synthesis, and for methanol coupling reactions. The mechanical construction and pressure testing of the microreactor system has been completed. The in-situ infrared spectrophotometer equipped with a nitrogen purge is fully operational. The temperature-programmed surface reaction (TPSR) unit has been designed; construction will begin during the third quarter FY`95. Air Products and Chemicals has provided us with a sample of a BASF isobutanol synthesis catalyst and with catalytic data obtained on this catalyst in a LaPorte test run. This catalyst will serve as a benchmark for the certification of our new microreactor system.

Iglesia, E.

1995-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

14

1995 world methanol conference  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The 20 papers contained in this volume deal with the global markets for methanol, the production of MTBE, integrating methanol production into a coal-to-SNG complex, production of methanol from natural gas, catalysts for methanol production from various synthesis gases, combined cycle power plants using methanol as fuel, and economics of the methanol industry. All papers have been processed for inclusion on the data base.

NONE

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

15

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Methanol  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Methanol to someone by Methanol to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Methanol on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Methanol on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Methanol on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Methanol on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Methanol on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Methanol on AddThis.com... More in this section... Biobutanol Drop-In Biofuels Methanol P-Series Renewable Natural Gas xTL Fuels Methanol Methanol (CH3OH), also known as wood alcohol, is an alternative fuel under the Energy Policy Act of 1992. As an engine fuel, methanol has chemical and physical fuel properties similar to ethanol. Methanol use in vehicles has declined dramatically since the early 1990s, and automakers no longer

16

Mechanisms Leading to Co-existence of Gas and Hydrate in Ocean...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Leading to Co-existence of Gas and Hydrate in Ocean Sediments Steven Bryant Dept. of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering The University of Texas at Austin and Ruben Juanes Dept....

17

Strategies for gas production from oceanic Class 3 hydrate accumulations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

gas phase, liquid phase, ice phase, and hydrate phase. AHydrate; V: Vapor (gas phase); I: Ice; Q 1 : Quadruple point

Moridis, George J.; Reagan, Matthew T.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Subsurface Hybrid Power Options for Oil & Gas Production at Deep Ocean Sites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An investment in deep-sea (deep-ocean) hybrid power systems may enable certain off-shore oil and gas exploration and production. Advanced deep-ocean drilling and production operations, locally powered, may provide commercial access to oil and gas reserves otherwise inaccessible. Further, subsea generation of electrical power has the potential of featuring a low carbon output resulting in improved environmental conditions. Such technology therefore, enhances the energy security of the United States in a green and environmentally friendly manner. The objective of this study is to evaluate alternatives and recommend equipment to develop into hybrid energy conversion and storage systems for deep ocean operations. Such power systems will be located on the ocean floor and will be used to power offshore oil and gas exploration and production operations. Such power systems will be located on the oceans floor, and will be used to supply oil and gas exploration activities, as well as drilling operations required to harvest petroleum reserves. The following conceptual hybrid systems have been identified as candidates for powering sub-surface oil and gas production operations: (1) PWR = Pressurized-Water Nuclear Reactor + Lead-Acid Battery; (2) FC1 = Line for Surface O{sub 2} + Well Head Gas + Reformer + PEMFC + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (3) FC2 = Stored O2 + Well Head Gas + Reformer + Fuel Cell + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (4) SV1 = Submersible Vehicle + Stored O{sub 2} + Fuel Cell + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (5) SV2 = Submersible Vehicle + Stored O{sub 2} + Engine or Turbine + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (6) SV3 = Submersible Vehicle + Charge at Docking Station + ZEBRA & Li-Ion Batteries; (7) PWR TEG = PWR + Thermoelectric Generator + Lead-Acid Battery; (8) WELL TEG = Thermoelectric Generator + Well Head Waste Heat + Lead-Acid Battery; (9) GRID = Ocean Floor Electrical Grid + Lead-Acid Battery; and (10) DOC = Deep Ocean Current + Lead-Acid Battery.

Farmer, J C; Haut, R; Jahn, G; Goldman, J; Colvin, J; Karpinski, A; Dobley, A; Halfinger, J; Nagley, S; Wolf, K; Shapiro, A; Doucette, P; Hansen, P; Oke, A; Compton, D; Cobb, M; Kopps, R; Chitwood, J; Spence, W; Remacle, P; Noel, C; Vicic, J; Dee, R

2010-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

19

The ocean's role in polar climate change: asymmetric Arctic and Antarctic responses to greenhouse gas and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by order 12% per decade, with smaller reductions in winter. Coupled models suggest that under greenhouse-gasThe ocean's role in polar climate change: asymmetric Arctic and Antarctic responses to greenhouse gas and ozone forcing John Marshall, Kyle Armour, Jeffery Scott and Yavor Kostov (MIT) David Ferreira

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

20

Catalytic conversion of oxygenated compounds to low molecular weight olefins. Progress report, January 1-July 31, 1979. [Methanol from synthesis gas from coal gasification  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An attractive route for producing ethylene and propylene from coal is to gasify the coal to produce synthesis gas, convert the synthesis gas to methanol, and then convert methanol to the olefins. During this report period the reactions of methanol over chabazite ion exchanged with rare earth chlorides have been studied at reciprocal liquid hourly space velocities of 1.5 to 15, at temperatures of 259, 271, 304, 352, and 427/sup 0/C, and at pressure 2.7 atm. At 259 and 271/sup 0/C the principle product was dimethyl ether. As the temperature was increased the conversion of methanol to olefins and alkanes increased to 54% and 32%, respectively. A mixture of dimethyl ether, water, and methanol was fed to the Berty reactor. This mixture was near the equilibrium concentrations for converting pure methanol to dimethyl ether and water at 275/sup 0/C. The Berty reactor temperature was 427/sup 0/C. Initially the yields were similar to those obtained when feeding pure methanol. However, the catalyst activity decreased at a faster rate. Rate models are being developed to correlate the catalyst activity and rate as a function of time on stream and partial pressures. A promising model is presented.

Anthony, R.G.

1979-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas methanol ocean" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Mechanisms Leading to Co-existence of Gas and Hydrate in Ocean Sediments  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Leading to Co-existence of Gas Leading to Co-existence of Gas and Hydrate in Ocean Sediments Steven Bryant Dept. of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering The University of Texas at Austin and Ruben Juanes Dept. of Civil Engineering MIT Observations and Ruminations * Some proposed explanations for co-existence - kinetics of hydrate formation; - regional geotherms; - hypersaline brines as a result of hydrate formation;

22

Methanol partial oxidation reformer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

1999-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

23

Methanol partial oxidation reformer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

1999-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

24

Strategies for gas production from oceanic Class 3 hydrate accumulations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the cumulative mass of produced water M W . Note that pro-Salinity X P of the produced water. Gas production fromThe salinity of the produced water may pose significant

Moridis, George J.; Reagan, Matthew T.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Strategies for gas production from oceanic Class 3 hydrate accumulations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

slow conduction process (the main heat transfer mechanism)Heat transfer and gas relative permeability are challenged by the processestransfers. The resulting thermal regime involves heat addition to the dissociation process

Moridis, George J.; Reagan, Matthew T.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Isobutanol-methanol mixtures from synthesis gas. Quarterly report, July 1 - September 30, 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A series of CuMgCeO{sub x} catalysts have been prepared by coprecipitating the corresponding metal nitrates with a mixed solution of potassium carbonate and potassium hydroxide. The bulk composition of the catalyst has been measured by atomic absorption (AA) analysis and the Cu dispersion has been determined by N{sub 2}O titration at 90 {degrees}C. CeO{sub x} does not contribute to the measured copper dispersion in K-CuO{sub 0.5}Mg{sub 5}CeO{sub x} samples and the high dispersion value indeed reflects the presence of Cu metal small crystallites. Kinetic studies of methanol and propionaldehyde coupling reactions on K-Cu/MgO/CeO{sub 2} and MgO/CeO{sub 2} catalysts indicate that Cu enhances the rates of alcohol dehydrogenation. High-pressure isobutanol synthesis from CO/H{sub 2} has been studied on CuO{sub 0.5}Mg{sub 5}O{sub x} catalysts at 593 K and 4.5 MPa. CuO{sub 0.5}Mg{sub 5}O{sub x} catalysts show high hydrocarbon and low isobutanol selectivities compared to K-CuO{sub 0.5}Mg{sub 5}CeO{sub x}, suggesting the presence of residual acidity in CuO{sub 0.5}Mg{sub 5}O{sub x}.

Iglesia, E.

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Isobutanol-methanol mixtures from synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A series of Cu{sub 0.5}CeMe(II)O{sub x} catalysts (Me refers to Group II alkali earth elements) have been prepared by coprecipitating the corresponding metal nitrates with potassium carbonate. The bulk composition of the catalyst has been determined by atomic absorption (AA) analysis. High-pressure isobutanol synthesis studies have been carried out over a standard BASF Cs-promoted Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. At a CO conversion level of 32%, the isobutanol carbon selectivity is about 5%; whereas that of methanol is 40.2%. A 100% selectivity sum has now been obtained as a result of using response factors measured by the laboratory. The reactions of ethanol and acetic acid over a number of catalysts have been investigated using a temperature programmed surface reaction (TPSR) technique. Ethanol and acetone are the only desorption products observed over Cs-promoted Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts. Surface acetate ion is believed to be the precursor for acetone formation. Over calcined hydrotalcites, i.e., MgO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ethylene is formed instead of acetone. The amount of ethylene formed decreases as Mg/Al ratio increases, suggesting a role of aluminum ions in ethanol dehydration reactions.

Iglesia, E.

1996-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

28

The Development of Methanol Industry and Methanol Fuel in China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In 2007, China firmly established itself as the driver of the global methanol industry. The country became the world's largest methanol producer and consumer. The development of the methanol industry and methanol fuel in China is reviewed in this article. China is rich in coal but is short on oil and natural gas; unfortunately, transportation development will need more and more oil to provide the fuel. Methanol is becoming a dominant alternative fuel. China is showing the rest of the world how cleaner transportation fuels can be made from coal.

Li, W.Y.; Li, Z.; Xie, K.C. [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Method and apparatus for recovering geopressured methane gas from ocean depths  

SciTech Connect

A suggested method for recovering the estimated 50,000 trillion CF of methane that is dissolved in areas of the Gulf of Mexico at depths of 15,000 ft involves liberating the methane molecules by means of an electrolytic process. Electrodes lowered to the desired depth and insulated from the overlying saltwater establish an electrical circuit with the methane-laden water acting as the electrolyte. The a-c current density causes dissociation of the water molecules, freeing the methane gas, which rises to the ocean surface. A tent-like structure lying on the surface traps the gas for transfer to a storage facility.

Carpenter, N.

1982-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

30

Is Methanol the Transportation Fuel of the Future?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Richards, and L. Aruoux, "CNG Market DevelopmentStudy," Pub.with compressed natural gas (CNG). Weconclude that methanolrelative to methanol and CNG. ) )ASCENDANCE OF METHANOL

Sperling, Daniel; DeLuchi, Mark A.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

The short and long term role of the ocean in Greenhouse Gas mitigation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

JY01ax.doc 19 May 2001 JY01ax.doc 19 May 2001 The short and long term role of the ocean in Greenhouse Gas mitigation Ian S F Jones, Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, New York i.jones@ldeo.columbia.edu Helen E Young Earth Ocean and Space, Australian Technology Park, Sydney, HelenYoung@ozemail.com.au Introduction The carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere is rising rapidly, mostly as a result of fossil fuel burning. This is leading to more trapping of solar radiation in the atmosphere with the expectation that the world's climate will change. Rapid climate change has a downside risk of endangering the food security of the poor and raising the spectra of large scale transmigration. The UNFCCC was an agreement amongst most of the sovereign nations of the world

32

A Multisensor Comparison of Ocean Wave Frequency Spectra from a Research Vessel during the Southern Ocean Gas Exchange Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Obtaining accurate measurements of wave statistics from research vessels remains a challenge due to platform motion. One principal correction is the removal of ship heave and Doppler effects from point measurements. Here, open ocean wave ...

Alejandro Cifuentes-Lorenzen; James. B. Edson; Christopher J. Zappa; Ludovic Bariteau

33

Liquid phase low temperature method for production of methanol ...  

Liquid phase low temperature method for production of methanol from synthesis gas and catalyst formulations therefor United States Patent

34

Methanol-Tolerant Cathode Catalyst Composite For Direct Methanol...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Methanol-Tolerant Cathode Catalyst Composite For Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Methanol-Tolerant Cathode Catalyst Composite For Direct Methanol Fuel Cells A direct methanol fuel cell...

35

Isobutanol-methanol mixtures from synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 April--30 June 30 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A series of CuMgCeO{sub x} catalysts have been prepared by coprecipitating the corresponding metal nitrates with a mixed solution of potassium carbonate and potassium hydroxide. Kinetic studies of methanol and ethanol coupling reactions on K-Cu/MgO/CeO{sub 2} and MgO/CeO{sub 2} catalysts indicate that Cu enhances the rates of alcohol dehydrogenation. The cross-coupling reactions of acetaldehyde and {sup 13}C-labeled methanol produce singly-labeled propionaldehyde, suggesting that it forms by the condensation of acetaldehyde and a reactive intermediate derived from methanol. Isobutyraldehyde, a precursor to isobutanol, forms via the condensation of propionaldehyde and a reactive C{sub 1} intermediate resulting from methanol. CO{sub 2}, one of the reaction products, poisons both basic and metal sites on Ce-containing CuMgO{sub x} catalysts, resulting in decreases in the rates of both alcohol dehydrogenation (Cu sites) and chain-growth condensation reactions (basic sites). CO{sub 2} inhibits ethanol dehydrogenation on both low-Cu and high-Cu CuMgCeO{sub x} catalysts; however, CO{sub 2} has no effect on the activity of low-Cu Ce-free Cu-MgO{sub x} catalysts, suggesting that the Cu on CuMgCeO{sub x} catalysts is more likely to be oxidized by CO{sub 2} to Cu{sup +} species that can be subsequently stabilized by CeO{sub 2}. CO{sub 2} effects on high-pressure isobutanol synthesis from CO/H{sub 2} have been studied on low- and high-Cu CuMgCeO{sub x} catalysts at 320{degrees}C and 4.5 MPa. CO{sub 2} addition and removal on low- and high-Cu catalysts show similar directional effects on CO conversion. CO conversion is lower at all space velocities in the presence of CO{sub 2}, and removal Of CO{sub 2} from the feed partially recovers CO conversion. CO{sub 2} decreases methanol and isobutanol productivities on both catalysts. Addition of 1-propanol to CO/H{sub 2} feed increases isobutanol production, suggesting that 1-propanol is a precursor to isobutanol.

NONE

1996-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

36

Methane to methanol conversion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this project is to develop a novel process by which natural gas or methane from coal gasification products can be converted to a transportable liquid fuel. It is proposed that methanol can be produced by the direct, partial oxidation of methane utilizing air or oxygen. It is anticipated that, compared to present technologies, the new process might offer significant economic advantages with respect to capital investment and methane feedstock purity requirements. Results to date are discussed. 6 refs.

Finch, F.T.; Danen, W.C.; Lyman, J.L.; Oldenborg, R.C.; Rofer, C.K.; Ferris, M.J.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Mechanisms Leading to Co-Existence of Gas Hydrate in Ocean Sediments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this project we have sought to explain the co-existence of gas and hydrate phases in sediments within the gas hydrate stability zone. We have focused on the gas/brine interface at the scale of individual grains in the sediment. The capillary forces associated with a gas/brine interface play a dominant role in many processes that occur in the pores of sediments and sedimentary rocks. The mechanical forces associated with the same interface can lead to fracture initiation and propagation in hydrate-bearing sediments. Thus the unifying theme of the research reported here is that pore scale phenomena are key to understanding large scale phenomena in hydrate-bearing sediments whenever a free gas phase is present. Our analysis of pore-scale phenomena in this project has delineated three regimes that govern processes in which the gas phase pressure is increasing: fracturing, capillary fingering and viscous fingering. These regimes are characterized by different morphology of the region invaded by the gas. On the other hand when the gas phase pressure is decreasing, the corresponding regimes are capillary fingering and compaction. In this project, we studied all these regimes except compaction. Many processes of interest in hydrate-bearing sediments can be better understood when placed in the context of the appropriate regime. For example, hydrate formation in sub-permafrost sediments falls in the capillary fingering regime, whereas gas invasion into ocean sediments is likely to fall into the fracturing regime. Our research provides insight into the mechanisms by which gas reservoirs are converted to hydrate as the base of the gas hydrate stability zone descends through the reservoir. If the reservoir was no longer being charged, then variation in grain size distribution within the reservoir explain hydrate saturation profiles such as that at Mt. Elbert, where sand-rich intervals containing little hydrate are interspersed between intervals containing large hydrate saturations. Large volumes (of order one pore volume) of gaseous and aqueous phases must be transported into the gas hydrate stability zone. The driver for this transport is the pressure sink induced by a reduction in occupied pore volume that accompanies the formation of hydrate from gas and water. Pore-scale imbibition models and bed-scale multiphase flow models indicate that the rate-limiting step in converting gas to hydrate is the supply of water to the hydrate stability zone. Moreover, the water supply rate is controlled by capillarity-driven flux for conditions typical of the Alaska North Slope. A meter-scale laboratory experiment confirms that significant volumes of fluid phases move into the hydrate stability zone and that capillarity is essential for the water flux. The model shows that without capillarity-driven flux, large saturations of hydrate cannot form. The observations of thick zones of large saturation at Mallik and Mt Elbert thus suggest that the primary control on these systems is the rate of transport of gaseous and aqueous phases, driven by the pressure sink at the base of the gas hydrate stability zone. A key finding of our project is the elucidation of “capillary fracturing” as a dominant gas transport mechanism in low-permeability media. We initially investigate this phenomenon by means of grain-scale simulations in which we extended a discrete element mechanics code (PFC, by Itasca) to incorporate the dynamics of first single-phase and then multiphase flow. A reductionist model on a square lattice allows us to determine some of the fundamental dependencies of the mode of gas invasion (capillary fingering, viscous fingering, and fracturing) on the parameters of the system. We then show that the morphology of the gas-invaded region exerts a fundamental control on the fabric of methane hydrate formation, and on the overpressures caused by methane hydrate dissociation. We demonstrate the existence of the different invasion regimes by means of controlled laboratory experiments in a radial cell. We collapse the behavior in the form of a phas

Bryant, Steven; Juanes, Ruben

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

38

Mechanisms Leading to Co-Existence of Gas Hydrate in Ocean Sediments  

SciTech Connect

In this project we have sought to explain the co-existence of gas and hydrate phases in sediments within the gas hydrate stability zone. We have focused on the gas/brine interface at the scale of individual grains in the sediment. The capillary forces associated with a gas/brine interface play a dominant role in many processes that occur in the pores of sediments and sedimentary rocks. The mechanical forces associated with the same interface can lead to fracture initiation and propagation in hydrate-bearing sediments. Thus the unifying theme of the research reported here is that pore scale phenomena are key to understanding large scale phenomena in hydrate-bearing sediments whenever a free gas phase is present. Our analysis of pore-scale phenomena in this project has delineated three regimes that govern processes in which the gas phase pressure is increasing: fracturing, capillary fingering and viscous fingering. These regimes are characterized by different morphology of the region invaded by the gas. On the other hand when the gas phase pressure is decreasing, the corresponding regimes are capillary fingering and compaction. In this project, we studied all these regimes except compaction. Many processes of interest in hydrate-bearing sediments can be better understood when placed in the context of the appropriate regime. For example, hydrate formation in sub-permafrost sediments falls in the capillary fingering regime, whereas gas invasion into ocean sediments is likely to fall into the fracturing regime. Our research provides insight into the mechanisms by which gas reservoirs are converted to hydrate as the base of the gas hydrate stability zone descends through the reservoir. If the reservoir was no longer being charged, then variation in grain size distribution within the reservoir explain hydrate saturation profiles such as that at Mt. Elbert, where sand-rich intervals containing little hydrate are interspersed between intervals containing large hydrate saturations. Large volumes (of order one pore volume) of gaseous and aqueous phases must be transported into the gas hydrate stability zone. The driver for this transport is the pressure sink induced by a reduction in occupied pore volume that accompanies the formation of hydrate from gas and water. Pore-scale imbibition models and bed-scale multiphase flow models indicate that the rate-limiting step in converting gas to hydrate is the supply of water to the hydrate stability zone. Moreover, the water supply rate is controlled by capillarity-driven flux for conditions typical of the Alaska North Slope. A meter-scale laboratory experiment confirms that significant volumes of fluid phases move into the hydrate stability zone and that capillarity is essential for the water flux. The model shows that without capillarity-driven flux, large saturations of hydrate cannot form. The observations of thick zones of large saturation at Mallik and Mt Elbert thus suggest that the primary control on these systems is the rate of transport of gaseous and aqueous phases, driven by the pressure sink at the base of the gas hydrate stability zone. A key finding of our project is the elucidation of “capillary fracturing” as a dominant gas transport mechanism in low-permeability media. We initially investigate this phenomenon by means of grain-scale simulations in which we extended a discrete element mechanics code (PFC, by Itasca) to incorporate the dynamics of first singlephase and then multiphase flow. A reductionist model on a square lattice allows us to determine some of the fundamental dependencies of the mode of gas invasion (capillary fingering, viscous fingering, and fracturing) on the parameters of the system. We then show that the morphology of the gas-invaded region exerts a fundamental control on the fabric of methane hydrate formation, and on the overpressures caused by methane hydrate dissociation. We demonstrate the existence of the different invasion regimes by means of controlled laboratory experiments in a radial cell. We collapse the behavior in the form of a phase

Bryant, Steven; Juanes, Ruben

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

39

Rapid starting methanol reactor system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to a methanol-to-hydrogen cracking reactor for use with a fuel cell vehicular power plant. The system is particularly designed for rapid start-up of the catalytic methanol cracking reactor after an extended shut-down period, i.e., after the vehicular fuel cell power plant has been inoperative overnight. Rapid system start-up is accomplished by a combination of direct and indirect heating of the cracking catalyst. Initially, liquid methanol is burned with a stoichiometric or slightly lean air mixture in the combustion chamber of the reactor assembly. The hot combustion gas travels down a flue gas chamber in heat exchange relationship with the catalytic cracking chamber transferring heat across the catalyst chamber wall to heat the catalyst indirectly. The combustion gas is then diverted back through the catalyst bed to heat the catalyst pellets directly. When the cracking reactor temperature reaches operating temperature, methanol combustion is stopped and a hot gas valve is switched to route the flue gas overboard, with methanol being fed directly to the catalytic cracking reactor. Thereafter, the burner operates on excess hydrogen from the fuel cells.

Chludzinski, Paul J. (38 Berkshire St., Swampscott, MA 01907); Dantowitz, Philip (39 Nancy Ave., Peabody, MA 01960); McElroy, James F. (12 Old Cart Rd., Hamilton, MA 01936)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Measuring Diffusivity in Supercooled Liquid Nanoscale Films using Inert Gas Permeation: II. Diffusion of AR, KR, Xe, and CH4 through Methanol  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We present an experimental technique to measure the diffusivity of supercooled liquids at temperatures near their Tg. The approach uses the permeation of inert gases through supercooled liquid overlayers as a measure of the diffusivity of the supercooled liquid itself. The desorption spectra of the probe gas is used to extract the low temperature supercooled liquid diffusivities. In the preceding companion paper, we derived equations using ideal model simulations from which the diffusivity could be extracted using the desorption peak times for isothermal or peak temperatures for TPD experiments. Here, we discuss the experimental conditions for which these equations are valid and demonstrate their utility using amorphous methanol with Ar, Kr, Xe, and CH4 as probe gases. The approach offers a new method by which the diffusivities of supercooled liquids can be measured in the experimentally challenging temperature regime near the glass transition temperature.

Matthiesen, Jesper; Smith, R. Scott; Kay, Bruce D.

2010-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas methanol ocean" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Gas production potential of disperse low-saturation hydrate accumulations in oceanic sediments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to economically Page viable gas production. The overallare not promising targets for gas production. AcknowledgmentEnergy, Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Technology,

Moridis, George J.; Sloan, E. Dendy

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Gas production potential of disperse low-saturation hydrate accumulations in oceanic sediments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Page viable gas production. The overall conclusion drawnnot promising targets for gas production. Acknowledgment TheTS. Strategies for gas production from hydrate accumulations

Moridis, George J.; Sloan, E. Dendy

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Natural gas: Marine transportation. (Latest citations from Oceanic Abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, construction, and operation of ships for the transport of liquified natural gas. Topics include safety devices, materials handling equipment for loading and unloading liquified natural gas, new hull and vessel designs, gas turbine propulsion systems, cargo tank designs and requirements, and liguid load dynamics. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Natural gas: Marine transportation. (Latest citations from Oceanic Abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, construction, and operation of ships for the transport of liquified natural gas. Topics include safety devices, materials handling equipment for loading and unloading liquified natural gas, new hull and vessel designs, gas turbine propulsion systems, cargo tank designs and requirements, and liguid load dynamics. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Natural gas: Marine transportation. (Latest citations from Oceanic abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, construction, and operation of ships for the transport of liquified natural gas. Topics include safety devices, materials handling equipment for loading and unloading liquified natural gas, new hull and vessel designs, gas turbine propulsion systems, cargo tank designs and requirements, and liguid load dynamics. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Natural gas: Marine transportation. (Latest citations from Oceanic Abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, construction, and operation of ships for the transport of liquified natural gas. Topics include safety devices, materials handling equipment for loading and unloading liquified natural gas, new hull and vessel designs, gas turbine propulsion systems, cargo tank designs and requirements, and liguid load dynamics. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Ocean thermal energy conversion gas desorption studies. Volume 1. Design of experiments. [Open-cycle power systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Seawater deaeration is a process affecting almost all proposed Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) open-cycle power systems. If the noncondensable dissolved air is not removed from a power system, it will accumulate in thecondenser, reduce the effectiveness of condensation, and result in deterioration of system performance. A gas desorption study is being conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with the goal of mitigating these effects; this study is designed to investigate the vacuum deaeration process for low-temperature OTEC conditions where conventional steam stripping deaeration may not be applicable. The first in a series describing the ORNL studies, this report (1) considers the design of experiments and discusses theories of gas desorption, (2) reviews previous relevant studies, (3) describes the design of a gas desorption test loop, and (4) presents the test plan for achieving program objectives. Results of the first series of verification tests and the uncertainties encountered are also discussed. A packed column was employed in these verification tests and test data generally behaved as in previous similar studies. Results expressed as the height of transfer unit (HTU) can be correlated with the liquid flow rate by HTU = 4.93L/sup 0/ /sup 25/. End effects were appreciable for the vacuum deaeration system, and a correlation of them to applied vacuum pressure was derived.

Golshani, A.; Chen, F.C.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Homogeneous catalyst formulations for methanol production  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

There is disclosed synthesis of CH.sub.3 OH from carbon monoxide and hydrogen using an extremely active homogeneous catalyst for methanol synthesis directly from synthesis gas. The catalyst operates preferably between 100.degree.-150.degree. C. and preferably at 100-150 psia synthesis gas to produce methanol. Use can be made of syngas mixtures which contain considerable quantities of other gases, such as nitrogen, methane or excess hydrogen. The catalyst is composed of two components: (a) a transition metal carbonyl complex and (b) an alkoxide component. In the simplest formulation, component (a) is a complex of nickel tetracarbonyl and component (b) is methoxide (CH.sub.3 O.sup.-), both being dissolved in a methanol solvent system. The presence of a co-solvent such as p-dioxane, THF, polyalcohols, ethers, hydrocarbons, and crown ethers accelerates the methanol synthesis reaction.

Mahajan, Devinder (Port Jefferson, NY); Sapienza, Richard S. (Shoreham, NY); Slegeir, William A. (Hampton Bays, NY); O' Hare, Thomas E. (Huntington Station, NY)

1991-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

49

Homogeneous catalyst formulations for methanol production  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

There is disclosed synthesis of CH.sub.3 OH from carbon monoxide and hydrogen using an extremely active homogeneous catalyst for methanol synthesis directly from synthesis gas. The catalyst operates preferably between 100.degree.-150.degree. C. and preferably at 100-150 psia synthesis gas to produce methanol. Use can be made of syngas mixtures which contain considerable quantities of other gases, such as nitrogen, methane or excess hydrogen. The catalyst is composed of two components: (a) a transition metal carbonyl complex and (b) an alkoxide component. In the simplest formulation, component (a) is a complex of nickel tetracarbonyl and component (b) is methoxide (CH.sub.3 O.sup.13 ), both being dissolved in a methanol solvent system. The presence of a co-solvent such as p-dioxane, THF, polyalcohols, ethers, hydrocarbons, and crown ethers accelerates the methanol synthesis reaction.

Mahajan, Devinder (Port Jefferson, NY); Sapienza, Richard S. (Shoreham, NY); Slegeir, William A. (Hampton Bays, NY); O' Hare, Thomas E. (Huntington Station, NY)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Development of alternative fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas: Final topical report, demonstration of one-step slurry-phase process for the co-production of methanol and isobutanol  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Liquid phase co-production of methanol and isobutanol (LPIBOH) was de, demonstrated at DOE`s Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) in LaPorte, Texas. Methanol and isobutanol are key intermediates in a synthesis gas-based route to methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE). The technology was demonstrated in a new 18 in. slurry bubble-column reactor that was designed to demonstrate higher pressures and temperatures,higher gas superficial velocities, and lower gas hourly space velocities--all of which are conducive to obtaining optimal isobutanol yield. The integration of the new reactor into the AFDU included the addition of a high-pressure synthesis gas compressor, a high-pressure hydrogen feed source, and a closed-loop methanol- solvent absorption system to remove CO{sub 2} from the unconverted synthesis gas. These modifications were completed in January 1994. The LPIBOH run followed after a short turnaround. It employed a cesium- promoted Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst developed in Air Products` laboratories and subsequently scaled up to a production- sized batch. Over a thirteen day campaign on simulated Shell gasifier gas, the catalyst and reactor system were tested at a matrix of pressures (750, 1300, 1735 psig) and space velocities (3000, 5000, 8200 sL/kg-hr), representing numerous first-of-a-kind run conditions for the AFDU. Inlet gas superficial velocities spanned an impressive 0.16 to 1.0 ft/sec. Stable reactor performance for a full twelve-hour data period at 1.0 ft/sec was another significant milestone for the liquid phase technology program. Apart from the catalyst deactivation, the run successfully demonstrated mixed alcohol synthesis in a slurry bubble-column reactor, as well as all of the new equipment installed for the trial. Although the full capabilities of the new oxygenates system will not be tested until future runs, the design objectives for the modifications were met with respect to the LPIBOH run.

NONE

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Development of a Gas–Liquid Equilibrator for Estimating CO2 Flux at the Ocean Surface  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A system for measuring partial pressure of CO2 in seawater (pCO2) has been developed as a part of a missing-sink elucidation study. The most important part of this system is the multistage bubbling gas–liquid equilibrator. This equilibrator has ...

Hiroyuki Katayama; Takashi Karasudani; Koji Ishii; Kenji Marubayashi; Hiromasa Ueda

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Methanol production method and system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Ethanol is selectively produced from the reaction of methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the presence of a transition metal carbonyl catalyst. Methanol serves as a solvent and may be accompanied by a less volatile co-solvent. The solution includes the transition metal carbonyl catalysts and a basic metal salt such as an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal formate, carbonate or bicarbonate. A gas containing a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio, as is present in a typical gasifer product, is contacted with the solution for the preferential production of ethanol with minimal water as a byproduct. Fractionation of the reaction solution provides substantially pure ethanol product and allows return of the catalysts for reuse.

Chen, Michael J. (Darien, IL); Rathke, Jerome W. (Bolingbrook, IL)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Assessment of methanol electro-oxidation for direct methanol-air fuel cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Office of Energy Storage and Distribution of the US Department of Energy (DOE) supports the development of a methanol-air fuel cell for transportation application. The approach used at Los Alamos National Laboratory converts the methanol fuel to a hydrogen-rich gas in a reformer, then operates the fuel cell on hydrogen and air. The reformer tends to be bulky (raising vehicle packaging problems), has a long startup period, and is not well suited for the transient operation required in a vehicle. Methanol, however, can be oxidized electrochemically in the fuel cell. If this process can be conducted efficiently, a direct methanol-air fuel cell can be used, which does not require a reformer. The objective of this study is to assess the potential of developing a suitable catalyst for the direct electrochemical oxidation of methanol. The primary conclusion of this study is that no acceptable catalysts exist can efficiently oxidize methanol electrochemically and have the desired cost and lifetime for vehicle applications. However, recent progress in understanding the mechanism of methanol oxidation indicates that a predictive base can be developed to search for methanol oxidation catalysts and can be used to methodically develop improved catalysts. Such an approach is strongly recommended. The study also recommends that until further progress in developing high-performance catalysts is achieved, research in cell design and testing is not warranted. 43 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

Fritts, S.D.; Sen, R.K.

1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Economic impact of an improved methanol catalyst. [Forecasting to 2000  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The economic future of methanol is reviewed in light of its potential uses as a substitute for traditional hydrocarbon fuels and feedstocks as well as some evolving new uses. Methanol's future market position will depend strongly on its production cost in comparison with competitive products. One promising way to reduce the production cost is by use of an improved catalyst in the process by which methanol is obtained from the feedstock - which can be either natural gas or a similar product such as synthesis gas from coal gasification. To estimate the potential cost savings with an improved catalyst, we have based our analysis on a recent study which assumed use of synthesis gas from underground coal gasification as a feedstock for making methanol. The improved catalyst we studied was an actinide oxide whose features include high tolerance to sulfur and heat, and a yield of about 4 mol% methanol per pass with a 2/1 mixture of H/sub 2//CO. We calculated the effect of this catalyst on methanol production costs in a 12,000-bbl/day plant. The result was a saving of from 1 cent to 2.5 cent per gallon on the total methanol synthesis cost of 23 cents per gallon (i.e., a saving in the conversion process of 4.4% to 10.9%), excluding the cost of the raw feed gas. We conclude from this study that the improved catalyst could bring important savings in methanol production. The estimated savings range from 4.4% to 10.9% in the cost of methanol synthesis from the feedstock material. Another possibility for lowering methanol production costs in the future may lie in switching from a natural-gas-based feedstock to a coal-based feedstock - for example, using synthesis gas from underground coal gasification as the raw material. Our projections suggest that coal will eventually become a less expensive feedstock than natural gas.

Grens, J.; Borg, I.; Stephens, D.; Colmenares, C.

1983-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

55

Study on Catalytic Experiments of Methanol Synthesis from Cornstalk Syngas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Biomass energy is a renewable and potential resource. In order to research the conversion of cornstalk biomass (the agricultural residues) into the fuel methanol and the effective utilization of biomass energy, the low-heat-value cornstalk gas was produced ... Keywords: Cornstalk, Syngas, Catalyst, Methanol, Synthesis

Zhu Lingfeng; Gao Ruqin; Liu Lili; Wang Yan; Wang Yangyang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Feasibility analysis of ternary feed mixtures of methane with oxygen, steam, and carbon dioxide for the production of methanol synthesis gas  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of ternary feed mixtures of CH{sub 4} with O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and CO{sub 2} is analyzed in relation to the production of methanol syngas. Stoichiometric constraints are formulated in terms of three parameters characterizing the steam, partial oxidation, and carbon dioxide reforming reactions of methane. The equilibrium analysis is conducted using the methanol balance ratio {mu} and methane slip fraction {chi} as explicit design parameters. General results are derived for the feasibility of each ternary feed combination as a function of pressure and temperature in the range 1 < {mu} < 3 under carbon-free conditions. Numerical calculations indicate that CH{sub 4}/O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} feeds can be used in single-stage adiabatic reformers at low values of {mu}, but the produced syngas requires further treatment. Reforming based on CH{sub 4}/O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O feeds is endothermic at {mu} {ge} 2 under typical reaction conditions, thus requiring the application of a two-stage process involving primary and secondary reformers. Utilization of CH{sub 4}/O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O feeds in single-stage adiabatic reactors is feasible for {mu} = 1.7--1.9, yielding syngas which can be upgraded by partial CO{sub 2} removal. The endothermic CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O feed combination is always feasible for 1 < {mu} < 3.

Tjatjopoulos, G.J. [Chemical Process Engineering Research Inst., Thessaloniki (Greece). Foundation for Research and Technology; Vasalos, I.A. [Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki (Greece). Chemical Engineering Dept.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

methanol.qxd  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Methanol One in a series of fact sheets United States Environmental Protection Agency EPA420-F-00-040 March 2002 www.epa.gov Transportation and Air Quality Transportation and Regional Programs Division C L E A N A L T E R N A T I V E F U E L S C L E A N E R A I R Because of the environ- mental advantages and cost savings, Arizona Checker Leasing Company purchased its first methanol-fueled vehicles in 1993 and cur- rently counts 300 in its fleet of nearly 450 automobiles. The company leases its M85 fuel-flexible vehicles to two cab companies in the Phoenix area. The company purchases its methanol from the California Energy Com- mission, which sells it at a lower, subsidized price. According to the company, methanol has performed just as well as gasoline, providing a safe, reliable, and cost- effective fuel source for the

58

Parameterization of the Cool Skin of the Ocean and of the Air-Ocean Gas Transfer on the Basis of Modeling Surface Renewal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heat and gas transport in molecular sublayers at the air-sea interface is governed by similar laws. A model of renewal type based on the physics of molecular sublayers allows the derivation of a parameterization of the temperature difference ...

