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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas light high" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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1

High efficiency incandescent lighting  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Incandescent lighting structure. The structure includes a thermal emitter that can, but does not have to, include a first photonic crystal on its surface to tailor thermal emission coupled to, in a high-view-factor geometry, a second photonic filter selected to reflect infrared radiation back to the emitter while passing visible light. This structure is highly efficient as compared to standard incandescent light bulbs.

Bermel, Peter; Ilic, Ognjen; Chan, Walker R.; Musabeyoglu, Ahmet; Cukierman, Aviv Ruben; Harradon, Michael Robert; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin

2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

2

Gas Model of Gravitons with Light Speed  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We first review some aspects of gravitational wave and the thermodynamic expression of Einstein field equations, these achieved conclusions allow people to think of Einstein's gravitational wave as a kind of sound wave in ordinary gas which propagates as an adiabatic compression wave. In the following, using the properties of photon gas in "white wall box", we find an analogous relationship between ordinary gas and photon gas through sound velocity formula. At last, by taking the ordinary gas as an intermediary, we find that gravitational wave is analogous to photon gas, or equally, gravitons are analogous to photons although they are different in some ways such as spins and coupling strengths, and these different properties don't affect their propagation speeds. Utilizing this analogous relationship, we achieve the gas model of gravitons and this model naturally gives out the light speed of gravitons

Ming Chen; Yong-Chang Huang

2014-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

3

Gas separation using ultrasound and light absorption  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for separating a chosen gas from a mixture of gases having no moving parts and utilizing no chemical processing is described. The separation of particulates from fluid carriers thereof has been observed using ultrasound. In a similar manner, molecular species may be separated from carrier species. It is also known that light-induced drift may separate light-absorbing species from carrier species. Therefore, the combination of temporally pulsed absorption of light with ultrasonic concentration is expected to significantly increase the efficiency of separation by ultrasonic concentration alone. Additionally, breaking the spatial symmetry of a cylindrical acoustic concentrator decreases the spatial distribution of the concentrated particles, and increases the concentration efficiency.

Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Alamos, NM)

2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

4

Propagation of light in low pressure gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The criticism by W. E. Lamb, W. Schleich, M. Scully, C. Townes of a simplified quantum electrodynamics which represents the photon as a true particle is illustrated. Collisions being absent in low-pressure gas, exchanges of energy are radiative and coherent. Thin shells of plasma containing atoms in a model introduced by Str\\"omgren are superradiant, seen as circles possibly dotted. Spectral radiance of novae has magnitude of laser radiance, and column densities are large in nebulae: Superradiance, multiphoton effects, etc., work in astrophysics. The superradiant beams induce multiphotonic scatterings of light emitted by the stars, brightening the limbs of plasma bubbles and darkening the stars. In excited atomic hydrogen, impulsive Raman scatterings shift frequencies of light. Microwaves exchanged with the Pioneer probes are blueshifted, simulating anomalous accelerations. Substituting coherence for wrong calculations in astrophysical papers, improves results, avoids "new physics".

Jacques Moret-Bailly

2012-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

5

High Performance Outdoor Lighting Accelerator  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Hosted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)抯 Weatherization and Intergovernmental Programs Office (WIPO), this webinar covered the expansion of the Better Buildings platform to include the newest initiative for the public sector: the High Performance Outdoor Lighting Accelerator (HPOLA).

6

Central Hudson Gas and Electric (Electric)- Commercial Lighting Rebate Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Central Hudson Gas and Electric's (Central Hudson) Commercial Lighting Rebate Program is for businesses, retailers, institutional customers and non-profit customers of Central Hudson. The progam...

7

Strategy Guideline: High Performance Residential Lighting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Strategy Guideline: High Performance Residential Lighting has been developed to provide a tool for the understanding and application of high performance lighting in the home. The high performance lighting strategies featured in this guide are drawn from recent advances in commercial lighting for application to typical spaces found in residential buildings. This guide offers strategies to greatly reduce lighting energy use through the application of high quality fluorescent and light emitting diode (LED) technologies. It is important to note that these strategies not only save energy in the home but also serve to satisfy the homeowner's expectations for high quality lighting.

Holton, J.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

High gas flow alpha detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An alpha detector for application in areas of high velocity gas flows, such as smokestacks and air vents. A plurality of spaced apart signal collectors are placed inside an enclosure, which would include smokestacks and air vents, in sufficient numbers to substantially span said enclosure so that gas ions generated within the gas flow are electrostatically captured by the signal collector means. Electrometer means and a voltage source are connected to the signal collectors to generate an electrical field between adjacent signal collectors, and to indicate a current produced through collection of the gas ions by the signal collectors. 4 figs.

Bolton, R.D.; Bounds, J.A.; Rawool-Sullivan, M.W.

1996-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

9

High gas flow alpha detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An alpha detector for application in areas of high velocity gas flows, such as smokestacks and air vents. A plurality of spaced apart signal collectors are placed inside an enclosure, which would include smokestacks and air vents, in sufficient numbers to substantially span said enclosure so that gas ions generated within the gas flow are electrostatically captured by the signal collector means. Electrometer means and a voltage source are connected to the signal collectors to generate an electrical field between adjacent signal collectors, and to indicate a current produced through collection of the gas ions by the signal collectors.

Bolton, Richard D. (Los Alamos, NM); Bounds, John A. (Los Alamos, NM); Rawool-Sullivan, Mohini W. (Los Alamos, NM)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Backscatter absorption gas imaging systems and light sources therefore  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The location of gases that are not visible to the unaided human eye can be determined using tuned light sources that spectroscopically probe the gases and cameras that can provide images corresponding to the absorption of the gases. The present invention is a light source for a backscatter absorption gas imaging (BAGI) system, and a light source incorporating the light source, that can be used to remotely detect and produce images of "invisible" gases. The inventive light source has a light producing element, an optical amplifier, and an optical parametric oscillator to generate wavelength tunable light in the IR. By using a multi-mode light source and an amplifier that operates using 915 nm pump sources, the power consumption of the light source is reduced to a level that can be operated by batteries for long periods of time. In addition, the light source is tunable over the absorption bands of many hydrocarbons, making it useful for detecting hazardous gases.

Kulp, Thomas Jan (Livermore, CA); Kliner, Dahv A. V. (San Ramon, CA); Sommers, Ricky (Oakley, CA); Goers, Uta-Barbara (Campbell, NY); Armstrong, Karla M. (Livermore, CA)

2006-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

11

Light gas gun with reduced timing jitter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Gas gun with reduced timing jitter is disclosed. A gas gun having a prepressurized projectile held in place with a glass rod in compression is described. The glass rod is destroyed with an explosive at a precise time which allows a restraining pin to be moved and free the projectile. 4 figs.

Laabs, G.W.; Funk, D.J.; Asay, B.W.

1998-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

12

High ratio recirculating gas compressor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high ratio positive displacement recirculating rotary compressor is disclosed. The compressor includes an integral heat exchanger and recirculation conduits for returning cooled, high pressure discharge gas to the compressor housing to reducing heating of the compressor and enable higher pressure ratios to be sustained. The compressor features a recirculation system which results in continuous and uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas to the compressor with no direct leakage to either the discharge port or the intake port of the compressor, resulting in a capability of higher sustained pressure ratios without overheating of the compressor. 10 figs.

Weinbrecht, J.F.

1989-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

13

Hybrid Membranes for Light Gas Separations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Membrane separations provide a potentially attractive technology over conventional processes due to their advantages, such as low capital cost and energy consumption. The goal of this thesis is to design hybrid membranes that facilitate specific gas...

Liu, Ting

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

14

TAP Webinar: High Performance Outdoor Lighting Accelerator  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Hosted by the Technical Assistance Program (TAP), this webinar will cover the recently announced expansion of the Better Buildings platform 梩he High Performance Outdoor Lighting Accelerator (HPOLA).

15

Optimization of a two stage light-gas gun  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. DISCUSSION OF EXPERIMENTS 4. 1 General 4. 2 Description of the Texas A8M Light-Gas Gun. 4. 3 Parametric Tests. 4. 4 Optimization Tests. 4. 5 Experimental Error. V. CONCLUSION REFERENCES. APPENDIX A The Texas A&M Light-Gas Gun Facility. APPENDIX B... to accelerate down the launch tube. Figures (1) and (2) illustrate the components of the gun and the steps in a typical launch cycle. Many factors influence gun performance but these may be grouped into two main categories. First are those dealing with gun...

Rynearson, Richard James

1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Technology Development for Light Duty High Efficient Diesel Engines...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Light Duty High Efficient Diesel Engines Technology Development for Light Duty High Efficient Diesel Engines Improve the efficiency of diesel engines for light duty applications...

17

High Energy Gas Fracturing Test  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) has recently completed two tests of a high-energy gas fracturing system being developed by Western Technologies of Crossville, Tennessee. The tests involved the use of two active wells located at the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 (NPR-3), thirty-five miles north of Casper, Wyoming (See Figure 1). During the testing process the delivery and operational system was enhanced by RMOTC, Western Technologies, and commercial wireline subcontractors. RMOTC has assisted an industrial client in developing their technology for high energy gas fracturing to a commercial level. The modifications and improvements implemented during the technology testing process are instrumental in all field testing efforts at RMOTC. The importance of well selection can also be critical in demonstrating the success of the technology. To date, significant increases in well productivity have been clearly proven in well 63-TPX-10. Gross fluid production was initially raised by a factor of three. Final production rates increased by a factor of six with the use of a larger submersible pump. Well productivity (bbls of fluid per foot of drawdown) increased by a factor of 15 to 20. The above results assume that no mechanical damage has occurred to the casing or cast iron bridge plug which could allow well production from the Tensleep ''B'' sand. In the case of well 61-A-3, a six-fold increase in total fluid production was seen. Unfortunately, the increase is clouded by the water injection into the well that was necessary to have a positive fluid head on the propellant tool. No significant increase in oil production was seen. The tools which were retrieved from both 63-TPX-10 and 61-A-3 indicated a large amount of energy, similar to high gram perforating, had been expended downhole upon the formation face.

Schulte, R.

2001-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

18

High Temperature Gas Reactors The Next Generation ?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-Proof Advanced Reactor and Gas Turbine #12;Flow through Power Conversion Vessel 8 #12;9 TRISO Fuel Particle1 High Temperature Gas Reactors The Next Generation ? Professor Andrew C Kadak Massachusetts of Brayton vs. Rankine Cycle 路 High Temperature Helium Gas (900 C) 路 Direct or Indirect Cycle 路 Originally

19

E-Print Network 3.0 - american gas-light journal Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

gas-light journal Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: american gas-light journal Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 WILDLIFE TECHNIQUES NRM...

20

High potential recovery -- Gas repressurization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to demonstrate that small independent oil producers can use existing gas injection technologies, scaled to their operations, to repressurize petroleum reservoirs and increase their economic oil production. This report gives background information for gas repressurization technologies, the results of workshops held to inform small independent producers about gas repressurization, and the results of four gas repressurization field demonstration projects. Much of the material in this report is based on annual reports (BDM-Oklahoma 1995, BDM-Oklahoma 1996, BDM-Oklahoma 1997), a report describing the results of the workshops (Olsen 1995), and the four final reports for the field demonstration projects which are reproduced in the Appendix. This project was designed to demonstrate that repressurization of reservoirs with gas (natural gas, enriched gas, nitrogen, flue gas, or air) can be used by small independent operators in selected reservoirs to increase production and/or decrease premature abandonment of the resource. The project excluded carbon dioxide because of other DOE-sponsored projects that address carbon dioxide processes directly. Two of the demonstration projects, one using flue gas and the other involving natural gas from a deeper coal zone, were both technical and economic successes. The two major lessons learned from the projects are the importance of (1) adequate infrastructure (piping, wells, compressors, etc.) and (2) adequate planning including testing compatibility between injected gases and fluids, and reservoir gases, fluids, and rocks.

Madden, M.P.

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas light high" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

High Temperature Gas Reactors Briefing to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Meltdown-Proof Advanced Reactor and Gas Turbine #12;TRISO Fuel Particle -- "Microsphere" 路 0.9mm diameter 路 Utilizes gas turbine technology 路 Lower Power Density 路 Less Complicated Design (No ECCS) #12;AdvantagesHigh Temperature Gas Reactors Briefing to by Andrew C. Kadak, Ph.D. Professor of the Practice

22

High-pressure gas hydrates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It has long been known that crystalline hydrates are formed by many simple gases that do not interact strongly with water, and in most cases the gas molecules or atoms occupy 'cages' formed by a framework of water molecules. The majority...

Loveday, J. S.; Nelmes, R. J.

23

New and Underutilized Technology: High Bay LED Lighting  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The following information outlines key deployment considerations for high bay LED lighting within the Federal sector.

24

High Hats, Swiss Cheese, and Fluorescent Lighting?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For DOE, PNNL is conducting a competitive procurement to promote market introduction of new residential recessed downlights (also known as ''recessed cans'' or ''high hats'') that are airtight, rated for insulated ceilings, and hard-wired for CFLs. This paper discusses the potential energy savings of new high-efficiency downlights, and the results of product testing to date. Recessed downlights are the most popular residential lighting fixtures in the United States, with 21.7 million fixtures sold in 2000. An estimated 350 million are currently installed in American homes. Recessed cans are relatively inexpensive, and provide an unobtrusive, directed source of light for kitchens, hallways, and living rooms. Recessed cans are energy-intensive in three ways. First, virtually all recessed cans currently installed in the residential sector use incandescent light sources, typically reflector-type lamps drawing 65-150 watts. Second, heat from incandescent lamps adds to air-conditioning loads. Third, most installed recessed cans are not airtight, so they allow conditioned air to escape from the living area into unconditioned spaces such as attics. Addressing both lighting energy use and air leakage in recessed cans has proven challenging. Lighting energy efficiency is greatly improved by using CFLs. Air leakage can be addressed by making fixtures airtight. But when CFLs are used in an airtight recessed can, heat generated by the lamp and ballast is trapped within the fixture. Excessive heat causes reduced light output and shorter lifespan of the CFL. The procurement was designed to overcome these technical challenges and make new products available in the marketplace.

McCullough, Jeffrey J.; Gordon, Kelly L.

2002-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

25

High Efficiency, Illumination Quality OLEDs for Lighting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of the program was to demonstrate a 45 lumen per watt white light device based upon the use of multiple emission colors through the use of solution processing. This performance level is a dramatic extension of the team's previous 15 LPW large area illumination device. The fundamental material system was based upon commercial polymer materials. The team was largely able to achieve these goals, and was able to deliver to DOE a 90 lumen illumination source that had an average performance of 34 LPW a 1000 cd/m{sup 2} with peak performances near 40LPW. The average color temperature is 3200K and the calculated CRI 85. The device operated at a brightness of approximately 1000cd/m{sup 2}. The use of multiple emission colors particularly red and blue, provided additional degrees of design flexibility in achieving white light, but also required the use of a multilayered structure to separate the different recombination zones and prevent interconversion of blue emission to red emission. The use of commercial materials had the advantage that improvements by the chemical manufacturers in charge transport efficiency, operating life and material purity could be rapidly incorporated without the expenditure of additional effort. The program was designed to take maximum advantage of the known characteristics of these material and proceeded in seven steps. (1) Identify the most promising materials, (2) assemble them into multi-layer structures to control excitation and transport within the OLED, (3) identify materials development needs that would optimize performance within multilayer structures, (4) build a prototype that demonstrates the potential entitlement of the novel multilayer OLED architecture (5) integrate all of the developments to find the single best materials set to implement the novel multilayer architecture, (6) further optimize the best materials set, (7) make a large area high illumination quality white OLED. A photo of the final deliverable is shown. In 2003, a large area, OLED based illumination source was demonstrated that could provide light with a quality, quantity, and efficiency on par with what can be achieved with traditional light sources. The demonstration source was made by tiling together 16 separate 6-inch x 6-inch blue-emitting OLEDs. The efficiency, total lumen output, and lifetime of the OLED based illumination source were the same as what would be achieved with an 80 watt incandescent bulb. The devices had an average efficacy of 15 LPW and used solution-processed OLEDs. The individual 6-inch x 6-inch devices incorporated three technology strategies developed specifically for OLED lighting -- downconversion for white light generation, scattering for outcoupling efficiency enhancement, and a scalable monolithic series architecture to enable large area devices. The downconversion approach consists of optically coupling a blue-emitting OLED to a set of luminescent layers. The layers are chosen to absorb the blue OLED emission and then luminescence with high efficiency at longer wavelengths. The composition and number of layers are chosen so that the unabsorbed blue emission and the longer wavelength re-emission combine to make white light. A downconversion approach has the advantage of allowing a wide variety of colors to be made from a limited set of blue emitters. In addition, one does not have to carefully tune the emission wavelength of the individual electro-luminescent species within the OLED device in order to achieve white light. The downconversion architecture used to develop the 15LPW large area light source consisted of a polymer-based blue-emitting OLED and three downconversion layers. Two of the layers utilized perylene based dyes from BASF AG of Germany with high quantum efficiency (>98%) and one of the layers consisted of inorganic phosphor particles (Y(Gd)AG:Ce) with a quantum efficiency of {approx}85%. By independently varying the optical density of the downconversion layers, the overall emission spectrum could be adjusted to maximize performance for lighting (e.g. blackbody temp

Joseph Shiang; James Cella; Kelly Chichak; Anil Duggal; Kevin Janora; Chris Heller; Gautam Parthasarathy; Jeffery Youmans; Joseph Shiang

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

26

Impact Studies Using a One Stage Light Gas Gun  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Center for Astrophysics,Space Physics, and Engineering Research (CASPER) has completed construction and calibration of a Light Gas Gun (LGG), which is used for low velocity impact studies. At geosynchronous orbit, space debris can impact commercial satellites at velocities of 500 m/s [1] reducing their useful lifetime. Additionally, there is an ever-increasing population of abandoned nonoperational satellites and related debris in these orbits [2]. Therefore, it is important to clearly understand the physics behind how such collisions can cause structural damage. This is most easily determined by measuring the damage incurred on representative material exposed to test collisions in the laboratory. Data collected in this manner will not only help illuminate the shock physics involved but can also aid in providing methods for designing advanced shielding for satellites.

Jorge Carmona; Mike Cook; Jimmy Schmoke; Katie Harper; Jerry Reay; Lorin Matthews; Truell Hyde

2004-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

27

Department of Mechanical Engineering Spring 2013 Lumax Lighting 2: LED Industrial High Bay Light Fixture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PENNSTATE Department of Mechanical Engineering Spring 2013 Lumax Lighting 2: LED Industrial High Bay Light Fixture Overview The problem that our sponsor, Rich Taylor, presented to the team was to design a light fixture for an industrial setting using high power LED lights. The challenge

Demirel, Melik C.

28

Cheyenne Light, Fuel and Power (Gas)- Commercial and Industrial Efficiency Rebate Program (Wyoming)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Cheyenne Light, Fuel and Power (CLFP) offers incentives to commercial and industrial gas customers who install energy efficient equipment in existing buildings. Incentives are available for boilers...

29

Gas-Solid Coexistence in Highly Charged Colloidal Suspensions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Aqueous suspensions of highly charged polystyrene particles with different volume fractions have been investigated for structural ordering and phase behavior using static light scattering (SLS) and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). Under deionized conditions, suspensions of high charge density colloidal particles remained disordered whereas suspensions of relatively low charge density showed crystallization by exhibiting iridescence for the visible light. Though for unaided eye crystallized suspensions appeared homogeneous, static light scattering measurements and CLSM observations have revealed their inhomogeneous nature in the form of coexistence of voids with dense ordered regions. CLSM investigations on disordered suspensions showed their inhomogeneous nature in the form coexistence of voids with dense disordered (amorphous) regions. Our studies on highly charged colloids confirm the occurrence of gas-solid transition and are in accordance with predictions of Monte Carlo simulations using a pair-potential having a long-range attractive term [Mohanty and Tata, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 2003, 264, 101]. Based on our experimental and simulation results we argue that the reported reentrant disordered state [Yamanaka et al Phys. Rev. Lett. 1998, 80, 5806 and Toyotama et al Langmuir, 2003, 19, 3236] in charged colloids observed at high charge densities is a gas-solid coexistence state.

P. S. Mohanty; B. V. R. Tata; A. Toyotama; T. Sawada

2005-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

30

Water Cooling of High Power Light Emitting Diode Henrik Srensen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water Cooling of High Power Light Emitting Diode Henrik S酶rensen Department of Energy Technology and product lifetime. The high power Light Emitting Diodes (LED) belongs to the group of electronics

Berning, Torsten

31

Highly Efficient Silicon Light Emitting Diode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

silicon light-emitting diodes (LED) that efficiently emit photons with energy around the silicon bandgap

Leminh Holleman Wallinga; P. Leminh; J. Holleman; H. Wallinga

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Measure Guideline: High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Measure Guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces. Topics covered include when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure, how to identify and address risks, and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.

Brand, L.; Rose, W.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

POWER-TO-GAS PROCESS WITH HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

POWER-TO-GAS PROCESS WITH HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS AND CO2 METHANATION NOVEMBER 19th 2013 IRES. Energy background 2. Power-to-Substitute Natural Gas process with high temperature steam electrolysis Gas-to-heat Gas-to-mobility Gas-to-power Excess Production = Consumption Distribution and storing

Paris-Sud XI, Universit茅 de

34

Highly Efficient Silicon Light Emitting Diode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper, we describe the fabrication, using standard silicon processing techniques, of silicon light-emitting diodes (LED) that efficiently emit photons with energy around the silicon bandgap. The improved efficiency had been explained by the spatial confinement of charge carriers due to a local strain field that is formed by dislocation loop arrays. The dependence of device electroluminescent properties on the annealing conditions is carefully examined as a high temperature process has profound influence on these dislocations. Increased luminescent intensity at higher device temperature, together with pure diffusion current conduction mechanism evidently shows the influence of the dislocation loops. The electrical properties of the diode are reasonable with low leakage reverse current.

Leminh Holleman Wallinga; P. Leminh; J. Holleman; H. Wallinga

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Adaptation of gas tagging for failed fuel identification in light water reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper discusses experience with noble gas tagging and its adaptation to commercial reactors. It reviews the recent incidence of fuel failures in light water reactors, and methods used to identify failures, and concludes that the on-line technique of gas tagging could significantly augment present flux tilting, sipping and ultrasonic testing of assemblies. The paper describes calculations on tag gas stability in-reactor, and tag injection tests that were carried out collaboratively with Commonwealth Edison Company in the Byron-2 pressurized water reactor (P%a) and with Duke Power Company and Babcock and Wilcox Fuel Company in the Oconee-2 PWM. The tests gave information on: (a) noble gas concentration dynamics as the tag gases were dissolved in and eventually removed from subsystems of the RCS; and (b) the suitability of candidate Ar, Ne, Kr and Xe isotopes for tagging PWR fuel. It was found that the activity of Xe{sup 125} (the activation product of the tag isotope Xe{sup 124}) acted as a ``tag of a tag`` and tracked gas through the reactor; measured activities are being used to model gas movement in the RCS. Several interference molecules (trace contaminants normally present at sub-ppM concentrations in RCS samples) and entrained air in the RCS were found to affect mass spectrometer sensitivity for tag isotopes. In all instances the contaminants could be differentiated from the tag isotopes by operating the mass spectrometer at high resolution (2500). Similarly, it was possible to distinguish all the candidate tag gases against a high background of air. The test results suggested, however, that for routine analysis a high resolution static mass spectrometer will be preferable to the dynamic instrument used for the present analyses.

Lambert, J.D.B.; Gross, K.C.; Depiante, E.V. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Callis, E.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Egebrecht, P.M. [Commonwealth Edison Company, Downers Grove, IL (United States)

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

High temperature gas-cooled reactor: gas turbine application study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The high-temperature capability of the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) is a distinguishing characteristic which has long been recognized as significant both within the US and within foreign nuclear energy programs. This high-temperature capability of the HTGR concept leads to increased efficiency in conventional applications and, in addition, makes possible a number of unique applications in both electrical generation and industrial process heat. In particular, coupling the HTGR nuclear heat source to the Brayton (gas turbine) Cycle offers significant potential benefits to operating utilities. This HTGR-GT Application Study documents the effort to evaluate the appropriateness of the HTGR-GT as an HTGR Lead Project. The scope of this effort included evaluation of the HTGR-GT technology, evaluation of potential HTGR-GT markets, assessment of the economics of commercial HTGR-GT plants, and evaluation of the program and expenditures necessary to establish HTGR-GT technology through the completion of the Lead Project.

Not Available

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Fusion energy Fusion powers the Sun, and all stars, in which light nuclei fuse together at high temperatures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fusion energy 路 Fusion powers the Sun, and all stars, in which light nuclei fuse together at high in excess of 100 million degrees, much higher than in the Sun. The hot hydrogen gas (known as a `plasma

38

High Efficiency Organic Light Emitting Devices for Lighting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Incorporate internal scattering layers and microlens arrays in high efficiency OLED to achieve up to 70% EQE.

So, Franky; Tansu, Nelson; Gilchrist, James

2013-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

39

Development and Optimization of Gas-Assisted Gravity Drainage (GAGD) Process for Improved Light Oil Recovery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the final report describing the evolution of the project ''Development and Optimization of Gas-Assisted Gravity Drainage (GAGD) Process for Improved Light Oil Recovery'' from its conceptual stage in 2002 to the field implementation of the developed technology in 2006. This comprehensive report includes all the experimental research, models developments, analyses of results, salient conclusions and the technology transfer efforts. As planned in the original proposal, the project has been conducted in three separate and concurrent tasks: Task 1 involved a physical model study of the new GAGD process, Task 2 was aimed at further developing the vanishing interfacial tension (VIT) technique for gas-oil miscibility determination, and Task 3 was directed at determining multiphase gas-oil drainage and displacement characteristics in reservoir rocks at realistic pressures and temperatures. The project started with the task of recruiting well-qualified graduate research assistants. After collecting and reviewing the literature on different aspects of the project such gas injection EOR, gravity drainage, miscibility characterization, and gas-oil displacement characteristics in porous media, research plans were developed for the experimental work to be conducted under each of the three tasks. Based on the literature review and dimensional analysis, preliminary criteria were developed for the design of the partially-scaled physical model. Additionally, the need for a separate transparent model for visual observation and verification of the displacement and drainage behavior under gas-assisted gravity drainage was identified. Various materials and methods (ceramic porous material, Stucco, Portland cement, sintered glass beads) were attempted in order to fabricate a satisfactory visual model. In addition to proving the effectiveness of the GAGD process (through measured oil recoveries in the range of 65 to 87% IOIP), the visual models demonstrated three possible multiphase mechanisms at work, namely, Darcy-type displacement until gas breakthrough, gravity drainage after breakthrough and film-drainage in gas-invaded zones throughout the duration of the process. The partially-scaled physical model was used in a series of experiments to study the effects of wettability, gas-oil miscibility, secondary versus tertiary mode gas injection, and the presence of fractures on GAGD oil recovery. In addition to yielding recoveries of up to 80% IOIP, even in the immiscible gas injection mode, the partially-scaled physical model confirmed the positive influence of fractures and oil-wet characteristics in enhancing oil recoveries over those measured in the homogeneous (unfractured) water-wet models. An interesting observation was that a single logarithmic relationship between the oil recovery and the gravity number was obeyed by the physical model, the high-pressure corefloods and the field data.

Dandina N. Rao; Subhash C. Ayirala; Madhav M. Kulkarni; Wagirin Ruiz Paidin; Thaer N. N. Mahmoud; Daryl S. Sequeira; Amit P. Sharma

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

40

High-Performance Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Using ITO  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High-Performance Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Using ITO Anodes Grown on Plastic by Room,* Mark E. Madsen, Antonio DiVenere, and Seng-Tiong Ho Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) fabricated

Ho, Seng-Tiong

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas light high" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

NSTX High Field Side Gas Fueling System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fueling National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) plasmas with gas injected from the high field side (HFS) has produced earlier, more reliable transitions to the H-mode, longer H-mode durations, higher toroidal rotation, and higher edge electron temperature compared with similar discharges using the low field side (LFS) gas fueling injectors. The HFS gas fueling system consists of a Center Stack midplane injector, and an injector at the inner, upper corner of the Center Stack. The challenging design and installation constraints for the HFS gas system involved placing the control components as close as possible to the machine-vacuum interface, devising a special feed-through flange, traversing through vessel regions whose temperatures during bake-out range from 150 to 350 degrees Centigrade, adapting the gas transport tubing size and route to the small instrumentation wire channels behind the existing graphite plasma facing component tiles on the Center Stack, and providing output orifices shielded from excessive plasma power depositions while concentrating the output flow to facilitate fast camera viewing and analysis. Design, recent performance, and future upgrades will be presented.

H.W. Kugel; M. Anderson; G. Barnes; M. Bell; W. Blanchard; L. Dudek; D. Gates; R. Gernhardt; R. Maingi; D. Mueller; T. Provost; R. Raman; V. Soukhanovskii; J. Winston

2003-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

42

High Extraction Phosphors for Solid State Lighting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have developed high-index, high efficiency bulk luminescent materials and novel nano-sized phosphors for improved solid-state white LED lamps. These advances can potentially contribute to reducing the loss in luminous efficiencies due to scattering, re-absorption, and thermal quenching. The bulk and nanostructured luminescent materials investigated are index matched to GaN and have broad and size-tunable absorption bands, size and impurity tuned emission bands, size-driven elimination of scattering effects, and a separation between absorption and emission bands. These innovations were accomplished through the use of novel synthesis techniques suitable for high volume production for LED lamp applications. The program produced a full-color set of high quantum yield phosphors with high chemical stability. In the bulk phosphor study, the ZnSeS:Cu,Ag phosphor was optimized to achieve >91% efficiency using erbium (Er) and other activators as sensitizers. Detailed analysis of temperature quenching effects on a large number of ZnSeS:Cu,Ag,X and strontium- and calcium-thiogallate phosphors lead to a breakthrough in the understanding of the ??anti-quenching? behavior and a physical bandgap model was developed of this phenomena. In a follow up to this study, optimized phosphor blends for high efficiency and color performance were developed and demonstrated a 2-component phosphor system with good white chromaticity, color temperature, and high color rendering. By extending the protocols of quantum dot synthesis, ??large? nanocrystals, greater than 20 nm in diameter were synthesized and exhibited bulk-like behavior and blue light absorption. The optimization of ZnSe:Mn nanophosphors achieved ~85% QE The limitations of core-shell nanocrystal systems were addressed by investigating alternative deltadoped structures. To address the manufacturability of these systems, a one-pot manufacturing protocol was developed for ZnSe:Mn nanophosphors. To enhance the stability of these material systems, the encapsulation of ZnSeS particle phosphors and ZnSeS screens with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} using ALD was shown to improve the stability by >8X and also increased the luminescence efficiency due to improved surface passivation and optical coupling. A large-volume fluidized bed ALD system was designed that can be adapted to a commercial ALD or vapor deposition system. Throughout the program, optical simulations were developed to evaluate and optimize various phosphor mixtures and device configurations. For example, to define the scattering properties of nanophosphors in an LED device or in a stand-off screen geometry. Also this work significantly promoted and assisted in the implementation of realistic phosphor material models into commercial modeling programs.

Chris Summers; Hisham Menkara; Brent Wagner

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

43

Strontium and barium iodide high light yield scintillators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Strontium and barium iodide high light yield scintillators94720, USA Europium-doped strontium and barium iodide areis still chal lenging. Strontium and barium iodide doped

Cherepy, Nerine

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Cheyenne Light, Fuel and Power (Gas)- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program (Wyoming)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Cheyenne Light, Fuel and Power offers incentives to gas customers who construct new energy efficient homes or install energy efficient equipment in existing homes. Incentives are available for home...

45

Memphis Light, Gas and Water (Electric)- Commercial Efficiency Advice and Incentives Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Memphis Light, Gas and Water (MLGW), in partnership with the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), offers a variety of energy efficient incentives to non-residential customers. The program provides...

46

New Funding Boosts Carbon Capture, Solar Energy and High Gas...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Boosts Carbon Capture, Solar Energy and High Gas Mileage Cars and Trucks New Funding Boosts Carbon Capture, Solar Energy and High Gas Mileage Cars and Trucks June 11, 2009 -...

47

Alliant Energy Interstate Power and Light (Gas and Electric)...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

or natural gas on a retail rate basis for the applicable technology. Interest rates for financing range from 0% - 6.9%. The maximum loan amount under this program is...

48

Experimental Investigation on High-pressure, High-temperature Viscosity of Gas Mixtures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modeling the performance of high-pressure, high-temperature (HPHT) natural gas reservoirs requires the understanding of gas behavior at such conditions. In particular, gas viscosity is an important fluid property that directly affects fluid flow...

Davani, Ehsan

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

49

High speed exhaust gas recirculation valve  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In order to minimize pollutants such as Nox, internal combustion engines typically include an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve that can be used to redirect a portion of exhaust gases to an intake conduit, such as an intake manifold, so that the redirected exhaust gases will be recycled. It is desirable to have an EGR valve with fast-acting capabilities, and it is also desirable to have the EGR valve take up as little space as possible. An exhaust gas recirculation valve is provided that includes an exhaust passage tube, a valve element pivotally mounted within the exhaust passage tube, a linear actuator; and a gear train. The gear train includes a rack gear operatively connected to the linear actuator, and at least one rotatable gear meshing with the rack gear and operatively connected to the valve element to cause rotation of the valve element upon actuation of the linear actuator. The apparatus provides a highly compact package having a high-speed valve actuation capability.

Fensom, Rod (Peterborough, GB); Kidder, David J. (Peterborough, GB)

2005-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

50

EIS-0071: Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division Industrial Fuels Gas Demonstration Plant, Memphis, Shelby County, Tennessee  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The U.S. Department of Energy developed this EIS to assesses the potential environmental impacts associated with the construction and operation of a 3,155-ton-per-day capacity facility, which will demonstrate the technical operability, economic viability, and environmental acceptability of the Memphis Division of Light, Gas and Water coal gasification plant at Memphis, Tennessee.

51

High pressure synthesis gas conversion. Task 3: High pressure profiles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this research project was to build and test a high pressure fermentation system for the production of ethanol from synthesis gas. The fermenters, pumps, controls, and analytical system were procured or fabricated and assembled in our laboratory. This system was then used to determine the effects of high pressure on growth and ethanol production by C. 1jungdahlii. The limits of cell concentration and mass transport relationships were found in CSTR and immobilized cell reactors (ICR). The minimum retention times and reactor volumes were found for ethanol production in these reactors.

Not Available

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

White light emitting diode as liquid crystal display backlight ; High brightness light emitting diode as liquid crystal display backlight .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The discovery of high brightness (white) light emitting diode (LED) is considered as a real threat to the current lighting industry in various applications. One (more)

Soon, Chian Myau

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

High temperature coatings for gas turbines  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Coating for high temperature gas turbine components that include a MCrAlX phase, and an aluminum-rich phase, significantly increase oxidation and cracking resistance of the components, thereby increasing their useful life and reducing operating costs. The aluminum-rich phase includes aluminum at a higher concentration than aluminum concentration in the MCrAlX alloy, and an aluminum diffusion-retarding composition, which may include cobalt, nickel, yttrium, zirconium, niobium, molybdenum, rhodium, cadmium, indium, cerium, iron, chromium, tantalum, silicon, boron, carbon, titanium, tungsten, rhenium, platinum, and combinations thereof, and particularly nickel and/or rhenium. The aluminum-rich phase may be derived from a particulate aluminum composite that has a core comprising aluminum and a shell comprising the aluminum diffusion-retarding composition.

Zheng, Xiaoci Maggie

2003-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

54

The Advantages of Highly Controlled Lighting for Offices and Commercial  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LBNL-2514E The Advantages of Highly Controlled Lighting for Offices and Commercial Buildings F for Offices and Commercial Buildings Francis Rubinstein and Dmitriy Bolotov, Lawrence Berkeley National 25% of the electrical energy used in US commercial buildings (DOE 2007). Advanced lighting controls

55

High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Photonic Crystal Light Sources  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The University of California Santa Barbara (UCSB) is maximizing the efficiency of a white LED by enhancing the external quantum efficiency using photonic crystals to extract light that would normally be confined in a conventional structure. Ultimate efficiency can only be achieved by looking at the internal structure of light. To do this, UCSB is focusing on maximizing the light extraction efficiency and total light output from light engines driven by Gallium Nitride (GaN)-based LEDs. The challenge is to engineer large overlap (interaction) between modes and photonic crystals. The project is focused on achieving high extraction efficiency in LEDs, controlled directionality of emitted light, integrated design of vertical device structure, and nanoscale patterning of lateral structure.

56

High efficiency III-nitride light-emitting diodes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Tailored doping of barrier layers enables balancing of the radiative recombination among the multiple-quantum-wells in III-Nitride light-emitting diodes. This tailored doping enables more symmetric carrier transport and uniform carrier distribution which help to reduce electron leakage and thus reduce the efficiency droop in high-power III-Nitride LEDs. Mitigation of the efficiency droop in III-Nitride LEDs may enable the pervasive market penetration of solid-state-lighting technologies in high-power lighting and illumination.

Crawford, Mary; Koleske, Daniel; Cho, Jaehee; Zhu, Di; Noemaun, Ahmed; Schubert, Martin F; Schubert, E. Fred

2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

57

Alliant Energy Interstate Power and Light (Gas)- Residential Energy Efficiency Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Interstate Power and Light (Alliant Energy) offers a number of rebates for energy efficiency for Minnesota residential customers a variety of high efficiency heating and cooling measures, including...

58

Alliant Energy Interstate Power and Light (Gas)- Business Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs (Minnesota)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Alliant Energy - Interstate Power and Light (IPL) offers rebates for high efficiency equipment for commercial customers. Rebates are available for windows/sashes, programmable thermostats, water...

59

The Advantage of Highly Controlled Lighting for Offices and Commercial Buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Highly Controlled Lighting for Offices and Commercialefficient, customized lighting for open-office cubicles.s 揳mbient and 搕ask lighting components, 2) occupancy

Rubinstein, Francis

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

High Temperature Gas Reactors Andrew C. Kadak, Ph.D.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

颅 fewer problems in accident 路 Utilizes gas turbine technology 路 Lower Power Density 颅 no meltdownHigh Temperature Gas Reactors Andrew C. Kadak, Ph.D. Professor of the Practice Massachusetts Institute of Technology #12;#12;#12;#12;Presentation Overview 路 Introduction to Gas Reactors 路 Pebble Bed

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas light high" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Experimental studies of steam-propane and enriched gas injection for the Minas light crude oil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Experimental studies were carried out to compare the benefits of propane as an additive in steam injection and in lean gas injection to enhance production for the Minas light crude oil (34?API). The studies on steam-propane were specifically...

Yudishtira, Wan Dedi

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Method for high temperature mercury capture from gas streams  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process to facilitate mercury extraction from high temperature flue/fuel gas via the use of metal sorbents which capture mercury at ambient and high temperatures. The spent sorbents can be regenerated after exposure to mercury. The metal sorbents can be used as pure metals (or combinations of metals) or dispersed on an inert support to increase surface area per gram of metal sorbent. Iridium and ruthenium are effective for mercury removal from flue and smelter gases. Palladium and platinum are effective for mercury removal from fuel gas (syngas). An iridium-platinum alloy is suitable for metal capture in many industrial effluent gas streams including highly corrosive gas streams.

Granite, E.J.; Pennline, H.W.

2006-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

63

Lighting Business Case -- A Report Analyzing Lighting Technology Opportunities with High Return on Investment Energy Savings for the Federal Sector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document analyzes lighting technology opportunities with high return on investment energy savings for the Federal sector.

Jones, Carol C.; Richman, Eric E.

2005-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

64

Gas Viscosity at High Pressure and High Temperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gas viscosity is one of the gas properties that is vital to petroleum engineering. Its role in the oil and gas production and transportation is indicated by its contribution in the resistance to the flow of a fluid both in porous media and pipes...

Ling, Kegang

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

65

High temperature desulfurization of synthesis gas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The hot process gas stream from the partial oxidation of sulfur-containing heavy liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel and/or sulfur-containing solid carbonaceous fuel comprising gaseous mixtures of H.sub.2 +CO, sulfur-containing gases, entrained particulate carbon, and molten slag is passed through the unobstructed central passage of a radiant cooler where the temperature is reduced to a temperature in the range of about 1800.degree. F. to 1200.degree. F. From about 0 to 95 wt. % of the molten slag and/or entrained material may be removed from the hot process gas stream prior to the radiant cooler with substantially no reduction in temperature of the process gas stream. In the radiant cooler, after substantially all of the molten slag has solidified, the sulfur-containing gases are contacted with a calcium-containing material to produce calcium sulfide. A partially cooled stream of synthesis gas, reducing gas, or fuel gas containing entrained calcium sulfide particulate matter, particulate carbon, and solidified slag leaves the radiant cooler containing a greatly reduced amount of sulfur-containing gases.

Najjar, Mitri S. (Hopewell Junction, NY); Robin, Allen M. (Anaheim, CA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Impact of Pilot Light Modeling on the Predicted Annual Performance of Residential Gas Water Heaters: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Modeling residential water heaters with dynamic simulation models can provide accurate estimates of their annual energy consumption, if the units? characteristics and use conditions are known. Most gas storage water heaters (GSWHs) include a standing pilot light. It is generally assumed that the pilot light energy will help make up standby losses and have no impact on the predicted annual energy consumption. However, that is not always the case. The gas input rate and conversion efficiency of a pilot light for a GSWH were determined from laboratory data. The data were used in simulations of a typical GSWH with and without a pilot light, for two cases: 1) the GSWH is used alone; and 2) the GSWH is the second tank in a solar water heating (SWH) system. The sensitivity of wasted pilot light energy to annual hot water use, climate, and installation location was examined. The GSWH used alone in unconditioned space in a hot climate had a slight increase in energy consumption. The GSWH with a pilot light used as a backup to an SWH used up to 80% more auxiliary energy than one without in hot, sunny locations, from increased tank losses.

Maguire, J.; Burch, J.

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

High power light emitting diode based setup for photobleaching fluorescent impurities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High power light emitting diode based setup for photobleaching fluorescent impurities Tobias K be photobleached before final sample preparation. The instrument consists of high power light emitting diodes

Kaufman, Laura

68

Light emitting diode with high aspect ratio submicron roughness for light extraction and methods of forming  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The surface morphology of an LED light emitting surface is changed by applying a reactive ion etch (RIE) process to the light emitting surface. High aspect ratio, submicron roughness is formed on the light emitting surface by transferring a thin film metal hard-mask having submicron patterns to the surface prior to applying a reactive ion etch process. The submicron patterns in the metal hard-mask can be formed using a low cost, commercially available nano-patterned template which is transferred to the surface with the mask. After subsequently binding the mask to the surface, the template is removed and the RIE process is applied for time duration sufficient to change the morphology of the surface. The modified surface contains non-symmetric, submicron structures having high aspect ratio which increase the efficiency of the device.

Li, Ting (Ventura, CA)

2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

69

Light emitting diode with high aspect ratio submicron roughness for light extraction and methods of forming  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The surface morphology of an LED light emitting surface is changed by applying a reactive ion etch (RIE) process to the light emitting surface. High aspect ratio, submicron roughness is formed on the light emitting surface by transferring a thin film metal hard-mask having submicron patterns to the surface prior to applying a reactive ion etch process. The submicron patterns in the metal hard-mask can be formed using a low cost, commercially available nano-patterned template which is transferred to the surface with the mask. After subsequently binding the mask to the surface, the template is removed and the RIE process is applied for time duration sufficient to change the morphology of the surface. The modified surface contains non-symmetric, submicron structures having high aspect ratio which increase the efficiency of the device.

Li, Ting

2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

70

Life cycle assessment of buildings technologies: High-efficiency commercial lighting and residential water heaters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study the life cycle emissions and energy use are estimated for two types of energy technologies. The first technology evaluated is the sulfur lamp, a high-efficiency lighting system under development by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Fusion Lighting, the inventor of the technology. The sulfur lamp is compared with conventional metal halide high-intensity discharge lighting systems. The second technology comparison is between standard-efficiency and high-efficiency gas and electric water heaters. In both cases the life cycle energy use and emissions are presented for the production of an equivalent level of service by each of the technologies. For both analyses, the energy use and emissions from the operation of the equipment are found to dominate the life cycle profile. The life cycle emissions for the water heating systems are much more complicated. The four systems compared include standard- and high-efficiency gas water heaters, standard electric resistance water heaters, and heat pump water heaters.

Freeman, S.L.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

High voltage ignition of high pressure microwave powered UV light sources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Industrial microwave powered (electrodeless) light sources have been limited to quiescent pressures of {approximately}300 Torr of buffer gas and metal-halide fills. The predominant reason for such restrictions has been the inability to microwave ignite the plasma due to the collisionality of higher pressure fills and/or the electronegativity of halide bulb chemistries. Commercially interesting bulb fills require electric fields for ionization that are often large multiples of the breakdown voltage for air. Many auxiliary ignition methods are evaluated for efficiency and practicality before the choice of a high-voltage system with a retractable external electrode. The scheme utilizes a high voltage pulse power supply and a novel field emission source. Acting together they create localized condition of pressure reduction and high free electron density. This allows the normal microwave fields to drive this small region into avalanche, ignite the bulb, and heat the plasma to its operating point (T{sub e} {approx} 0.5 eV). This process is currently being used in a new generation of lamps, which are using multi-atmospheric excimer laser chemistries and pressure and constituent enhanced metal-halide systems. At the present time, production prototypes produce over 900 W of radiation in a 30 nm band, centered at 308 nm. Similarly, these prototypes when loaded with metal-halide bulb fills produce over 1 kW of radiation in 30 nm wide bands, centered about the wavelength of interest.

Frank, J.D.; Cekic, M.; Wood, C.H. [Fusion U.V. Curing Systems Corp., Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

72

High Efficiency LED Lamp for Solid-State Lighting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report contains a summary of technical achievements during a three-year project to demonstrate high efficiency, solid-state lamps based on gallium nitride/silicon carbide light-emitting diodes. Novel chip designs and fabrication processes are described for a new type of nitride light-emitting diode with the potential for very high efficiency. This work resulted in the demonstration of blue light-emitting diodes in the one watt class that achieved up to 495 mW of light output at 350 mA drive current, corresponding to quantum and wall plug efficiencies of 51% and 45%, respectively. When combined with a phosphor in Cree's 7090 XLamp package, these advanced blue-emitting devices resulted in white light-emitting diodes whose efficacy exceeded 85 lumens per watt. In addition, up to 1040 lumens at greater than 85 lumens per watt was achieved by combining multiple devices to make a compact white lamp module with high optical efficiency.