Alexander V. Soloviev; Peter Schlüssel

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Is Methanol the Transportation Fuel of the Future?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the U.S. were coal, oil shale, and biomass. Natural gas (produced from coal and oil shale, methanol produced frommethanol was rated below oil shale and other coal-liquid

Sperling, Daniel; DeLuchi, Mark A.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Real-time mass spectrometric study of the methanol crossover in a direct methanol fuel cell  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The products of methanol crossover through the acid-doped polybenzimidazole polymer electrolyte membrane (PBI PEM) to the cathode of a prototype direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) were analyzed using multipurpose electrochemical mass spectrometry (MPEMS) coupled to the cathode exhaust gas outlet. It was found that the methanol crossing over reacts almost quantitatively to CO{sub 2} at the cathode with the platinum of the cathode acting as a heterogeneous catalyst. The cathode open-circuit potential is inversely proportional to the amount of CO{sub 2} formed. A poisoning effect on the oxygen reduction also was found. Methods for the estimation of the methanol crossover rate at operating fuel cells are suggested.

Wang, J.T.; Wasmus, S.; Savinell, R.F. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas methanol ocean" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Opportunities for coal to methanol conversion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The accumulations of mining residues in the anthracite coal regions of Pennsylvania offer a unique opportunity to convert the coal content into methanol that could be utilized in that area as an alternative to gasoline or to extend the supplies through blending. Additional demand may develop through the requirements of public utility gas turbines located in that region. The cost to run this refuse through coal preparation plants may result in a clean coal at about $17.00 per ton. After gasification and synthesis in a 5000 ton per day facility, a cost of methanol of approximately $3.84 per million Btu is obtained using utility financing. If the coal is to be brought in by truck or rail from a distance of approximately 60 miles, the cost of methanol would range between $4.64 and $5.50 per million Btu depending upon the mode of transportation. The distribution costs to move the methanol from the synthesis plant to the pump could add, at a minimum, $2.36 per million Btu to the cost. In total, the delivered cost at the pump for methanol produced from coal mining wastes could range between $6.20 and $7.86 per million Btu.

Not Available

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Partial oxidation reforming of methanol  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Methanol is an attractive fuel for fuel cell-powered vehicles because it has a fairly high energy density, can be pumped into the tank of a vehicle mush like gasoline, and is relatively easy to reform. For on-board reforming, the reformer must be compact and lightweight, and have rapid start-up and good dynamic response. Steam reforming reactors with the tube-and-shell geometry that was used on the prototype fuel cell-powered buses are heat transfer limited. To reach their normal operating temperature, these types of reactors need 45 minutes from ambient temperature start-up. The dynamic response is poor due to temperature control problems. To overcome the limitations of steam reforming, ANL explored the partial oxidation concept used in the petroleum industry to process crude oils. In contrast to the endothermic steam reforming reaction, partial oxidations is exothermic. Fuel and air are passed together over a catalyst or reacted thermally, yielding a hydrogen-rich gas. Since the operating temperature of such a reactor can be controlled by the oxygen-to- methanol ratio, the rates of reaction are not heat transfer limited. Start-up and transient response should be rapid, and the mass and volume are expected to be small by comparison.

Krumpelt, M.; Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

OceanEnergyMMS.p65  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Minerals Management Service, U.S. Department of the Interior Ocean Energy PAGE 1 Minerals Management Service, U.S. Department of the Interior Ocean Energy PAGE 1 Teacher Guide .......................................................... 2 Related National Science Standards .......................... 3 Introduction to Ocean Energy .................................. 4 Petroleum & Natural Gas ......................................... 5 Natural Oil and Gas Seeps ........................................ 7 Methane Hydrates .................................................... 8 Solar Energy .............................................................. 9 Wind Energy ........................................................... 10 Wave Energy ........................................................... 11 OTEC: Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion .............

64

Methanol synthesis using a catalyst combination of alkali or alkaline earth salts and reduced copper chromite for methanol synthesis  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a catalyst combination comprising reduced copper chromite and basic alkali salts or alkaline earth salts. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100.degree.-160.degree. C. and the pressure range of 40-65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H.sub.2 /CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

Tierney, John W. (Pittsburgh, PA); Wender, Irving (Pittsburgh, PA); Palekar, Vishwesh M. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Alaska Federal Oil and Gas Historical Leases | Data.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Federal Oil and Gas Historical Leases Ocean Data Tools Technical Guide Map Gallery Regional Planning Feedback Ocean You are here Data.gov Communities Ocean Data Alaska...

66

Material and Energy Balances for Methanol from Biomass Using Biomass Gasifiers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of the Biomass to Methanol Systems Analysis Project is the determination of the most economically optimum combination of unit operations which will make the production of methanol from biomass competitive with or more economic than traditional processes with conventional fossil fuel feedstocks. This report summarizes the development of simulation models for methanol production based upon the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) ''Renugas'' gasifier and the Battelle Columbus Laboratory (BCL) gasifier. This report discusses methanol production technology, the IGT and BCL gasifiers, analysis of gasifier data for gasification of wood, methanol production material and energy balance simulations, and one case study based upon each of the gasifiers.

Bain, R. L.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Gas purification  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas having a high carbon dioxide content is contacted with sea water in an absorber at or near the bottom of the ocean to produce a purified natural gas.

Cook, C.F.; Hays, G.E.

1982-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

68

Ocean Terracing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Artworks can improve humanity ability to apply macro-engineering principles which skirt or correct oceanographic problems impairing the economic usefulness of coastal land, the overhead airshed, and seawater temperature and salinity stability. A new form of Art, Ocean Art, is here proposed which centers on deliberate terracing of appropriate regions of our world ocean; a proposed example of macro-engineered useful Ocean Art is the technically possible 21-st Century terracing of the Mediterranean Sea. Ocean Art is applicable worldwide to places that might be practically improved by its judicious employment. Such Ocean Art may constitute an entirely unique category of solutions to coastal disaster prevention planning.

Richard Cathcart; Alexander Bolonkin

2007-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

69

Catalytic gasification of bagasse for the production of methanol  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of catalytic gasification of bagasse to produce methanol. In previous studies, a catalytic steam gasification process was developed which converted wood to methanol synthesis gas in one step using nickel based catalysts in a fluid-bed gasifier. Tests in a nominal 1 ton/day process development unit (PDU) gasifier with these same catalysts showed bagasse to be a good feedstock for fluid-bed gasifiers, but the catalysts deactivated quite rapidly in the presence of bagasse. Laboratory catalyst screening tests showed K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ doped on the bagasse to be a promising catalyst for converting bagasse to methanol synthesis gas. PDU tests with 10 wt % K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ doped on bagasse showed the technical feasibility of this type of catalyst on a larger scale. A high quality synthesis gas was produced and carbon conversion to gas was high. The gasifier was successfully operated without forming agglomerates of catalyst, ash, and char in the gasifier. There was no loss of activity throughout the runs because catalysts is continually added with the bagasse. Laboratory tests showed about 80% of the potassium carbonate could be recovered and recycled with a simple water wash. An economic evaluation of the process for converting bagasse to methanol showed the required selling price of methanol to be significantly higher than the current market price of methanol. Several factors make this current evaluaton using bagasse as a feedstock less favorable: (1) capital costs are higher due to inflation and some extra costs required to use bagasse, (2) smaller plant sizes were considered so economies of scale are lost, and (3) the market price of methanol in the US has fallen 44% in the last six months. 24 refs., 14 figs., 16 tabs.

Baker, E.G.; Brown, M.D.; Robertus, R.J.

1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

NETL: Oil & Natural Gas Technologies Reference Shelf - Presentation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gas Production From Oceanic Class 2 Hydrate Accumulations Gas Production From Oceanic Class 2 Hydrate Accumulations Authors: George J. Moridis, Matt T. Reagan, Lawrence Berkeley...

71

NETL: Oil & Natural Gas Technologies Reference Shelf - Presentation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Strategies for Gas Production From Oceanic Class 3 Hydrate Accumulations Strategies for Gas Production From Oceanic Class 3 Hydrate Accumulations Authors: George J. Moridis, Matt...

72

NETL: Oil & Natural Gas Technologies Reference Shelf - Presentation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reactive transport modeling of oceanic gas hydrate instability and dissociation in response to climate change Reactive transport modeling of oceanic gas hydrate instability and...

73

NETL: Oil & Natural Gas Technologies Reference Shelf - Presentation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mechanisms by Which Methane Gas and Methane Hydrate Coexist In Ocean Sediments Mechanisms by Which Methane Gas and Methane Hydrate Coexist In Ocean Sediments Authors: Maa...

74

NETL: Oil & Natural Gas Technologies Reference Shelf - Presentation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oceanic Gas Hydrate Instability and Dissociation in Response to Climate Change Oceanic Gas Hydrate Instability and Dissociation in Response to Climate Change Authors: Moridis,...

75

Thermophilic Methanol Utilization by  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: acetate ADH: alcohol dehydrogenase Bio-FGD: biological flue-gas desulfurization COD: chemical oxygen desulfurization In sub-section 1.1.1, sulfur dioxide emission and general aspects of the flue gas desulfurization heaters, metallurgical operations, roasting and sintering, coke oven plants, processing of titanium

Groningen, Rijksuniversiteit

76

A methanol sensor for portable direct methanol fuel cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An aqueous methanol sensor for portable direct methanol fuel cell applications is demonstrated. The design is based on current output limited by methanol diffusion through a Nafion 117 perfluorosulfonic acid membrane. Steady-state polarization measurements demonstrate sensitivity to concentrations of 0 to 4 M over a temperature range of 40 to 80C. Furthermore, a correlation that is first order in concentration and temperature is demonstrated for concentrations of 0 to 3 M, with an accuracy of {+-}0.1 M. Measurements of transient response to step concentration change indicate a response time of about 10 to 50 s, depending primarily on temperature.

Barton, S.A.C.; West, A.C. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry; Murach, B.L.; Fuller, T.F. [International Fuel Cells, South Windsor, CT (United States)

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Plenary lecture 6: influence of gasoline-methanol mixtures in a two-stroke engine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the alternative fuels that are used is methanol. Methanol (CH3OH) is an alcohol that is produced from natural gas, biomass, coal and also municipal solid wastes and sewage. It is quite corrosive and poisonous and has lower volatility compared ...

Charalampos Arapatsakos

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Gas Diffusion Electrodes for Fuel Cells - Energy Innovation Portal  

A unique gas diffusion electrode technique resulting in little to no leftover methanol, therefore increasing the overall effectiveness and performance ...

79

Methanol fuel cell model: Anode  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An isothermal, steady-state model of an anode in a direct methanol feed, polymer electrolyte fuel cell is presented. The anode is considered to be a porous electrode consisting of an electronically conducting catalyst structure that is thinly coated with an ion-selective polymer electrolyte. The pores are filled with a feed solution of 2 M methanol in water. Four species are transported in the anode: water, methanol, hydrogen ions, and carbon dioxide. All four species are allowed to transport in the x-direction through the depth of the electrode. Species movement in the pseudo y-direction is taken into account for water, methanol, and carbon dioxide by use of an effective mass-transfer coefficient. Butler-Volmer kinetics are observed for the methanol oxidation reaction. Predictions of the model have been fitted with kinetic parameters from experimental data, and a sensitivity analysis was performed to identify critical parameters affecting the anode`s performance. Kinetic limitations are a dominant factor in the performance of the system. At higher currents, the polymer electrolyte`s conductivity and the anode`s thickness were also found to be important parameters to the prediction of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell anode`s behavior in the methanol oxidation region 0.5--0.6 V vs. a reversible hydrogen electrode.

Baxter, S.F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Battaglia, V.S.; White, R.E. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Great Plains Coal Gasification Project will make 17. 5 tons/day of methanol  

SciTech Connect

The Great Plains Coal Gasification Project will make 17.5 tons/day of methanol in addition to 125 million cu ft/day of pipeline-quality substitute natural gas (SNG), making the facility the first commercial producer of methanol-from-coal in the United States, according to the consortium building the $1.5 billion facility in Beulah, North Dakota. As originally conceived, the plant would have used 17 tons/day of purchased methanol to clean the raw-gas product stream of impurities, primarily sulfur. But based on the cost of transporting methanol to the plant site and storing it for use, the consortium decided it was more economical to produce its own methanol from lignite. The construction started in July 1980, and the facility is to come on stream in 1984.

Not Available

1980-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas methanol ocean" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Environmental information volume: Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) project  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the commercial viability of the Liquid Phase Methanol Process using coal-derived synthesis gas, a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. This report describes the proposed actions, alternative to the proposed action, the existing environment at the coal gasification plant at Kingsport, Tennessee, environmental impacts, regulatory requirements, offsite fuel testing, and DME addition to methanol production. Appendices include the air permit application, solid waste permits, water permit, existing air permits, agency correspondence, and Eastman and Air Products literature.

NONE

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Air Breathing Direct Methanol Fuel Cell  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Air Breathing Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Air Breathing Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Air Breathing Direct Methanol Fuel Cell An air breathing direct methanol fuel cell is provided with a membrane electrode assembly, a conductive anode assembly that is permeable to air and directly open to atmospheric air, and a conductive cathode assembly that is permeable to methanol and directly contacting a liquid methanol source. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Air Breathing Direct Methanol Fuel Cell An air breathing direct methanol fuel cell is provided with a membrane electrode assembly, a conductive anode assembly that is permeable to air and directly open to atmospheric air, and a conductive cathode assembly that is permeable to methanol and directly contacting a liquid methanol

83

Gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Implements a gas based on the ideal gas law. It should be noted that this model of gases is niave (from many perspectives). ...

84

Ocean Datasets | Data.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ocean Datasets Ocean Data Tools Technical Guide Map Gallery Regional Planning Feedback Ocean You are here Data.gov Communities Ocean Ocean, Coast, and Great Lakes Planning...

85

THE FURNACE COMBUSTION AND RADIATION CHARACTERISTICS OF METHANOL AND A METHANOL/COAL SLURRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Spectral Intensity With 5% Coal (x ::: 86.9 cm) CalculatedPredictions B. Methanol/Coal Slurry as the Fuel TemperatureMethanol as the Fuel B. Methanol/Coal Slurry as the Fuel C.

Grosshandler, W.L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Results from the second year of operation of the Federal Methanol Fleet at Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory has completed its second year of operation of ten vehicles for the Federal Methanol Fleet Project; five of the vehicles are fueled with methanol. Over 56,000 miles were accumulated on the vehicles in the second year bringing the total to over 152,000 miles. Energy consumption for the methanol cars was slightly higher than that of the gasoline cars again this year, most likely as a result of shorter average trip lengths for the methanol gas. Iron and lead have accumulated at greater rates in the lubricating oil of the methanol cars. Driver's ratings of vehicles reflected some dissatisfaction with the cold-weather performance of the methanol cars, but the cars have no special provisions for cold weather starting, and the fuel vapor pressure has not been tailored to the season as at other test sites. Otherwise, drivers' opinions of the methanol cars have been favorable. 13 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs.

West, B.H.; McGill (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Hillis, S.L. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA))

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

List of Methanol Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Methanol Incentives Methanol Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 22 Methanol Incentives. CSV (rows 1 - 22) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active Alcohol Fuel Credit (Federal) Corporate Tax Credit United States Commercial Industrial Ethanol Methanol No Alternative Fuels Incentive Grant Fund (AFIG) (Pennsylvania) State Grant Program Pennsylvania Commercial Industrial Residential General Public/Consumer Nonprofit Schools Local Government Renewable Transportation Fuels Renewable Fuel Vehicles Other Alternative Fuel Vehicles Refueling Stations Ethanol Methanol Biodiesel No Biodiesel and Alcohol Fuel Blend Sales Tax Exemption (Washington) Sales Tax Incentive Washington Commercial Ethanol Methanol

88

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

A process called ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) uses the heat energy stored in the Earth's oceans to generate electricity.

89

Methods of Conditioning Direct Methanol Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Methods of Conditioning Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Methods of Conditioning Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Methods of Conditioning Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Methods for conditioning the membrane electrode assembly of a direct methanol fuel cell ("DMFC") are disclosed. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Methods of Conditioning Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Methods for conditioning the membrane electrode assembly of a direct methanol fuel cell ("DMFC") are disclosed. In a first method, an electrical current of polarity opposite to that used in a functioning direct methanol fuel cell is passed through the anode surface of the membrane electrode assembly. In a second method, methanol is supplied to an anode surface of the membrane electrode assembly, allowed to cross over the polymer

90

Air Breathing Direct Methanol Fuel Cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for activating a membrane electrode assembly for a direct methanol fuel cell is disclosed. The method comprises operating the fuel cell with humidified hydrogen as the fuel followed by running the fuel cell with methanol as the fuel.

Ren; Xiaoming (Los Alamos, NM)

2003-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

91

Methanol synthesis using a catalyst combination of alkali or alkaline earth salts and reduced copper chromite  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a catalyst combination comprising reduced copper chromite and basic alkali salts or alkaline earth salts. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100--160 C and the pressure range of 40--65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H[sub 2]/CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I.; Palekar, V.M.

1995-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

92

Methanol synthesis using a catalyst combination of alkali or alkaline earth salts and reduced copper chromite  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a catalyst combination comprising reduced copper chromite and basic alkali salts or alkaline earth salts. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100.degree.-160.degree. C. and the pressure range of 40-65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H.sub.2 /CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

Tierney, John W. (Pittsburgh, PA); Wender, Irving (Pittsburgh, PA); Palekar, Vishwesh M. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Air breathing direct methanol fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An air breathing direct methanol fuel cell is provided with a membrane electrode assembly, a conductive anode assembly that is permeable to air and directly open to atmospheric air, and a conductive cathode assembly that is permeable to methanol and directly contacting a liquid methanol source.

Ren, Xiaoming (Los Alamos, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Enhanced methanol utilization in direct methanol fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The fuel utilization of a direct methanol fuel cell is enhanced for improved cell efficiency. Distribution plates at the anode and cathode of the fuel cell are configured to distribute reactants vertically and laterally uniformly over a catalyzed membrane surface of the fuel cell. A conductive sheet between the anode distribution plate and the anodic membrane surface forms a mass transport barrier to the methanol fuel that is large relative to a mass transport barrier for a gaseous hydrogen fuel cell. In a preferred embodiment, the distribution plate is a perforated corrugated sheet. The mass transport barrier may be conveniently increased by increasing the thickness of an anode conductive sheet adjacent the membrane surface of the fuel cell.

Ren, Xiaoming (Los Alamos, NM); Gottesfeld, Shimshon (Los Alamos, NM)

2001-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

95

ATOM-ECONOMICAL PATHWAYS TO METHANOL FUEL CELL FROM BIOMASS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An economical production of alcohol fuels from biomass, a feedstock low in carbon and high in water content, is of interest. At Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), a Liquid Phase Low Temperature (LPLT) concept is under development to improve the economics by maximizing the conversion of energy carrier atoms (C,H) into energy liquids (fuel). So far, the LPLT concept has been successfully applied to obtain highly efficient methanol synthesis. This synthesis was achieved with specifically designed soluble catalysts, at temperatures < 150 C. A subsequent study at BNL yielded a water-gas-shift (WGS) catalyst for the production of hydrogen from a feedstock of carbon monoxide and H{sub 2}O at temperatures < 120 C. With these LPLT technologies as a background, this paper extends the discussion of the LPLT concept to include methanol decomposition into 3 moles of H{sub 2} per mole of methanol. The implication of these technologies for the atom-economical pathways to methanol fuel cell from biomass is discussed.

MAHAJAN,D.; WEGRZYN,J.E.

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Catalytic steam gasification of bagasse for the production of methanol  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) tested the catalytic gasification of bagasse for the production of methanol synthesis gas. The process uses steam, indirect heat, and a catalyst to produce synthesis gas in one step in fluidized bed gasifier. Both laboratory and process development scale (nominal 1 ton/day) gasifiers were used to test two different catalyst systems: (1) supported nickel catalysts and (2) alkali carbonates doped on the bagasse. This paper presents the results of laboratory and process development unit gasification tests and includes an economic evaluation of the process. 20 references, 6 figures, 9 tables.

Baker, E.G.; Brown, M.D.

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Ocean Map | Data.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Map Ocean Data Tools Technical Guide Map Gallery Regional Planning Feedback Ocean You are here Data.gov Communities Ocean Map Gallery Planning for ocean, coastal, and Great...

98

Methanol reformers for fuel cell powered vehicles: Some design considerations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fuel cells are being developed for use in automotive propulsion systems as alternatives for the internal combustion engine in buses, vans, passenger cars. The two most important operational requirements for a stand-alone fuel cell power system for a vehicle are the ability to start up quickly and the ability to supply the necessary power on demand for the dynamically fluctuating load. Methanol is a likely fuel for use in fuel cells for transportation applications. It is a commodity chemical that is manufactured from coal, natural gas, and other feedstocks. For use in a fuel cell, however, the methanol must first be converted (reformed) to a hydrogen-rich gas mixture. The desired features for a methanol reformer include rapid start-up, good dynamic response, high fuel conversion, small size and weight, simple construction and operation, and low cost. In this paper the present the design considerations that are important for developing such a reformer, namely: (1) a small catalyst bed for quick starting, small size, and low weight; (2) multiple catalysts for optimum operation of the dissociation and reforming reactions; (3) reforming by direct heat transfer partial oxidation for rapid response to fluctuating loads; and (4) thermal independence from the rest of the fuel cell system. 10 refs., 1 fig.

Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.; Myles, K.M.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

The Ventilated Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Adiabatic theories of ocean circulation and density structure have a long tradition, from the concept of the ventilated thermocline to the notion that deep ocean ventilation is controlled by westerly winds over the Southern Ocean. This study ...

Patrick Haertel; Alexey Fedorov

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

On Scatterometer Ocean Stress  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Scatterometers estimate the relative atmosphere–ocean motion at spatially high resolution and provide accurate inertial-scale ocean wind forcing information, which is crucial for many ocean, atmosphere, and climate applications. An empirical ...

M. Portabella; A. Stoffelen

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas methanol ocean" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Solar photocatalytic conversion of CO{sub 2} to methanol  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the three-year LDRD program directed at developing catalysts based on metalloporphyrins to reduce carbon dioxide. Ultimately it was envisioned that such catalysts could be made part of a solar-driven photoredox cycle by coupling metalloporphyrins with semiconductor systems. Such a system would provide the energy required for CO{sub 2} reduction to methanol, which is an uphill 6-electron reduction. Molecular modeling and design capabilities were used to engineer metalloporphyrin catalysts for converting CO{sub 2} to CO and higher carbon reduction products like formaldehyde, formate, and methanol. Gas-diffusion electrochemical cells were developed to carry out these reactions. A tin-porphyrin/alumina photocatalyst system was partially developed to couple solar energy to this reduction process.

Ryba, G.; Shelnutt, J.; Prairie, M.R.; Assink, R.A.

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Method of steam reforming methanol to hydrogen  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The production of hydrogen by the catalyzed steam reforming of methanol is accomplished using a reformer of greatly reduced size and cost wherein a mixture of water and methanol is superheated to the gaseous state at temperatures of about 800.degree. to about 1,100.degree. F. and then fed to a reformer in direct contact with the catalyst bed contained therein, whereby the heat for the endothermic steam reforming reaction is derived directly from the superheated steam/methanol mixture.

Beshty, Bahjat S. (Lower Makefield, PA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Energy Basics: Ocean Resources  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Tidal Energy Wave Energy...

104

Ocean | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description Related Links List of Ocean Thermal Incentives Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleOcean&oldid273467"...

105

Methods of Conditioning Direct Methanol Fuel Cells  

while the catalyst on the anode surface is reduced. Surface oxides on the direct methanol fuel cell anode catalyst of the membrane electrode assembly are thereby reduced.

106

Photocatalytic Conversion of Carbon Dioxide to Methanol.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The photocatalytic conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) to methanol was investigated. The procedure for the carbon dioxide conversion was carried out using a small scale… (more)

Okpo, Emmanuel

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Direct Methanol Fuel Cells - Energy Innovation Portal  

Our partners gain access to one of the most advanced and experienced direct methanol fuel cell ... The cured film is then transferred to the SPE ...

108

Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The technical feasibility of producing methanol from wood is demonstrated and sufficient cost data is provided to allow an assessment of the economic viability.

Fishkind, H.H.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

A predictive ocean oil spill model  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Initially, the project focused on creating an ocean oil spill model and working with the major oil companies to compare their data with the Los Alamos global ocean model. As a result of this initial effort, Los Alamos worked closely with the Eddy Joint Industry Project (EJIP), a consortium oil and gas producing companies in the US. The central theme of the project was to use output produced from LANL`s global ocean model to look in detail at ocean currents in selected geographic areas of the world of interest to consortium members. Once ocean currents are well understood this information could be used to create oil spill models, improve offshore exploration and drilling equipment, and aid in the design of semi-permanent offshore production platforms.

Sanderson, J.; Barnette, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Papodopoulos, P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schaudt, K. [Marathon Oil Co., Littleton, CO (United States); Szabo, D. [Mobil Research and Development Corp., Dallas, TX (United States)

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Characterization and research investigation of methanol and methyl fuels. Final progress report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Work on several aspects of using pure methanol as an alternate fuel are reported. A stock (OEM) Pinto engine mounted on a dynamometer was used to compare methanol with Indolene in terms of power, efficiency, and emissions for a variety of speeds and loads. Although the engine was designed for use with gasoline, it was found that methanol was generally superior in power, thermal efficiency and reduced emissions with the exception of aldehydes. Three different fuel metering systems were tested for a variety of speeds and loads using the dynamometer mounted engine. They were all found to provide superior steady state performance on methanol when compared with the OEM carburetor system with enlarged fuel jets for methanol. Mileage and emissions from a Pinto vehicle equipped with the various fuel metering systems were computer predicted for the Federal emissions test procedure using laboratory engine measurements. A computer was used to simulate the test engine's thermokinetic combustion events. The computer model predicts power, fuel economy and emissions with air-fuel ratio, compression ratio, spark advance and speed as parameters. A small (60 hp) gas turbine was converted to run on methanol. The conversion was easily accomplished, but atomization of the fuel was found to be important in obtaining a reduction in CO and NO/sub x/ for methanol in comparison with jet engine fuel. Environmental factors of marine and aquatic methanol spills and photochemical smog are under study. Preliminary experimentation relative to marine spills indicates that methanol is naturally present in that environment. It appears at this early stage of investigation that damage to the ecosystem from a major coastal spill may be localized and of short duration.

Pefley, R.K.; Browning, L.H.; Hornberger, M.L.; Likos, W.E.; McCormack, M.C.; Pullman, B.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

NETL: Oil & Natural Gas Technologies Reference Shelf - Presentation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oceanic gas hydrate dissociation in response to climate change and the fate of hydrate-derived methane Oceanic gas hydrate dissociation in response to climate change and the fate...

112

Process for the conversion of carbonaceous feedstocks to particulate carbon and methanol  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the production of a pollutant-free particulate carbon (i.e., a substantially ash-, sulfur- and nitrogen-free carbon) from carbonaceous feedstocks. The basic process involves de-oxygenating one of the gas streams formed in a cyclic hydropyrolysis-methane pyrolysis process in order to improve conversion of the initial carbonaceous feedstock. De-oxygenation is effected by catalytically converting carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen contained in one of the pyrolysis gas streams, preferably the latter, to a methanol co-product. There are thus produced two products whose use is known per se, viz., a substantially pollutant-free particulate carbon black and methanol. These products may be admixed in the form of a liquid slurry of carbon black in methanol.

Steinberg, Meyer (Melville, NY); Grohse, Edward W. (Port Jefferson, NY)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Process for the conversion of carbonaceous feedstocks to particulate carbon and methanol  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for the production of a pollutant-free particulate carbon (i.e., a substantially ash-, sulfur- and nitrogen-free carbon) from carbonaceous feedstocks. The basic process involves de-oxygenating one of the gas streams formed in a cyclic hydropyrolysis-methane pyrolysis process in order to improve conversion of the initial carbonaceous feedstock. De-oxygenation is effected by catalytically converting carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen contained in one of the pyrolysis gas streams, preferably the latter, to a methanol co-product. There are thus produced two products whose use is known per se, viz., a substantially pollutant-free particulate carbon black and methanol. These products may be admixed in the form of a liquid slurry of carbon black in methanol. 3 figs.

Steinberg, M.; Grohse, E.W.

1995-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

114

About Ocean Community | Data.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

About Ocean Community Ocean Data Tools Technical Guide Map Gallery Regional Planning Feedback Ocean You are here Data.gov Communities Ocean About Ocean Community This...

115

Direct Methanol Fuel Cell for Portable Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A methanol fuel cell stack has at cl f is being incorporated a portable ions. 1 performance and flow rate for cell Water data, transport mechanisms fuel are discussed. Stack response has Implications slack performance and conditions addressed. Introduction 1 development a methanol fuel is presently pursued at 1 sponsorship from Research (1 A five methanol oxidizing stack has at stack incorporates liquiddirect methanol proton exchange membrane [1, 2], methanol (1 by oxidation an solution methanol at reduction at cathode. `1 focus results out stacks. form a n part of 1 cells have as storage but complicated systems to Upon of the methanol fuel many system simpler than before. In the can oxidized at thus is for fuel With the f mixture, electrolytes always at a of operation free-aqueous acid and thus corrosion issues addressed electrode assemblies consist main catalyzed cathode, and a polymer catalyst is the cathode catalyst is as a polymer `1 current state at the for is V at current d...

Narayanan Frank And; T. Valdez; S. R. Narayanan; H Frank; W. Chun

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Ocean Technical | Data.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ocean Data Tools Technical Guide Map Gallery Regional Planning Feedback Ocean You are here Data.gov Communities Ocean Technical Community of Practice Through a variety of...

117

The Furnace combustion and radiation characteristics of methanol and a methanol/coal slurry  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An experimental facility has been built to study the combustion of methanol and a slurry of methanol plus 5% coal in an environment similar to industrial and utility boilers. The furnace is a horizontal water cooled cylinder, 20 cm in diameter by one meter long, with a firing rate of 60 kW. The measurements taken throughout the furnace include temperature and concentration of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, water, oxides of nitrogen, methanol and particulates. Spectral radiation intensity measurements are taken along the axis of the furnace burning methanol and the methanol/coal slurry. The effect of the fuel on flame structure is reported. The temperatures in the pure methanol flame are, in general, higher than in the methanol/coal flame. The levels of the oxides of nitrogen are low in the pure methanol flame (less than 20 ppM NO). Addition of 5% coal to the methanol causes NO concentration to increase to 100 ppM. This represents a conversion of 40% of the coal bound nitrogen to NO. Particulate levels increase from less than .001 g/m/sup 3/ for the pure methanol to over .25 g/m/sup 3/ when pulverized coal is added. The low levels of soot and particulates in the methanol flame have an effect on the spectral intensity. No continuous radiation is measured in the methanol flame, but small amounts of particulate radiation can be seen from the spectra of the methanol/coal flame. The total emittance of the flame is increased from about .10 to .135 with the addition of 5% pulverized coal, but the radiation intensity is reduced because of the lower flame temperatures. A numerical program has been written to calculate the spectral intensity from an inhomogeneous mixture of combustion products. Comparisons are made between the calculated intensity and the measured intensity for both fuel systems. The numerical results are about 25% lower than the measured results. Reasons for this are discussed.

Grosshandler, W.L.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Advanced direct methanol fuel cells. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of the program was an advanced proton-exchange membrane (PEM) for use as the electrolyte in a liquid feed direct methanol fuel cell which provides reduced methanol crossover while simultaneously providing high conductivity and low membrane water content. The approach was to use a membrane containing precross-linked fluorinated base polymer films and subsequently to graft the base film with selected materials. Over 80 different membranes were prepared. The rate of methanol crossover through the advanced membranes was reduced 90%. A 5-cell stack provided stable performance over a 100-hour life test. Preliminary cost estimates predicted a manufacturing cost at $4 to $9 per kW.

Hamdan, Monjid; Kosek, John A.

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Federal Methanol Fleet Project final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Federal Methanol Fleet Project concluded with the termination of data collection from the three fleet sites in February 1991. The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) completed five years of operation, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) completed its fourth year in the project, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) completed its third. Twenty of the thirty-nine vehicles in the fleet were powered by fuel methanol (typically M85, 85 % methanol, 15 % unleaded gasoline, although the LBL fleet used M88), and the remaining control vehicles were comparable gasoline vehicles. Over 2.2 million km (1.4 million miles) were accumulated on the fleet vehicles in routine government service. Data collected over the years have included vehicle mileage and fuel economy, engine oil analysis, emissions, vehicle maintenance, and driver acceptance. Fuel economies (on an energy basis) of the methanol and gasoline vehicles of the same type were comparable throughout the fleet testing. Engine oil analysis has revealed higher accumulation rates of iron and other metals in the oil of the methanol vehicles, although no significant engine damage has been attributed to the higher metal content. Vehicles of both fuel types have experienced degradation in their emission control systems, however, the methanol vehicles seem to have degraded their catalytic converters at a higher rate. The methanol vehicles have required more maintenance than their gasoline counterparts, in most cases, although the higher levels of maintenance cannot be attributed to ``fuel-related`` repairs. According to the daily driver logs and results from several surveys, drivers of the fleet vehicles at all three sites were generally satisfied with the methanol vehicles.

West, B.H.; McGill, R.N. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hillis, S.L.; Hodgson, J.W. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Federal Methanol Fleet Project final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Federal Methanol Fleet Project concluded with the termination of data collection from the three fleet sites in February 1991. The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) completed five years of operation, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) completed its fourth year in the project, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) completed its third. Twenty of the thirty-nine vehicles in the fleet were powered by fuel methanol (typically M85, 85 % methanol, 15 % unleaded gasoline, although the LBL fleet used M88), and the remaining control vehicles were comparable gasoline vehicles. Over 2.2 million km (1.4 million miles) were accumulated on the fleet vehicles in routine government service. Data collected over the years have included vehicle mileage and fuel economy, engine oil analysis, emissions, vehicle maintenance, and driver acceptance. Fuel economies (on an energy basis) of the methanol and gasoline vehicles of the same type were comparable throughout the fleet testing. Engine oil analysis has revealed higher accumulation rates of iron and other metals in the oil of the methanol vehicles, although no significant engine damage has been attributed to the higher metal content. Vehicles of both fuel types have experienced degradation in their emission control systems, however, the methanol vehicles seem to have degraded their catalytic converters at a higher rate. The methanol vehicles have required more maintenance than their gasoline counterparts, in most cases, although the higher levels of maintenance cannot be attributed to fuel-related'' repairs. According to the daily driver logs and results from several surveys, drivers of the fleet vehicles at all three sites were generally satisfied with the methanol vehicles.

West, B.H.; McGill, R.N. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Hillis, S.L.; Hodgson, J.W. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States))

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas methanol ocean" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Ocean shell noises  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ocean shell noises Name: Rick A Cazzato Location: NA Country: NA Date: NA Question: Why do you here noises when you put a ocean shell to your ear? Does this happen because of...

122

Ocean Energy Technologies  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Oceans cover more than 70% of the Earth's surface. As the world's largest solar collectors, oceans contain thermal energy from the sun and produce mechanical energy from tides and waves. Even...

123

Mixing by ocean eddies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mesoscale eddies mix and transport tracers such as heat and potential vorticity laterally in the ocean. While this transport plays an important role in the climate system, especially in the Southern Ocean, we lack a, ...

Abernathey, Ryan (Ryan Patrick)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Ocean | Data.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ocean Ocean Ocean Data Tools Technical Guide Map Gallery Regional Planning Feedback Ocean Welcome to our COMMUNITY This is the National Ocean Council's portal for data, information, and decision tools to support people engaged in regional marine planning for the future use of the ocean, our coasts, and the Great Lakes. Our goal is to enhance discovery of and access to data and information for planners, stakeholders, and the public. Please visit our Feedback page to tell us what would make the site most useful to you as we expand our content. Start Here! Previous Pause Next PacIOOS - Pacific Islands Voyager PacIOOS - Pacific Islands Voyager View More West Coast Governors Alliance - Regional Data Framework West Coast Governors Alliance - Regional Data Framework View More Mid-Atlantic Ocean Data Portal

125

Green Infrastructure Bonds | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

CHPCogeneration, Unspecified technologies, Biodiesel, Biomass, CHPCogeneration, Ethanol, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels, Hydroelectric, Landfill Gas, Methanol, Ocean...

126

NREL: Energy Analysis - Ocean Energy Results - Life Cycle Assessment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ocean Energy Results - Life Cycle Assessment Review Ocean Energy Results - Life Cycle Assessment Review For more information, visit: Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation: Ocean Energy OpenEI: Data, Visualization, and Bibliographies Chart that shows life cycle greenhouse gas emissions for ocean power technologies. For help reading this chart, please contact the webmaster. Estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of wave and tidal range technologies. Credit: Lewis, A., S. Estefen, J. Huckerby, W. Musial, T. Pontes, J. Torres-Martinez, 2011: Ocean Energy. In IPCC Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation [O. Edenhofer, R. Pichs-Madruga, Y. Sokona, K. Seyboth, P. Matschoss, S. Kadner, T. Zwickel, P. Eickemeier, G. Hansen, S. Schlömer, C. von Stechow (eds)], Cambridge University Press. Figure 6.11 Enlarge image

127

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol and Methanol Tax  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

and Methanol and Methanol Tax to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol and Methanol Tax on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol and Methanol Tax on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol and Methanol Tax on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol and Methanol Tax on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol and Methanol Tax on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol and Methanol Tax on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol and Methanol Tax Ethyl alcohol and methyl alcohol motor fuels are taxed at a rate of $0.08 per gallon when used as a motor fuel. Ethyl alcohol is defined as a motor

128

Methanol sensor operated in a passive mode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A sensor outputs a signal related to a concentration of methanol in an aqueous solution adjacent the sensor. A membrane electrode assembly (MEA) is included with an anode side and a cathode side. An anode current collector supports the anode side of the MEA and has a flow channel therethrough for flowing a stream of the aqueous solution and forms a physical barrier to control access of the methanol to the anode side of the MEA. A cathode current collector supports the cathode side of the MEA and is configured for air access to the cathode side of the MEA. A current sensor is connected to measure the current in a short circuit across the sensor electrodes to provide an output signal functionally related to the concentration of methanol in the aqueous solution.

Ren, Xiaoming (Los Alamos, NM); Gottesfeld, Shimshon (Los Alamos, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Thermally integrated staged methanol reformer and method  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A thermally integrated two-stage methanol reformer including a heat exchanger and first and second reactors colocated in a common housing in which a gaseous heat transfer medium circulates to carry heat from the heat exchanger into the reactors. The heat transfer medium comprises principally hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methanol vapor and water vapor formed in a first stage reforming reaction. A small portion of the circulating heat transfer medium is drawn off and reacted in a second stage reforming reaction which substantially completes the reaction of the methanol and water remaining in the drawn-off portion. Preferably, a PrOx reactor will be included in the housing upstream of the heat exchanger to supplement the heat provided by the heat exchanger.

Skala, Glenn William (Churchville, NY); Hart-Predmore, David James (Rochester, NY); Pettit, William Henry (Rochester, NY); Borup, Rodney Lynn (East Rochester, NY)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Draft Programmaticof ocean thermal energy conversion technology. U.S. Depart~on Ocean TherUial Energy Conversion, June 18, 1979. Ocean

Sands, M.Dale

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

oceans - Geodata icon | Data.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

oceans - Geodata icon Ocean Data Tools Technical Guide Map Gallery Regional Planning Feedback Ocean You are here Data.gov Communities Ocean...

132

Liquid Water Oceans in Ice Giants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aptly named, ice giants such as Uranus and Neptune contain significant amounts of water. While this water cannot be present near the cloud tops, it must be abundant in the deep interior. We investigate the likelihood of a liquid water ocean existing in the hydrogen-rich region between the cloud tops and deep interior. Starting from an assumed temperature at a given upper tropospheric pressure (the photosphere), we follow a moist adiabat downward. The mixing ratio of water to hydrogen in the gas phase is small in the photosphere and increases with depth. The mixing ratio in the condensed phase is near unity in the photosphere and decreases with depth; this gives two possible outcomes. If at some pressure level the mixing ratio of water in the gas phase is equal to that in the deep interior, then that level is the cloud base. Alternately, if the mixing ratio of water in the condensed phase reaches that in the deep interior, then the surface of a liquid ocean will occur. We find that Neptune is both too warm (photospheric temperature too high) and too dry (mixing ratio of water in the deep interior too low) for liquid oceans to exist at present. To have a liquid ocean, Neptune's deep interior water to gas ratio would have to be higher than current models allow, and the density at 19 kbar would have to be ~ 0.8 g/cm^3. Such a high density is inconsistent with gravitational data obtained during the Voyager flyby. As Neptune cools, the probability of a liquid ocean increases. Extrasolar "hot Neptunes," which presumably migrate inward toward their parent stars, cannot harbor liquid water oceans unless they have lost almost all of the hydrogen and helium from their deep interiors.

Sloane J. Wiktorowicz; Andrew P. Ingersoll

2006-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

133

Effect of methanol crossover in a liquid-feed polymer-electrolyte direct methanol fuel cell  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The performance of a liquid-feed direct methanol fuel cell employing a proton-exchange membrane electrolyte with Pt-Ru/C as anode and Pt/C as cathode is reported. The fuel cell can deliver a power density of ca. 0.2 W/cm{sup 2} at 95 C, sufficient to suggest that the stack construction is well worthwhile. Methanol crossover across the polymer electrolyte at concentrations beyond 2 M methanol affects the performance of the cell which appreciates with increasing operating temperature.

Ravikumar, M.K.; Shukla, A.K. [Indiana Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India). Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Liquid phase methanol reactor staging process for the production of methanol  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is a process for the production of methanol from a syngas feed containing carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Basically, the process is the combination of two liquid phase methanol reactors into a staging process, such that each reactor is operated to favor a particular reaction mechanism. In the first reactor, the operation is controlled to favor the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide, and in the second reactor, the operation is controlled so as to favor the hydrogenation of carbon dioxide. This staging process results in substantial increases in methanol yield.

Bonnell, Leo W. (Macungie, PA); Perka, Alan T. (Macungie, PA); Roberts, George W. (Emmaus, PA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Oceanic Heat Flux Calculation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors review the procedure for the direct calculation of oceanic heat flux from hydrographic measurements and set out the full “recipe” that is required.

Sheldon Bacon; Nick Fofonoff

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Energy Basics: Ocean Resources  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Resources Although the potential for ocean energy technologies is believed to be very large, no comprehensive studies have been conducted to date to determine an accurate resource...

137

Constraining oceanic dust deposition using surface ocean dissolved Al  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Iron, manganese and lead at Hawaii Ocean Time-series stationof beryllium to the oceans, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. , 114,organic carbon fluxes in the ocean based on the quantitative

Han, Qin; Moore, J. Keith; Zender, Charles; Measures, Chris; Hydes, David

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Membrane reactor advantages for methanol reforming and similar reactions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Membrane reactors achieve efficiencies by combining in one unit a reactor that generates a product with a semipermeable membrane that extracts it. One well-known benefit of this is greater conversion, as removal of a product drives reactions toward completion, but there are several potentially larger advantages that have been largely ignored. Because a membrane reactor tends to limit the partial pressure of the extracted product, it fundamentally changes the way that total pressure in the reactor affects equilibrium conversion. Thus, many gas-phase reactions that are preferentially performed at low pressures in a conventional reactor are found to have maximum conversion at high pressures in a membrane reactor. These higher pressures and reaction conversions allow greatly enhanced product extraction as well. Further, membrane reactors provide unique opportunities for temperature management which have not been discussed previously. These benefits are illustrated for methanol reforming to hydrogen for use with PEM (polymer electrolyte membrane) fuel cells.

Buxbaum, R.E. [REB Research and Consulting Co., Ferndale, MI (United States)

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Methanol and hydrogen from biomass for transportation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Methanol and hydrogen from biomass for transportation [1] Robert H. Williams, Eric D. Larson, Ryan from biomass via indirectly heated gasifiers and their use in fuel cell vehicles would make it possible for biomass to be used for road transportation, with zero or near-zero local air pollution and very low levels

140

Methanol Steam Reformer on a Silicon Wafer  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A study of the reforming rates, heat transfer and flow through a methanol reforming catalytic microreactor fabricated on a silicon wafer are presented. Comparison of computed and measured conversion efficiencies are shown to be favorable. Concepts for insulating the reactor while maintaining small overall size and starting operation from ambient temperature are analyzed.

Park, H; Malen, J; Piggott, T; Morse, J; Sopchak, D; Greif, R; Grigoropoulos, C; Havstad, M; Upadhye, R

2004-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas methanol ocean" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Counterflow Extinction of Premixed and Nonpremixed Methanol and Ethanol Flames  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of methanol. Combustion and Flame, 25:343, 1975. [6] A. Leeand nitrogen. Combustion and Flame, 33:197–215, 1978. [4] T.Methanol and Formaldehyde Flames. Ph.d thesis, University of

Seshadri, Kalyanasundaram

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Ocean Health and Human Health  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

et al. 2002. Indicators of ocean health and human health:Nature 423:280–283. Oceans and Human Health Act. 2003. S.Editorial Guest Editorial Ocean Health and Human Health

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This feasibility study includes all phases of methanol production from seedling to delivery of finished methanol. The study examines: production of 55 million, high quality, Eucalyptus seedlings through tissue culture; establishment of a Eucalyptus energy plantation on approximately 70,000 acres; engineering for a 100 million gallon-per-day methanol production facility; potential environmental impacts of the whole project; safety and health aspects of producing and using methanol; and development of site specific cost estimates.

Fishkind, H.H.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

A New Reference Correlation for the Viscosity of Methanol  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... and pharmaceutical appli- cations. The oldest use of methanol is in the conversion of biomass. This process is gaining ...

2010-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

145

Ocean General Circulation Models  

SciTech Connect

1. Definition of Subject The purpose of this text is to provide an introduction to aspects of oceanic general circulation models (OGCMs), an important component of Climate System or Earth System Model (ESM). The role of the ocean in ESMs is described in Chapter XX (EDITOR: PLEASE FIND THE COUPLED CLIMATE or EARTH SYSTEM MODELING CHAPTERS). The emerging need for understanding the Earth’s climate system and especially projecting its future evolution has encouraged scientists to explore the dynamical, physical, and biogeochemical processes in the ocean. Understanding the role of these processes in the climate system is an interesting and challenging scientific subject. For example, a research question how much extra heat or CO2 generated by anthropogenic activities can be stored in the deep ocean is not only scientifically interesting but also important in projecting future climate of the earth. Thus, OGCMs have been developed and applied to investigate the various oceanic processes and their role in the climate system.

Yoon, Jin-Ho; Ma, Po-Lun

2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

146

Energy Basics: Ocean Energy Technologies  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Tidal Energy Wave Energy...

147

Ocean Thermal | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon Ocean Thermal Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Ocean Thermal Incentives...

148

Worldwide Natural Gas Supply and Demand and the Outlook for Global ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is a proven commercial technology for transporting natural gas across oceans. The international trade in LNG is more than 30 years old.

149

A Theoretical Study of Methanol Synthesis from CO(2) Hydrogenation on Metal-doped Cu(111) Surfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Density functional theory (DFT) calculations and Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations were employed to investigate the methanol synthesis reaction from CO{sub 2} hydrogenation (CO{sub 2} + 3H{sub 2} {yields} CH{sub 3}OH + H{sub 2}O) on metal-doped Cu(111) surfaces. Both the formate pathway and the reverse water-gas shift (RWGS) reaction followed by a CO hydrogenation pathway (RWGS + CO-Hydro) were considered in the study. Our calculations showed that the overall methanol yield increased in the sequence: Au/Cu(111) Hydro pathway is much faster than that via the formate pathway. Further kinetic analysis revealed that the methanol yield on Cu(111) was controlled by three factors: the dioxomethylene hydrogenation barrier, the CO binding energy, and the CO hydrogenation barrier. Accordingly, two possible descriptors are identified which can be used to describe the catalytic activity of Cu-based catalysts toward methanol synthesis. One is the activation barrier of dioxomethylene hydrogenation, and the other is the CO binding energy. An ideal Cu-based catalyst for the methanol synthesis via CO{sub 2} hydrogenation should be able to hydrogenate dioxomethylene easily and bond CO moderately, being strong enough to favor the desired CO hydrogenation rather than CO desorption but weak enough to prevent CO poisoning. In this way, the methanol production via both the formate and the RWGS + CO-Hydro pathways can be facilitated.

Liu P.; Yang, Y.; White, M.G.

2012-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

150

WABASH RIVER IMPPCCT, INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In a joint effort with the U.S. Department of Energy, working under a Cooperative Agreement Award from the ''Early Entrance Coproduction Plant'' (EECP) initiative, the Gasification Engineering Corporation and an Industrial Consortium are investigating the application of synthesis gas from the E-GAS{trademark} technology to a coproduction environment to enhance the efficiency and productivity of solid fuel gasification combined cycle power plants. The objectives of this effort are to determine the feasibility of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant located at a specific site which produces some combination of electric power (or heat), fuels, and/or chemicals from synthesis gas derived from coal, or, coal in combination with some other carbonaceous feedstock. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, financial, and environmental information that will be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry. The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), and supported by Air Products and Chemicals Inc., The Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Three project phases are planned for execution, including: (1) Feasibility Study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility and for fence-line commercial plants operated at The Dow Chemical Company or Dow Corning Corporation chemical plant locations (i.e. the Commercial Embodiment Plant or CEP) (2) Research, development, and testing to address any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues (3) Engineering design and financing plan to install an integrated commercial demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Ltd., plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana. During the reporting period work was furthered to support the development of capital and operating cost estimates associated with the installation of liquid or gas phase methanol synthesis technology in a Commercial Embodiment Plant (CEP) utilizing the six cases previously defined. In addition, continued development of the plant economic model was accomplished by providing combined cycle performance data. Performance and emission estimates for gas turbine combined cycles was based on revised methanol purge gas information. The economic model was used to evaluate project returns with various market conditions and plant configurations and was refined to correct earlier flaws. Updated power price projections were obtained and incorporated in the model. Sensitivity studies show that break-even methanol prices which provide a 12% return are 47-54 cents/gallon for plant scenarios using $1.25/MM Btu coal, and about 40 cents/gallon for most of the scenarios with $0.50/MM Btu petroleum coke as the fuel source. One exception is a high power price and production case which could be economically attractive at 30 cents/gallon methanol. This case was explored in more detail, but includes power costs predicated on natural gas prices at the 95th percentile of expected price distributions. In this case, the breakeven methanol price is highly sensitive to the required project return rate, payback period, and plant on-line time. These sensitivities result mainly from the high capital investment required for the CEP facility ({approx}$500MM for a single train IGCC-methanol synthesis plant). Finally, during the reporting period the Defense Contractor Audit Agency successfully executed an accounting audit of Global Energy Inc. for data accumulated over the first year of the IMPPCCT project under the Cooperative Agreement.

Doug Strickland

2001-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

151

The densities and reaction heat of methanol synthesis System from cornstalk syngas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methanol can be used as possibole replacement for conventional gasoline and Diesel fuel. In order to produce methanol

Ling?feng Zhu; Qing?ling Zhao; Jing Chen; Le Zhang; Run?tao Zhang; Li?li Liu; Zhao?yue Zhang

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Microbial metabolism in the deep ocean  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

carbon flux through the ocean’s twilight zone. Science 316:sinking particle flux in the ocean’s twilight zone. LimnolRespiration in the dark ocean. Geophys Res Lett 30:doi:

Hansman, Roberta Lynn

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Microbial Metabollism in the Deep Ocean  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

carbon flux through the ocean’s twilight zone. Science 316:sinking particle flux in the ocean’s twilight zone. LimnolRespiration in the dark ocean. Geophys Res Lett 30:doi:

Hansman, Roberta L

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Clean air program: Design guidelines for bus transit systems using alcohol fuel (methanol and ethanol) as an alternative fuel. Final report, July 1995-April 1996  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides design guidelines for the safe use of alcohol fuel (Methanol or Ethanol). It is part of a series of individual monographs being published by the FTA providing guidelines for the safe use of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) and alcohol fuels (Methanol and Ethanol). Each report in this series describes, for the subject fuel, the important fuel properties, guidelines for the design and operation of bus fueling, storage and maintenance facilities, issues on personnel training and emergency preparedness.

Raj, P.K.; DeMarco, V.R.; Hathaway, W.T.; Kangas, R.

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Constraining oceanic dust deposition using surface ocean dissolved Al  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Constraining oceanic dust deposition using surface ocean dissolved Al Qin Han,1 J. Keith Moore,1; accepted 7 December 2007; published 12 April 2008. [1] We use measurements of ocean surface dissolved Al (DEAD) model to constrain dust deposition to the oceans. Our Al database contains all available

Moore, Keith

156

Open Ocean Iron Fertilization for Scientific Study and Carbon Sequestration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ocean Iron Fertilization for Scientific Study and Carbon Sequestration Ocean Iron Fertilization for Scientific Study and Carbon Sequestration K. Coale coale@mlml.calstate.edu (831) 632-4400 Moss Landing Marine Laboratories 8272 Moss Landing Road Moss Landing, California 95039 USA Abstract The trace element iron has been recently shown to play a critical role in nutrient utilization, phytoplankton growth and therefore the uptake of carbon dioxide from the surface waters of the global ocean. Carbon fixation in the surface waters, via phytoplankton growth, shifts the ocean/atmosphere exchange equilibrium for carbon dioxide. As a result, levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (a greenhouse gas) and iron flux to the oceans have been linked to climate change (glacial to interglacial transitions). These recent findings have led some to suggest that large scale

157

High Specific Power, Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High Specific Power, Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack High Specific Power, Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack High Specific Power, Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack The present invention is a fuel cell stack including at least one direct methanol fuel cell. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email High Specific Power, Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack The present invention is a fuel cell stack including at least one direct methanol fuel cell. A cathode manifold is used to convey ambient air to each fuel cell, and an anode manifold is used to convey liquid methanol fuel to each fuel cell. Tie-bolt penetrations and tie-bolts are spaced evenly around the perimeter to hold the fuel cell stack together. Each fuel cell uses two graphite-based plates. One plate includes a cathode active area that is defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet manifold

158

Gasoline from Wood via Integrated Gasification, Synthesis, and Methanol-to-Gasoline Technologies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report documents the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) assessment of the feasibility of making gasoline via the methanol-to-gasoline route using syngas from a 2,000 dry metric tonne/day (2,205 U.S. ton/day) biomass-fed facility. A new technoeconomic model was developed in Aspen Plus for this study, based on the model developed for NREL's thermochemical ethanol design report (Phillips et al. 2007). The necessary process changes were incorporated into a biomass-to-gasoline model using a methanol synthesis operation followed by conversion, upgrading, and finishing to gasoline. Using a methodology similar to that used in previous NREL design reports and a feedstock cost of $50.70/dry ton ($55.89/dry metric tonne), the estimated plant gate price is $16.60/MMBtu ($15.73/GJ) (U.S. $2007) for gasoline and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) produced from biomass via gasification of wood, methanol synthesis, and the methanol-to-gasoline process. The corresponding unit prices for gasoline and LPG are $1.95/gallon ($0.52/liter) and $1.53/gallon ($0.40/liter) with yields of 55.1 and 9.3 gallons per U.S. ton of dry biomass (229.9 and 38.8 liters per metric tonne of dry biomass), respectively.

Phillips, S. D.; Tarud, J. K.; Biddy, M. J.; Dutta, A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

SOME OCEAN MODEL FUNDAMENTALS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of these lectures is to present elements of the equations and algorithms used in numerical models of the large-scale ocean circulation. Such models generally integrate the ocean’s primitive equations, which are based on Newton’s Laws applied to a continuum fluid under hydrostatic balance in a spherical geometry, along with linear irreversible thermodynamics and subgrid scale (SGS) parameterizations. During formulations of both the kinematics and dynamics, we highlight issues related to the use of a generalized vertical coordinate. The vertical coordinate is arguably the most critical element determining how a model is designed and applications to which a model is of use.

Stephen M. Griffies

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Ocean bottom seisometer  

SciTech Connect

An improved ocean bottom seismometer is described comprising: a spherical-shaped main housing having a seismic acquisition portion and a ballast portion below the acquisition portion. The ballast portion controls the ascent and descent of the ocean bottom seismometer; a conical skirt fixed to the main housing elevating the main housing above a horizontal plane coincident with a base of the skirt. The skirt is capable of confining fluid under the main housing when the base rests on an ocean bottom; spherical compartments mounted inside the skirt; and a lifting hook mounted on the outside of the main housing.

Neeley, W.P.

1987-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas methanol ocean" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

A novel process for methanol synthesis. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The use of methanol (MeOH) as a fuel additive and in MTBE production has renewed interest in the search for improved MeOH processes. Commercial processes are characterized by high pressures and temperatures with low per pass conversion (10--12%). Efforts are underway to find improved MeOH synthesis processes. A slurry phase ``concurrent`` synthesis of MeOH/methyl formate (MeF) which operates under relatively mild conditions (100{degrees}C lower than present commercial processes) was the subject of investigation in this work. Evidence for a reaction scheme involving the carbonylation of MeOH to MeF followed by the hydrogenolysis of MeF to two molecules of MeOH -- the net result being the reaction of H{sub 2} with CO to give MeOH via MeF, is presented. Up to 90% per pass conversion and 98% selectivity to methanol at rates comparable to commercial processes have been obtained in spite of the presence of as much as 10,000 ppM CO{sub 2} and 3000 ppM H{sub 2}O in the gas and liquid respectively. The effect of process parameters such as temperature, pressure, H{sub 2}/CO ratio in the reactor, flow rate and catalyst loading were also investigated. The use of temperatures above 170{degrees}C at a pressure of 50 atm results in MeF being the limiting reactant. Small amounts of CH{sub 4} are also formed. Significant MeOH synthesis rates at a pressure in the range of 40--50 atm makes possible the elimination of an upstream shift reactor and the use of an air-blown syngas generator. The nature of the catalysts was studied and correlated with the behavior of the various species in the concurrent synthesis.

Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I.

1994-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

162

Carbon in Atlantic Ocean  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in Atlantic Ocean About CARINA NDP-091: CARINA Data Synthesis Project The CARINA Group CARINA Cruise Summary Table and Data CARINA Data Products CARINA Database V1.2 ODV Collection...

163

Nonlinear Midlatitude Ocean Adjustment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ocean adjustment on annual to interdecadal scales to variable forcing is considered for a more nonlinear general circulation than has previously been studied. The nature of the response is a strong function of forcing frequency and importantly ...

William K. Dewar

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Global Ocean Meridional Overturning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A decade-mean global ocean circulation is estimated using inverse techniques, incorporating air–sea fluxes of heat and freshwater, recent hydrographic sections, and direct current measurements. This information is used to determine mass, heat, ...

Rick Lumpkin; Kevin Speer

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Tropical Ocean Circulation Experiments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A primitive equation model of the equatorial Pacific Ocean was forced by realistic wind stress distributions over decades. Results were presented for a set of two experiments. In the first experiment the model was forced by an objectively ...

Mojib Latif

1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLGIES (IMPPCCT)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is under the leadership of ConocoPhillips Company (COP), after it acquired Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC) and the E-Gas gasification technology from Global Energy in July 2003. The project has completed Phase I, and is currently in Phase II of development. The two project phases include: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility at Global Energy's existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana, and for a fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations; and (2) Research, development, and testing (RD&T) to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues. The Phase I of this project was supported by a multi-industry team consisting of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation, while Phase II is supported by Gas Technology Institute, TDA Research Inc., and Nucon International, Inc. The WREL integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) facility was designed, constructed, and operated under a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now acquired and offered commercially by COP as the E-Gas technology. In a joint effort with the DOE, a Cooperative Agreement was awarded under the Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) solicitation. GEC, and now COP and the industrial partners are investigating the use of synthesis gas produced by the E-Gas technology in a coproduction environment to enhance the efficiency and productivity of solid fuel gasification combined cycle power plants. The objectives of this effort are to determine the feasibility of an EECP located at a specific site which produces some combination of electric power (or heat), fuels, and/or chemicals from synthesis gas derived from coal, or, coal in combination with some other carbonaceous feedstock. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information that will be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry. The early entrance coproduction plant study conducted in Phase I of the IMPPCCT project confirmed that the concept for the integration of gasification-based (E-Gas) electricity generation from coal and/or petroleum coke and methanol production (Liquid Phase Methanol or LPMEOH{trademark}) processes was feasible for the coproduction of power and chemicals. The results indicated that while there are minimal integration issues that impact the deployment of an IMPPCCT CEP, the major concern was the removal of sulfur and other trace contaminants, which are known methanol catalyst poisons, from the synthesis gas (syngas). However, economic concerns in the domestic methanol market which is driven by periodic low natural gas prices and cheap offshore supplies limit the commercial viability of this more capital intensive concept. The objective of Phase II is to conduct RD&T as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. Studies will address the technical concerns that will make the IMPPCCT concept competitive with natural

Albert C. Tsang

2004-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

167

WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLGIES (IMPPCCT)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is under the leadership of ConocoPhillips Company (COP), after it acquired Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC) and the E-Gas gasification technology from Global Energy in July 2003. The project has completed Phase I, and is currently in Phase II of development. The two project phases include: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility at Global Energy's existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana, and for a fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations; and (2) Research, development, and testing (RD&T) to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues. The Phase I of this project was supported by a multi-industry team consisting of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation, while Phase II is supported by Gas Technology Institute, TDA Research Inc., and Nucon International, Inc. The WREL integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) facility was designed, constructed, and operated under a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now acquired and offered commercially by COP as the E-Gas technology. In a joint effort with the DOE, a Cooperative Agreement was awarded under the Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) solicitation. GEC, and now COP and the industrial partners are investigating the use of synthesis gas produced by the E-Gas technology in a coproduction environment to enhance the efficiency and productivity of solid fuel gasification combined cycle power plants. The objectives of this effort are to determine the feasibility of an EECP located at a specific site which produces some combination of electric power (or heat), fuels, and/or chemicals from synthesis gas derived from coal, or, coal in combination with some other carbonaceous feedstock. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information that will be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry. The early entrance coproduction plant study conducted in Phase I of the IMPPCCT project confirmed that the concept for the integration of gasification-based (E-Gas) electricity generation from coal and/or petroleum coke and methanol production (Liquid Phase Methanol or LPMEOH{trademark}) processes was feasible for the coproduction of power and chemicals. The results indicated that while there are minimal integration issues that impact the deployment of an IMPPCCT CEP, the major concern was the removal of sulfur and other trace contaminants, which are known methanol catalyst poisons, from the synthesis gas (syngas). However, economic concerns in the domestic methanol market which is driven by periodic low natural gas prices and cheap offshore supplies limit the commercial viability of this more capital intensive concept. The objective of Phase II is to conduct RD&T as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. Studies will address the technical concerns that will make the IMPPCCT concept competitive with natural

Albert C. Tsang

2004-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

168

Modeling the Pacific Ocean  

SciTech Connect

Two numerical models utilizing primitive equations (two momentum equations and a mass continuity equation) simulate the oceanography of the Pacific Ocean from 20{degrees}S to 50{degrees}N. The authors examine the abundant model data through visualization , by animating the appropriate model fields and viewing the time history of each model simulation as a color movie. The animations are used to aid understanding of ocean circulation.

Johnson, M.A.; O' Brien, J.J. (Mesoscale Air-Sea Interaction Group, Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (US))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Flexible ocean upwelling pipe  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In an ocean thermal energy conversion facility, a cold water riser pipe is releasably supported at its upper end by the hull of the floating facility. The pipe is substantially vertical and has its lower end far below the hull above the ocean floor. The pipe is defined essentially entirely of a material which has a modulus of elasticity substantially less than that of steel, e.g., high density polyethylene, so that the pipe is flexible and compliant to rather than resistant to applied bending moments. The position of the lower end of the pipe relative to the hull is stabilized by a weight suspended below the lower end of the pipe on a flexible line. The pipe, apart from the weight, is positively buoyant. If support of the upper end of the pipe is released, the pipe sinks to the ocean floor, but is not damaged as the length of the line between the pipe and the weight is sufficient to allow the buoyant pipe to come to a stop within the line length after the weight contacts the ocean floor, and thereafter to float submerged above the ocean floor while moored to the ocean floor by the weight. The upper end of the pipe, while supported by the hull, communicates to a sump in the hull in which the water level is maintained below the ambient water level. The sump volume is sufficient to keep the pipe full during heaving of the hull, thereby preventing collapse of the pipe.

Person, Abraham (Los Alamitos, CA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Technical-economic assessment of the production of methanol from biomass. Assessment of biomass resource and methanol market. Final research report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Detailed information is presented on the following: feasibility of biomass feedstocks for methanol production, biomass availability and costs, potential demand for methanol from biomass, comparison of potential methanol demand and supply, and market penetration assessment. (MHR)

Wan, E.I.; Simmons, J.A.; Price, J.D.; Nguyen, T.D.

1979-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

171

Ocean energy systems. Quarterly report, October-December 1982  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Research progress is reported on developing Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) systems that will provide synthetic fuels (e.g., methanol), energy-intensive products such as ammonia (for fertilizers and chemicals), and aluminum. The work also includes assessment and design concepts for hybrid plants, such as geothermal-OTEC (GEOTEC) plants. Another effort that began in the spring of 1982 is a technical advisory role to DOE with respect to their management of the conceptual design activity of the two industry teams that are designing offshore OTEC pilot plants that could deliver power to Oahu, Hawaii. In addition, a program is underway in which tests of a different kind of ocean-energy device, a turbine that is air-driven as a result of wave action in a chamber, are being planned. This Quarterly Report summarizes the work on the various tasks as of 31 December 1982.

Not Available

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Ocean energy systems. Quarterly report, January-March 1983  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Progress is reported on the development of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) systems that will provide synthetic fuels (e.g., methanol), energy-intensive products such as ammonia (for fertilizers and chemicals), and aluminum. The work also includes assessment and design concepts for hybrid plants, such as geothermal-OTEC (GEOTEC) plants. Another effort that began in the spring of 1982 is a technical advisory role to DOE with respect to their management of the conceptual and preliminary design activity of industry teams that are designing a shelf-mounted offshore OTEC pilot plant that could deliver power to Oahu, Hawaii. In addition, a program is underway to evaluate and test the Pneumatic Wave-Energy Conversion System (PWECS), an ocean-energy device consisting of a turbine that is air-driven as a result of wave action in a chamber. This Quarterly Report summarizes the work on the various tasks as of 31 March 1983.

Not Available

1983-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

173

NETL: Oil & Natural Gas Technologies Reference Shelf - Presentation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

behavior of oceanic Hydrate Bearing Sediments (HBS), during depressurization-induced gas production in general, and potential wellbore in-stability and casing deformation in...

174

Mesoscale Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

small-scale features in ocean winds. Science, 303, Chelton,of the regional coupled ocean-atmosphere model RCAO. Borealstress dependence on ocean surface velocity: implications

Seo, Hyodae

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Mesoscale coupled ocean-atmosphere interaction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

small-scale features in ocean winds. Science, 303, Chelton,of the regional coupled ocean-atmosphere model RCAO. Borealstress dependence on ocean surface velocity: implications

Seo, Hyodae

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Ocean - Community Practice Block | Data.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Community Practice Block Ocean Data Tools Technical Guide Map Gallery Regional Planning Feedback Ocean You are here Data.gov Communities Ocean...

177

Mesozooplankton trophic variability in a changing ocean  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

trends in contemporary ocean productivity. Nature 444: 752-Gyre Oscillation links ocean climate and ecosystem change.biomass from satellite ocean colour. J. Mar. Syst. 78: 18-

Décima, Moira

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Ocean Map National | Data.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

National Ocean Data Tools Technical Guide Map Gallery Regional Planning Feedback Ocean You are here Data.gov Communities Ocean Featured Maps The following maps are from data...

179

Ocean Feedback Form | Data.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Feedback Form Ocean Data Tools Technical Guide Map Gallery Regional Planning Feedback Ocean You are here Data.gov Communities Ocean Comments or Suggestions Name * Email Topic...

180

Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process. Technical progress report number 2, July 1--September 30, 1994  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The project involves the construction of a 260 tons-per-day (TPD) or 80,000 gallon per day methanol demonstration unit utilizing an existing coal-derived synthesis gas from Eastman. The new equipment consists of synthesis gas feed preparation and compression, liquid phase reactor and auxiliaries, product distillation, and utilities. The technology to be demonstrated was developed by Air Products in a DOE sponsored program that started in 1981. Originally tested at a small, DOE-owned experimental facility in LaPorte, Texas, the LPMEOH{trademark} process offers several advantages over current methods of making methanol. This liquid phase process suspends fine catalyst particles in an inert liquid, forming a slurry. The liquid dissipates heat from the chemical reaction away from the catalyst surface, protecting the catalyst and allowing the gas-to-methanol reaction to proceed at higher rates. The process is ideally suited to the type of gas produced by modern coal gasifiers. At the Eastman Chemical complex, the technology will be integrated with existing coal gasifiers to demonstrate the commercially important aspects of the operation of the LPMEOH{trademark} Process to produce methanol. A four-year demonstration will prove the commercial applicability of the process. An off-site product-use test program will prove the suitability of the methanol as a transportation fuel and as a fuel for stationary applications in the power industry.

NONE

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas methanol ocean" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Economic feasibility study of a wood gasification-based methanol plant: A subcontract report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents an economic feasibility study for a wood-gasification-based methanol plant. The objectives were to evaluate the current commercial potential of a small-scale, wood-fed methanol plant using the SERI oxygen-blown, pressurized, down-draft gasifier technology and to identify areas requiring further R and D. The gasifier gas composition and material balance were based on a computer model of the SERI gasifier since acceptable test data were not available. The estimated capital cost was based on the Nth plant constructed. Given the small size and commercial nature of most of the equipment, N was assumed to be between 5 and 10. Only large discrepancies in gasifier output would result in significant charges in capital costs. 47 figs., 55 tabs.

Not Available

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Quick-start catalyzed methanol partial oxidation reformer  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The catalytic methanol partial oxidation reformer described in this paper offers all the necessary attributes for use in transportation fuel cell systems. The bench-scale prototype methanol reformer developed at Argonne is a cylindrical reactor loaded with copper zinc oxide catalyst. Liquid methanol, along with a small amount of water, is injected as a fine spray into a flowing air stream, past an igniter onto the catalyst bed where the partial oxidation reaction takes place.

Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications Wensheng He, David Mountz, Tao Zhang, Chris Roger July 17, 2012 2 Outline Background on Arkema's...

184

Design on Elevated-Temperature and Methanol-Blocking Proton ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Design on Elevated-Temperature and Methanol-Blocking Proton Exchange Membrane for Fuel Cell Application. Author(s), Yan Xiang.

185

Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment IV. Health and safety aspects of the eucalypt biomass to methanol energy system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The basic eucalyptus-to-methanol energy process is described and possible health and safety risks are identified at all steps of the process. The toxicology and treatment for exposure to these substances are described and mitigating measures are proposed. The health and safety impacts and risks of the wood gasification/methanol synthesis system are compared to those of the coal liquefaction and conversion system. The scope of this report includes the health and safety risks of workers (1) in the laboratory and greenhouse, where eucalyptus seedlings are developed, (2) at the biomass plantation, where these seedlings are planted and mature trees harvested, (3) transporting these logs and chips to the refinery, (4) in the hammermill, where the logs and chips will be reduced to small particles, (5) in the methanol synthesis plant, where the wood particles will be converted to methanol, and (6) transporting and dispensing the methanol. Finally, the health and safety risks of consumers using methanol is discussed.

Fishkind, H.H.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Pore-Level Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Infiltrating the Ocean Floor  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Infiltrating the Ocean Floor Infiltrating the Ocean Floor Grant S. Bromhal, Duane H. Smith, US DOE, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Morgantown, WV 26507-0880; M. Ferer, Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506-6315 Ocean sequestration of carbon dioxide is considered to be a potentially important method of reducing greenhouse gas emissions (US DOE, 1999). Oceans are currently the largest atmospheric carbon dioxide sink; and certainly, enough storage capacity exists in the oceans to hold all of the CO 2 that we can emit for many years. Additionally, technologies exist that allow us to pump liquid CO 2 into the oceans at depths between one and two kilometers for extended periods of time and five times that deep for shorter durations. The biggest unknown in the ocean sequestration process, however, is the fate and

187

The Carnol System for methanol production and CO{sub 2} mitigation from coal fired power plants and the transportation sector  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Carnol System consists of methanol production by C0{sub 2} recovered from coal fired power plants and natural gas and the use of the methanol as an alternative automotive fuel. The Carnol process produces hydrogen by the thermal decomposition of natural gas and reacting the hydrogen with C0{sub 2} recovered from the power plant. The carbon produced can be stored or used as a materials commodity. A design and economic evaluation of the process is presented and compared to gasoline as an automotive fuel. An evaluation of the C0{sub 2} emission reduction of the process and system is made and compared to other conventional methanol production processes is including the use of biomass feedstock and methanol fuel cell vehicles. The C0{sub 2} for the entire Carnol System using methanol in automotive IC engines can be reduced by 56% compared to conventional system of coal plants and gasoline engines and by as much as 77% C0{sub 2} emission reduction when methanol is used in fuel cells in automotive engines. The Carnol System is shown to be an environmentally attractive and economically viable system connecting the power generation sector with the transportation sector which should warrant further development.