James Ibbetson

2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

73

High Efficiency Gas Turbines Overcome Cogeneration Project Feasibility Hurdles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HIGH EFFICIENCY GAS TlJR1HNES OVERCOME COGENFRATION PROJECT FEASIBILITY HURDLES JIM KING Gas Turbine Perfonumce Engineer STEVART &: STEVENSON SERVICES. INC. Houston. TelUlS ABSTRACT Cogeneration project feasibility sometimes fails... during early planning stages due to an electrical cycle efficiency which could be improved through the use of aeroderivative gas turbine engines. The aeroderivative engine offers greater degrees of freedom in terms of power augmentation through...

King, J.

74

June 15, 2004 / Vol. 29, No. 12 / OPTICS LETTERS 1357 Highly coherent light at 13 nm generated by use of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and in developing new types of nano- probe. However, many EUV sources, such as synchrotrons and undulators1 and high Bartels et al. demonstrated that EUV light produced by HHG in gas-filled hollow waveguides exhibits full spatial coherence at wavelengths around 30 nm.3 The extended propagation length in the hollow

Bartels, Randy

75

Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for Light-Duty Natural-Gas-Fueled Vehicles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to evaluate and make recommendations concerning technologies that promise to improve the efilciency of compressed natural gas (CNG) light-duty vehicles. Technical targets for CNG automotive technology given in the March 1998 OffIce of Advanced Automotive Technologies research and development plan were used as guidance for this effort. The technical target that necessitates this current study is to validate technologies that enable CNG light vehicles to have at least 10% greater - fuel economy (on a miles per gallon equivalent basis) than equivalent gasoline vehicles by 2006. Other tar- gets important to natural gas (NG) automotive technology and this study are to: (1) increase CNG vehicle range to 380 miles, (2) reduce the incremental vehicle cost (CNG vs gasoline) to $1500, and (3) meet the California ultra low-emission vehicle (ULEV) and Federal Tier 2 emission standards expected to be in effect in 2004.

Staunton, R.H.; Thomas, J.F.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Achieving Energy Savings with Highly-Controlled Lighting in an Open-Plan Office  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An installation in a Federal building tested the effectiveness of a highly-controlled, workstation-specific lighting retrofit. The study took place in an open-office area with 86 cubicles and low levels of daylight. Each cubicle was illuminated by a direct/indirectpendant luminaire with three 32 watt lamps, two dimmable DALI ballasts, and an occupancy sensor. A centralized control system programmed all three lamps to turn on and off according to occupancy on a workstation-by-workstation basis. Field measurements taken over the course of several monthsdemonstrated 40% lighting energy savings compared to a baseline without advanced controls that conforms to GSA's current retrofit standard. A photometric analysis found that the installation provided higher desktop light levels than the baseline, while an occupant survey found that occupants in general preferred the lighting system to thebaseline.Simple payback is fairly high; projects that can achieve lower installation costs and/or higher energy savings and those in which greenhouse gas reduction and occupant satisfaction are significant priorities provide the ideal setting for workstation-specific lighting retrofits.

Rubinstein, Francis; Enscoe, Abby

2010-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

77

Optical power splitter for splitting high power light  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical power splitter for the distribution of high-power light energy has a plurality of prisms arranged about a central axis to form a central channel. The input faces of the prisms are in a common plane which is substantially perpendicular to the central axis. A beam of light which is substantially coaxial to the central axis is incident on the prisms and at least partially strikes a surface area of each prism input face. The incident beam also partially passes through the central channel. 5 figs.

English, R.E. Jr.; Christensen, J.J.

1995-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

78

California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards for Light-Duty Vehicles (released in AEO2005)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

In July 2002, California Assembly Bill 1493 (A.B. 1493) was signed into law. The law requires that the California Air Resources Board (CARB) develop and adopt, by January 1, 2005, greenhouse gas emission standards for light-duty vehicles that provide the maximum feasible reduction in emissions. In estimating the feasibility of the standard, CARB is required to consider cost-effectiveness, technological capability, economic impacts, and flexibility for manufacturers in meeting the standard.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Evaluation of proposed German safety criteria for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work reviews proposed safety criteria prepared by the German Bundesministerium des Innern (BMI) for future licensing of gas-cooled high-temperature reactor (HTR) concepts in the Federal Republic of Germany. Comparison is made with US General Design Criteria (GDCs) in 10CFR50 Appendix A and with German light water reactor (LWR) criteria. Implications for the HTR design relative to the US design and safety approach are indicated. Both inherent characteristics and design features of the steam cycle, gas turbine, and process heat concepts are taken into account as well as generic design options such as a pebble bed or prismatic core.

Barsell, A.W.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the 'Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products' project is to demonstrate thin film packaging solutions based on SiC hermetic coatings that, when applied to glass and plastic substrates, support OLED lighting devices by providing longer life with greater efficiency at lower cost than is currently available. Phase I Objective: Demonstrate thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED devices on optical glass with lifetime of 1,000 hour life, CRI greater than 75, and 15 lm/W. Phase II Objective: Demonstrate thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED devices on plastic or glass composite with 25 lm/W, 5,000 hours life, and CRI greater than 80. Phase III Objective: Demonstrate 2 x 2 ft{sup 2} thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED with 40 lm/W, 10,000 hour life, and CRI greater than 85. This report details the efforts of Phase III (Budget Period Three), a fourteen month collaborative effort that focused on optimization of high-efficiency phosphorescent OLED devices and thin-film encapsulation of said devices. The report further details the conclusions and recommendations of the project team that have foundation in all three budget periods for the program. During the conduct of the Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products program, including budget period three, the project team completed and delivered the following achievements: (1) a three-year marketing effort that characterized the near-term and longer-term OLED market, identified customer and consumer lighting needs, and suggested prototype product concepts and niche OLED applications lighting that will give rise to broader market acceptance as a source for wide area illumination and energy conservation; (2) a thin film encapsulation technology with a lifetime of nearly 15,000 hours, tested by calcium coupons, while stored at 16 C and 40% relative humidity ('RH'). This encapsulation technology was characterized as having less than 10% change in transmission during the 15,000 hour test period; (3) demonstrated thin film encapsulation of a phosphorescent OLED device with 1,500 hours of lifetime at 60 C and 80% RH; (4) demonstrated that a thin film laminate encapsulation, in addition to the direct thin film deposition process, of a polymer OLED device was another feasible packaging strategy for OLED lighting. The thin film laminate strategy was developed to mitigate defects, demonstrate roll-to-roll process capability for high volume throughput (reduce costs) and to support a potential commercial pathway that is less dependent upon integrated manufacturing since the laminate could be sold as a rolled good; (5) demonstrated that low cost 'blue' glass substrates could be coated with a siloxane barrier layer for planarization and ion-protection and used in the fabrication of a polymer OLED lighting device. This study further demonstrated that the substrate cost has potential for huge cost reductions from the white borosilicate glass substrate currently used by the OLED lighting industry; (6) delivered four-square feet of white phosphorescent OLED technology, including novel high efficiency devices with 82 CRI, greater than 50 lm/W efficiency, and more than 1,000 hours lifetime in a product concept model shelf; (7) presented and or published more than twenty internal studies (for private use), three external presentations (OLED workshop-for public use), and five technology-related external presentations (industry conferences-for public use); and (8) issued five patent applications, which are in various maturity stages at time of publication. Delivery of thin film encapsulated white phosphorescent OLED lighting technology remains a challenging technical achievement, and it seems that commercial availability of thin, bright, white OLED light that meets market requirements will continue to require research and development effort. However, there will be glass encapsulated white OLED lighting products commercialized in niche markets during the 2008 calendar year. This commercializ

None

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas light high" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this final technical progress report we summarize research accomplished during Department of Energy contract DE-FC26-01NT41203, entitled ''High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting''. Two teams, from the University of California at Santa Barbara (Principle Investigator: Dr. Shuji Nakamura) and the Lighting Research Center at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Dr. N. Narendran), pursued the goals of this contract from thin film growth, characterization, and packaging/luminaire design standpoints. The UCSB team initially pursued the development of blue gallium nitride (GaN)-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, as well as ultraviolet GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs). In Year 2, the emphasis shifted to resonant-cavity light emitting diodes, also known as micro-cavity LEDs when extremely thin device cavities are fabricated. These devices have very directional emission and higher light extraction efficiency than conventional LEDs. Via the optimization of thin-film growth and refinement of device processing, we decreased the total cavity thickness to less than 1 {micro}m, such that micro-cavity effects were clearly observed and a light extraction efficiency of over 10% was reached. We also began the development of photonic crystals for increased light extraction, in particular for so-called ''guided modes'' which would otherwise propagate laterally in the device and be re-absorbed. Finally, we pursued the growth of smooth, high-quality nonpolar a-plane and m-plane GaN films, as well as blue light emitting diodes on these novel films. Initial nonpolar LEDs showed the expected behavior of negligible peak wavelength shift with increasing drive current. M-plane LEDs in particular show promise, as unpackaged devices had unsaturated optical output power of {approx} 3 mW at 200 mA drive current. The LRC's tasks were aimed at developing the subcomponents necessary for packaging UCSB's light emitting diodes, and packaging them to produce a white light fixture. During the third and final year of the project, the LRC team investigated alternate packaging methods for the white LED device to achieve at least 25 percent more luminous efficacy than traditional white LEDs; conducted optical ray-tracing analyses and human factors studies to determine the best form factor for the white light source under development, in terms of high luminous efficacy and greater acceptance by subjects; and developed a new die encapsulant using silicone-epoxy resins that showed less yellowing and slower degradation. At the conclusion of this project, the LRC demonstrated a new packaging method, called scattered photon extraction (SPE), that produced an average luminous flux and corresponding average efficacy of 90.7 lm and 36.3 lm/W, respectively, compared with 56.5 lm and 22.6 lm/W for a similar commercial white LED package. At low currents, the SPE package emitted white light with an efficacy of over 80 lm/W and had chromaticity values very close to the blackbody locus. The SPE package showed an overall improvement of 61% for this particular comparison, exceeding the LRC's third-year goal of 25% improvement.

Paul T. Fini; Shuji Nakamura

2005-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

82

NANOSTRUCTURED HIGH PERFORMANCE ULTRAVIOLET AND BLUE LIGHT EMITTING DIODES FOR SOLID STATE LIGHTING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on research results in this project which synergize advanced material science approaches with fundamental optical physics concepts pertaining to light-matter interaction, with the goal of solving seminal problems for the development of very high performance light emitting diodes (LEDs) in the blue and near ultraviolet for Solid State Lighting applications. Accomplishments in the first 12 month contract period include (1) new means of synthesizing zero- and one-dimensional GaN nanostructures, (2) establishment of the building blocks for making GaN-based microcavity devices, and (3) demonstration of top-down approach to nano-scale photonic devices for enhanced spontaneous emission and light extraction. These include a demonstration of eight-fold enhancement of the external emission efficiency in new InGaN QW photonic crystal structures. The body of results is presented in this report shows how a solid foundation has been laid, with several noticeable accomplishments, for innovative research, consistent with the stated milestones.

Arto V. Nurmikko; Jung Han

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Towards the Light Front Variables for High Energy Production Processes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Scale invariant presentation of inclusive spectra in terms of light front variables is proposed. The variables introduced go over to the well-known scaling variables x_F = 2p_z/sqrt(s) and x_T=2p_T/sqrt{s} in the high p_z and high p_T limits respectively. So Some surface is found in the phase space of produced pi-mesons in the inclusive reaction anti p p -> pi+- X at 22.4 GeV/c, which separates two groups of particles with significantly different characteristics. In one of these regions a naive statistical model seems to be in a good agreement with data, whereas it fails in the second region. Key words: Light front, inclusive, hadron-hadron, electron-positron, relativistic heavy ions, deep inelastic.

N. S. Amaglobeli; S. M. Esakia; V. R. Garsevanishvili; G. O. Kuratashvili; N. K. Kutsidi; R. A. Kvatadze; Yu V. Tevzadze; T. P. Topuria

1997-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

84

Towards the Light Front Variables for High Energy Production Processes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Scale invariant presentation of inclusive spectra in terms of light front variables is proposed. The variables introduced go over to the well-known scaling variables x_F = 2p_z/sqrt(s) and x_T=2p_T/sqrt{s} in the high p_z and high p_T limits respectively. So Some surface is found in the phase space of produced pi-mesons in the inclusive reaction anti p p -> pi+- X at 22.4 GeV/c, which separates two groups of particles with significantly different characteristics. In one of these regions a naive statistical model seems to be in a good agreement with data, whereas it fails in the second region. Key words: Light front, inclusive, hadron-hadron, electron-positron, relativistic heavy ions, deep inelastic.

Amaglobeli, N S; Garsevanishvili, V R; Kuratashvili, G O; Kutsidi, N K; Kvatadze, R A; Tevzadze, Yu V; Topuria, T P; Tevzadze, Yu V.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Achieving Energy Savings with Highly-Controlled Lighting in an Open-Plan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LBNL-3831E Achieving Energy Savings with Highly- Controlled Lighting in an Open-Plan Office Author-Controlled Lighting 1 of 50 April 19, 2010 Achieving Energy Savings with Highly-Controlled Lighting in an Open Berkeley National Laboratory #12;Highly-Controlled Lighting 2 of 50 April 19, 2010 DISCLAIMER This document

86

HIGH-EFFICIENCY NITRIDE-BASED SOLID-STATE LIGHTING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this semiannual report we summarize the progress obtained in the first six months with the support of DoE contract No.DE-FC26-01NT41203, entitled ''High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting''. The two teams, from the University of California at Santa Barbara (Principle Investigator: Dr. Shuji Nakamura) and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Dr. N. Narendran), are pursuing the goals of this contract from thin film growth, characterization, and packaging standpoints. The UCSB team has made significant progress in the development of GaN vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) as well as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with AlGaN active regions emitting in the ultraviolet (UV). The Rensselaer team has developed target specifications for some of the key parameters for the proposed solid-state lighting system, including a luminous flux requirement matrix for various lighting applications, optimal spectral power distributions, and the performance characteristics of currently available commercial LEDs for eventual comparisons to the devices developed in the scope of this project.

Dr. Paul T. Fini; Prof. Shuji Nakamura

2002-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

87

HIGH-EFFICIENCY NITRIDE-BASED SOLID-STATE LIGHTING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this annual report we summarize the progress obtained in the first year with the support of DoE contract No.DE-FC26-01NT41203, entitled ''High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting''. The two teams, from the University of California at Santa Barbara (Principle Investigator: Dr. Shuji Nakamura) and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Dr. N. Narendran), are pursuing the goals of this contract from thin film growth, characterization, and packaging standpoints. The UCSB team has made significant progress in the development of GaN vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) as well as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with AlGaN active regions emitting in the ultraviolet (UV). The Rensselaer team has developed target specifications for some of the key parameters for the proposed solid-state lighting system, including a luminous flux requirement matrix for various lighting applications, optimal spectral power distributions, and the performance characteristics of currently available commercial LEDs for eventual comparisons to the devices developed in the scope of this project.

Dr. Paul T. Fini; Prof. Shuji Nakamura

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Achieving Energy Savings with Highly-Controlled Lighting in an Open-Plan Office  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

If you could change the lighting in your office, what wouldapply. Highly-Controlled Lighting 50 of 50 April 19, 2010Europa 2009, 11th European Lighting Conference, Istanbul,

Rubinstein, Francis

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

High Efficiency Clean Combustion in Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

& Publications High-Efficiency Clean Combustion in Light-Duty Multi-Cylinder Diesel Engines High Efficiency Clean Combustion in Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty Engines High Efficiency...

90

High-Efficiency Nitride-Base Photonic Crystal Light Sources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The research activities performed in the framework of this project represent a major breakthrough in the demonstration of Photonic Crystals (PhC) as a competitive technology for LEDs with high light extraction efficiency. The goals of the project were to explore the viable approaches to manufacturability of PhC LEDS through proven standard industrial processes, establish the limits of light extraction by various concepts of PhC LEDs, and determine the possible advantages of PhC LEDs over current and forthcoming LED extraction concepts. We have developed three very different geometries for PhC light extraction in LEDs. In addition, we have demonstrated reliable methods for their in-depth analysis allowing the extraction of important parameters such as light extraction efficiency, modal extraction length, directionality, internal and external quantum efficiency. The information gained allows better understanding of the physical processes and the effect of the design parameters on the light directionality and extraction efficiency. As a result, we produced LEDs with controllable emission directionality and a state of the art extraction efficiency that goes up to 94%. Those devices are based on embedded air-gap PhC - a novel technology concept developed in the framework of this project. They rely on a simple and planar fabrication process that is very interesting for industrial implementation due to its robustness and scalability. In fact, besides the additional patterning and regrowth steps, the process is identical as that for standard industrially used p-side-up LEDs. The final devices exhibit the same good electrical characteristics and high process yield as a series of test standard LEDs obtained in comparable conditions. Finally, the technology of embedded air-gap patterns (PhC) has significant potential in other related fields such as: increasing the optical mode interaction with the active region in semiconductor lasers; increasing the coupling of the incident light into the active region of solar cells; increasing the efficiency of the phosphorous light conversion in white light LEDs etc. In addition to the technology of embedded PhC LEDs, we demonstrate a technique for improvement of the light extraction and emission directionality for existing flip-chip microcavity (thin) LEDs by introducing PhC grating into the top n-contact. Although, the performances of these devices in terms of increase of the extraction efficiency are not significantly superior compared to those obtained by other techniques like surface roughening, the use of PhC offers some significant advantages such as improved and controllable emission directionality and a process that is directly applicable to any material system. The PhC microcavity LEDs have also potential for industrial implementation as the fabrication process has only minor differences to that already used for flip-chip thin LEDs. Finally, we have demonstrated that achieving good electrical properties and high fabrication yield for these devices is straightforward.

James Speck; Evelyn Hu; Claude Weisbuch; Yong-Seok Choi; Kelly McGroddy; Gregor Koblmuller; Elison Matioli; Elizabeth Rangel; Fabian Rol; Dobri Simeonov

2010-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

91

Explosively pumped laser light  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A single shot laser pumped by detonation of an explosive in a shell casing. The shock wave from detonation of the explosive causes a rare gas to luminesce. The high intensity light from the gas enters a lasing medium, which thereafter outputs a pulse of laser light to disable optical sensors and personnel.

Piltch, Martin S. (Los Alamos, NM); Michelotti, Roy A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Nanostructured High Performance Ultraviolet and Blue Light Emitting Diodes for Solid State Lighting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on research results in this project which synergize advanced material science approaches with fundamental optical physics concepts pertaining to light-matter interaction, with the goal of solving seminal problems for the development of very high performance light emitting diodes (LEDs) in the blue and near ultraviolet for Solid State Lighting applications. Accomplishments in the second 12 month contract period include (i) new means of synthesizing AlGaN and InN quantum dots by droplet heteroepitaxy, (ii) synthesis of AlGaInN nanowires as building blocks for GaN-based microcavity devices, (iii) progress towards direct epitaxial alignment of the dense arrays of nanowires, (iv) observation and measurements of stimulated emission in dense InGaN nanopost arrays, (v) design and fabrication of InGaN photonic crystal emitters, and (vi) observation and measurements of enhanced fluorescence from coupled quantum dot and plasmonic nanostructures. The body of results is presented in this report shows how a solid foundation has been laid, with several noticeable accomplishments, for innovative research, consistent with the stated milestones.

Arto V. Nurmikko; Jung Han

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

93

if it is a gas leak, do not activate building alarms, use mobile phones, hand held radios, electronic equipment or light flammable material!  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

gas leak gas leak if it is a gas leak, do not activate building alarms, use mobile phones, hand held radios, electronic equipment or light flammable material! 1. If you discover a Gas Leak, shout and check that the nearest gas isolator switch is off. 4. Evacuate the building immediately, avoiding

Hickman, Mark

94

THE HISTORY AND TECHNICAL EVOLUTION OF HIGH FREQUENCY FLUORESCENT LIGHTING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dec. 1953. "Hi-Volt-Cycle Lighting ~ Launched i n a Hi-Wide2, F e b r u a r y , 19 53. "Lighting Your Plant with Highg h Frequency Fluorescent Lighting John H. Campbell December

Campbell, John H.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

The Physics of the Gas Attenuator for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A systematic assessment of a variety of physics issues affecting the performance of the LCLS X-ray beam attenuator is presented. Detailed analysis of the gas flow in the gas attenuator and in the apertures is performed. A lot of attention is directed towards the gas ionization and heating by intense X-ray pulses. The role of these phenomena in possible deviations of the attenuation coefficient from its 'dialed in' value is evaluated and found small in most cases. Other sources of systematic and statistical errors are also discussed. The regimes where the errors may reach a few percent correspond to the lower X-ray energies (less than 2 keV) and highest beam intensities. Other effects discussed include chemical interaction of the gas with apertures, shock formation in the transonic flow in the apertures of the attenuator, generation of electromagnetic wakes in the gas, and head-to-tail variation of the attenuation caused by the ionization of gas or solid. Possible experimental tests of the consistency of the physics assumptions used in the concept of the gas attenuator are discussed. Interaction of X-rays with the solid attenuator (that will be used at higher X-ray energies, from 2.5 to 8 keV) is considered and thermo-mechanical effects caused by the beam heating are evaluated. Wave-front distortions induced by non-uniform heating of both the solid and the gas are found to be small. An overall conclusion drawn from the analysis presented is that the attenuator will be a reliable and highly versatile device, provided that some caution is exercised in its use for highest beam intensities at lowest X-ray energies.

Ryutov, D.D.; Bionta, R.M.; Hau-Riege, S.P.; Kishiyama, K.I.; McMahon, D.; Roeben, M.D.; Shen, S.; /LLNL, Livermore; Stefan, P.M.; /SLAC; ,

2011-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

96

High-Efficiency Clean Combustion in Light-Duty Multi-Cylinder...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

High-Efficiency Clean Combustion in Light-Duty Multi-Cylinder Diesel Engines High-Efficiency Clean Combustion in Light-Duty Multi-Cylinder Diesel Engines 2010 DOE Vehicle...

97

Modeling and Analysis of Natural Gas and Gasoline In A High Compressio...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

and Analysis of Natural Gas and Gasoline In A High Compression Ratio High Efficiency ICRE Modeling and Analysis of Natural Gas and Gasoline In A High Compression Ratio High...

98

A High Density Polarized Hydrogen Gas Target for Storage Rings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A High Density Polarized Hydrogen Gas Target for Storage Rings K. Zapfe \\Lambday , B. Braun z , H of gaseous polarized hydrogen was formed by injecting polarized H atoms (produced by Stern颅Gerlach spin separation) into a storage cell consisting of a cylindrical tube open at both ends. The target was placed

99

Modular Pebble Bed Reactor High Temperature Gas Reactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modular Pebble Bed Reactor High Temperature Gas Reactor Andrew C Kadak Massachusetts Institute For 1150 MW Combined Heat and Power Station Oil Refinery Hydrogen Production Desalinization Plant VHTR/Graphite Discrimination system Damaged Sphere ContainerGraphiteReturn FuelReturn Fresh Fuel Container Spent Fuel Tank #12

100

The NEXT experiment: A high pressure xenon gas TPC for neutrinoless double beta decay searches  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Neutrinoless double beta decay is a hypothetical, very slow nuclear transition in which two neutrons undergo beta decay simultaneously and without the emission of neutrinos. The importance of this process goes beyond its intrinsic interest: an unambiguous observation would establish a Majorana nature for the neutrino and prove the violation of lepton number. NEXT is a new experiment to search for neutrinoless double beta decay using a radiopure high-pressure xenon gas TPC, filled with 100 kg of Xe enriched in Xe-136. NEXT will be the first large high-pressure gas TPC to use electroluminescence readout with SOFT (Separated, Optimized FuncTions) technology. The design consists in asymmetric TPC, with photomultipliers behind a transparent cathode and position-sensitive light pixels behind the anode. The experiment is approved to start data taking at the Laboratorio Subterr\\'aneo de Canfranc (LSC), Spain, in 2014.

D. Lorca; J. Mart韓-Albo; F. Monrabal; for the NEXT Collaboration

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas light high" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

High order harmonic generation in dual gas multi-jets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High order harmonic generation (HHG) in gas media suffers from a low conversion efficiency that has its origins in the interaction of the atom/molecule with the laser field. Phase matching is the main way to enhance the harmonic flux and several solutions have been designed to achieve it. Here we present numerical results modeling HHG in a system of multi-jets in which two gases alternate: the first gas jet (for example Ne) generates harmonics and the second one which ionizes easier, recover the phase matching condition. We obtain configurations which are experimentally feasible with respect to pressures and dimensions of the jets.

Tosa, Valer, E-mail: valer.tosa@itim-cj.ro, E-mail: calin.hojbota@itim-cj.ro; Hojbota, Calin, E-mail: valer.tosa@itim-cj.ro, E-mail: calin.hojbota@itim-cj.ro [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, Donath 65-103, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, Donath 65-103, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

102

Experimental Study of High-Z Gas Buffers in Gas-Filled ICF Engines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

ICF power plants, such as the LIFE scheme at LLNL, may employ a high-Z, target-chamber gas-fill to moderate the first-wall heat-pulse due to x-rays and energetic ions released during target detonation. To reduce the uncertainties of cooling and beam/target propagation through such gas-filled chambers, we present a pulsed plasma source producing 2-5 eV plasma comprised of high-Z gases. We use a 5-kJ, 100-ns theta discharge for high peak plasma-heating-power, an electrode-less discharge for minimizing impurities, and unobstructed axial access for diagnostics and beam (and/or target) propagation studies. We will report on the plasma source requirements, design process, and the system design.

Rhodes, M A; Kane, J; Loosmore, G; DeMuth, J; Latkowski, J

2010-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

103

Southwest Gas Corporation- Commercial High-Efficiency Equipment Rebate Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Southwest Gas Corporation (SWG) offers rebates to commercial customers in Arizona who purchase energy efficient natural gas equipment. Eligible equipment includes natural gas storage and tankless...

104

High Metallicity, Photoionised Gas in Intergalactic Large-Scale Filaments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present high-resolution UV spectra of absorption-line systems toward the low-z QSO HS0624+6907 (z=0.3700). Coupled with spectroscopic galaxy redshifts, we find that many of these absorbers are integalactic gas clouds distributed within large-scale structures. The gas is cool (T0.9). STIS data reveal a cluster of 13 HI Lyman alpha lines within a 1000 km/s interval at z=0.0635. We find 10 galaxies at this redshift with impact parameters ranging from 135 h^-1 kpc to 1.37 h^-1 Mpc. We attribute the HI Lya absorptions to intragroup medium gas, possibly from a large-scale filament viewed along its long axis. Remarkably, the metallicity is near-solar, [M/H] = -0.05 +/- 0.4 (2 sigma uncertainty), yet the nearest galaxy which might pollute the IGM is at least 135 h_70^-1 kpc away. Tidal stripping from nearby galaxies appears to be the most likely origin of this highly enriched, cool gas. More than six Abell galaxy clusters are found within 4 degree of the sight line suggesting that the QSO line of sight passes near a node in the cosmic web. At z~0.077, we find absorption systems as well as galaxies at the redshift of the nearby clusters Abell 564 and Abell 559. We conclude that the sight line pierces a filament of gas and galaxies feeding into these clusters. The absorber at z_abs = 0.07573 associated with Abell 564/559 also has a high metallicity with [C/H] > -0.6, but again the closest galaxy is relatively far from the sight line (293 h^-1 kpc).

Bastien Aracil; Todd M. Tripp; David V. Bowen; Jason X. Proschaska; Hsiao-Wen Chen; Brenda L. Frye

2006-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

105

High Energy Density Science at the Linac Coherent Light Source  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High energy density science (HEDS), as a discipline that has developed in the United States from National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA)-sponsored laboratory research programs, is, and will remain, a major component of the NNSA science and technology strategy. Its scientific borders are not restricted to NNSA. 'Frontiers in High Energy Density Physics: The X-Games of Contemporary Science' identified numerous exciting scientific opportunities in this field, while pointing to the need for a overarching interagency plan for its evolution. Meanwhile, construction of the first x-ray free-electron laser, the Office-of-Science-funded Linear Coherent Light Source-LCLS: the world's first free electron x-ray laser, with 100-fsec time resolution, tunable x-ray energies, a high rep rate, and a 10 order-of-magnitude increase in brightness over any other x-ray source--led to the realization that the scientific needs of NNSA and the broader scientific community could be well served by an LCLS HEDS endstation employing both short-pulse and high-energy optical lasers. Development of this concept has been well received in the community. NNSA requested a workshop on the applicability of LCLS to its needs. 'High Energy Density Science at the LCLS: NNSA Defense Programs Mission Need' was held in December 2006. The workshop provided strong support for the relevance of the endstation to NNSA strategic requirements. The range of science that was addressed covered a wide swath of the vast HEDS phase space. The unique possibilities provided by the LCLS in areas of intense interest to NNSA Defense Programs were discussed. The areas of focus included warm dense matter and equations of state, hot dense matter, and behavior of high-pressure materials under conditions of high strain-rate and extreme dynamic loading. Development of new and advanced diagnostic techniques was also addressed. This report lays out the relevant science, as brief summaries (Ch. II), expanded descriptions (Ch. V), and a more detailed plans for experiments (Ch. VI), highlighting the uniqueness the HEDS endstation will play in providing mission-relevant HED data and in the development of the field. One of the more exciting aspects of NNSA-relevant experiments on LCLS is that, given the extraordinary investment and consequent advances in accurate atomic-scale simulations of matter (to a large extent via the Accelerated Scientific Computing program sponsored by NNSA), the facility will provide a platform that, for the first time, will permit experiments in the regimes of interest at the time and spatial scales of the simulations. In Chapter III, the report places the potential of LCLS with an HED science endstation in the context of science required by NNSA, as well as explicating the relationship of NNSA and HED science in general. Chapter IV discusses 4th-generation light sources, like LCLS, in the context of other laboratory technologies presently utilized by NNSA. The report concludes, noting that an HED endstation on LCLS can provide access to data in regimes that are relevant to NNSA needs but no mechanism exists for providing such data. The endstation will also serve to build a broad-based community in the 'X-Games' of physics. The science generated by the facility will be a collaboration of NNSA-based laboratory scientists and university-based researchers. The LCLS endstation fulfills the need for an intermediate-scale facility capable of delivering fundamental advances and mission-relevant research in high energy density science.

Lee, R W

2007-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

106

Final Report, Photocathodes for High Repetition Rate Light Sources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This proposal brought together teams at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and Stony Brook University (SBU) to study photocathodes for high repetition rate light sources such as Free Electron Lasers (FEL) and Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL). The work done under this grant comprises a comprehensive program on critical aspects of the production of the electron beams needed for future user facilities. Our program pioneered in situ and in operando diagnostics for alkali antimonide growth. The focus is on development of photocathodes for high repetition rate Free Electron Lasers (FELs) and Energy Recovery Linacs (ERLs), including testing SRF photoguns, both normal-conducting and superconducting. Teams from BNL, LBNL and Stony Brook University (SBU) led this research, and coordinated their work over a range of topics. The work leveraged a robust infrastructure of existing facilities and the support was used for carrying out the research at these facilities. The program concentrated in three areas: a) Physics and chemistry of alkali-antimonide cathodes b) Development and testing of a diamond amplifier for photocathodes c) Tests of both cathodes in superconducting RF photoguns and copper RF photoguns

Ben-Zvi, Ilan [Stony Brook University

2014-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

107

High-Efficiency and Stable White Organic Light-Emitting Diode...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Efficiency and Stable White Organic Light-Emitting Diode Using a Single Emitter High-Efficiency and Stable White Organic Light-Emitting Diode Using a Single Emitter Presenter: Jian...

108

Webinar: Award-Winning LEEP Campaign Sites Demonstrate Big Savings in High Efficiency Parking Lighting  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Lighting Energy Efficiency in Parking (LEEP) Campaign is saving nearly 45 million kilowatt-hours and $4 million annually by upgrading its partners to high efficiency lighting in over 500,000 parking spaces.

109

High Efficiency Clean Combustion in Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Light-Duty Multi-Cylinder Engine High Efficiency Clean Combustion in Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty Engines Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Impacts of Advanced Combustion...

110

High Efficiency Clean Combustion in Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Efficiency Clean Combustion in Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty Engines High Efficiency Clean Combustion in Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty Engines 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and...

111

High sensitivity gas sensor based on high-Q suspended polymer photonic crystal nanocavity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present high-sensitivity, multi-use optical gas sensors based on a one-dimensional photonic crystal cavity. These devices are implemented in versatile, flexible polymer materials which swell when in contact with a target gas, causing a measurable cavity length change. This change causes a shift in the cavity resonance, allowing precision measurements of gas concentration. We demonstrate suspended polymer nanocavity sensors and the recovery of sensors after the removal of stimulant gas from the system. With a measured quality factor exceeding 10{sup 4}, we show measurements of gas concentration as low as 600 parts per million (ppm) and an experimental sensitivity of 10?ppm; furthermore, we predict detection levels in the parts-per-billion range for a variety of gases.

Clevenson, Hannah, E-mail: hannahac@mit.edu; Desjardins, Pierre; Gan, Xuetao; Englund, Dirk, E-mail: englund@mit.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

112

Method For Enhanced Gas Monitoring In High Density Flow Streams  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for conducting laser absorption measurements in high temperature process streams having high levels of particulate matter is disclosed. An impinger is positioned substantially parallel to a laser beam propagation path and at upstream position relative to the laser beam. Beam shielding pipes shield the beam from the surrounding environment. Measurement is conducted only in the gap between the two shielding pipes where the beam propagates through the process gas. The impinger facilitates reduced particle presence in the measurement beam, resulting in improved SNR (signal-to-noise) and improved sensitivity and dynamic range of the measurement.

Von Drasek, William A. (Oak Forest, IL); Mulderink, Kenneth A. (Countryside, IL); Marin, Ovidiu (Lisle, IL)

2005-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

113

RIS-M-2245 A LIGHT-GAS GUN FOR ACCELERATION OF PELLETS OF SOLID D2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RIS?-M-2245 A LIGHT-GAS GUN FOR ACCELERATION OF PELLETS OF SOLID D2 A. Nordskov, H. Skovg氓rd, H designed and built to be used for in- jecting solid D2 pellets into a small tokamak for pellet-plasma interaction studies. The pellets are formed and accelerated at temperatures close to those of liquid helium

114

Test Program for High Efficiency Gas Turbine Exhaust Diffuser  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research relates to improving the efficiency of flow in a turbine exhaust, and thus, that of the turbine and power plant. The Phase I SBIR project demonstrated the technical viability of 搒trutlets to control stalls on a model diffuser strut. Strutlets are a novel flow-improving vane concept intended to improve the efficiency of flow in turbine exhausts. Strutlets can help reduce turbine back pressure, and incrementally improve turbine efficiency, increase power, and reduce greenhouse gas emmission. The long-term goal is a 0.5 percent improvement of each item, averaged over the US gas turbine fleet. The strutlets were tested in a physical scale model of a gas turbine exhaust diffuser. The test flow passage is a straight, annular diffuser with three sets of struts. At the end of Phase 1, the ability of strutlets to keep flow attached to struts was demonstrated, but the strutlet drag was too high for a net efficiency advantage. An independently sponsored followup project did develop a highly-modified low-drag strutlet. In combination with other flow improving vanes, complicance to the stated goals was demonstrated for for simple cycle power plants, and to most of the goals for combined cycle power plants using this particular exhaust geometry. Importantly, low frequency diffuser noise was reduced by 5 dB or more, compared to the baseline. Appolicability to other diffuser geometries is yet to be demonstrated.

Norris, Thomas R.

2009-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

115

High Btu gas from peat. Existing social and economic conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1980, the Minnesota Gas Company (Minnegasco) submitted a proposal to the US Department of Energy entitled, A Feasibility Study - High Btu Gas from Peat. The proposed study was designed to assess the overall viability of the design, construction and operation of a commercial facility for the production of high-Btu substitute natural gas (SNG) from Minnesota peat. On September 30, 1980, Minnegasco was awarded a grant by the Department of Energy to perform the proposed study. In order to complete the study, Minnegasco assembled an experienced project team with the wide range of expertise required. In addition, the State of Minnesota agreed to participate in an advisory capacity. The items to be investigated by the project team during the feasibility study include peat harvesting, dewatering, gasification process design, economic and risk assessment, site evaluation, environmental and socioeconomic impact assessment. Ertec (The Earth Technology Corporation) was selected to conduct the site evaluation and environmental assessment portions of the feasibility study. The site evaluation was completed in March of 1981 with the submittal of the first of several reports to Minnegasco. This report describes the existing social and economic conditions of the proposed project area in northern Minnesota. The baseline data presented will be used to assess the significance of potential project impacts in subsequent phases of the feasibility study. Wherever possible, the data base was established using 1980 Bureau of Census statistics. However, where the 1980 data were not yet available, the most recent information is presented. 11 figures, 46 tables.

Not Available

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Highly efficient GaAs solar cells by limiting light emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Highly efficient GaAs solar cells by limiting light emission angle Emily D Kosten1 solar cell under direct sunlight, light is received from the solar disk, but is re-emitted isotropically.1038/lsa.2013.1; published online 4 January 2013 Keywords: detailed balance; GaAs solar cell; light

Atwater, Harry

117

High efficiency light emitting diode with anisotropically etched GaN-sapphire interface  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High efficiency light emitting diode with anisotropically etched GaN- sapphire interface M. H. Lo and optimization of a light-emitting diode projection micro-stereolithography three-dimensional manufacturingGaN micro-light emitting diodes Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 231110 (2012) A bright cadmium-free, hybrid organic

118

Scene Reconstruction from High Spatio-Angular Resolution Light Fields Changil Kim1,2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Scene Reconstruction from High Spatio-Angular Resolution Light Fields Changil Kim1,2 Henning Zimmer Figure 1: Our method reconstructs accurate depth from light fields of complex scenes. The images on the left show a 2D slice of a 3D input light field, a so called epipolar-plane image (EPI), and two out

Zimmer, Henning

119

Dark Matter Directionality Revisited with a High Pressure Xenon Gas Detector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An observation of the anisotropy of dark matter interactions in a direction-sensitive detector would provide decisive evidence for the discovery of galactic dark matter. Directional information would also provide a crucial input to understanding its distribution in the local Universe. Most of the existing directional dark matter detectors utilize particle tracking methods in a low-pressure gas time projection chamber. These low pressure detectors require excessively large volumes in order to be competitive in the search for physics beyond the current limit. In order to avoid these volume limitations, we consider a novel proposal, which exploits a columnar recombination effect in a high-pressure gas time projection chamber. The ratio of scintillation to ionization signals observed in the detector carries the angular information of the particle interactions. In this paper, we investigate the sensitivity of a future directional detector focused on the proposed high-pressure Xenon gas time projection chamber. We study the prospect of detecting an anisotropy in the dark matter velocity distribution. We find that tens of events are needed to exclude an isotropic distribution of dark matter interactions at 95% confidence level in the most optimistic case with head-to-tail information. However, one needs at least 10-20 times more events without head-to-tail information for light dark matter below 50 GeV or one between 200 GeV and 400 GeV. For an intermediate mass range, we find it challenging to observe anisotropy of dark matter distribution.

Gopolang Mohlabeng; Kyoungchul Kong; Jin Li; Adam Para; Jonghee Yoo

2015-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

120

High efficiency SHG of orbital angular momentum light in an external cavity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Traditional methods for generating orbital angular momentum (OAM) light include holographic diffraction gratings, vortex phase plate and spatial light modulator. In this article, we report a new method for high efficient OAM light generation. By pumping an external cavity contains a quasi phase matching nonlinear crystal with a fundamental OAM carrying light and properly aligning the cavity, mode matching between the pump light and the cavitys higher order Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) mode is achieved, conversion efficiency up to 10.3 percentage have been obtained. We have demonstrated that the cavity can stably operate at its higher order LG mode just as Gaussian mode for the first time. The SHG light possesses a doubled OAM value with respect to the pump light. The parameters that affect the beam quality and conversion efficiency are discussed in detail. Our work opens a brand new field in laser optics, and makes the first step toward high efficiency OAM light processing.

Zhi-Yuan Zhou; Yan Li; Dong-Sheng Ding; Yun-Kun Jiang; Wei Zhang; Shuai Shi; Bao-Sen Shi; Guang-Can Guo

2014-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

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121

DEVELOPMENT AND OPTIMIZATION OF GAS-ASSISTED GRAVITY DRAINAGE (GAGD) PROCESS FOR IMPROVED LIGHT OIL RECOVERY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the progress of the project ''Development And Optimization of Gas-Assisted Gravity Drainage (GAGD) Process for Improved Light Oil Recovery'' for the duration of the thirteenth project quarter (Oct 1, 2005 to Dec 30, 2005). There are three main tasks in this research project. Task 1 is a scaled physical model study of the GAGD process. Task 2 is further development of a vanishing interfacial tension (VIT) technique for miscibility determination. Task 3 is determination of multiphase displacement characteristics in reservoir rocks. Section I reports experimental work designed to investigate wettability effects of porous medium, on secondary and tertiary mode GAGD performance. The experiments showed a significant improvement of oil recovery in the oil-wet experiments versus the water-wet runs, both in secondary as well as tertiary mode. When comparing experiments conducted in secondary mode to those run in tertiary mode an improvement in oil recovery was also evident. Additionally, this section summarizes progress made with regard to the scaled physical model construction and experimentation. The purpose of building a scaled physical model, which attempts to include various multiphase mechanics and fluid dynamic parameters operational in the field scale, was to incorporate visual verification of the gas front for viscous instabilities, capillary fingering, and stable displacement. Preliminary experimentation suggested that construction of the 2-D model from sintered glass beads was a feasible alternative. During this reporting quarter, several sintered glass mini-models were prepared and some preliminary experiments designed to visualize gas bubble development were completed. In Section II, the gas-oil interfacial tensions measured in decane-CO{sub 2} system at 100 F and live decane consisting of 25 mole% methane, 30 mole% n-butane and 45 mole% n-decane against CO{sub 2} gas at 160 F have been modeled using the Parachor and newly proposed mechanistic Parachor models. In the decane-CO{sub 2} binary system, Parachor model was found to be sufficient for interfacial tension calculations. The predicted miscibility from the Parachor model deviated only by about 2.5% from the measured VIT miscibility. However, in multicomponent live decane-CO{sub 2} system, the performance of the Parachor model was poor, while good match of interfacial tension predictions has been obtained experimentally using the proposed mechanistic Parachor model. The predicted miscibility from the mechanistic Parachor model accurately matched with the measured VIT miscibility in live decane-CO2 system, which indicates the suitability of this model to predict miscibility in complex multicomponent hydrocarbon systems. In the previous reports to the DOE (15323R07, Oct 2004; 15323R08, Jan 2005; 15323R09, Apr 2005; 15323R10, July 2005 and 154323, Oct 2005), the 1-D experimental results from dimensionally scaled GAGD and WAG corefloods were reported for Section III. Additionally, since Section I reports the experimental results from 2-D physical model experiments; this section attempts to extend this 2-D GAGD study to 3-D (4-phase) flow through porous media and evaluate the performance of these processes using reservoir simulation. Section IV includes the technology transfer efforts undertaken during the quarter. This research work resulted in one international paper presentation in Tulsa, OK; one journal publication; three pending abstracts for SCA 2006 Annual Conference and an invitation to present at the Independents Day session at the IOR Symposium 2006.

Dandina N. Rao; Subhash C. Ayirala; Madhav M. Kulkarni; Thaer N.N. Mahmoud; Wagirin Ruiz Paidin

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

A high-efficiency indirect lighting system utilizing the solar 1000 sulfur lamp  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-lumen light sources represent unique challenges and opportunities for the design of practical and efficient interior lighting systems. High-output sources require a means of large-scale distribution and avoidance of high-luminance glare while providing efficient delivery. An indirect lighting system has been developed for use with a 1,000 Watt sulfur lamp that efficiently utilizes the high-output source to provide quality interior lighting. This paper briefly describes the design and initial testing of this new system.

Siminovitch, M.; Gould, C.; Page, E.

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

High octane ethers from synthesis gas-derived alcohols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the proposed research is to synthesize high octane ethers, primarily methyl isobutyl ether (MIBE) and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), directly from H[sub 2]/CO/CO[sub 2] coal-derived synthesis gas via alcohol mixtures that are rich in methanol and 2-methyl-l-propanol (isobutanol). The overall scheme involves gasification of coal, purification and shifting of the synthesis gas, higher alcohol synthesis, and direct synthesis of ethers. The last stage of the synthesis involves direct coupling of synthesis gas-derived methanol and isobutanol that has been demonstrated by us to occur over superacid catalysts to yield methyl isobutyl ether (MIBE) at moderate pressures and a mixture of methanol and isobutene at low pressures. MIBE is an isomer of MTBE and a process is proposed whereby MTBE from the two alcohols is maximized and MIBE is minimized. This will be achieved by the proper choice of reaction conditions, i.e. intermediate pressures, and of inorganic acid catalysts that are stable at temperatures higher than 200[degree]C, at which the carbonium ion reaction coupling of the two alcohols to MTBE is more effective than the oxonium ion or ester reaction coupling to MIBE. Both organic and inorganic catalysts will be investigated, and the better catalysts of these classes will be subjected to long term performance studies. The long term performance studies of the combined process will extend to 1000 hr and detailed analytical data for all products will be provided.

Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Feeley, O.C.; Johansson, M.A.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

MAGNETIZED GAS IN THE SMITH HIGH VELOCITY CLOUD  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report the first detection of magnetic fields associated with the Smith High Velocity Cloud. We use a catalog of Faraday rotation measures toward extragalactic radio sources behind the Smith Cloud, new H I observations from the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope, and a spectroscopic map of H? from the Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper Northern Sky Survey. There are enhancements in rotation measure (RM) of ?100 rad m{sup 2} which are generally well correlated with decelerated H? emission. We estimate a lower limit on the line-of-sight component of the field of ?8 ?G along a decelerated filament; this is a lower limit due to our assumptions about the geometry. No RM excess is evident in sightlines dominated by H I or H? at the velocity of the Smith Cloud. The smooth H? morphology of the emission at the Smith Cloud velocity suggests photoionization by the Galactic ionizing radiation field as the dominant ionization mechanism, while the filamentary morphology and high (?1 Rayleigh) H? intensity of the lower-velocity magnetized ionized gas suggests an ionization process associated with shocks due to interaction with the Galactic interstellar medium. The presence of the magnetic field may contribute to the survival of high velocity clouds like the Smith Cloud as they move from the Galactic halo to the disk. We expect these data to provide a test for magnetohydrodynamic simulations of infalling gas.