Steinberg, M.

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

The Carnol System for methanol production and CO{sub 2} mitigation from coal fired power plants and the transportation sector  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Carnol System consists of methanol production by CO{sub 2} recovered from coal fired power plants and natural gas and the use of the methanol as an alternative automotive fuel. The Carnol Process produces hydrogen by the thermal decomposition of natural gas and reacting the hydrogen with CO{sub 2} recovered from the power plant. The carbon produced can be stored or used as a materials commodity. A design and economic evaluation of the Carnol System is presented and compared to gasoline as an automotive fuel. An evaluation of the CO{sub 2} emission reduction of the process and system is made and compared to other conventional methanol production processes is including the use of biomass feedstock and methanol fuel cell vehicles. The CO{sub 2} for the entire Carnol System using methanol in automotive IC engines can be reduced by 56% compared to conventional system of coal plants and gasoline engines and by as much as 77% CO{sub 2} emission reduction when methanol is used in fuel cells in automotive engines. The Carnol System is shown to be an environmentally attractive and economically viable system connecting the power generation sector with the transportation sector which should warrant further development.

Steinberg, M.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Ocean Eddy Dynamics in a Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The role of mesoscale oceanic eddies is analyzed in a quasigeostrophic coupled ocean–atmosphere model operating at a large Reynolds number. The model dynamics are characterized by decadal variability that involves nonlinear adjustment of the ...

P. Berloff; W. Dewar; S. Kravtsov; J. McWilliams

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Indian Ocean Intraseasonal Variability in an Ocean General Circulation Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The impact of atmospheric intraseasonal variability on the tropical Indian Ocean is examined with an ocean general circulation model (OGCM). The model is forced by observation-based wind stresses and surface heat fluxes from an atmospheric ...

A. Schiller; J. S. Godfrey

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project was established to evaluate integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project was under the leadership of ConocoPhillips Company (COP), after it acquired Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC) and the E-Gas gasification technology from Global Energy Inc. in July 2003. The project has completed both Phase 1 and Phase 2 of development. The two project phases include the following: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility at SG Solutions LLC (SGS), previously the Wabash River Energy Limited, Gasification Facility located in West Terre Haute, Indiana, and for a fence-line commercial embodiment plant (CEP) operated at the Dow Chemical Company or Dow Corning Corporation chemical plant locations. (2) Research, development, and testing (RD&T) to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues. Phase 1 of this project was supported by a multi-industry team consisting of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., The Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation, while Phase 2 was supported by Gas Technology Institute, TDA Research Inc., and Nucon International, Inc. The SGS integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) facility was designed, constructed, and operated under a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other carbonaceous fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas (syngas) is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now acquired and offered commercially by COP as the E-Gas technology. In a joint effort with the DOE, a Cooperative Agreement was awarded under the Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) solicitation. GEC, and later COP and the industrial partners investigated the use of syngas produced by the E-Gas technology in a coproduction environment to enhance the efficiency and productivity of solid fuel gasification combined cycle power plants. The objectives of this effort were to determine the feasibility of an EECP located at a specific site which produces some combination of electric power (or heat), fuels, and/or chemicals from syngas derived from coal, or, coal in combination with some other carbonaceous feedstock. The intended result of the project was to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information that would be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry. The EECP study conducted in Phase 1 of the IMPPCCT Project confirmed that the concept for the integration of gasification-based (E-Gas) electricity generation from coal and/or petroleum coke and methanol production (Liquid Phase Methanol or LPMEOH{trademark}) processes was feasible for the coproduction of power and chemicals. The results indicated that while there were minimal integration issues that impact the deployment of an IMPPCCT CEP, the major concern was the removal of sulfur and other trace contaminants, which are known methanol catalyst poisons, from the syngas. However, economic concerns in the domestic methanol market which is driven by periodic low natural gas prices and cheap offshore supplies limit the commercial viability of this more capital intensive concept. The objective of Phase 2 was to conduct RD&T as outlined in the Phase 1 RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. Studies were designed to address the technical concerns that would mak

Conocophillips

2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

192

On the Climatic Impact of Ocean Circulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Integrations of coupled climate models with mixed-layer and fixed-current ocean components are used to explore the climatic response to varying magnitudes of ocean circulation. Four mixed-layer ocean experiments without ocean heat transports are ...

Michael Winton

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Interactions of the Tropical Oceans  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors have investigated the interactions of the tropical oceans on interannual timescales by conducting a series of uncoupled atmospheric and oceanic general circulation experiments and hybrid-coupled model simulations. The results ...

M. Latif; T. P. Barnett

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Climate and the Tropical Oceans  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An attempt is made to determine the role of the ocean in establishing the mean tropical climate and its sensitivity to radiative perturbations. A simple two-box energy balance model is developed that includes ocean heat transports as an ...

Amy Clement; Richard Seager

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Energy Basics: Ocean Energy Technologies  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Technologies Photo of low waves in the ocean. A dock is visible in the background. Oceans cover more than 70% of the Earth's surface. As the world's largest solar...

196

Measurements of Surface Ocean Carbon Dioxide Partial Pressure During WOCE  

SciTech Connect

All of the technical goals of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) field program which were supported under the Department of Energy research grant ''Measurements of Surface Ocean Carbon Dioxide Partial Pressure During WOCE'' (DE-FG03-90ER60981) have been met. This has included the measurement of the partial pressures of carbon dioxide (C0{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) in both the surface ocean and the atmosphere on 24 separate shipboard expedition legs of the WOCE Hydrographic Programme. These measurements were made in the Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans over a six-and-a-half year period, and over a distance of nearly 200,000 kilometers of ship track. The total number of measurements, including ocean measurements, air measurements and standard gas measurements, is about 136,000 for each gas, or about 34,000 measurements of each gas in the ocean and in the air. This global survey effort is directed at obtaining a better understanding of the role of the oceans in the global atmospheric budgets of two important natural and anthropogenic modulators of climate through the ''greenhouse effect'', CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O, and an important natural and anthropogenic modulator of the Earth's protective ozone layer through catalytic processes in the stratosphere, N{sub 2}O. For both of these compounds, the oceans play a major role in their global budgets. In the case of CO{sub 2}, roughly half of the anthropogenic production through the combustion of fossil fuels has been absorbed by the world's oceans. In the case of N{sub 2}O, roughly a third of the natural flux to the atmosphere originates in the oceans. As the interpretation of the variability in the oceanic distributions of these compounds improves, measurements such as those supported by this research project are playing an increasingly important role in improving our understanding of natural and anthropogenic influences on climate and ozone. (B204)

Weiss, R.F.

1998-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

197

Electrolytic synthesis of methanol from CO.sub.2  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and system for synthesizing methanol from the CO.sub.2 in air using electric power. The CO.sub.2 is absorbed by a solution of KOH to form K.sub.2 CO.sub.3 which is electrolyzed to produce methanol, a liquid hydrocarbon fuel.

Steinberg, Meyer (Huntington Station, NY)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

The Equilibrium Compositions of Methanol Synthesis System by Cornstalk Syngas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methanol can be used as a promising alternative for conventional gasoline and Diesel fuel. It is necessary to decompose biomass such as cornstalks in order to produce methanol which is a raw material from agricultural residues. A promising route for processing cornstalks is firstly to gasify cornstalks with thermo?chemical method to prepare the syngas

Ling?feng Zhu; Qing?ling Zhao; Yang?yang Wang; Jing Chen; Le Zhang; Run?tao Zhang; Li?li Liu; Zhao?yue Zhang

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

An Ocean Dynamical Thermostat  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The role of ocean dynamics in the regulation of tropical sea surface temperatures (SSTs) is investigated using the Zebiak-Cane coupled occan-atmosphere model. The model is forced with a uniform heating, or cooling, varying between ±40 W m?2 into ...

Amy C. Clement; Richard Seager; Mark A. Cane; Stephen E. Zebiak

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Navigating oceans of data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Some science domains have the advantage that the bulk of the data comes from a single source instrument, such as a telescope or particle collider. More commonly, big data implies a big variety of data sources. For example, the Center for Coastal Margin ... Keywords: environmental data, ocean observatories, spatial-temporal data management

David Maier; V. M. Megler; António M. Baptista; Alex Jaramillo; Charles Seaton; Paul J. Turner

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas methanol ocean" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Synthesis of Methanol and Dimethyl Ether from Syngas over Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 Catalysts  

SciTech Connect

A Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was developed for the synthesis of methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas. Studied were temperatures of operation ranging from 250°C to 380°C. High temperatures (e.g. 380°C) are necessary when combining methanol and DME synthesis with a methanol to gasoline (MTG) process in a single reactor bed. A commercial Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst, utilized industrially for the synthesis of methanol at 220-280°C, suffers from a rapid deactivation when the reaction is conducted at high temperature (>320°C). On the contrary, a Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was found to be highly stable for methanol and DME synthesis at 380°C. The Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was thus further investigated for methanol and DME synthesis at P=34-69 bars, T= 250-380°C, GHSV= 5 000-18 000 h-1, and molar feeds H2/CO= 1, 2, and 3. Selectivity to DME increased with decreasing operating temperature, and increasing operating pressure. Increased GHSV’s and H2/CO syngas feed ratios also enhanced DME selectivity. Undesirable CH4 formation was observed, however, can be minimized through choice of process conditions and by catalyst design. By studying the effect of the Pd loading and the Pd:Zn molar ratio the formulation of the Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was optimized. A catalyst with 5% Pd and a Pd:Zn molar ratio of 0.25:1 has been identified as the preferred catalyst. Results indicate that PdZn particles are more active than Pdº particles for the synthesis of methanol and less active for CH4 formation. A correlation between DME selectivity and the concentration of acid sites of the catalysts has been established. Hence, two types of sites are required for the direct conversion of syngas to DME: 1) PdZn particles are active for the synthesis of methanol from syngas, and 2) acid sites which are active for the conversion of methanol to DME. Additionally, CO2 formation was problematic as PdZn was found to be active for the water-gas-shift (WGS) reaction, under all the conditions evaluated.

Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Dagle, Robert A.; Kovarik, Libor; Lizarazo Adarme, Jair A.; King, David L.; Palo, Daniel R.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Advanced system analysis for indirect methanol fuel cell power plants for transportation applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The indirect methanol cell fuel concept actively pursued by the USDOE and General Motors Corporation proposes the development of an electrochemical engine'' (e.c.e.), an electrical generator capable for usually efficient and clean power production from methanol fuel for the transportation sector. This on-board generator works in consort with batteries to provide electrical power to drive propulsion motors for a range of electric vehicles. Success in this technology could do much to improve impacted environmental areas and to convert part of the transportation fleet to natural gas- and coal-derived methanol as the fuel source. These developments parallel work in Europe and Japan where various fuel cell powered vehicles, often fueled with tanked or hydride hydrogen, are under active development. Transportation applications present design challenges that are distinctly different from utility requirements, the thrust of most of previous fuel cell programs. In both cases, high conversion efficiency (fuel to electricity) is essential. However, transportation requirements dictate as well designs for high power densities, rapid transients including short times for system start up, and consumer safety. The e.c.e. system is formed from four interacting components: (1) the fuel processor; (2) the fuel cell stack; (3) the air compression and decompression device; and (4) the condensing cross flow heat exchange device. 2 figs.

Vanderborgh, N.E.; McFarland, R.D.; Huff, J.R.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Advanced system analysis for indirect methanol fuel cell power plants for transportation applications  

SciTech Connect

The indirect methanol cell fuel concept actively pursued by the USDOE and General Motors Corporation proposes the development of an electrochemical engine'' (e.c.e.), an electrical generator capable for usually efficient and clean power production from methanol fuel for the transportation sector. This on-board generator works in consort with batteries to provide electrical power to drive propulsion motors for a range of electric vehicles. Success in this technology could do much to improve impacted environmental areas and to convert part of the transportation fleet to natural gas- and coal-derived methanol as the fuel source. These developments parallel work in Europe and Japan where various fuel cell powered vehicles, often fueled with tanked or hydride hydrogen, are under active development. Transportation applications present design challenges that are distinctly different from utility requirements, the thrust of most of previous fuel cell programs. In both cases, high conversion efficiency (fuel to electricity) is essential. However, transportation requirements dictate as well designs for high power densities, rapid transients including short times for system start up, and consumer safety. The e.c.e. system is formed from four interacting components: (1) the fuel processor; (2) the fuel cell stack; (3) the air compression and decompression device; and (4) the condensing cross flow heat exchange device. 2 figs.

Vanderborgh, N.E.; McFarland, R.D.; Huff, J.R.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

COMMERCIAL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF THE LIQUID PHASE METHANOL (LPMEOH) PROCESS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project, which was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the Clean Coal Technology Program to demonstrate the production of methanol from coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas), has completed the 69-month operating phase of the program. The purpose of this Final Report for the ''Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Process'' is to provide the public with details on the performance and economics of the technology. The LPMEOH{trademark} Demonstration Project was a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the DOE and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership). The DOE's cost share was $92,708,370 with the remaining funds coming from the Partnership. The LPMEOH{trademark} demonstration unit is located at the Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) chemicals-from-coal complex in Kingsport, Tennessee. The technology was the product of a cooperative development effort by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and DOE in a program that started in 1981. Developed to enhance electric power generation using integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology, the LPMEOH{trademark} Process is ideally suited for directly processing gases produced by modern coal gasifiers. Originally tested at the Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU), a small, DOE-owned process development facility in LaPorte, Texas, the technology provides several improvements essential for the economic coproduction of methanol and electricity directly from gasified coal. This liquid phase process suspends fine catalyst particles in an inert liquid, forming a slurry. The slurry dissipates the heat of the chemical reaction away from the catalyst surface, protecting the catalyst, and allowing the methanol synthesis reaction to proceed at higher rates. The LPMEOH{trademark} Demonstration Project accomplished the objectives set out in the Cooperative Agreement with DOE for this Clean Coal Technology project. Overall plant availability (defined as the percentage of time that the LPMEOH{trademark} demonstration unit was able to operate, with the exclusion of scheduled outages) was 97.5%, and the longest operating run without interruption of any kind was 94 days. Over 103.9 million gallons of methanol was produced; Eastman accepted all of the available methanol for use in the production of methyl acetate, and ultimately cellulose acetate and acetic acid.

E.C. Heydorn; B.W. Diamond; R.D. Lilly

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Failure Mode and Sensitivity Analysis of Gas Lift Valves  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gas-lifted oil wells are susceptible to failure through malfunction of gas lift valves. This is a growing concern as offshore wells are drilled thousands of meters below the ocean floor in extreme temperature and pressure ...

Gilbertson, Eric W.

206

Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Working Document 9. Economics of producing methanol from Eucalyptus in Central Florida  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A detailed feasibility study of producing methanol from Eucalyptus in Central Florida encompasses all phases of production - from seedling to delivery of finished methanol. The project includes the following components: (1) production of 55 million, high quality, Eucalyptus seedlings through tissue culture; (2) establishment of a Eucalyptus energy plantation on approximately 70,000 acres; and (3) engineering for a 100 million gallon-per-year methanol production facility. In addition, the potential environmental impacts of the whole project were examined, safety and health aspects of producing and using methanol were analyzed, and site specific cost estimates were made. The economics of the project are presented here. Each of the three major components of the project - tissue culture lab, energy plantation, and methanol refinery - are examined individually. In each case a site specific analysis of the potential return on investment was conducted.

Fishkind, H.H.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Why Sequence Subarctic Pacific Ocean?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sequence Subarctic Pacific Ocean? Sequence Subarctic Pacific Ocean? The subarctic Pacific Ocean is one of the areas considered particularly vulnerable to acidification, which could affect the ocean's ability to act as a carbon sink. Global warming affects the food webs and biodiversity in marine ecosystems, especially in regions known as oxygen minimum zones where key components of the global carbon cycle take place. Oxygen minimum zones are found between 200 and 1,000 meters below sea level in the subarctic Pacific, the eastern South Pacific Ocean, the northern parts of the Indian Ocean and Arabian Sea, and off southwestern Africa. As global warming continues, researchers believe the oxygen levels in the oceans will decrease, a change that will extend the boundaries of the oxygen minimum

208

Direct methanol fuel cells: Developments for portable power and for potential transportation applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The authors describe here results of recent efforts at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), devoted to potential application of Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFCs) as (1) portable power sources at the 50 W level, and (2) primary power sources for electric vehicles. In general, DMFC R and D efforts focus on further improvements in anode catalytic activity, fuel utilization (as related to methanol crossover) and air cathode performance in the presence of the presence of the significant flux of aqueous methanol from anode to cathode. There are significant differences between technical parameters and targets for the two different DMFC applications, which the authors have addressed. They include the lower cell temperature (about 60 C) preferred in portable power vs. operation around 100 C as target temperature for transportation applications, and the much stronger concern for cost of catalyst and any other stack materials in DMFCs developed for potential transportation applications. Most, if not all, recent DMFC work for either portable power or potential transportation applications has strongly focused on cells with polymeric (primarily PFSA) membrane electrolytes. In work at LANL, thin film catalysts bonded to the membrane, e.g., by the decal method, provided best results in terms of catalyst utilization and overall cell performance. In most tests, the single DMFC hardware consisted of uncatalyzed carbon-cloth gas-diffusion backings and graphite blocks with machined serpentine flow channels--quite similar to hardware employed in work with hydrogen/air PEFCs. However, the machined graphite hardware has recently been replaced by alternative, non-machined flow-field/bipolar plates, which enables effective air and aqueous methanol solution distribution along an active area of 50 cm{sup 2}, at a pitch per cell of 2 mm.

Ren, X.; Thomas, S.C.; Zelenay, P.; Gottesfeld, S.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

209

Mechanistic Studies of Methanol Oxidation to Formaldehyde on Isolated Vanadate Sites Supported on Mcm-48  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The mechanism of methanol oxidation to formaldehyde catalyzed by isolated vanadate species supported on silica has been investigated by in situ Raman and TPD/TPO experiments. Raman, XANES, and EXAFS were used to characterize the V-MCM-48 sample, prepared with a loading of 0.3 V/nm{sup 2}, and it is concluded that the oxidized form of the vanadium is isolated VO{sub 4} units. The VO{sub 4} species consist of one V=O bond and three V-O-Si bonds in a distorted tetrahedral geometry. Methanol reacts reversibly, at a ratio of approximately 1 methanol per V, with one V-O-Si to produce both V-OCH{sub 3}/Si-OH and V-OH/Si-OCH{sub 3} group pairs in roughly equivalent concentrations. Formaldehyde is formed from the methyl group of V-OCH{sub 3}, most likely by the transfer of one H atom to the V=O bond of the vanadium containing the methoxide group. Formaldehyde is formed in nearly equal concentrations both in the presence and in the absence of gas-phase oxygen. CO and H{sub 2} are produced by the decomposition of CH{sub 2}O at higher temperature. In the absence of O{sub 2}, Si-OCH{sub 3} groups undergo hydrogenation to form CH{sub 4}, and in the presence of O{sub 2}, these groups are oxidized to COx (x = 1, 2) and H{sub 2}O above 650 K. Under steady-state reaction conditions, CH{sub 2}O is produced as the dominant product of methanol oxidation at temperatures below 650 K with an apparent activation energy of 23 kcal/mol. Schemes for the product flows during both TPD and TPO experiments, along with proposed surface intermediates, are presented.

Bronkema, J.L.; Bell, A.T.; /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley, Chem. Eng. Dept.

2007-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

210

Ocean Informatics Monograph. Ocean Informatics Initiative: an Ethnographic Study (2002-2006). Part 1: Report  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Collaborative Care and Ocean Informatics. Proceedings of theOceanography: Probing the Oceans, 1936-1978. San Diego, CA:Collaboration: Towards an Ocean Informatics Environment.

Millerand, Florence; Baker, Karen S

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Ocean Informatics Monograph. Ocean Informatics Initiative: an Ethnographic Study (2002-2006). Part 2: Appendices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Scientific Digital Delivery Ocean Informatics: Shaun HaberResearch Publications about the Ocean Informatics initiativeF. and K.S. Baker (2011). Ocean Informatics Monograph (2002-

Millerand, Florence; Baker, Karen S

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Anodic oxidation of methanol using a new base electrocatalyst  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Anodic oxidation of methanol, the reaction employed on the anode of the direct methanol fuel cell, is conventionally carried out using noble electrocatalysts. The best of these has been found to be a codeposited mixture of platinum and ruthenium. The use of base materials as anode catalysts requires, in addition to electrocatalytic activity, a low corrosion rate in the cell electrolyte. The authors present here some preliminary results of measurements of the anodic oxidation of methanol using a newly synthesized base electrocatalyst: this catalyst is passivated by the highly aggressive electrolyte.

Burstein, G.T.; Barnett, C.J.; Kucernak, A.R.J.; Williams, K.R. [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials Science and Metallurgy

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Economics of natural gas upgrading  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas could be an important alternative energy source in meeting some of the market demand presently met by liquid products from crude oil. This study was initiated to analyze three energy markets to determine if greater use could be made of natural gas or natural gas derived products and if those products could be provided on an economically competitive basis. The three markets targeted for possible increases in gas use were motor fuels, power generation, and the chemical feedstocks market. The economics of processes to convert natural gas to transportation fuels, chemical products, and power were analyzed. The economic analysis was accomplished by drawing on a variety of detailed economic studies, updating them and bringing the results to a common basis. The processes analyzed included production of methanol, MTBE, higher alcohols, gasoline, CNG, and LNG for the transportation market. Production and use of methanol and ammonia in the chemical feedstock market and use of natural gas for power generation were also assessed. Use of both high and low quality gas as a process feed stream was evaluated. The analysis also explored the impact of various gas price growth rates and process facility locations, including remote gas areas. In assessing the transportation fuels market the analysis examined production and use of both conventional and new alternative motor fuels.

Hackworth, J.H.; Koch, R.W.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Ocean dynamics and thermodynamics in the tropical Indo- Pacific region  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

II Observations of the 2004 and 2006 Indian OceanOceans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .magnitudes determined from ocean-bottom pressure gauge data

Drushka, Kyla

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Low temperature catalysts for methanol production  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A catalyst and process useful at low temperatures (below about 160.degree. C.) and preferably in the range 80.degree.-120.degree. C. used in the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and hydrogen is disclosed. The catalyst is used in slurry form and comprises a complex reducing agent derived from the component structure NaH--RONa--M(OAc).sub.2 where M is selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pd, and Co and R is a lower alkyl group containing 1-6 carbon atoms. This catalyst is preferably used alone but is also effective in combination with a metal carbonyl of a group VI (Mo, Cr, W) metal. The preferred catalyst precursor is Nic (where M=Ni and R=tertiary amyl). Mo(CO).sub.6 is the preferred metal carbonyl if such component is used. The catalyst is subjected to a conditioning or activating step under temperature and pressure, similar to the parameters given above, to afford the active catalyst.

Sapienza, Richard S. (1 Miller Ave., Shoreham, NY 11786); Slegeir, William A. (7 Florence Rd., Hampton Bays, NY 11946); O' Hare, Thomas E. (11 Geiger Pl., Huntington Station, NY 11746); Mahajan, Devinder (14 Locust Ct., Selden, NY 11784)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Low temperature catalysts for methanol production  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A catalyst and process useful at low temperatures (below about 160/sup 0/C) and preferably in the range 80 to 120/sup 0/C used in the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and hydrogen is disclosed. The catalyst is used in slurry form and comprises a complex reducing agent derived from the component structure NaH-RONa-M(OAc)/sub 2/ where M is selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pd, and Co and R is a lower alkyl group containing 1 to 6 carbon atoms. This catalyst is preferably used alone but is also effective in combination with a metal carbonyl of a group VI (Mo, Cr, W) metal. The preferred catalyst precursor is Nic (where M = Ni and R = tertiary amyl). Mo(CO)/sub 6/ is the preferred metal carbonyl if such component is used. The catalyst is subjected to a conditioning or activating step under temperature and pressure, similar to the parameters given above, to afford the active catalyst.

Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.; O' Hare, T.E.; Mahajan, D.

1985-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

217

Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LOMEOH(TM)) Process  

SciTech Connect

The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOEP") Demonstration Project at K.ingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L, P. (the Partnership). The LPMEOHY Process Demonstration Unit is being built at a site located at the Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) complex in Kingsport. On 4 October 1994, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and signed the agreements that would form the Partnership, secure the demonstration site, and provide the financial commitment and overall project management for the project. These partnership agreements became effective on 15 March 1995, when DOE authorized the commencement of Budget Period No. 2 (Mod. AO08 to the Cooperative Agreement). The Partnership has subcontracted with Air Products to provide the overall management of the project, and to act as the primary interface with DOE. As subcontractor to the Partnership, Air Products will also provide the engineering design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of the LPMEOHTM Process Demonstration Unit, and will provide the technical and engineering supervision needed to conduct the operational testing program required as part of the project. As subcontractor to Air Products, Eastman will be responsible for operation of the LPMEOHTM Process Demonstration Unit, and for the interconnection and supply of synthesis gas, utilities, product storage, and other needed sewices. The project involves the construction of an 80,000 gallons per day (260 tons-per-day (TPD)) methanol unit utilizing coal-derived synthesis gas fi-om Eastman's integrated coal gasification facility. The new equipment consists of synthesis gas feed preparation and compression facilities, the liquid phase reactor and auxiliaries, product distillation facilities, and utilities. The technology to be demonstrated is the product of a cooperative development effort by Air Products and DOE in a program that started in 1981. Developed to enhance electric power generation using integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology, the LPMEOHTM process is ideally suited for directly processing gases produced by modern day coal gasifiers. Originally tested at a small 3,200 gallons per day, DOE-owned experimental unit in LaPorte, Texas, the technology provides several improvements essential for the economic coproduction of methanol and electricity directly from gasified coal. This liquid phase process suspends fine catalyst particles in an inert liquid, forming a slurry. The slurry dissipates the heat of the chemical reaction away from the catalyst surface, protecting the catalyst and allowing the methanol synthesis reaction to proceed at higher rates.

1996-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

218

NOS Point Forecast Guidance to Weather and Ocean Conditions ...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Point Forecast Guidance to Weather and Ocean Conditions Ocean Data Tools Technical Guide Map Gallery Regional Planning Feedback Ocean You are here Data.gov Communities Ocean...

219

ocean - faq right side block | Data.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ocean - faq right side block Ocean Data Tools Technical Guide Map Gallery Regional Planning Feedback Ocean You are here Data.gov Communities Ocean Frequently Asked Questions...

220

Ocean Renewable Power Company LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ocean Renewable Power Company LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name Ocean Renewable Power Company LLC Place Portland, Maine Zip 4101 Sector Ocean, Renewable Energy Product Ocean...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas methanol ocean" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Pacific Ocean Contribution to the Asymmetry in Eastern Indian Ocean Variability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Variations in eastern Indian Ocean upper-ocean thermal properties are assessed for the period 1970–2004, with a particular focus on asymmetric features related to opposite phases of Indian Ocean dipole events, using high-resolution ocean model ...

Caroline C. Ummenhofer; Franziska U. Schwarzkopf; Gary Meyers; Erik Behrens; Arne Biastoch; Claus W. Böning

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Corporation DMFCC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Methanol Fuel Cell Corporation DMFCC Methanol Fuel Cell Corporation DMFCC Jump to: navigation, search Name Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Corporation (DMFCC) Place Altadena, California Zip 91001 Product DMFCC is focused on providing intellectual property protection and disposable fuel cartridge for the direct methanol fuel cell industry. Coordinates 34.185405°, -118.131529° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":34.185405,"lon":-118.131529,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

223

Novel Materials for High Efficiency Direct Methanol Fuel Cells...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

* >50 mWmg precious group metal (PGM) in an MEA with 50% Pt reduction. Develop a second generation membrane with an areal * resistance <0.0375 cm 2 and a methanol permeation...

224

Demonstration of dissociated methanol as an automotive fuel: system performance  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The results are presented of system performance testing of an automotive system devised to provide hydrogen-rich gases to an internal combustion engine by dissociating methanol on board the vehicle. The dissociation of methanol absorbs heat from the engine exhaust and increases the lower heating value of the fuel by 22%. The engine thermal efficiency is increased by raising the compression ratio and burning with excess air.

Finegold, J. G.; Karpuk, M. E.; McKinnon, J. T.; Passamaneck, R.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

"1. Rhode Island State Energy Partners","Gas","FPL Energy Operating Serv Inc",528  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Rhode Island" Rhode Island" "1. Rhode Island State Energy Partners","Gas","FPL Energy Operating Serv Inc",528 "2. Manchester Street","Gas","Dominion Energy New England, LLC",447 "3. Tiverton Power Plant","Gas","Tiverton Power Inc",250 "4. Ocean State Power II","Gas","Ocean State Power II",219 "4. Ocean State Power","Gas","Ocean State Power Co",219 "6. Pawtucket Power Associates","Gas","Pawtucket Power Associates LP",63 "7. Ridgewood Providence Power","Other Renewables","Ridgewood Power Management LLC",24 "8. Central Power Plant","Gas","State of Rhode Island",10

226

The Federal Methanol Fleet: Summary of technical data  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Federal Methanol Fleet, initiated in 1985 with an appropriation from the US Congress, is now in its final stages of operation. A great deal has been learned while vehicles have accumulated approximately 1.4 million miles (2.2 million kilometers) in routine government fleet service. This paper summarizes those results that are technical in nature and that reveal the status of methanol engine technology. Specifically, results from emissions test, special lubricant tests, and cold-starting experiments are reported herein. Emissions control systems in methanol vehicles were found generally to decline somewhat in performance over time as compared to their gasoline counterpart vehicles, although this was not universally true. The severe effects on methanol engine lubricant performance resulting from cold-engine, short-trip service was demonstrated in a series of special tests of two cars, methanol and gasoline, in side-by-side service. Methanol fleet vehicles incorporated a variety of approaches to the cold-start problem -- ranging from no special engineering or systems to sophisticated systems designed to overcome the problem entirely. Cold-start systems specially designed for these vehicles did not perform as well as had been expected, probably because they were early prototype versions and were subject to some early, unforeseen problems.

McGill, R.N.; Graves, R.L.; West, B.H. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Hodgson, J.W. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA))

1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Arctic Ocean circulation patterns revealed by GRACE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements of ocean bottom pressure (OBP) anomalies from the satellite mission GRACE, complemented by information from two ocean models, are used to investigate the variations and distribution of the Arctic Ocean mass from 2002 through 2011. The ...

Cecilia Peralta-Ferriz; James H. Morison; John M. Wallace; Jennifer A. Bonin; Jinlun Zhang

228

OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DOE-EPA Working Group on Ocean TherUial Energy Conversion,Sands, M.D. (editor) Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)r:he comnercialization of ocean thermal energy conversion

Sands, M.Dale

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

The bottom of the ocean food chain  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The bottom of the ocean food chain 1663 Los Alamos science and technology magazine Latest Issue:July 2013 All Issues submit The bottom of the ocean food chain Global ocean...

230

Strong wind forcing of the ocean  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 107 (C2). Vanderbilt, V .in the subtropical pacific ocean. Science, 316, 1017^1021.simulations of the upper ocean's response to hurricane felix

Zedler, Sarah E.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Connecting Changing Ocean Circulation with Changing Climate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The influence of changing ocean currents on climate change is evaluated by comparing an earth system model’s response to increased CO2 with and without an ocean circulation response. Inhibiting the ocean circulation response, by specifying a ...

Michael Winton; Stephen M. Griffies; Bonita L. Samuels; Jorge L. Sarmiento; Thomas L. Frölicher

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean Print Friday, 21 June 2013 10:08 The Southern Ocean, circling the Earth between Antarctica and the...

233

Climate, Ocean and Sea Ice Modeling  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Climate, Ocean and Sea Ice Modeling (COSIM) Summary The COSIM project develops advanced ocean and ice models for evaluating the role of ocean and ice in high-latitude climate...

234

ocean | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ocean ocean Dataset Summary Description This shapefile represents the seasonal winter depth profile to reach water at a temperature of 20ºC. Source NREL Date Released October 28th, 2012 (2 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords depth profile hydrokinetic ocean ocean energy ocean thermal energy conversion OTEC seawater cooling thermal Data application/zip icon OTEC Seawater Cooling 20ºC Depth Profile - Winter Average (zip, 1.1 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period March 2009 - February 2011 License License Other or unspecified, see optional comment below Comment This GIS data was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory ("NREL"), which is operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC for the U.S. Department of Energy ("DOE"). The user is granted the right, without any fee or cost, to use, copy, modify, alter, enhance and distribute this data for any purpose whatsoever, provided that this entire notice appears in all copies of the data. Further, the user of this data agrees to credit NREL in any publications or software that incorporate or use the data. Access to and use of the GIS data shall further impose the following obligations on the User. The names DOE/NREL may not be used in any advertising or publicity to endorse or promote any product or commercial entity using or incorporating the GIS data unless specific written authorization is obtained from DOE/NREL. The User also understands that DOE/NREL shall not be obligated to provide updates, support, consulting, training or assistance of any kind whatsoever with regard to the use of the GIS data. THE GIS DATA IS PROVIDED "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL DOE/NREL BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO CLAIMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE LOSS OF DATA OR PROFITS, WHICH MAY RESULT FROM AN ACTION IN CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS CLAIM THAT ARISES OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE ACCESS OR USE OF THE GIS DATA. The User acknowledges that access to the GIS data is subject to U.S. Export laws and regulations and any use or transfer of the GIS data must be authorized under those regulations. The User shall not use, distribute, transfer, or transmit GIS data or any products incorporating the GIS data except in compliance with U.S. export regulations. If requested by DOE/NREL, the User agrees to sign written assurances and other export-related documentation as may be required to comply with U.S. export regulations.

235

Ocean Tidal and Wave Energy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

First published in 2000, the annual Renewable Energy Technical Assessment Guide (TAG-RE) provides a consistent basis for evaluating the economic feasibility of renewable generation technologies. This excerpt from the 2005 TAG-RE addresses ocean tidal and wave energy conversion technologies, which offer promise for converting the significant energy potential available in ocean tidal currents and waves to electricity in the future.

2005-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

236

Single-Step Syngas-to-Distillates (S2D) Synthesis via Methanol and Dimethyl Ether Intermediates: Final Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of the work was to enhance price-competitive, synthesis gas (syngas)-based production of transportation fuels that are directly compatible with the existing vehicle fleet (i.e., vehicles fueled by gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, etc.). To accomplish this, modifications to the traditional methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process were investigated. In this study, we investigated direct conversion of syngas to distillates using methanol and dimethyl ether intermediates. For this application, a Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 (PdZnAl) catalyst previously developed for methanol steam reforming was evaluated. The PdZnAl catalyst was shown to be far superior to a conventional copper-based methanol catalyst when operated at relatively high temperatures (i.e., >300°C), which is necessary for MTG-type applications. Catalytic performance was evaluated through parametric studies. Process conditions such as temperature, pressure, gas-hour-space velocity, and syngas feed ratio (i.e., hydrogen:carbon monoxide) were investigated. PdZnAl catalyst formulation also was optimized to maximize conversion and selectivity to methanol and dimethyl ether while suppressing methane formation. Thus, a PdZn/Al2O3 catalyst optimized for methanol and dimethyl ether formation was developed through combined catalytic material and process parameter exploration. However, even after compositional optimization, a significant amount of undesirable carbon dioxide was produced (formed via the water-gas-shift reaction), and some degree of methane formation could not be completely avoided. Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 used in combination with ZSM-5 was investigated for direct syngas-to-distillates conversion. High conversion was achieved as thermodynamic constraints are alleviated when methanol and dimethyl are intermediates for hydrocarbon formation. When methanol and/or dimethyl ether are products formed separately, equilibrium restrictions occur. Thermodynamic relaxation also enables the use of lower operating pressures than what would be allowed for methanol synthesis alone. Aromatic-rich hydrocarbon liquid (C5+), containing a significant amount of methylated benzenes, was produced under these conditions. However, selectivity control to liquid hydrocarbons was difficult to achieve. Carbon dioxide and methane formation was problematic. Furthermore, saturation of the olefinic intermediates formed in the zeolite, and necessary for gasoline production, occurred over PdZnAl. Thus, yield to desirable hydrocarbon liquid product was limited. Evaluation of other oxygenate-producing catalysts could possibly lead to future advances. Potential exists with discovery of other types of catalysts that suppress carbon dioxide and light hydrocarbon formation. Comparative techno-economics for a single-step syngas-to-distillates process and a more conventional MTG-type process were investigated. Results suggest operating and capital cost savings could only modestly be achieved, given future improvements to catalyst performance. Sensitivity analysis indicated that increased single-pass yield to hydrocarbon liquid is a primary need for this process to achieve cost competiveness.

Dagle, Robert A.; Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Lizarazo Adarme, Jair A.; King, David L.; Zhu, Yunhua; Gray, Michel J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Biddy, Mary J.; Hallen, Richard T.; Wang, Yong; White, James F.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Palo, Daniel R.

2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

237

Ocean County Landfill Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

County Landfill Biomass Facility County Landfill Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Ocean County Landfill Biomass Facility Facility Ocean County Landfill Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location Ocean County, New Jersey Coordinates 39.9652553°, -74.3118212° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":39.9652553,"lon":-74.3118212,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

238

Metagenome of a Versatile Chemolithoautotroph from Expanding Oceanic Dead Zones  

SciTech Connect

Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), also known as oceanic"dead zones", are widespread oceanographic features currently expanding due to global warming and coastal eutrophication. Although inhospitable to metazoan life, OMZs support a thriving but cryptic microbiota whose combined metabolic activity is intimately connected to nutrient and trace gas cycling within the global ocean. Here we report time-resolved metagenomic analyses of a ubiquitous and abundant but uncultivated OMZ microbe (SUP05) closely related to chemoautotrophic gill symbionts of deep-sea clams and mussels. The SUP05 metagenome harbors a versatile repertoire of genes mediating autotrophic carbon assimilation, sulfur-oxidation and nitrate respiration responsive to a wide range of water column redox states. Thus, SUP05 plays integral roles in shaping nutrient and energy flow within oxygen-deficient oceanic waters via carbon sequestration, sulfide detoxification and biological nitrogen loss with important implications for marine productivity and atmospheric greenhouse control.

Walsh, David A.; Zaikova, Elena; Howes, Charles L.; Song, Young; Wright, Jody; Tringe, Susannah G.; Tortell, Philippe D.; Hallam, Steven J.

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

239

Ocean Navitas | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Navitas Navitas Jump to: navigation, search Name Ocean Navitas Address Nursery House Place United Kingdom Zip DN21 5BQ Sector Ocean Product Ocean Navitas was incorporated in May 2006 by experienced engineers, businessmen and sailing enthusiasts David Hunt, James McCague and Simon Condry. Website http://www.oceannavitas.com Region United Kingdom References Ocean NavitasUNIQ75db538f85b32404-ref-000014E2-QINU LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This company is listed in the Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology Database. This company is involved in the following MHK Projects: Ocean Navitas NaREC This company is involved in the following MHK Technologies: Aegir Dynamo This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it.

240

Ocean - FAQ | Data.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

FAQ FAQ Ocean Data Tools Technical Guide Map Gallery Regional Planning Feedback Ocean You are here Data.gov » Communities » Ocean Frequently Asked Questions Following are some Frequently Asked Questions, we hope to add to this list as we hear from you. Questions What is Ocean.data.gov? How can I use this resource? What data can I expect to find here? Where do these data come from? Can data from State and academic sources be included in this portal? Who can suggest data and information to be included in Ocean.data.gov? Who decides what data are included? How do I get involved? How does this differ from other data efforts such as regional data portals? Where do I find information about data standards, metadata standards, and formats? Can we provide feedback about a particular dataset?

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas methanol ocean" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Energy Basics: Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Tidal Energy Wave Energy...

242

The Global Impact of Ocean Nourishment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of the ocean to sequester atmospheric carbon dioxide and to increase the sustainable fish catch. The present annual level of photosynthetic activity of the upper ocean is...

243

Green Ocean Wave Energy | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ocean Wave Energy Jump to: navigation, search Name Green Ocean Wave Energy Sector Marine and Hydrokinetic Website http:http:www.greenoceanwa Region United States LinkedIn...

244

Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean Print The Southern Ocean, circling the Earth between Antarctica and the southernmost regions of Africa, South America, and Australia, is...

245

Energy Basics: Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Thermal Energy Conversion A process called ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) uses the heat energy stored in the Earth's oceans to generate electricity. OTEC works best when...

246

WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead previously by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC). The project is now under the leadership of ConocoPhillips Company (COP) after it acquired GEC and the E-Gas{trademark} gasification technology from Global Energy in July 2003. The Phase I of this project was supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation, while the Phase II is supported by Gas Technology Institute, TDA Research, Inc., and Nucon International, Inc. The two project phases planned for execution include: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility at Global Energy's existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana, and for a fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations (2) Research, development, and testing (RD&T) to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues. The WREL facility was designed, constructed, and operated under a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now acquired and offered commercially by COP as the E-GAS{trademark} technology. In a joint effort with the DOE, a Cooperative Agreement was awarded under the Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) solicitation. GEC, and now COP and the industrial partners are investigating the use of synthesis gas produced by the E-GAS{trademark} technology in a coproduction environment to enhance the efficiency and productivity of solid fuel gasification combined cycle power plants. The objectives of this effort are to determine the feasibility of an EECP located at a specific site which produces some combination of electric power (or heat), fuels, and/or chemicals from synthesis gas derived from coal, or, coal in combination with some other carbonaceous feedstock. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information that will be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry.

Thomas Lynch

2004-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

247

Conceptual design of a coal-to-methanol-to-gasoline commercial plant. Volume V. Alternate design studies. Second interim final report, August 31, 1977-March 1, 1979  

SciTech Connect

Three design cases have been investigated for converting methanol to gasoline using the Mobil process. These are defined as Case A, which produces gasoline and byproduct LPG; Case B, which produces gasoline, high Btu gas, and byproduct LPG; and Case C which produces gasoline only. The LPG includes propane LPG and high purity isobutane. Base Case B is described in Volumes I and IV of this report. Alternate Cases A and C are described in part I of Volume V. Part II of this volume (V) contains additional process studies. Under Contract EX-76-C-01-2416 Modification No. A006, item (4) of the General Requirements requires economy of scale evaluations, and item (24) of the Scope of Work includes studies of Lurgi methanol synthesis recommendations, integration of Methanol-to-Gasoline facilities with a refinery, and recovery of aromatics from stabilized synthetic gasoline.

1979-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Development of vanadium-phosphate catalysts for methanol production by selective oxidation of methane. Quarterly technical progress report 11, October--December 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Activities during this report period focused on testing of additional modified and promoted catalysts and characterization of these materials. Methanol oxidation studies were performed as a method of acid site characterization. Improvements to the product gas analysis system continued to be developed. These results are reported. Specific accomplishments include: (1) Obtaining and interpreting infrared spectra of modified catalysts prepared to enhance surface acidity. (2) Testing of these catalysts in methanol oxidation as a method of acid site characterization and to determine catalytic activity for conversion of this desired product. Catalysts were quite active for methanol conversion to dimethyl ether. Two of the modified catalysts prepared in this work exhibited the highest activity for this reaction, presumably because of their higher surface areas. (3) Determination that acidity modifications had no effect on activity for methane conversion.

McCormick, R.L.

1996-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

249

Methanol fuel vehicle demonstration: Exhaust emission testing. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ford Motor Company converted four stock 1986 Ford Crown Victoria sedans to methanol flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs). During 143,108 operational miles from 1987 to 1990, the FFVs underwent more than 300 dynamometer driving tests to measure exhaust emissions, catalytic activity, fuel economy, acceleration, and driveability with gasoline and methanol blend fuels. Dynamometer driving tests included the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), the Highway Fuel Economy Test, and the New York City Cycle. Exhaust emission measurements included carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), non- oxygenated hydrocarbons, organic material hydrocarbon equivalent (OMHCE), formaldehyde, and methanol. Catalytic activity was based on exhaust emissions data from active and inactive catalysts. OMHCE, CO, and NO{sub x} were usually lower with M85 (85% methanol, 15% gasoline) than with gasoline for both active and inactive catalysts when initial engine and catalyst temperatures were at or near normal operating temperatures. CO was higher with M85 than with gasoline when initial engine and catalyst temperatures were at or near ambient temperature. Formaldehyde and methanol were higher with M85. Active catalyst FTP OMHCE, CO, and NO{sub x} increased as vehicle mileage increased, but increased less with M85 than with gasoline. Energy based fuel economy remained almost constant with changes in fuel composition and vehicle mileage.

Hyde, J.D. [New York State Dept. of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY (US). Automotive Emissions Lab.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Ocean Energy Technology Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ocean Energy Technology Basics Ocean Energy Technology Basics Ocean Energy Technology Basics August 16, 2013 - 4:18pm Addthis Text Version Photo of low waves in the ocean. A dock is visible in the background. Oceans cover more than 70% of the Earth's surface. As the world's largest solar collectors, oceans contain thermal energy from the sun and produce mechanical energy from tides and waves. Even though the sun affects all ocean activity, the gravitational pull of the moon primarily drives tides, and wind powers ocean waves. Learn more about: Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Tidal Energy Wave Energy Ocean Resources Addthis Related Articles Energy Department Releases New Energy 101 Video on Ocean Power A map generated by Georgia Tech's tidal energy resource database shows mean current speed of tidal streams. The East Coast, as shown above, has strong tides that could be tapped to produce energy. | Photo courtesy of Georgia Institute of Technology

251

Oceanic shipping soundscapes.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Shipping and wind are key sources in the oceanic soundscape that affects marine mammal habitats. A new method of forming such soundscapes is presented. Frequency and range dependent transmission losses are precomputed from a grid of virtual sources using fast ray computations (BELLHOP) on a specified number of radial lines. Each radial line samples the bathymetry along its bearing out to a given maximum range. A shipping soundscape is then estimated by assigning a source spectral density level (dB re 1 ? Pa2/Hz) and a shipping density (number of ships per unit area per unit time) to the various grid nodes. Such density values are obtained directly from ships carrying an automatic identification system (AIS) that transmit information such as ship type

Christian de Moustier; Michael Porter

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Atmospheric and Oceanic Simulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Introduction It is widely recognized that internal tides have strong influence on the global thermohaline circulation, because it contribute significantly to deep ocean mixing, the essential process for the maintenance of the thermohaline circulation [Munk and Wunsch, 1998]. Internal tides generated by strong tide-topography interactions occasionally break causing intense turbulent mixing [Lien and Gregg, 2001]. Turbulent mixing may also be induced far from wave generation sites, because propagating internal tides can nonlinearly interact with the background internal waves and cascade part of their energy down to small scales where breaking can occur. The East China Sea and adjacent seas are one of the most important generation regions of internal tides, and hence the associated turbulent mixing. Indeed, using a two-dimensional analytical model, Baines [1982] predicted that the continental shelf slope in the East China Sea is the second largest generator of the M 2 internal tide amon

Niwa; Group Representative

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Near and far field models of external fluid mechanics of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) power plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The world is facing the challenge of finding new renewable sources of energy - first, in response to fossil fuel reserve depletion, and second, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) can ...

Rodríguez Buño, Mariana

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Hydrogen production from the steam reforming of Dinethyl Ether and Methanol  

SciTech Connect

This study investigates dimethyl ether (DME) steam reforming for the generation of hydrogen rich fuel cell feeds for fuel cell applications. Methanol has long been considered as a fuel for the generation of hydrogen rich fuel cell feeds due to its high energy density, low reforming temperature, and zero impurity content. However, it has not been accepted as the fuel of choice due its current limited availability, toxicity and corrosiveness. While methanol steam reforming for the generation of hydrogen rich fuel cell feeds has been extensively studied, the steam reforming of DME, CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3} + 3H{sub 2}O = 2CO{sub 2} + 6H{sub 2}, has had limited research effort. DME is the simplest ether (CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3}) and is a gas at ambient conditions. DME has physical properties similar to those of LPG fuels (i.e. propane and butane), resulting in similar storage and handling considerations. DME is currently used as an aerosol propellant and has been considercd as a diesel substitute due to the reduced NOx, SOx and particulate emissions. DME is also being considered as a substitute for LPG fuels, which is used extensively in Asia as a fuel for heating and cooking, and naptha, which is used for power generation. The potential advantages of both methanol and DME include low reforming temperature, decreased fuel proccssor startup energy, environmentally benign, visible flame, high heating value, and ease of storage and transportation. In addition, DME has the added advantages of low toxicity and being non-corrosive. Consequently, DME may be an ideal candidate for the generation of hydrogen rich fuel cell feeds for both automotive and portable power applications. The steam reforming of DME has been demonstrated to occur through a pair of reactions in series, where the first reaction is DME hydration followed by MeOH steam reforming to produce a hydrogen rich stream.

Semelsberger, T. A. (Troy A.); Borup, R. L. (Rodney L.)

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Drilling Waste Management Fact Sheet: Discharge to Ocean  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Discharge to Ocean Discharge to Ocean Fact Sheet - Discharge to Ocean Past Practices In early offshore oil and gas development, drilling wastes were generally discharged from the platforms directly to the ocean. Until several decades ago, the oceans were perceived to be limitless dumping grounds. During the 1970s and 1980s, however, evidence mounted that some types of drilling waste discharges could have undesirable effects on local ecology, particularly in shallow water. When water-based muds (WBMs) were used, only limited environmental harm was likely to occur, but when operators employed oil-based muds (OBMs) on deeper sections of wells, the resulting cuttings piles created impaired zones beneath and adjacent to the platforms. At some North Sea locations, large piles of oil-based cuttings remain on the sea floor near the platforms. Piles of oil-based cuttings can affect the local ecosystem in three ways: by smothering organisms, by direct toxic effect of the drilling waste, and by anoxic conditions caused by microbial degradation of the organic components in the waste. Current regulatory controls minimize the impacts of permitted discharges of cuttings.

256

Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol process. Technical progress report number 8, April 1--June 30, 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The project involves the construction of an 80,000 gallon per day (260 tons per day (TPD)) methanol unit utilizing coal-derived synthesis gas from Eastman`s integrated coal gasification facility. The new equipment consists of synthesis gas feed preparation and compression facilities, the liquid phase reactor and auxiliaries, product distillation facilities, and utilities. The technology to be demonstrated is the product of a cooperative development effort by Air Products and DOE in a program that started in 1981. Developed to enhance electric power generation using integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology, the LPMEOH{trademark} process is ideally suited for directly processing gases produced by modern-day coal gasifiers. Originally tested at a small (10 TPD), DOE-owned experimental unit in LaPorte, Texas, the technology provides several improvements essential for the economic coproduction of methanol and electricity directly from gasified coal. This liquid phase process suspends fine catalyst particles in an inert liquid, forming a slurry. The slurry dissipates the heat of the chemical reaction away from the catalyst surface, protecting the catalyst and allowing the methanol synthesis reaction to proceed at higher rates. At the Eastman complex, the technology is being integrated with existing coal-gasifiers. A carefully developed test plan will allow operations at Eastman to simulate electricity demand load-following in coal-based IGCC facilities. The operations will also demonstrate the enhanced stability and heat dissipation of the conversion process, its reliable on/off operation, and its ability to produce methanol as a clean liquid fuel without additional upgrading.

NONE

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

257

Alkali or alkaline earth metal promoted catalyst and a process for methanol synthesis using alkali or alkaline earth metals as promoters  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a heterogeneous catalyst comprising reduced copper chromite impregnated with an alkali or alkaline earth metal. There is thus no need to add a separate alkali or alkaline earth compound. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100--160 C and the pressure range of 40--65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H[sub 2]/CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I.; Palekar, V.M.

1995-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

258

Alkali or alkaline earth metal promoted catalyst and a process for methanol synthesis using alkali or alkaline earth metals as promoters  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a heterogeneous catalyst comprising reduced copper chromite impregnated with an alkali or alkaline earth metal. There is thus no need to add a separate alkali or alkaline earth compound. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100.degree.-160.degree. C. and the pressure range of 40-65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H.sub.2 /CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

Tierney, John W. (Pittsburgh, PA); Wender, Irving (Pittsburgh, PA); Palekar, Vishwesh M. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic com-pound (VOC) derived from natural gas that is added to gas-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic com- pound (VOC) derived from natural gas Water in Urban and Agricultural Areas made from methanol, which is derived primarily from natural gas that is added to gas- oline either seasonally or year round in many parts of the United States to increase

260

Crow Tribe of Indians: synfuels feasibility study. Volume II. Process design and cost estimate. Book III. Sections 6. 5 through 6. 9. [Crow Synfuels Project; coproducts (methanol and SNG)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The principal difference in the design for the Coproduction Case is that methanol and substitute natural gas (SNG) are the major products as opposed to only SNG in the Base Case. The pure syngas is fed to a methanol synthesis unit producing methanol which is purified. The purge gas from the Methanol Synthesis unit is converted to SNG by methanation. Other process and utility/offsite units are similar to the Base Case except there is no requirement for a CO Shift unit and there is a slight variation in size of some units to accommodate the change in processing scheme. Coal feed to gasification and boilers is identical to the Base Case. Feed and product rates for this case are given in Section 6.5.2. Other than the methanol and SNG products, the byproduct rates are only marginally different from the Base Case. Power available for export is less than the Base Case, due mainly to the additional energy consumed in the Methanol Synthesis unit.

Not Available

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas methanol ocean" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Direct methanol/air fuel cells: Systems considerations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Successful operation of a direct methanol/air fuel cell system depends upon appropriate integration of the fuel cell components and accommodation of the need for heat and mass transfer within the system. The features of the system that must be considered separately and in an interactive fashion are: (1) the physical state of the fuel feed stream, (2) electrode characteristics, (3) characteristics of the electrolyte, (4) product water removal, (5) heat transfer into our out of the stack, and (6) methanol loss modes. The operating temperature and pressure will be determined, to a large extent, by these features. An understanding of the component features and their interactions is necessary for initial system considerations for direct methanol/air fuel cells.

Huff, J.R.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Density Functional Studies of Methanol Decomposition on Subnanometer Pd Clusters  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A density functional theory study of the decomposition of methanol on subnanometer palladium clusters (primarily Pd4) is presented. Methanol dehydrogenation through C-H bond breaking to form hydroxymethyl (CH2OH) as the initial step, followed by steps involving formation of hydroxymethylene (CHOH), formyl (CHO), and carbon monoxide (CO), is found to be the most favorable reaction pathway. A competing dehydrogenation pathway with O-H bond breaking as the first step, followed by formation of methoxy (CH3O) and formaldehyde (CH2O), is slightly less favorable. In contrast, pathways involving C-O bond cleavage are much less energetically favorable, and no feasible pathways involving C-O bond formation to yield dimethyl ether (CH3OCH3) are found. Comparisons of the results are made with methanol decomposition products adsorbed on more extended Pd surfaces; all reaction intermediates are found to bind slightly more strongly to the clusters than to the surfaces.

Mehmood, Faisal; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Curtiss, Larry A.

2009-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

263

Is Methanol the Transportation Fuel of the Future?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

coal, oil shale, and biomass. Natural gas (NG)was virtuallytight gas-bearing sands, coal seams, shales, geopressurtzed

Sperling, Daniel; DeLuchi, Mark A.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Ocean Tidal Dissipation and its Role in Solar System Satellite Evolution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Magma ocean dissipation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .of the ocean . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Tidally-driven flow in global satellite oceans

Chen, Erinna

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Injector spray characterization of methanol in reciprocating engines  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report covers a study that addressed cold-starting problems in alcohol-fueled, spark-ignition engines by using fine-spray port-fuel injectors to inject fuel directly into the cylinder. This task included development and characterization of some very fine-spray, port-fuel injectors for a methanol-fueled spark-ignition engine. After determining the spray characteristics, a computational study was performed to estimate the evaporation rate of the methanol fuel spray under cold-starting and steady-state conditions.

Dodge, L.; Naegeli, D. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Direct methanol fuel cells at reduced catalyst loadings  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We focus in this paper on the reduction of catalyst loading in direct methanol fuel cells currently under development at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Based on single-cell DMFC testing, we discuss performance vs. catalyst loading trade-offs and demonstrate optimization of the anode performance. We also show test data for a short five-cell DMFC stack with the average total platinum loading of 0.53 mg cm{sup -2} and compare performance of this stack with the performance of a single direct methanol fuel cell using similar total amount of precious metal.

Zelenay, P. (Piotr); Guyon, F. (Francois); Gottesfeld, Shimshon

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELLS AT REDUCED CATALYST LOADINGS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We focus in this paper on the reduction of catalyst loading in direct methanol fuel cells currently under development at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Based on single-cell DMFC testing, we discuss performance vs. catalyst loading trade-offs and demonstrate optimization of the anode performance. We also show test data for a short five-cell DMFC stack with the average total platinum loading of 0.53 mg cm{sup {minus}2} and compare performance of this stack with the performance of a single direct methanol fuel cell using similar total amount of precious metal.

P. ZELENAY; F. GUYON; SM. GOTTESFELD

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Comparison of Bond Scission Sequence of Methanol on Tungsten Monocarbide and Pt-Modified Tungsten Monocarbide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ability to control the bond scission sequence of O-H, C-H, and C-O bonds is of critical importance in the effective utilization of oxygenate molecules, such as in reforming reactions and in alcohol fuel cells. In the current study, we use methanol as a probe molecule to demonstrate the possibility to control the decomposition pathways by supporting monolayer coverage of Pt on a tungsten monocarbide (WC) surface. Density functional theory (DFT) results reveal that on the WC and Pt/WC surfaces CH{sub 3}OH decomposes via O-H bond scission to form the methoxy (*CH{sub 3} O) intermediate. The subsequent decomposition of methoxy on the WC surface occurs through the C-O bond scission to form *CH{sub 3}, which reacts with surface *H to produce CH{sub 4}. In contrast, the decomposition of methoxy on the Pt/WC surface favors the C-H bond scission to produce *CH{sub 2} O, which prevents the formation of the *CH{sub 3} species and leads to the formation of a *CO intermediate through subsequent deprotonation steps. The DFT predictions are validated using temperature programmed desorption to quantify the gas-phase product yields and high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy to determine the surface intermediates from methanol decomposition on Pt, WC, and Pt/WC surfaces.

Liu, P.; Stottlemyer, A.L.; Chen, J.G.

2010-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

269

Charcoal-methanol adsorption refrigerator powered by a compound parabolic concentrating solar collector  

SciTech Connect

A compound parabolic concentrating solar collector (CPC) of concentration ratio 3.9 and aperture area 2.0 m[sup 2] was used to power an intermittent solid adsorption refrigerator and ice maker using activated charcoal (carbon) as the adsorbing medium and methanol as the working fluid. The copper tube receiver of the CPC was packed with 2.5 kg of imported adsorbent 207E3, which was only utilized when the performance of activated charcoal (ACJ1, produced from local coconut shells) was found to be inferior to the imported adsorbent. Up to 1 kg of ice at an evaporator temperature of [minus]6[degrees]C was produced, with the net solar coefficient of performance (COP) being of the order of 0.02. Maximum receiver/adsorbent temperature recorded was 154[degrees]C on a day when the insolation was 26.8 MJ/m[sup [minus]2]. Temperatures in excess of 150[degrees]C are undesirable since they favour the conversion of methanol to dimethyl ether, a noncondensable gas which inhibits both condensation and adsorption. The major advantage of this system is its ability to produce ice even on overcast days (insolation [approximately] 10 MJ/m[sup [minus]2]).

Headley, O.StC.; Kothdiwala, A.F.; McDoom, I.A. (Univ. of the West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad and Tobago))

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM LEG 158 SCIENTIFIC PROSPECTUS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for the Ocean Drilling Program Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (Federal Republic of Germany) Institut Français

271

OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM LEG 160 PRELIMINARY REPORT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

/Canada/Chinese Taipei/Korea Consortium for Ocean Drilling Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (Federal Republic of Germany

272

OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM LEG 160 SCIENTIFIC PROSPECTUS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

/Canada/Chinese Taipei/Korea Consortium for Ocean Drilling Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (Federal Republic of Germany

273

Thermodynamic Analysis of Ocean Circulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Calculating a streamfunction as function of depth and density is proposed as a new way of analyzing the thermodynamic character of the overturning circulation in the global ocean. The sign of an overturning cell in this streamfunction directly ...

J. Nycander; J. Nilsson; K. Döös; G. Broström

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Humidity Profiles over the Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The distribution of water vapor in the atmosphere affects climate change through radiative balance and surface evaporation. The variabilities of atmospheric humidity profile over oceans from daily to interannual time scales were examined using ...

W. Timothy Liu; Wenqing Tang; Pearn P. Niiler

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

The Oceanic Eddy Heat Transport  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The rectified eddy heat transport is calculated from a global high-resolution ocean general circulation model. The eddy heat transport is found to be strong in the western boundary currents, the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, and the equatorial ...

Steven R. Jayne; Jochem Marotzke

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

MPAS-Ocean Development Update  

SciTech Connect

The Model for Prediction Across Scales (MPAS) is a modeling framework developed jointly between NCAR and LANL, built to allow core developers to: rapidly develop new dynamical cores, and leverage improvements made to shared codes. MPAS-Ocean (MPAS-O) is a functioning ocean model capable of high resolution, or highly vairable resolution simulations. The first MPAS-O publication is expected by the end of the year.

Jacobsen, Douglas W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ringler, Todd D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Petersen, Mark R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jones, Philip W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Maltrud, Mathew E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

277

Liquid Phase Methanol LaPorte Process Development Unit: Modification, operation, and support studies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A gas phase and a slurry phase radioactive tracer study was performed on the 12 ton/day Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH) Process Development Unit (PDU) in LaPorte, Texas. To study the gas phase mixing characteristics, a radioactive argon tracer was injected into the feed gas and residence time distribution was generated by measuring the response at the reactor outlet. Radioactive manganese oxide powder was independently injected into the reactor to measure the slurry phase mixing characteristics. A tanks-in-series model and an axial dispersion model were applied to the data to characterize the mixing in the reactor. From the axial dispersion model, a translation to the number of CSTR's (continuous stirred tank reactors) was made for comparison purposes with the first analysis. Dispersion correlations currently available in the literature were also compared. The tanks-in-series analysis is a simpler model whose results are easily interpreted. However, it does have a few drawbacks; among them, the lack of a reliable method for scaleup of a reactor and no direct correlation between mixing in the slurry and gas phases. The dispersion model allows the mixing in the gas and slurry phases to be characterized separately while including the effects of phase transfer. This analysis offers a means for combining the gas and slurry phase dispersion models into an effective dispersion coefficient, which, in turn, can be related to an equivalent number of tanks-in-series. The dispersion methods reported are recommended for scaleup of a reactor system. 24 refs., 18 figs., 8 tabs.

Not Available

1990-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

278

Evaluation of dissociated and steam-reformed methanol as automotive engine fuels  

SciTech Connect

Dissociated and steam reformed methanol were evaluated as automotive engine fuels. Advantages and disadvantages in using methanol in the reformed rather than liquid state are discussed. Engine dynamometer tests were conducted with a four cylinder, 2.3 liter, spark ignition automotive engine to determine performance and emission characteristics operating on simulated dissociated and steam reformed methanol (2H/sub 2/ + CO and 3H/sub 2/ + CO/sub 2/ respectively), and liquid methanol. Results are presented for engine performance and emissions as functions of equivalence ratio, at various throttle settings and engine speeds. Operation on dissociated and steam reformed methanol was characterized by flashback (violent propagation of a flame into the intake manifold) which limited operation to lower power output than was obtainable using liquid methanol. It was concluded that: an automobile could not be operated solely on dissociated or steam reformed methanol over the entire required power range - a supplementary fuel system or power source would be necessary to attain higher powers; the use of reformed methanol, compared to liquid methanol, may result in a small improvement in thermal efficiency in the low power range; dissociated methanol is a better fuel than steam reformed methanol for use in a spark ignition engine; and use of dissociated or steam reformed methanol may result in lower exhaust emissions compared to liquid methanol. 36 references, 27 figures, 3 tables.

Lalk, T.R.; McCall, D.M.; McCanlies, J.M.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH(TM)) Process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOHTM) Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership). Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) formed the Partnership to execute the Demonstration Project. The LPMEOIYM Process Demonstration Unit was built at a site located at the Eastman complex in Kingsport. During this quarter, comments from the DOE on the Topical Report "Economic Analysis - LPMEOHTM Process as an Add-on to IGCC for Coproduction" were received. A recommendation to continue with design verification testing for the coproduction of dimethyl ether (DIME) and methanol was made. DME design verification testing studies show the liquid phase DME (LPDME) process will have a significant economic advantage for the coproduction of DME for local markets. An LPDME catalyst system with reasonable long-term activity and stability is being developed. A recommendation document summarizing catalyst targets, experimental results, and the corresponding economics for a commercially successful LPDME catalyst was issued on 30 June 1997. The off-site, product-use test plan was updated in June of 1997. During this quarter, Acurex Environmental Corporation and Air Products screened proposals for this task by the likelihood of the projects to proceed and the timing for the initial methanol requirement. Eight sites from the list have met these criteria. The formal submission of the eight projects for review and concurrence by the DOE will be made during the next reporting period. The site paving and final painting were completed in May of 1997. Start-up activities were completed during the reporting period, and the initial methanol production from the demonstration unit occurred on 02 April 1997. The first extended stable operation at the nameplate capacity of 80,000 gallons per day (260 tons per day) took place on 06 April 1997. Pressure drop and resistance coefficient across the gas sparger at the bottom of the reactor increased over this initial operating period. The demonstration unit was shut down from 08 May -17 June 1997 as part of a scheduled complex outage for the Kingsport site. During this outage, the gas sparger was removed, cleaned, and reinstalled. After completion of other maintenance activities, the demonstration unit was restarted, and maintained stable operation through the remainder of the reporting period. Again, the gas sparger showed an increase in pressure drop and resistance since the restart, although not as rapidly as during the April-May operation. Fresh oil was introduced online for the first time to a new flush connection on the gas inlet line to the reactov the flush lowered the pressure drop by 1 psi. However, the effects were temporary, and the sparger resistance coefficient continued to increase. Additional flushing with both fresh oil and entrained slurry recovered in the cyclone and secondary oil knock-out drum will be attempted in order to stabilize the sparger resistance coefficient.

None

1997-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

280

WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), a company of Global Energy Inc., and supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Three project phases are planned for execution over a three year period, including: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility, and for fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations (2) Research, development, and testing to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues (3) Engineering design and financing plan to install an integrated commercial demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The WREL facility is a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now offered commercially by Global Energy, Inc., as the E-GAS{trademark} technology. In a joint effort with the DOE, a Cooperative Agreement was awarded under the Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) solicitation. GEC and an Industrial Consortium are investigating the use of synthesis gas produced by the E-GAS{trademark} technology in a coproduction environment to enhance the efficiency and productivity of solid fuel gasification combined cycle power plants. During the reporting period, various methods to remove low-level contaminants for the synthesis gas were reviewed. In addition, there was a transition of the project personnel for GEC which has slowed the production of the outstanding project reports.

Gary Harmond; Albert Tsang

2003-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas methanol ocean" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Methanol tolerant oxygen reduction catalysts based on transition metal sulfides  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The oxygen reduction activity and methanol tolerance of a range of transition metal sulfide electrocatalysts have been evaluated in half-cell experiments and in a liquid-feed solid polymer electrolyte direct methanol fuel cell. These catalysts were prepared in high surface area form by direct synthesis onto various surface-functionalized carbon blacks. Of the materials tested, mixed-metal catalysts based on ReRuS and MoRuS were observed to give the best oxygen reduction activities. In addition, significant increases in performance were observed when employing sulfur-functionalized carbon black, which were attributed to the preferential deposition of active Ru sites in the catalyst-preparation process. Although the intrinsic activity of the best material tested, namely, Mo{sub 2}Ru{sub 5}S{sub 5} on sulfur-treated XC-72, was lower than Pt (by ca. 1545 mV throughout the entire polarization curve), its activity relative to Pt increased significantly in methanol-contaminated electrolytes. This was due to methanol oxidation side reactions reducing the net activity of the Pt, especially at low overpotentials.

Reeve, R.W.; Christensen, P.A.; Hamnett, A.; Haydock, S.A.; Roy, S.C. [Univ. of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

The Production of Methanol by the Brookhaven National Laboratory Process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An important issue for electric utility planners is the need for economically attractive and environmentally acceptable fuel energy sources. The delivery of fuel values to distant markets by means of methanol produced by a more efficient and lower capital cost process merits careful consideration.

1990-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

283

On direct and indirect methanol fuel cells for transportation applications  

SciTech Connect

Power densities in electrolyte Direct Methanol Fuel Cells have been achieved which are only three times lower than those achieved with similar reformate/air fuel cells. Remaining issues are: improved anode catalyst activity, demonstrated long-term stable performance, and high fuel efficiencies.

Ren, Xiaoming; Wilson, M.S.; Gottesfeld, S.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Neural Net Based Hybrid Modeling of the Methanol Synthesis Process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Hybrid modeling approach, combining an analytical model with a radial basis function neural network is introduced in this paper. The modeling procedure is combined with genetic algorithm based feature selection designed to select informative variables ... Keywords: feature selection, genetic algorithms, hybrid modeling, methanol synthesis, neural networks

Primož Poto?nik; Marko Šetinc; Igor Grabec; Janez Levec

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

IGNITION IMPROVEMENT OF LEAN NATURAL GAS MIXTURES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes work performed during a thirty month project which involves the production of dimethyl ether (DME) on-site for use as an ignition-improving additive in a compression-ignition natural gas engine. A single cylinder spark ignition engine was converted to compression ignition operation. The engine was then fully instrumented with a cylinder pressure transducer, crank shaft position sensor, airflow meter, natural gas mass flow sensor, and an exhaust temperature sensor. Finally, the engine was interfaced with a control system for pilot injection of DME. The engine testing is currently in progress. In addition, a one-pass process to form DME from natural gas was simulated with chemical processing software. Natural gas is reformed to synthesis gas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide), converted into methanol, and finally to DME in three steps. Of additional benefit to the internal combustion engine, the offgas from the pilot process can be mixed with the main natural gas charge and is expected to improve engine performance. Furthermore, a one-pass pilot facility was constructed to produce 3.7 liters/hour (0.98 gallons/hour) DME from methanol in order to characterize the effluent DME solution and determine suitability for engine use. Successful production of DME led to an economic estimate of completing a full natural gas-to-DME pilot process. Additional experimental work in constructing a synthesis gas to methanol reactor is in progress. The overall recommendation from this work is that natural gas to DME is not a suitable pathway to improved natural gas engine performance. The major reasons are difficulties in handling DME for pilot injection and the large capital costs associated with DME production from natural gas.

Jason M. Keith

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

The efficient use of natural gas in transportation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Concerns over air quality and greenhouse gas emissions have prompted discussion as well as action on alternative fuels and energy efficiency. Natural gas and natural gas derived fuels and fuel additives are prime alternative fuel candidates for the transportation sector. In this study, we reexamine and add to past work on energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions of natural gas fuels for transportation (DeLuchi 1991, Santini et a. 1989, Ho and Renner 1990, Unnasch et al. 1989). We add to past work by looking at Methyl tertiary butyl ether (from natural gas and butane component of natural gas), alkylate (from natural gas butanes), and gasoline from natural gas. We also reexamine compressed natural gas, liquified natural gas, liquified petroleum gas, and methanol based on our analysis of vehicle efficiency potential. We compare the results against nonoxygenated gasoline.

Stodolsky, F.; Santini, D.J.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

The efficient use of natural gas in transportation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Concerns over air quality and greenhouse gas emissions have prompted discussion as well as action on alternative fuels and energy efficiency. Natural gas and natural gas derived fuels and fuel additives are prime alternative fuel candidates for the transportation sector. In this study, we reexamine and add to past work on energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions of natural gas fuels for transportation (DeLuchi 1991, Santini et a. 1989, Ho and Renner 1990, Unnasch et al. 1989). We add to past work by looking at Methyl tertiary butyl ether (from natural gas and butane component of natural gas), alkylate (from natural gas butanes), and gasoline from natural gas. We also reexamine compressed natural gas, liquified natural gas, liquified petroleum gas, and methanol based on our analysis of vehicle efficiency potential. We compare the results against nonoxygenated gasoline.

Stodolsky, F.; Santini, D.J.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Oceanic Influences on the Seasonal Cycle in Evaporation over the Indian Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The annual mean and seasonal cycle in latent heating over the Indian Ocean are investigated using a simple, analytical ocean model and a 3D, numerical, ocean model coupled to a prescribed atmosphere, which permits interaction through sea surface ...