Hill, Alex S.; McClure-Griffiths, Naomi M. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Marsfield, NSW (Australia); Mao, S. A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Benjamin, Robert A. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Whitewater, Whitewater, WI (United States); Lockman, Felix J., E-mail: alex.hill@csiro.au, E-mail: naomi.mcclure-griffiths@csiro.au, E-mail: mao@astro.wisc.edu, E-mail: benjamir@uww.edu, E-mail: jlockman@nrao.edu [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Green Bank, WV (United States)

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Natural Gas Study Guide - High School | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGY TAXBalanced Scorecard Federal2Energy Second Quarter Report 2014 Natural GasHigh

126

Steady State Microbunching for High Brilliance and High Repetition Rate Storage Ring-Based Light Sources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electron-based light sources have proven to be effective sources of high brilliance, high frequency radiation. Such sources are typically either linac-Free Electron Laser (FEL) or storage ring types. The linac-FEL type has high brilliance (because the beam is microbunched) but low repetition rate. The storage ring type has high repetition rate (rapid beam circulation) but comparatively low brilliance or coherence. We propose to explore the feasibility of a microbunched beam in a storage ring that promises high repetition rate and high brilliance. The steady-state-micro-bunch (SSMB) beam in storage ring could provide CW sources for THz, EUV, or soft X-rays. Several SSMB mechanisms have been suggested recently, and in this report, we review a number of these SSMB concepts as promising directions for high brilliance, high repetition rate light sources of the future. The trick of SSMB lies in the RF system, together with the associated synchrotron beam dynamics, of the storage ring. Considering various different RF arrangements, there could be considered a number of scenarios of the SSMB. In this report, we arrange these scenarios more or less in order of the envisioned degree of technical challenge to the RF system, and not in the chronological order of their original references. Once the stored beam is steady-state microbunched in a storage ring, it passes through a radiator repeatedly every turn (or few turns). The radiator extracts a small fraction of the beam energy as coherent radiation with a wavelength corresponding to the microbunched period of the beam. In contrast to an FEL, this radiator is not needed to generate the microbunching (as required e.g. by SASE FELs or seeded FELs), so the radiator can be comparatively simple and short.

Chao, Alex; Ratner, Daniel; /SLAC; Jiao, Yi; /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys.

2012-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

127

Low Voltage High Precision Spatial Light ModulatorsFinal Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this project was to make LLNL a leader in Spatial Light Modulators (SLMs) by developing the technology that will be needed by the next generation of SLMs. We would use new lower voltage actuators and bond those actuators directly to controlling circuitry to break the fundamental limitations that constrain current SLM technology. This three-year project was underfunded in the first year and not funded in the second year. With the funding that was available, we produced actuators and designs for the controlling circuitry that would have been integrated in the second year. Spatial light modulators (SLMs) are arrays of tiny movable mirrors that modulate the wave-fronts of light. SLMs can correct aberrations in incoming light for adaptive optics or modulate light for beam control, optical communication and particle manipulation. MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) is a technology that utilizes the microfabrication tools developed by the semiconductor industry to fabricate a wide variety of tiny machines. The first generation of MEMS SLMs have improved the functionality of SLMs while drastically reducing per pixel cost making arrays on the order of 1000 pixels readily available. These MEMS SLMs however are limited by the nature of their designs to be very difficult to scale above 1000 pixels and have very limited positioning accuracy. By co-locating the MEMS mirrors with CMOS electronics, we will increase the scalability and positioning accuracy. To do this we will have to make substantial advances in SLM actuator design, and fabrication.

Papavasiliou, A P

2005-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

128

DEVELOPMENT AND OPTIMIZATION OF GAS-ASSISTED GRAVITY DRAINAGE (GAGD) PROCESS FOR IMPROVED LIGHT OIL RECOVERY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the progress of the project ''Development and Optimization of Gas-Assisted Gravity Drainage (GAGD) Process for Improved Light Oil Recovery'' for the duration of the second project year (October 1, 2003--September 30, 2004). There are three main tasks in this research project. Task 1 is scaled physical model study of GAGD process. Task 2 is further development of vanishing interfacial tension (VIT) technique for miscibility determination. Task 3 is determination of multiphase displacement characteristics in reservoir rocks. In Section I, preliminary design of the scaled physical model using the dimensional similarity approach has been presented. Scaled experiments on the current physical model have been designed to investigate the effect of Bond and capillary numbers on GAGD oil recovery. Experimental plan to study the effect of spreading coefficient and reservoir heterogeneity has been presented. Results from the GAGD experiments to study the effect of operating mode, Bond number and capillary number on GAGD oil recovery have been reported. These experiments suggest that the type of the gas does not affect the performance of GAGD in immiscible mode. The cumulative oil recovery has been observed to vary exponentially with Bond and capillary numbers, for the experiments presented in this report. A predictive model using the bundle of capillary tube approach has been developed to predict the performance of free gravity drainage process. In Section II, a mechanistic Parachor model has been proposed for improved prediction of IFT as well as to characterize the mass transfer effects for miscibility development in reservoir crude oil-solvent systems. Sensitivity studies on model results indicate that provision of a single IFT measurement in the proposed model is sufficient for reasonable IFT predictions. An attempt has been made to correlate the exponent (n) in the mechanistic model with normalized solute compositions present in both fluid phases. IFT measurements were carried out in a standard ternary liquid system of benzene, ethanol and water using drop shape analysis and capillary rise techniques. The experimental results indicate strong correlation among the three thermodynamic properties solubility, miscibility and IFT. The miscibility determined from IFT measurements for this ternary liquid system is in good agreement with phase diagram and solubility data, which clearly indicates the sound conceptual basis of VIT technique to determine fluid-fluid miscibility. Model fluid systems have been identified for VIT experimentation at elevated pressures and temperatures. Section III comprises of the experimental study aimed at evaluating the multiphase displacement characteristics of the various gas injection EOR process performances using Berea sandstone cores. During this reporting period, extensive literature review was completed to: (1) study the gravity drainage concepts, (2) identify the various factors influencing gravity stable gas injection processes, (3) identify various multiphase mechanisms and fluid dynamics operative during the GAGD process, and (4) identify important dimensionless groups governing the GAGD process performance. Furthermore, the dimensional analysis of the GAGD process, using Buckingham-Pi theorem to isolate the various dimensionless groups, as well as experimental design based on these dimensionless quantities have been completed in this reporting period. On the experimental front, recommendations from previous WAG and CGI have been used to modify the experimental protocol. This report also includes results from scaled preliminary GAGD displacements as well as the details of the planned GAGD corefloods for the next quarter. The technology transfer activities have mainly consisted of preparing technical papers, progress reports and discussions with industry personnel for possible GAGD field tests.

Dandina N. Rao; Subhash C. Ayirala; Madhav M. Kulkarni; Amit P. Sharma

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

High-speed gears for gas turbine drive  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recently, Lufkin Industries, Power Transmission Div., full-load tested a high-speed gear designed to couple a 50 Hz electric power generator to a GE LM6000 gas turbine for a power generation project in Australia. The gear is rated 52.2 MW to match the output of the LM6000 gas turbine believed to be one of the largest gear testing operations for this type and size of gear. Each gear drive manufactured by Lufkin is full-speed tested to verify its performance. Tests performed on high-speed units duplicate field conditions, as closely as possible, in order to verify critical speed analysis results and new bearing designs, if used. Lufkin also tests design techniques used in the development of new products. The finite element analysis performed to predict housing deflection in the thrust bearing area of a new extruder driveline was verified by testing of a prototype unit housing. Recently, housing structure stiffness and natural frequencies were predicted and verified on the test stand for some 50 MW vertically offset gear units. A complete data acquisition system is used to gather data from bearing, inlet and drain temperature monitoring points. The temperature monitoring system will accommodate type T,K,J, and E thermocouples and platinum and nickel RTDs.

Kane, J.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Safety philosophy of gas turbine high temperature reactor (GTHTR300)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has undertaken the study of an original design concept of gas turbine high temperature reactor, the GTHTR300. The general concept of this study is development of a greatly simplified design that leads to substantially reduced technical and cost requirements. Newly proposed design features enable the GTHTR300 to be an efficient and economically competitive reactor in 2010's. Also, the GTHTR300 fully takes advantage of its inherent safety characteristics. The safety philosophy of the GTHTR300 is developed based on the HTTR (High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor) of JAERI which is the first HTGR in Japan. Major features of the newly proposed safety philosophy for the GTHTR300 are described in this article. (authors)

Shoji Katanishi; Kazuhiko Kunitomi; Shusaku Shiozawa [Department of Advanced Nuclear Heat Technology, Oarai Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Oarai-machi, Ibaraki-ken, 311-1394 (Japan)

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Smart Onboard Inspection of High Pressure Gas Fuel Cylinders  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of natural gas as an alternative fuel in automotive applications is not widespread primarily because of the high cost and durability of the composite storage tanks. Tanks manufactured using carbon fiber are desirable in weight critical passenger vehicles because of the low density of carbon fiber. The high strength of carbon fiber also translates to a weight reduction because thinner wall designs are possible to withstand the internal pressure loads. However, carbon fiber composites are prone to impact damage that over the life of the storage tank may lead to an unsafe condition for the vehicle operator. A technique that potentially may be a reliable indication of developing hazardous conditions in composite fuel tanks is imbedded fiber optics. The applicability of this technique to onboard inspection is discussed and results from preliminary lab testing indicate that fiber optic sensors can reliably detect impact damage.

Beshears, D.L.; Starbuck, J.M.

1999-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

132

High-Octane Fuel from Refinery Exhaust Gas: Upgrading Refinery Off-Gas to High-Octane Alkylate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Exelus is developing a method to convert olefins from oil refinery exhaust gas into alkylate, a clean-burning, high-octane component of gasoline. Traditionally, olefins must be separated from exhaust before they can be converted into another source of useful fuel. Exelus process uses catalysts that convert the olefin to alkylate without first separating it from the exhaust. The ability to turn up to 50% of exhaust directly into gasoline blends could result in an additional 46 million gallons of gasoline in the U.S. each year.

None

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Investigating the Mobility of Light Autonomous Tracked Vehicles Using a High Performance Computing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Investigating the Mobility of Light Autonomous Tracked Vehicles Using a High Performance Computing limiting the scope and impact of high performance computing (HPC). This scenario is rapidly changing due

134

FRICTION FACTOR IN HIGH PRESSURE NATURAL GAS PIPELINES FROM ROUGHNESS MEASUREMENTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FRICTION FACTOR IN HIGH PRESSURE NATURAL GAS PIPELINES FROM ROUGHNESS MEASUREMENTS DETERMINATION DU and Technology, Norway ABSTRACT Pressure drop experiments on natural gas flow at 80 to 120 bar pressure and high of natural gas at typical operating pressures (100-180 bar). At such Reynolds numbers the classical Colebrook

Gudmundsson, Jon Steinar

135

A High Reliability Gas-driven Helium Cryogenic Centrifugal Compressor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A helium cryogenic compressor was developed and tested in real conditions in 1996. The achieved objective was to compress 0.018 kg/s Helium at 4 K @ 1000 Pa (10 mbar) up to 3000 Pa (30 mbar). This project was an opportunity to develop and test an interesting new concept in view of future needs. The main features of this new specific technology are described. Particular attention is paid to the gas bearing supported rotor and to the pneumatic driver. Trade off between existing technologies and the present work are presented with special stress on the bearing system and the driver. The advantages are discussed, essentially focused on life time and high reliability without maintenance as well as non pollution characteristic. Practical operational modes are also described together with the experimental performances of the compressor. The article concludes with a brief outlook of future work.

Bonneton, M; Gistau-Baguer, Guy M; Turcat, F; Viennot, P

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Imaging Molecular Gas in the Luminous Merger NGC 3256 : Detection of High-Velocity Gas and Twin Gas Peaks in the Double Nucleus  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Molecular gas in the merging starburst galaxy NGC 3256 has been imaged with the Submillimeter Array at a resolution of 1'' x 2'' (170 x 340 pc at 35 Mpc). This is the first interferometric imaging of molecular gas in the most luminous galaxy within z=0.01. There is a large disk of molecular gas (r > 3 kpc) in the center of the merger with a strong gas concentration toward the double nucleus. The gas disk having a mass of ~3*10^9 Msun in the central 3 kpc rotates around a point between the two nuclei that are 850 pc apart on the sky. The molecular gas is warm and turbulent and shows spatial variation of the intensity ratio between CO isotopomers. High-velocity molecular gas is discovered at the galactic center. Its velocity in our line of sight is up to 420 km/s offset from the systemic velocity of the galaxy; the terminal velocity is twice as large as that due to the rotation of the main gas disk. The high-velocity gas is most likely due to a molecular outflow from the gas disk, entrained by the starburst-driven superwind in the galaxy. The molecular outflow is estimated to have a rate of ~10 Msun/yr and to play a significant role in the dispersal or depletion of molecular gas from the galactic center. A compact gas concentration and steep velocity gradient are also found around each of the twin nuclei. They are suggestive of a small gas disk rotating around each nucleus. If these are indeed mini-disks, their dynamical masses are ~10^9 Msun within a radius of 170 pc.

Kazushi Sakamoto; Paul T. P. Ho; Alison B. Peck

2006-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

137

Thermal Hydraulics of the Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting research on the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design concept for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a highly efficient manner. The NGNP reactor core will be either a prismatic graphite block type core or a pebble bed core. The NGNP will use very high-burnup, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel, and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years. The VHTR concept is considered to be the nearest-term reactor design that has the capability to efficiently produce hydrogen. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during reactor core-accidents. The objectives of the NGNP Project are to: Demonstrate a full-scale prototype VHTR that is commercially licensed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and Demonstrate safe and economical nuclear-assisted production of hydrogen and electricity. The DOE laboratories, led by the INL, perform research and development (R&D) that will be critical to the success of the NGNP, primarily in the areas of: High temperature gas reactor fuels behavior High temperature materials qualification Design methods development and validation Hydrogen production technologies Energy conversion. This paper presents current R&D work that addresses fundamental thermal hydraulics issues that are relevant to a variety of possible NGNP designs.

Chang Oh; Eung Kim; Richard Schultz; Mike Patterson; Davie Petti

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Volume-scalable high-brightness three-dimensional visible light source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A volume-scalable, high-brightness, electrically driven visible light source comprises a three-dimensional photonic crystal (3DPC) comprising one or more direct bandgap semiconductors. The improved light emission performance of the invention is achieved based on the enhancement of radiative emission of light emitters placed inside a 3DPC due to the strong modification of the photonic density-of-states engendered by the 3DPC.

Subramania, Ganapathi; Fischer, Arthur J; Wang, George T; Li, Qiming

2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

139

Apparatus for injecting high power laser light into a fiber optic cable  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

High intensity laser light is evenly injected into an optical fiber by the combination of a converging lens and a multisegment kinoform (binary optical element). The segments preferably have multi-order gratings on each which are aligned parallel to a radial line emanating from the center of the kinoform and pass through the center of the element. The grating in each segment causes circumferential (lateral) dispersion of the light, thereby avoiding detrimental concentration of light energy within the optical fiber.

Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Experimental studies of steam-propane and enriched gas injection for the Minas light crude oil.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Experimental studies were carried out to compare the benefits of propane as an additive in steam injection and in lean gas injection to enhance production (more)

Yudishtira, Wan Dedi

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas light high" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Alliant Energy Interstate Power and Light (Gas)- Residential Energy Efficiency Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Interstate Power and Light (Alliant Energy) offers residential energy efficiency rebates to Iowa customers for a variety of home upgrades. Rebates are available for certain heating, insulation,...

142

Putting policy in drive : coordinating measures to reduce fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions from U.S. light-duty vehicles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The challenges of energy security and climate change have prompted efforts to reduce fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions in light-duty vehicles within the United States. Failures in the market for lower rates of fuel ...

Evans, Christopher W. (Christopher William)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Relativistic high harmonic generation in gas jet targets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We experimentally demonstrate a new regime of high-order harmonic generation by relativistic-irradiance lasers in gas jet targets. Bright harmonics with both odd and even orders, generated by linearly as well as circularly polarized pulses, are emitted in the forward direction, while the base harmonic frequency is downshifted. A 9 TW laser generates harmonics up to 360 eV, within the 'water window' spectral region. With a 120 TW laser producing 40 uJ/sr per harmonic at 120 eV, we demonstrate the photon number scalability. The observed harmonics cannot be explained by previously suggested scenarios. A novel high-order harmonics generation mechanism [T. Zh. Esirkepov et al., AIP Proceedings, this volume], which explains our experimental findings, is based on the phenomena inherent in the relativistic laser - underdense plasma interactions (self-focusing, cavity evacuation, and bow wave generation), mathematical catastrophe theory which explains formation of electron density singularities (cusps), and collective radiation due to nonlinear oscillations of a compact charge.

Pirozhkov, A.S.; Kando, M.; Esirkepov, T.Zh.; and others

2012-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

144

Fiber Bragg grating inscription by high-intensity femtosecond UV laser light: comparison  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fiber Bragg grating inscription by high-intensity femtosecond UV laser light: comparison with other 264-nm laser light and a phase mask technique, Bragg grating inscription in a range of different, that result in a significant photosensitivity enhancement of the in- vestigated fibers in comparison

Nikogosyan, David N.

145

Ultra High p-doping Material Research for GaN Based Light Emitters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main goal of the Project is to investigate doping mechanisms in p-type GaN and AlGaN and controllably fabricate ultra high doped p-GaN materials and epitaxial structures. Highly doped p-type GaN-based materials with low electrical resistivity and abrupt doping profiles are of great importance for efficient light emitters for solid state lighting (SSL) applications. Cost-effective hydride vapor phase epitaxial (HVPE) technology was proposed to investigate and develop p-GaN materials for SSL. High p-type doping is required to improve (i) carrier injection efficiency in light emitting p-n junctions that will result in increasing of light emitting efficiency, (ii) current spreading in light emitting structures that will improve external quantum efficiency, and (iii) parameters of Ohmic contacts to reduce operating voltage and tolerate higher forward currents needed for the high output power operation of light emitters. Highly doped p-type GaN layers and AlGaN/GaN heterostructures with low electrical resistivity will lead to novel device and contact metallization designs for high-power high efficiency GaN-based light emitters. Overall, highly doped p-GaN is a key element to develop light emitting devices for the DOE SSL program. The project was focused on material research for highly doped p-type GaN materials and device structures for applications in high performance light emitters for general illumination P-GaN and p-AlGaN layers and multi-layer structures were grown by HVPE and investigated in terms of surface morphology and structure, doping concentrations and profiles, optical, electrical, and structural properties. Tasks of the project were successfully accomplished. Highly doped GaN materials with p-type conductivity were fabricated. As-grown GaN layers had concentration N{sub a}-N{sub d} as high as 3 x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}. Mechanisms of doping were investigated and results of material studies were reported at several International conferences providing better understanding of p-type GaN formation for Solid State Lighting community. Grown p-type GaN layers were used as substrates for blue and green InGaN-based LEDs made by HVPE technology at TDI. These results proved proposed technical approach and facilitate fabrication of highly conductive p-GaN materials by low-cost HVPE technology for solid state lighting applications. TDI has started the commercialization of p-GaN epitaxial materials.

Vladimir Dmitriev

2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

146

Mathematical model and simulation of gas ow through a porous medium in high breaking capacity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mathematical model and simulation of gas #29;ow through a porous medium in high breaking capacity, France. Abstract. A one-dimensional model is introduced to describe the gas #29;ow and the heat transfer model coupled with a porous medium model taking into account the mechanical interaction gas-silica sand

Sart, Remi

147

Laclede Gas Company- Residential High Efficiency Heating Rebate Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Laclede Gas Company offers various rebates to residential customers for investing in energy efficient equipment and appliances. Residential customers can qualify for rebates on boilers, furnaces,...

148

High Detail Stationary Optimization Models for Gas Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oct 15, 2014 ... Abstract: Due to strict regulatory rules in combination with complex nonlinear physics, major gas network operators in Germany and Europe...

Martin Schmidt

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

149

High-temperature gas-cooled reactors: preliminary safety and environmental information document. Volume IV  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Information is presented concerning medium-enriched uranium/thorium once-through fuel cycle; medium-enrichment uranium-233/thorium recycle fuel; high-enrichment uranium-235/thorium recycle (spiked) fuel cycle; high-enrichment uranium-233/thorium recycle (spiked) fuel cycle; and gas-turbine high-temperature gas-cooled reactor.

Not Available

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Development of a high-throughput fermentation assay using colorimetric measurement of gas production.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Typical methods for determining ethanol production from biomass feedstocks involve the use of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) or Gas Chromatography (GC). Such methods require (more)

Bly, Steven

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Diffuse Galactic Light in the Field of the Translucent High Galactic Latitude Cloud MBM32  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have conducted B, g, V, and R-band imaging in a 45x40 arcmin^2 field containing part of the high Galactic latitude translucent cloud MBM32, and correlated the intensity of diffuse optical light S_\

Ienaka, N; Matsuoka, Y; Sameshima, H; Oyabu, S; Tsujimoto, T; Peterson, B A

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Cross section generation strategy for high conversion light water reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High conversion water reactors (HCWR), such as the Resource-renewable Boiling Water Reactor (RBWR), are being designed with axial heterogeneity of alternating fissile and blanket zones to achieve a conversion ratio of ...

Herman, Bryan R. (Bryan Robert)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

A High Efficiency PSOFC/ATS-Gas Turbine Power System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study is described in which the conceptual design of a hybrid power system integrating a pressurized Siemens Westinghouse solid oxide fuel cell generator and the Mercury{trademark} 50 gas turbine was developed. The Mercury{trademark} 50 was designed by Solar Turbines as part of the US. Department of Energy Advanced Turbine Systems program. The focus of the study was to develop the hybrid power system concept that principally would exhibit an attractively-low cost of electricity (COE). The inherently-high efficiency of the hybrid cycle contributes directly to achieving this objective, and by employing the efficient, power-intensive Mercury{trademark} 50, with its relatively-low installed cost, the higher-cost SOFC generator can be optimally sized such that the minimum-COE objective is achieved. The system cycle is described, major system components are specified, the system installed cost and COE are estimated, and the physical arrangement of the major system components is discussed. Estimates of system power output, efficiency, and emissions at the system design point are also presented. In addition, two bottoming cycle options are described, and estimates of their effects on overall-system performance, cost, and COE are provided.

W.L. Lundberg; G.A. Israelson; M.D. Moeckel; S.E. Veyo; R.A. Holmes; P.R. Zafred; J.E. King; R.E. Kothmann

2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Low inlet gas velocity high throughput biomass gasifier  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention discloses a novel method of operating a gasifier for production of fuel gas from carbonaceous fuels. The process disclosed enables operating in an entrained mode using inlet gas velocities of less than 7 feet per second, feedstock throughputs exceeding 4000 lbs/ft.sup.2 -hr, and pressures below 100 psia.

Feldmann, Herman F. (Worthington, OH); Paisley, Mark A. (Upper Arlington, OH)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Laser light backscatter from intermediate and high Z plasmas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In experiments at the Omega Laser Facility [J. M. Soures et al., Fusion Technol. 30, 492 (1996)], stimulated Brillouin backscatter (SBS) from gasbags filled with krypton and xenon gases was ten times lower than from CO{sub 2}-filled gasbags with similar electron densities. The SBS backscatter was a 1%-5% for both 527 and 351 nm interaction beams at an intensity of {approx}10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}. The SRS backscatter was less than 1%. The 351 nm interaction beam is below the threshold for filamentation and the SBS occurs in the density plateau between the blast waves. Inverse bremsstrahlung absorption of the incident and SBS light account for the lower reflectivity from krypton than from CO{sub 2}. The 527 nm interaction beam filaments in the blowoff plasma before the beam propagates through the blast wave, where it is strongly absorbed. Thus, most of the 527 nm SBS occurs in the flowing plasma outside the blast waves.

Berger, R. L.; Constantin, C.; Divol, L.; Meezan, N.; Froula, D. H.; Glenzer, S. H.; Suter, L. J.; Niemann, C. [University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

2006-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

156

Alliant Energy Interstate Power and Light (Gas)- Business Energy Efficiency Rebate Program (Iowa)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Interstate Power and Light (IPL) offers a wide variety of incentives for commercial customers to save energy in eligible facilities, whether they are upgrading existing facilities or building new...

157

High Quality Down Lighting Luminaire with 73% Overall System Efficiency  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes work to develop a high flux, high efficiency LED-based downlight at OSRAM SYLVANIA under US Department of Energy contract DE-FC26-08NT01582. A new high power LED and electronic driver were developed for these downlights. The LED achieved 100 lumens per watt efficacy and 1700 lumen flux output at a correlated color temperature of 3500K. The driver had 90% electrical conversion efficiency while maintaining excellent power quality with power factor >0.99, and total harmonic distortion <10%. Two styles of downlights using the LED and driver were shown to exceed the project targets for steady-state luminous efficacy and flux of 70 lumens per watt and 1300 lumens, respectively. Compared to similar existing downlights using compact fluorescent or LED sources, these downlights had much higher efficacy at nearly the same luminous flux.

Robert Harrison; Steven C. Allen; Joseph Bernier; Robert Harrison

2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

158

Fluorine Gas Management Guidelines Fluorine is a highly toxic, pale yellow gas about 1.3 times as heavy as air at atmospheric  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fluorine Gas Management Guidelines Overview Fluorine is a highly toxic, pale yellow gas about 1.3 times as heavy as air at atmospheric temperature and pressure. Fluorine gas is the most powerful oxidizing agent known, reacting with practically all organic and inorganic substances. Fluorine gas

de Lijser, Peter

159

Light Trapping for High Efficiency Heterojunction Crystalline Si Solar Cells: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Light trapping plays an important role to achieve high short circuit current density (Jsc) and high efficiency for amorphous/crystalline Si heterojunction solar cells. Si heterojunction uses hydrogenated amorphous Si for emitter and back contact. This structure of solar cell posses highest open circuit voltage of 0.747 V at one sun for c-Si based solar cells. It also suggests that over 25% record-high efficiency is possible with further improvement of Jsc. Light trapping has two important tasks. The first one is to reduce the surface reflectance of light to zero for the solar spectrum that Si has a response. The second one is to increase the effective absorption length to capture all the photon. For Si heterojunction solar cell, surface texturing, anti-reflectance indium tin oxides (ITO) layer at the front and back are the key area to improve the light trapping.

Wang, Q.; Xu, Y.; Iwaniczko, E.; Page, M.

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Industrial DSM: Beyond High Efficiency Lights and Motors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on behalf of electric utilities. These represent real-world solutions to problems in actual industrial plants in many different types of industries. DSM IN LOW TEMPERATURE REFRIGERAnON SYST M APPLICAnONS Industrial refrigeration equipment is highly... energy-intensive. In many dairy procl::."ing plants in particular, refrigeration systems are the largest electricity consumers, repre enting as much as 75 percent of plant peak demand. The availability of the refrigeration system is critical...

Appelbaum, B.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas light high" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Highly efficient greenish-blue platinum-based phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes on a high triplet energy platform  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have demonstrated high-efficiency greenish-blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PHOLEDs) based on a dimesitylboryl-functionalized C^N chelate Pt(II) phosphor, Pt(m-Bptrz)(t-Bu-pytrz-Me). Using a high triplet energy platform and optimized double emissive zone device architecture results in greenish-blue PHOLEDs that exhibit an external quantum efficiency of 24.0% and a power efficiency of 55.8?lm/W. This record high performance is comparable with that of the state-of-the-art Ir-based sky-blue organic light-emitting diodes.

Chang, Y. L., E-mail: yilu.chang@mail.utoronto.ca; Gong, S., E-mail: sgong@chem.utoronto.ca; White, R.; Lu, Z. H., E-mail: zhenghong.lu@utoronto.ca [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Toronto, 184 College St., Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E4 (Canada); Wang, X.; Wang, S., E-mail: wangs@chem.queensu.ca [Department of Chemistry, Queen's University, 90 Bader Lane, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada); Yang, C. [Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

162

Detailed Studies of a HighDensity Polarized Hydrogen Gas Target for Storage Rings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Detailed Studies of a High颅Density Polarized Hydrogen Gas Target for Storage Rings Kirsten Zapfe 1 (1996) 293 Abstract A high颅density target of polarized atomic hydrogen gas for applications in storage rings was produced by injecting atoms from an atomic beam source into a T颅shaped storage cell

163

RRR Degradation and Gas Absorption in the Electron Beam Welding Area of High Purity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 RRR Degradation and Gas Absorption in the Electron Beam Welding Area of High Purity Niobium W degradation and gas absorption of high purity niobium welded at different electron beam (EB) facilities are summarized. The oxygen and nitrogen content is increased as a rule at the welding seam. The absorption

164

California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards for Light-Duty Vehicles (Update) (released in AEO2006)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The state of California was given authority under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90) to set emissions standards for light-duty vehicles that exceed federal standards. In addition, other states that do not comply with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) set by the Environmental Protection Agency under CAAA90 were given the option to adopt Californias light-duty vehicle emissions standards in order to achieve air quality compliance. CAAA90 specifically identifies hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and NOx as vehicle-related air pollutants that can be regulated. California has led the nation in developing stricter vehicle emissions standards, and other states have adopted the California standards.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

High-Energy Neutrinos in Light of Fermi-LAT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The production of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos is tightly linked to the emission of hadronic gamma-rays. I will discuss the recent observation of TeV to PeV neutrinos by the IceCube Cherenkov telescope in the context of gamma-ray astronomy. The corresponding energy range of hadronic gamma-rays is not directly accessible by extragalactic gamma-ray astronomy due to interactions with cosmic radiation backgrounds. Nevertheless, the isotropic sub-TeV gamma-ray background observed by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) contains indirect information from secondary emission produced in electromagnetic cascades and constrains hadronic emission scenarios. On the other hand, observation of PeV gamma-rays would provide a smoking-gun signal for Galactic emission. In general, the cross-correlation of neutrino emission with (extended) Galactic and extragalactic gamma-ray sources will serve as the most sensitive probe for a future identification of neutrino sources.

Ahlers, Markus

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Hydrogen/Natural Gas Blends for Heavy and Light-Duty Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

exhaust emissions that can be achieved relative to both diesel and natural gas alternatives. The design $ For applications that now use diesel engines $ Develop engine configurations that can replace existing diesel that minimizes the surface to volume ratio. However, care must be taken to avoid engine knock. This can require

167

Brookhaven National Laboratory/National Synchrotron Light Source Subject: Devalving of compressed gas cylinders  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

gas cylinders Number: LS-ESH-0052 Revision: 2 Effective: 08/05/2008 Page 1 of 1 Prepared By: Keith, retighten the valve, immediately stop the process, and contact NSLS ESH staff to investigate. The only official copy of this file is the one on-line in the NSLS ESH website. Before using a printed copy, verify

Ohta, Shigemi

168

Assessing the fuel Use and greenhouse gas emissions of future light-duty vehicles in Japan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is of great concern in Japan, as well as elsewhere, such as in the U.S. and EU. More than 20% of GHG emissions in Japan come from the transportation sector, and a more than 70% ...

Nishimura, Eriko

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Comparison of Monte-Carlo and Einstein methods in the light-gas interactions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

To study the propagation of light in nebulae, many astrophysicists use a Monte-Carlo computation which does not take interferences into account. Replacing the wrong method by Einstein coefficients theory gives, on an example, a theoretical spectrum much closer to the observed one.

Jacques Moret-Bailly

2010-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

170

New red phosphor for near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with high color-purity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

New red phosphors, Na{sub 5}Eu(MoO{sub 4}){sub 4} doped with boron oxide were prepared by the solid-state reaction. Their structure and photo-luminescent properties were investigated. With the introduction of boron oxide, the red emission intensity of the phosphors under 395 nm excitation is strengthened, with high color-purity (x = 0.673, y = 0.327). The single red light-emitting diode was obtained by combining InGaN chip with the red phosphor, bright red light can be observed by naked eyes from the red light-emitting diodes under a forward bias of 20 mA.

Wang, Zhengliang, E-mail: wzhl_ww@yahoo.com.cn [School of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Yunnan Nationalities University, Kunming, Yunnan 650031 (China)] [School of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Yunnan Nationalities University, Kunming, Yunnan 650031 (China); He, Pei; Wang, Rui [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510275 (China)] [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510275 (China); Zhao, Jishou [School of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Yunnan Nationalities University, Kunming, Yunnan 650031 (China)] [School of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Yunnan Nationalities University, Kunming, Yunnan 650031 (China); Gong, Menglian [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510275 (China)] [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510275 (China)

2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

171

Universality of electron distributions in high-energy air showers - description of Cherenkov light production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The shower simulation code CORSIKA has been used to investigate the electron energy and angular distributions in high-energy showers. Based on the universality of both distributions, we develop an analytical description of Cherenkov light emission in extensive air showers, which provides the total number and angular distribution of photons. The parameterisation can be used e.g. to calculate the contribution of direct and scattered Cherenkov light to shower profiles measured with the air fluorescence technique.

F. Nerling; J. Bl黰er; R. Engel; M. Risse

2005-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

172

Photoionization of optically trapped ultracold atoms with a high-power light-emitting diode  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Photoionization of laser-cooled atoms using short pulses of a high-power light-emitting diode (LED) is demonstrated. Light pulses as short as 30 ns have been realized with the simple LED driver circuit. We measure the ionization cross section of {sup 85}Rb atoms in the first excited state, and show how this technique can be used for calibrating efficiencies of ion detector assemblies.

Goetz, Simone; Hoeltkemeier, Bastian; Amthor, Thomas; Weidemueller, Matthias [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 226, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

173

Evaluation of the LLNL Spectrometer for Possible use with the NSTec Optical Streak Camera as a Light Gas Gun Diagnostic  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In fiscal year 2012, it was desired to combine a visible spectrometer with a streak camera to form a diagnostic system for recording time-resolved spectra generated in light gas gun experiments. Acquiring a new spectrometer was an option, but it was possible to borrow an existing unit for a period of months, which would be sufficient to evaluate both 搊ff-line and in-gas gun shots. If it proved adequate for this application, it could be duplicated (with possible modifications); if not, such testing would help determine needed specifications for another model. This report describes the evaluation of the spectrometer (separately and combined with the NSTec LO streak camera) for this purpose. Spectral and temporal resolutions were of primary interest. The first was measured with a monochromatic laser input. The second was ascertained by the combination of the spectrometer抯 spatial resolution in the time-dispersive direction and the streak camera抯 intrinsic temporal resolution. System responsivity was also important, and this was investigated by measuring the response of the spectrometer/camera system to black body input梩he gas gun experiments are expected to be similar to a 3000K black body梐s well as measuring the throughput of the spectrometer separately over a range of visible light provided by a monochromator. The flat field (in wavelength) was also measured and the final part of the evaluation was actual fielding on two gas gun shots. No firm specifications for spectral or temporal resolution were defined precisely, but these were desired to be in the 12 nm and 12 ns ranges, respectively, if possible. As seen below, these values were met or nearly met, depending on wavelength. Other performance parameters were also not given (threshold requirements) but the evaluations performed with laser, black body, and successful gas gun shots taken in aggregate indicate that the spectrometer is adequate for this purpose. Even still, some (relatively minor) opportunities for improvement were noticed and these were documented for incorporation into any near-duplicate spectrometer that might be fabricated in the future.

O'Connor, J., Cradick, J.

2012-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

174

High-level waste vitrification off-gas cleanup technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This brief overview is intended to be a basis for discussion of needs and problems existing in the off-gas clean-up technology. A variety of types of waste form and processes are being developed in the United States and abroad. A description of many of the processes can be found in the Technical Alternative Documents (TAD). Concurrently, off-gas processing systems are being developed with most of the processes. An extensive review of methodology as well as decontamination factors can be found in the literature. Since it is generally agreed that the most advanced solidification process is vitrification, discussion here centers about the off-gas problems related to vitrification. With a number of waste soldification facilities around the world in operation, it can be shown that present technology can satisfy the present requirement for off-gas control. However, a number of areas within the technology base show potential for improvement. Fundamental as well as verification studies are needed to obtain the improvements.

Hanson, M.S.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

High temperature, low expansion, corrosion resistant ceramic and gas turbine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to ZrO.sub.2 -MgO-Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 -SiO.sub.2 ceramic materials having improved thermal stability and corrosion resistant properties. The utilization of these ceramic materials as heat exchangers for gas turbine engines is also disclosed.

Rauch, Sr., Harry W. (Lionville, PA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Novel Low Cost Organic Vapor Jet Printing of Striped High Efficiency Phosphorescent OLEDs for White Lighting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this program, Universal Display Corporation and University of Michigan proposed to integrate three innovative concepts to meet the DOE's Solid State Lighting (SSL) goals: (1) high-efficiency phosphorescent organic light emitting device (PHOLED{trademark}) technology, (2) a white lighting design that is based on a series of red, green and blue OLED stripes, and (3) the use of a novel cost-effective, high rate, mask-less deposition process called organic vapor jet printing (OVJP). Our PHOLED technology offers up to four-times higher power efficiency than other OLED approaches for general lighting. We believe that one of the most promising approaches to maximizing the efficiency of OLED lighting sources is to produce stripes of the three primary colors at such a pitch (200-500 {mu}m) that they appear as a uniform white light to an observer greater than 1 meter (m) away from the illumination source. Earlier work from a SBIR Phase 1 entitled 'White Illumination Sources Using Striped Phosphorescent OLEDs' suggests that stripe widths of less than 500 {mu}m appear uniform from a distance of 1m without the need for an external diffuser. In this program, we intend to combine continued advances in this PHOLED technology with the striped RGB lighting design to demonstrate a high-efficiency, white lighting source. Using this background technology, the team has focused on developing and demonstrating the novel cost-effective OVJP process to fabricate these high-efficiency white PHOLED light sources. Because this groundbreaking OVJP process is a direct printing approach that enables the OLED stripes to be printed without a shadow mask, OVJP offers very high material utilization and high throughput without the costs and wastage associated with a shadow mask (i.e. the waste of material that deposits on the shadow mask itself). As a direct printing technique, OVJP also has the potential to offer ultra-high deposition rates (> 1,000 Angstroms/second) for any size or shaped features. As a result, we believe that this work will lead to the development of a cost-effective manufacturing solution to produce very-high efficiency OLEDs. By comparison to more common ink-jet printing (IJP), OVJP can also produce well-defined patterns without the need to pattern the substrate with ink wells or to dry/anneal the ink. In addition, the material set is not limited by viscosity and solvent solubility. During the program we successfully demonstrated a 6-inch x 6-inch PHOLED lighting panel consisting of fine-featured red, green and blue (R-G-B) stripes (1mm width) using an OVJP deposition system that was designed, procured and installed into UDC's cleanroom as part of this program. This project will significantly accelerate the DOE's ability to meet its 2015 DOE SSL targets of 70-150 lumens/Watt and less than $10 per 1,000 lumens for high CRI lighting index (76-90). Coupled with a low cost manufacturing path through OVJP, we expect that this achievement will enable the DOE to achieve its 2015 performance goals by the year 2013, two years ahead of schedule. As shown by the technical work performed under this program, we believe that OVJP is a very promising technology to produce low cost, high efficacy, color tunable light sources. While we have made significant progress to develop OVJP technology and build a pilot line tool to study basic aspects of the technology and demonstrate a lighting panel prototype, further work needs to be performed before its full potential and commercial viability can be fully assessed.

Mike Hack

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

177

Design and fabrication of high-index-contrast self-assembled texture for light extraction enhancement in LEDs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We developed a high-index-contrast photonic structure for improving the light extraction efficiency of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) by a self-assembly approach. In this approach, a two-dimensional grating can be ...

Sheng, Xing

178

Layered 3D: tomographic image synthesis for attenuation-based light field and high dynamic range displays  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We develop tomographic techniques for image synthesis on displays composed of compact volumes of light-attenuating material. Such volumetric attenuators recreate a 4D light field or high-contrast 2D image when illuminated ...

Wetzstein, Gordon

179

The Advantage of Highly Controlled Lighting for Offices and Commercial Buildings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The paper presents results from pilot studies of new 'workstation-specific' luminaires that are designed to provide highly, efficient, customized lighting for open-office cubicles. Workstation specific luminaires have the following characteristics: (1) they provide separate, dimming control of the cubicle's 'ambient' and 'task' lighting components, (2) occupancy sensors and control photosensors are integrated into the fixture's design and operation, (3) luminaires can be networked using physical cabling, microcontrollers and a PC running control software. The energy savings, demand response capabilities and quality of light from the two WS luminaires were evaluated and compared to the performance of a static, low-ambient lighting system that is uncontrolled. Initial results from weeks of operation provide strong indication that WS luminaires can largely eliminate the unnecessary lighting of unoccupied cubicles while providing IESNA-required light levels when the cubicles are occupied. Because each cubicle's lighting is under occupant sensor control, the WS luminaires can capitalize on the fact cubicles are often unoccupied during normal working hours and reduce their energy use accordingly.

Rubinstein, Francis; Bolotov, Dmitriy; Levi, Mark; Powell, Kevin; Schwartz, Peter

2008-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

180

Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division Smart Grid Project | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar Powerstories on climateJunoMedanosElectric Co LtdJacksonLakeInformation Gas

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas light high" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor Projected Markets and Scoping Economics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The NGNP Project has the objective of developing the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) technology to supply high temperature process heat to industrial processes as a substitute for burning of fossil fuels, such as natural gas. Applications of the HTGR technology that have been evaluated by the NGNP Project for supply of process heat include supply of electricity, steam and high-temperature gas to a wide range of industrial processes, and production of hydrogen and oxygen for use in petrochemical, refining, coal to liquid fuels, chemical, and fertilizer plants.

Larry Demick

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

ANALYSIS OF HIGH PRESSURE TESTS ON WET GAS FLOW METERING WITH A VENTURI METER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ANALYSIS OF HIGH PRESSURE TESTS ON WET GAS FLOW METERING WITH A VENTURI METER P. Gajan , Q, 64018 Pau cedex, France pierre.gajan@onera.fr Abstract This work deals with the flow metering of wet gas on the CEESI facilities are presented. They are performed at 75 bars with 0.6 beta ratio Venturi meter

183

A HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS RECEIVER UTILIZING SMALL PARTICLES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

field of high temperature solar process heat. The ultimateof solar applications including industrial process heat and

Hunt, Arlon

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

High efficiency light source using solid-state emitter and down-conversion material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A light emitting apparatus includes a source of light for emitting light; a down conversion material receiving the emitted light, and converting the emitted light into transmitted light and backward transmitted light; and an optic device configured to receive the backward transmitted light and transfer the backward transmitted light outside of the optic device. The source of light is a semiconductor light emitting diode, a laser diode (LD), or a resonant cavity light emitting diode (RCLED). The down conversion material includes one of phosphor or other material for absorbing light in one spectral region and emitting light in another spectral region. The optic device, or lens, includes light transmissive material.

Narendran, Nadarajah (Clifton Park, NY); Gu, Yimin (Troy, NY); Freyssinier, Jean Paul (Troy, NY)

2010-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

185

An earth-isolated optically coupled wideband high voltage probe powered by ambient light  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(2012) Optimized working conditions for a thermoelectric generator as a topping cycle for gas turbines J (2012) Feasibility study in application of forging waste heat on absorption cooling system J. Renewable-emitting diode that converts high voltage into an amplitude-modulated optical signal, which is then conveyed

Bellan, Paul M.

186

Development of a High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor TRISO-coated particle fuel chemistry model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The first portion of this work is a comprehensive analysis of the chemical environment in a High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor TRISO fuel particle. Fission product inventory versus burnup is calculated. Based on those ...

Diecker, Jane T

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Ultra Clean 1.1 MW High Efficiency Natural Gas Engine Powered...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Ultra Clean 1.1 MW High Efficiency Natural Gas Engine Powered CHP System Contract: DE-EE0004016 GE Energy, Dresser Inc. 102010 - 92014 Jim Zurlo, Principal Investigator...

188

An integrated performance model for high temperature gas cooled reactor coated particle fuel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The performance of coated fuel particles is essential for the development and deployment of High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) systems for future power generation. Fuel performance modeling is indispensable for understanding ...

Wang, Jing, 1976-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Strong enhancement of light absorption and highly directive thermal emission in graphene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Strong enhancement of light absorption and highly directive thermal emission in graphene Mingbo Pu: Graphene is a two-dimensional material with exotic electronic, optical and thermal properties. The optical absorption in monolayer graphene is limited by the fine structure constant . Here we demonstrated the strong

Chen, Po

190

An optical fan for light beams for high-precision optical measurements and optical switching  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The polarization and orbital angular momentum properties of light are of great importance in optical science and technology in the fields of high precision optical measurements and high capacity and high speed optical communications. Here we show, a totally new method, based on a combination of these two properties and using the thermal dispersion and electro-optical effect of birefringent crystals, the construction of a simple and robust scheme to rotate a light beam like a fan. Using a computer-based digital image processing technique, we determine the temperature and the thermal dispersion difference of the crystal with high resolution. We also use the rotation phenomenon to realize thermo-optic and electro-optic switches. The basic operating principles for measurement and switching processes are presented in detail. The methods developed here will have wide practical applicability in various fields, including remote sensing, materials science and optical communication networks.

Zhi-Yuan Zhou; Yan Li; Dong-Sheng Ding; Yun-Kun Jiang; Wei Zhang; Shuai Shi; Bao-Sen Shi; Guang-Can Guo

2014-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

191

An investigation into the inflow performance characteristics of high-rate gravel-packed gas wells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE INFLOW PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGH-RATE GRAVEL-PACKED GAS WELLS A Thesis by DOUGLAS LEE JORDAN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in par'tial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December, 1984 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE INFLOW PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGH-RATE GRAVEL-PACKED GAS WELLS A Thesis by DOUGLAS LEE JORDAN Approved as to style and content by...

Jordan, Douglas Lee

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

High-density organic light emitting diodes by nanoimprint technology Krutarth Trivedi, Caleb Nelson, Li Tao, Mathew Goeckner, Walter Hua)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High-density organic light emitting diodes by nanoimprint technology Krutarth Trivedi, Caleb Nelson sources. Despite the considerable development of inorganic semiconductor based light emitting diodes of miniaturization to nanoscale. Organic light emitting diode (OLED) technology is immune to quantum confinement

Hu, Wenchuang "Walter"

193

Scaling Studies for High Temperature Test Facility and Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Oregon State University (OSU) High Temperature Test Facility (HTTF) is an integral experimental facility that will be constructed on the OSU campus in Corvallis, Oregon. The HTTF project was initiated, by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), on September 5, 2008 as Task 4 of the 5-year High Temperature Gas Reactor Cooperative Agreement via NRC Contract 04-08-138. Until August, 2010, when a DOE contract was initiated to fund additional capabilities for the HTTF project, all of the funding support for the HTTF was provided by the NRC via their cooperative agreement. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began their involvement with the HTTF project in late 2009 via the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project. Because the NRC's interests in HTTF experiments were only centered on the depressurized conduction cooldown (DCC) scenario, NGNP involvement focused on expanding the experimental envelope of the HTTF to include steady-state operations and also the pressurized conduction cooldown (PCC).

Richard R. Schult; Paul D. Bayless; Richard W. Johnson; James R. Wolf; Brian Woods

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Gas-liquid-liquid equilibria in mixtures of water, light gases, and hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Phase equilibrium in mixtures of water + light gases and water + heavy hydrocarbons has been investigated with the development of new local composition theory, new equations of state, and new experimental data. The preferential segregation and orientation of molecules due to different energies of molecular interaction has been simulated with square well molecules. Extensive simulation has been made for pure square well fluids and mixtures to find the local composition at wide ranges of states. A theory of local composition has been developed and an equation of state has been obtained for square well fluids. The new local composition theory has been embedded in several equations of state. The pressure of water is decoupled into a polar pressure and non-polar pressure according to the molecular model of water of Jorgensen et al. The polar pressure of water is combined with the BACK equation for the general description of polar fluids and their mixtures. Being derived from the steam table, the Augmented BACK equation is particularly suited for mixtures of water + non-polar substances such as the hydrocarbons. The hydrophobic character of the hydrocarbons had made their mixtures with water a special challenge. A new group contribution equation of state is developed to describe phase equilibrium and volumetric behavior of fluids while requiring only to know the molecular structure of the components. 15 refs., 1 fig.

Chao, K.C.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Options for treating high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel for repository disposal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the options that can reasonably be considered for disposal of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel in a repository. The options include whole-block disposal, disposal with removal of graphite (either mechanically or by burning), and reprocessing of spent fuel to separate the fuel and fission products. The report summarizes what is known about the options without extensively projecting or analyzing actual performance of waste forms in a repository. The report also summarizes the processes involved in convert spent HTGR fuel into the various waste forms and projects relative schedules and costs for deployment of the various options. Fort St. Vrain Reactor fuel, which utilizes highly-enriched {sup 235}U (plus thorium) and is contained in a prismatic graphite block geometry, was used as the baseline for evaluation, but the major conclusions would not be significantly different for low- or medium-enriched {sup 235}U (without thorium) or for the German pebble-bed fuel. Future US HTGRs will be based on the Fort St. Vrain (FSV) fuel form. The whole block appears to be a satisfactory waste form for disposal in a repository and may perform better than light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel. From the standpoint of process cost and schedule (not considering repository cost or value of fuel that might be recycled), the options are ranked as follows in order of increased cost and longer schedule to perform the option: (1) whole block, (2a) physical separation, (2b) chemical separation, and (3) complete chemical processing.

Lotts, A.L.; Bond, W.D.; Forsberg, C.W.; Glass, R.W.; Harrington, F.E.; Micheals, G.E.; Notz, K.J.; Wymer, R.G.

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

DEVELOPMENT AND OPTIMIZATION OF GAS-ASSISTED GRAVITY DRAINAGE (GAGD) PROCESS FOR IMPROVED LIGHT OIL RECOVERY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the first Annual Technical Progress Report being submitted to the U. S. Department of Energy on the work performed under the Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT15323. This report follows two other progress reports submitted to U.S. DOE during the first year of the project: The first in April 2003 for the project period from October 1, 2002 to March 31, 2003, and the second in July 2003 for the period April 1, 2003 to June 30, 2003. Although the present Annual Report covers the first year of the project from October 1, 2002 to September 30, 2003, its contents reflect mainly the work performed in the last quarter (July-September, 2003) since the work performed during the first three quarters has been reported in detail in the two earlier reports. The main objective of the project is to develop a new gas-injection enhanced oil recovery process to recover the oil trapped in reservoirs subsequent to primary and/or secondary recovery operations. The project is divided into three main tasks. Task 1 involves the design and development of a scaled physical model. Task 2 consists of further development of the vanishing interfacial tension (VIT) technique for miscibility determination. Task 3 involves the determination of multiphase displacement characteristics in reservoir rocks. Each technical progress report, including this one, reports on the progress made in each of these tasks during the reporting period. Section I covers the scaled physical model study. A survey of literature in related areas has been conducted. Test apparatus has been under construction throughout the reporting period. A bead-pack visual model, liquid injection system, and an image analysis system have been completed and used for preliminary experiments. Experimental runs with decane and paraffin oil have been conducted in the bead pack model. The results indicate the need for modifications in the apparatus, which are currently underway. A bundle of capillary tube model has been considered and formulated aiming to reveal the interplay of the viscous, interfacial and gravity forces and to predict the gravity drainage performance. Scaling criteria for the scaled physical model design have been proposed based on an inspectional analysis. In Section II, equation of state (EOS) calculations were extended to study the effect of different tuning parameters on MMP for two reservoir crude oils of Rainbow Keg River and Terra Nova. This study indicates that tuning of EOS may not always be advisable for miscibility determination. Comparison of IFT measurements for benzene in water, ethanol mixtures with the solubility data from the literature showed that a strong mutual relationship between these two thermodynamic properties exists. These preliminary experiments indicate applicability of the new vanishing interfacial tension (VIT) technique to determine miscibility of ternary liquid systems. The VIT experimental apparatus is under construction with considerations of expanded capacity of using equilibrated fluids and a new provision for low IFT measurement in gas-oil systems. In Section III, recommendations in the previous progress reports have been investigated in this reporting period. WAG coreflood experiments suggest the use of ''Hybrid''-WAG type floods for improved CO{sub 2} utilization factors and recoveries. The effect of saturating the injection water with CO{sub 2} for core-floods has been investigated further in this quarter. Miscible WAG floods using CO{sub 2} saturated brine showed higher recoveries (89.2% ROIP) compared to miscible WAG floods using normal brine (72.5%). Higher tertiary recovery factors (TRF) were also observed for WAG floods using CO{sub 2} saturated brine due to improved mobility ratio and availability of CO{sub 2}. Continued experimentation for evaluation of both, ''Hybrid''-WAG and gravity stable type displacements, in Berea sandstone cores using synthetic as well as real reservoir fluids are planned for the next quarter.

Dandina N. Rao

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Explosive laser light initiation of propellants  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A improved initiator for artillery shell using an explosively generated laser light to uniformly initiate the propellent. A small quantity of a high explosive, when detonated, creates a high pressure and temperature, causing the surrounding noble gas to fluoresce. This fluorescence is directed into a lasing material, which lases, and directs laser light into a cavity in the propellant, uniformly initiating the propellant.

Piltch, M.S.

1993-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

198

Highly covariant quantum lattice gas model of the Dirac equation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We revisit the quantum lattice gas model of a spinor quantum field theory-the smallest scale particle dynamics is partitioned into unitary collide and stream operations. The construction is covariant (on all scales down to a small length {\\ell} and small time {\\tau} = c {\\ell}) with respect to Lorentz transformations. The mass m and momentum p of the modeled Dirac particle depend on {\\ell} according to newfound relations m = mo cos (2{\\pi}{\\ell}/{\\lambda}) and p = (h/2{\\pi}{\\ell}) sin(2{\\pi}{\\ell}/{\\lambda}), respectively, where {\\lambda} is the Compton wavelength of the modeled particle. These relations represent departures from a relativistically invariant mass and the de Broglie relation-when taken as quantifying numerical errors the model is physically accurate when {\\ell} {\\ll} {\\lambda}. Calculating the vacuum energy in the special case of a massless spinor field, we find that it vanishes (or can have a small positive value) for a sufficiently large wave number cutoff. This is a marked departure from the usual behavior of such a massless field.

Jeffrey Yepez

2011-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

199

Model for characterization of a vortex pair formed by shock passage over a light-gas inhomogeneity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work investigates the two-dimensional flow of a shock wave over a circular light-gas inhomogeneity in a channel with finite width. The pressure gradient from the shock wave interacts with the density gradient at the edge of the inhomogeneity to deposit vorticity around the perimeter, and the structure rolls up into a pair of counter-rotating vortices. The aim of this study is to develop an understanding of the scaling laws for the flow field produced by this interaction at times long after the passage of the shock across the inhomogeneity. Numerical simulations are performed for various initial conditions and the results are used to guide the development of relatively simple algebraic models that characterize the dynamics of the vortex pair, and that allow extrapolation of the numerical results to conditions more nearly of interest in practical situations. The models are not derived directly from the equations of motion but depend on these equations and on intuition guided by the numerical results. Agreement between simulations and models is generally good except for a vortex-spacing model which is less satisfactory. A practical application of this shock-induced vortical flow is rapid and efficient mixing of fuel and oxidizer in a SCRAMJET combustion chamber. One possible injector design uses the interaction of an oblique shock wave with a jet of light fuel to generate vorticity which stirs and mixes the two fluids and lifts the burning jet away from the combustor wall. Marble proposed an analogy between this three-dimensional steady flow and the two-dimensional unsteady problem of the present investigation. Comparison is made between closely corresponding three-dimensional steady and two-dimensional unsteady flows, and a mathematical description of Marble`s analogy is proposed. 17 refs.

Yang, J.; Kubota, T.; Zukoski, E.E. [California Inst of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Low-Density and High Porosity Hydrogen Storage Materials Built from Ultra-Light Elements. Final Scientific/Technical Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A number of significant advances have been achieved, opening up new opportunities for the synthetic development of novel porous materials and their energy-related applications including gas storage and separation and catalysis. These include lithium-based metal-organic frameworks, magnesium-based metal-organic frameworks, and high gas uptake in porous frameworks with high density of open donor sites.

Feng, Pingyun

2014-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas light high" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

$XMM-Newton$ $?$ project: III. Gas mass fraction shape in high redshift clusters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the gas mass fraction, $f\\_{\\rm gas},$ behavior in $XMM-Newton$ $\\Omega$ project. The typical $f\\_{\\rm gas}$ shape of high redshift galaxy clusters follows the global shape inferred at low redshift quite well. This result is consistent with the gravitational instability picture leading to self similar structures for both the dark and baryonic matter. However, the mean $f\\_{\\rm gas} in distant clusters shows some differences to local ones, indicating a departure from strict scaling. This result is consistent with the observed evolution in the luminosity-temperature relation. We quantitatively investigate this departure from scaling laws. Within the local sample we used, a moderate but clear variation of the amplitude of the gas mass fraction with temperature is found, a trend that weakens in the outer regions. These variations do not explain departure from scaling laws of our distant clusters. An important implication of our results is that the gas fraction evolution, a test of the cosmological parameters, can lead to biased values when applied at radii smaller than the virial radius. From our $XMM$ clusters, the apparent gas fraction at the virial radius is consistent with a non-evolving universal value in a high matter density model and not with a concordance.

Rachida Sadat; Alain Blanchard; Sebastien C. Vauclair; David H. Lumb; James Bartlett; A. K. Romer; Jean-Philippe Bernard; Michel Boer; Philippe Marty; Jukka Nevalainen; Douglas J. Burke; C. A. Collins; Robert C. Nichol

2005-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

202

Gas-liquid transition in the model of particles interacting at high energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An application of the ideas of the inertial confinement fusion process in the case of particles interacting at high energy is investigated. A possibility of the gas-liquid transition in the gas is considered using different approaches. In particular, a shock wave description of interactions between particles is studied and a self-similar solution of Euler's equation is discussed. Additionally, Boltzmann equation is solved for self-consistent field (Vlasov's equation) in linear approximation for the case of a gas under external pressure and the corresponding change of Knudsen number of the system is calculated.

S. Bondarenko; K. Komoshvili

2012-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

203

Magneto-optical resonance of electromagnetically induced absorption with high contrast and narrow width in a vapour cell with buffer gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The method for observing the high-contrast and narrow-width resonances of electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) in the Hanle configuration under counterpropagating light waves is proposed. We theoretically analyze the absorption of a probe light wave in presence of counterpropagating one with the same frequency as the function of a static magnetic field applied along the vectors of light waves, propagating in a vapour cell. Here, as an example, we study a "dark" type of atomic dipole transition Fg=1-->Fe=1 in D1 line of 87Rb, where usually the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) can be observed. To obtain the EIA signal one should proper chose the polarizations of light waves and intensities. In contrast of regular schemes for observing EIA signals (in a single travelling light wave in the Hanle configuration or in a bichromatic light field consisted of two travelling waves), the proposed scheme allows one to use buffer gas to significantly enhance properties of the resonance. Also the dramatic influence of atomic transition openness on contrast of the resonance is revealed, that gives great advantage in comparison with cyclic atomic transitions. The obtained results can be interesting in high-resolution spectroscopy, nonlinear and magneto-optics.

D. V. Brazhnikov; A. V. Taichenachev; V. I. Yudin

2014-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

204

Gas-Phase Molecular Dynamics: High Resolution Spectroscopy and Collision Dynamics of Transient Species  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research is carried out as part of the Gas-Phase Molecular Dynamics program in the Chemistry Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Chemical intermediates in the elementary gas-phase reactions involved in combustion chemistry are investigated by high resolution spectroscopic tools. Production, reaction, and energy transfer processes are investigated by transient, double resonance, polarization and saturation spectroscopies, with an emphasis on technique development and connection with theory, as well as specific molecular properties.

Hall, G.E.

2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

205

Experimental investigations into high-altitude relight of a gas turbine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Experimental Investigations into High-Altitude Relight of a Gas Turbine Robert William Read Homerton College University of Cambridge This dissertation is submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy 2008 To my mother and father Declaration I... of many ignition events has revealed several distinct modes of ignition failure. Keywords: altitude relight, planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF), gas turbine, lean direct injection, spark ignition. Acknowledgements I would like to thank my supervisor...

Read, Robert William

2008-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

206

Gas-Phase Molecular Dynamics: High Resolution Spectroscopy and Collision Dynamics of Transient Species  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research is carried out as part of the Gas-Phase Molecular Dynamics program in the Chemistry Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Chemical intermediates in the elementary gas-phase reactions involved in combustion chemistry are investigated by high resolution spectroscopic tools. Production, reaction, and energy transfer processes are investigated by transient, double resonance, polarization and saturation spectroscopies, with an emphasis on technique development and connection with theory, as well as specific molecular properties.

Hall G. E.; Goncharov, V.

2012-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

207

Surface blistering and flaking of sintered uranium dioxide samples under high dose gas implantation and annealing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Surface blistering and flaking of sintered uranium dioxide samples under high dose gas implantation-sur-Yvette, France. a guillaume.martin@cea.fr Keywords: uranium dioxide, helium, hydrogen, implantation, blistering, flaking Abstract. High helium contents will be generated within minor actinide doped uranium dioxide

Boyer, Edmond

208

NMR/MRI with hyperpolarized gas and high Tc SQUID  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for the detection of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signals and production of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from samples combines the use of hyperpolarized inert gases to enhance the NMR signals from target nuclei in a sample and a high critical temperature (Tc) superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) to detect the NMR signals. The system operates in static magnetic fields of 3 mT or less (down to 0.1 mT), and at temperatures from liquid nitrogen (77K) to room temperature. Sample size is limited only by the size of the magnetic field coils and not by the detector. The detector is a high Tc SQUID magnetometer designed so that the SQUID detector can be very close to the sample, which can be at room temperature.

Schlenga, Klaus (Eggenstein, DE); de Souza, Ricardo E. (Recife, BR); Wong-Foy, Annjoe (Berkeley, CA); Clarke, John (Berkeley, CA); Pines, Alexander (Berkeley, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Critical Review Microbial Electrolysis Cells for High Yield Hydrogen Gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

sources such as wind, solar or biomass, but the energy requirements are high (5.6 kWh/ m3H2) and typical A S S E , , 搂 A N D R E N 麓E A . R O Z E N D A L | Hydrogen Energy Center, and Department of Civil, The Netherlands, and Advanced Water Management Centre (AWMC), The University of Queensland, Qld 4072, Australia

210

ANALYSIS OF A HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS-COOLED REACTOR POWERED HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS HYDROGEN PLANT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An updated reference design for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production has been developed. The HTE plant is powered by a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) whose configuration and operating conditions are based on the latest design parameters planned for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The current HTGR reference design specifies a reactor power of 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 322癈 and 750癈, respectively. The reactor heat is used to produce heat and electric power to the HTE plant. A Rankine steam cycle with a power conversion efficiency of 44.4% was used to provide the electric power. The electrolysis unit used to produce hydrogen includes 1.1 million cells with a per-cell active area of 225 cm2. The reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes a steam-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode (oxygen) side of the electrolyzer. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the higher heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 42.8% at a hydrogen production rate of 1.85 kg/s (66 million SCFD) and an oxygen production rate of 14.6 kg/s (33 million SCFD). An economic analysis of this plant was performed with realistic financial and cost estimating The results of the economic analysis demonstrated that the HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear power plant can deliver hydrogen at a competitive cost. A cost of $3.03/kg of hydrogen was calculated assuming an internal rate of return of 10% and a debt to equity ratio of 80%/20% for a reactor cost of $2000/kWt and $2.41/kg of hydrogen for a reactor cost of $1400/kWt.

M. G. McKellar; E. A. Harvego; A. M. Gandrik

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

High Temperature Optical Gas Sensing - Energy Innovation Portal  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun withconfinement plasmas in thein the Assembly of Photosystem II,AdvancedHigh

212

THE INTEGRATION OF PROCESS HEAT APPLICATIONS TO HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS REACTORS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A high temperature gas reactor, HTGR, can produce industrial process steam, high-temperature heat-transfer gases, and/or electricity. In conventional industrial processes, these products are generated by the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal and natural gas, resulting in significant emissions of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide. Heat or electricity produced in an HTGR could be used to supply process heat or electricity to conventional processes without generating any greenhouse gases. Process heat from a reactor needs to be transported by a gas to the industrial process. Two such gases were considered in this study: helium and steam. For this analysis, it was assumed that steam was delivered at 17 MPa and 540 C and helium was delivered at 7 MPa and at a variety of temperatures. The temperature of the gas returning from the industrial process and going to the HTGR must be within certain temperature ranges to maintain the correct reactor inlet temperature for a particular reactor outlet temperature. The returning gas may be below the reactor inlet temperature, ROT, but not above. The optimal return temperature produces the maximum process heat gas flow rate. For steam, the delivered pressure sets an optimal reactor outlet temperature based on the condensation temperature of the steam. ROTs greater than 769.7 C produce no additional advantage for the production of steam.

Michael G. McKellar

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Reducing Barriers To The Use of High-Efficiency Lighting Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Lighting Research Center (LRC) at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute completed the four-year research project, Reducing Barriers to the Use of High-Efficiency Lighting Systems. The initial objectives were: (1) identifying barriers to widespread penetration of lighting controls in commercial/industrial (C/I) applications that employ fluorescent lamp technologies, and (2) making recommendations to overcome these barriers. The addition of a fourth year expanded the original project objectives to include an examination of the impact on fluorescent lamps from dimming utilizing different lamp electrode heating and dimming ratios. The scope of the project was narrowed to identify barriers to the penetration of lighting controls into commercial-industrial (C/I) applications that employ fluorescent lamp technologies, and to recommend means for overcoming these barriers. Working with lighting manufacturers, specifiers, and installers, the project identified technological and marketing barriers to the widespread use of lighting controls, specifically automatic-off controls, occupancy sensors, photosensors, dimming systems, communication protocols and load-shedding ballasts. The primary barriers identified include cost effectiveness of lighting controls to the building owner, lack of standard communication protocols to allow different part of the control system to communicate effectively, and installation and commissioning issues. Overcoming the identified barriers requires lighting control products on the market to achieve three main goals: (1) Achieve sufficient functionality to meet the key requirements of their main market. (2) Allow significant cost reduction compared to current market standard systems. Cost should consider: hardware capital cost including wiring, design time required by the specifier and the control system manufacturer, installation time required by the electrician, and commissioning time and remedial time required by the electrician and end user. (3) Minimize ongoing perceived overhead costs and inconvenience to the end user, or in other words, systems should be simple to understand and use. In addition, we believe that no lighting controls solution is effective or acceptable unless it contributes to, or does not compromise, the following goals: (1) Productivity--Planning, installation, commissioning, maintenance, and use of controls should not decrease business productivity; (2) Energy savings--Lighting controls should save significant amounts of energy and money in relation to the expense involved in using them (acceptable payback period); and/or (3) Reduced power demand--Society as a whole should benefit from the lowered demand for expensive power and for more natural resources. Discussions of technology barriers and developments are insufficient by themselves to achieve higher penetration of lighting controls in the market place. Technology transfer efforts must play a key role in gaining market acceptance. The LRC developed a technology transfer model to better understand what actions are required and by whom to move any technology toward full market acceptance.

Peter Morante

2005-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

214

Technologies and policies for controlling greenhouse gas emissions from the U. S. automobile and light truck fleet.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The message conveyed by the above discussion is that there are no shortages of technologies available to improve the fuel efficiency of the U.S. fleet of autos and light trucks. It clearly is technically feasible to improve greatly the fuel economy of the average new light-duty vehicle. Many of these technologies require tradeoffs, however, that manufacturers are unwilling or (as yet) unable to make in today's market and regulatory environment. These tradeoffs involve higher costs (that might be reduced substantially over time with learning and economies of scale), technical risk and added complexity, emissions concerns (especially for direct injection engines, and especially with respect to diesel engine technology), and customer acceptance issues. Even with current low U.S. oil prices, however, many of these technologies may find their way into the U.S. market, or increase their market share, as a consequence of their penetration of European and Japanese markets with their high gasoline prices. Automotive technology is ''fungible'' that is, it can be easily transported from one market to another. Nevertheless, it probably is unrealistic to expect substantial increases in the average fuel economy of the U.S. light-duty fleet without significant changes in the market. Without such changes, the technologies that do penetrate the U.S. market are more likely to be used to increase acceleration performance or vehicle structures or enable four wheel drive to be included in vehicles without a net mpg penalty. In other words, technology by itself is not likely to be enough to raise fleet fuel economy levels - this was the conclusion of the 1995 Ailomar Conference on Energy and Sustainable Transportation, organized by the Transportation Research Board's Committees on Energy and Alternative Fuels, and it is one I share.

Plotkin, S.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Extension of the operating parameters of the two stage light gas gun to velocities below 2 km/sec.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Facility (JASPER) located in area 27 at the Nevada Test Site Has been tasked with providing high accuracy information on the Equation Of State (EOS) and other dynamic properties of weapons grade plutonium and other actinides important to the stockpile stewardship program. In the past 5 years this facility has provided dozens of experimental data points for the accurate determination of pressure density relationship for these materials over a broad pressure range. In order to complete this survey it is necessary to extend the low pressure region to include projectile velocities below 2 km/s. For most gas gun facilities this would present not too great a difficulty, one could simply decrease the amount of propellant along with a decrease in the strength of the petal valve, However JASPER requires that the piston be securely embedded in the Acceleration Reservoir (AR) as part of the containment system. The projectile must remain flat and undistorted. This requirement makes the attainment of slow velocities problematic. This talk will discuss the JASPER Facility, A finite difference code developed to give predictive capability for two stage gas guns, and a set of experiments performed to demonstrate this capability.

Thoe, R S

2007-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

216

High Temperature Gas Reactors: Assessment of Applicable Codes and Standards  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Current interest expressed by industry in HTGR plants, particularly modular plants with power up to about 600 MW(e) per unit, has prompted NRC to task PNNL with assessing the currently available literature related to codes and standards applicable to HTGR plants, the operating history of past and present HTGR plants, and with evaluating the proposed designs of RPV and associated piping for future plants. Considering these topics in the order they are arranged in the text, first the operational histories of five shut-down and two currently operating HTGR plants are reviewed, leading the authors to conclude that while small, simple prototype HTGR plants operated reliably, some of the larger plants, particularly Fort St. Vrain, had poor availability. Safety and radiological performance of these plants has been considerably better than LWR plants. Petroleum processing plants provide some applicable experience with materials similar to those proposed for HTGR piping and vessels. At least one currently operating plant - HTR-10 - has performed and documented a leak before break analysis that appears to be applicable to proposed future US HTGR designs. Current codes and standards cover some HTGR materials, but not all materials are covered to the high temperatures envisioned for HTGR use. Codes and standards, particularly ASME Codes, are under development for proposed future US HTGR designs. A 'roadmap' document has been prepared for ASME Code development; a new subsection to section III of the ASME Code, ASME BPVC III-5, is scheduled to be published in October 2011. The question of terminology for the cross-duct structure between the RPV and power conversion vessel is discussed, considering the differences in regulatory requirements that apply depending on whether this structure is designated as a 'vessel' or as a 'pipe'. We conclude that designing this component as a 'pipe' is the more appropriate choice, but that the ASME BPVC allows the owner of the facility to select the preferred designation, and that either designation can be acceptable.

McDowell, Bruce K.; Nickolaus, James R.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Swearingen, Gary L.; Pugh, Ray

2011-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

217

Methods for manufacturing porous nuclear fuel elements for high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods for manufacturing porous nuclear fuel elements for use in advanced high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors (HTGR's). Advanced uranium bi-carbide, uranium tri-carbide and uranium carbonitride nuclear fuels can be used. These fuels have high melting temperatures, high thermal conductivity, and high resistance to erosion by hot hydrogen gas. Tri-carbide fuels, such as (U,Zr,Nb)C, can be fabricated using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) to simultaneously deposit each of the three separate carbides, e.g., UC, ZrC, and NbC in a single CVI step. By using CVI, a thin coating of nuclear fuel may be deposited inside of a highly porous skeletal structure made, for example, of reticulated vitreous carbon foam.

Youchison, Dennis L. (Albuquerque, NM); Williams, Brian E. (Pocoima, CA); Benander, Robert E. (Pacoima, CA)

2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

218

Porous nuclear fuel element for high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Porous nuclear fuel elements for use in advanced high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors (HTGR's), and to processes for fabricating them. Advanced uranium bi-carbide, uranium tri-carbide and uranium carbonitride nuclear fuels can be used. These fuels have high melting temperatures, high thermal conductivity, and high resistance to erosion by hot hydrogen gas. Tri-carbide fuels, such as (U,Zr,Nb)C, can be fabricated using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) to simultaneously deposit each of the three separate carbides, e.g., UC, ZrC, and NbC in a single CVI step. By using CVI, the nuclear fuel may be deposited inside of a highly porous skeletal structure made of, for example, reticulated vitreous carbon foam.

Youchison, Dennis L. (Albuquerque, NM); Williams, Brian E. (Pacoima, CA); Benander, Robert E. (Pacoima, CA)

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Porous nuclear fuel element with internal skeleton for high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Porous nuclear fuel elements for use in advanced high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors (HTGR's), and to processes for fabricating them. Advanced uranium bi-carbide, uranium tri-carbide and uranium carbonitride nuclear fuels can be used. These fuels have high melting temperatures, high thermal conductivity, and high resistance to erosion by hot hydrogen gas. Tri-carbide fuels, such as (U,Zr,Nb)C, can be fabricated using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) to simultaneously deposit each of the three separate carbides, e.g., UC, ZrC, and NbC in a single CVI step. By using CVI, the nuclear fuel may be deposited inside of a highly porous skeletal structure made of, for example, reticulated vitreous carbon foam.

Youchison, Dennis L.; Williams, Brian E.; Benander, Robert E.

2013-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

220

Tar-free fuel gas production from high temperature pyrolysis of sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: High temperature pyrolysis of sewage sludge was efficient for producing tar-free fuel gas. Complete tar removal and volatile matter release were at elevated temperature of 1300 癈. Sewage sludge was converted to residual solid with high ash content. 72.60% of energy conversion efficiency for gas production in high temperature pyrolysis. Investment and costing for tar cleaning were reduced. - Abstract: Pyrolysis of sewage sludge was studied in a free-fall reactor at 10001400 癈. The results showed that the volatile matter in the sludge could be completely released to gaseous product at 1300 癈. The high temperature was in favor of H{sub 2} and CO in the produced gas. However, the low heating value (LHV) of the gas decreased from 15.68 MJ/N m{sup 3} to 9.10 MJ/N m{sup 3} with temperature increasing from 1000 癈 to 1400 癈. The obtained residual solid was characterized by high ash content. The energy balance indicated that the most heating value in the sludge was in the gaseous product.

Zhang, Leguan; Xiao, Bo; Hu, Zhiquan; Liu, Shiming, E-mail: Zhangping101@yeah.net; Cheng, Gong; He, Piwen; Sun, Lei

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas light high" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Facility Configuration Study of the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Component Test Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A test facility, referred to as the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Component Test Facility or CTF, will be sited at Idaho National Laboratory for the purposes of supporting development of high temperature gas thermal-hydraulic technologies (helium, helium-Nitrogen, CO2, etc.) as applied in heat transport and heat transfer applications in High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors. Such applications include, but are not limited to: primary coolant; secondary coolant; intermediate, secondary, and tertiary heat transfer; and demonstration of processes requiring high temperatures such as hydrogen production. The facility will initially support completion of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant. It will secondarily be open for use by the full range of suppliers, end-users, facilitators, government laboratories, and others in the domestic and international community supporting the development and application of High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor technology. This pre-conceptual facility configuration study, which forms the basis for a cost estimate to support CTF scoping and planning, accomplishes the following objectives: Identifies pre-conceptual design requirements Develops test loop equipment schematics and layout Identifies space allocations for each of the facility functions, as required Develops a pre-conceptual site layout including transportation, parking and support structures, and railway systems Identifies pre-conceptual utility and support system needs Establishes pre-conceptual electrical one-line drawings and schedule for development of power needs.

S. L. Austad; L. E. Guillen; D. S. Ferguson; B. L. Blakely; D. M. Pace; D. Lopez; J. D. Zolynski; B. L. Cowley; V. J. Balls; E.A. Harvego, P.E.; C.W. McKnight, P.E.; R.S. Stewart; B.D. Christensen

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this program was to develop low-emissions, efficient fuel-flexible combustion technology which enables operation of a given gas turbine on a wider range of opportunity fuels that lie outside of current natural gas-centered fuel specifications. The program encompasses a selection of important, representative fuels of opportunity for gas turbines with widely varying fundamental properties of combustion. The research program covers conceptual and detailed combustor design, fabrication, and testing of retrofitable and/or novel fuel-flexible gas turbine combustor hardware, specifically advanced fuel nozzle technology, at full-scale gas turbine combustor conditions. This project was performed over the period of October 2008 through September 2011 under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-08NT05868 for the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (USDOE/NETL) entitled "Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines". The overall objective of this program was met with great success. GE was able to successfully demonstrate the operability of two fuel-flexible combustion nozzles over a wide range of opportunity fuels at heavy-duty gas turbine conditions while meeting emissions goals. The GE MS6000B ("6B") gas turbine engine was chosen as the target platform for new fuel-flexible premixer development. Comprehensive conceptual design and analysis of new fuel-flexible premixing nozzles were undertaken. Gas turbine cycle models and detailed flow network models of the combustor provide the premixer conditions (temperature, pressure, pressure drops, velocities, and air flow splits) and illustrate the impact of widely varying fuel flow rates on the combustor. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were employed to compare some fundamental combustion characteristics of the target fuels, including flame speeds and lean blow-out behavior. Perfectly premixed combustion experiments were conducted to provide experimental combustion data of our target fuels at gas turbine conditions. Based on an initial assessment of premixer design requirements and challenges, the most promising sub-scale premixer concepts were evaluated both experimentally and computationally. After comprehensive screening tests, two best performing concepts were scaled up for further development. High pressure single nozzle tests were performed with the scaled premixer concepts at target gas turbine conditions with opportunity fuels. Single-digit NOx emissions were demonstrated for syngas fuels. Plasma-assisted pilot technology was demonstrated to enhance ignition capability and provide additional flame stability margin to a standard premixing fuel nozzle. However, the impact of plasma on NOx emissions was observed to be unacceptable given the goals of this program and difficult to avoid.

Venkatesan, Krishna

2011-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

223

HIGH-RESOLUTION FINITE VOLUME METHODS FOR DUSTY GAS JETS AND MARICA PELANTI AND RANDALL J. LEVEQUE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(since the sound speed is zero in the absence of pressure) and have a degenerate structure in which delta is lower than the sound speed of the pure gas phase, and can be substantially lower at high dust densities" (though in some contexts it could represent liquid droplets) and the mixture as a "dusty gas". Dusty gas

LeVeque, Randy

224

An efficient high-order finite difference gas-kinetic scheme for the Euler and Navier-Stokes solutions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-kinetic scheme is constructed. Different from the previous high-order finite volume gas-kinetic method [Li, Xu) Preprint submitted to Elsevier April 17, 2013 #12;covers the gas evolution process from the particle free a new finite volume gas-kinetic scheme has been developed [27], which significantly reduces

Xu, Kun

225

Conference 5739, SPIE International Symposium Integrated Optoelectronic Devices, 22-27 Jan 2005, San Jose, CA Development of high power green light emitting diode dies in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, San Jose, CA Development of high power green light emitting diode dies in piezoelectric Ga in green light emitting diodes is one of the big challenges towards all-solid- state lighting. The prime,3], and commercialization [4,5] of high brightness light emitting diodes LEDs has led to a 1.82 Billion-$/year world market

Wetzel, Christian M.

226

E-Print Network 3.0 - alters high light Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

One of the key... Light Communication What is the problem? The white light-emitting diode (LED) stands at the threshold... of a new era of energy-efficient lighting...

227

The ALFALFA "Almost Darks" Campaign: Pilot VLA HI Observations of Five High Mass-to-Light Ratio Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present VLA HI spectral line imaging of 5 sources discovered by ALFALFA. These targets are drawn from a larger sample of systems that were not uniquely identified with optical counterparts during ALFALFA processing, and as such have unusually high HI mass to light ratios. These candidate "Almost Dark" objects fall into 4 categories: 1) objects with nearby HI neighbors that are likely of tidal origin; 2) objects that appear to be part of a system of multiple HI sources, but which may not be tidal in origin; 3) objects isolated from nearby ALFALFA HI detections, but located near a gas-poor early-type galaxy; 4) apparently isolated sources, with no object of coincident redshift within ~400 kpc. Roughly 75% of the 200 objects without identified counterparts in the $\\alpha$.40 database (Haynes et al. 2011) fall into category 1. This pilot sample contains the first five sources observed as part of a larger effort to characterize HI sources with no readily identifiable optical counterpart at single dish resolutio...

Cannon, John M; Leisman, Lukas; Haynes, Martha P; Adams, Elizabeth A K; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Hallenbeck, Gregory; Janowiecki, Steven; Jones, Michael; J髗sa, Gyula I G; Koopmann, Rebecca A; Nichols, Nathan; Papastergis, Emmanouil; Rhode, Katherine L; Salzer, John J; Troischt, Parker

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

ZnO PN Junctions for Highly-Efficient, Low-Cost Light Emitting Diodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

By 2015, the US Department of Energy has set as a goal the development of advanced solid state lighting technologies that are more energy efficient, longer lasting, and more cost-effective than current technology. One approach that is most attractive is to utilize light-emitting diode technologies. Although III-V compound semiconductors have been the primary focus in pursuing this objective, ZnO-based materials present some distinct advantages that could yield success in meeting this objective. As with the nitrides, ZnO is a direct bandgap semiconductor whose gap energy (3.2 eV) can be tuned from 3.0 to 4 eV with substitution of Mg for higher bandgap, Cd for lower bandgap. ZnO has an exciton binding energy of 60 meV, which is larger than that for the nitrides, indicating that it should be a superior light emitting semiconductor. Furthermore, ZnO thin films can be deposited at temperatures on the order of 400-600 C, which is significantly lower than that for the nitrides and should lead to lower manufacturing costs. It has also been demonstrated that functional ZnO electronic devices can be fabricated on inexpensive substrates, such as glass. Therefore, for the large-area photonic application of solid state lighting, ZnO holds unique potential. A significant impediment to exploiting ZnO in light-emitting applications has been the absence of effective p-type carrier doping. However, the recent realization of acceptor-doped ZnO material overcomes this impediment, opening the door to ZnO light emitting diode development In this project, the synthesis and properties of ZnO-based pn junctions for light emitting diodes was investigated. The focus was on three issues most pertinent to realizing a ZnO-based solid state lighting technology, namely (1) achieving high p-type carrier concentrations in epitaxial and polycrystalline films, (2) realizing band edge emission from pn homojunctions, and (3) investigating pn heterojunction constructs that should yield efficient light emission. The project engaged established expertise at the University of Florida in ZnO film growth (D. Norton), device fabrication (F. Ren) and wide bandgap photonics (S. Pearton). It addressed p-type doping and junction formation in (Zn,Mg)O alloy thin films. The project employed pulsed laser deposition for film growth. The p-type dopant of interest was primarily phosphorus, given the recent results in our laboratory and elsewhere that this anions can yield p-type ZnO-based materials. The role of Zn interstitials, oxygen vacancies, and/or hydrogen complexes in forming compensating shallow donor levels imposes the need to simultaneously consider the role of in situ and post-growth processing conditions. Temperature-dependent Hall, Seebeck, C-V, and resistivity measurements was used to determine conduction mechanisms, carrier type, and doping. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence was used to determine the location of the acceptor level, injection efficiency, and optical properties of the structures. X-ray diffraction will used to characterize film crystallinity. Using these materials, the fabrication and characterization of (Zn,Mg)O pn homojunction and heterojunction devices was pursued. Electrical characterization of the junction capacitance and I-V behavior was used to extract junction profile and minority carrier lifetime. Electroluminescence from biased junctions was the primary property of interest.

David P. Norton; Stephen Pearton; Fan Ren

2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

229

Design of a High Temperature Small Particle Solar Receiver for Powering a Gas Turbine Engine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Design of a High Temperature Small Particle Solar Receiver for Powering a Gas Turbine Engine Dr. Fletcher Miller SDSU Department of Mechanical Engineering Abstract Solar thermal power for electricity for the California desert and in other appro- priate regions worldwide. Current technology relies on steam Rankine

Ponce, V. Miguel

230

Development of MELCOR Input Techniques for High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs) can provide clean electricity,as well as process heat that can be used to produce hydrogen for transportation and other sectors. A prototypic HTGR, the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP),will be built...

Corson, James

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

231

High Temperature Flue Gas Desulfurization In Moving Beds With Regenerable Copper Based Sorbents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to develop new and improved regenerable copper based sorbent for high temperature flue gas desulfurization in a moving bed application. The targeted areas of sorbent improvement included higher effective capacity, strength and long-term durability for improved process control and economic utilization of the sorbent.

Cengiz, P.A.; Ho, K.K.; Abbasian, J.; Lau, F.S.

2002-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

232

Integration of High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors into Industrial Process Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is a summary of analyses performed by the NGNP project to determine whether it is technically and economically feasible to integrate high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) technology into industrial processes. To avoid an overly optimistic environmental and economic baseline for comparing nuclear integrated and conventional processes, a conservative approach was used for the assumptions and calculations.

Lee Nelson

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Method for generating a highly reactive plasma for exhaust gas aftertreatment and enhanced catalyst reactivity  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for non-thermal plasma aftertreatment of exhaust gases the method comprising the steps of providing short risetime (about 40 ps), high frequency (about 5G hz), high power bursts of low-duty factor microwaves sufficient to generate a dielectric barrier discharge and passing a gas to treated through the discharge so as to cause dissociative reduction of the exhaust gases. The invention also includes a reactor for generating the non-thermal plasma.

Whealton, John H. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hanson, Gregory R. (Clinton, TN); Storey, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Raridon, Richard J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Armfield, Jeffrey S. (Upsilanti, MI); Bigelow, Timothy S. (Knoxville, TN); Graves, Ronald L. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Cocurrent gas - liquid flow at high rates in small particle beds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gas liquid cocurrent flow at high pressure drop often occurs near the well bore and in grabel filled perforations during production of oil and geothermal energy. Available studies have, however, emphasized large particles and low pressure drops. Here, results for air-water flows to high fluxes in beds of small glass spheres and in 0.44 mm sand, show the influence of particle size, and flow composition and rate, on pressure drop enhancement and flow regime extent.

Wilemon, M.; Torrest, R.S. (Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (US))

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Polarized light propagation in highly scattering turbid media with a distribution of the particle size: a Monte Carlo study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The light propagation in highly scattering turbid media composed of the particles with different size distribution is studied using a Monte Carlo simulation model implemented in Standard C. Monte Carlo method has been widely utilized to study...

Koh, Wonshill

2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

236

Innovative high pressure gas MEM's based neutron detector for ICF and active SNM detection.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An innovative helium3 high pressure gas detection system, made possible by utilizing Sandia's expertise in Micro-electrical Mechanical fluidic systems, is proposed which appears to have many beneficial performance characteristics with regards to making these neutron measurements in the high bremsstrahlung and electrical noise environments found in High Energy Density Physics experiments and especially on the very high noise environment generated on the fast pulsed power experiments performed here at Sandia. This same system may dramatically improve active WMD and contraband detection as well when employed with ultrafast (10-50 ns) pulsed neutron sources.

Martin, Shawn Bryan; Derzon, Mark Steven; Renzi, Ronald F.; Chandler, Gordon Andrew

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Sliding Mode Pulsed Averaging IC Drivers for High Brightness Light Emitting Diodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project developed new Light Emitting Diode (LED) driver ICs associated with specific (uniquely operated) switching power supplies that optimize performance for High Brightness LEDs (HB-LEDs). The drivers utilize a digital control core with a newly developed nonlinear, hysteretic/sliding mode controller with mixed-signal processing. The drivers are flexible enough to allow both traditional microprocessor interface as well as other options such as 搊n the fly adjustment of color and brightness. Some other unique features of the newly developed drivers include AC Power Factor Correction; High power efficiency; Substantially fewer external components should be required, leading to substantial reduction of Bill of Materials (BOM). Thus, the LED drivers developed in this research : optimize LED performance by increasing power efficiency and power factor. Perhaps more remarkably, the LED drivers provide this improved performance at substantially reduced costs compared to the present LED power electronic driver circuits. Since one of the barriers to market penetration for HB-LEDs (in particular 搘hite light LEDs) is cost/lumen, this research makes important contributions in helping the advancement of SSL consumer acceptance and usage.

Dr. Anatoly Shteynberg, PhD

2006-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

238

Design of a High Power Continuous Source of Broadband Down-Converted Light  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present the design and experimental proof of principle of a low threshold optical parametric oscillator (OPO) that continuously oscillates over a large bandwidth allowed by phase matching. The large oscillation bandwidth is achieved with a selective two-photon loss that suppresses the inherent mode competition, which tends to narrow the bandwidth in conventional OPOs. Our design performs pairwise mode-locking of many frequency pairs, in direct equivalence to passive mode-locking of ultrashort pulsed lasers. The ability to obtain high powers of continuous \\textit{and} broadband down-converted light enables the optimal exploitation of the correlations within the down-converted spectrum, thereby strongly affecting two-photon interactions even at classically high power levels, and opening new venues for applications such as two-photon spectroscopy and microscopy and optical spread spectrum communication.

Avi Pe'er; Yaron Silberberg; Barak Dayan; Asher A. Friesem

2006-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

239

Thermal And Mechanical Analysis of High-power Light-emitting Diodes with Ceramic Packages  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper we present the thermal and mechanical analysis of high-power light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with ceramic packages. Transient thermal measurements and thermo-mechanical simulation were performed to study the thermal and mechanical characteristics of ceramic packages. Thermal resistance from the junction to the ambient was decreased from 76.1 oC/W to 45.3 oC/W by replacing plastic mould to ceramic mould for LED packages. Higher level of thermo-mechanical stresses in the chip were found for LEDs with ceramic packages despite of less mismatching coefficients of thermal expansion comparing with plastic packages. The results suggest that the thermal performance of LEDs can be improved by using ceramic packages, but the mounting process of the high power LEDs with ceramic packages is critically important and should be in charge of delaminating interface layers in the packages.

J. Hu; L. Yang; M. -W. Shin

2008-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

240

High-temperature turbine technology program. Turbine subsystem design report: Low-Btu gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the US Department of Energy High-Temperature Turbine Technology (DOE-HTTT) program is to bring to technology readiness a high-temperature (2600/sup 0/F to 3000/sup 0/F firing temperature) turbine within a 6- to 10-year duration, Phase II has addressed the performance of component design and technology testing in critical areas to confirm the design concepts identified in the earlier Phase I program. Based on the testing and support studies completed under Phase II, this report describes the updated turbine subsystem design for a coal-derived gas fuel (low-Btu gas) operation at 2600/sup 0/F turbine firing temperature. A commercial IGCC plant configuration would contain four gas turbines. These gas turbines utilize an existing axial flow compressor from the GE product line MS6001 machine. A complete description of the Primary Reference Design-Overall Plant Design Description has been developed and has been documented. Trends in overall plant performance improvement at higher pressure ratio and higher firing temperature are shown. It should be noted that the effect of pressure ratio on efficiency is significally enhanced at higher firing temperatures. It is shown that any improvement in overall plant thermal efficiency reflects about the same level of gain in Cost of Electricity (COE). The IGCC concepts are shown to be competitive in both performance and cost at current and near-term gas turbine firing temperatures of 1985/sup 0/F to 2100/sup 0/F. The savings that can be accumulated over a thirty-year plant life for a water-cooled gas turbine in an IGCC plant as compared to a state-of-the-art coal-fired steam plant are estimated. A total of $500 million over the life of a 1000 MW plant is projected. Also, this IGCC power plant has significant environmental advantages over equivalent coal-fired steam power plants.

Horner, M.W.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas light high" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection: Volume 4 -- Gas reburning-sorbent injection at Lakeside Unit 7, City Water, Light and Power, Springfield, Illinois. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A demonstration of Gas Reburning-Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) has been completed at a cyclone-fired utility boiler. The Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) has designed, retrofitted and tested a GR-SI system at City Water Light and Power`s 33 MWe Lakeside Station Unit 7. The program goals of 60% NO{sub x} emissions reduction and 50% SO{sub 2} emissions reduction were exceeded over the long-term testing period; the NO{sub x} reduction averaged 63% and the SO{sub 2} reduction averaged 58%. These were achieved with an average gas heat input of 22% and a calcium (sorbent) to sulfur (coal) molar ratio of 1.8. GR-SI resulted in a reduction in thermal efficiency of approximately 1% at full load due to firing natural gas which forms more moisture in flue gas than coal and also results in a slight increase in air heater exit gas temperature. Minor impacts on other areas of unit performance were measured and are detailed in this report. The project at Lakeside was carried out in three phases, in which EER designed the GR-SI system (Phase 1), completed construction and start-up activities (Phase 2), and evaluated its performance with both short parametric tests and a long-term demonstration (Phase 3). This report contains design and technical performance data; the economics data for all sites are presented in Volume 5.