Roxana C. Wajsowicz; Paul S. Schopf

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

In a Perfect Ocean: The State of the Fisheries and Ecosystems in the North Atlantic Ocean  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Review: In a Perfect Ocean: The State of the Fisheriesin the North Atlantic Ocean By Daniel Pauly and Jay MacleanJay Maclean. In a Perfect Ocean: The State of the Fisheries

Miller, Ryder W.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

The dynamic response of oceanic hydrate deposits to ocean temperature change  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

during transit through the ocean water column Geophys. Res.hydrate in the world's oceans. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 8,of methane hydrate in ocean sediment. Energy and Fuels, 19,

Reagan, Matthew T.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Production economics for hydrogen, ammonia, and methanol during the 1980--2000 period  

SciTech Connect

Refinery hydrogen, ammonia, and methanol, the principal industrial hydrogen products, are now manufactured mainly by catalytic steam reforming of natural gas or some alternative light-hydrocarbon feed stock. Anticipated increases in the prices of hydrocarbons are expected to exceed those for coal, thus gradually increasing the incentive to use coal gasification as a source of industrial hydrogen during the 1980 to 2000 period. Although the investment in industrial hydrogen plants will exceed those for reforming by a factor of 2 or more, coal gasification will provide lower production costs (including 20%/y before tax return) for methanol manufacture in the early 1980's and for ammonia 5 years or so later. However, high costs for transporting coal to major refining centers will make it difficult to justify coal gasification for refinery hydrogen production during the 1980 to 2000 period. By the year 2000, 40 to 50% of the U.S. industrial hydrogen requirements will be provided by coal gasification thus conserving natural gas and light hydrocarbon feed stocks equivalent to about 600,000 B/D of crude oil. Electrolytic hydrogen production costs will be reduced by improved electrolysis technology such as the solid-polymer-electrolyte process. These improved processes will reduce electrolysis plant investments by a factor of 2 or more and reduce electricity requirements by about 20%. Although the production cost, including return for electrolytic hydrogen, will continue to exceed those for reforming and coal gasification, the use of electrolytic hydrogen will be attractive for many small users when the new technology is available in the early 1980's. Electrolytic hydrogen now about 0.7% of total U.S. industrial hydrogen requirements will probably increase to about 1.2% of the total by the year 2000.

Corneil, H G; Heinzelmann, F J; Nicholson, E W.S.

1977-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Application of the GRI 1.2 methane oxidation model to methane and methanol oxidation in supercritical water  

SciTech Connect

The GRI 1.2 mechanism is used to predict the oxidation rates of methane and methanol by oxygen in supercritical water at 250 bar and temperatures ranging from 420--630 C. Using the Chemkin II computational package which assumes an ideal gas equation of state, the GRI model does very well in representing the available experimental results on methane over a wide temperature and concentration rate. However, the model may lack key CH{sub 3}O{sub 2} reactions needed for a complete description in the < 450 C region. The oxidation of methanol and formation of formaldehyde is not well represented by the GRI mechanism when left unchanged. If two important modifications are made to the reactivity of HO{sub 2}, good agreement with the methanol oxidation results is achieved. This paper illustrates that the carefully-assembled GRI 1.2 mechanism, although designed for conventional combustion conditions, can be successfully extended with very little modification to much lower temperature and extreme pressure conditions. The purpose of this study is to understand the operative chemical kinetics of supercritical water oxidation required for the more efficient application of this technology to treatment of hazardous wastes, obsolete munitions, rocket motors, and chemical warfare agents.

Rice, S.F. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Structure Sensitivity of Methanol Electrooxidation on Transition Metals  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have investigated the structure sensitivity of methanol electrooxidation on eight transition metals (Au, Ag, Cu, Pt, Pd, Ir, Rh, and Ni) using periodic, self-consistent density functional theory (DFTGGA). Using the adsorption energies of 16 intermediates on two different facets of these eight face-centeredcubic transition metals, combined with a simple electrochemical model, we address the differences in the reaction mechanism between the (111) and (100) facets of these metals. We investigate two separate mechanisms for methanol electrooxidation: one going through a CO* intermediate (the indirect pathway) and another that oxidizes methanol directly to CO2 without CO* as an intermediate (the direct pathway). A comparison of our results for the (111) and (100) surfaces explains the origin of methanol electrooxidation’s experimentally-established structure sensitivity on Pt surfaces. For most metals studied, on both the (111) and (100) facets, we predict that the indirect mechanism has a higher onset potential than the direct mechanism. Ni(111), Au(100), and Au(111) are the cases where the direct and indirect mechanisms have the same onset potential. For the direct mechanism, Rh, Ir, and Ni show a lower onset potential on the (111) facet, whereas Pt, Cu, Ag, and Au possess lower onset potential on the (100) facet. Pd(100) and Pd(111) have the same onset potential for the direct mechanism. These results can be rationalized by the stronger binding energy of adsorbates on the (100) facet versus the (111) facet. Using linear scaling relations, we establish reactivity descriptors for the (100) surface similar to those recently developed for the (111) surface; the free energies of adsorbed CO* and OH* can describe methanol electrooxidation trends on various metal surfaces reasonably well.

Ferrin, Peter A.; Mavrikakis, Manos

2009-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

294

An Investigation of Different Methods of Fabricating Membrane Electrode Assemblies for Methanol Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Methanol fuel cells are electrochemical conversion devices that produce electricity from methanol fuel. The current process of fabricating membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) is tedious and if it is not sufficiently ...

Hall, Kwame (Kwame J.)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This presentation is a summary of a Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts.

Dinh, H.; Gennett, T.

2010-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

296

WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)  

SciTech Connect

The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), and supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Three project phases are planned for execution, including: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility, and for fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations (2) Research, development, and testing (RD&T) to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues (3) Engineering design and financing plan to install an integrated commercial demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The WREL facility is a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now offered commercially by Global Energy, Inc., parent company of GEC and WREL, as the E-GAS{trademark} technology. In a joint effort with the DOE, a Cooperative Agreement was awarded under the Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) solicitation. GEC and an Industrial Consortium are investigating the use of synthesis gas produced by the E-GAS{trademark} technology in a coproduction environment to enhance the efficiency and productivity of solid fuel gasification combined cycle power plants. The objectives of this effort are to determine the feasibility of an EECP located at a specific site which produces some combination of electric power (or heat), fuels, and/or chemicals from synthesis gas derived from coal, or, coal in combination with some other carbonaceous feedstock. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information that will be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry. During the reporting period, effort continues on identifying potential technologies for removing contaminants from synthesis gas to the level required by methanol synthesis. A liquid phase Claus process and a direct sulfur oxidation process were evaluated. Preliminary discussion was held with interested parties on cooperating on RD&T in Phase II of the project. Also, significant progress was made during the period in the submission of project deliverables. A meeting was held at DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory in Morgantown between GEC and the DOE IMPPCCT Project Manager on the status of the project, and reached an agreement on the best way to wrap up Phase I and transition into the Phase II RD&T. Potential projects for the Phase II, cost, and fund availability were also discussed.

Albert Tsang

2003-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

297

WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), and supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Two project phases are planned for execution, including: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana, and for a fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations (2) Research, development, and testing (RD&T) to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues. The WREL facility is a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now offered commercially by Global Energy, Inc., parent company of GEC and WREL, as the E-GAS{trademark} technology. In a joint effort with the DOE, a Cooperative Agreement was awarded under the Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) solicitation. GEC and an Industrial Consortium are investigating the use of synthesis gas produced by the E-GAS{trademark} technology in a coproduction environment to enhance the efficiency and productivity of solid fuel gasification combined cycle power plants. The objectives of this effort are to determine the feasibility of an EECP located at a specific site which produces some combination of electric power (or heat), fuels, and/or chemicals from synthesis gas derived from coal, or, coal in combination with some other carbonaceous feedstock. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information that will be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry. During the reporting period, DOE approved the RD&T Plan submitted in the previous quarter. The RD&T Plan forms the basis for the Continuation Application to initiate the transition of the project from Phase I to Phase II. Potential technologies for removing contaminants from synthesis gas to the level required by methanol synthesis will be tested in slipstream units at the WREL facility during Phase II. A supplemental information package consisting of a revised Work Breakdown Structure and Budget Plan for Phase II and other necessary forms was also submitted. Agreement is being reached with DOE's patent attorney on the scope of the limited rights data to be provided under the Cooperative Agreement. Preparation of a comprehensive Final Report for Phase I of the project, which will consolidate the remaining deliverables including the Initial Feasibility Report, Concept Report, Site Analysis Report, Economic Analysis, and Preliminary Project Financing Plan, continued during the reporting period. Significant progress was made in the Subsystem Design Specification section of the report.

Albert Tsang

2003-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

298

WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), and supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Three project phases are planned for execution, including: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility, and for fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations (2) Research, development, and testing (RD&T) to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues (3) Engineering design and financing plan to install an integrated commercial demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The WREL facility is a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now offered commercially by Global Energy, Inc., parent company of GEC and WREL, as the E-GAS{trademark} technology. In a joint effort with the DOE, a Cooperative Agreement was awarded under the Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) solicitation. GEC and an Industrial Consortium are investigating the use of synthesis gas produced by the E-GAS{trademark} technology in a coproduction environment to enhance the efficiency and productivity of solid fuel gasification combined cycle power plants. The objectives of this effort are to determine the feasibility of an EECP located at a specific site which produces some combination of electric power (or heat), fuels, and/or chemicals from synthesis gas derived from coal, or, coal in combination with some other carbonaceous feedstock. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information that will be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry. During the reporting period, effort continues on identifying potential technologies for removing contaminants from synthesis gas to the level required by methanol synthesis. A liquid phase Claus process and a direct sulfur oxidation process were evaluated. Preliminary discussion was held with interested parties on cooperating on RD&T in Phase II of the project. Also, significant progress was made during the period in the submission of project deliverables. A meeting was held at DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory in Morgantown between GEC and the DOE IMPPCCT Project Manager on the status of the project, and reached an agreement on the best way to wrap up Phase I and transition into the Phase II RD&T. Potential projects for the Phase II, cost, and fund availability were also discussed.

Albert Tsang

2003-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

299

NOS Point Forecast Guidance to Weather and Ocean Conditions ...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NOS Point Forecast Guidance to Weather and Ocean Conditions Ocean Data Tools Technical Guide Map Gallery Regional Planning Feedback Ocean You are here Data.gov Communities ...

300

OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermal Energy Conversion Conference. Ocean Systems Branch,Thermal Energy Conversion Conference. Ocean Systems Branch,thermal energy conversion, June 18, 1979. Ocean Systems

Sands, M. D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas methanol ocean" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Mechanisms of the meridional heat transport in the Southern Ocean  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

atlas of the Southern Ocean, Natural Environment ResearchMHT. Keywords Southern Ocean . Meridional heat transport .1 Introduction The Southern Ocean (SO) circulation plays an

Volkov, Denis L.; Fu, Lee-Lueng; Lee, Tong

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Observation of Physical Fluxes Between an Estuary and the Ocean  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

between the coastal ocean and a semi-enclosed estuarinebetween the coastal ocean and a semi-enclosed estuarinebetween the coastal ocean and a semi-enclosed estuarine

Stacey, Mark; Powell, Thomas

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Depth profiling ambient noise in the deep ocean  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Acoustic Ambient Noise in the Ocean: Spectra and Sources,"and Osterhus, S. (1999). "Ocean Ambient Sound Instrumenta Subsurface Package," J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 16, 1118-1126.

Barclay, David Readshaw

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Ocean Acidification Impacts on Shellfish Workshop: Findings and Recommendations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The workshop to investigate ocean acidification impacts on Growers Association.   Ocean Acidification Impacts on Proceedings  Integrated Ocean Observing Systems  California 

Dickson, Andrew

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

NREL-Ocean Energy Thermal Conversion | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ocean Energy Thermal Conversion Jump to: navigation, search Logo: NREL-Ocean Energy Thermal Conversion Name NREL-Ocean Energy Thermal Conversion AgencyCompany Organization...

306

OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION: AN OVERALL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

M.D. (editor). 1980. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Draft1980 :. i l OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION: ENVIRONMENTALDevelopment Plan. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion. U.S. DOE

Sands, M.Dale

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Ocean dynamics and thermodynamics in the tropical Indo- Pacific region  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ocean dynamics and thermodynamics in the tropical Indo-Ocean dynamics and thermodynamics in the tropical Indo-affect the dynam- ics and thermodynamics of the upper ocean.

Drushka, Kyla

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Results from the first year of operation of the Federal Methanol Fleet at Argonne National Laboratory  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory, under the auspices of the Department of Energy's Alternative Fuels Utilization Program, has managed the Federal Methanol Fleet Project since its inception in fiscal year 1985. This congressionally-mandated project directed the Department of Energy to introduce methanol-fueled vehicles into civilian government fleet operations. This interim report describes the first year of operation of a methanol fleet at Argonne National Laboratory in Argonne, Illinois. The fleet consists of five methanol-fueled 1986 Chevrolet S-10 pickup trucks along with five Chevrolet S-10s for comparison, as well as five methanol-fueled 1986 Ford Crown Victorias paired with four gasoline Fords. Data have been collected and tabulated on fuel consumption, maintenance records, oil sample analyses, and driver perceptions of vehicle operability. Energy efficiency for the methanol vehicles was slightly greater than that for the counterpart gasoline vehicles. Maintenance records reveal that the methanol vehicles required substantially more service than the gasoline vehicles, but a large proportion of the difference was due to methanol component replacements where improvements or upgrades were scheduled to be implemented after the vehicles were in service. Oil sample analyses revealed that engine wear rates were higher in the methanol vehicles. Drivers indicated that the methanol vehicles are quite acceptable, but they rated the gasoline vehicles higher. The Argonne fleet serves as the cold-weather site of the Federal Methanol Fleet and, as such, the methanol vehicles have been outfitted with special systems to aid in cold-starting and driveability.

McGill, R.N.; Hillis, S.L.; Larsen, R.P.

1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

NETL: Oil & Natural Gas Technologies Reference Shelf - Presentation on  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reactive transport modeling of oceanic gas hydrate instability and dissociation in response to climate change Reactive transport modeling of oceanic gas hydrate instability and dissociation in response to climate change Reactive transport modeling of oceanic gas hydrate instability and dissociation in response to climate change Authors: Matthew T. Reagan and George J. Moridis Venue: 6th International Conference on Gas Hydrates 2008, Vancouver, British Columbia, July 9-12, 2008 (http://www.icgh.org [external site]) Abstract: Paleoceanographic evidence has been used to postulate that methane from oceanic hydrates may have had a significant role in regulating past global climate. The implication is that global oceanic deposits of methane gas hydrate is the main culprit for a sequence of rapid global warming affects that occurred during the late Quaternary period. However, the behavior of contemporary oceanic methane hydrate deposits subjected to rapid temperature changes, like those predicted under future climate change scenarios, is poorly understood. To determine the fate of the carbon stored in these hydrates, we performed coupled thermo-hydrological-chemical simulations of oceanic gas hydrate accumulations subjected to temperature changes at the seafloor, and assessed the potential for methane release into the ecosystem. Our modeling analysis considered the properties of benthic sediments, the saturation and distribution of the hydrates, the ocean depth, the initial seafloor temperature, and the effects of benthic biogeochemical activity. The results show that while many deep hydrate deposits are indeed stable during periods of rapid ocean temperature changes, shallow deposits (such as those found in arctic regions or in the Gulf of Mexico) can undergo rapid dissociation and produce significant carbon fluxes over a period of decades. These fluxes may exceed the ability of the seafloor environment (via anaerobic oxidation of methane and the formation of carbonates) to sequester the released carbon. This model will provide a source term to regional or global climate models in order to assess the coupling of gas hydrate deposits to changes in the global climate.

310

Approximation of Ocean Heat Storage by Ocean–Atmosphere Energy Exchange: Implications for Seasonal Cycle Mixed Layer Ocean Formulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The approximation of ocean heat storage by the net surface energy flux and the implications for zonal mean SST simulation using mixed layer ocean formulation are examined. The analysis considers both constant and variable depth mixed layers. ...

Robert G. Gallimore; David D. Houghton

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Ocean - Tools | Data.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tools Tools Ocean Data Tools Technical Guide Map Gallery Regional Planning Feedback Ocean You are here Data.gov » Communities » Ocean Decision-Support Tools (DSTs): Science and information are fundamental to effective marine planning. Marine planning involves inclusive discussion and analyses of the status and potential uses of 3-dimensional areas of coastal, marine and Great Lakes ecosystems (including the water column) and their potential changes over time. Relevant spatial data and derived interpretive and analytical products (i.e. decision-support tools) help inform all phases of the marine planning process. To date, several decision-support tools have been develop to support marine planning efforts. Marine planners should carefully evaluate which tools best apply to their region or specific issue or project. Below is a list of

312

Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Process. Peroxide formation of dimethyl ether in methanol mixtures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Organic peroxides could form when dimethyl ether in methanol is stored for three to six months at a time. The objective of this work was to determine the level of peroxide formation from dimethyl ether in reagent grade methanol and raw methanol at room temperature under 3 atmospheres (45 psig) of air. Raw methanol is methanol made from syngas by the LPMEOH Process without distillation. Aliphatic ethers tend to react slowly with oxygen from the air to form unstable peroxides. However, there are no reports on peroxide formation from dimethyl ether. After 172 days of testing, dimethyl ether in either reagent methanol or raw methanol at room temperature and under 60--70 psig pressure of air does not form detectable peroxides. Lack of detectable peroxides suggests that dimethyl ether or dimethyl ether and methanol may be stored at ambient conditions. Since the compositions of {approximately} 1.3 mol% or {approximately} 4.5 mol% dimethyl ether in methanol do not form peroxides, these compositions can be considered for diesel fuel or an atmospheric turbine fuel, respectively.

Waller, F.J.

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), and supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Three project phases are planned for execution over a three year period, including: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility, and for fence-line commercial plants operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations; (2) Research, development, and testing to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues; and (3) Engineering design and financing plan to install an integrated commercial demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana. This report describes management planning, work breakdown structure development, and feasibility study activities by the IMPPCCT consortium in support of the first project phase. Project planning activities have been completed, and a project timeline and task list has been generated. Requirements for an economic model to evaluate the West Terre Haute implementation and for other commercial implementations are being defined. Specifications for methanol product and availability of local feedstocks for potential commercial embodiment plant sites have been defined. The WREL facility is a project selected and co-funded under the fifth phase solicitation of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now offered commercially by Global Energy, Inc., as the E-GAS{trademark} technology. In a joint effort with the U.S. Department of Energy, working under a Cooperative Agreement Award from the ''Early Entrance Coproduction Plant'' (EECP) initiative, the GEC and an Industrial Consortia are investigating the application of synthesis gas from the E-GAS{trademark} technology to a coproduction environment to enhance the efficiency and productivity of solid fuel gasification combined cycle power plants. The objectives of this effort are to determine the feasibility of an EECP located at a specific site which produces some combination of electric power (or heat), fuels, and/or chemicals from synthesis gas derived from coal, or, coal in combination with some other carbonaceous feedstock. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information that will be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry.

Doug Strickland; Albert Tsang

2002-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

314

Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment V. The Florida eucalyptus energy farm: environmental impacts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall environmental impact of the eucalyptus to methanol energy system in Florida is assessed. The environmental impacts associated with the following steps of the process are considered: (1) the greenhouse and laboratory; (2) the eucalyptus plantation; (3) transporting the mature logs; (4) the hammermill; and (5) the methanol synthesis plant. Next, the environmental effects of methanol as an undiluted motor fuel, methanol as a gasoline blend, and gasoline as motor fuels are compared. Finally, the environmental effects of the eucalypt gasification/methanol synthesis system are compared to the coal liquefaction and conversion system.

Fishkind, H.H.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Technical-economic assessment of the production of methanol from biomass. Executive summary. Final research report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The results are presented of a comprehensive systems study which assessed the engineering and economic feasibilities of the production of methanol from biomass utilizing existing technology. The three major components of the biomass to methanol system assessed are the availability of biomass feedstocks, the thermochemical conversion of biomass to methanol fuels, and the distribution and markets for methanol fuels. The results of this study show that methanol fuel can be produced from biomass using commercially available technology in the near term, and could be produced economically in significant quantities in the mid-to-late 1980's when advanced technology is available.

Wan, E.I.; Simmons, J.A.; Price, J.D.; Nguyen, T.D.

1979-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

316

Catalytic conversion of methanol to low molecular weight hydrocarbons. [Dissertation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The recent demands on the available energy have stimulated the search for alternatives to oil. Methanol, because of its abundance and the availability of technology to produce it from coal, is projected as an alternative source for producing low molecular weight olefins. Utilizing chabazite ion exchanged with ammonium and rare earth chlorides, methanol is converted to ethylene, propylene and propane with carbon yields of 70 to 90% at reaction temperatures of 633 to 723/sup 0/K and pressures from 1 to 18 atmospheres. X-ray diffraction studies, using Cu-K radiation, show no permanent structural changes after a long use. No permanent deactivation was observed even though the catalyst was overheated once, and have been deactivated and regenerated as many as 21 times. The ammonium exchange coupled with the water at high temperature suggest the formation of an ultrastable zeolite. Ethylene yields increase as the temperature increases from 633/sup 0/K to 723/sup 0/K.

Singh, B.B.

1979-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Transit-Time Distributions in a Global Ocean Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results from a simulation of the ocean “transit-time distribution” (“TTD”) for global and regional ocean surface boundary conditions are presented based on a 5000-yr integration using the Parallel Ocean Program ocean general circulation model. ...

Synte Peacock; Mathew Maltrud

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Final technical report. Bimetallic complexes as methanol oxidation catalysts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Our work on the electrocatalyzed oxidation of methanol was initially motivated by the interest in methanol as an anodic reactant in fuel cells. The literature on electrochemical oxidation of alcohols can be roughly grouped into two sets: fuel cell studies and inorganic chemistry studies. Work on fuel cells primarily focuses on surface-catalyzed oxidation at bulk metal anodes, usually Pt or Pt/Ru alloys. In the surface science/electrochemistry approach to these studies, single molecule catalysts are generally not considered. In contrast, the inorganic community investigates the electrooxidation of alcohols in homogeneous systems. Ruthenium complexes have been the most common catalysts in these studies. The alcohol substrates are typically either secondary alcohols (e.g., isopropanol) such that the reaction stops after 2 e{sup -} oxidation to the aldehyde and 4 e{sup -} oxidation to the carboxylic acid can be observed. Methanol, which can also undergo 6 e{sup -} oxidation to CO{sub 2}, rarely appears in the homogeneous catalysis studies. Surface studies have shown that two types of metal centers with different functions result in more effective catalysts than a single metal; however, application of this concept to homogeneous systems has not been demonstrated. The major thrust of the work is to apply this insight from the surface studies to homogeneous catalysis. Even though homogeneous systems would not be appropriate models for active sites on Pt/Ru anodes, it is possible that heterobimetallic catalysts could also utilize two metal centers for different roles. Starting from that perspective, this work involves the preparation and investigation of heterobinuclear catalysts for the electrochemical oxidation of methanol.

McElwee-White, Lisa

2002-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

319

Ocean Color Web | Data.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ocean Color Web Ocean Color Web Ocean Data Tools Technical Guide Map Gallery Regional Planning Feedback Ocean You are here Data.gov » Communities » Ocean » Data Ocean Color Web Dataset Summary Description A comprehensive image analysis package for the processing, display, analysis, and quality control of ocean color data. Tags {Ocean,"water color",spectrometer,"sea viewing",MODIS,"marine biology",NASA,GSFC,"Goddard Space Flight Center"} Dataset Ratings Overall 0 No votes yet Data Utility 0 No votes yet Usefulness 0 No votes yet Ease of Access 0 No votes yet Dataset Additional Information Last Updated 15-Jan-2010 Publisher National Aeronautics and Space Administration Contact Name Contact Email Gene.C.Feldman@nasa.gov Unique Identifier NASA-1547

320

Dynamics of global ocean heat transport variability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A state-of-the-art, high-resolution ocean general circulation model is used to estimate the time-dependent global ocean heat transport and investigate its dynamics. The north-south heat transport is the prime manifestation ...

Jayne, Steven Robert

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas methanol ocean" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Open Ocean Energy Ltd | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Energy Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name Open Ocean Energy Ltd Sector Marine and Hydrokinetic Website http:http:www.open-ocean-e LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No...

322

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Thermal Energy Conversion Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion August 16, 2013 - 4:22pm Addthis A process called ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) uses the heat energy stored in...

323

Buoyancy Arrest and Shelf–Ocean Exchange  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

When steady flow in a stratified ocean passes between the continental slope and open ocean, its ability to cross isobaths is potentially limited by buoyancy arrest. If the bottom Ekman transport vanishes and there are no interior stresses, then ...

K. H. Brink

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Dynamic and Thermodynamic Regulation of Ocean Warming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relative roles of clouds, surface evaporation, and ocean heat transport in limiting maximum sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the western Pacific warm pool are investigated by means of simple and intermediate coupled ocean–atmosphere models. ...

Tim Li; Timothy F. Hogan; C-P. Chang

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

An Ocean Observing System for Climate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Designs and implementation are proceeding for a Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) and a Global Climate Observing System (GCOS). The initial design for the ocean component of the GCOS, which is also the climate module of the GOOS, was completed ...

Worth D. Nowlin Jr.; Neville Smith; George Needler; Peter K. Taylor; Robert Weller; Ray Schmitt; Liliane Merlivat; Alain Vézina; Arthur Alexiou; Michael McPhaden; Massaaki Wakatsuchi

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Assimilation of Altimeter Data into Ocean Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The problem of assimilating satellite altimeter data into an ocean model is considered for the case in which the ocean currents are weak, so that they can be represented by a superposition of linear Rossby waves, and the altimeter measurements ...

D. J. Webb; A. Moore

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

A Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Development is described of a Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS)—the result of a cooperative project to collect global weather observations taken near the ocean's surface since 1854, primarily from merchant ships, into a compact and ...

Scott D. Woodruff; Ralph J. Slutz; Roy L. Jenne; Peter M. Steurer

1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tax Refund for Methanol Used in Biodiesel  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Tax Refund for Tax Refund for Methanol Used in Biodiesel Production to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tax Refund for Methanol Used in Biodiesel Production on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tax Refund for Methanol Used in Biodiesel Production on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tax Refund for Methanol Used in Biodiesel Production on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tax Refund for Methanol Used in Biodiesel Production on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tax Refund for Methanol Used in Biodiesel Production on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tax Refund for Methanol Used in Biodiesel Production on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search

329

Constraining Oceanic dust deposition using surface 1 ocean dissolved Al 2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Constraining Oceanic dust deposition using surface 1 ocean dissolved Al 2 Qin Han, J. Keith Moore, Charles Zender, Chris Measures, David Hydes 3 Abstract 4 We use measurements of ocean surface dissolved Al and Deposition 6 (DEAD) model, to constrain dust deposition to the oceans. Our Al database contains 7 all

Zender, Charles

330

OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM LEG 106 PRELIMINARY REPORT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by the following agencies: Australia/Canada/Chinese Taipei/Korea Consortium for the Ocean Drilling Program Deutsche

331

OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM LEG 201 SCIENTIFIC PROSPECTUS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by the following agencies: Australia/Canada/Chinese Taipei/Korea Consortium for the Ocean Drilling Program Deutsche

332

The 1981 ocean tomography experiment: Preliminary results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Preliminary results from a 1981 test ocean acoustic tomography experiment are presented. The system deployed in the southern North Atlantic

The Ocean Tomography Group; R. C. Spindel

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Could we identify hot Ocean-Planets with CoRoT, Kepler and Doppler velocimetry?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Planets less massive than about 10 MEarth are expected to have no massive H-He atmosphere and a cometary composition (50% rocks, 50% water, by mass) provided they formed beyond the snowline of protoplanetary disks. Due to inward migration, such planets could be found at any distance between their formation site and the star. If migration stops within the habitable zone, this will produce a new kind of planets, called Ocean-Planets. Ocean-planets typically consist in a silicate core, surrounded by a thick ice mantle, itself covered by a 100 km deep ocean. The existence of ocean-planets raises important astrobiological questions: Can life originate on such body, in the absence of continent and ocean-silicate interfaces? What would be the nature of the atmosphere and the geochemical cycles ? In this work, we address the fate of Hot Ocean-Planets produced when migration ends at a closer distance. In this case the liquid/gas interface can disappear, and the hot H2O envelope is made of a supercritical fluid. Although we do not expect these bodies to harbor life, their detection and identification as water-rich planets would give us insight as to the abundance of hot and, by extrapolation, cool Ocean-Planets.

F. Selsis; B. Chazelas; P. Borde; M. Ollivier; F. Brachet; M. Decaudin; F. Bouchy; D. Ehrenreich; J. -M. Griessmeier; H. Lammer; C. Sotin; O. Grasset; C. Moutou; P. Barge; M. Deleuil; D. Mawet; D. Despois; J. F. Kasting; A. Leger

2007-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

334

List of Ocean Thermal Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Thermal Incentives Thermal Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 96 Ocean Thermal Incentives. CSV (rows 1 - 96) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active Business Energy Investment Tax Credit (ITC) (Federal) Corporate Tax Credit United States Agricultural Commercial Industrial Utility Anaerobic Digestion Biomass CHP/Cogeneration Fuel Cells Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Geothermal Direct Use Geothermal Electric Ground Source Heat Pumps Hydroelectric energy Landfill Gas Microturbines Municipal Solid Waste Ocean Thermal Photovoltaics Small Hydroelectric Small Wind Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Thermal Process Heat Solar Water Heat Tidal Energy Wave Energy Wind energy Yes CCEF - Project 150 Initiative (Connecticut) State Grant Program Connecticut Commercial Solar Thermal Electric

335

Transport of Freshwater by the Oceans  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The global distribution of freshwater transport in the ocean is presented, based on an integration point at Bering Strait, which connects the Pacific and Atlantic oceans via the Artic Ocean. Through Bering Strait, 0.8 × 106 m3 s?1 of relatively ...

Susan E. Wijffels; Raymond W. Schmitt; Harry L. Bryden; Anders Stigebrandt

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Ocean Circulation Kinetic Energy: Reservoirs, Sources,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. The coupling of the generation of different energy forms in the dynamics (in either balanced or wave motions are almost nonexistent in the ocean. www.annualreviews.org · Ocean Circulation Kinetic Energy 255 Annu.Rev.Fluid processes? Are the seemingly different dynamical ranges coupled? 2. THE OCEANIC ENERGY BUDGET We begin

Ferrari, Raffaele

337

The CCSM4 Ocean Component  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ocean component of the Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4) is described, and its solutions from the twentieth-century (20C) simulations are documented in comparison with observations and those of CCSM3. The improvements to the ...

Gokhan Danabasoglu; Susan C. Bates; Bruce P. Briegleb; Steven R. Jayne; Markus Jochum; William G. Large; Synte Peacock; Steve G. Yeager

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Gas lift valve failure mode analysis and the design of a thermally-actuated positive-locking safety valve  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gas-lifted oil wells are susceptible to failure through malfunction of gas lift valves. This is a growing concern as offshore wells are drilled thousands of meters below the ocean floor in extreme temperature and pressure ...

Gilbertson, Eric (Eric W.)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Liquid phase fluid dynamic (methanol) run in the LaPorte alternative fuels development unit  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A fluid dynamic study was successfully completed in a bubble column at DOE's Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) in LaPorte, Texas. Significant fluid dynamic information was gathered at pilot scale during three weeks of Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOJP) operations in June 1995. In addition to the usual nuclear density and temperature measurements, unique differential pressure data were collected using Sandia's high-speed data acquisition system to gain insight on flow regime characteristics and bubble size distribution. Statistical analysis of the fluctuations in the pressure data suggests that the column was being operated in the churn turbulent regime at most of the velocities considered. Dynamic gas disengagement experiments showed a different behavior than seen in low-pressure, cold-flow work. Operation with a superficial gas velocity of 1.2 ft/sec was achieved during this run, with stable fluid dynamics and catalyst performance. Improvements included for catalyst activation in the design of the Clean Coal III LPMEOH{trademark} plant at Kingsport, Tennessee, were also confirmed. In addition, an alternate catalyst was demonstrated for LPMEOH{trademark}.

Bharat L. Bhatt

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Preliminary Geospatial Analysis of Arctic Ocean Hydrocarbon Resources  

SciTech Connect

Ice coverage of the Arctic Ocean is predicted to become thinner and to cover less area with time. The combination of more ice-free waters for exploration and navigation, along with increasing demand for hydrocarbons and improvements in technologies for the discovery and exploitation of new hydrocarbon resources have focused attention on the hydrocarbon potential of the Arctic Basin and its margins. The purpose of this document is to 1) summarize results of a review of published hydrocarbon resources in the Arctic, including both conventional oil and gas and methane hydrates and 2) develop a set of digital maps of the hydrocarbon potential of the Arctic Ocean. These maps can be combined with predictions of ice-free areas to enable estimates of the likely regions and sequence of hydrocarbon production development in the Arctic. In this report, conventional oil and gas resources are explicitly linked with potential gas hydrate resources. This has not been attempted previously and is particularly powerful as the likelihood of gas production from marine gas hydrates increases. Available or planned infrastructure, such as pipelines, combined with the geospatial distribution of hydrocarbons is a very strong determinant of the temporal-spatial development of Arctic hydrocarbon resources. Significant unknowns decrease the certainty of predictions for development of hydrocarbon resources. These include: 1) Areas in the Russian Arctic that are poorly mapped, 2) Disputed ownership: primarily the Lomonosov Ridge, 3) Lack of detailed information on gas hydrate distribution, and 4) Technical risk associated with the ability to extract methane gas from gas hydrates. Logistics may control areas of exploration more than hydrocarbon potential. Accessibility, established ownership, and leasing of exploration blocks may trump quality of source rock, reservoir, and size of target. With this in mind, the main areas that are likely to be explored first are the Bering Strait and Chukchi Sea, in spite of the fact that these areas do not have highest potential for future hydrocarbon reserves. Opportunities for improving the mapping and assessment of Arctic hydrocarbon resources include: 1) Refining hydrocarbon potential on a basin-by-basin basis, 2) Developing more realistic and detailed distribution of gas hydrate, and 3) Assessing the likely future scenarios for development of infrastructure and their interaction with hydrocarbon potential. It would also be useful to develop a more sophisticated approach to merging conventional and gas hydrate resource potential that considers the technical uncertainty associated with exploitation of gas hydrate resources. Taken together, additional work in these areas could significantly improve our understanding of the exploitation of Arctic hydrocarbons as ice-free areas increase in the future.

Long, Philip E.; Wurstner, Signe K.; Sullivan, E. C.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Bradley, Donald J.

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas methanol ocean" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Utilization of coal mine methane for methanol and SCP production. Topical report, May 5, 1995--March 4, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of utilizing a biological process to reduce methane emissions from coal mines and to produce valuable single cell protein (SCP) and/or methanol as a product has been demonstrated. The quantities of coal mine methane from vent gas, gob wells, premining wells and abandoned mines have been determined in order to define the potential for utilizing mine gases as a resource. It is estimated that 300 MMCFD of methane is produced in the United States at a typical concentration of 0.2-0.6 percent in ventilation air. Of this total, almost 20 percent is produced from the four Jim Walter Resources (JWR) mines, which are located in very gassy coal seams. Worldwide vent gas production is estimated at 1 BCFD. Gob gas methane production in the U.S. is estimated to be 38 MMCFD. Very little gob gas is produced outside the U.S. In addition, it is estimated that abandoned mines may generate as much as 90 MMCFD of methane. In order to make a significant impact on coal mine methane emissions, technology which is able to utilize dilute vent gases as a resource must be developed. Purification of the methane from the vent gases would be very expensive and impractical. Therefore, the process application must be able to use a dilute methane stream. Biological conversion of this dilute methane (as well as the more concentrated gob gases) to produce single cell protein (SCP) and/or methanol has been demonstrated in the Bioengineering Resources, Inc. (BRI) laboratories. SCP is used as an animal feed supplement, which commands a high price, about $0.11 per pound.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

342

The role of clouds and oceans in global greenhouse warming. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This research focuses on assessing connections between anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and global climatic change. it has been supported since the early 1990s in part by the DOE ``Quantitative Links`` Program (QLP). A three-year effort was originally proposed to the QLP to investigate effects f global cloudiness on global climate and its implications for cloud feedback; and to continue the development and application of climate/ocean models, with emphasis on coupled effects of greenhouse warming and feedbacks by clouds and oceans. It is well-known that cloud and ocean processes are major sources of uncertainty in the ability to predict climatic change from humankind`s greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions. And it has always been the objective to develop timely and useful analytical tools for addressing real world policy issues stemming from anthropogenic climate change.

Hoffert, M.I.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Ocean Skeletal Structures Hypotheses and Interpretation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we discuss hypotheses on formation of ocean skeletal structures. These structures entered the ocean together with atmospheric precipitation and were assembled from fragments of skeletal structures present in clouds. We base interpretation of this phenomenon on surface tension forces between fundamental tubular blocks of the investigated structures that may also occur beneath the ocean surface. A capillary model is presented to explain formation of a network of interacting tubes. Data about the nature of ocean skeletal structures can be instrumental in modeling many processes associated with physics of the ocean.

Rantsev-Kartinov, V A

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Ocean Skeletal Structures Hypotheses and Interpretation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we discuss hypotheses on formation of ocean skeletal structures. These structures entered the ocean together with atmospheric precipitation and were assembled from fragments of skeletal structures present in clouds. We base interpretation of this phenomenon on surface tension forces between fundamental tubular blocks of the investigated structures that may also occur beneath the ocean surface. A capillary model is presented to explain formation of a network of interacting tubes. Data about the nature of ocean skeletal structures can be instrumental in modeling many processes associated with physics of the ocean.