NONE

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS RECEIVER UTILIZING SMALL PARTICLES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for powering a gas turbine or to supply industrial processin conjunetion with a gas turbine system providing severalincluding heating a gas to operate a turbine (4), providing

Hunt, Arlon J.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Highly Stable Porous Polymer Networks with Exceptionally High Gas-Uptake  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert Southwest Region service area.Portal Solar PhotovoltaicCenter for GasCapacities |

244

High Speed, Low Cost Fabrication of Gas Diffusion Electrodes for Membrane Electrode Assemblies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fabrication of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) depends on creating inks or pastes of catalyst and binder, and applying this suspension to either the membrane (catalyst coated membrane) or gas diffusion media (gas diffusion electrode) and respectively laminating either gas diffusion media or gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs) to the membrane. One barrier to cost effective fabrication for either of these approaches is the development of stable and consistent suspensions. This program investigated the fundamental forces that destabilize the suspensions and developed innovative approaches to create new, highly stable formulations. These more concentrated formulations needed fewer application passes, could be coated over longer and wider substrates, and resulted in significantly lower coating defects. In March of 2012 BASF Fuel Cell released a new high temperature product based on these advances, whereby our customers received higher performing, more uniform MEAs resulting in higher stack build yields. Furthermore, these new materials resulted in an 搃nstant increase in capacity due to higher product yields and material throughput. Although not part of the original scope of this program, these new formulations have also led us to materials that demonstrate equivalent performance with 30% less precious metal in the anode. This program has achieved two key milestones in DOE抯 Manufacturing R&D program: demonstration of processes for direct coating of electrodes and continuous in-line measurement for component fabrication.

DeCastro, Emory S.; Tsou, Yu-Min; Liu, Zhenyu

2013-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

245

MHTGR (modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor) control: A non-safety related system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR) design meets stringent top-level safety regulatory criteria and user requirements that call for high plant availability and no disruption of the public's day to day activities during normal and off-normal operation of the plant. These requirements lead to a plant design that relies mainly on physical properties and passive design features to ensure plant safety regardless of operator actions, plus simplicity and automation to ensure high plant availability and lower cost of operations. The plant does not require safety-related operator actions, and it does not require the control room to be safety related.

Rodriguez, C.; Swart, F.

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Abstract --This letter presents highly-polarized edge light emitting diodes with high-confinement, strained, multiple  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

power. We characterize InGaAsP MQW ELED devices with different lengths and optical confinement factors that transitions involving the HH band provide gain/absorption to TE polarized light and those involving the LH band provide gain/absorption mostly to TM polarized light, and to a lesser extent to TE light [7

Coldren, Larry A.

247

A method to discriminate solar and antisolar differential rotation in high-precision light curves  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Surface differential rotation (DR) is one major ingredient of the magnetic field generation process in the Sun and likely in other stars. The term solar-like differential rotation describes the observation that solar equatorial regions rotate faster than polar ones. The opposite effect of polar regions rotating faster than equatorial ones (termed as antisolar DR) has only been observed in a few stars, although there is evidence from theoretical dynamo models. We present a new method to detect the sign of DR (i.e. solar-like or antisolar DR) by analyzing long-term high-precision light curves with the Lomb-Scargle periodogram.We compute the Lomb-Scargle periodogram and identify a set of significant periods $P_k$, which we associate with active regions located at different latitudes on the the stellar surface. If detectable, the first harmonics ($P_k'$) of these periods were identified to compute their peak-height-ratios $r_k:=h(P_k')/h(P_k)$. Spots rotating at lower latitudes generate less sine-shaped light cur...

Reinhold, T

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Interaction-induced huge magnetoresistance in a high mobility two-dimensional electron gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A strong negative magnetoresistance is observed in a high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas in a GaAs/Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As quantum well. We discuss that the negative magnetoresistance consists of a small peak induced by a combination of two types of disorder and a huge magnetoresistance explained by the interaction correction to the conductivity for mixed disorder.

Bockhorn, L.; Haug, R. J. [Institut f黵 Festk鰎perphysik, Leibniz Universit鋞 Hannover, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Gornyi, I. V. [Institut f黵 Nanotechnologie, Karlsruher Institut of Technology, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Schuh, D. [Institut f黵 Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universit鋞 Regensburg, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany); Wegscheider, W. [ETH Z黵ich (Switzerland)

2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

249

HTGR (High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor) ingress analysis using MINET  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Modeling of water/steam ingress into the primary (helium) cooling circuit of a High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) is described. This modeling was implemented in the MINET Code, which is a program for analyzing transients in intricate fluid flow and heat transfer networks. Results from the simulation of a water ingress event postulated for the Modular HTGR are discussed. 27 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

Van Tuyle, G.J.; Yang, J.W.; Kroeger, P.G.; Mallen, A.N.; Aronson, A.L.

1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

NGNP: High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Key Definitions, Plant Capabilities, and Assumptions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides key definitions, plant capabilities, and inputs and assumptions related to the Next Generation Nuclear Plant to be used in ongoing efforts related to the licensing and deployment of a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. These definitions, capabilities, and assumptions were extracted from a number of NGNP Project sources such as licensing related white papers, previously issued requirement documents, and preapplication interactions with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC).

Wayne Moe

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Reference modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Plant: Concept description report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides a summary description of the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) concept and interim results of assessments of costs, safety, constructibility, operability, maintainability, and availability. Conceptual design of this concept was initiated in October 1985 and is scheduled for completion in 1987. Participating industrial contractors are Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI), Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation (SWEC), GA Technologies, Inc. (GA), General Electric Co. (GE), and Combustion Engineering, Inc. (C-E).

Not Available

1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

INTEGRATION OF HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS REACTORS WITH IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORTING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper evaluates the integration of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) to an in situ oil shale retort operation producing 7950 m3/D (50,000 bbl/day). The large amount of heat required to pyrolyze the oil shale and produce oil would typically be provided by combustion of fossil fuels, but can also be delivered by an HTGR. Two cases were considered: a base case which includes no nuclear integration, and an HTGR-integrated case.

Eric P. Robertson; Michael G. McKellar; Lee O. Nelson

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Assessment of innovative fuel designs for high performance light water reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

To increase the power density and maximum allowable fuel burnup in light water reactors, new fuel rod designs are investigated. Such fuel is desirable for improving the economic performance light water reactors loaded with ...

Carpenter, David Michael

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Laboratory Development of A High Capacity Gas-Fired paper Dryer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Paper drying is the most energy-intensive and temperature-critical aspect of papermaking. It is estimated that about 67% of the total energy required in papermaking is used to dry paper. The conventional drying method uses a series of steam-heated metal cylinders that are required to meet ASME codes for pressure vessels, which limits the steam pressure to about 160 psig. Consequently, the shell temperature and the drying capacity are also limited. Gas Technology Institute together with Boise Paper Solutions, Groupe Laparrier and Verreault (GL&V) USA Inc., Flynn Burner Corporation and with funding support from the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. natural gas industry, and Gas Research Institute is developing a high efficiency gas-fired paper dryer based on a combination of a ribbon burner and advanced heat transfer enhancement technique. The Gas-Fired Paper Dryer (GFPD) is a high-efficiency alternative to conventional steam-heated drying drums that typically operate at surface temperatures in the 300???????????????潞F range. The new approach was evaluated in laboratory and pilot-scale testing at the Western Michigan University Paper Pilot Plant. Drum surface temperatures of more than 400???????????????潞F were reached with linerboard (basis weight 126 lb/3000 ft2) production and resulted in a 4-5 times increase in drying rate over a conventional steam-heated drying drum. Successful GFPD development and commercialization will provide large energy savings to the paper industry and increase paper production rates from dryer-limited (space- or steam-limited) paper machines by an estimated 10 to 20%, resulting in significant capital costs savings for both retrofits and new capacity.

Yaroslav Chudnovsky; Aleksandr Kozlov; Lester Sherrow

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

255

Final Report: Laboratory Development of a High Capacity Gas-Fired Paper Dryer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Paper drying is the most energy-intensive and temperature-critical aspect of papermaking. It is estimated that about 67% of the total energy required in papermaking is used to dry paper. The conventional drying method uses a series of steam-heated metal cylinders that are required to meet ASME codes for pressure vessels, which limits the steam pressure to about 160 psig. Consequently, the shell temperature and the drying capacity are also limited. Gas Technology Institute together with Boise Paper Solutions, Groupe Laperrier and Verreault (GL&V) USA Inc., Flynn Burner Corporation and with funding support from the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. natural gas industry, and Gas Research Institute is developing a high efficiency gas-fired paper dryer based on a combination of a ribbon burner and advanced heat transfer enhancement technique. The Gas-Fired Paper Dryer (GFPD) is a high-efficiency alternative to conventional steam-heated drying drums that typically operate at surface temperatures in the 300 deg F range. The new approach was evaluated in laboratory and pilot-scale testing at the Western Michigan University Paper Pilot Plant. Drum surface temperatures of more than 400 deg F were reached with linerboard (basis weight 126 lb/3000 ft2) production and resulted in a 4-5 times increase in drying rate over a conventional steam-heated drying drum. Successful GFPD development and commercialization will provide large energy savings to the paper industry and increase paper production rates from dryer-limited (space- or steam-limited) paper machines by an estimated 10 to 20%, resulting in significant capital costs savings for both retrofits and new capacity.

Yaroslav Chudnovsky; Aleksandr Kozlov; Lester Sherrow

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

256

Understanding the Mechanism of Highly Efficient Nanoparticle-Mediated Conversion of Light to Steam  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Conversion of Light to Steam Nathaniel J. Hogan,1 Alexander Urban,2 Alberto Pimpinelli,3 Ciceron Ayala in the application of light-harvesting nanoparticles as efficient producers of solar steam. With broad the mechanism whereby such particles convert light into usable steam is a crucial step. Much debate has centered

257

Origins of Analysis Methods Used to Design High Performance Commercial Buildings: Part III, Lighting and Daylighting Simulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Origins of analysis methods used to design high performance commercial buildings: Part III, Lighting and daylighting simulation Sukjoon Oh Jeff S. Haberl Student Member ASHRAE Fellow ASHRAE This study is the third part of the review... methods used in lighting and daylighting simulation programs are described. In companion papers, the origins of the analysis methods of whole-building energy and solar energy analysis programs are reviewed(Oh and Haberl 2014a, 2014b). Introduction...

Oh, S.; Haberl, J.S.

258

High btu gas from peat. A feasibility study. Part 1. Executive summary. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In September, 1980, the US Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a Grant (No. DE-FG01-80RA50348) to the Minnesota Gas Company (Minnegasco) to evaluate the commercial viability - technical, economic and environmental - of producing 80 million standard cubic feet per day (SCFD) of substitute natural gas (SNG) from peat. The proposed product, high Btu SNG would be a suitable substitute for natural gas which is widely used throughout the Upper Midwest by residential, commercial and industrial sectors. The study team consisted of Dravo Engineers and Constructors, Ertec Atlantic, Inc., The Institute of Gas Technology, Deloitte, Haskins and Sells and Minnegasco. Preliminary engineering and operating and financial plans for the harvesting, dewatering and gasification operations were developed. A site in Koochiching County near Margie was chosen for detailed design purposes only; it was not selected as a site for development. Environmental data and socioeconomic data were gathered and reconciled. Potential economic data were gathered and reconciled. Potential impacts - both positive and negative - were identified and assessed. The peat resource itself was evaluated both qualitatively and quantitatively. Markets for plant by-products were also assessed. In summary, the technical, economic, and environmental assessment indicates that a facility producing 80 billion Btu's per day SNG from peat is not commercially viable at this time. Minnegasco will continue its efforts into the development of peat and continue to examine other options.

Not Available

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

An improved measurement of electron-ion recombination in high-pressure xenon gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report on results obtained with the NEXT-DEMO prototype of the NEXT-100 high-pressure xenon gas time projection chamber (TPC), exposed to an alpha decay calibration source. Compared to our previous measurements with alpha particles, an upgraded detector and improved analysis techniques have been used. We measure event-by-event correlated fluctuations between ionization and scintillation due to electron-ion recombination in the gas, with correlation coeffcients between -0.80 and -0.56 depending on the drift field conditions. By combining the two signals, we obtain a 2.8 % FWHM energy resolution for 5.49 MeV alpha particles and a measurement of the optical gain of the electroluminescent TPC. The improved energy resolution also allows us to measure the specific activity of the radon in the gas due to natural impurities. Finally, we measure the average ratio of excited to ionized atoms produced in the xenon gas by alpha particles to be $0.561\\pm 0.045$, translating into an average energy to produce a primary scintillation photon of $W_{\\rm ex}=(39.2\\pm 3.2)$ eV.

NEXT Collaboration; L. Serra; M. Sorel; V. 羖varez; F. I. G. Borges; M. Camargo; S. C醨cel; S. Cebri醤; A. Cervera; C. A. N. Conde; T. Dafni; J. D韆z; R. Esteve; L. M. P. Fernandes; P. Ferrario; A. L. Ferreira; E. D. C. Freitas; V. M. Gehman; A. Goldschmidt; J. J. G髆ez-Cadenas; D. Gonz醠ez-D韆z; R. M. Guti閞rez; J. Hauptman; J. A. Hernando Morata; D. C. Herrera; I. G. Irastorza; L. Labarga; A. Laing; I. Liubarsky; N. Lopez-March; D. Lorca; M. Losada; G. Luz髇; A. Mar; J. Mart韓-Albo; G. Mart韓ez-Lema; A. Mart韓ez; T. Miller; F. Monrabal; M. Monserrate; C. M. B. Monteiro; F. J. Mora; L. M. Moutinho; J. Mu駉z Vidal; M. Nebot-Guinot; D. Nygren; C. A. B. Oliveira; J. P閞ez; J. L. P閞ez Aparicio; M. Querol; J. Renner; L. Ripoll; A. Rodr韌uez; J. Rodr韌uez; F. P. Santos; J. M. F. dos Santos; D. Shuman; A. Sim髇; C. Sofka; J. F. Toledo; J. Torrent; Z. Tsamalaidze; J. F. C. A. Veloso; J. A. Villar; R. Webb; J. T. White; N. Yahlali

2015-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

260

Alteration of gas phase ion polarizabilities upon hydration in high dielectric liquids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the modification of gas phase ion polarizabilities upon solvation in polar solvents and ionic liquids. To this aim, we develop a classical electrostatic theory of charged liquids composed of solvent molecules modeled as finite size dipoles, and embedding polarizable ions that consist of Drude oscillators. In qualitative agreement with ab-initio calculations of polar solvents and ionic liquids, the hydration energy of a polarizable ion in both type of dielectric liquid is shown to favor the expansion of its electronic cloud. Namely, the ion carrying no dipole moment in the gas phase acquires a dipole moment in the liquid environment, but its electron cloud also reaches an enhanced rigidity. We find that the overall effect is an increase of the gas phase polarizability upon hydration. In the specific case of ionic liquids, it is shown that this hydration process is driven by a collective solvation mechanism where the dipole moment of a polarizable ion induced by its interaction with surrounding ions self-consistently adds to the polarization of the liquid, thereby amplifying the dielectric permittivity of the medium in a substantial way. We propose this self-consistent hydration as the underlying mechanism behind the high dielectric permittivities of ionic liquids composed of small charges with negligible gas phase dipole moment. Hydration being a correlation effect, the emerging picture indicates that electrostatic correlations cannot be neglected in polarizable liquids.

Sahin Buyukdagli; Tapio Ala-Nissila

2013-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas light high" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Color-converting combinations of nanocrystal emitters for warm-white light generation with high color rendering index  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

color rendering index Sedat Nizamoglu, Gulis Zengin, and Hilmi Volkan Demira Department of Electrical 2008 Warm-white light emitting diodes with high color rendering indices are required for the widespreadSe/ZnS core-shell nanocrystals hybridized on InGaN/GaN LEDs for high color rendering index. Three sets

Demir, Hilmi Volkan

262

Method for fabricating wrought components for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors and product  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and alloys for fabricating wrought components of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor are disclosed. These wrought, nickel-based alloys, which exhibit strength and excellent resistance to carburization at elevated temperatures, include aluminum and titanium in amounts and ratios to promote the growth of carburization resistant films while preserving the wrought character of the alloys. These alloys also include substantial amounts of molybdenum and/or tungsten as solid-solution strengtheners. Chromium may be included in concentrations less than 10% to assist in fabrication. Minor amounts of carbon and one or more carbide-forming metals also contribute to high-temperature strength.

Thompson, Larry D. (San Diego, CA); Johnson, Jr., William R. (San Diego, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Methods for nondestructive testing of austenitic high-temperature gas-cooled reactor components  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Safety-relevant components of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor components are mostly fabricated in nickel-based alloys and austenitic materials like Inconel-617, Hastelloy-X, Nimonic-86, or Incoloy-800H. Compared to ferritic steels, these austenitic materials can have a coarse-grained microstructure, especially in weldments and castings. Coarse-grained or elastic anisotropic materials are difficult to inspect with ultrasonics due to strong attenuation, high noise level (scattering, ''grass'' indications), and sound beam distortions (skewing, splitting, and mode conversion). Only few results dealing with the nondestructive testing of nickel-based alloys are known. The problem area, solutions, and first experiences are reported.

Gobbels, K.; Kapitza, H.

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

COSMIC RAYS CAN DRIVE STRONG OUTFLOWS FROM GAS-RICH HIGH-REDSHIFT DISK GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present simulations of the magnetized interstellar medium (ISM) in models of massive star-forming (40 M {sub ?} yr{sup 1}) disk galaxies with high gas surface densities (?{sub gas} ? 100 M {sub ?} pc{sup 2}) similar to observed star-forming high-redshift disks. We assume that type II supernovae deposit 10% of their energy into the ISM as cosmic rays (CRs) and neglect the additional deposition of thermal energy or momentum. With a typical Galactic diffusion coefficient for CRs (3 10{sup 28} cm{sup 2} s{sup 1}), we demonstrate that this process alone can trigger the local formation of a strong low-density galactic wind maintaining vertically open field lines. Driven by the additional pressure gradient of the relativistic fluid, the wind speed can exceed 10{sup 3} km s{sup 1}, much higher than the escape velocity of the galaxy. The global mass loading, i.e., the ratio of the gas mass leaving the galactic disk in a wind to the star formation rate, becomes of order unity once the system has settled into an equilibrium. We conclude that relativistic particles accelerated in supernova remnants alone provide a natural and efficient mechanism to trigger winds similar to observed mass-loaded galactic winds in high-redshift galaxies. These winds also help in explaining the low efficiencies for the conversion of gas into stars in galaxies, as well as the early enrichment of the intergalactic medium with metals. This mechanism may be at least of similar importance to the traditionally considered momentum feedback from massive stars and thermal and kinetic feedback from supernova explosions.

Hanasz, M.; Kowalik, K.; W髄ta?ski, D. [Centre for Astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Grudziadzka 5, PL-87100 Toru? (Poland)] [Centre for Astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Grudziadzka 5, PL-87100 Toru? (Poland); Lesch, H. [Universit鋞s-Sternwarte M黱chen, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 M黱chen (Germany)] [Universit鋞s-Sternwarte M黱chen, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 M黱chen (Germany); Naab, T. [Max-Planck-Institut f黵 Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85741 Garching bei M黱chen (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institut f黵 Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85741 Garching bei M黱chen (Germany); Gawryszczak, A., E-mail: mhanasz@astri.uni.torun.pl [Pozna? Supercomputing and Networking Centre, ul. Noskowskiego 10, PL-61-704 Pozna? (Poland)

2013-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

265

Fuel-Cycle and Nuclear Material Disposition Issues Associated with High-Temperature Gas Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this paper is to facilitate a better understanding of the fuel-cycle and nuclear material disposition issues associated with high-temperature gas reactors (HTGRs). This paper reviews the nuclear fuel cycles supporting early and present day gas reactors, and identifies challenges for the advanced fuel cycles and waste management systems supporting the next generation of HTGRs, including the Very High Temperature Reactor, which is under development in the Generation IV Program. The earliest gas-cooled reactors were the carbon dioxide (CO2)-cooled reactors. Historical experience is available from over 1,000 reactor-years of operation from 52 electricity-generating, CO2-cooled reactor plants that were placed in operation worldwide. Following the CO2 reactor development, seven HTGR plants were built and operated. The HTGR came about from the combination of helium coolant and graphite moderator. Helium was used instead of air or CO2 as the coolant. The helium gas has a significant technical base due to the experience gained in the United States from the 40-MWe Peach Bottom and 330-MWe Fort St. Vrain reactors designed by General Atomics. Germany also built and operated the 15-MWe Arbeitsgemeinschaft Versuchsreaktor (AVR) and the 300-MWe Thorium High-Temperature Reactor (THTR) power plants. The AVR, THTR, Peach Bottom and Fort St. Vrain all used fuel containing thorium in various forms (i.e., carbides, oxides, thorium particles) and mixtures with highly enriched uranium. The operational experience gained from these early gas reactors can be applied to the next generation of nuclear power systems. HTGR systems are being developed in South Africa, China, Japan, the United States, and Russia. Elements of the HTGR system evaluated included fuel demands on uranium ore mining and milling, conversion, enrichment services, and fuel fabrication; fuel management in-core; spent fuel characteristics affecting fuel recycling and refabrication, fuel handling, interim storage, packaging, transportation, waste forms, waste treatment, decontamination and decommissioning issues; and low-level waste (LLW) and high-level waste (HLW) disposal.

Shropshire, D.E.; Herring, J.S.

2004-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

266

Application of Gamma code coupled with turbomachinery models for high temperature gas-cooled reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The very high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) is envisioned as a single- or dual-purpose reactor for electricity and hydrogen generation. The concept has average coolant temperatures above 9000C and operational fuel temperatures above 12500C. The concept provides the potential for increased energy conversion efficiency and for high-temperature process heat application in addition to power generation. While all the High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) concepts have sufficiently high temperature to support process heat applications, such as coal gasification, desalination or cogenerative processes, the VHTR抯 higher temperatures allow broader applications, including thermochemical hydrogen production. However, the very high temperatures of this reactor concept can be detrimental to safety if a loss-ofcoolant accident (LOCA) occurs. Following the loss of coolant through the break and coolant depressurization, air will enter the core through the break by molecular diffusion and ultimately by natural convection, leading to oxidation of the in-core graphite structure and fuel. The oxidation will accelerate heatup of the reactor core and the release of a toxic gas, CO, and fission products. Thus, without any effective countermeasures, a pipe break may lead to significant fuel damage and fission product release. Prior to the start of this Korean/United States collaboration, no computer codes were available that had been sufficiently developed and validated to reliably simulate a LOCA in the VHTR. Therefore, we have worked for the past three years on developing and validating advanced computational methods for simulating LOCAs in a VHTR. GAMMA code is being developed to implement turbomachinery models in the power conversion unit (PCU) and ultimately models associated with the hydrogen plant. Some preliminary results will be described in this paper.

Chang Oh

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

DIFFUSE GALACTIC LIGHT IN THE FIELD OF THE TRANSLUCENT HIGH GALACTIC LATITUDE CLOUD MBM32  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have conducted B-, g-, V-, and R-band imaging in a 45' Multiplication-Sign 40' field containing part of the high Galactic latitude translucent cloud MBM32, and correlated the intensity of diffuse optical light S{sub {nu}}({lambda}) with that of 100 {mu}m emission S{sub {nu}}(100 {mu}m). A {chi}{sup 2} minimum analysis is applied to fit a linear function to the measured correlation and derive the slope parameter b({lambda}) = {Delta}S{sub {nu}}({lambda})/{Delta}S{sub {nu}}(100 {mu}m) of the best-fit linear function. Compiling a sample by combining our b({lambda}) and published ones, we show that the b({lambda}) strength varies from cloud to cloud by a factor of four. Finding that b({lambda}) decreases as S{sub {nu}}(100 {mu}m) increases in the sample, we suggest that a nonlinear correlation including a quadratic term of S{sub {nu}}(100 {mu}m){sup 2} should be fitted to the measured correlation. The variation of optical depth, which is A{sub V} = 0.16-2.0 in the sample, can change b({lambda}) by a factor of 2-3. There would be some contribution to the large b({lambda}) variation from the forward-scattering characteristic of dust grains which is coupled to the non-isotropic interstellar radiation field (ISRF). Models of the scattering of diffuse Galactic light (DGL) underestimate the b({lambda}) values by a factor of two. This could be reconciled by deficiency in UV photons in the ISRF or by a moderate increase in dust albedo. Our b({lambda}) spectrum favors a contribution from extended red emission (ERE) to the diffuse optical light; b({lambda}) rises from B to V faster than the models, seems to peak around 6000 A and decreases toward long wavelengths. Such a characteristic is expected from the models in which the DGL is combined with ERE.

Ienaka, N.; Kawara, K. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan)] [Institute of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Matsuoka, Y.; Oyabu, S. [Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)] [Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Sameshima, H. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8501 (Japan)] [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8501 (Japan); Tsujimoto, T. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)] [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Peterson, B. A., E-mail: ienaka@ioa.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia)

2013-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

268

Hastelloy-X for high-temperature gas-cooled reactor applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hastelloy-X is a potential structural material for use in gas-cooled reactor systems. In this application, data are necessary on the mechanical properties of base metal and weldments under realistic service conditions. The test environment studied was helium that contained small amounts of H/sub 2/, CH/sub 4/, and CO. This environment was found to be carburizing, with the kinetics of this process becoming rapid above 800/sup 0/C. Suitable weldments of Hastelloy-X were prepared by several processes; those weldments generally had the same properties as base metal except for lower fracture strains under some conditions. Some samples were aged for up to 20 000 h in the test gas and tested, and some creep tests on as-received material exceeded 40 000 h. The predominant effects of aging were the significant reduction in the fracture strains at ambient temperature and the lower strains for samples aged in high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) helium than for those aged in inert gas. Under some conditions, aging also resulted in increased yield and ultimate tensile strength. Creep tests failed to show the effects of environment, aging, or welding on the creep strength of Hastelloy-X; however, the fracture strains for weldments were generally lower than they were for base metal. Prior aging in inert gas for 20 000 h at 538 and 871/sup 0/C reduced the fatigue life slightly, but no difference was observed in the fatigue properties of samples aged in air and HTGR helium environments.

McCoy, H.E.; King, J.F.; Strizak, J.P.

1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Hastelloy-X for high-temperature gas-cooled reactor applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hastelloy-X is a potential structural material for use in gas-cooled reactor systems. In this application, data are necessary on the mechanical properties of base metal and weldments under realistic service conditions. The test environment studied was helium that contained small amounts of H/sub 2/, CH/sub 4/, and CO. This environment was found to be carburizing, with the kinetics of this process becoming rapid above 800/sup 0/C. Suitable weldments of Hastelloy-X were prepared by several processes; those weldments generally had the same properties as base metal except for lower fracture strains under some conditions. Some samples were aged for up to 20000 h in the test gas and tested, and some creep tests on as-received material exceeded 40000 h. The predominant effects of aging were the significant reduction in the fracture strains at ambient temperature and the lower strains for samples aged in high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) helium than for those aged in inert gas. Under some conditions, aging also resulted in increased yield and ultimate tensile strength. Creep tests failed to show the effects of environment, aging, or welding on the creep strength of Hastelloy-X; however, the fracture strains for weldments were generally lower than they were for base metal. Prior aging in inert gas for 20000 h at 538 and 871/sup 0/C reduced the fatigue life slightly, but no difference was observed in the fatigue properties of samples aged in air and HTGR helium environments.

McCoy, H.E.; King, J.F.; Strizak, J.P.

1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Study of high pressure gas filled RF cavities for muon collider  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Muon collider is a considerable candidate of the next-generation high-energy lepton collider machine. Operating an RF cavity in a multi-Tesla magnet is a critical requirement in a muon accelerator and a cooling channel. However, the maximum RF gradient in a vacuum RF cavity is strongly limited by an external magnetic field. Dense hydrogen gas filled RF cavity has been proposed since it is functional of generating a high RF accelerating gradient in a strong magnetic field and making an ionization cooling process at the same time. A critical issue of the cavity is a beam- induced plasma that consumes a considerable amount of RF power. The gas filled RF test cell was made and measured the RF loading due to a beam-induced plasma by using an intense proton beam at Fermilab. By doping an electronegative gas in dense hydrogen, the plasma loading effect is significantly mitigated. The result shows that the cavity is functional with a muon collider beam. Recent progress is shown in this presentation.

Yonehara, Katsuya

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Optimum Reactor Outlet Temperatures for High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors Integrated with Industrial Processes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of a temperature sensitivity study conducted to identify the optimum reactor operating temperatures for producing the heat and hydrogen required for industrial processes associated with the proposed new high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This study assumed that primary steam outputs of the reactor were delivered at 17 MPa and 540癈 and the helium coolant was delivered at 7 MPa at 625925癈. The secondary outputs of were electricity and hydrogen. For the power generation analysis, it was assumed that the power cycle efficiency was 66% of the maximum theoretical efficiency of the Carnot thermodynamic cycle. Hydrogen was generated via the hightemperature steam electrolysis or the steam methane reforming process. The study indicates that optimum or a range of reactor outlet temperatures could be identified to further refine the process evaluations that were developed for high temperature gas-cooled reactor-integrated production of synthetic transportation fuels, ammonia, and ammonia derivatives, oil from unconventional sources, and substitute natural gas from coal.

Lee O. Nelson

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

A High Resolution, Light-Weight, Synthetic Aperture Radar for UAV Application  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

(U) Sandia National Laboratories in collaboration with General Atomics (GA) has designed and built a high resolution, light-weight, Ku-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) known as "Lynx". Although Lynx can be operated on a wide variety of manned and unmanned platforms, its design is optimized for use on medium altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVS). In particular, it can be operated on the Predator, I-GNAT, and Prowler II platforms manufactured by GA. (U) The radar production weight is less than 120 lb and operates within a 3 GHz band from 15.2 GHz to 18.2 GHz with a peak output power of 320 W. Operating range is resolution and mode dependent but can exceed 45 km in adverse weather (4 mm/hr rain). Lynx has operator selectable resolution and is capable of 0.1 m resolution in spotlight mode and 0.3 m resolution in stripmap mode, over substantial depression angles (5 to 60 deg) and squint angles (broadside 45 deg). Real-time Motion Compensation is implemented to allow high-quality image formation even during vehicle turns and other maneuvers.

Doerry, A.W.; Hensley, W.H.; Stence, J.; Tsunoda, S.I. Pace, F.; Walker, B,C.; Woodring, M.

1999-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

273

The destruction of inner planetary systems during high-eccentricity migration of gas giants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hot Jupiters are giant planets on orbits a few hundredths of an AU. They do not share their system with low-mass close-in planets, despite these latter being exceedingly common. Two migration channels for hot Jupiters have been proposed: through a protoplanetary gas disc or by tidal circularisation of highly-eccentric planets. We show that highly-eccentric giant planets that will become hot Jupiters clear out any low-mass inner planets in the system, explaining the observed lack of such companions to hot Jupiters. A less common outcome of the interaction is that the giant planet is ejected by the inner planets. Furthermore, the interaction can implant giant planets on moderately-high eccentricities at semimajor axes $<1$ AU, a region otherwise hard to populate. Our work supports the hypothesis that most hot Jupiters reached their current orbits following a phase of high eccentricity, possibly excited by other planetary or stellar companions.

Mustill, Alexander J; Johansen, Anders

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Characterization of Gas Metal Arc Welding welds obtained with new high Cr-Mo ferritic stainless steel filler wires  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Characterization of Gas Metal Arc Welding welds obtained with new high Cr-Mo ferritic stainless Several compositions of metal cored filler wire were manufactured to define the best welding conditions for homogeneous welding, by Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) process, of a modified AISI 444 ferritic stainless steel

Paris-Sud XI, Universit茅 de

275

Dynamic instabilities in spark-ignited combustion engines with high exhaust gas recirculation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We propose a cycle-resolved dynamic model for combustion instabilities in spark-ignition engines operating with high levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). High EGR is important for increasing fuel efficiency and implementing advanced low-emission combustion modes such as homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI). We account for the complex combustion response to cycle-to-cycle feedback by utilizing a global probability distribution that describes the pre-spark state of in-cylinder fuel mixing. The proposed model does a good job of simulating combustion instabilities observed in both lean-fueling engine experiments and in experiments where nitrogen dilution is used to simulate some of the combustion inhibition of EGR. When used to simulate high internal EGR operation, the model exhibits a range of global bifurcations and chaos that appear to be very robust. We use the model to show that it should be possible to reduce high EGR combustion instabilities by switching from internal to external EGR. We also explain why it might be helpful to deliberately stratify the fuel in the pre-spark gas mixture. It might be possible to extend the simple approach used in this model to other chemical reaction systems with spatial inhomogeneity.

Daw, C Stuart [ORNL] [ORNL; FINNEY, Charles E A [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Bubble columns for condensation at high concentrations of noncondensable gas: Heat-transfer model and experiments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carrier gas based thermodynamic cycles are common in water desalination applications. These cycles often require condensation of water vapor out of the carrier gas stream. As the carrier gas is most likely a noncondensable ...

Narayan, G. Prakash

277

Optical remote monitoring of CH/sub 4/ gas using low-loss optical fiber link and InGaAsP light-emitting diode in 1. 33-. mu. m region  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purely optical remote monitoring of low-level CH/sub 4/ gas is realized for the first time by the method employing a 2-km long-distance, low-loss silica optical fiber link and a compact absorption cell in conjunction with a high radiant InGaAsP light-emitting diode (LED) at 1.33 ..mu..m. Based on the present experiment, the detection limit of CH/sub 4/ in air was confirmed to be approximately 2000 ppm, i.e., 4% of the lower explosion limit of CH/sub 4/. This result supports the conclusion that the fully optical remote sensing system incorporating ultralow loss optical fiber networks and near infrared LEDs or laser diodes can be extensively used for the detection and surveillance of various inflammable and/or explosive gases in industrial and mining complexes as well as in residential areas.

Chan, K.; Ito, H.; Inaba, H.

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

A high sensitivity fiber optic macro-bend based gas flow rate transducer for low flow rates: Theory, working principle, and static calibration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel fiber optic macro-bend based gas flowmeter for low flow rates is presented. Theoretical analysis of the sensor working principle, design, and static calibration were performed. The measuring system consists of: an optical fiber, a light emitting diode (LED), a Quadrant position sensitive Detector (QD), and an analog electronic circuit for signal processing. The fiber tip undergoes a deflection in the flow, acting like a cantilever. The consequent displacement of light spot center is monitored by the QD generating four unbalanced photocurrents which are function of fiber tip position. The analog electronic circuit processes the photocurrents providing voltage signal proportional to light spot position. A circular target was placed on the fiber in order to increase the sensing surface. Sensor, tested in the measurement range up to 10 l min{sup -1}, shows a discrimination threshold of 2 l min{sup -1}, extremely low fluid dynamic resistance (0.17 Pa min l{sup -1}), and high sensitivity, also at low flow rates (i.e., 33 mV min l{sup -1} up to 4 l min{sup -1} and 98 mV min l{sup -1} from 4 l min{sup -1} up to 10 l min{sup -1}). Experimental results agree with the theoretical predictions. The high sensitivity, along with the reduced dimension and negligible pressure drop, makes the proposed transducer suitable for medical applications in neonatal ventilation.

Schena, Emiliano; Saccomandi, Paola; Silvestri, Sergio [Center for Integrated Research, Unit of Measurements and Biomedical Instrumentation, Universita Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Via Alvaro del Portillo, 21, 00128 Rome (Italy)

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

279

Concept of an inherently-safe high temperature gas-cooled reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As the challenge to ensure no harmful release of radioactive materials at the accidents by deterministic approach instead to satisfy acceptance criteria or safety goal for risk by probabilistic approach, new concept of advanced reactor, an inherently-safe high temperature gas-cooled reactor, is proposed based on the experience of the operation of the actual High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) in Japan, High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR), and the design of the commercial plant (GTHTR300), utilizing the inherent safety features of the HTGR (i.e., safety features based on physical phenomena). The safety design philosophy of the inherently-safe HTGR for the safety analysis of the radiological consequences is determined as the confinement of radioactive materials is assured by only inherent safety features without engineered safety features, AC power or prompt actions by plant personnel if the design extension conditions occur. Inherent safety features to prevent the loss or degradation of the confinement function are identified. It is proposed not to apply the probabilistic approach for the evaluation of the radiological consequences of the accidents in the safety analysis because no inherent safety features fail for the mitigation of the consequences of the accidents. Consequently, there are no event sequences to harmful release of radioactive materials if the design extension conditions occur in the inherently-safe HTGR concept. The concept and future R and D items for the inherently-safe HTGR are described in this paper.

Ohashi, Hirofumi; Sato, Hiroyuki; Tachibana, Yukio; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko; Ogawa, Masuro [Nuclear Hydrogen and Heat Application Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Oarai-machi, Ibaraki-ken, 311-1394 (Japan)

2012-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

280

Breakthroughs in Practical-Sized, High Quality OLED Light Panel Source  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

General Electric Global Research has achieved a major breakthrough, developing a fully functional 2 ft. x 2 ft. light panel that produces more than 1200 lumens of quality white light with an efficacy of 15 lumens per watt. This device offers 50% better energy performance than their previous device, breaking two world records.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas light high" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor plant design duty cycle. Revision 3  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document defines the Plant Design Duty Cycle (PCDC) for the Modular High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (MHTGR). The duty cycle is a set of events and their design number of occurrences over the life of the plant for which the MHTGR plant shall be designed to ensure that the plant meets all the top-level requirements. The duty cycle is representative of the types of events to be expected in multiple reactor module-turbine plant configurations of the MHTGR. A synopsis of each PDDC event is presented to provide an overview of the plant response and consequence. 8 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Chan, T.

1989-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

282

A numerical investigation of high-rate gas flow for gravel-packed completions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OF SCIENCE December 1983 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering A NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF HIGH-RATE GAS FLOW FOR GRAVEL-PACKED COMPLETIONS A Thesis by JAMES KENYON FORREST Approved as to style and content by: C. . WU ( Chairman of Coamittee) R... used a radius of 30rw. In order to investigate this, several runs were made with various model radii. Three runs were made to determine the effect of radial discretization and model radius on the simulation results. One run used a radius of 30r...

Forrest, James Kenyon

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

KEY DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR THE HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS-COOLED REACTOR NUCLEAR HEAT SUPPLY SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Key requirements that affect the design of the high temperature gas-cooled reactor nuclear heat supply system (HTGR-NHSS) as the NGNP Project progresses through the design, licensing, construction and testing of the first of a kind HTGR based plant are summarized. These requirements derive from pre-conceptual design development completed to-date by HTGR Suppliers, collaboration with potential end users of the HTGR technology to identify energy needs, evaluation of integration of the HTGR technology with industrial processes and recommendations of the NGNP Project Senior Advisory Group.

L.E. Demick

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Mechanical properties of welds in commercial alloys for high-temperature gas-cooled reactor components  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Weld properties of Hastelloy-X, Incoloy alloy 800H (with and without Inconel-82 cladding), and 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo are being studied to provide design data to support the development of steam generator, core auxiliary heat exchanger, and metallic thermal barrier components of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) steam cycle/cogeneration plant. Tests performed include elevated-temperature creep rupture tests and tensile tests. So far, data from the literature and from relatively short-term tests at GA Technologies Inc. indicate that the weldments are satisfactory for HTGR application.

Lindgren, J.R.; Li, C.C.; Ryder, R.H.; Thurgood, B.E.

1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

High-pressure late cycle direct injection of natural gas in a rail medium speed diesel engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The performance of an Electro-Motive Division (EMD) 567B, two-cylinder locomotive research engine, when operated on high-pressure/late-cycle injection of natural gas, is presented in this paper. A redesign and fabrication of the fuel system was undertaken to facilitate the consumption of natural gas. A small percentage of No.2 diesel fuel (DF-2) was used to ignite the natural gas. Engine performance, while running natural gas, resulted in matching rated speed and power with slightly lower thermal efficiency. Full power was achieved with a ratio of 99 percent natural gas and 1 percent diesel fuel. However, at high natural gas to diesel fuel ratios, audible knock was detected. The primary objective of the project was to establish technical feasibility of, and basic technology for, operating medium-speed rail diesel engines on high-pressure natural gas. Secondary objectives were to attain adequate engine performance levels for rail application, develop a system oriented toward retrofit of in-service locomotives, and realize any potential improvements in thermal efficiency due to use of the high-pressure/late-cycle approach.

Wakenell, J.F.; O'Neal, G.B.; Baker, Q.A.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

C. Wetzel et al MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 10, 2 (2005) 1 Development of High Power Green Light Emitting Diode Chips  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Power Green Light Emitting Diode Chips C. Wetzel and T. Detchprohm Future Chips Constellation Abstract The development of high emission power green light emitting diodes chips using GaInN/GaN multi production-scale implementation of this green LED die process. Keywords: nitrides, light emitting diode

Wetzel, Christian M.

287

Method for measuring changes in light absorption of highly scattering media  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The noninvasive measurement of variations in absorption that are due to changes in concentrations of biochemically relevant compounds in tissue is important in many clinical settings. One problem with such measurements is that the pathlength traveled by the collected light through the tissue depends on the scattering properties of the tissue. It is demonstrated, using both Monte Carlo simulations and experimental measurements, that for an appropriate separation between light-delivery and light-collection fibers, the pathlength of the collected photons is insensitive to scattering parameters for the range of parameters typically found in tissue. This is important for developing rapid, noninvasive, inexpensive, and accurate methods for measuring absorption changes in tissue.

Bigio, Irving J. (Los Alamos, NM); Johnson, Tamara M. (Los Alamos, NM); Mourant, Judith R. (Los Alamos, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

High Resolution Optically Addressed Spatial Light Modulator based on ZnO Nanoparticles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

temperatures. (d) Temporal current response with and without illumination. Samples are illuminated by 10 mW cm -2 of 365 nm light emitting diode with 6 V dc being applied throughout. Electrical characterization For conductivity measurement, two rectangular... of the corresponding dark/photo currents of the ITO-ZnO-ITO structures are carried out using Agilent 4156 together with a 365 nm light emitting diode light source of 2 mW cm-2. The conductivity, ? , of the sample is calculated as, dI LtV? ? (2) where, d...

Shrestha, Pawan Kumar; Chun, Young Tea; Chu, Daping

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Assessment of High-Temperature Measurements for Use in the Gas Test Loop  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Temperature transducers capable of control and test measurements in the 1400-1800ⅹC range in the fast neutron irradiation environment of the Gas Test Loop are evaluated. Among the instruments discussed are high-temperature thermocouples, resistance temperature detectors, ultrasonic thermometers, noise thermometers, and optical temperature sensors. High-temperature capability, behavior under irradiation, technical maturity, cost, and availability are among the key factors considered in assessing the relative merits of each measurement method. In the near term, the doped molybdenum versus niobium-zirconium alloy thermocouple is deemed to be best suited to the in-pile test and control requirements. Additional characterization of this thermocouple combination is needed to ensure confidence in its performance. Use of tungsten-rhenium alloy thermocouples, with specific disadvantages noted, constitutes the recommended back-up position.

S. Curt Wilkins; Robert P. Evans

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Projected Markets and Preliminary Economics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper summarizes the potential market for process heat produced by a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), the environmental benefits reduced CO2 emissions will have on these markets, and the typical economics of projects using these applications. It gives examples of HTGR technological applications to industrial processes in the typical co-generation supply of process heat and electricity, the conversion of coal to transportation fuels and chemical process feedstock, and the production of ammonia as a feedstock for the production of ammonia derivatives, including fertilizer. It also demonstrates how uncertainties in capital costs and financial factors affect the economics of HTGR technology by analyzing the use of HTGR technology in the application of HTGR and high temperature steam electrolysis processes to produce hydrogen.

Larry Demick

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Characterization of the reactive flow field dynamics in a gas turbine injector using high frequency PIV  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The present work details the analysis of the aerodynamics of an experimental swirl stabilized burner representative of gas turbine combustors. This analysis is carried out using High Frequency PIV (HFPIV) measurements in a reactive situation. While this information is usually available at a rather low rate, temporally resolved PIV measurements are necessary to better understand highly turbulent swirled flows, which are unsteady by nature. Thanks to recent technical improvements, a PIV system working at 12 kHz has been developed to study this experimental combustor flow field. Statistical quantities of the burner are first obtained and analyzed, and the measurement quality is checked, then a temporal analysis of the velocity field is carried out, indicating that large coherent structures periodically appear in the combustion chamber. The frequency of these structures is very close to the quarter wave mode of the chamber, giving a possible explanation for combustion instability coupling.

Barbosa, S関erine; Ducruix, S閎astien

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Hydrogen Selective Inorganic membranes for Gas Separations under High Pressure Intermediate Temperature Hydrocarbonic Envrionment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this project, we have successfully developed a full scale commercially ready carbon molecular sieve (CMS) based membrane for applications in H{sub 2} recovery from refinery waste and other aggressive gas streams. Field tests at a refinery pilot plant and a coal gasification facility have successfully demonstrated its ability to recovery hydrogen from hydrotreating and raw syngas respectively. High purity H{sub 2} and excellent stability of the membrane permeance and selectivity were obtained in testing conducted over >500 hours at each site. The results from these field tests as well as laboratory testing conclude that the membranes can be operated at high pressures (up to 1,000 psig) and temperatures (up to 300 C) in presence of aggressive contaminants, such as sulfur and nitrogen containing species (H{sub 2}S, CO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, etc), condensable hydrocarbons, tar-like species, heavy metals, etc. with no observable effect on membrane performance. By comparison, similar operating conditions and/or environments would rapidly destroy competing membranes, such as polymeric, palladium, zeolitic, etc. Significant cost savings can be achieved through recovering H{sub 2} from refinery waste gas using this newly developed CMS membrane. Annual savings of $2 to 4MM/year (per 20,000 scfd of waste gas) can be realized by recovering the H{sub 2} for reuse (versus fuel). Projecting these values over the entire US market, potential H{sub 2} savings from refinery waste gases on the order of 750 to 1,000MM scfd and $750 to $1,000MM per year are possible. In addition to the cost savings, potential energy savings are projected to be ca. 150 to 220 tBTU/yr and CO{sub 2} gas emission reductions are projected to be ca. 5,000 to 6,500MMtons/year. The full scale membrane bundle developed as part of this project, i.e., 85 x 30 inch ceramic membrane tubes packaged into a full ceramic potting, is an important accomplishment. No comparable commercial scale product exists in the inorganic membrane field. Further, this newly developed full scale bundle concept can be extended to other thin film inorganic membrane technology (Pd, zeolite, etc), providing a potential commercialization pathway for these membrane materials that demonstrate high potential in a variety of separation applications yet remain a laboratory 'novelty' for lack of a full scale support. Overall, the project has been highly successful and all of the project objectives have been met. We have developed the first of its kind commercial scale carbon molecular sieve membrane and demonstrated its performance in field testing under aggressive operating conditions and in the presence of chemical contaminants that would rapidly destroy alternative organic and inorganic membranes. This innovative membrane permits H{sub 2} recovery from gas streams that up until now have not been successfully treated with membrane or conventional technology. Our end user participant is currently pursuing the field demonstration of this membrane for hydrogen recovery at its refinery site.