V. A. Rantsev-Kartinov; C. G. Parigger

2010-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

345

Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process. Technical progress report number 5, July 1--September 30, 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The project involves the construction of an 80,000 gallons per day (260 TPD) methanol unit utilizing coal-derived synthesis gas from Eastman`s integrated coal gasification facility. The new equipment consists of synthesis gas feed preparation and compression facilities, the liquid phase reactor and auxiliaries, product distillation facilities, and utilities. The technology to be demonstrated is the product of a cooperative development effort by Air Products and DOE in a program that started in 1981. Developed to enhance electric power generation using integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology, the LPMEOH{trademark} process is ideally suited for directly processing gases produced by modern-day coal gasifiers. Originally tested at a small, DOE-owned experimental unit in LaPorte, Texas, the technology provides several improvements essential for the economic coproduction of methanol and electricity directly from gasified coal. This liquid phase process suspends fine catalyst particles in an inert liquid, forming a slurry. The slurry dissipates the heat of the chemical reaction away from the catalyst surface, protecting the catalyst and allowing the methanol synthesis reaction to proceed at higher rates.

NONE

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

346

Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process. Technical progress report number 9, July 1--September 30, 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership). The LPMEOH{trademark} Process Demonstration Unit is being built at a site located at the Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) complex in Kingsport. The project involves the construction of an 80,000 gallons per day (260 tons per day (TPD)) methanol unit utilizing coal-derived synthesis gas from Eastman`s integrated coal gasification facility. The new equipment consists of synthesis gas feed preparation and compression facilities, the liquid phase reactor and auxiliaries, product distillation facilities, and utilities. This liquid phase process suspends fine catalyst particles in an inert liquid, forming a slurry. The slurry dissipates the heat of the chemical reaction away from the catalyst surface, protecting the catalyst and allowing the methanol synthesis reaction to proceed at higher rates. At the Eastman complex, the technology is being integrated with existing coal-gasifiers.

NONE

1997-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

347

Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS)  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

The Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS) was established by the Census of Marine Life program. It is an evolving strategic alliance of people and organizations sharing a vision to make marine biogeographic data, from all over the world, freely available over the World Wide Web. It is not a project or program, and is not limited to data from CoML-related projects. Any organization, consortium, project or individual may contribute. OBIS provides, on an open access basis through the World Wide Web, taxonomically and geographically resolved data on marine life and the ocean environment, interoperability with similar databases, and software tools for data exploration and analysis. The OBIS secretariat is hosted by Rutgers University, Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences. [Copied, then edited from http://www.iobis.org/about/

348

Liquid phase methanol LaPorte process development unit: Modification, operation, and support studies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Liquid-entrained operations at the LaPorte Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH) Process Development Unit (PDU) continued during June and July 1988 under Tasks 2.1 and 2.2 of Contract No. DE-AC22-87PC90005 for the US Department of Energy. The primary focus of this PDU operating program was to prepare for a confident move to the next scale of operation with an optimized and simplified process. Several new design options had been identified and thoroughly evaluated in a detailed process engineering study completed under the LPMEOH Part-2 contract (DE-AC22-85PC80007), which then became the basis for the current PDU modification/operating program. The focus of the Process Engineering Design was to optimize and simplifications focused on the slurry loop, which consists of the reactor, vapor/liquid separator, slurry heat exchanger, and slurry circulation pump. Two-Phase Gas Holdup tests began at LaPorte in June 1988 with nitrogen/oil and CO- rich gas/oil systems. The purpose of these tests was to study the hydrodynamics of the reactor, detect metal carbonyl catalyst poisons, and train operating personnel. Any effect of the new gas sparger and the internal heat exchanger would be revealed by comparing the hydrodynamic data with previous PDU hydrodynamic data. The Equipment Evaluation'' Run E-5 was conducted at the LaPorte LPMEOH PDU in July 1988. The objective of Run E-5 was to systematically evaluate each new piece of equipment (sparger, internal heat exchanger, V/L disengagement zone, demister, and cyclone) which had been added to the system, and attempt to run the reactor in an internal-only mode. In addition, a successful catalyst activation with a concentrated (45 wt % oxide) slurry was sought. 9 refs., 26 figs., 15 tabs.

Not Available

1991-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

349

Methanol as an alternative transportation fuel in the U.S.  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Methanol as an alternative transportation fuel in the US: Methanol as an alternative transportation fuel in the US: Options for sustainable and/or energy-secure transportation L. Bromberg and W.K. Cheng Prepared by the Sloan Automotive Laboratory Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge MA 02139 September 27, 2010 Finalized November 2, 2010 Revised November 28, 2010 Final report UT-Battelle Subcontract Number:4000096701 1 Abstract Methanol has been promoted as an alternative transportation fuel from time to time over the past forty years. In spite of significant efforts to realize the vision of methanol as a practical transportation fuel in the US, such as the California methanol fueling corridor of the 1990s, it did not succeed on a large scale. This white paper covers all important aspects of methanol as a transportation fuel.

350

Interaction of alkanes with an amorphous methanol film at 15-180 K  

SciTech Connect

The hydrogen-bond imperfections and glass-liquid transition of the amorphous methanol film have been investigated on the basis of the film dewetting and the incorporation/desorption of alkane molecules adsorbed on the surface. The butane is incorporated completely in the bulk of the porous methanol film up to 70 K. At least two distinct states exist for the incorporated butane; one is assignable to solvated molecules in the bulk and the other is weakly bound species at the surface or in the subsurface site. For the nonporous methanol film, the uptake of butane in the bulk is quenched but butane forms a surface complex with methanol above 80 K. The butane incorporated in the bulk of the glassy methanol film is released at 120 K, where dewetting of the methanol film occurs simultaneously due to evolution of the supercooled liquid phase.

Souda, Ryutaro [Advanced Materials Laboratory, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

2005-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

351

Electronically conducting proton exchange polymers as catalyst supports for proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Electrocatalysis of oxygen reduction, hydrogen oxidation, and methanol oxidation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A variety of supported catalysts were prepared by the chemical deposition of Pt and Pt-Ru particles on chemically prepared poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrene-4-sulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS) and PEDOT/polyvinylsulfate (PVS) composites. The polymer particles were designed to provide a porous, proton-conducting and electron-conducting catalyst support for use in fuel cells. These polymer-supported catalysts were characterized by electron microscopy, impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and conductivity measurements. Their catalytic activities toward hydrogen and methanol oxidation and oxygen reduction were evaluated in proton exchange membrane fuel-cell-type gas diffusion electrodes. Activities for oxygen reduction comparable to that obtained with a commercial carbon-supported catalyst were observed, whereas those for hydrogen and methanol oxidation were significantly inferior, although still high for prototype catalysts.

Lefebvre, M.C.; Qi, Z.; Pickup, P.G. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John`s, Newfoundland (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Gas Diffusion Electrodes for Fuel CellsGas Diffusion Electrodes ...  

the liquid methanol has high energy density and is easily transportable. However, one of the challenges with this process has been the large amount of methanol ...

353

Formaldehyde yields from methanol electrochemical oxidation on carbon-supported platinum catalysts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The formation of formaldehyde during methanol electrochemical oxidation on supported Pt and Pt-Ru catalysts was investigated. While on solid platinum electrodes, the formaldehyde yields from methanol oxidation are near 30% at low potentials; the yields fall below 2% for methanol electrochemical oxidation on carbon-supported catalysts in Nafion. The lower formaldehyde yields, which result from more complete methanol oxidation, are believed to arise from the ability of partial oxidation products to be transported to an array of active catalyst sites dispersed within the three-dimensional network of the Nafion film.

Childers, C.L.; Huang, H.; Korzeniewski, C. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry

1999-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

354

Comparison of Methanol Exposure Routes Reported to Texas Poison Control Centers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

school students in Texas: prevalence and characteristics ofExposure Routes Reported to Texas Poison Control Centersof methanol cases reported to Texas Poison Centers. Methods:

Givens, Melissa; Kalbfleisch, Kristine; Bryson, Scott

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Process simulation, economic analysis and synthesis of biodiesel from waste vegetable oil using supercritical methanol.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Biodiesel production using supercritical methanol received attention as an alternative method to replace the conventional alkali-catalyzed method being practiced in industry. Due to its flexibility… (more)

Lee, Soo Jin

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Technical and Economic Assessment of Hydrogen and Methanol Poweredd Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this thesis is to assess and compare the technical and economic status and prospects of hydrogen and methanol powered fuel cell electric vehicles.

Patrick Jung; Chalmers Tekniska Hgskola; Kristian Lindgren; Ingrid Rde

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

NMR studies of methanol transport in membranes for fuel cell applications.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Characterization of the methanol diffusion process in Nafion 117 was achieved with the use of a modified pulsed field gradient NMR technique. To ensure that the concentration of methanol was constant throughout the entire experiment, the membrane was continually immersed in the methanol solution. When using the standard pulsed field gradient NMR method, the diffusion of the methanol in the membrane is strongly influenced by the diffusion of methanol in solution. Application of a filter gradient suppresses the signal from the methanol in solution, enabling the methanol diffusion in the membrane to be observed unambiguously. Complete suppression of the solution signal was achieved when a 60% filter gradient was employed. Under such circumstances, the coefficient for diffusion of methanol within the membrane was calculated to be 4x10-6cm2s-1, which is similar to the values reported in the literature. Consequently, the use of NMR filter gradient measurements is a valid method for studying the diffusion coefficient of methanol within fuel cell membranes.

Every, H. A. (Hayley A.); Zawodzinski, T. A. (Thomas A.), Jr.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process. Technical progress report number 6, October 1--December 31, 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The project involves the construction of an 80,000 gallons per day (260 TPD) methanol unit utilizing coal-derived synthesis gas from Eastman`s integrated coal gasification facility. The new equipment consists of synthesis gas feed preparation and compression facilities, the liquid phase reactor and auxiliaries, product distillation facilities, and utilities. The technology to be demonstrated is the product of a cooperative development effort by Air Products and DOE in a program that started in 1981. Developed to enhance electric power generation using integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology, the LPMEOH{trademark} process is ideally suited for directly processing gases produced by modern-day coal gasifiers. This liquid phase process suspends fine catalyst particles in an inert liquid, forming a slurry. The slurry dissipates the heat of the chemical reaction away from the catalyst surface protecting the catalyst and allowing the methanol synthesis reaction to proceed at higher rates. At the Eastman complex, the technology will be integrated with existing coal-gasifiers. A carefully developed test plan will allow operations at Eastman to simulate electricity demand load-following in coal-based IGCC facilities. The operations will also demonstrate the enhanced stability and heat dissipation of the conversion process, its reliable on/off operation, and its ability to produce methanol as a clean liquid fuel without additional upgrading. An off-site product testing program will be conducted to demonstrate the suitability of the methanol product as a transportation fuel and as a fuel for stationary applications for small modular electric power generators for distributed power.

NONE

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

359

Global warming projections: Sensitivity to deep ocean mixing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The climatological impact of increases in greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere, despite being a subject of intensive study in recent years, is still very uncertain [1, 2]. One major uncertainty affecting possible climate change that has not received enough attention is the uncertainty in heat uptake by the deep ocean. We analyze the influence of this process and its uncertainty on climate predictions by means of numerical simulations with a 2-dimensional (2D) climate model. In the case of high climate sensitivity, as a result of uncertainty in deep ocean heat uptake, there is more than a factor of two uncertainty in the predicted increase of surface temperature. The corresponding uncertainty in the sea level rise due to thermal expansion is much larger than the uncertainty in the predicted temperature change and is significant even in the case of low climate sensitivity. The uncertainty in the rate of heat uptake by the deep ocean has not been included in the projections of climate change made by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) [1,2]. However, our results show that this uncertainty plays a very important role in defining the ranges ofÊpossible warming and, especially, of sea level rise. To assess the uncertainty we have used a 2-dimensional (zonally averaged) climate model, the MIT 2D model [3,4,5]. This model allows us to

Andrei P. Sokolov; Peter H. Stone

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Theoretical validation of chemical kinetic mechanisms : combustion of methanol.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new technique is proposed that uses theoretical methods to systematically improve the performance of chemical kinetic mechanisms. Using a screening method, the chemical reaction steps that most strongly influence a given kinetic observable are identified. The associated rate coefficients are then improved by high-level quantum chemistry and transition-state-theory calculations, which leads to new values for the coefficients and smaller uncertainty ranges. This updating process is continued as new reactions emerge as the most important steps in the target observable. The screening process employed is a global sensitivity analysis that involves Monte Carlo sampling of the full N-dimensional uncertainty space of rate coefficients, where N is the number of reaction steps. The method is applied to the methanol combustion mechanism of Li et al. (Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 2007, 39, 109.). It was found that the CH{sub 3}OH + HO{sub 2} and CH{sub 3}OH + O{sub 2} reactions were the most important steps in setting the ignition delay time, and the rate coefficients for these reactions were updated. The ignition time is significantly changed for a broad range of high-concentration methanol/oxygen mixtures in the updated mechanism.

Skodje, R. T.; Tomlin, A. S.; Klippenstein, S. J.; Harding, L. B.; Davis, M. J.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Univ. of Colorado; Univ. of Leeds

2010-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas methanol ocean" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Synthesis of cresols and xylenols from phenol and methanol  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report is the first of two reports that concern the manufacture of the same chemicals using two processes -- a conventional catalytic process and a solar photothermal catalytic process -- to determine the relative process economics. The results of a process study and evaluation for the synthesis of cresols and xylenols using a conventional catalytic process are presented in this report. (The solar photothermal catalytic process is evaluated in the second report, Synthesis of Cresols and Xylenols from Benzene and Methanol.) The process was a vapor-phase methylation of phenol using a high mole ratio of methanol over a solid acidic catalyst. An arbitrary base case plant size (fresh feed) of about 7 million kg/y (15.3 million lbm/y) was chosen and then escalated to a breakeven size. It was concluded that if a chemical company could obtain a fair share of the market, an estimated profitable operation would result for a plant size greater than 12.80 E6 kg/y of fresh feed.

Prengle, H.W. Jr.; van Tran, X.; Moinzadeh, K.; Bricout, F.A.; Alam, S. (Houston Univ., TX (United States))

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

High Resolution FIR and IR Spectroscopy of Methanol Isotopologues  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

New astronomical facilities such as HIFI on the Herschel Space Observatory, the SOFIA airborne IR telescope and the ALMA sub-mm telescope array will yield spectra from interstellar and protostellar sources with vastly increased sensitivity and frequency coverage. This creates the need for major enhancements to laboratory databases for the more prominent interstellar 'weed' species in order to model and account for their lines in observed spectra in the search for new and more exotic interstellar molecular 'flowers'. With its large-amplitude internal torsional motion, methanol has particularly rich spectra throughout the FIR and IR regions and, being very widely distributed throughout the galaxy, is perhaps the most notorious interstellar weed. Thus, we have recorded new spectra for a variety of methanol isotopic species on the high-resolution FTIR spectrometer on the CLS FIR beamline. The aim is to extend quantum number coverage of the data, improve our understanding of the energy level structure, and provide the astronomical community with better databases and models of the spectral patterns with greater predictive power for a range of astrophysical conditions.

Lees, R. M.; Xu, Li-Hong [Centre for Laser, Atomic and Molecular Studies (CLAMS), University of New Brunswick, 100 Tucker Park Road, Saint John, NB E2L 4L5 (Canada); Appadoo, D. R. T.; Billinghurst, B. [Canadian Light Source, Univ. of Saskatchewan, 101 Perimeter Rd, Saskatoon, SK S7N 0X4 (Canada)

2010-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

363

On the World-wide Circulation of the Deeper Waters of the World Ocean  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

circulation of the Pacific Ocean: Flow patterns, tracers,circulation of the Indian Ocean: Flow patterns, tracers, andthe figures. Fig. 1 Pacific Ocean winds Fig. 2 Pacific Ocean

Reid, Joseph L

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Climate, Ocean and Sea Ice Modeling (COSIM)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Earth, Space Sciences » Earth, Space Sciences » Climate, Ocean and Sea Ice Modeling (COSIM) Climate, Ocean and Sea Ice Modeling (COSIM) The COSIM project develops advanced ocean and ice models for evaluating the role of ocean and ice in high-latitude climate change and projecting the impacts of high-latitude change on regions throughout the globe. Get Expertise Phil Jones COSIM Email Matthew Hecht COSIM Email Elizabeth Hunke COSIM Email Mat Maltrud COSIM Email Bill Lipscomb COSIM Email Scott Elliott COSIM Email Todd Ringler COSIM Email We are also developing a set of next-generation ocean and ice models with variable resolution horizontal grids to focus resolution on regions of interest or regions where specific processes (like eddies) need to be resolved. Summary The COSIM project develops advanced ocean and ice models for evaluating the

365

Ocean - Regional Planning Efforts | Data.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Regional Planning Efforts Regional Planning Efforts Ocean Data Tools Technical Guide Map Gallery Regional Planning Feedback Ocean You are here Data.gov » Communities » Ocean Regional Planning Efforts Marine planning is a science-based process that provides transparent information about ocean use and guarantees the public and stakeholders a voice early on in decisions affecting the uses of the marine environment. It is an inclusive, bottom-up approach that gives the Federal Government, States, and Tribes, with input from local communities, stakeholders, and the public, the ability to make informed decisions on how best to optimize the use of and protect the ocean, coasts, and Great Lakes. Under the National Ocean Policy, the United States is subdivided into nine regional planning areas. Within each region, Federal, State, and Tribal

366

Horizontal stirring in the global ocean  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Horizontal mixing and the distribution of coherent structures in the global ocean are analyzed using Finite-Size Lyapunov Exponents (FSLE), computed for the surface velocity field derived from the Ocean general circulation model For the Earth Simulator (OFES). FSLEs measure horizontal stirring and dispersion; additionally, the transport barriers which organize the oceanic flow can roughly be identified with the ridges of the FSLE field. We have performed a detailed statistical study, particularizing for the behaviour of the two hemispheres and different ocean basins. The computed Probability Distributions Functions (PDFs) of FSLE are broad and asymmetric. Horizontal mixing is generally more active in the northern hemisphere than in the southern one. Nevertheless the Southern Ocean is the most active ocean, and the Pacific the less active one. A striking result is that the main currents can be classified in two 'activity classes': Western Boundary Currents, which have broad PDFs with large FSLE values, and Eas...

Hernández-Carrasco, I; Hernández-García, E; Turiel, A

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

MTBE Prices Responded to Natural Gas Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

6 6 Notes: On top of the usual factors impacting gasoline prices, natural gas has had some influence recently. MTBE is an oxygenate used in most of the RFG consumed in the U.S. Generally, it follows gasoline prices and its own supply/demand balance factors. But this winter, we saw it respond strongly to natural gas prices. MTBE is made from methanol and isobutylene, which in turn come from methane and butane. Both methane and butane come from natural gas streams. Until this year, the price of natural gas has been so low that it had little effect. But the surge that occurred in December and January pulled MTBE up . Keep in mind that about 11% MTBE is used in a gallon of RFG, so a 30 cent increase in MTBE is only about a 3 cent increase in the price of RFG. While we look ahead at this summer, natural gas prices should be

368

Development of Alaskan gas hydrate resources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The research undertaken in this project pertains to study of various techniques for production of natural gas from Alaskan gas hydrates such as, depressurization, injection of hot water, steam, brine, methanol and ethylene glycol solutions through experimental investigation of decomposition characteristics of hydrate cores. An experimental study has been conducted to measure the effective gas permeability changes as hydrates form in the sandpack and the results have been used to determine the reduction in the effective gas permeability of the sandpack as a function of hydrate saturation. A user friendly, interactive, menu-driven, numerical difference simulator has been developed to model the dissociation of natural gas hydrates in porous media with variable thermal properties. A numerical, finite element simulator has been developed to model the dissociation of hydrates during hot water injection process.

Kamath, V.A.; Sharma, G.D.; Patil, S.L.

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

The Effects of Mesoscale Ocean–Atmosphere Coupling on the Large-Scale Ocean Circulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Small-scale variation in wind stress due to ocean–atmosphere interaction within the atmospheric boundary layer alters the temporal and spatial scale of Ekman pumping driving the double-gyre circulation of the ocean. A high-resolution ...

Andrew Mc C. Hogg; William K. Dewar; Pavel Berloff; Sergey Kravtsov; David K. Hutchinson

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Observations and Simulations of Upper-Ocean Response to Wind Events during the Ocean Storms Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Ocean Storms dataset is used to compile observations of the oceanic response to midlatitude storms. Of particular interest are episodic mixed layer temperature cooling events whose characteristics are reviewed. The data include subsurface ...

W. G. Large; G. B. Crawford

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Mechanisms Governing Interannual Variability of Upper-Ocean Temperature in a Global Ocean Hindcast Simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The interannual variability in upper-ocean (0–400 m) temperature and governing mechanisms for the period 1968–97 are quantified from a global ocean hindcast simulation driven by atmospheric reanalysis and satellite data products. The ...

Scott C. Doney; Steve Yeager; Gokhan Danabasoglu; William G. Large; James C. McWilliams

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Seasonal Variations of Upper Ocean Transport from the Pacific to the Indian Ocean via Indonesian Straits  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Seasonal variations of upper-ocean mass transport between the Pacific and Indian Oceans via the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) are examined using numerical experiments with a 1½-layer, reduced-gravity model forced with specific climatological ...

James T. Potemra

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

On the Ocean’s Large-Scale Circulation near the Limit of No Vertical Mixing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

By convention, the ocean’s large-scale circulation is assumed to be a thermohaline overturning driven by the addition and extraction of buoyancy at the surface and vertical mixing in the interior. Previous work suggests that the overturning ...

J. R. Toggweiler; B. Samuels

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Global Climate and Ocean Circulation on an Aquaplanet Ocean–Atmosphere General Circulation Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A low-resolution coupled ocean–atmosphere general circulation model (OAGCM) is used to study the characteristics of the large-scale ocean circulation and its climatic impacts in a series of global coupled aquaplanet experiments. Three ...

Robin S. Smith; Clotilde Dubois; Jochem Marotzke

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM LEG 155 SCIENTIFIC PROSPECTUS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM LEG 155 SCIENTIFIC PROSPECTUS AMAZON DEEP-SEA FAN Dr. Roger D. Flood Co of Canada P.O. Box 1006 Dartmouth, Nova Scotia Canada B2Y4A2 Dr. Adam Klaus Staff Scientist, Leg l55 Ocean and handling. D I S C L A I M E R This publication was prepared by the Ocean Drilling Program, Texas A

376

ARM - Field Campaign - Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon:  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Semi-Volatile Thermal desorption Aerosol Gas chromatograph (SVTAG) Semi-Volatile Thermal desorption Aerosol Gas chromatograph (SVTAG) Related Campaigns Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GOAMAZON 2014) 2014.01.01, Martin, AMF Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon: Semi-Volatile Thermal desorption Aerosol Gas chromatograph (SVTAG) 2014.02.01 - 2014.10.15 Lead Scientist : Allen Goldstein Description In areas where biogenic emissions are oxidized in the presence of anthropogenic pollutants such as SO2, NOx and black carbon, it has become increasingly apparent that secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is substantially enhanced. Research is urgently needed to elucidate fundamental processes of natural

377

LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS TO SIMULATE CO2 OCEAN DISPOSAL  

SciTech Connect

This Final Technical Report summarizes the technical accomplishments of an investigation entitled ''Laboratory Experiments to Simulate CO{sub 2} Ocean Disposal'', funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's University Coal Research Program. This investigation responds to the possibility that restrictions on greenhouse gas emissions may be imposed in the future to comply with the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The primary objective of the investigation was to obtain experimental data that can be applied to assess the technical feasibility and environmental impacts of oceanic containment strategies to limit release of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal and other fossil fuel combustion systems into the atmosphere. A number of critical technical uncertainties of ocean disposal of CO{sub 2} were addressed by performing laboratory experiments on liquid CO{sub 2} jet break-up into a dispersed droplet phase, and hydrate formation, under deep ocean conditions. Major accomplishments of this study included: (1) five jet instability regimes were identified that occur in sequence as liquid CO{sub 2} jet disintegration progresses from laminar instability to turbulent atomization; (2) linear regression to the data yielded relationships for the boundaries between the five instability regimes in dimensionless Ohnesorge Number, Oh, and jet Reynolds Number, Re, space; (3) droplet size spectra was measured over the full range of instabilities; (4) characteristic droplet diameters decrease steadily with increasing jet velocity (and increasing Weber Number), attaining an asymptotic value in instability regime 5 (full atomization); and (5) pre-breakup hydrate formation appears to affect the size distribution of the droplet phase primary by changing the effective geometry of the jet.

Stephen M. Masutani

1999-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

378

FEASIBILITY OF LARGE-SCALE OCEAN CO2 SEQUESTRATION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The past year has been one of continued high productivity and technical innovation for research conducted under support of this contract. We report here on the successful completion of development of a deep-ocean laser Raman spectrometer, and the use of this novel system for direct in situ measurement of the dissolution rate of CO{sub 2} from a N{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} gas mixture at 300m ocean depth. We have carried out the deepest ever ocean CO{sub 2} injection experiment at 3960m depth, and have observed the behavior of the plume of low pH/high CO{sub 2} water emanating from this source. This was made possible by the design, construction, and operation of a novel flume to contain the liquid CO{sub 2} and to force flow in a controlled manner over the liquid CO{sub 2} surface. In carrying out this experiment we observed for the first time the extraordinarily rapid hydration kinetics of CO{sub 2} with water at high pressure. This initial observation was later confirmed in a carefully controlled series of acid and CO{sub 2} injection studies at varying depths. In carrying out this research we are aware of the environmental concerns, and we have been in the forefront of identifying the challenges resulting from the far greater quantities of CO{sub 2} being passively absorbed from the atmosphere. This quantity now is approximately 1 million metric tons CO{sub 2} per hour, and reasonable projections for the 21st century project ocean pH changes of 0.3 or more by mid-century. The PIs have played a key role in organizing a major international meeting on this topic, and on reporting the results. We are now engaged in developing the novel techniques required to investigate this problem.

Peter G. Brewer; James Barry

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Gas exploration and oceanography beyond the shelf break  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gas exploration and oceanography beyond the shelf break Ã?. Thiem1 , J. Berntsen1,2 , G. Alendal2 cause problems for installations needed for exploration of the gas field. Bergen Ocean Model (BOM) has for Computational Science, University of Bergen, Norway 3 Norsk Hydro, Oil & Energy, Research Center, Bergen, Norway

Thiem, Ã?yvind

380

OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM LEG 103 SCIENTIFIC PROSPECTUS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM LEG 103 SCIENTIFIC PROSPECTUS GALICIA BANK Gilbert Boillot Edward L of Energy, Mines and Resources (Canada) Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (Federal Republic of Germany

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas methanol ocean" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Sequestration of CO2 by Ocean Fertilization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Presentation for NETL Conference on Carbon Sequestration May 14-17, 2001 SEQUESTRATION OF CO 2 BY OCEAN FERTILIZATION Authors: Dr. Michael Markels, Jr. (Markels@greenseaventure.com...

382

Strong wind forcing of the ocean  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

high wind speeds in tropical cyclones. Nature, 422, 279-283.response of the tropical cyclone and the ocean. Journal ofinteraction theory for tropical cyclones: Part i : steady-

Zedler, Sarah E.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

FOAM:The Fast Ocean Atmosphere Model  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Models Performance User Resources Publications History Developer's Page FOAM The Fast Ocean Atmosphere Model cup2.jpeg (48474 bytes) Image made by Johan Kellum with Vis5D...

384

NIST Aids the National Oceanic and Atmospheric ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Ocean Service, Mote Marine Laboratory, Dolphin Quest ... US Fish and Wildlife Service, South Carolina ... blood mercury levels to health parameters in ...

2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

385

Subduction over the Southern Indian Ocean in a High-Resolution Atmosphere–Ocean Coupled Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study examines the subduction of the Subantarctic Mode Water in the Indian Ocean in an ocean–atmosphere coupled model in which the ocean component is eddy permitting. The purpose is to assess how sensitive the simulated mode water is to the ...

Mei-Man Lee; A. J. George Nurser; I. Stevens; Jean-Baptiste Sallée

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

A Reanalysis of Ocean Climate Using Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA) reanalysis of ocean climate variability. In the assimilation, a model forecast produced by an ocean general circulation model with an average resolution of 0.25° × 0.4° × 40 levels is ...

James A. Carton; Benjamin S. Giese

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Oxygenates vs. synthesis gas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Methanol synthesis from H{sub 2}/CO has been carried out at 7.6 MPa over zirconia-supported copper catalysts. Catalysts with nominal compositions of 10/90 mol% and 30/70 mol% Cu/ZrO{sub 2} were used in this study. Additionally, a 3 mol% cesium-doped 10/90 catalyst was prepared to study the effect of doping with heavy alkali, and this promoter greatly increased the methanol productivity. The effects of CO{sub 2} addition, water injection, reaction temperature, and H{sub 2}/C0 ratio have been investigated. Both CO{sub 2} addition to the synthesis gas and cesium doping of the catalyst promoted methanol synthesis, while inhibiting the synthesis of dimethyl ether. Injection of water, however, was found to slightly suppress methanol and dimethyl ether formation while being converted to CO{sub 2} via the water gas shift reaction over these catalysts. There was no clear correlation between copper surface area and catalyst activity. Surface analysis of the tested samples revealed that copper tended to migrate and enrich the catalyst surface. The concept of employing a double-bed reactor with a pronounced temperature gradient to enhance higher alcohol synthesis was explored, and it was found that utilization of a Cs-promoted Cu/ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst as a first lower temperature bed and a Cs-promoted ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst as a second high-temperature bed significantly promoted the productivity of 2-methyl-1-propanol (isobutanol) from H{sub 2}/CO synthesis gas mixtures. While the conversion of CO to C{sub 2+} oxygenates over the double-bed configuration was comparable to that observed over the single Cu-based catalyst, major changes in the product distribution occurred by the coupling to the zinc chromite catalyst; that is, the productivity of the C{sub 1}-C{sub 3} alcohols decreased dramatically, and 2-methyl branched alcohols were selectively formed. The desirable methanol/2-methyl oxygenate molar ratios close to 1 were obtained in the present double-bed system that provides the feedstock for the synthesis of high octane and high cetane ethers, where the isobutanol productivity was as high as 139 g/kg cat/hr. Higher alcohol synthesis has been investigated over a Cs/Cu/ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst at temperatures higher (up to 703K) than those previously utilized, and no sintering of the catalyst was observed during the short-term testing. However, the higher reaction temperatures led to lower CO conversion levels and lower yield of alcohols, especially of methanol, because of equilibrium limitations. With the double catalyst bed configuration, the effect of pressure in the range of 7.6--12.4 MPa on catalyst activity and selectivity was studied. The upper bed was composed of the copper-based catalyst at 598K, and the lower bed consisted of a copper-free Cs-ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst at a high temperature of 678K. High pressure was found to increase CO conversion to oxygenated products, although the increase in isobutanol productivity did not keep pace with that of methanol. It was also shown that the Cs/Cu/ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst could be utilized to advantage as the second-bed catalyst at 613--643K instead of the previously used copper-free Cs-ZnO/ Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst at higher temperature, With double Cs/Cu/ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts, high space time yields of up to 202 g/kg cat/hr, with high selectivity to isobutanol, were achieved.

Kamil Klier; Richard G. Herman; Alessandra Beretta; Maria A. Burcham; Qun Sun; Yeping Cai; Biswanath Roy

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dinh (PI) Dinh (PI) Thomas Gennett National Renewable Energy Laboratory October 1, 2009 Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Objectives Develop cost-effective, reliable, durable fuel cells for portable power applications (e.g., cell phones, computers, etc.) that meet all DOE targets. Note that the energy density (Wh/L), volumetric (W/L), and specific power (W/kg) all depend on knowing the weight and volume of the entire DMFC system as well as the volume and concentration of fuel, which are system specific (power application and manufacturer dependent). In our model study the surface power density levels on HOPG will allow for indirect evaluation of our system to DOE's energy density

389

Removal of sulfur contaminants in methanol for fuel cell applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Equilibrium adsorption isotherm and breakthrough data were used to assess feasibility of developing a granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorber for use as a sulfur removal subsystem in transportation fuel cell systems. Results suggest that an on-board GAC adsorber may not be attractive due to size and weight constraints. However, it may be feasible to install this GAC adsorber at methanol distribution stations, where space and weight are not a critical concern. Preliminary economic analysis indicated that the GAC adsorber concept will be attractive if the spent AC can be regenerated for reuse. These preliminary analyses were made on basis of very limited breakthrough data obtained from the bench-scale testing. Optimization on dynamic testing parameters and study on regeneration of spent AC are needed.

Lee, S.H.D.; Kumar, R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Sederquist, R. [International Fuel Cells Corp., South Windsor, CT (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

390

Planar micro-direct methanol fuel cell prototyped by rapid powder blasting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a planar micro-direct methanol fuel cell (@m-DMFC) fabricated by rapid prototyping-powder blasting technology. Using an elastomeric mask, we pattern two parallel microfluidic channels in glass. The anode and cathode of the fuel cell are formed ... Keywords: Direct methanol fuel cell, Microchannel, Nafion, Powder blasting

M. Shen; S. Walter; L. Dovat; M. A. M. Gijs

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Fabrication of silicon nanopillar arrays and application on direct methanol fuel cell  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a simple method that combines self-assembled nanosphere lithography (SANL) and photo-assisted electrochemical etching (PAECE) to fabricate near-perfect and orderly arranged nanopillar arrays for the direct methanol fuel cells electrode (DMFCs) ... Keywords: Direct methanol fuel cell, Nanopillar, Photo-assisted electrochemical etching, Self-assembled nanosphere lithography

Yu-Hsiang Tang; Mao-Jung Huang; Ming-Hua Shiao; Chii-Rong Yang

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

A carbon riveted Pt/Graphene catalyst with high stability for direct methanol fuel cell  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pt/Graphene catalyst was prepared by microwave-assisted polyol process, and carbonization was riveted onto the catalyst surface to enhance the catalyst stability. The physical properties of the obtained catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction ... Keywords: Direct methanol fuel cell, Methanol electrooxidation, Pt/Graphene, Stability

Xiaowei Liu, Jialin Duan, Hailong Chen, Yufeng Zhang, Xuelin Zhang

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Alkali compounds catalyzed low temperature methanol synthesis over Cu-based catalyst  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel mixed catalyst system containing alkali compounds over Cu/MgO-Na catalyst was developed to synthesize methanol from syngas via ethyl formate in a slurry reactor. The results exhibited that among the used alkali formates (HCOOM, M=Li, Na, Cs, ... Keywords: CuMgO-Na/HCOONa/catalysis system, low temperature methanol synthesis, slurry phase

Baoshan Hu

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

An Ensemble Ocean Data Assimilation System for Seasonal Prediction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new ensemble ocean data assimilation system, developed for the Predictive Ocean Atmosphere Model for Australia (POAMA), is described. The new system is called PEODAS, the POAMA Ensemble Ocean Data Assimilation System. PEODAS is an approximate ...

Yonghong Yin; Oscar Alves; Peter R. Oke

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Effects of Penetrative Radiation on the Upper Tropical Ocean Circulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of penetrative radiation on the upper tropical ocean circulation have been investigated with an ocean general circulation model (OGCM) with attenuation depths derived from remotely sensed ocean color data. The OGCM is a reduced ...

Raghu Murtugudde; James Beauchamp; Charles R. McClain; Marlon Lewis; Antonio J. Busalacchi

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

The Response of Quasigeostrophic Oceanic Vortices to Tropical Cyclone Forcing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The response of quasigeostrophic (QG) oceanic vortices to tropical cyclone (TC) forcing is investigated using an isopycnic ocean model. Idealized oceanic currents and wind fields derived from observational data acquired during Hurricane Katrina ...

Benjamin Jaimes; Lynn K. Shay; George R. Halliwell

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Global ocean wind power sensitivity to surface layer stability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

power distribution over the ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett. , 35,of wind speed over the ocean, J. Appl. Meteorol. , 25,and heat flux over the open ocean in gale force winds, J.

Capps, Scott B; Zender, Charles S

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for the commercialization of ocean thermal energy conversionR. E. Hathaway. Open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion.of sewage effluent in an ocean current. Inst. of Tech. ,

Sands, M. D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Effects of atmospheric inorganic nitrogen deposition on ocean biogeochemistry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to decadal global forcing for ocean and sea-ice models: Theorganic nitrogen to the oceans, Nature, 376, 243 – 246.trace species to the world ocean, Global Biogeochem. Cycles,

Krishnamurthy, Aparna; Moore, J. Keith; Zender, Charles S; Luo, Chao

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

High Biomass Low Export Regimes in the Southern Ocean  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Z.I. , 2004. Southern ocean iron enrichment experiment:in the surface global ocean based on Moderate-Resolutionof Geophysical Research-Oceans 110 (C7). Bé, A.W.H. ,

Lam, Phoebe J.; Bishop, James K.B.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas methanol ocean" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Molecular diversity and adaptations of microorganisms from the deep ocean  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the North Pacific ocean. ISME J. 3:1374-1386. DeLong, E.microbial assemblages in the ocean's interior. Science 311:J. 4:159-170. Schlitzer, R. 2010. Ocean Data View. [http://

Eloe, Emiley Ansley

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Ocean Dynamics, Thermocline Adjustment, and Regulation of Tropical SST  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The role of tropical Pacific ocean dynamics in regulating the ocean response to thermodynamic forcing is investigated using an ocean general circulation model (GCM) coupled to a model of the atmospheric mixed layer. It is found that the basin ...