Rich Ciora; Paul KT Liu

2012-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

293

p-doping-free InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode driven by three-dimensional hole gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Here, GaN/Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N heterostructures with a graded AlN composition, completely lacking external p-doping, are designed and grown using metal-organic-chemical-vapour deposition (MOCVD) system to realize three-dimensional hole gas (3DHG). The existence of the 3DHG is confirmed by capacitance-voltage measurements. Based on this design, a p-doping-free InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode (LED) driven by the 3DHG is proposed and grown using MOCVD. The electroluminescence, which is attributed to the radiative recombination of injected electrons and holes in InGaN/GaN quantum wells, is observed from the fabricated p-doping-free devices. These results suggest that the 3DHG can be an alternative hole source for InGaN/GaN LEDs besides common Mg dopants.

Zhang, Zi-Hui; Tiam Tan, Swee; Kyaw, Zabu; Liu, Wei; Ji, Yun; Ju, Zhengang; Zhang, Xueliang [LUMINOUS Centre of Excellence for Semiconductor Lighting and Displays, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 Singapore (Singapore) [LUMINOUS Centre of Excellence for Semiconductor Lighting and Displays, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 Singapore (Singapore); LUMINOUS Centre of Excellence for Semiconductor Lighting and Displays, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 Singapore (Singapore); Wei Sun, Xiao, E-mail: EXWSUN@ntu.edu.sg [LUMINOUS Centre of Excellence for Semiconductor Lighting and Displays, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 Singapore (Singapore); LUMINOUS Centre of Excellence for Semiconductor Lighting and Displays, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 Singapore (Singapore); Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, South University of Science and Technology of China, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518055 (China); Volkan Demir, Hilmi, E-mail: VOLKAN@stanfordalumni.org [LUMINOUS Centre of Excellence for Semiconductor Lighting and Displays, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 Singapore (Singapore); LUMINOUS Centre of Excellence for Semiconductor Lighting and Displays, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 Singapore (Singapore); Department of Electrical and Electronics, UNAM-Institute of Material Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, Ankara TR-06800 (Turkey); Department of Physics, UNAM-Institute of Material Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, Ankara TR-06800 (Turkey)

2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

294

Production management techniques for water-drive gas reservoirs. Field number 1, onshore gulf coast over-pressured, high yield condensate reservoir. Topical report, July 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To develop improved completion and reservoir management strategies for water-drive gas reservoirs, the study conducted on an overpressured high yield gas condensate reservoir is reported. The base recovery factor for the field was projected to be only 47.8%, due to high residual gas saturation and a relatively strong aquifer which maintained reservoir pressure.

Hower, T.L.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Material Control and Accounting Design Considerations for High-Temperature Gas Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The subject of this report is domestic safeguards and security by design (2SBD) for high-temperature gas reactors, focusing on material control and accountability (MC&A). The motivation for the report is to provide 2SBD support to the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project, which was launched by Congress in 2005. This introductory section will provide some background on the NGNP project and an overview of the 2SBD concept. The remaining chapters focus specifically on design aspects of the candidate high-temperature gas reactors (HTGRs) relevant to MC&A, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements, and proposed MC&A approaches for the two major HTGR reactor types: pebble bed and prismatic. Of the prismatic type, two candidates are under consideration: (1) GA's GT-MHR (Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor), and (2) the Modular High-Temperature Reactor (M-HTR), a derivative of Areva's Antares reactor. The future of the pebble-bed modular reactor (PBMR) for NGNP is uncertain, as the PBMR consortium partners (Westinghouse, PBMR [Pty] and The Shaw Group) were unable to agree on the path forward for NGNP during 2010. However, during the technology assessment of the conceptual design phase (Phase 1) of the NGNP project, AREVA provided design information and technology assessment of their pebble bed fueled plant design called the HTR-Module concept. AREVA does not intend to pursue this design for NGNP, preferring instead a modular reactor based on the prismatic Antares concept. Since MC&A relevant design information is available for both pebble concepts, the pebble-bed HTGRs considered in this report are: (1) Westinghouse PBMR; and (2) AREVA HTR-Module. The DOE Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) sponsors the Fuel Cycle Research and Development program (FCR&D), which contains an element specifically focused on the domestic (or state) aspects of SBD. This Material Protection, Control and Accountancy Technology (MPACT) program supports the present work summarized in this report, namely the development of guidance to support the consideration of MC&A in the design of both pebble-bed and prismatic-fueled HTGRs. The objective is to identify and incorporate design features into the facility design that will cost effectively aid in making MC&A more effective and efficient, with minimum impact on operations. The theft of nuclear material is addressed through both MC&A and physical protection, while the threat of sabotage is addressed principally through physical protection.

Trond Bjornard; John Hockert

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

HIGH RESOLUTION PREDICTION OF GAS INJECTION PROCESS PERFORMANCE FOR HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report outlines progress in the second quarter of the third year of the DOE project ''High Resolution Prediction of Gas Injection Process Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs''. This report presents results of an investigation of the effects of variation in interfacial tension (IFT) on three-phase relative permeability. We report experimental results that demonstrate the effect of low IFT between two of three phases on the three-phase relative permeabilities. In order to create three-phase systems, in which IFT can be controlled systematically, we employed analog liquids composing of hexadecane, n-butanol, isopropanol, and water. Phase composition, phase density and viscosity, and IFT of three-phase system were measured and are reported here. We present three-phase relative permeabilities determined from recovery and pressure drop data using the Johnson-Bossler-Naumann (JBN) method. The phase saturations were obtained from recovery data by the Welge method. The experimental results indicate that the wetting phase relative permeability was not affected by IFT variation whereas the other two-phase relative permeabilities were clearly affected. As IFT decreases the ''oil'' and ''gas'' phases become more mobile at the same phase saturations.

Franklin M. Orr, Jr.

2003-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

297

Ultra Clean 1.1MW High Efficiency Natural Gas Engine Powered System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Dresser, Inc. (GE Energy, Waukesha gas engines) will develop, test, demonstrate, and commercialize a 1.1 Megawatt (MW) natural gas fueled combined heat and power reciprocating engine powered package. This package will feature a total efficiency > 75% and ultra low CARB permitting emissions. Our modular design will cover the 1 6 MW size range, and this scalable technology can be used in both smaller and larger engine powered CHP packages. To further advance one of the key advantages of reciprocating engines, the engine, generator and CHP package will be optimized for low initial and operating costs. Dresser, Inc. will leverage the knowledge gained in the DOE - ARES program. Dresser, Inc. will work with commercial, regulatory, and government entities to help break down barriers to wider deployment of CHP. The outcome of this project will be a commercially successful 1.1 MW CHP package with high electrical and total efficiency that will significantly reduce emissions compared to the current central power plant paradigm. Principal objectives by phases for Budget Period 1 include: Phase 1 market study to determine optimum system performance, target first cost, lifecycle cost, and creation of a detailed product specification. Phase 2 Refinement of the Waukesha CHP system design concepts, identification of critical characteristics, initial evaluation of technical solutions, and risk mitigation plans. Background

Zurlo, James; Lueck, Steve

2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

298

Realities of verifying the absence of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in gas centrifuge enrichment plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Over a two and one-half year period beginning in 1981, representatives of six countries (United States, United Kingdom, Federal Republic of Germany, Australia, The Netherlands, and Japan) and the inspectorate organizations of the International Atomic Energy Agency and EURATOM developed and agreed to a technically sound approach for verifying the absence of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in gas centrifuge enrichment plants. This effort, known as the Hexapartite Safeguards Project (HSP), led to the first international concensus on techniques and requirements for effective verification of the absence of weapons-grade nuclear materials production. Since that agreement, research and development has continued on the radiation detection technology-based technique that technically confirms the HSP goal is achievable. However, the realities of achieving the HSP goal of effective technical verification have not yet been fully attained. Issues such as design and operating conditions unique to each gas centrifuge plant, concern about the potential for sensitive technology disclosures, and on-site support requirements have hindered full implementation and operator support of the HSP agreement. In future arms control treaties that may limit or monitor fissile material production, the negotiators must recognize and account for the realities and practicalities in verifying the absence of HEU production. This paper will describe the experiences and realities of trying to achieve the goal of developing and implementing an effective approach for verifying the absence of HEU production. 3 figs.

Swindle, D.W.

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Evaluating metalorganic frameworks for natural gas storage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

suited for light-duty passenger vehicles. For instance, compressed natural gas (CNG) requires expensive

300

The development of a cyclonic combustor for high particulate, low caloric value gas produced by a fluidized bed  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

methods, utilizing a biomass source, are: combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, and bio-degradation processes. Direct combustion is envisioned as the most immediately available conversion technology. However, there is considerable interest... the combustion of a low caloric value (LCV) and high particulate gas. Performance tests were conducted to verify the cyclone combustor design flexibility by identifying satisfactory performance characteristics. The LCV gas was produced from the gasification...

Cardenas, Manuel Moises

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas light high" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Real-gas effects in the expansibility factor for subsonic differential-pressure flowmeters at high pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Real-gas corrections in the expansibility factor are expressed by an equation of state (EOS). In this paper a virial EOS is introduced, with low-order virial coefficients calculated from a cubic EOS. The approach is composition-independent. EOS-dependent cancellations between real-gas effects are revealed. The current Intl. Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard is not always reliable for high-accuracy orifice measurements of gases with arbitrary composition.

Finjord, J. (Rogaland U. Center (NO))

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Facile synthesis of novel Ag/AgI/BiOI composites with highly enhanced visible light photocatalytic performances  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Novel Ag/AgI/BiOI composites were controllably synthesized via a facile ion-exchange followed by photoreduction strategy by using hierarchical BiOI microflower as substrate. The as-prepared Ag/AgI/BiOI composites were studied by X-ray powder diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Brunauer朎mmett朤eller (BET) surface area analyzer and UV杤is diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). Under visible light (?>420 nm), Ag/AgI/BiOI displayed highly enhanced photocatalytic activities for degradation of methyl orange (MO) compared to the pure hierarchical BiOI, which was mainly ascribed to the highly efficient separation of electrons and holes through the closely contacted interfaces in the Ag/AgI/BiOI ternary system. - Graphical abstract: Ag/AgI/BiOI displayed excellent photocatalytic activities for methyl orange degradation under visible light, which was mainly ascribed to the highly efficient separation of electrons and holes through Z-scheme pathway. Display Omitted - Highlights: Novel Ag/AgI/BiOI composites were successfully synthesized. Ag/AgI/BiOI displayed higher visible light activities than those of pure BiOI and AgI. 稯{sub 2}{sup ?} and h{sup +}, especially 稯{sub 2}{sup ?}, dominated the photodegradation process of MO. A Z-scheme pattern was adopted for Ag/AgI/BiOI activity enhancement.

Cao, Jing, E-mail: caojing@mail.ipc.ac.cn [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei 235000, Anhui (China); State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Zhao, Yijie; Lin, Haili; Xu, Benyan [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei 235000, Anhui (China); Chen, Shifu, E-mail: chshifu@chnu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei 235000, Anhui (China)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

303

Light emitting device comprising phosphorescent materials for white light generation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to phosphors for energy downconversion of high energy light to generate a broadband light spectrum, which emit light of different emission wavelengths.

Thompson, Mark E.; Dapkus, P. Daniel

2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

304

Development of Brazing Technology for Use in High- Temperature Gas Separation Equipment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of high-temperature electrochemical devices such as oxygen and hydrogen separators, fuel gas reformers, solid oxide fuel cells, and chemical sensors is part of a rapidly expanding segment of the solid state technology market. These devices employ an ionic conducting ceramic as the active membrane that establishes the electrochemical potential of the device, either under voltage (i.e. to carry out gas separation) or under chemical gradient (to develop an electrical potential and thereby generate electrical power). Because the device operates under an ionic gradient that develops across the electrolyte, hermiticity across this layer is paramount. That is, not only must this thin ceramic membrane be dense with no interconnected porosity, but it must be connected to the rest of the device, typically constructed from a heat resistant alloy, with a high-temperature, gas-tight seal. A significant engineering challenge in fabricating these devices is how to effectively join the thin electrochemically active membrane to the metallic body of the device such that the resulting seal is hermetic, rugged, and stable during continuous high temperature operation. Active metal brazing is the typical method of joining ceramic and metal engineering components. It employs a braze alloy that contains one or more reactive elements, often titanium, which will chemically reduce the ceramic faying surface and greatly improve its wetting behavior and adherence with the braze. However, recent studies of these brazes for potential use in fabricating high-temperature electrochemical devices revealed problems with interfacial oxidation and subsequent joint failure [1,2]. Specifically, it was found that the introduction of the ceramic electrolyte and/or heat resistant metal substrate dramatically affects the inherent oxidation behavior of the braze, often in a deleterious manner. These conclusions pointed to the need for an oxidation resistant, high-temperature ceramic-to-metal braze and consequently lead to the development of the novel reactive air brazing (RAB) concept. The goal in RAB is to reactively modify one or both oxide faying surfaces with an oxide compound dissolved in a molten noble metal alloy such that the newly formed surface is readily wetted by the remaining liquid filler material. In many respects, this concept is similar to active metal brazing, except that joining can be conducted in air and the final joint will be resistant to oxidation at high temperature. Potentially, there are a number of metal oxide-noble metal systems that can be considered for RAB, including Ag-CuO, Ag-V2O5, and Pt-Nb2O5. Our current interest is in determining whether the Ag-CuO system is suitable for air brazing functional ceramic-to-metal joints such as those needed in practical electrochemical devices. In a series of studies, the wetting behavior of the Ag-CuO braze was investigated with respect to a number of potential hydrogen separation, oxygen separation, and fuel cell electrolyte membrane materials and heat resistant metal systems, including: alumina, (La0.6Sr0.4)(Co0.2Fe0.8)O3, (La0.8Sr0.2)FeO3, YSZ, fecralloy, and Crofer-22APU. Selected findings from these studies as well as from our work on joint strength and durability during high-temperature exposure testing will be discussed.

Weil, K.S.; Hardy, J.S.; Kim, J.Y.

2003-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

305

Integration of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor Technology with Oil Sands Processes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper summarizes an evaluation of siting an HTGR plant in a remote area supplying steam, electricity and high temperature gas for recovery and upgrading of unconventional crude oil from oil sands. The area selected for this evaluation is the Alberta Canada oil sands. This is a very fertile and active area for bitumen recovery and upgrading with significant quantities piped to refineries in Canada and the U.S Additionally data on the energy consumption and other factors that are required to complete the evaluation of HTGR application is readily available in the public domain. There is also interest by the Alberta oil sands producers (OSP) in identifying alternative energy sources for their operations. It should be noted, however, that the results of this evaluation could be applied to any similar oil sands area.

L.E. Demick

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

NGNP: High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Key Definitions, Plant Capabilities, and Assumptions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is intended to provide a Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project tool in which to collect and identify key definitions, plant capabilities, and inputs and assumptions to be used in ongoing efforts related to the licensing and deployment of a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). These definitions, capabilities, and assumptions are extracted from a number of sources, including NGNP Project documents such as licensing related white papers [References 1-11] and previously issued requirement documents [References 13-15]. Also included is information agreed upon by the NGNP Regulatory Affairs group's Licensing Working Group and Configuration Council. The NGNP Project approach to licensing an HTGR plant via a combined license (COL) is defined within the referenced white papers and reference [12], and is not duplicated here.

Phillip Mills

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

New high-nitrogen energetic materials for gas generators in space ordnance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-nitrogen nitroheterocyclic energetic compounds are used as explosives, propellants, and gas generants when safe, thermally stable, cool-burning energetic materials are desired. A series of compounds are compared for sensitivity properties and calculated burn performance. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations by NASA/Lewis rocket propellant and Blake gun propellant codes gave flame temperatures, average molecular weight, and identity of the equilibrium burn products for ambient, rocket, and gun pressure environments. These compounds were subjected to calculations both as monopropellants and as 50/50 weight ratio mixtures with ammonium nitrate (AN). Special attention was paid to calculated toxic products such as carbon monoxide and hydrogen cyanide, and how these were affected by the addition of an oxidizer AN. Several compounds were noted for further calculations of a formulation ad experimental evaluation.

Campbell, M.S.; Lee, Kien-Yin; Hiskey, M.A.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Extended performance gas Cherenkov detector for gamma-ray detection in high-energy density experiments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new Gas Cherenkov Detector (GCD) with low-energy threshold and high sensitivity, currently known as Super GCD (or GCD-3 at OMEGA), is being developed for use at the OMEGA Laser Facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Super GCD is designed to be pressurized to ?400 psi (absolute) and uses all metal seals to allow the use of fluorinated gases inside the target chamber. This will allow the gamma energy threshold to be run as low at 1.8 MeV with 400 psi (absolute) of C{sub 2}F{sub 6}, opening up a new portion of the gamma ray spectrum. Super GCD operating at 20 cm from TCC will be ?400 more efficient at detecting DT fusion gammas at 16.7 MeV than the Gamma Reaction History diagnostic at NIF (GRH-6m) when operated at their minimum thresholds.

Herrmann, H. W., E-mail: herrmann@lanl.gov; Kim, Y. H.; Young, C. S.; Fatherley, V. E.; Lopez, F. E.; Oertel, J. A.; Batha, S. H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Malone, R. M. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States); Rubery, M. S.; Horsfield, C. J. [Atomic Weapons Establishment, Aldermaston, Berkshire RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Stoeffl, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Zylstra, A. B. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Shmayda, W. T. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

309

Helium circulator design considerations for modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Efforts are in progress to develop a standard modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR) plant that is amenable to design certification and serial production. The MHTGR reference design, based on a steam cycle power conversion system, utilizes a 350 MW(t) annular reactor core with prismatic fuel elements. Flexibility in power rating is afforded by utilizing a multiplicity of the standard module. The circulator, which is an electric motor-driven helium compressor, is a key component in the primary system of the nuclear plant, since it facilitates thermal energy transfer from the reactor core to the steam generator; and, hence, to the external turbo-generator set. This paper highlights the helium circulator design considerations for the reference MHTGR plant and includes a discussion on the major features of the turbomachine concept, operational characteristics, and the technology base that exists in the U.S.

McDonald, C.F.; Nichols, M.K.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Helium circulator design considerations for modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Efforts are in progress to develop a standard modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR) plant that is amenable to design certification and serial production. The MHTGR reference design, based on a steam cycle power conversion system, utilizes a 350 MW(t) annular reactor core with prismatic fuel elements. Flexibility in power rating is afforded by utilizing a multiplicity of the standard module. The circulator, which is an electric motor-driven helium compressor, is a key component in the primary system of the nuclear plant, since it facilitates thermal energy transfer from the reactor core to the steam generator; and, hence, to the external turbo-generator set. This paper highlights the helium circulator design considerations for the reference MHTGR plant and includes a discussion on the major features of the turbomachine concept, operational characteristics, and the technology base that exists in the US.

McDonald, C.F.; Nichols, M.K.

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Modeling twin-screw multiphase pump performance during periods of high gas volume fraction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

pumping adds energy to an unprocessed effluent stream acting as a combined pump and compressor, permitting the recovery of oil and gas on an economical basis. In practice, multiphase production is characterized by wide fluctuations in the gas and liquid...

Singh, Aditya

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Depletion Analysis of Modular High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor Loaded with LEU/Thorium Fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thorium based fuel has been considered as an option to uranium-based fuel, based on considerations of resource utilization (Thorium is more widely available when compared to Uranium). The fertile isotope of Thorium (Th-232) can be converted to fissile isotope U-233 by neutron capture during the operation of a suitable nuclear reactor such as High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR). However, the fertile Thorium needs a fissile supporter to start and maintain the conversion process such as U-235 or Pu-239. This report presents the results of a study that analyzed the thorium utilization in a prismatic HTGR, namely Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) that was designed by General Atomics (GA). The collected for the modeling of this design come from Chapter 4 of MHTGR Preliminary Safety Information Document that GA sent to Department of Energy (DOE) on 1995. Both full core and unit cell models were used to perform this analysis using SCALE 6.1 and Serpent 1.1.18. Because of the long mean free paths (and migration lengths) of neutrons in HTRs, using a unit cell to represent a whole core can be non-trivial. The sizes of these cells were set to match the spectral index between unit cell and full core domains. It was found that for the purposes of this study an adjusted unit cell model is adequate. Discharge isotopics and one-group cross-sections were delivered to the transmutation analysis team. This report provides documentation for these calculations

Sonat Sen; Gilles Youinou

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Safety aspects of the Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) is an advanced reactor concept under development through a cooperative program involving the US Government, the nuclear industry and the utilities. The design utilizes the basic high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) features of ceramic fuel, helium coolant, and a graphite moderator. The qualitative top-level safety requirement is that the plant's operation not disturb the normal day-to-day activities of the public. The MHTGR safety response to events challenging the functions relied on to retain radionuclides within the coated fuel particles has been evaluated. A broad range of challenges to core heat removal have been examined which include a loss of helium pressure and a simultaneous loss of forced cooling of the core. The challenges to control of heat generation have considered not only the failure to insert the reactivity control systems, but the withdrawal of control rods. Finally, challenges to control chemical attack of the ceramic coated fuel have been considered, including catastrophic failure of the steam generator allowing water ingress or of the pressure vessels allowing air ingress. The plant's response to these extreme challenges is not dependent on operator action and the events considered encompass conceivable operator errors. In the same vein, reliance on radionuclide retention within the full particle and on passive features to perform a few key functions to maintain the fuel within acceptable conditions also reduced susceptibility to external events, site-specific events, and to acts of sabotage and terrorism. 4 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

Silady, F.A.; Millunzi, A.C.

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Characterization of a cryogenically cooled high-pressure gas jet for laser/cluster interaction experiments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

greatly enhancing coupling of laser energy into both ions and electrons. In a monatomic gas heated, Technology and Medicine, London SW7 2BZ, United Kingdom Received 24 March 1998; accepted for publication 4 scales, the cooling of gas flowing into the valve, and condensation of gas inside the valve body

Ditmire, Todd

315

Circadian gating of the psbAIII high light response in Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(1-5 fold) during the peaks of the cycle. We also found that in a clock null strain the lack of an oscillator does not entirely negate the light response of PpsbAIII::luxAB; however, this response does not demonstrate gating. In contrast...

Shelton, Jeffrey Lyn

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Low cost and high performance light trapping structure for thin-film solar cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nano-scaled dielectric and metallic structures are popular light tapping structures in thin-film solar cells. However, a large parasitic absorption in those structures is unavoidable. Most schemes based on such structures also involve the textured active layers that may bring undesirable degradation of the material quality. Here we propose a novel and cheap light trapping structure based on the prism structured SiO2 for thin-film solar cells, and a flat active layer is introduced purposefully. Such a light trapping structure is imposed by the geometrical shape optimization to gain the best optical benefit. By examining our scheme, it is disclosed that the conversion efficiency of the flat a-Si:H thin-film solar cell can be promoted to exceed the currently certified highest value. As the cost of SiO2-based light trapping structure is much cheaper and easier to fabricate than other materials, this proposal would have essential impact and wide applications in thin-film solar cells.

Wang, DongLin; Su, Gang

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Inflationary generalized Chaplygin gas and dark energy in the light of the Planck and BICEP2 experiments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this work, we study an inflationary scenario in the presence of Generalized Chaplygin Gas (GCG). We show that in Einstein gravity, GCG is not a suitable candidate for inflation; but in a five dimensional brane world scenario, it can work as a viable inflationary model. We calculate the relevant quantities such as $n_{s}$, $r$ and $A_{s}$ related to the primordial scalar and tensor fluctuations, and using their recent bounds from Planck and BICEP2, we constrain the model parameters as well as the five-dimensional Planck mass. But as a slow-roll inflationary model with a power-law type scalar primordial power spectrum, GCG as an inflationary model can not resolve the tension between results from BICEP2 and Planck with a concordance $\\Lambda$CDM Universe. We show that going beyond the concordance $\\Lambda$CDM model and incorporating more general dark energy behaviour, this tension may be eased. We also obtain the constraints on the $n_{s}$ and $r$ and the GCG model parameters using Planck+WP+BICEP2 data considering the CPL dark energy behaviour.

Bikash R Dinda; Sumit Kumar; Anjan A. Sen

2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

318

The gas turbine-modular helium reactor (GT-MHR), high efficiency, cost competitive, nuclear energy for the next century  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) is the result of coupling the evolution of a small passively safe reactor with key technology developments in the US during the last decade: large industrial gas turbines, large active magnetic bearings, and compact, highly effective plate-fin heat exchangers. The GT-MHR is the only reactor concept which provides a step increase in economic performance combined with increased safety. This is accomplished through its unique utilization of the Brayton cycle to produce electricity directly with the high temperature helium primary coolant from the reactor directly driving the gas turbine electrical generator. This cannot be accomplished with another reactor concept. It retains the high levels of passive safety and the standardized modular design of the steam cycle MHTGR, while showing promise for a significant reduction in power generating costs by increasing plant net efficiency to a remarkable 47%.

Zgliczynski, J.B.; Silady, F.A.; Neylan, A.J.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Industrial Gas Turbines  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A gas turbine is a heat engine that uses high-temperature, high-pressure gas as the working fluid. Part of the heat supplied by the gas is converted directly into mechanical work. High-temperature,...

320

An investigation of high pressure/late cycle injection of CNG (compressed natural gas) as a fuel for rail applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes a demonstration effort to investigate the use of natural gas in a medium-speed diesel engine. The effort was unique in the sense that natural gas was injected directly into the combustion chamber late in the compression stroke, as a high pressure gas rather than through low pressure fumigation or low pressure injection early in the compression stroke. Tests were performed on a laboratory two-cylinder, two-stroke cycle medium-speed diesel engine in an attempt to define its ability to operate on the high pressure/late cycle injection concept and to define the performance and emission characteristics of the engine under such operation. A small quantity of No.-2 diesel fuel was injected into the cylinder slightly before the gas injection to be used as an ignition source for the gas. Pilot (diesel fuel) and main (natural gas) timing and injection duration were systematically varied to optimize engine performance. The test demonstrated that the medium-speed engine was capable of attaining full rated speed and load (unlike the low pressure approach) with very low percentages of pilot injection with the absence of knock. Thermal efficiency was as much as 10 percent less than thermal efficiency levels obtained with neat diesel fuel. This was primarily due to the placement and injection characteristics of the pilot and main injectors. Optimization of the injection system would undoubtedly result in increased thermal efficiency. 11 figs., 4 tabs.

Wakenell, J.F.; O'Neal, G.G.; Baker, Q.A.; Urban, C.M.

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas light high" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Architecture, implementation, and testing of a multiple-shell gas injection system for high current implosions on the Z accelerator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tests are ongoing to conduct {approx}20 MA z-pinch implosions on the Z accelerator at Sandia National Laboratory using Ar, Kr, and D{sub 2} gas puffs as the imploding loads. The relatively high cost of operations on a machine of this scale imposes stringent requirements on the functionality, reliability, and safety of gas puff hardware. Here we describe the development of a prototype gas puff system including the multiple-shell nozzles, electromagnetic drivers for each nozzle's valve, a UV pre-ionizer, and an inductive isolator to isolate the {approx}2.4 MV machine voltage pulse present at the gas load from the necessary electrical and fluid connections made to the puff system from outside the Z vacuum chamber. This paper shows how the assembly couples to the overall Z system and presents data taken to validate the functionality of the overall system.

Krishnan, Mahadevan; Elliott, Kristi Wilson; Madden, Robert E. [Alameda Applied Sciences Corporation, San Leandro, California 94577 (United States); Coleman, P. L. [Evergreen Hill Sciences, Philomath, Oregon 97370 (United States); Thompson, John R. [812 Temple Street, San Diego, California 92106 (United States); Bixler, Alex [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Lamppa, D. C.; McKenney, J. L.; Strizic, T.; Johnson, D.; Johns, O.; Vigil, M. P.; Jones, B.; Ampleford, D. J.; Savage, M. E.; Cuneo, M. E.; Jones, M. C. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

322

The effect of high-pressure injection of gas on the reservoir volume factor of a crude oil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE EFFECT OF HIGH-PRESSURE INJECTION OF GAS ON THE RESERVOIR VOLUME FACTOR OF A CRUDE OIL A Thesis By+ BAXTER DS'kONEYCUTT o Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August, i957 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering THE EFFECT OF HIGH-PRESSURE INJECTION OF GAS ON THE RESERVOIR VOLUME FACTOR OF A CRUDE OIL A Thesis By BAXTER D. HONEYCUTT Appro d as to style...

Honeycutt, Baxter Bewitt

1957-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

HYBRID SULFUR CYCLE FLOWSHEETS FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION USING HIGH-TEMPERATURE GAS-COOLED REACTORS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two hybrid sulfur (HyS) cycle process flowsheets intended for use with high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) are presented. The flowsheets were developed for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) program, and couple a proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzer for the SO2-depolarized electrolysis step with a silicon carbide bayonet reactor for the high-temperature decomposition step. One presumes an HTGR reactor outlet temperature (ROT) of 950 C, the other 750 C. Performance was improved (over earlier flowsheets) by assuming that use of a more acid-tolerant PEM, like acid-doped poly[2,2'-(m-phenylene)-5,5'-bibenzimidazole] (PBI), instead of Nafion{reg_sign}, would allow higher anolyte acid concentrations. Lower ROT was accommodated by adding a direct contact exchange/quench column upstream from the bayonet reactor and dropping the decomposition pressure. Aspen Plus was used to develop material and energy balances. A net thermal efficiency of 44.0% to 47.6%, higher heating value basis is projected for the 950 C case, dropping to 39.9% for the 750 C case.

Gorensek, M.

2011-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

324

Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Safety Basis and Approach  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Various international efforts are underway to assess the safety of advanced nuclear reactor designs. For example, the International Atomic Energy Agency has recently held its first Consultancy Meeting on a new cooperative research program on high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) safety. Furthermore, the Generation IV International Forum Reactor Safety Working Group has recently developed a methodology, called the Integrated Safety Assessment Methodology, for use in Generation IV advanced reactor technology development, design, and design review. A risk and safety assessment white paper is under development with respect to the Very High Temperature Reactor to pilot the Integrated Safety Assessment Methodology and to demonstrate its validity and feasibility. To support such efforts, this information paper on the modular HTGR safety basis and approach has been prepared. The paper provides a summary level introduction to HTGR history, public safety objectives, inherent and passive safety features, radionuclide release barriers, functional safety approach, and risk-informed safety approach. The information in this paper is intended to further the understanding of the modular HTGR safety approach. The paper gives those involved in the assessment of advanced reactor designs an opportunity to assess an advanced design that has already received extensive review by regulatory authorities and to judge the utility of recently proposed new methods for advanced reactor safety assessment such as the Integrated Safety Assessment Methodology.

David Petti; Jim Kinsey; Dave Alberstein

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

High-resolution mapping of interstellar clouds with near-infrared scattered light  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

With current wide-field near-infrared (NIR) instruments the scattered light in the near-infrared can be mapped over large areas. Below A_V ~ 10 the surface brightness is directly proportional to the column density, and at slightly higher column densities the saturation of the intensity values can be corrected using the ratios of the intensity in different NIR bands. NIR scattered light provides a promising new method for the mapping of quiescent interstellar clouds. We develop a method to convert the observed near-infrared surface brightness into estimates of the column density. We study and quantify the effect that different error sources could have on the accuracy of such estimates. We also propose to reduce systematic errors by combining surface brightness data with extinction measurements derived from the near-infrared colour excess of background stars. Our study is based on a set of three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence simulations. Maps of near-infrared scattered light are obtained with radiative transfer calculations, and the maps are converted back into column density estimates using the proposed method. The results are compared with the true column densities. Extinction measurements are simulated using the same turbulence simulations, and are used as a complementary column density tracer. We find that NIR intensities can be converted into a reliable estimate of the column density in regions with A_V up to almost 20mag.

M. Juvela; V. -M. Pelkonen; P. Padoan; K. Mattila

2006-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

326

Nonequilibrium lighting plasmas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper the science of a variety of devices employing nonequilibrium lighting plasmas is reviewed. The devices include the fluorescent lamp, the low-pressure sodium lamp, the neon sign, ultraviolet lamps, glow indicators, and a variety of devices used by spectroscopists, such as the hollow cathode light source. The plasma conditions in representative commercial devices are described. Recent research on the electron gas, the role of heavy particles, spatial and temporal inhomogeneities, and new electrodeless excitation schemes is reviewed. Areas of future activity are expected to be in new applications of high-frequency electronics to commercial devices, new laser-based diagnostics of plasma conditions, and more sophisticated models requiring more reliable and extensive rate coefficient data.

Dakin, J.T. (GE Lighting, Nela Park, Cleveland, OH (US))

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Commissioning of a magnetic suspension densitometer for high-accuracy density measurements of natural gas mixtures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of developing clean coal technology and its abundant, economical domestic sources made coal the focus of attention once again (Ferguson, 2002). The US DOE in conjunction with the industry initiated a research, development and demonstration (RD&D) program...). Until clean coal technologies mature to compete viably with natural gas, production of natural gas must be maintained or increased to avoid dependence upon imported petroleum oil. Although natural gas and coal may appear to rival each other in the mid...

Patil, Prashant Vithal

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

328

Environmental Life-cycle Assessment of Passenger Transportation: A Detailed Methodology for Energy, Greenhouse Gas and Criteria Pollutant Inventories of Automobiles, Buses, Light Rail, Heavy Rail and Air  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Life-Cycle Model of an Automobile, Environmental Science &Pollutant Inventories of Automobiles, Buses, Light Rail,Pollutant Inventories of Automobiles, Buses, Light Rail,

Chester, Mikhail; Horvath, Arpad

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

A Low-Cost, High-Efficiency Periodic Flow Gas Turbine for Distributed Energy Generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The proposed effort served as a feasibility study for an innovative, low-cost periodic flow gas turbine capable of realizing efficiencies in the 39-48% range.

Dr. Adam London

2008-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

330

SHIRTBUTTON-SIZED GAS TURBINES: THE ENGINEERING CHALLENGES OF MICRO HIGH SPEED  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

those of their more familiar, full-sized breth- ren. The micro-gas turbine is a 2 cm diameter by 3 mm

Frechette, Luc G.

331

High-pressure Storage Vessels for Hydrogen, Natural Gas andHydrogen...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Gas and Blends - Materials Testing and Design Requirements for Hydrogen Components and Tanks International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum 2010 Proceedings Hydrogen...

332

Background and Scattered Light Subtraction in the High-Resolution Echelle Modes of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a simple, effective approach for estimating the on-order backgrounds of spectra taken with the highest-resolution modes of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) on-board the Hubble Space Telescope. Our scheme for determining the on-order background spectrum uses polynomial fits to the inter-order scattered light visible in the two-dimensional STIS MAMA images. We present a suite of high-resolution STIS spectra to demonstrate that our background subtraction routine produces the correct overall zero point, as judged by the small residual flux levels in the centers of strongly-saturated interstellar absorption lines. Although there are multiple sources of background light in STIS echelle mode data, this simple approach works very well for wavelengths longward of Lyman-alpha. At shorter wavelengths, the smaller order separation and generally lower signal-to-noise ratios of the data can reduce the effectiveness of our background estimation procedure. Slight artifacts in the background-subtracted spectrum can be seen in some cases, particularly at wavelengths <1300 Ang. Most of these are caused by echelle scattering of strong spectral features into the inter-order light. We discuss the limitations of high-resolution STIS data in light of the uncertainties associated with our background subtraction procedure. We compare our background-subtracted STIS spectra with GHRS Ech-A observations of the DA white dwarf G191-B2B and GHRS first-order G160M observations of the early-type star HD 218915. We find no significant differences between the GHRS data and the STIS data reduced with our method in either case.

J. Christopher Howk; Kenneth R. Sembach

1999-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

333

Concepts for ELIC - A High Luminosity CEBAF Based Electron-Light Ion Collider  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A CEBAF accelerator based electron-light ion collider (ELIC) of rest mass energy from 20 to 65 GeV and luminosity from 10^33 to 10^35 cm6-2s^-1 with both beams polarized is envisioned as a future upgrade to CEBAF. A two step upgrade scenario is under study: CEBAF accelerator-ring-ring scheme (CRR) as the first step, and a multi-turn ERL-ring as the second step, to attain a better electron emittance and maximum luminosity. In this paper we report results of our studies of the CRR version of ELIC.

Ya. Derbenev, A. Bogacz, G. Krafft, R. Li, L. Merminga, B. Yunn, Y. Zhang

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

High-speed observation of the piston effect near the gas-liquid critical point Yuichi Miura,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High-speed observation of the piston effect near the gas-liquid critical point Yuichi Miura,1-critical fluid on acoustic time scales using an ultrasensitive interferometer. A sound emitted by very weak sounds are emitted from a heater and how applied heat is transformed into mechanical work. Our

335

High-resolution geostatistical inversion of a seismic data set acquired in a Gulf of Mexico gas reservoir.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High-resolution geostatistical inversion of a seismic data set acquired in a Gulf of Mexico gas, UNOCAL Corporation Summary Geostatistical inversion is applied on a Gulf-of-Mexico, 3D post-stack seismic in this paper is located in the Gulf of Mexico, off the coast of Louisiana. Existing development wells reach two

Torres-Verd铆n, Carlos

336

Improved heat recovery and high-temperature clean-up for coal-gas fired combustion turbines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study investigates the performance of an Improved Heat Recovery Method (IHRM) applied to a coal-gas fired power-generating system using a high-temperature clean-up. This heat recovery process has been described by Higdon and Lynn (1990). The IHRM is an integrated heat-recovery network that significantly increases the thermal efficiency of a gas turbine in the generation of electric power. Its main feature is to recover both low- and high-temperature heat reclaimed from various gas streams by means of evaporating heated water into combustion air in an air saturation unit. This unit is a packed column where compressed air flows countercurrently to the heated water prior to being sent to the combustor, where it is mixed with coal-gas and burned. The high water content of the air stream thus obtained reduces the amount of excess air required to control the firing temperature of the combustor, which in turn lowers the total work of compression and results in a high thermal efficiency. Three designs of the IHRM were developed to accommodate three different gasifying process. The performances of those designs were evaluated and compared using computer simulations. The efficiencies obtained with the IHRM are substantially higher those yielded by other heat-recovery technologies using the same gasifying processes. The study also revealed that the IHRM compares advantageously to most advanced power-generation technologies currently available or tested commercially. 13 refs., 34 figs., 10 tabs.

Barthelemy, N.M.; Lynn, S.

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Nanocomposite thin films for high temperature optical gas sensing of hydrogen  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The disclosure relates to a plasmon resonance-based method for H.sub.2 sensing in a gas stream at temperatures greater than about 500.degree. C. utilizing a hydrogen sensing material. The hydrogen sensing material is comprised of gold nanoparticles having an average nanoparticle diameter of less than about 100 nanometers dispersed in an inert matrix having a bandgap greater than or equal to 5 eV, and an oxygen ion conductivity less than approximately 10.sup.-7 S/cm at a temperature of 700.degree. C. Exemplary inert matrix materials include SiO.sub.2, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, and Si.sub.3N.sub.4 as well as modifications to modify the effective refractive indices through combinations and/or doping of such materials. At high temperatures, blue shift of the plasmon resonance optical absorption peak indicates the presence of H.sub.2. The method disclosed offers significant advantage over active and reducible matrix materials typically utilized, such as yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) or TiO.sub.2.

Ohodnicki, Jr., Paul R.; Brown, Thomas D.

2013-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

338

Scaling of the generation of high-order harmonics in large gas media with focal length  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present theoretical and experimental results on high-order harmonic generation in a low-density few-centimeter-long gas medium (L{sub med}{<=} 10 cm). We study the dependence with focal length of harmonic efficiency. Theoretically, we consider in detail the generation of the 25th harmonic of a short pulse Ti:sapphire laser in argon. Within the strong-field approximation for the atomic dipole, and a complete account of the macroscopic propagation, we compute the number of photons produced as a function of the medium parameters and the focusing conditions. The simulations show that, at constant intensity, the emission of the 25th harmonic scales with the focal length as {approx}f{sup 4} at low pressure (P=2 Torr) and as {approx}f{sup 6} at higher pressure (P=5 Torr). At constant laser energy, we find that the harmonic signal scales approximately as f{sup 2} at low pressure and as f{sup 4} at higher pressure. Those numerical results are compared with experimental data.

Boutu, W.; Auguste, T.; Caumes, J. P.; Carre, B. [Service des Photons, Atomes et Molecules, CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Merdji, H. [Service des Photons, Atomes et Molecules, CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); PULSE Institute for Ultrafast Energy Science, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford University, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

339

Integration of High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors into Industrial Process Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is a preliminary comparison of conventional and potential HTGR-integrated processesa in several common industrial areas: ? Producing electricity via a traditional power cycle ? Producing hydrogen ? Producing ammonia and ammonia-derived products, such as fertilizer ? Producing gasoline and diesel from natural gas or coal ? Producing substitute natural gas from coal, and ? Steam-assisted gravity drainage (extracting oil from tar sands).

Lee Nelson

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Characterization of spatially resolved high resolution x-ray spectrometers for high energy density physics and light source experiments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A high resolution 1D imaging x-ray spectrometer concept comprising a spherically bent crystal and a 2D pixelated detector is being optimized for diagnostics of small sources such as high energy density physics (HEDP) and synchrotron radiation or x-ray free electron laser experiments. This instrument is used on tokamak experiments for Doppler measurements of ion temperature and plasma flow velocity profiles. Laboratory measurements demonstrate a resolving power, E/?E of order 10?000 and spatial resolution better than 10 ?m. Initial tests of the high resolution instrument on HEDP plasmas are being performed.

Hill, K. W., E-mail: khill@pppl.gov; Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparacio, L.; Efthimion, P.; Pablant, N. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Lu, J. [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology and System of Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Beiersdorfer, P.; Chen, H.; Magee, E. [Physics Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas light high" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Research and development of a high efficiency gas-fired water heater. Volume 2. Task reports  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Design and development of a cost-effective high efficiency gas-fired water heater to attain a service efficiency of 70% (including the effect of exfiltration) and a service efficiency of 78% (excluding exfiltration) for a 75 GPD draw at a 90/sup 0/F temperature rise, with a stored water to conditioned air temperature difference of 80/sup 0/F, are described in detail. Based on concept evaluation, a non-powered natural draft water heater was chosen as the most cost-effective design to develop. The projected installed cost is $374 compared to $200 for a conventional unit. When the project water heater is compared to a conventional unit, it has a payback of 3.7 years and life cycle savings of $350 to the consumer. A prototype water heater was designed, constructed, and tested. When operated with sealed combustion, the unit has a service efficiency of 66.4% (including the effect of exfiltration) below a burner input of 32,000 Btu/h. In the open combustion configuration, the unit operated at a measured efficiency of 66.4% Btu/h (excluding exfiltration). This compares with a service efficiency of 51.3% for a conventional water heater and 61% for a conventional high efficiency unit capable of meeting ASHRAE 90-75. Operational tests showed the unit performed well with no evidence of stacking or hot spots. It met or exceeded all capacity or usage tests specified in the program test plan and met all emission goals. Future work will concentrate on designing, building, and testing pre-production units. It is anticipated that both sealed combustion and open draft models will be pursued.

Vasilakis, A.D.; Pearson, J.F.; Gerstmann, J.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Reactor User Interface Technology Development Roadmaps for a High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Outlet Temperature of 750 degrees C  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report evaluates the technology readiness of the interface components that are required to transfer high-temperature heat from a High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) to selected industrial applications. This report assumes that the HTGR operates at a reactor outlet temperature of 750癈 and provides electricity and/or process heat at 700癈 to conventional process applications, including the production of hydrogen.

Ian Mckirdy

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

DOE Publishes GATEWAY Report on High-Luminous-Flux LED Lighting...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

LED technology performs well in a region with high ambient temperature and solar radiation, it can perform well in most outdoor environments. The full report and a report...

344

The effect of condensate dropout on pressure transient analysis of a high-pressure gas condensate well  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

'or the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1986 Major Subject : Petr oleum Engineering THE EFFECT OF CONDENSATE DROPOUT ON PRESSURE TRANSIENT ANALYSIS OF A HIGH-PRESSURE GAS CONDENSATE WELL A thesis by FREDERIC JEAN-LOUiS SRIENS Approved as to style... Condensate Well. (August 1986) Frederic Jean~Louis Briens, ingenieur Ecole Centrale Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Ching H. Wu Pressure transient analysis techniques are often used to determine the i'low proper ties of gas wells. Through the analysis...

Briens, Frederic Jean-Louis

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Fundamental Studies and Development of III-N Visible LEDs for High-Power Solid-State Lighting Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this program is to understand in a fundamental way the impact of strain, defects, polarization, and Stokes loss in relation to unique device structures upon the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) and efficiency droop (ED) of III-nitride (III-N) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and to employ this understanding in the design and growth of high-efficiency LEDs capable of highly-reliable, high-current, high-power operation. This knowledge will be the basis for our advanced device epitaxial designs that lead to improved device performance. The primary approach we will employ is to exploit new scientific and engineering knowledge generated through the application of a set of unique advanced growth and characterization tools to develop new concepts in strain-, polarization-, and carrier dynamics-engineered and low-defect materials and device designs having reduced dislocations and improved carrier collection followed by efficient photon generation. We studied the effects of crystalline defect, polarizations, hole transport, electron-spillover, electron blocking layer, underlying layer below the multiplequantum- well active region, and developed high-efficiency and efficiency-droop-mitigated blue LEDs with a new LED epitaxial structures. We believe new LEDs developed in this program will make a breakthrough in the development of high-efficiency high-power visible III-N LEDs from violet to green spectral region.

Dupuis, Russell

2012-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

346

Demonstration of a Highly Efficient Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power System Using Adiabatic Steam Reforming and Anode Gas Recirculation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are currently being developed for a wide variety of applications because of their high efficiency at multiple power levels. Applications for SOFCs encompass a large range of power levels including 1-2 kW residential combined heat and power applications, 100-250 kW sized systems for distributed generation and grid extension, and MW-scale power plants utilizing coal. This paper reports on the development of a highly efficient, small-scale SOFC power system operating on methane. The system uses adiabatic steam reforming of methane and anode gas recirculation to achieve high net electrical efficiency. The anode exit gas is recirculated and all of the heat and water required for the endothermic reforming reaction are provided by the anode gas emerging from the SOFC stack. Although the single-pass fuel utilization is only about 55%, because of the anode gas recirculation the overall fuel utilization is up to 93%. The demonstrated system achieved gross power output of 1650 to 2150 watts with a maximum net LHV efficiency of 56.7% at 1720 watts. Overall system efficiency could be further improved to over 60% with use of properly sized blowers.

Powell, Michael R.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Chick, Lawrence A.; Mcvay, Gary L.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Lighting Options for Homes.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report covers many aspects of various lighting options for homes. Types of light sources described include natural light, artificial light, incandescent lamps, fluorescent lamps, and high intensity discharge lamps. A light source selection guide gives the physical characteristics of these, design considerations, and common applications. Color, strategies for efficient lighting, and types of lighting are discussed. There is one section giving tips for various situations in specific rooms. Rooms and types of fixtures are shown on a matrix with watts saved by using the recommended type lighting for that room and room location. A major emphasis of this report is saving energy by utilizing the most suitable, recommended lighting option. (BN)

Baker, W.S.

1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

A novel high-heat transfer low-NO{sub x} natural gas combustion system. Phase 1 final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Phase I of the project focused on acquiring the market needs, modeling, design, and test plan information for a novel high-heat transfer low-NO{sub x} natural gas combustion system. All goals and objectives were achieved. The key component of the system is an innovative burner technology which combines high temperature natural gas preheating with soot formation and subsequent soot burnout in the flame, increases the system`s energy efficiency and furnace throughput, while minimizing the furnace air emissions, all without external parasitic systems. Work has included identifying industry`s needs and constraints, modeling the high luminosity burner system, designing the prototype burner for initial laboratory-scale testing, defining the test plan, adapting the burner technology to meet the industry`s needs and constraints, and outlining the Industrial Adoption Plan.

Rue, D.M. [Institute of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Fridman, A. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago (United States); Viskanta, R. [Purdue Univ. (United States); Neff, D. [Cumbustion Tec, Inc. (United States)

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Light Computing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A configuration of light pulses is generated, together with emitters and receptors, that allows computing. The computing is extraordinarily high in number of flops per second, exceeding the capability of a quantum computer for a given size and coherence region. The emitters and receptors are based on the quantum diode, which can emit and detect individual photons with high accuracy.

Gordon Chalmers

2006-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

350

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High Strength, Light-Weight Engines for Heavy Duty Trucks  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high strength,...

351

Light-weight materials selection for high-speed naval craft  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A decision analysis study was conducted on the process of materials selection for high-speed naval craft using the Modified Digital Logic (MDL) method proposed by B. Dehgham-Manshadi et al in ref [17]. The purpose is to ...

Torrez, Joseph B. (Joseph Benjamin)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Gas dynamics in high-luminosity polarized 3He targets using diffusion and convection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The dynamics of the movement of gas is discussed for two-chambered polarized 3He target cells of the sort that have been used successfully for many electron-scattering experiments. A detailed analysis is presented showing ...

Kelleher, Aidan Michael

353

High-Btu gas from peat. A feasibility study. Task 11. Technical support. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In September 1980, the US Department of Energy awarded grant No. DE-FG01-80RA50348 to the Minnesota Gas Company (Minnegasco) to evaluate the commercial viability - technical, economic and environmental - of producing 80 million SCF/day of substitute natural gas (SNG) from peat. Minnegasco's project team for this study consisted of Dravo Engineers and Constructors (for design, engineering and economics of peat harvesting, dewatering and gasification systems); Ertec, Inc. (for environmental and socioeconomic analyses); Institute of Gas Technology (for gasification process information, and technical and engineering support). This report presents the work conducted under Task II (Technical Support) by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the developer of the PEATGAS process, which was selected for the study. Task achievements are presented for: gasifier design and performance; technical support; and task management. 12 figures, 22 tables.

Not Available

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Numerical Investigation of Temperature Distribution on a High Pressure Gas Turbine Blade  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A numerical code is developed to calculate the temperature distributions on the surface of a gas turbine blade. This code is a tool for quick prediction of the temperatures by knowing the boundary conditions and the flow conditions, and doesn...

Zirakzadeh, Hootan

2014-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

355

Fracture mechanics investigations on high-temperature gas-cooled reactor materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The prototype nuclear process heat plant and the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor need materials that can withstand temperatures up to 1223 K (950/sup 0/C). An elaboration of fracture mechanics concepts that holds for the complete temperature regime must consider all possible phenomena like creep damage and precipitation during exposure, etc. In tests on the Inconel-617, Hastelloy-X, and Nimonic-86 alloys with respect to fatigue crack growth, creep crack growth, and toughness (J integral R curves) up to 1273 K (1000/sup 0/C), the first creep crack growth results were obtained in helium to compare with the air results. It was shown that pure fatigue crack growth behavior can be described by linear elastic fracture mechanics up to 1273 K. An example of Hastelloy-X at 1223 K proves that evaluating fatigue crack growth according to the J intergral concept gives, within a small scatterband, the same results as by following the linear elastic concept. Hastelloy-X shows a decreasing fracture toughness with increasing temperatures. It is emphasized that the J integral concept holds only if creep deformation can be neglected. The experimental evidence at highest temperatures shows that the J integral R curve is not at all similar to that found at lower temperatures under ideal conditions. Creep crack growth for Nimonic-86 at 1073 less than or equal to T/K less than or equal to 1273 shows that crack growth at 1223 K in helium is found to be larger than in air. Problems arise when correlating the creep crack growth results. The application of the energy rate integral C* seems promising, but this has yet to be proven. A combination of long-term creep with fatigue crack growth is presently impossible.

Krompholz, K.; Bodmann, E.; Gnirss, G.K.; Huthmann, H.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

HIGH RESOLUTION PREDICTION OF GAS INJECTION PROCESS PERFORMANCE FOR HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report outlines progress in the first quarter of the extension of the DOE project ''High Resolution Prediction of Gas Injection Process Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs''. This report presents experimental results that demonstrate combined scaling effects of viscous, capillary, and gravity crossflow mechanisms that apply to the situations in which streamline models are used. We designed and ran a series of experiments to investigate combined effects of capillary, viscous, and gravity forces on displacement efficiency in layered systems. Analog liquids (isooctane, isopropanol, and water) were employed to control scaling parameters by changing interfacial tension (IFT), flow rate, and density difference. The porous medium was a two-dimensional (2-D) 2-layered glass bead model with a permeability ratio of about 1:4. In order to analyze the combined effect of only capillary and viscous forces, gravity effects were eliminated by changing the orientation of the glass bead model. We employed a commercial simulator, Eclipse100 to calculate displacement behavior for comparison with the experimental data. Experimental results with minimized gravity effects show that the IFT and flow rate determine how capillary and viscous forces affect behavior of displacement. The limiting behavior for scaling groups for two-phase displacement was verified by experimental results. Analysis of the 2-D images indicates that displacements having a capillary-viscous equilibrium give the best sweep efficiency. Experimental results with gravity effects, but with low IFT fluid systems show that slow displacements produce larger area affected by crossflow. This, in turn, enhances sweep efficiency. The simulation results represent the experimental data well, except for the situations where capillary forces dominate the displacement.

Franklin M. Orr, Jr.

2003-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

357

Metabolic Engineering of Light and Dark Biochemical Pathways in Wild-Type and Mutant Strains of Synechocystis PCC 6803 for Maximal, 24-Hour Production of Hydrogen Gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project used the cyanobacterial species Synechocystis PCC 6803 to pursue two lines of inquiry, with each line addressing one of the two main factors affecting hydrogen (H2) production in Synechocystis PCC 6803: NADPH availability and O2 sensitivity. H2 production in Synechocystis PCC 6803 requires a very high NADPH:NADP+ ratio, that is, the NADP pool must be highly reduced, which can be problematic because several metabolic pathways potentially can act to raise or lower NADPH levels. Also, though the [NiFe]-hydrogenase in PCC 6803 is constitutively expressed, it is reversibly inactivated at very low O2 concentrations. Largely because of this O2 sensitivity and the requirement for high NADPH levels, a major portion of overall H2 production occurs under anoxic conditions in the dark, supported by breakdown of glycogen or other organic substrates accumulated during photosynthesis. Also, other factors, such as N or S limitation, pH changes, presence of other substances, or deletion of particular respiratory components, can affect light or dark H2 production. Therefore, in the first line of inquiry, under a number of culture conditions with wild type (WT) Synechocystis PCC 6803 cells and a mutant with impaired type I NADPH-dehydrogenase (NDH-1) function, we used H2 production profiling and metabolic flux analysis, with and without specific inhibitors, to examine systematically the pathways involved in light and dark H2 production. Results from this work provided rational bases for metabolic engineering to maximize photobiological H2 production on a 24-hour basis. In the second line of inquiry, we used site-directed mutagenesis to create mutants with hydrogenase enzymes exhibiting greater O2 tolerance. The research addressed the following four tasks: 1. Evaluate the effects of various culture conditions (N, S, or P limitation; light/dark; pH; exogenous organic carbon) on H2 production profiles of WT cells and an NDH-1 mutant; 2. Conduct metabolic flux analyses for enhanced H2 production profiles using selected culture conditions and inhibitors of specific pathways in WT cells and an NDH-1 mutant; 3. Create Synechocystis PCC 6803 mutant strains with modified hydrogenases exhibiting increased O2 tolerance and greater H2 production; and 4. Integrate enhanced hydrogenase mutants and culture and metabolic factor studies to maximize 24-hour H2 production.

Ely, Roger L.; Chaplen, Frank W.R.

2014-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

358

A web-based approach to image-based lighting using high dynamic range images and QuickTime object virtual reality  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A WEB-BASED APPROACH TO IMAGE-BASED LIGHTING USING HIGH DYNAMIC RANGE IMAGES AND QUICKTIME OBJECT VIRTUAL REALITY A Thesis by TAMARA CUELLAR Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 2008 Major Subject: Visualization Sciences A WEB-BASED APPROACH TO IMAGE-BASED LIGHTING USING HIGH DYNAMIC RANGE IMAGES AND QUICKTIME OBJECT VIRTUAL REALITY A...

Cuellar, Tamara Melissa

2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

359

Thermal and Radiolytic Gas Generation in Hanford High-Level Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hanford Site has 177 underground storage tanks containing radioactive wastes that are complex mixes of radioactive and chemical products. Some of these wastes are known to generate and retain large quantities of flammable gases consisting of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, nitrogen, and ammonia. Because these gases are flammable and have the potential for rapid release, the gas generation rate for each tank must be determined to establish the flammability hazard (Johnson et al. 1997). An understanding of gas generation is important to operation of the waste tanks for several reasons. First, knowledge of the overall rate of generation is needed to verify that any given tank has sufficient ventilation to ensure that flammable gases are maintained at a safe level within the dome space. Understanding the mechanisms for production of the various gases is important so that future waste operations do not create conditions that promote the production of hydrogen, ammonia, and nitrous oxide. Studying the generation of gases also provides important data for the composition of the gas mixture, which in turn is needed to assess the flammability characteristics. Finally, information about generation of gases, including the influence of various chemical constituents, temperature, and dose, would aid in assessing the future behavior of the waste during interim storage, implementation of controls, and final waste treatment. This paper summarizes the current knowledge of gas generation pathways and discusses models used in predicting gas generation rates from actual Hanford radioactive wastes. A comparison is made between measured gas generation rates and rates by the predictive models.

Bryan, Samuel A.; Pederson, Larry R.; King, C. M.

2000-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

360

Highly efficient inverted top emitting organic light emitting diodes using a transparent top electrode with color stability on viewing angle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report a highly efficient phosphorescent green inverted top emitting organic light emitting diode with excellent color stability by using the 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene-hexacarbonitrile/indium zinc oxide top electrode and bis(2-phenylpyridine)iridium(III) acetylacetonate as the emitter in an exciplex forming co-host system. The device shows a high external quantum efficiency of 23.4% at 1000?cd/m{sup 2} corresponding to a current efficiency of 110?cd/A, low efficiency roll-off with 21% at 10?000?cd/m{sup 2} and low turn on voltage of 2.4?V. Especially, the device showed very small color change with the variation of ?x?=?0.02, ?y?=?0.02 in the CIE 1931 coordinates as the viewing angle changes from 0 to 60. The performance of the device is superior to that of the metal/metal cavity structured device.

Kim, Jung-Bum; Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Moon, Chang-Ki; Kim, Jang-Joo, E-mail: jjkim@snu.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas light high" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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361

Alternative p-doped hole transport material for low operating voltage and high efficiency organic light-emitting diodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigate the properties of N,N?-[(Diphenyl-N,N?-bis)9,9,-dimethyl-fluoren-2-yl]-benzidine (BF-DPB) as hole transport material (HTL) in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and compare BF-DPB to the commonly used HTLs N,N,N?,N?-tetrakis(4-methoxyphenyl)-benzidine (MeO-TPD), 2,2?,7,7?-tetrakis(N,N?-di-p-methylphenylamino)-9,9?-spirobifluorene (Spiro-TTB), and N,N?-di(naphtalene-1-yl)-N,N?-diphenylbenzidine (NPB). The influence of 2,2?-(perfluoronaphthalene-2,6-diylidene)dimalononitrile (F6-TCNNQ p-dopant) concentration in BF-DPB on the operation voltage and efficiency of red and green phosphorescent OLEDs is studied; best results are achieved at 4?wt. % doping. Without any light extraction structure, BF-DPB based red (green) OLEDs achieve a luminous efficacy of 35?.1?lm/W (74?.0?lm/W) at 1000?cd/m{sup 2} and reach a very high brightness of 10?000 cd/m{sup 2} at a very low voltage of 3.2 V (3.1 V). We attribute this exceptionally low driving voltage to the high ionization potential of BF-DPB which enables more efficient hole injection from BF-DPB to the adjacent electron blocking layer. The high efficiency and low driving voltage lead to a significantly lower luminous efficacy roll-off compared to the other compounds and render BF-DPB an excellent HTL material for highly efficient OLEDs.

Murawski, Caroline, E-mail: caroline.murawski@iapp.de; Fuchs, Cornelius; Hofmann, Simone; Leo, Karl [Institut f黵 Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universit鋞 Dresden, George-B鋒r-Str. 1, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Gather, Malte C. [Institut f黵 Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universit鋞 Dresden, George-B鋒r-Str. 1, 01062 Dresden (Germany); SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, KY16 9SS Scotland (United Kingdom)

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

362

Modeling high-pressure adsorption of gas mixtures on activated carbon and coal using a simplified local-density model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The simplified local-density (SLD) theory was investigated regarding its ability to provide accurate representations and predictions of high-pressure supercritical adsorption isotherms encountered in coalbed methane (CBM) recovery and CO{sub 2} sequestration. Attention was focused on the ability of the SLD theory to predict mixed-gas adsorption solely on the basis of information from pure gas isotherms using a modified Peng-Robinson (PR) equation of state (EOS). An extensive set of high-pressure adsorption measurements was used in this evaluation. These measurements included pure and binary mixture adsorption measurements for several gas compositions up to 14 MPa for Calgon F-400 activated carbon and three water-moistened coals. Also included were ternary measurements for the activated carbon and one coal. For the adsorption of methane, nitrogen, and CO{sub 2} on dry activated carbon, the SLD-PR can predict the component mixture adsorption within about 2.2 times the experimental uncertainty on average solely on the basis of pure-component adsorption isotherms. For the adsorption of methane, nitrogen, and CO{sub 2} on two of the three wet coals, the SLD-PR model can predict the component adsorption within the experimental uncertainties on average for all feed fractions (nominally molar compositions of 20/80, 40/60, 60/40, and 80/20) of the three binary gas mixture combinations, although predictions for some specific feed fractions are outside of their experimental uncertainties.

Fitzgerald, J.E.; Robinson, R.L.; Gasem, K.A.M. [Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK (United States). School of Chemical Engineering

2006-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

363

The O VI Absorbers Toward PG0953+415: High Metallicity, Cosmic-Web Gas Far From Luminous Galaxies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The spectrum of the low-redshift QSO PG0953+415 shows two strong, intervening O VI absorption systems. To study the nature of these absorbers, we have used the Gemini Multiobject Spectrograph to conduct a deep spectroscopic galaxy redshift survey in the 5' x 5' field centered on the QSO. This survey is fully complete for r' web. Evidently, some regions of the web filaments are highly metal enriched. We discuss the origin of the high-metallicity gas and suggest that the enrichment might have occurred long ago (at high z).

Todd M. Tripp; Bastien Aracil; David V. Bowen; Edward B. Jenkins

2006-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

364

Experimental Design and Flow Visualization for the Upper Plenum of a Very High Temperature Gas Cooled for Computer Fluid Dynamics Validation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is a Generation IV nuclear reactor that is currently under design. It modifies the current high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) design to have a 1000 ^(0)C coolant outlet. This increases fuel efficiency...

Mcvay, Kyle

2014-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

365

High-efficiency solid-state lighting and superconductor research receives  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-SeriesFlickr FlickrGuidedCH2MLLC High-Rate, High-Capacity Binder-Free

366

Monitoring Molecular Adsorption on High-Area Titanium Dioxide via Modulated Diffraction of Visible Light  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Letters Monitoring Molecular Adsorption on High-Area Titanium Dioxide via Modulated Diffraction and evaluation of organic chemical adsorption on various titanium dioxide surfaces. The strategy is illustrated thin films of titanium dioxide (TiO2), with micrometer-sized features, were prepared on transparent

367

Process for CO.sub.2 capture using zeolites from high pressure and moderate temperature gas streams  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for separating CO.sub.2 from a gas stream comprised of CO.sub.2 and other gaseous constituents using a zeolite sorbent in a swing-adsorption process, producing a high temperature CO.sub.2 stream at a higher CO.sub.2 pressure than the input gas stream. The method utilizes CO.sub.2 desorption in a CO.sub.2 atmosphere and effectively integrates heat transfers for optimizes overall efficiency. H.sub.2O adsorption does not preclude effective operation of the sorbent. The cycle may be incorporated in an IGCC for efficient pre-combustion CO.sub.2 capture. A particular application operates on shifted syngas at a temperature exceeding 200.degree. C. and produces a dry CO.sub.2 stream at low temperature and high CO.sub.2 pressure, greatly reducing any compression energy requirements which may be subsequently required.

Siriwardane, Ranjani V. (Morgantown, WV); Stevens, Robert W. (Morgantown, WV)

2012-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

368

High-Efficiency Clean Combustion in Light-Duty Multi-Cylinder Diesel  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensional Subject:Ground Hawaii HIGH PERFORMANCEDOEDepartment ofEngines |

369

Micro-Structured Sapphire Fiber Sensors for Simultaneous Measurements of High-T and Dynamic Gas Pressure in Harsh Environments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the final report for the program 揗icro-Structured Sapphire Fiber Sensors for Simultaneous Measurements of High Temperature and Dynamic Gas Pressure in Harsh Environments, funded by NETL, and performed by Missouri University of Science and Technology, Clemson University and University of Cincinnati from October 1, 2009 to September 30, 2014. Securing a sustainable energy economy by developing affordable and clean energy from coal and other fossil fuels is a central element to the mission of The U.S. Department of Energy抯 (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). To further this mission, NETL funds research and development of novel sensor technologies that can function under the extreme operating conditions often found in advanced power systems. The main objective of this research program is to conduct fundamental and applied research that will lead to successful development and demonstration of robust, multiplexed, microstructured silica and single-crystal sapphire fiber sensors to be deployed into the hot zones of advanced power and fuel systems for simultaneous measurements of high temperature and gas pressure. The specific objectives of this research program include: 1) Design, fabrication and demonstration of multiplexed, robust silica and sapphire fiber temperature and dynamic gas pressure sensors that can survive and maintain fully operational in high-temperature harsh environments. 2) Development and demonstration of a novel method to demodulate the multiplexed interferograms for simultaneous measurements of temperature and gas pressure in harsh environments. 3) Development and demonstration of novel sapphire fiber cladding and low numerical aperture (NA) excitation techniques to assure high signal integrity and sensor robustness.

Xiao, Hai; Tsai, Hai-Lung; Dong, Junhang

2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

370

HIGH RESOLUTION PREDICTION OF GAS INJECTION PROCESS PERFORMANCE FOR HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This final technical report describes and summarizes results of a research effort to investigate physical mechanisms that control the performance of gas injection processes in heterogeneous reservoirs and to represent those physical effects in an efficient way in simulations of gas injection processes. The research effort included four main lines of research: (1) Efficient compositional streamline methods for 3D flow; (2) Analytical methods for one-dimensional displacements; (3) Physics of multiphase flow; and (4) Limitations of streamline methods. In the first area, results are reported that show how the streamline simulation approach can be applied to simulation of gas injection processes that include significant effects of transfer of components between phases. In the second area, the one-dimensional theory of multicomponent gas injection processes is extended to include the effects of volume change as components change phase. In addition an automatic algorithm for solving such problems is described. In the third area, results on an extensive experimental investigation of three-phase flow are reported. The experimental results demonstrate the impact on displacement performance of the low interfacial tensions between the gas and oil phases that can arise in multicontact miscible or near-miscible displacement processes. In the fourth area, the limitations of the streamline approach were explored. Results of an experimental investigation of the scaling of the interplay of viscous, capillary, and gravity forces are described. In addition results of a computational investigation of the limitations of the streamline approach are reported. The results presented in this report establish that it is possible to use the compositional streamline approach in many reservoir settings to predict performance of gas injection processes. When that approach can be used, it requires substantially less (often orders of magnitude) computation time than conventional finite difference compositional simulation.

Franklin M. Orr, Jr.

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Safeguards-by-Design: Guidance for High Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGRs) With Pebble Fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The following is a guidance document from a series prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), under the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI), to assist facility designers and operators in implementing international Safeguards-by-Design (SBD). SBD has two main objectives: (1) to avoid costly and time consuming redesign work or retrofits of new nuclear fuel cycle facilities and (2) to make the implementation of international safeguards more effective and efficient at such facilities. In the long term, the attainment of these goals would save industry and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) time, money, and resources and be mutually beneficial. This particular safeguards guidance document focuses on pebble fuel high temperature gas reactors (HTGR). The purpose of the IAEA safeguards system is to provide credible assurance to the international community that nuclear material and other specified items are not diverted from peaceful nuclear uses. The safeguards system consists of the IAEA抯 statutory authority to establish safeguards; safeguards rights and obligations in safeguards agreements and additional protocols; and technical measures implemented pursuant to those agreements. Of foremost importance is the international safeguards agreement between the country and the IAEA, concluded pursuant to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). According to a 1992 IAEA Board of Governors decision, countries must: notify the IAEA of a decision to construct a new nuclear facility as soon as such decision is taken; provide design information on such facilities as the designs develop; and provide detailed design information based on construction plans at least 180 days prior to the start of construction, and on "as-built" designs at least 180 days before the first receipt of nuclear material. Ultimately, the design information will be captured in an IAEA Design Information Questionnaire (DIQ), prepared by the facility operator, typically with the support of the facility designer. The IAEA will verify design information over the life of the project. This design information is an important IAEA safeguards tool. Since the main interlocutor with the IAEA in each country is the State Regulatory Authority/SSAC (or Regional Regulatory Authority, e.g. EURATOM), the responsibility for conveying this design information to the IAEA falls to the State Regulatory Authority/SSAC.

Philip Casey Durst; Mark Schanfein

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Very High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Cavity Cooling System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The design of passive heat removal systems is one of the main concerns for the modular very high temperature gas-cooled reactors (VHTR) vessel cavity. The reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) is a key heat removal system during normal and off-normal conditions. The design and validation of the RCCS is necessary to demonstrate that VHTRs can survive to the postulated accidents. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) STAR-CCM+/V3.06.006 code was used for three-dimensional system modeling and analysis of the RCCS. A CFD model was developed to analyze heat exchange in the RCCS. The model incorporates a 180-deg section resembling the VHTR RCCS experimentally reproduced in a laboratory-scale test facility at Texas A&M University. All the key features of the experimental facility were taken into account during the numerical simulations. The objective of the present work was to benchmark CFD tools against experimental data addressing the behavior of the RCCS following accident conditions. Two cooling fluids (i.e., water and air) were considered to test the capability of maintaining the RCCS concrete walls' temperature below design limits. Different temperature profiles at the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) wall obtained from the experimental facility were used as boundary conditions in the numerical analyses to simulate VHTR transient evolution during accident scenarios. Mesh convergence was achieved with an intensive parametric study of the two different cooling configurations and selected boundary conditions. To test the effect of turbulence modeling on the RCCS heat exchange, predictions using several different turbulence models and near-wall treatments were evaluated and compared. The comparison among the different turbulence models analyzed showed satisfactory agreement for the temperature distribution inside the RCCS cavity medium and at the standpipes walls. For such a complicated geometry and flow conditions, the tested turbulence models demonstrated that the realizable k-epsilon model with two-layer all y+ wall treatment performs better than the other k-epsilon and k-omega turbulence models when compared to the experimental results and the Reynolds stress transport turbulence model results. A scaling analysis was developed to address the distortions introduced by the CFD model in simulating the physical phenomena inside the RCCS system with respect to the full plant configuration. The scaling analysis demonstrated that both the experimental facility and the CFD model achieve a satisfactory resemblance of the main flow characteristics inside the RCCS cavity region, and convection and radiation heat exchange phenomena are properly scaled from the actual plant.

Angelo Frisani; Yassin A. Hassan; Victor M. Ugaz

2010-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

373

High voltage capability electrical coils insulated with materials containing SF.sub.6 gas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A coil is made having a plurality of layers of adjacent metal conductor windings subject to voltage stress, where the windings have insulation therebetween containing a small number of minute disposed throughout its cross-section, where the voids are voids filled with SF.sub.6 gas to substitute for air or other gaseous materials in from about 60% to about 95% of the cross-sectional void volume in the insulation, thus incorporating an amount of SF.sub.6 gas in the cross-section of the insulation effective to substantially increase corona inception voltages.

Lanoue, Thomas J. (Muncie, IN); Zeise, Clarence L. (Penn Township, Allegheny County, PA); Wagenaar, Loren (Muncie, IN); Westervelt, Dean C. (Acme, PA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Regenerable sorbents for CO.sub.2 capture from moderate and high temperature gas streams  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for making a granular sorbent to capture carbon dioxide from gas streams comprising homogeneously mixing an alkali metal oxide, alkali metal hydroxide, alkaline earth metal oxide, alkaline earth metal hydroxide, alkali titanate, alkali zirconate, alkali silicate and combinations thereof with a binder selected from the group consisting of sodium ortho silicate, calcium sulfate dihydrate (CaSO.sub.4.2H.sub.2O), alkali silicates, calcium aluminate, bentonite, inorganic clays and organic clays and combinations thereof and water; drying the mixture and placing the sorbent in a container permeable to a gas stream.

Siriwardane, Ranjani V. (Morgantown, WV)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

High-performance solution of hierarchical equations of motions for studying energy-transfer in light-harvesting complexes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Excitonic models of light-harvesting complexes, where the vibrational degrees of freedom are treated as a bath, are commonly used to describe the motion of the electronic excitation through a molecule. Recent experiments point toward the possibility of memory effects in this process and require to consider time non-local propagation techniques. The hierarchical equations of motion (HEOM) were proposed by Ishizaki and Fleming to describe the site-dependent reorganization dynamics of protein environments (J. Chem. Phys., 130, p. 234111, 2009), which plays a significant role in photosynthetic electronic energy transfer. HEOM are often used as a reference for other approximate methods, but have been implemented only for small systems due to their adverse computational scaling with the system size. Here, we show that HEOM are also solvable for larger systems, since the underlying algorithm is ideally suited for the usage of graphics processing units (GPU). The tremendous reduction in computational time due to the GPU allows us to perform a systematic study of the energy-transfer efficiency in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) light-harvesting complex at physiological temperature under full consideration of memory-effects. We find that approximative methods differ qualitatively and quantitatively from the HEOM results and discuss the importance of finite temperature to achieve high energy-transfer efficiencies.

Christoph Kreisbeck; Tobias Kramer; Mirta Rodriguez; Birgit Hein

2011-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

376

Rapid Microwave Preparation of Highly Efficient Ce[superscript 3+]-Substituted Garnet Phosphors for Solid State White Lighting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ce{sup 3+}-substituted aluminum garnet compounds of yttrium (Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}) and lutetium (Lu{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}) - both important compounds in the generation of (In,Ga)N-based solid state white lighting - have been prepared using a simple microwave heating technique involving the use of a microwave susceptor to provide the initial heat source. Carbon used as the susceptor additionally creates a reducing atmosphere around the sample that helps stabilize the desired luminescent compound. High quality, phase-pure materials are prepared within a fraction of the time and using a fraction of the energy required in a conventional ceramic preparation; the microwave technique allows for a reduction of about 95% in preparation time, making it possible to obtain phase pure, Ce{sup 3+}-substituted garnet compounds in under 20 min of reaction time. It is estimated that the overall reduction in energy compared with ceramic routes as practiced in the lab is close to 99%. Conventionally prepared material is compared with material prepared using microwave heating in terms of structure, morphology, and optical properties, including quantum yield and thermal quenching of luminescence. Finally, the microwave-prepared compounds have been incorporated into light-emitting diode 'caps' to test their performance characteristics in a real device, in terms of their photon efficiency and color coordinates.

Birkel, Alexander; Denault, Kristin A.; George, Nathan C.; Doll, Courtney E.; H閞y, Bathylle; Mikhailovsky, Alexander A.; Birkel, Christina S.; Hong, Byung-Chul; Seshadri, Ram (UCSB); (Mitsubishi)

2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

377

Particulate Scrubbing Performance of the High Level Caves Off-Gas System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Performance tests were conducted at the ETF using off-gas from the Small Cylindrical Melter (SCM) -2. The purpose of these tests was to develop data for comparing small and full scale equipment performance. This reports discusses those test results.

Wright, G.T.

2001-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

378

Highly Responsive Ultrathin GaS Nanosheet Photodetectors on Rigid and Flexible Substrates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, 37831, E-mail: xiaok@ornl.gov 4 Nanosystem Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Information The GaS laminar precursor was obtained by the following method: The method uses a two-zone horizontal furnace with a fused silica tube, into which the sulfur powder and gallium were placed in the low

Geohegan, David B.

379

Design of High Luminosity Ring-Ring Electron- Light Ion Collider at CEBAF  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental studies of fundamental structure of nucleons require an electron-ion collider of a center-of-mass energy up to 90 GeV at luminosity up to 1035 cm-2s-1 with both beams polarized. A CEBAF-based collider of 9 GeV electrons/positrons and 225 GeV ions is envisioned to meet this science need and as a next step for CEBAF after the planned 12 GeV energy upgrade of the fixed target program. A ring-ring scheme of this collider developed recently takes advantage of the existing polarized electron CW beam from the CEBAF and a green-field design of an ion complex with electron cooling. We present a conceptual design and report design studies of this high-luminosity collider.

Slawomir Bogacz; Antje Bruell; Jean Delayen; Yaroslav Derbenev; Rolf Ent; Joseph Grames; Andrew Hutton; Geoffrey Krafft; Rui Li; Nikolitsa Merminga; Benard Poelker; Bogdan Wojtsekhowski; Byung Yunn; Yuhong Zhang; C Montag

2007-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

380

THE EXTRAGALACTIC BACKGROUND LIGHT FROM THE MEASUREMENTS OF THE ATTENUATION OF HIGH-ENERGY GAMMA-RAY SPECTRUM  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The attenuation of high-energy gamma-ray spectrum due to the electron-positron pair production against the extragalactic background light (EBL) provides an indirect method to measure the EBL of the universe. We use the measurements of the absorption features of the gamma-rays from blazars as seen by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope to explore the EBL flux density and constrain the EBL spectrum, star formation rate density (SFRD), and photon escape fraction from galaxies out to z = 6. Our results are basically consistent with the existing determinations of the quantities. We find a larger photon escape fraction at high redshifts, especially at z = 3, compared to the result from recent Ly{alpha} measurements. Our SFRD result is consistent with the data from both gamma-ray burst and ultraviolet (UV) observations in the 1{sigma} level. However, the average SFRD we obtain at z {approx}> 3 matches the gamma-ray data better than the UV data. Thus our SFRD result at z {approx}> 6 favors the fact that star formation alone is sufficiently high enough to reionize the universe.

Gong Yan; Cooray, Asantha [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)

2013-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas light high" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Implications of a high mass light MSSM Higgs scalar for supersymmetry searches at the LHC  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Atlas and CMS groups have both reported an excess of events in the WW{sup *}{yields}l{sup +}l{sup -}+E{sub T}{sup miss} search channel, which could be the first evidence for the Higgs boson. In the MSSM, the lightest SUSY Higgs scalar h is expected to occur with mass m{sub h} < or approx. 135 GeV, depending on the range of SUSY parameters scanned over. Since the h{yields}WW* branching fraction falls swiftly with decreasing m{sub h}, a signal in the WW{sup *} channel would favor an h at the high end of its predicted mass range. We scan over general GUT scale SUSY model parameters to find those which give rise to m{sub h} > or approx. 130 GeV. A value of m{sub 0}{approx}10-20 TeV is favored, with A{sub 0}{approx}{+-}2m{sub 0}, while the lower range of m{sub 1/2} < or approx. 1 TeV is also slightly favored. This gives rise to an 'effective SUSY' type of sparticle mass spectrum. For low m{sub 1/2}, gluino pairs may be accessible to LHC searches, while for higher m{sub 1/2} values, the SUSY spectra would likely be out of range of LHC reach.

Baer, Howard [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States); Barger, Vernon; Huang, Peisi [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Mustafayev, Azar [William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Use of high-temperature gas-tight electrochemical cells to measure electronic transport and thermodynamics in metal oxides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

By using a gas-tight electrochemical cell, the authors can perform high-temperature coulometric titration and measure electronic transport properties to determine the electronic defect structure of metal oxides. This technique reduces the time and expense required for conventional thermogravimetric measurements. The components of the gas-tight coulometric titration cell are an oxygen sensor, Pt/yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ)/Pt, and an encapsulated metal oxide sample. Based on cell design, both transport and thermodynamic measurements can be performed over a wide range of oxygen partial pressures (pO{sub 2} = 10{sup {minus}35} to 1 atm). This paper describes the high-temperature gas-tight electrochemical cells used to determine electronic defect structures and transport properties for pure and doped-oxide systems, such as YSZ, doped and pure ceria (Ca-CeO{sub 2} and CeO{sub 2}), copper oxides, and copper-oxide-based ceramic superconductors, transition metal oxides, SrFeCo{sub 0.5}O{sub x}, and BaTiO{sub 3}.

Park, J.H.; Ma, B.; Park, E.T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Natural Gas Engine Development Gaps (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A review of current natural gas vehicle offerings is presented for both light-duty and medium- and heavy-duty applications. Recent gaps in the marketplace are discussed, along with how they have been or may be addressed. The stakeholder input process for guiding research and development needs via the Natural Gas Vehicle Technology Forum (NGVTF) to the U.S. Department of Energy and the California Energy Commission is reviewed. Current high-level natural gas engine development gap areas are highlighted, including efficiency, emissions, and the certification process.

Zigler, B.T.

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Persistent Eects of Short-term, High Exposure to Chlorine Gas on Physiology and Growth of Pinus ponderosa and Pseudotsuga menziesii  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of exposure to chlorine gas are similar to those of acid rain and acid mist because chlorine gas forms highly that acid rain and acid mist aect the composition and structure of plant cuticles and their production, foliar damage from acid mist and rain consists of chlorosis, necrotic mottling, and necrosis (e.g. Heck

Brewer, Carol

385

Condensation of a Strongly Interacting Parton Plasma into a Hadron Gas in High Energy Nuclear Collisions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We examine the effects of color screening on the transition of a parton plasma into a hadron gas at RHIC energies. It is found that as expected, color screening posed itself as a significant barrier for hadronization. Parton-hadron conversion would therefore be delayed and prolonged when compared to that occuring in a vacuum. Due to the on-going expansion, the resulting hadron densities are lowered. Parton equilibration is also shown to be seriously disrupted in the process.

S. M. H. Wong

1999-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

386

Expert Meeting Report: Achieving the Best Installed Performance from High-Efficiency Residential Gas Furnaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes a Building America expert meeting hosted on July 28, 2011, by the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit team. The purpose of this meeting was to identify installation practices that provide the best installed efficiency for residential gas furnaces, explain how AFUE and field efficiency can differ, and investigate the impact of installation practices on the efficiency and long-term durability of the furnace.

Brand, L.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

PALLADIUM/COPPER ALLOY COMPOSITE MEMBRANES FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE HYDROGEN SEPARATION FROM COAL-DERIVED GAS STREAMS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For hydrogen from coal gasification to be used economically, processing approaches that produce a high purity gas must be developed. Palladium and its alloys, nickel, platinum and the metals in Groups 3 to 5 of the Periodic Table are all permeable to hydrogen. Hydrogen permeable metal membranes made of palladium and its alloys are the most widely studied due to their high hydrogen permeability, chemical compatibility with many hydrocarbon containing gas streams, and infinite hydrogen selectivity. Our Pd composite membranes have demonstrated stable operation at 450 C for over 70 days. Coal derived synthesis gas will contain up to 15000 ppm H{sub 2}S as well as CO, CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2} and other gases. Highly selectivity membranes are necessary to reduce the H{sub 2}S concentration to acceptable levels for solid oxide and other fuel cell systems. Pure Pd-membranes are poisoned by sulfur, and suffer from mechanical problems caused by thermal cycling and hydrogen embrittlement. Recent advances have shown that Pd-Cu composite membranes are not susceptible to the mechanical, embrittlement, and poisoning problems that have prevented widespread industrial use of Pd for high temperature H{sub 2} separation. These membranes consist of a thin ({le} 5 {micro}m) film of metal deposited on the inner surface of a porous metal or ceramic tube. With support from this DOE Grant, we have fabricated thin, high flux Pd-Cu alloy composite membranes using a sequential electroless plating approach. Thin, Pd{sub 60}Cu{sub 40} films exhibit a hydrogen flux more than ten times larger than commercial polymer membranes for H{sub 2} separation, resist poisoning by H{sub 2}S and other sulfur compounds typical of coal gas, and exceed the DOE Fossil Energy target hydrogen flux of 80 ml/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} min = 0.6 mol/m{sup 2} {center_dot} s for a feed pressure of 40 psig. Similar Pd-membranes have been operated at temperatures as high as 750 C. We have developed practical electroless plating procedures for fabrication of thin Pd-Cu composite membranes at any scale.

J. Douglas Way

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Impurity gas effects on friction and wear of high-temperature materials for VHTRs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Concentration being varied up to about10/sup 3/ PPM. developed at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, reactor components, such as heat transfer tubes (Hastelloy-XR) of an intermediate heat exchanger, hot duct liners (Hastelloy-XR), core support plates (2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel), control rod sheaths (HastelloyXR), orifice devices (SUS 304), fuel blocks (graphite), and others, are exposed to helium gas coolant with a temperature of 1000/sup 0/C and a pressure of 4.1 MPa. The relative sliding movements of the structure, which are stimulated by flow-induced vibration, constraint force, and thermal expansion, might cause unfavorable friction and wear. Sliding wear tests were carried out on PGX graphite, 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel, and heat- and corrosion-resistant Hastelloy-XR in 500 to 1000/sup 0/C. Environmental helium gas pressures of 0.2 and 4.1 MPa were chosen to compare the influence of the pressures. The effects of four different impurity gases (O/sub 2/, H/sub 2/, H/sub 2/O, and CH/sub 4/) on tribological behavior were studied, each gas Concentration being aried up to about10/sup 3/ PPM.

Kikuchi, K.; Kawaguchi, K.; Nemoto, M.; Sanokawa, K.; Watanabe, S.

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

High-Btu gas from peat. Feasibility study. Volume II. Executive summary  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In September 1980, the US Department of Energy awarded a grant to the Minnesota Gas Company (Minnegasco) to evaluate the commercial, technical, economic, and environmental viability of producing 80 million Standard Cubic Feet per day (SCF/day) of substitute natural gas (SNG) from peat. Minnegasco assigned the work for this study to a project team consisting of the following organizations: Dravo Engineers and Constructors for the design, engineering and economic evaluation of peat harvesting, dewatering, and gasification systems; Ertec, Inc. for environmental and socioeconomic analyses; Institute of Gas Technology for gasification process information, and technical and engineering support; and Deloitte Haskins and Sells for management advisory support. This report presents the work performed by Dravo Engineers and Constructors to meet the requirements of: Task 1, peat harvesting; Task 2, peat dewatering; Task 3, peat gasification; Task 4, long lead items; and Task 9.1, economic analysis. The final report comprises three volumes, the first is the Executive Summary. This Volume II contains all of the text of the report, and Volume III includes all of the specifications, drawings, and appendices applicable to the project. Contents of Volume II are: introduction; project scope and objectives; commercial plant description; engineering specifications; design and construction schedules; capital cost estimates; operating cost estimates; financial analysis; and future areas for investigation. 15 figures, 17 tables.

Not Available

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

High-Btu gas from peat. Feasibility study. Volume I. Executive summary  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In September, 1980, the US Department of Energy awarded a grant to the Minnesota Gas Company (Minnegasco) to evaluate the commercial, technical, economic, and environmental viability of producing 80 million Standard Cubic Feet per day (SCF/day) of substitute natural gas (SNG) from peat. Minnegasco assigned the work for this study to a project team consisting of the following organizations: Dravo Engineers and Constructors for the design, engineering and economic evaluation of peat harvesting, dewatering, and gasification systems; Ertec, Inc. for environmental and socioeconomic analyses; Institute of Gas Technology for gasification process information, and technical and engineering support; and Deloitte Haskins and Sells for management advisory support. This report presents the work performed by Dravo Engineers and Constructors to meet the requirements of: Task 1, peat harvesting; Task 2, peat dewatering; Task 3, peat gasification; Task 4, long lead items; and Task 9.1, economic analysis. The final report comprises three volumes, the first of which is this Executive Summary. Subsequent volumes include Volume II which contains all of the text of the report, and Volume III which includes all of the specifications, drawings, and appendices applicable to the project. As part of this study, a scale model of the proposed gasification facility was constructed. This model was sent to Minnegasco, and photographs of the model are included at the end of this summary.

Not Available

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Use of high temperature insulation for ceramic matrix composites in gas turbines  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A ceramic composition for insulating components, made of ceramic matrix composites, of gas turbines is provided. The composition comprises a plurality of hollow oxide-based spheres of various dimensions, a phosphate binder, and at least one oxide filler powder, whereby the phosphate binder partially fills gaps between the spheres and the filler powders. The spheres are situated in the phosphate binder and the filler powders such that each sphere is in contact with at least one other sphere and the arrangement of spheres is such that the composition is dimensionally stable and chemically stable at a temperature of approximately 1600.degree. C. A stationary vane of a gas turbine comprising the composition of the present invention bonded to the outer surface of the vane is provided. A combustor comprising the composition bonded to the inner surface of the combustor is provided. A transition duct comprising the insulating coating bonded to the inner surface of the transition is provided. Because of abradable properties of the composition, a gas turbine blade tip seal comprising the composition also is provided. The composition is bonded to the inside surface of a shroud so that a blade tip carves grooves in the composition so as to create a customized seal for the turbine blade tip.

Morrison, Jay Alan (Orlando, FL); Merrill, Gary Brian (Pittsburgh, PA); Ludeman, Evan McNeil (New Boston, NH); Lane, Jay Edgar (Murrysville, PA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

PALLADIUM/COPPER ALLOY COMPOSITE MEMBRANES FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE HYDROGEN SEPARATION FROM COAL-DERIVED GAS STREAMS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent advances have shown that Pd-Cu composite membranes are not susceptible to the mechanical, embrittlement, and poisoning problems that have prevented widespread industrial use of Pd for high temperature H{sub 2} separation. These membranes consist of a thin ({approx}10 {micro}m) film of metal deposited on the inner surface of a porous metal or ceramic tube. Based on preliminary results, thin Pd{sub 60}Cu{sub 40} films are expected to exhibit hydrogen flux up to ten times larger than commercial polymer membranes for H{sub 2} separation, and resist poisoning by H{sub 2}S and other sulfur compounds typical of coal gas. Similar Pd-membranes have been operated at temperatures as high as 750 C. The overall objective of the proposed project is to demonstrate the feasibility of using sequential electroless plating to fabricate Pd{sub 60}Cu{sub 40} alloy membranes on porous supports for H{sub 2} separation. These following advantages of these membranes for processing of coal-derived gas will be demonstrated: High H{sub 2} flux; Sulfur tolerant, even at very high total sulfur levels (1000 ppm); Operation at temperatures well above 500 C; and Resistance to embrittlement and degradation by thermal cycling. The proposed research plan is designed to providing a fundamental understanding of: Factors important in membrane fabrication; Optimization of membrane structure and composition; Effect of temperature, pressure, and gas composition on H{sub 2} flux and membrane selectivity; and How this membrane technology can be integrated in coal gasification-fuel cell systems.

J. Douglas Way; Robert L. McCormick

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Columbia Water and Light- HVAC and Lighting Efficiency Rebates  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Columbia Water and Light (CWL) offers rebates to its commercial and industrial customers for the purchase of high efficiency HVAC installations and efficient lighting. Incentives for certain...

394

Research and Development of High Temperature Light Water Cooled Reactor Operating at Supercritical-Pressure in Japan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper summarizes the status and future plans of research and development of the high temperature light water cooled reactor operating at supercritical-pressure in Japan. It includes; the concept development; material for the fuel cladding; water chemistry under supercritical pressure; thermal hydraulics of supercritical fluid; and the conceptual design of core and plant system. Elements of concept development of the once-through coolant cycle reactor are described, which consists of fuel, core, reactor and plant system, stability and safety. Material studies include corrosion tests with supercritical water loops and simulated irradiation tests using a high-energy transmission electron microscope. Possibilities of oxide dispersion strengthening steels for the cladding material are studied. The water chemistry research includes radiolysis and kinetics of supercritical pressure water, influence of radiolysis and radiation damage on corrosion and behavior on the interface between water and material. The thermal hydraulic research includes heat transfer tests of single tube, single rod and three-rod bundles with a supercritical Freon loop and numerical simulations. The conceptual designs include core design with a three-dimensional core simulator and sub-channel analysis, and balance of plant. (authors)

Yoshiaki Oka [Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 112-0006 (Japan); Katsumi Yamada [Isogo Nuclear Engineering Center, Toshiba Corporation, 8, Shinsugita-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama, 235-8523 (Japan)

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A WINDOWED HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS RECEIVER USING A SUSPENSION OF ULTRAFINE CARBON PARTICLES AS THE SOLAR ABSORBER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with a regenerated gas turbine sys- tem providing severaltemperature for powering a gas turbine or to supply indus-from the compressor of a gas turbine and passes on to the

Fisk, William J.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

The Specter of Fuel-Based Light  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Contemporary questions about sustainable energy and development converge in unexpected ways around a technology that is at once an echo of the past and yet very much a part of the present: fuel-based lighting in the developing world. An emerging opportunity for reducing the global costs and greenhouse-gas emissions associated with this highly inefficient form of lighting energy use is to replace fuel-based lamps with white solid-state (''LED'') lighting, described in this Policy Forum, which can be affordably solar-powered. Doing so would allow those without access to electricity in developing world to affordably leapfrog over the prevailing incandescent and fluorescent lighting technologies in use today through the electrified world.