Richard Seager; Ragu Murtugudde

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

An Observing System Simulation Experiment for the Indian Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An integrated in situ Indian Ocean observing system (IndOOS) is simulated using a high-resolution ocean general circulation model (OGCM) with daily mean forcing, including an estimate of subdaily oceanic variability derived from observations. The ...

Gabriel A. Vecchi; Matthew J. Harrison

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Evaluation of HOAPS-3 Ocean Surface Freshwater Flux Components  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Today, latent heat flux and precipitation over the global ocean surface can be determined from microwave satellite data as a basis for estimating the related fields of the ocean surface freshwater flux. The Hamburg Ocean Atmosphere Parameters and ...

Axel Andersson; Christian Klepp; Karsten Fennig; Stephan Bakan; Hartmut Grassl; Jörg Schulz

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Effects of variable wind stress on ocean heat content  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ocean heat content change (ocean heat uptake) has an important role in variability of the Earth's heat balance. The understanding of which methods and physical processes control ocean heat uptake needs improvement in order ...

Klima, Kelly

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Slow Instabilities in Tropical Ocean Basin–Global Atmosphere Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of ocean boundaries on instability in coupled ocean-natmosphere models is determined. Eigenvalues and eigenvectors are calculated for coupled systems featuring an ocean basin bounded zonally by a flat continent. The atmosphere is ...

Anthony C. Hirst

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

The Volunteer Observing Ship and Future Ocean Monitoring  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Widespread and sustained in situ ocean measurements are essential to an improved understanding of the state of the ocean and its role in global change. Merchant marine vessels can play a major role in ocean monitoring, yet apart from routine ...

Thomas Rossby; Gerold Siedler; Walter Zenk

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Communication China's growing methanol economy and its implications for energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the environment. 3.7. Global energy economy Historically, coal prices have been more stable than oil and natural gas prices. In recent years, however, coal prices have been unusually volatile. The expansion of China gas emissions, and jeopardize consumer safety, while possibly increasing coal price volatility. China

Jackson, Robert B.

409

Recovery Act: Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell for Mobile Computing  

SciTech Connect

ABSTRACT Project Title: Recovery Act: Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell for Mobile Computing PROJECT OBJECTIVE The objective of the project was to advance portable fuel cell system technology towards the commercial targets of power density, energy density and lifetime. These targets were laid out in the DOE’s R&D roadmap to develop an advanced direct methanol fuel cell power supply that meets commercial entry requirements. Such a power supply will enable mobile computers to operate non-stop, unplugged from the wall power outlet, by using the high energy density of methanol fuel contained in a replaceable fuel cartridge. Specifically this project focused on balance-of-plant component integration and miniaturization, as well as extensive component, subassembly and integrated system durability and validation testing. This design has resulted in a pre-production power supply design and a prototype that meet the rigorous demands of consumer electronic applications. PROJECT TASKS The proposed work plan was designed to meet the project objectives, which corresponded directly with the objectives outlined in the Funding Opportunity Announcement: To engineer the fuel cell balance-of-plant and packaging to meet the needs of consumer electronic systems, specifically at power levels required for mobile computing. UNF used existing balance-of-plant component technologies developed under its current US Army CERDEC project, as well as a previous DOE project completed by PolyFuel, to further refine them to both miniaturize and integrate their functionality to increase the system power density and energy density. Benefits of UNF’s novel passive water recycling MEA (membrane electrode assembly) and the simplified system architecture it enabled formed the foundation of the design approach. The package design was hardened to address orientation independence, shock, vibration, and environmental requirements. Fuel cartridge and fuel subsystems were improved to ensure effective fuel containment. PROJECT OVERVIEW The University of North Florida (UNF), with project partner the University of Florida, recently completed the Department of Energy (DOE) project entitled “Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell for Mobile Computing”. The primary objective of the project was to advance portable fuel cell system technology towards the commercial targets as laid out in the DOE R&D roadmap by developing a 20-watt, direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC), portable power supply based on the UNF innovative “passive water recovery” MEA. Extensive component, sub-system, and system development and testing was undertaken to meet the rigorous demands of the consumer electronic application. Numerous brassboard (nonpackaged) systems were developed to optimize the integration process and facilitating control algorithm development. The culmination of the development effort was a fully-integrated, DMFC, power supply (referred to as DP4). The project goals were 40 W/kg for specific power, 55 W/l for power density, and 575 Whr/l for energy density. It should be noted that the specific power and power density were for the power section only, and did not include the hybrid battery. The energy density is based on three, 200 ml, fuel cartridges, and also did not include the hybrid battery. The results show that the DP4 system configured without the methanol concentration sensor exceeded all performance goals, achieving 41.5 W/kg for specific power, 55.3 W/l for power density, and 623 Whr/l for energy density. During the project, the DOE revised its technical targets, and the definition of many of these targets, for the portable power application. With this revision, specific power, power density, specific energy (Whr/kg), and energy density are based on the total system, including fuel tank, fuel, and hybridization battery. Fuel capacity is not defined, but the same value is required for all calculations. Test data showed that the DP4 exceeded all 2011 Technical Status values; for example, the DP4 energy density was 373 Whr/l versus the DOE 2011 status of 200 Whr/l. For the

Fletcher, James H. [University of North Florida; Cox, Philip [University of North Florida; Harrington, William J [University of North Florida; Campbell, Joseph L [University of North Florida

2013-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

410

The Influence of Chain Dynamics on the Far Infrared Spectrum of Liquid Methanol-Water Mixtures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Far-infrared absorption spectroscopy has been used to study the low frequency ({center_dot} 100 cm{sup -1}) intermolecular modes of methanol in mixtures with water. With the aid of a first principles molecular dynamics simulation on an equivalent system, a detailed understanding about the origin of the low frequency IR modes has been established. The total dipole spectrum from the simulation suggests that the bands appearing in the experimental spectra at approximately 55 cm{sup -1} and 70 cm{sup -1} in methanol and methanol-rich mixtures arise from both fluctuations and torsional motions occurring within the methanol hydrogen-bonded chains. The influence of these modes on both the solvation dynamics and the relaxation mechanisms in the liquid are discussed within the context of recent experimental and theoretical results that have emerged from studies focusing on the short time dynamics in the methanol hydrogen bond network.

Woods, K.N.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Wiedemann, H.; /SLAC, SSRL

2005-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

411

Development and demonstration of advanced technologies for direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons (methanol, methane, propane)  

SciTech Connect

Direct methanol fuel cells use methanol directly as a fuel, rather than the reformate typically required by fuel cells, thus eliminating the reformer and fuel processing train. In this program, Giner, Inc. advanced development of two types of direct methanol fuel cells for military applications. Advancements in direct methanol proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (DMPEMFC) technology included developement of a Pt-Ru anode catalyst and an associated electrode structure which provided some of the highest DMPEMFC performance reported to date. Scale-up from a laboratory-scale single cell to a 5-cell stack of practical area, providing over 100 W of power, was also demonstrated. Stable stack performance was achieved in over 300 hours of daily on/off cycling. Direct methanol aqueous carbonate fuel cells were also advanced with development of an anode catalyst and successful operation at decreased pressure. Improved materials for the cell separator/matrix and the hardware were also identified.

Kosek, J.A.; LaConti, A.B.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Modeling of the anode side of a direct methanol fuel cell with analytical solutions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work, analytical solutions were derived (for any methanol oxidation reaction order) for the profiles of methanol concentration and proton current density by assuming diffusion mass transport mechanism, Tafel kinetics, and fast proton transport in the anodic catalyst layer of a direct methanol fuel cell. An expression for the Thiele modulus that allows to express the anodic overpotential as a function of the cell current, and kinetic and mass transfer parameters was obtained. For high cell current densities, it was found that the Thiele modulus ($\\phi^2$) varies quadratically with cell current density; yielding a simple correlation between anodic overpotential and cell current density. Analytical solutions were derived for the profiles of both local methanol concentration in the catalyst layer and local anodic current density in the catalyst layer. Under the assumptions of the model presented here, in general, the local methanol concentration in the catalyst layer cannot be expressed as an explicit fun...

Mosquera, Martín A

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

ocean energy | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ocean energy ocean energy Dataset Summary Description This shapefile represents the seasonal winter depth profile to reach water at a temperature of 20ºC. Source NREL Date Released October 28th, 2012 (2 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords depth profile hydrokinetic ocean ocean energy ocean thermal energy conversion OTEC seawater cooling thermal Data application/zip icon OTEC Seawater Cooling 20ºC Depth Profile - Winter Average (zip, 1.1 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period March 2009 - February 2011 License License Other or unspecified, see optional comment below Comment This GIS data was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory ("NREL"), which is operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC for the U.S. Department of Energy ("DOE"). The user is granted the right, without any fee or cost, to use, copy, modify, alter, enhance and distribute this data for any purpose whatsoever, provided that this entire notice appears in all copies of the data. Further, the user of this data agrees to credit NREL in any publications or software that incorporate or use the data. Access to and use of the GIS data shall further impose the following obligations on the User. The names DOE/NREL may not be used in any advertising or publicity to endorse or promote any product or commercial entity using or incorporating the GIS data unless specific written authorization is obtained from DOE/NREL. The User also understands that DOE/NREL shall not be obligated to provide updates, support, consulting, training or assistance of any kind whatsoever with regard to the use of the GIS data. THE GIS DATA IS PROVIDED "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL DOE/NREL BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO CLAIMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE LOSS OF DATA OR PROFITS, WHICH MAY RESULT FROM AN ACTION IN CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS CLAIM THAT ARISES OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE ACCESS OR USE OF THE GIS DATA. The User acknowledges that access to the GIS data is subject to U.S. Export laws and regulations and any use or transfer of the GIS data must be authorized under those regulations. The User shall not use, distribute, transfer, or transmit GIS data or any products incorporating the GIS data except in compliance with U.S. export regulations. If requested by DOE/NREL, the User agrees to sign written assurances and other export-related documentation as may be required to comply with U.S. export regulations.

414

Selective oxidation of methanol and ethanol on supported ruthenium oxide clusters at low temperatures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

RuO2 domains supported on SnO2, ZrO2, TiO2, Al2O3, and SiO2 catalyze the oxidative conversion of methanol to formaldehyde, methylformate, and dimethoxymethane with unprecedented rates and high combined selectivity (>99 percent) and yield at low temperatures (300-400 K). Supports influence turnover rates and the ability of RuO2 domains to undergo redox cycles required for oxidation turnovers. Oxidative dehydrogenation turnover rates and rates of stoichiometric reduction of RuO2 in H2 increased in parallel when RuO2 domains were dispersed on more reducible supports. These support effects, the kinetic effects of CH3OH and O2 on reaction rates, and the observed kinetic isotope effects with CH3OD and CD3OD reactants are consistent with a sequence of elementary steps involving kinetically relevant H-abstraction from adsorbed methoxide species using lattice oxygen atoms and with methoxide formation in quasi-equilibrated CH3OH dissociation on nearly stoichiometric RuO2 surfaces. Anaerobic transient experiments confirmed that CH3OH oxidation to HCHO requires lattice oxygen atoms and that selectivities are not influenced by the presence of O2. Residence time effects on selectivity indicate that secondary HCHO-CH3OH acetalization reactions lead to hemiacetal or methoxymethanol intermediates that convert to dimethoxymethane in reactions with CH3OH on support acid sites or dehydrogenate to form methylformate on RuO2 and support redox sites. These conclusions are consistent with the tendency of Al2O3 and SiO2 supports to favor dimethoxymethane formation, while SnO2, ZrO2, and TiO2 preferentially form methylformate. These support effects on secondary reactions were confirmed by measured CH3OH oxidation rates and selectivities on physical mixtures of supported RuO2 catalysts and pure supports. Ethanol also reacts on supported RuO2 domains to form predominately acetaldehyde and diethoxyethane at 300-400 K. The bifunctional nature of these reaction pathways and the remarkable ability of RuO2-based catalysts to oxidize CH3OH to HCHO at unprecedented low temperatures introduce significant opportunities for new routes to complex oxygenates, including some containing C-C bonds, using methanol or ethanol as intermediates derived from natural gas or biomass.

Liu, Haichao; Iglesia, Enrique

2004-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

415

Electron-Stimulated Reactions and O-2 Production in Methanol-Covered Amorphous Solid Water Films  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The low-energy, electron-stimulated desorption (ESD) of molecular products from amorphous solid water (ASW) films capped with methanol is investigated versus methanol coverage (0 - 4 x 1015 cm-2) at 50 K using 100 eV incident electrons. The major ESD products from a monolayer of methanol on ASW are quite similar to the ESD products from bulk methanol film: H2, CH4, H2O, C2H6, CO, CH2O, and CH3OH. For 40 ML ASW films, the molecular oxygen, hydrogen, and water ESD yields from the ASW are suppressed with increasing methanol coverage, while the CH3OH ESD yield increases proportionally to the methanol coverage. The suppression of the water ESD products by methanol is consistent with the non-thermal reactions occurring preferentially at or near the ASW/vacuum interface and not in the interior of the film. The water and molecular hydrogen ESD yields from the water layer decrease exponentially with the methanol cap coverage with 1/e constants of ~ 0.6 x 1015 cm-2 and 1.6 x 1015 cm-2, respectively. In contrast, the O2 ESD from the water layer is very efficiently quenched by small amounts of methanol (1/e ~ 6.5 x 1013 cm-2). The rapid suppression of O2 production by small amounts of methanol is due to reactions between CH3OH and the precursors for the O2 - mainly OH radicals. A kinetic model for the O2 ESD which semi-quantitatively accounts for the observations is presented.

Akin, Minta C.; Petrik, Nikolay G.; Kimmel, Gregory A.

2009-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

416

The Modular Ocean Data Assimilation System (MODAS)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Modular Ocean Data Assimilation System (MODAS) is used by the U.S. Navy for depiction of three-dimensional fields of temperature and salinity over the global ocean. MODAS includes both a static climatology and a dynamic climatology. While the ...

D. N. Fox; W. J. Teague; C. N. Barron; M. R. Carnes; C. M. Lee

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Wind Stress Measurements from the Open Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An automatic inertial dissipation system was used during three cruises of the RRS Discovery in the Southern Ocean to obtain a large dataset of open ocean wind stress estimates. The wind speed varied from near calm to 26 m s?1, and the sea-air ...

Margaret Yelland; Peter K. Taylor

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Upper Ocean Response to a Hurricane  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The upper ocean response to a moving hurricane is studied using historical air-sea data and a three-dimensional numerical ocean model. Sea surface temperature (SST) response is emphasized. The model has a surface mixed-layer (ML) that entrains ...

James F. Price

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM LEG 153 PRELIMINARY REPORT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ocean Drilling Program Texas A&M University 1000 Discovery Drive College Station TX 77845-9547 USA by the Ocean Drilling Program, Texas A&M University, as an account of work performed under the international of the National Science Foundation, the participating agencies, Joint Oceanographic Institutions, Inc., Texas A&M

420

OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM LEG 138 PRELIMINARY REPORT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ocean Drilling Program Texas A&M University 1000 Discovery Drive College Station TX 77845-9547 USA, Texas A&M University, as an account of work performed under the international Ocean Drilling Program Foundation, the participating agencies, Joint Oceanographic Institutions, Inc., Texas A&M University

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas methanol ocean" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Statistical mechanics and ocean circulation Rick Salmon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Statistical mechanics and ocean circulation Rick Salmon Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UCSD equilibrium statistical mechanics based upon the conservation of energy and potential enstrophy to the mass. The equilibrium state resembles the buoyancy structure actually observed. Key words: statistical mechanics, ocean

Salmon, Rick

422

Internal Variability of Indian Ocean SST  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A 40-yr integration of an eddy-resolving numerical model of the tropical Indian Ocean is analyzed to quantify the interannual variability that is caused by the internal variability of ocean dynamics. It is found that along the equator in the ...

Markus Jochum; Raghu Murtugudde

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

The Parallelization of the Princeton Ocean Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we present the parallel implementation of the Princeton Ocean Model (POM) using message passing. Domain decomposition techniques are used for the horizontal discretization whereas in the vertical direction each column per grid point is ... Keywords: domain decomposition, message passing, princeton ocean model

L. A. Boukas; N. Th. Mimikou; Nikolaos M. Missirlis; G. L. Mellor; A. Lascaratos; G. Korres

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Ruslands Gas.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This paper is about Russian natural gas and the possibility for Russia to use its reserves of natural gas politically towards the European Union to… (more)

Elkjær, Jonas Bondegaard

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

A Comparative Analysis of Upper-Ocean Heat Content Variability from an Ensemble of Operational Ocean Reanalyses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ocean heat content (HC) is one of the key indicators of climate variability and also provides ocean memory critical for seasonal and decadal predictions. The availability of multiple operational ocean analyses (ORAs) now routinely produced around ...

Yan Xue; Magdalena A. Balmaseda; Tim Boyer; Nicolas Ferry; Simon Good; Ichiro Ishikawa; Arun Kumar; Michele Rienecker; Anthony J. Rosati; Yonghong Yin

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Leading Modes of the Upper-Ocean Temperature Interannual Variability along the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean in NCEP GODAS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work, the authors analyze the physical mechanisms of interannual variability of the upper-ocean temperature anomaly (OTA) in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean, using ocean reanalysis from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)...

Zeng-Zhen Hu; Arun Kumar; Bohua Huang; Jieshun Zhu

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Development and application of ocean color algorithms for estimating particulate organic carbon in the Southern Ocean from satellite observations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and C. R. McClain (1998), Ocean color chlorophyll algorithmsand C. R. McClain (1998), Ocean color chlorophyll algorithmsand M. Culver (2000), Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms

Allison, David Benjamin

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Employing Satellite-Derived Sea Ice Concentration to Constrain Upper-Ocean Temperature in a Global Ocean GCM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The quality of Southern Ocean sea ice simulations in a global ocean general circulation model (GCM) depends decisively on the simulated upper-ocean temperature. This is confirmed by assimilating satellite-derived sea ice concentration to ...

Achim Stössel

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Ocean Motion International LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ocean Motion International LLC Ocean Motion International LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name Ocean Motion International LLC Place Saulsbury, Tennessee Zip 38067 Sector Ocean Product Marine energy technology firm developing ocean/ wave powered generators. Coordinates 35.052242°, -89.083299° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":35.052242,"lon":-89.083299,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

430

Clean Cities: Ocean State Clean Cities coalition  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Ocean State Clean Cities Coalition Ocean State Clean Cities Coalition The Ocean State Clean Cities coalition works with vehicle fleets, fuel providers, community leaders, and other stakeholders to reduce petroleum use in transportation. Ocean State Clean Cities coalition Contact Information Wendy Lucht 401-874-2792 wlucht@uri.edu Coalition Website Clean Cities Coordinator Wendy Lucht Photo of Wendy Lucht Wendy Lucht has worked as the Ocean State Clean Cities coordinator at the University of Rhode Island (URI) since 2008 but has worked at URI since 1999. Lucht is working to make Rhode Island the first state certified by Project Get Ready, an initiative preparing cities and states for the arrival of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). As part of this effort, Lucht is serving as chair of the fleet-acquisition committee working on

431

OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION: AN OVERALL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

l OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION: ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTOcean Thermal Energy Conversion Draft Programmatic Environ-Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion. U.S. DOE Assistant Secre-

Sands, M.Dale

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

EA-1336: Ocean Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Field Experiment...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

6: Ocean Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Field Experiment, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania EA-1336: Ocean Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Field Experiment, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania...

433

Trajectory Design and Implementation for Multiple Autonomous Underwater Vehicles Based on Ocean Model Predictions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for Multiple Autonomous Underwater Vehicles Based on OceanAUVs) • Autonomous Underwater Vehicles Evolving ocean

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Ocean Energy Projects Developing On and Off America's Shores | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ocean Energy Projects Developing On and Off America's Shores Ocean Energy Projects Developing On and Off America's Shores Ocean Energy Projects Developing On and Off America's Shores January 22, 2013 - 1:14pm Addthis Artist rendering of Ocean Power Technologies' proposed wave park off the coast of Oregon. | Photo courtesy of Ocean Power Technologies. Artist rendering of Ocean Power Technologies' proposed wave park off the coast of Oregon. | Photo courtesy of Ocean Power Technologies. Verdant testing its tidal energy device in New York's East River. | Photo courtesy of Verdant Power. Verdant testing its tidal energy device in New York's East River. | Photo courtesy of Verdant Power. Ocean Power Technologies wave energy device. | Photo courtesy of Ocean Power Technologies. Ocean Power Technologies wave energy device. | Photo courtesy of Ocean

435

Ocean Energy Projects Developing On and Off America's Shores | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ocean Energy Projects Developing On and Off America's Shores Ocean Energy Projects Developing On and Off America's Shores Ocean Energy Projects Developing On and Off America's Shores January 22, 2013 - 1:14pm Addthis Artist rendering of Ocean Power Technologies' proposed wave park off the coast of Oregon. | Photo courtesy of Ocean Power Technologies. Artist rendering of Ocean Power Technologies' proposed wave park off the coast of Oregon. | Photo courtesy of Ocean Power Technologies. Verdant testing its tidal energy device in New York's East River. | Photo courtesy of Verdant Power. Verdant testing its tidal energy device in New York's East River. | Photo courtesy of Verdant Power. Ocean Power Technologies wave energy device. | Photo courtesy of Ocean Power Technologies. Ocean Power Technologies wave energy device. | Photo courtesy of Ocean

436

An assessment of research and development leadership in ocean energy technologies  

SciTech Connect

Japan is clearly the leader in ocean energy technologies. The United Kingdom also has had many ocean energy research projects, but unlike Japan, most of the British projects have not progressed from the feasibility study stage to the demonstration stage. Federally funded ocean energy research in the US was stopped because it was perceived the technologies could not compete with conventional sources of fuel. Despite the probable small market for ocean energy technologies, the short sighted viewpoint of the US government regarding funding of these technologies may be harmful to US economic competitiveness. The technologies may have important uses in other applications, such as offshore construction and oil and gas drilling. Discontinuing the research and development of these technologies may cause the US to lose knowledge and miss market opportunities. If the US wishes to maintain its knowledge base and a market presence for ocean energy technologies, it may wish to consider entering into a cooperative agreement with Japan and/or the United Kingdom. Cooperative agreements are beneficial not only for technology transfer but also for cost-sharing.

Bruch, V.L.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Results from the second year of operation of the federal methanol fleet at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This interim report describes the second year's operation of the methanol fleet at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) in Berkeley, California. The fleet consists of five 1984 methanol-fueled Chevrolet Citation sedans paired with five comparable gasoline-fueled Citations for comparison. Data have been collected and tabulated on fuel consumption, maintenance records, oil sample analyses, and driver perceptions of vehicle operability. Fuel efficiency was slightly improved as compared to the first year for both the methanol and gasoline vehicles. The methanol vehicles continued to experience slightly less energy efficiency than the gasoline vehicles. Maintenance data reveal that the methanol vehicles required substantially more service than the gasoline vehicles, which may be due partially to a greater sensitivity on the part of users about methanol vehicle problems. Oil sample analyses revealed that engine wear rates are lower for the second year as compared to the first year and are probably not cause for great alarm. Drivers still rate all of the vehicles quite highly, but the methanol vehicles were rated not as highly during the second year of operation as in the first year. 5 refs., 1 figs., 16 tabs.

McGill, R.N.; Hillis, S.L.

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications Wensheng He, David Mountz, Tao Zhang, Chris Roger July 17, 2012 2 Outline Background on Arkema's polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) blend membrane technology Overview of membrane properties and performance Summary 3 Membrane Technology Polymer Blend * Kynar ® PVDF * Chemical and electrochemical stability * Mechanical strength * Excellent barrier against methanol * Polyelectrolyte * H + conduction and water uptake Flexible Blending Process  PVDF can be compatibilized with a number of polyelectrolytes  Process has been scaled to a pilot line Property Control * Morphology: 10-100s nm domains * Composition can be tailored to minimize methanol permeation, while optimizing

439

X-ray absorption and electrochemical studies of direct methanol fuel cell catalysts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In order for polymer electrolyte fuel cells to operate directly on methanol instead of hydrogen, methanol oxidation must be catalyzed in the acidic cell environment. Pt-Ru and Pt-Ru oxide are considered to be the most active catalysts for this purpose; Ru enhances the Pt activity for reasons not yet fully understood. XAS and electrochemical techniques were used to study this enhancement. Preliminary results indicate that Ru does effect the d-band occupancy of Pt, which in turn may effect the kinetics of the methanol oxidation reaction on this metal by altering the strength of the Pt-CO bond. Further research is needed.

Zurawski, D.J.; Aldykiewicz, A.J. Jr.; Baxter, S.F.; Krumpelt, M.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

440

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion: An overview  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ocean thermal energy conversion, or OTEC is a technology that extracts power from the ocean's natural thermal gradient. This technology is being pursued by researchers from many nations; in the United States, OTEC research is funded by the US Department of Energy's Ocean Energy Technology program. The program's goal is to develop the technology so that industry can make a competent assessment of its potential -- either as an alternative or as a supplement to conventional energy sources. Federally funded research in components and systems will help OTEC to the threshold of commercialization. This publication provides an overview of the OTEC technology. 47 refs., 25 figs.

Not Available

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas methanol ocean" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

SHAPE SELECTIVE NANOCATALYSTS FOR DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELL APPLICATIONS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

While gold and platinum have long been recognized for their beauty and value, researchers at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) are working on the nano-level to use these elements for creative solutions to our nation's energy and security needs. Multiinterdisciplinary teams consisting of chemists, materials scientists, physicists, computational scientists, and engineers are exploring unchartered territories with shape-selective nanocatalysts for the development of novel, cost effective and environmentally friendly energy solutions to meet global energy needs. This nanotechnology is vital, particularly as it relates to fuel cells.SRNL researchers have taken process, chemical, and materials discoveries and translated them for technological solution and deployment. The group has developed state-of-the art shape-selective core-shell-alloy-type gold-platinum nanostructures with outstanding catalytic capabilities that address many of the shortcomings of the Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC). The newly developed nanostructures not only busted the performance of the platinum catalyst, but also reduced the material cost and overall weight of the fuel cell.

Murph, S.

2012-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

442

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

have prepared this Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to describe the effects of offshore oil and gas exploration activities in the U.S. Beaufort and Chukchi seas. This EIS analyzes a range of management alternatives to assist NMFS and BOEM in carrying out their statutory responsibilities to authorize or

unknown authors

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Federal Energy Management Program: Hydropower and Ocean Energy Resources  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydropower and Hydropower and Ocean Energy Resources and Technologies to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Hydropower and Ocean Energy Resources and Technologies on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program: Hydropower and Ocean Energy Resources and Technologies on Twitter Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Hydropower and Ocean Energy Resources and Technologies on Google Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Hydropower and Ocean Energy Resources and Technologies on Delicious Rank Federal Energy Management Program: Hydropower and Ocean Energy Resources and Technologies on Digg Find More places to share Federal Energy Management Program: Hydropower and Ocean Energy Resources and Technologies on AddThis.com... Energy-Efficient Products

444

Reformers for the production of hydrogen from methanol and alternative fuels for fuel cell powered vehicles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this study was (i) to assess the present state of technology of reformers that convert methanol (or other alternative fuels) to a hydrogen-rich gas mixture for use in a fuel cell, and (ii) to identify the R D needs for developing reformers for transportation applications. Steam reforming and partial oxidation are the two basic types of fuel reforming processes. The former is endothermic while the latter is exothermic. Reformers are therefore typically designed as heat exchange systems, and the variety of designs used includes shell-and-tube, packed bed, annular, plate, and cyclic bed types. Catalysts used include noble metals and oxides of Cu, Zn, Cr, Al, Ni, and La. For transportation applications a reformer must be compact, lightweight, and rugged. It must also be capable of rapid start-up and good dynamic performance responsive to fluctuating loads. A partial oxidation reformer is likely to be better than a steam reformer based on these considerations, although its fuel conversion efficiency is expected to be lower than that of a steam reformer. A steam reformer better lends itself to thermal integration with the fuel cell system; however, the thermal independence of the reformer from the fuel cell stack is likely to yield much better dynamic performance of the reformer and the fuel cell propulsion power system. For both steam reforming and partial oxidation reforming, research is needed to develop compact, fast start-up, and dynamically responsive reformers. For transportation applications, steam reformers are likely to prove best for fuel cell/battery hybrid power systems, and partial oxidation reformers are likely to be the choice for stand-alone fuel cell power systems.

Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.; Myles, K.M.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Reformers for the production of hydrogen from methanol and alternative fuels for fuel cell powered vehicles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this study was (i) to assess the present state of technology of reformers that convert methanol (or other alternative fuels) to a hydrogen-rich gas mixture for use in a fuel cell, and (ii) to identify the R&D needs for developing reformers for transportation applications. Steam reforming and partial oxidation are the two basic types of fuel reforming processes. The former is endothermic while the latter is exothermic. Reformers are therefore typically designed as heat exchange systems, and the variety of designs used includes shell-and-tube, packed bed, annular, plate, and cyclic bed types. Catalysts used include noble metals and oxides of Cu, Zn, Cr, Al, Ni, and La. For transportation applications a reformer must be compact, lightweight, and rugged. It must also be capable of rapid start-up and good dynamic performance responsive to fluctuating loads. A partial oxidation reformer is likely to be better than a steam reformer based on these considerations, although its fuel conversion efficiency is expected to be lower than that of a steam reformer. A steam reformer better lends itself to thermal integration with the fuel cell system; however, the thermal independence of the reformer from the fuel cell stack is likely to yield much better dynamic performance of the reformer and the fuel cell propulsion power system. For both steam reforming and partial oxidation reforming, research is needed to develop compact, fast start-up, and dynamically responsive reformers. For transportation applications, steam reformers are likely to prove best for fuel cell/battery hybrid power systems, and partial oxidation reformers are likely to be the choice for stand-alone fuel cell power systems.

Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.; Myles, K.M.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Circulation of Tritium in the Pacific Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The input of bomb tritium into the high-latitude Northern Hemisphere waters has demonstrated the spread of a tracer in three dimensions in the North Pacific Ocean. Subsurface tritium maxima in middle and low latitudes clearly show the importance ...

Rana A. Fine; Joseph L. Reid; H. Göte Östlund

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Ocean Radiant Heating. Part I: Optical Influences  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiative transfer calculations are used to quantify the effects of physical and biological processes on variations in the transmission of solar radiation through the upper ocean. Results indicate that net irradiance at 10 cm and 5 m can vary by ...

J. Carter Ohlmann; David A. Siegel; Curtis D. Mobley

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Velocity Probability Density Functions for Oceanic Floats  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Probability density functions (PDFs) of daily velocities from subsurface floats deployed in the North Atlantic and equatorial Atlantic Oceans are examined. In general, the PDFs are approximately Gaussian for small velocities, but with significant ...

Annalisa Bracco; J. H. LaCasce; Antonello Provenzale

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

An Investigation of Explosively Deepening Oceanic Cyclones  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The explosively deepening oceanic cyclone or “bomb,” one which has central pressure falls of 12 mb (12 h)?1 or greater, has been studied using composites constructed from North Atlantic and Pacific weather ship rawinsonde data during the period ...

Eric Rogers; Lance F. Bosart

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Wavelet Transforms and Ocean Current Data Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The recently advanced approach of wavelet transforms is applied to the analysis of ocean currents. The conventional analyses of time series in the frequency domain can be readily generalized to the frequency.and time domain using wavelet ...

Paul C. Liu; Gerald S. Miller

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Variability of Southern Ocean Jets Near Topography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The interaction of jets with topography in the Southern Ocean is investigated using 19 years of altimetry data. In particular, the “jet jumping” mode of variability, by which two or more jets passing close to the same topographic feature show ...

Christopher C. Chapman; Rosemary Morrow

452

Ocean Renewable Power Company | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Power Company Power Company Jump to: navigation, search Name Ocean Renewable Power Company LLC Place Portland, Maine Zip 4101 Sector Ocean, Renewable Energy Product Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC was founded in 2004 for the purpose of generating reliable, competitive, emission-free electricity from the energy resources of the oceans. Coordinates 45.511795°, -122.675629° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":45.511795,"lon":-122.675629,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

453

Makai Ocean Engineering Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Makai Ocean Engineering Inc Makai Ocean Engineering Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name Makai Ocean Engineering Inc Address PO Box 1206 Place Kailua Zip 96734-1206 Sector Marine and Hydrokinetic Year founded 1973 Number of employees 28 Phone number 808.259.8871 Website http://www.makai.com Region United States LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This company is listed in the Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology Database. This company is involved in the following MHK Projects: Modeling the Physical and Biochemical Influence of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Plant Discharges into their Adjacent Waters This company is involved in the following MHK Technologies: Deep Water Pipelines This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it.

454

Ocean Map Regional | Data.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Regional Regional Ocean Data Tools Technical Guide Map Gallery Regional Planning Feedback Ocean You are here Data.gov » Communities » Ocean Featured Maps The following maps are from data sources that are regional in scope. These are some of the data sources available in the Ocean Community that are most useful in the identified region. This includes several of the human use atlases now available. Regional/State Maps .view-map-gallery .views-row { float: inherit; margin: 0; } .map-align { float: left; margin: 0 20px; } .map-gallery-thumbnail{width:202px;height:133px;} .pane-map-gallery h2.pane-title { color: #284A78 !important; font: bold 16px Georgia,"Times New Roman",Serif !important; margin-left: 25px !important; } Oregon Submarine Cables Marine Reserves and Protected areas of Oregon

455

OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM LEG 170 PRELIMINARY REPORT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

/Canada/Chinese Taipei/Korea Consortium for Ocean Drilling Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (Federal Republic of Germany Cypionka Microbiologist Institut für Chemie und Biologie Des Meeres (ICBM) Carl von Ossietzky Universität

456

OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM LEG 197 SCIENTIFIC PROSPECTUS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by the following agencies: Australia/Canada/Chinese Taipei/Korea Consortium for Ocean Drilling Deutsche.edu Marcel Regelous Petrologist Abteilung Geochemie Max-Planck-Institüt für Chemie Johannes J-Becherweg 27

457

OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM LEG 176 SCIENTIFIC PROSPECTUS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

/Canada/Chinese Taipei/Korea Consortium for Ocean Drilling Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (Federal Republic of Germany Geochemist Institut für Chemie und Biologie des Meeres (ICBM) Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg

458

OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM LEG 199 SCIENTIFIC PROSPECTUS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-ocean ridge flanks have been investigated. These include the Galapagos mounds, the southern flank of the Costa logging tools are expected to provide little information of direct benefit to the scientific objectives

459

Ocean Boundary Mixing during Ekman Layer Arrest  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As a water parcel comes into contact with an ocean boundary, energy is dissipated within the boundary layer with some fraction directed into vertical mixing. In a stratified flow this increases the potential energy associated with the density ...

Scott A. Condie

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Ocean Energy Company LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ocean Energy Company LLC Address 505 Fifth Ave 800 Place Des Moines Zip 50309-2426 Sector Marine and Hydrokinetic Year founded 2011 Phone number (515) 246-1500 Region United States...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas methanol ocean" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Ocean Energy Ltd | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ocean Energy Ltd Address 3 Casement Square Place Cobh Sector Marine and Hydrokinetic Phone number 00353-21-4816779 Website http:www.oceanenergy.ie Region Ireland LinkedIn...

462

On Frontal Dynamics in Two Model Oceans  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Vertically homogeneous variable-temperature layer models are often used to describe upper-ocean variability, the dynamics of jets and fronts included. Frontogenesis is known to have a preference for strong cyclonic shears. When a frontal wave ...

Tor Eldevik

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

The Thermal Structure of the Upper Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The salient feature of the oceanic thermal structure is a remarkably shallow thermocline, especially in the Tropics and subtropics. What factors determine its depth? Theories for the deep thermohaline circulation provide an answer that depends on ...

Giulio Boccaletti; Ronald C. Pacanowski; S. George; H. Philander; Alexey V. Fedorov

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Thermally Driven Circulations in Small Oceanic Basins  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A linear, steady model of the circulation of a small (f plane) oceanic basin driven by heating or cooling at the surface is considered in order to examine the partition of upwelling (heating) or downwelling (cooling) between the basin's interior ...

Joseph Pedlosky

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Estimating Oceanic Turbulence Dissipation from Seismic Images  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Seismic images of oceanic thermohaline finestructure record vertical displacements from internal waves and turbulence over large sections at unprecedented horizontal resolution. Where reflections follow isopycnals, their displacements can be used ...

W. Steven Holbrook; Ilker Fer; Raymond W. Schmitt; Daniel Lizarralde; Jody M. Klymak; L. Cody Helfrich; Robert Kubichek