Mills, Evan

2005-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

397

High octane ethers from synthesis gas-derived alcohols. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the proposed research is to synthesize high octane ethers, primarily methyl isobutyl ether (MIBE) and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), directly from H{sub 2}/CO/CO{sub 2} coal-derived synthesis gas via alcohol mixtures that are rich in methanol and 2-methyl-l-propanol (isobutanol). The overall scheme involves gasification of coal, purification and shifting of the synthesis gas, higher alcohol synthesis, and direct synthesis of ethers. The last stage of the synthesis involves direct coupling of synthesis gas-derived methanol and isobutanol that has been demonstrated by us to occur over superacid catalysts to yield methyl isobutyl ether (MIBE) at moderate pressures and a mixture of methanol and isobutene at low pressures. MIBE is an isomer of MTBE and a process is proposed whereby MTBE from the two alcohols is maximized and MIBE is minimized. This will be achieved by the proper choice of reaction conditions, i.e. intermediate pressures, and of inorganic acid catalysts that are stable at temperatures higher than 200{degree}C, at which the carbonium ion reaction coupling of the two alcohols to MTBE is more effective than the oxonium ion or ester reaction coupling to MIBE. Both organic and inorganic catalysts will be investigated, and the better catalysts of these classes will be subjected to long term performance studies. The long term performance studies of the combined process will extend to 1000 hr and detailed analytical data for all products will be provided.

Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Feeley, O.C.; Johansson, M.A.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

High-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR): long term program plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The FY 1980 effort was to investigate four technology options identified by program participants as potentially viable candidates for near-term demonstration: the Gas Turbine system (HTGR-GT), reflecting its perceived compatibility with the dry-cooling market, two systems addressing the process heat market, the Reforming (HTGR-R) and Steam Cycle (HTGR-SC) systems, and a more developmental reactor system, The Nuclear Heat Source Demonstration Reactor (NHSDR), which was to serve as a basis for both the HTGR-GT and HTGR-R systems as well as the further potential for developing advanced applications such as steam-coal gasification and water splitting.

Not Available

1980-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

399

High Prices Show Stresses in New England Natural Gas Delivery System  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 1 0Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2

400

Highly Stable Porphyrinic Zr-MOFs for CO2 Fixation | Center for Gas  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert Southwest Region service area.Portal Solar PhotovoltaicCenter for GasCapacities

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas light high" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Development of Technologies for a High Efficiency, Very Low Emission, Diesel Engine for Light Trucks and Sport Utility Vehicles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cummins Inc., in partnership with the Department of Energy, has developed technology for a new highly efficient, very low emission, diesel engine for light trucks and sport utility vehicles. This work began in April 1997, and started with very aggressive goals for vehicles in the 5751 to 8500 pound GCW weight class. The primary program goals were as follows: (1) EMISSIONS -- NOx = 0.50 g/mi; PM = 0.05 g/mi; CO = 2.8 g/mi; and NMHC = 0.07 g/mi. California decided to issue new and even tougher LEV II light truck regulations late in 1999. EPA also issued its lower Tier 2 regulations late in 2000. The net result was that the targets for this diesel engine project were lowered, and these goals were eventually modified by the publication of Federal Tier 2 emission standards early in 2000 to the following: NOx = 0.07 g/mi; and PM = 0.01 g/mi. (2) FUEL ECONOMY -- The fuel economy goal was 50 percent MPG improvement (combined city/highway) over the 1997 gasoline powered light truck or sport utility vehicle in the vehicle class for which this diesel engine is being designed to replace. The goal for fuel economy remained at 50 percent MPG improvement, even with the emissions goal revisions. (3) COOPERATIVE DEVELOPMENT -- Regular design reviews of the engine program will be conducted with a vehicle manufacturer to insure that the concepts and design specifics are commercially feasible. (DaimlerChrysler has provided Cummins with this design review input.) Cummins has essentially completed a demonstration of proof-of-principle for a diesel engine platform using advanced combustion and fuel system technologies. Cummins reported very early progress in this project, evidence that new diesel engine technology had been developed that demonstrated the feasibility of the above emissions goals. Emissions levels of NOx = 0.4 g/mi and PM = 0.06 g/mi were demonstrated for a 5250 lb. test weight vehicle with passive aftertreatment only. These results were achieved using the full chassis dynamometer FTP-75 test procedure that allowed compliance with the Tier 2 Interim Bin 10 Standards and would apply to vehicles in MY2004 through MY2007 timeframe. In further technology development with active aftertreatment management, Cummins has been able to report that the emissions goals for the Tier 2 Bin 5 standards were met on an engine running the full FTP-75 test procedure. The fuel economy on the chassis tests was measured at over 59 percent MPG improvement over the gasoline engines that are offered in typical SUVs and light trucks. The above demonstration used only in-cylinder fueling for management of the aftertreatment system.

Stang, John H.

2005-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

402

Development of Technologies for a High Efficiency, Very Low Emission, Diesel Engine for Light Trucks and Sport Utility Vehicles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cummins Inc., in partnership with the Department of Energy, has developed technology for a new highly efficient, very low emission, diesel engine for light trucks and sport utility vehicles. This work began in April 1997, and started with very aggressive goals for vehicles in the 5751 to 8500 pound GCW weight class. The primary program goals were as follows: (1) EMISSIONS--NO{sub x} = 0.50 g/mi; PM = 0.05 g/mi; CO = 2.8 g/mi; and NMHC = 0.07 g/mi. California decided to issue new and even tougher LEV II light truck regulations late in 1999. EPA also issued its lower Tier 2 regulations late in 2000. The net result was that the targets for this diesel engine project were lowered, and these goals were eventually modified by the publication of Federal Tier 2 emission standards early in 2000 to the following: NO{sub x} = 0.07 g/mi; and PM = 0.01 g/mi. (2) FUEL ECONOMY--The fuel economy goal was 50 percent MPG improvement (combined city/highway) over the 1997 gasoline powered light truck or sport utility vehicle in the vehicle class for which this diesel engine is being designed to replace. The goal for fuel economy remained at 50 percent MPG improvement, even with the emissions goal revisions. (3) COOPERATIVE DEVELOPMENT--Regular design reviews of the engine program will be conducted with a vehicle manufacturer to insure that the concepts and design specifics are commercially feasible. (DaimlerChrysler has provided Cummins with this design review input.) Cummins has essentially completed a demonstration of proof-of-principle for a diesel engine platform using advanced combustion and fuel system technologies. Cummins reported very early progress in this project, evidence that new diesel engine technology had been developed that demonstrated the feasibility of the above emissions goals. Emissions levels of NOx = 0.4 g/mi and PM = 0.06 g/mi were demonstrated for a 5250 lb. test weight vehicle with passive aftertreatment only. These results were achieved using the full chassis dynamometer FTP-75 test procedure that allowed compliance with the Tier 2 Interim Bin 10 Standards and would apply to vehicles in MY2004 through MY2007 timeframe. In further technology development with active aftertreatment management, Cummins has been able to report that the emissions goals for the Tier 2 Bin 5 standards were met on an engine running the full FTP-75 test procedure. The fuel economy on the chassis tests was measured at over 59 percent MPG improvement over the gasoline engines that are offered in typical SUVs and light trucks. The above demonstration used only in-cylinder fueling for management of the aftertreatment system.

John H. Stang

2005-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

403

Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor short term thermal response to flow and reactivity transients  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The analyses reported here have been conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Division of Regulatory Applications of the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The short-term thermal response of the Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) is analyzed for a range of flow and reactivity transients. These include loss of forced circulation (LOFC) without scram, moisture ingress, spurious withdrawal of a control rod group, hypothetical large and rapid positive reactivity insertion, and a rapid core cooling event. The coupled heat transfer-neutron kinetics model is also described.

Cleveland, J.C.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

High Btu gas from peat. Volume III. Part B. Environmental and socioeconomic feasibility assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In September 1980, the US Department of Energy awarded a grant (No. DE-FG01-80RA50348) to the Minnesota Gas Company (Minnegasco) to evaluate the current commercial viability - technical, economic, environmental, financial, and regulatory - of producing 80 million SCF/day of substitute natural gas (SNG). Minnegasco's project team for this study consisted of Dravo Engineers and Constructors (for design, engineering, and economics of peat harvesting, dewatering, and gasification systems), Ertec, Inc. (for environmental and socio-economic analyses), IGT (for providing gasification process information, and technical and engineering support to Minnegasco), and Deloitte Haskins and Sells (for providing management structural support to Minnegasco). This Final Report presents the work conducted by Ertec, Inc. under tasks 6 and 7. The study objective was to provide an initial environmental and socio-economic evaluation of the proposed facility to assess project feasibility. To accomplish this objective, detailed field studies were conducted in the areas of Hydrology, Air Quality and Socio-Economics. Less extensive surveys were conducted in the areas of Geology, Ecology, Acoustics, Land Use, Archaeology and Resource Assessment. Part B of Volume 3 contains the following contents: (1) project impact assessment which covers geological impacts, hydrology, ecological impacts, air quality and meteorology, land use, archaeology, aesthetics, acoustics, socioeconomic impacts, and peat resources; (2) impact mitigation which covers hydrology, ecology, air quality, archaeology, acoustics, and socioeconomics; (3) conclusions; and (4) appendices. 2 figures, 18 tables.

Not Available

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

High Btu gas from peat. Volume III. Part A. Environmental and socioeconomic feasibility assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In September 1980, the US Department of Energy awarded a grant (No. DE-FG01-80RA50348) to the Minnesota Gas Company (Minnegasco) to evaluate the current commercial viability - technical, economic, environmental, financial, and regulatory - of producing 80 million SCF/day of substitute natural gas (SNG). Minnegasco's project team for this study consisted of Dravo Engineers and Constructors (for design, engineering, and economics of peat harvesting, dewatering, and gasification systems), Ertec, Inc. (for environmental and socio-economic analyses), IGT (for providing gasification process information, and technical and engineering support to Minnegasco) and Deloitte Haskins and Sells (for providing management structural support to Minnegasco). This Final Report presents the work conducted by Ertec, Inc. under tasks 6 and 7. The study objective was to provide an initial environmental and socio-economic evaluation of the proposed facility to assess project feasbility. To accomplish this objective, detailed field studies were conducted in the areas of Hydrology, Air Quality and Socio-Economics. Less extensive surveys were conducted in the areas of Geology, Ecology, Acoustics, Land Use, Archaeology and Resource Assessment. Part A of Volume 3 contains the introduction and plant area conditions which include the following: (1) description of existing conditions-geology; (2) hydrology; (3) terrestrial and aquatic ecology; (4) meteorology; (5) land use existing conditions; (6) archaeology; (7) aesthetics-existing conditions; (8) acoustics; (9) existing socioeconomic conditions; and (10) resource assessment. 25 figures, 55 tables.

Not Available

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Quantifying National Energy Savings Potential of Lighting Controls in Commercial Buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Performance of Occupancy-Based Lighting Control Systems: AReview. Lighting Residential Technology 42:415-431. Itron,Information Template Indoor Lighting Controls. Pacific Gas

Williams, Alison

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

The seasonal evolution of NMHCs and light alkyl nitrates at middle to high northern latitudes during TOPSE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Meinardi,1 Oliver W. Wingenter,3 Elliot L. Atlas,4 Frank Flocke,4 Brian A. Ridley,4 and F. Sherwood Rowland with meteorological trajectory analysis, different trace gas signatures provided significant clues to the origins here provide a unique picture of NH trace gas evolution from winter to summer that will be invaluable

Wingenter, Oliver W.

408

A global approach of the representativity concept: Application on a high-conversion light water reactor MOX lattice case  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of new types of reactor and the increase in the safety specifications and requirements induce an enhancement in both nuclear data knowledge and a better understanding of the neutronic properties of the new systems. This enhancement is made possible using ad hoc critical mock-up experiments. The main difficulty is to design these experiments in order to obtain the most valuable information. Its quantification is usually made by using representativity and transposition concepts. These theories enable to extract some information about a quantity of interest (an integral parameter) on a configuration, but generally a posteriori. This paper presents a more global approach of this theory, with the idea of optimizing the representativity of a new experiment, and its transposition a priori, based on a multiparametric approach. Using a quadratic sum, we show the possibility to define a global representativity which permits to take into account several quantities of interest at the same time. The maximization of this factor gives information about all quantities of interest. An optimization method of this value in relation to technological parameters (over-clad diameter, atom concentration) is illustrated on a high-conversion light water reactor MOX lattice case. This example tackles the problematic of plutonium experiment for the plutonium aging and a solution through the optimization of both the over-clad and the plutonium content. (authors)

Santos, N. D.; Blaise, P.; Santamarina, A. [CEA, DEN/DER/SPRC Cadarache, F-13108 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Environmental Life-cycle Assessment of Passenger Transportation: A Detailed Methodology for Energy, Greenhouse Gas and Criteria Pollutant Inventories of Automobiles, Buses, Light Rail, Heavy Rail and Air  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pomper, S.D. , Life Cycle Inventory of a Generic U.S. Family2007. [EEA 2006] Emission Inventory Guidebook, ActivitiesVolume I: National Lighting Inventory and Energy Consumption

Chester, Mikhail; Horvath, Arpad

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

A Novel High-Heat Transfer Low-NO{sub x} Natural Gas Combustion System. Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel high-heat transfer low NO(sub x) natural gas combustion system. The objectives of this program are to research, develop, test, and commercialize a novel high-heat transfer low-NO{sub x} natural gas combustion system for oxygen-, oxygen-enriched air, and air-fired furnaces. This technology will improve the process efficiency (productivity and product quality) and the energy efficiency of high-temperature industrial furnaces by at least 20%. GTI's high-heat transfer burner has applications in high-temperature air, oxygen-enriched air, and oxygen furnaces used in the glass, metals, cement, and other industries. Development work in this program is focused on using this burner to improve the energy efficiency and productivity of glass melting furnaces that are major industrial energy consumers. The following specific project objectives are defined to provide a means of achieving the overall project objectives. (1) Identify topics to be covered, problems requiring attention, equipment to be used in the program, and test plans to be followed in Phase II and Phase III. (2) Use existing codes to develop models of gas combustion and soot nucleation and growth as well as a thermodynamic and parametric description of furnace heat transfer issues. (3) Conduct a parametric study to confirm the increase in process and energy efficiency. (4) Design and fabricate a high-heat transfer low-NOx natural gas burners for laboratory, pilot- and demonstration-scale tests. (5) Test the high-heat transfer burner in one of GTI's laboratory-scale high-temperature furnaces. (6) Design and demonstrate the high-heat transfer burner on GTI's unique pilot-scale glass tank simulator. (7) Complete one long term demonstration test of this burner technology on an Owens Corning full-scale industrial glass melting furnace. (8) Prepare an Industrial Adoption Plan. This Plan will be updated in each program Phase as additional information becomes available. The Plan will include technical and economic analyses, energy savings and waste reduction predictions, evaluation of environmental effects, and outline issues concerning manufacturing, marketing, and financing. Combustion Tec, Owens Corning, and GTI will all take active roles in defining this Plan. During Phase I, the first three objectives were addressed and completed along with the design component of the fourth objective. In Phase II, the fabrication component of the fourth objective was completed along with objectives five and six. Results of the Phase I work were reported in the Phase I Final Report and are summarized in this Final Technical Report. Work for Phase II was divided in four specific Tasks. Results of the Phase II work were reported in the Phase II Final Report and are also summarized in this Final Technical Report. No Phase III Final Report was prepared, so this Final Technical Report presents the results of Phase III commercial demonstration efforts. A description of each Task in Phases I, II, and III is presented in this report.

Abbasi, H.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Train of high-power femtosecond pulses: Probe wave in a gas of prepared atoms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a new method for generating a regular train of ultrashort optical pulses in a prepared two-level medium. The train develops from incident monochromatic probe radiation travelling in a medium of atoms, which are in a quantum mechanical superposition of dressed internal states. In the frame of used linear theory for the probe radiation, the energy of individual pulses is an exponentially growing function of atom density and of interaction cross section. Pulse repetition rate is determined by the generalized Rabi frequency and can be around 1 THz and greater. We also show that the terms, extra to the dipole approximation, endow the gas by a new property: non-saturating dependence of refractive index on the dressing monochromatic field intensity. Contribution of these nonsaturating terms can be compatible with the main dipole approximation in the wavelength region of about ten micrometers (the range of CO_2 laser) or larger.

Gevorg Muradyan; A. Zh. Muradyan

2009-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

412

Conversion of Waste CO2 and Shale Gas to High-Value Chemicals  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

acid using known technologies or combined with Schematic illustrating the NovomerPraxair semi-integrated process to produce high- value chemical intermediates. Graphic image...

413

Integrated Operation of INL HYTEST System and High-Temperature Steam Electrolysis for Synthetic Natural Gas Production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary feedstock for synthetic fuel production is syngas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Current hydrogen production technologies rely upon fossil fuels and produce significant quantities of greenhouse gases as a byproduct. This is not a sustainable means of satisfying future hydrogen demands, given the current projections for conventional world oil production and future targets for carbon emissions. For the past six years, the Idaho National Laboratory has been investigating the use of high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE) to produce the hydrogen feedstock required for synthetic fuel production. High-temperature electrolysis water-splitting technology, combined with non-carbon-emitting energy sources, can provide a sustainable, environmentally-friendly means of large-scale hydrogen production. Additionally, laboratory facilities are being developed at the INL for testing hybrid energy systems composed of several tightly-coupled chemical processes (HYTEST program). The first such test involved the coupling of HTSE, CO2 separation membrane, reverse shift reaction, and methanation reaction to demonstrate synthetic natural gas production from a feedstock of water and either CO or a simulated flue gas containing CO2. This paper will introduce the initial HTSE and HYTEST testing facilities, overall coupling of the technologies, testing results, and future plans.

Carl Marcel Stoots; Lee Shunn; James O'Brien

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Free-Standing LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/Carbon Nanofiber Network Film as Light-Weight and High-Power  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Free-Standing LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/Carbon Nanofiber Network Film as Light-Weight and High-Power Cathode Pure carbon nanofiber (CNF) network without LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 was tested in the voltage window of 3.5-5 V

Zhou, Chongwu

415

Next Generation Pressurized Oxy-Coal Combustion: High Efficiency and No Flue Gas Recirculation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) has developed a pressurized oxy-coal fired molten bed boiler (MBB) concept, in which coal and oxygen are fired directly into a bed of molten coal slag through burners located on the bottom of the boiler and fired upward. Circulation of heat by the molten slag eliminates the need for a flue gas recirculation loop and provides excellent heat transfer to steam tubes in the boiler walls. Advantages of the MBB technology over other boilers include higher efficiency (from eliminating flue gas recirculation), a smaller and less expensive boiler, modular design leading to direct scalability, decreased fines carryover and handling costs, smaller exhaust duct size, and smaller emissions control equipment sizes. The objective of this project was to conduct techno-economic analyses and an engineering design of the MBB project and to support this work with thermodynamic analyses and oxy-coal burner testing. Techno-economic analyses of GTI抯 pressurized oxy-coal fired MBB technology found that the overall plant with compressed CO2 has an efficiency of 31.6%. This is a significant increase over calculated 29.2% efficiency of first generation oxy-coal plants. Cost of electricity (COE) for the pressurized MBB supercritical steam power plant with CO2 capture and compression was calculated to be 134% of the COE for an air-coal supercritical steam power plant with no CO2 capture. This compares positively with a calculated COE for first generation oxy-coal supercritical steam power plants with CO2 capture and compression of 164%. The COE for the MBB power plant is found to meet the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) target of 135%, before any plant optimization. The MBB power plant was also determined to be simpler than other oxy-coal power plants with a 17% lower capital cost. No other known combustion technology can produce higher efficiencies or lower COE when CO2 capture and compression are included. A thermodynamic enthalpy and exergy analysis found a number of modifications and adjustments that could provide higher efficiency and better use of available work. Conclusions from this analysis will help guide the analyses and CFD modeling in future process development. The MBB technology has the potential to be a disruptive technology that will enable coal combustion power plants to be built and operated in a cost effective way, cleanly with no carbon dioxide emissions. A large amount of work is needed to quantify and confirm the great promise of the MBB technology. A Phase 2 proposal was submitted to DOE and other sponsors to address the most critical MBB process technical gaps. The Phase 2 proposal was not accepted for current DOE support.

Rue, David

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

416

Apparatus and methods of reheating gas turbine cooling steam and high pressure steam turbine exhaust in a combined cycle power generating system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a combined cycle system having a multi-pressure heat recovery steam generator, a gas turbine and steam turbine, steam for cooling gas turbine components is supplied from the intermediate pressure section of the heat recovery steam generator supplemented by a portion of the steam exhausting from the HP section of the steam turbine, steam from the gas turbine cooling cycle and the exhaust from the HP section of the steam turbine are combined for flow through a reheat section of the HRSG. The reheated steam is supplied to the IP section inlet of the steam turbine. Thus, where gas turbine cooling steam temperature is lower than optimum, a net improvement in performance is achieved by flowing the cooling steam exhausting from the gas turbine and the exhaust steam from the high pressure section of the steam turbine in series through the reheater of the HRSG for applying steam at optimum temperature to the IP section of the steam turbine.

Tomlinson, Leroy Omar (Niskayuna, NY); Smith, Raub Warfield (Ballston Lake, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

High-accuracy P-p-T measurements of pure gas and natural gas like mixtures using a compact magnetic suspension densimeter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Control SNG3 Synthetic natural gas mixture SNG5 Synthetic natural gas mixture SSR Solid State Relay T Tee fitting Ta Tantalum Ti Titanium TLP Tension Leg Platform V Valve ZP Zero Point Greek letters ? Temperature...厖厖厖厖厖厖厖厖厖厖厖.98 Figure VI.3. Percentage deviation of measured carbon dioxide densities from NIST -12 measured in 2006厖厖厖厖厖厖厖厖厖厖.厖99 Figure VI.4. Percentage deviation of measured nitrogen densities from NIST -12 measured in 2006...

Ejaz, Saquib

2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

418

High sensitive formaldehyde graphene gas sensor modified by atomic layer deposition zinc oxide films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films with various thicknesses were fabricated by Atomic Layer Deposition on Chemical Vapor Deposition grown graphene films and their response to formaldehyde has been investigated. It was found that 0.5?nm ZnO films modified graphene sensors showed high response to formaldehyde with the resistance change up to 52% at the concentration of 9 parts-per-million (ppm) at room temperature. Meanwhile, the detection limit could reach 180 parts-per-billion (ppb) and fast response of 36?s was also obtained. The high sensitivity could be attributed to the combining effect from the highly reactive, top mounted ZnO thin films, and high conductive graphene base network. The dependence of ZnO films surface morphology and its sensitivity on the ZnO films thickness was also investigated.

Mu, Haichuan; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Keke; Xie, Haifen, E-mail: hfxie@ecust.edu.cn [Department of Physics, School of Science, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China); Zhao, Xiaojing; Liu, Feng [Department of Physics, Shanghai Normal University, 100 Guilin Road, Shanghai 200234 (China)

2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

419

High Btu gas from peat. A feasibility study. Part 3. Market analysis. Task 8. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary objective of this task, which was the responsibility of the Minnesota Gas Company, was to identify and characterize the market potential for the plant by-products - BTX (mixture of benzene, toluene and xylene), phenol, ammonia, sulfur, and sodium sulfate - and to assign value to them. Although traditionally a growth industry, the chemicals market has been generally weakened by the recession, and is experiencing back to back years of declining production. This is due to bad health of specific end uses, such as fertilizer from ammonia. In the long run, this trend is expected to moderate. It is felt that the proposed peat plant has a favorable position in the markets of each of its by-products. This is due to the synergism with nearby industries which are major consumers of these by-products. In the case of sulfur and ammonia, the Red River agricultural area is a large potential market. For sodium sulfate, phenols and perhaps BTX, the nearby paper and timber products industries are large potential markets. The values for these by-products used in the financial analysis were intentionally conservative. This is because of the uncertainty in the quantity and quality. More tests are needed in an integrated facility in order to determine these factors and the variability of each. This is particularly true of the by-product oils which could vary significantly with operating conditions and may even require alternate processing schemes. 18 references, 9 figures, 14 tables.

Not Available

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Increasing gas hydrate formation temperature for desalination of high salinity produced water with secondary guests  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We suggest a new gas hydrate-based desalination process using water-immiscible hydrate formers; cyclopentane (CP) and cyclohexane (CH) as secondary hydrate guests to alleviate temperature requirements for hydrate formation. The hydrate formation reactions were carried out in an isobaric condition of 3.1 MPa to find the upper temperature limit of CO2 hydrate formation. Simulated produced water (8.95 wt % salinity) mixed with the hydrate formers shows an increased upper temperature limit from ?2 癈 for simple CO2 hydrate to 16 and 7 癈 for double (CO2 + CP) and (CO2 + CH) hydrates, respectively. The resulting conversion rate to double hydrate turned out to be similar to that with simple CO2 hydrate at the upper temperature limit. Hydrate formation rates (Rf) for the double hydrates with CP and CH are shown to be 22 and 16 times higher, respectively, than that of the simple CO2 hydrate at the upper temperature limit. Such mild hydrate formation temperature and fast formation kinetics indicate increased energy efficiency of the double hydrate system for the desalination process. Dissociated water from the hydrates shows greater than 90% salt removal efficiency for the hydrates with the secondary guests, which is also improved from about 70% salt removal efficiency for the simple hydrates.

Cha, Jong-Ho [ORISE; Seol, Yongkoo [U.S. DOE

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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421

Heat removal from high temperature tubular solid oxide fuel cells utilizing product gas from coal gasifiers.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work we describe the results of a computer study used to investigate the practicality of several heat exchanger configurations that could be used to extract heat from tubular solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) . Two SOFC feed gas compositions were used in this study. They represent product gases from two different coal gasifier designs from the Zero Emission Coal study at Los Alamos National Laboratory . Both plant designs rely on the efficient use of the heat produced by the SOFCs . Both feed streams are relatively rich in hydrogen with a very small hydrocarbon content . One feed stream has a significant carbon monoxide content with a bit less hydrogen . Since neither stream has a significant hydrocarbon content, the common use of the endothermic reforming reaction to reduce the process heat is not possible for these feed streams . The process, the method, the computer code, and the results are presented as well as a discussion of the pros and cons of each configuration for each process .

Parkinson, W. J. (William Jerry),

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

THR-TH: a high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor core thermal hydraulics code  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ORNL version of PEBBLE, the (RZ) pebble bed thermal hydraulics code, has been extended for application to a prismatic gas cooled reactor core. The supplemental treatment is of one-dimensional coolant flow in up to a three-dimensional core description. Power density data from a neutronics and exposure calculation are used as the basic information for the thermal hydraulics calculation of heat removal. Two-dimensional neutronics results may be expanded for a three-dimensional hydraulics calculation. The geometric description for the hydraulics problem is the same as used by the neutronics code. A two-dimensional thermal cell model is used to predict temperatures in the fuel channel. The capability is available in the local BOLD VENTURE computation system for reactor core analysis with capability to account for the effect of temperature feedback by nuclear cross section correlation. Some enhancements have also been added to the original code to add pebble bed modeling flexibility and to generate useful auxiliary results. For example, an estimate is made of the distribution of fuel temperatures based on average and extreme conditions regularly calculated at a number of locations.

Vondy, D.R.

1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Towards high efficiency thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells: The roles of light trapping and non-radiative recombinations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thin-film solar cells based on silicon have emerged as an alternative to standard thick wafers technology, but they are less efficient, because of incomplete absorption of sunlight, and non-radiative recombinations. In this paper, we focus on the case of crystalline silicon (c-Si) devices, and we present a full analytic electro-optical model for p-n junction solar cells with Lambertian light trapping. This model is validated against numerical solutions of the drift-diffusion equations. We use this model to investigate the interplay between light trapping, and bulk and surface recombination. Special attention is paid to surface recombination processes, which become more important in thinner devices. These effects are further amplified due to the textures required for light trapping, which lead to increased surface area. We show that c-Si solar cells with thickness of a few microns can overcome 20% efficiency and outperform bulk ones when light trapping is implemented. The optimal device thickness in presence of light trapping, bulk and surface recombination, is quantified to be in the range of 1080??m, depending on the bulk quality. These results hold, provided the effective surface recombination is kept below a critical level of the order of 100?cm/s. We discuss the possibility of meeting this requirement, in the context of state-of-the-art techniques for light trapping and surface passivation. We show that our predictions are within the capability of present day silicon technologies.

Bozzola, A., E-mail: angelo.bozzola@unipv.it; Kowalczewski, P.; Andreani, L. C. [Physics Department, University of Pavia and CNISM, via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy)

2014-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

424

Effect of Cooling Flow on the Operation of a Hot Rotor-Gas Foil Bearing System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.2 Drive end GFB: Predicted bearing static parameters ................................. 157 M.3 Free end GFB: Predicted bearing static parameters ................................... 158 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Micro gas turbine engines (<400... kW) are light-weight compact units operating at extreme temperatures and at high rotor speeds to achieve the desired power with reduced emissions [1]. Employing gas foil bearings (GFBs) in micro gas turbines increases system efficiency...

Ryu, Keun

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

425

Investigation of plasma-dust structures in He-Ar gas mixture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The paper reports on the first experiments with plasma-dust formations in dc gas discharge plasma for a He-Ar mixture. It is shown that the choice of light and heavy gases for the mixture suppresses ion heating in electric field under the conventional conditions of experiments and results in a supersonic jet with high Mach numbers. Distribution functions for drifting ions in the gas mixture are calculated for various mixture concentrations, electric field strengths, and gas pressures.

Maiorov, S. A. [A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ramazanov, T. S.; Dzhumagulova, K. N.; Jumabekov, A. N.; Dosbolayev, M. K. [Al Farabi Kazakh National University, IETP, Tole bi 96a, Almaty, 050012 (Kazakhstan)

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

426

The development and operational testing of an experimental reactor for gas-liquid-solid reaction systems at high temperatures and pressures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

shaft. With the impeller in place and rotating, gas was drawn into the top port and ejected at the impeller mount. The reactor pressure was monitored via the transducer port. The transducer was a Viatran Pressure Transducer, model 103. The liquid...THE DEVELOPMENT AND OPERATIONAL TESTING OF AN EXPERIMENTAL REACTOR FOR GAS-LIQUID-SOLID REACTION SYSTEMS AT HIGH TEMPERATURES AND PRESSURES A Thesis by RICHARD KENNETH HESS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial...

Hess, Richard Kenneth

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

427

Design Configurations and Coupling High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor and Hydrogen Plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy is investigating the use of high-temperature nuclear reactors to produce hydrogen using either thermochemical cycles or high-temperature electrolysis. Although the hydrogen production processes are in an early stage of development, coupling either of these processes to the high-temperature reactor requires both efficient heat transfer and adequate separation of the facilities to assure that off-normal events in the production facility do not impact the nuclear power plant. An intermediate heat transport loop will be required to separate the operations and safety functions of the nuclear and hydrogen plants. A next generation high-temperature reactor could be envisioned as a single-purpose facility that produces hydrogen or a dual-purpose facility that produces hydrogen and electricity. Early plants, such as the proposed Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), may be dual-purpose facilities that demonstrate both hydrogen and efficient electrical generation. Later plants could be single-purpose facilities. At this stage of development, both single- and dual-purpose facilities need to be understood.

Chang H. Oh; Eung Soo Kim; Steven Sherman

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Two-beam ultrabroadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy for high resolution gas-phase multiplex imaging  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We propose and develop a method for wideband coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) in the gas phase and demonstrate the single-shot measurement of N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and CH{sub 4}. Pure-rotational and vibrational O-, Q-, and S- branch spectra are collected simultaneously, with high spectral and spatial resolution, and within a single-laser-shot. The relative intensity of the rotational and vibrational signals can be tuned arbitrarily using polarization techniques. The ultrashort 7 fs pump and Stokes pulses are automatically overlapped temporally and spatially using a two-beam CARS technique, and the crossed probe beam allows for excellent spatial sectioning of the probed location.

Bohlin, Alexis; Kliewer, Christopher J., E-mail: cjkliew@sandia.gov [Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

2014-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

429

Magnitude and reactivity consequences of moisture ingress into the modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor core  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Inadvertent admission of moisture into the primary system of a modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor has been identified in US Department of Energy-sponsored studies as an important safety concern. The work described here develops an analytical methodology to quantify the pressure and reactivity consequences of steam-generator tube rupture and other moisture-ingress-related incidents. Important neutronic and thermohydraulic processes are coupled with reactivity feedback and safety and control system responses. The rate and magnitude of steam buildup are found to be dominated by major system features such as break size compared with safety valve capacity and reliability and less sensitive to factors such as heat transfer coefficients. The results indicate that ingress transients progress at a slower pace than previously predicted by bounding analyses, with milder power overshoots and more time for operator or automatic corrective actions.

Smith, O.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Mechanical characterization of metallic materials for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors in air and in helium environments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the French R and D program for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs), three metallic alloys were studied: steel Chromesco-3 with 2.25% chromium, alloy 800H, and Hastelloy-X. The Chromesco-3 and alloy 800H creep behavior is the same in air and in HTGR atmosphere (helium). The tensile tests of Hastelloy-X specimens reveal that aging has embrittlement and hardening effects up to 700/sup 0/C, but the creep tests at 800/sup 0/C show opposite effects. This particular behavior could be due to induced precipitation by aging and the depletion of hardening elements from the matrix. Tests show a low influence of cobalt content on mechanical properties of Hastelloy-X.

Sainfort, G.; Cappelaere, M.; Gregoire, J.; Sannier, J.

1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

MORECA: A computer code for simulating modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor core heatup accidents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The design features of the modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR) have the potential to make it essentially invulnerable to damage from postulated core heatup accidents. This report describes the ORNL MORECA code, which was developed for analyzing postulated long-term core heatup scenarios for which active cooling systems used to remove afterheat following the accidents can be assumed to the unavailable. Simulations of long-term loss-of-forced-convection accidents, both with and without depressurization of the primary coolant, have shown that maximum core temperatures stay below the point at which any significant fuel failures and fission product releases are expected. Sensitivity studies also have been done to determine the effects of errors in the predictions due both to uncertainties in the modeling and to the assumptions about operational parameters. MORECA models the US Department of Energy reference design of a standard MHTGR.

Ball, S.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Novel Carbon Nanotube-Based Nanostructures for High-Temperature Gas Sensing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary objective of this research is to examine the feasibility of using vertically aligned multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as a high temperature sensor material for fossil energy systems where reducing atmospheres are present. In the initial period of research, we fabricated capacitive sensors for hydrogen sensing using vertically aligned MWCNTs. We found that CNT itself is not sensitive to hydrogen. Moreover, with the help of Pd electrodes, hydrogen sensors based on CNTs are very sensitive and fast responsive. However, the Pd-based sensors can not withstand high temperature (T<200 C). In the last year, we successfully fabricated a hydrogen sensor based on an ultra-thin nanoporous titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}) film supported by an AAO substrate, which can operate at 500 C with hydrogen concentrations in a range from 50 to 500 ppm.

Zhi Chen; Kozo Saito

2008-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

433

Development of ceramic membrane reactors for high temperature gas cleanup. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to develop high temperature, high pressure catalytic ceramic membrane reactors and to demonstrate the feasibility of using these membrane reactors to control gaseous contaminants (hydrogen sulfide and ammonia) in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems. Our strategy was to first develop catalysts and membranes suitable for the IGCC application and then combine these two components as a complete membrane reactor system. We also developed a computer model of the membrane reactor and used it, along with experimental data, to perform an economic analysis of the IGCC application. Our results have demonstrated the concept of using a membrane reactor to remove trace contaminants from an IGCC process. Experiments showed that NH{sub 3} decomposition efficiencies of 95% can be achieved. Our economic evaluation predicts ammonia decomposition costs of less than 1% of the total cost of electricity; improved membranes would give even higher conversions and lower costs.

Roberts, D.L.; Abraham, I.C.; Blum, Y.; Gottschlich, D.E.; Hirschon, A.; Way, J.D.; Collins, J.

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Thermal Hydraulic Analyses for Coupling High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor to Hydrogen Plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy is investigating the use of high-temperature nuclear reactors to produce hydrogen using either thermochemical cycles or high-temperature electrolysis. Although the hydrogen production processes are in an early stage of development, coupling either of these processes to the high-temperature reactor requires both efficient heat transfer and adequate separation of the facilities to assure that off-normal events in the production facility do not impact the nuclear power plant. An intermediate heat transport loop will be required to separate the operations and safety functions of the nuclear and hydrogen plants. A next generation high-temperature reactor could be envisioned as a single-purpose facility that produces hydrogen or a dual-purpose facility that produces hydrogen and electricity. Early plants, such as the proposed Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), may be dual-purpose facilities that demonstrate both hydrogen and efficient electrical generation. Later plants could be single-purpose facilities. At this stage of development, both single- and dual-purpose facilities need to be understood. A number of possible configurations for a system that transfers heat between the nuclear reactor and the hydrogen and/or electrical generation plants were identified. These configurations included both direct and indirect cycles for the production of electricity. Both helium and liquid salts were considered as the working fluid in the intermediate heat transport loop. Methods were developed to perform thermal-hydraulic and cycle-efficiency evaluations of the different configurations and coolants. The thermal-hydraulic evaluations estimated the sizes of various components in the intermediate heat transport loop for the different configurations. The relative sizes of components provide a relative indication of the capital cost associated with the various configurations. Estimates of the overall cycle efficiency of the various configurations were also determined. The evaluations determined which configurations and coolants are the most promising from thermalhydraulic and efficiency points of view.

C.H. Oh; R. Barner; C. B. Davis; S. Sherman; P. Pickard

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Green route synthesis of high quality CdSe quantum dots for applications in light emitting devices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Investigation was made on light emitting diodes fabricated using CdSe quantum dots. CdSe quantum dots were synthesized chemically using olive oil as the capping agent, instead of toxic phosphine. Room temperature photoluminescence investigation showed sharp 1st excitonic emission peak at 568 nm. Bi-layer organic/inorganic (P3HT/CdSe) hybrid light emitting devices were fabricated by solution process. The electroluminescence study showed low turn on voltage ({approx}2.2 V) .The EL peak intensity was found to increase by increasing the operating current. - Graphical abstract: Light emitting diode was fabricated using CdSe quantum dots using olive oil as the capping agent, instead of toxic phosphine. Bi-layer organic/inorganic (P3HT/CdSe) hybrid light emitting device shows strong electroluminescence in the range 630-661 nm. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CdSe Quantum dots were synthesized using olive oil as the capping agent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Light emitting device was fabricated using CdSe QDs/P3HT polymer heterojunction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The I-V characteristics study showed low turn on voltage at {approx}2.2 V. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The EL peak intensity increases with increasing the operating current.

Bera, Susnata, E-mail: susnata.bera@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Meteorology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Singh, Shashi B. [Department of Physics and Meteorology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Ray, S.K., E-mail: physkr@phy.iitkgp.ernet.in [Department of Physics and Meteorology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

436

Measurements of air-sea gas exchange at high wind speeds in the Southern Ocean: Implications for global parameterizations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

August 2006. [1] The SOLAS Air-Sea Gas Exchange (SAGE) Experiment was conducted in the western Pacific of air-sea gas exchange. Globally, the dominant control of air-sea gas exchange is turbulent energy as the primary source of energy for the atmospheric and oceanic molecular boundary layers have been derived from

Ho, David

437

Development of hollow fiber catalytic membrane reactors for high temperature gas cleanup. Final report, September 1989--March 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to develop economically and technically viable catalytic membrane reactors for high temperature, high pressure gaseous contaminant control in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. These catalytic membrane reactors decompose H{sub 2}S and separate the reaction products. The reactors were designed to operate in the hostile process environment of the IGCC systems, and at temperatures ranging from 500 to 1000{degrees}C. Severe conditions encountered in the IGCC process (e.g., 900{degrees}C, containing of H{sub 2}S, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O) make it impossible to use polymeric membranes in the process. A list of inorganic membranes that can be employed in the membrane reactor includes Pd metallic membranes, molecular-sieve glass membranes (PPG Industries), porous Vycor glass membranes and porous sol-gel derived membranes such as alumina, zirconia. Alumina and zirconia membranes, however, cannot withstand for a long time at high temperatures in the presence of water vapors. Palladium membranes are a very promising class of inorganic membranes for gas separations that is currently under development. In this project two different types of membranes were used in the design of the membrane reactor -- molecular-sieve glass membrane and Vycor glass porous membrane.

Ma, Yi Hua; Moser, W.R.; Pien, S.; Shelekhin, A.B.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Gas Dynamics in the Barred Seyfert Galaxy NGC4151 - II. High Resolution HI Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present sensitive, high angular resolution (6" x 5") 21-cm observations of the neutral hydrogen in the nearby barred Seyfert galaxy, NGC4151. These HI observations, obtained using the VLA in B-configuration, are the highest resolution to date of this galaxy, and reveal hitherto unprecedented detail in the distribution and kinematics of the HI on sub-kiloparsec scales. A complete analysis and discussion of the HI data are presented and the global properties of the galaxy are related to the bar dynamics presented in Paper I.

C. G. Mundell; A. Pedlar; D. L. Shone; A. Robinson

1998-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

439

Modeling and Analysis of Natural Gas and Gasoline In A High Compression  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l L d F S i DOE TribaltheMyMinutes fromBased| Department ofofRatio High

440

Risk analysis of highly combustible gas storage, supply, and distribution systems in PWR plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the evaluation of the potential safety concerns for pressurized water reactors (PWRs) identified in Generic Safety Issue 106, Piping and the Use of Highly Combustible Gases in Vital Areas. A Westinghouse four-loop PWR plant was analyzed for the risk due to the use of combustible gases (predominantly hydrogen) within the plant. The analysis evaluated an actual hydrogen distribution configuration and conducted several sensitivity studies to determine the potential variability among PWRs. The sensitivity studies were based on hydrogen and safety-related equipment configurations observed at other PWRs within the United States. Several options for improving the hydrogen distribution system design were identified and evaluated for their effect on risk and core damage frequency. A cost/benefit analysis was performed to determine whether alternatives considered were justifiable based on the safety improvement and economics of each possible improvement.

Simion, G.P. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); VanHorn, R.L.; Smith, C.L.; Bickel, J.H.; Sattison, M.B. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bulmahn, K.D. [SCIENTECH, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

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441

Overview of Hanford Site High-Level Waste Tank Gas and Vapor Dynamics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hanford Site processes associated with the chemical separation of plutonium from uranium and other fission products produced a variety of volatile, semivolatile, and nonvolatile organic and inorganic waste chemicals that were sent to high-level waste tanks. These chemicals have undergone and continue to undergo radiolytic and thermal reactions in the tanks to produce a wide variety of degradation reaction products. The origins of the organic wastes, the chemical reactions they undergo, and their reaction products have recently been examined by Stock (2004). Stock gives particular attention to explaining the presence of various types of volatile and semivolatile organic species identified in headspace air samples. This report complements the Stock report by examining the storage of volatile and semivolatile species in the waste, their transport through any overburden of waste to the tank headspaces, the physical phenomena affecting their concentrations in the headspaces, and their eventual release into the atmosphere above the tanks.

Huckaby, James L.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Droppo, James G.; Meacham, Joseph E.

2004-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

442

Commercial Lighting  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Commercial lighting accounts for more than 20 percent of total commercial building energy use. The Energy Department works to reduce lighting energy use through research and deployment.

443

High-resolution thermal expansion measurements under helium-gas pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on the realization of a capacitive dilatometer, designed for high-resolution measurements of length changes of a material for temperatures 1.4 K Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To T Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 300 K and hydrostatic pressure P Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 250 MPa. Helium ({sup 4}He) is used as a pressure-transmitting medium, ensuring hydrostatic-pressure conditions. Special emphasis has been given to guarantee, to a good approximation, constant-pressure conditions during temperature sweeps. The performance of the dilatometer is demonstrated by measurements of the coefficient of thermal expansion at pressures P Asymptotically-Equal-To 0.1 MPa (ambient pressure) and 104 MPa on a single crystal of azurite, Cu{sub 3}(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}(OH){sub 2}, a quasi-one-dimensional spin S = 1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet. The results indicate a strong effect of pressure on the magnetic interactions in this system.

Manna, Rudra Sekhar; Wolf, Bernd; Souza, Mariano de; Lang, Michael [Physics Institute, Goethe University Frankfurt(M), SFB/TR49, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

444

Preparation and characterization of composite membrane for high temperature gas separation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new class of perm-selective inorganic membrane was developed by electroless deposition of palladium thin-film on a microporous {alpha}-alumina ceramic substrate ({phi}39 mm x 2 mm thickness, nominal pore size 150 nm and open porosity {approx} 42 %). The new membrane was characterized by Scanning Electron Micrography (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDX) and conducting permeability experiments with hydrogen, helium, argon and carbon dioxide at temperatures from 473 K to 673 K and feed pressures from 136 kPa to 274 kPa. The results indicate that the membrane has both high permeability and selectivity for hydrogen. The hydrogen transport through the Pd-composite membrane closely followed Sievert's law. A theoretical model is presented to describe the performance of a single-stage permeation process. The model uses a unified mathematical formulation and calculation methods for two flow patterns (cocurrent and countercurrent) with two permeable components and a nonpermeable fraction in the feed and a sweep stream in the permeate. The countercurrent flow pattern is always better than the cocurrent flow pattern with respect to stage cut and membrane area. The effect of flow configuration decreases with increasing membrane selectivity or with decreasing permeate/feed ratio.

Ilias, S.; King, F.G.

1998-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

445

Nuclear design of small-sized high temperature gas-cooled reactor for developing countries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has started a conceptual design of a small-sized HTGR with 50 MW thermal power (HTR50S), which is a first-of-a-kind commercial or demonstration plant of a small-sized HTGR to be deployed in developing countries such as Kazakhstan in the 2020's. The nuclear design of the HTR50S is performed by upgrading the proven technology of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) to reduce the cost for the construction. In the HTTR design, twelve kinds of fuel enrichment was used to optimize the power distribution, which is required to make the maximum fuel temperature below the thermal limitation during the burn-up period. However, manufacture of many kinds of fuel enrichment causes increase of the construction cost. To solve this problem, the present study challenges the nucle